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Sample records for astrobiology science conference

  1. Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2010. Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The Program of the 2010 Astrobiology Science Conference: Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond, included sessions on: 50 Years of Exobiology and Astrobiology: Greatest Hits; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System I; Human Exploration, Astronaut Health; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Titan: Past, Present, and Future; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Prebiological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System II; Astrobiology in Orbit; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Science from Rio Tinto: An Acidic Environment; Can We Rule Out Spontaneous Generation of RNA as the Key Step in the Origin of Life?; How Hellish Was the Hadean Earth?; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns I; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life I; Adaptation of Life in Hostile Space Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets I: Formation and Composition; Collaborative Tools and Technology for Astrobiology; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns II; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life II; Survival, Growth, and Evolution of Microrganisms in Model Extraterrestrial Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets II: Habitability and Life; Planetary Science Decadal Survey Update; Astrobiology Research Funding; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time I; State of the Art in Life Detection; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Geochronology and Astrobiology On and Off the Earth; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time II; Origins and Evolution of Genetic Systems; Evolution of Advanced Life; Water-rich Asteroids and Moons: Composition and Astrobiological Potential; Impact Events and Evolution; A Warm, Wet Mars?; Titan Versus Europa - Potential for Astrobiology; Habitability Potential of Mars; Biosignatures: Tools and Development I; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite Systems; Ancient Life and Synthetic Biology: Crossroad of the Past and Future; Biosignatures: Tools and Development II; Free Oxygen: Proxies, Causes, and Consequences; Life in Modern Microbialite Systems - Function and Adaptation; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Where Should We Go on Mars to Seek Signs of Life?; Search for Intelligent Life I. Innovative SETI Observing Programs and Future Directions; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Search for Intelligent Life II. Global Engagement and Interstellar Message Construction; Poster sessions included: Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life; RNA World; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Virology and Astrobiology; Horizontal Genetic Transfer and Properties of Ancestral Organisms; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Impact Events and Evolution; Evolution of Advanced Life; Evolution of Intelligent Life; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Policy and Societal Issues: Dealing with Potential Bumps in the Astrobiology Road Ahead; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite stems; Life in Modern Microbialite Systems - Function and Adaptation; Free Oxygen: Proxies, Cause

  2. Astrobiology ScienceLearningActivitiesforAfterschool

    E-print Network

    ://ares.jsc.nasa.gov/education/activities/destmars/destmars.htm Produced by the Education Department of the American Museum of Natural History Gretchen Walker, Program by the American Museum of Natural History under NASA Grant NAG5-13028. 2 #12;Astrobiology Preface Astrobiology: Science Learning Activities for Afterschool was produced by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH

  3. Astrobiology Student Science Fair Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadooka, M.; Meech, K. J.

    2004-11-01

    Extrasolar Planet Transit and The Light Curve of a Variable Star are some titles of high school student projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. These students were mentored by teachers who participated in the UH Institute for Astronomy Toward Other Planetary Systems summer program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech. After attending several 3-week TOPS NSF workshops from 1999, these teachers in 2003 were trained to do observing plans to obtain telescope images, use image processing software MIRA for photometry, and produce light curves of variable stars and extrasolar planet transits. Others used the software Astrometrica to do astrometry of Kuiper Belt Objects. Using Compaq laptop computers on long term loan, our teachers mentored their students for astronomy projects during the 2003-2004 school year with the assistance of IfA astronomers and graduate students. Observing plans for images from the 31 inch Lowell Telescope in Arizona and the 2.2 meter UH telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory were followed. Students had to learn about variables such as exposure time, magnitude, frequency requirements, and ephemeris. The many iterations were time consuming and demanded patience and perseverance. Poor weather conditions exposed the students to the realities of astronomy research, so they experienced the highs of successful projects. Future projects will be related to the UH NAI team research using the 2.0 meter Faulkes Telescope located on Haleakala on island of Maui. The TOPS program is funded by National Science Foundation.

  4. Second Annual NASA Ames Space Science and Astrobiology Jamboree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    The Space Science and Astrobiology Division's researchers are pursuing investigations in a variety of fields, including exoplanets, planetary science, astrobiology, and astrophysics. In addition division personnel support a wide variety of NASA missions. With a wide variety of interesting research going on, distributed among the three branches in at least 5 buildings, it can be difficult to stay abreast of what one's fellow researchers are doing. Our goal in organizing this symposium is to facilitate communication and collaboration among the scientist within the division and to give center management and other ARC researchers and Engineers an opportunity to see what scientific missions work is being done in the division.

  5. Astrobiology Courses--A Useful Framework for Teaching Interdisciplinary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauterer, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Explains astrobiology and indicates the possibility of life on other planets and the interest of humankind in this possibility. Defines topics open to public misconception and their primary reinforcements by television shows. Expresses the need for students to learn the connections between different science majors. (YDS)

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The presentations in this session are: 1. A Prototype Life Detection Chip 2. The Geology of Atlantis Basin, Mars, and Its Astrobiological Interest 3. Collecting Bacteria Together with Aerosols in the Martian Atmosphere by the FOELDIX Experimental Instrument Developed with a Nutrient Detector Pattern: Model Measurements of Effectivity 4. 2D and 3D X-ray Imaging of Microorganisms in Meteorites Using Complexity Analysis to Distinguish Field Images of Stromatoloids from Surrounding Rock Matrix in 3.45 Ga Strelley Pool Chert, Western Australia 4. Characterization of Two Isolates from Andean Lakes in Bolivia Short Time Scale Evolution of Microbiolites in Rapidly Receding Altiplanic Lakes: Learning How to Recognize Changing Signatures of Life 5. The Effect of Salts on Electrospray Ionization of Amino Acids in the Negative Mode 6. Determination of Aromatic Ring Number Using Multi-Channel Deep UV Native Fluorescence 7. Microbial D/H Fractionation in Extraterrestrial Materials: Application to Micrometeorites and Mars 8. Carbon Isotope Characteristics of Spring-fed Iron-precipitating Microbial Mats 9. Amino Acid Survival Under Ambient Martian Surface UV Lighting Extraction of Organic Molecules from Terrestrial Material: Quantitative Yields from Heat and Water Extractions 10. Laboratory Detection and Analysis of Organic Compounds in Rocks Using HPLC and XRD Methods 11. Thermal Decomposition of Siderite-Pyrite Assemblages: Implications for Sulfide Mineralogy in Martian Meteorite ALH84001 Carbonate Globules 12. Determination of the Three-Dimensional Morphology of ALH84001 and Biogenic MV-1 Magnetite: Comparison of Results from Electron Tomography and Classical Transmission Electron Microscopy 13. On the Possibility of a Crypto-Biotic Crust on Mars Based on Northern and Southern Ringed Polar Dune Spots 14. Comparative Planetology of the Terrestrial Inner Planets: Implications for Astrobiology 15. A Possible Europa Exobiology 16. A Possible Biogeochemical Model for Titan

  7. Vanguard: A New Science Mission For Experimental Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, A.; Wynn-Williams, D.; Edwards, H.; Dickensheets, D.; Welch, C.; Curley, A.

    As an alternative to technically and financially problemat ic sample return missions, a rover-mounted laser Raman spectrometer sensitive to biomolecules and their mineral substrata is a promising alternative in the search for evidence of former life on Mars. We presented a new remote in situ analysis package being designed for experimental astrobiology on terrestrial-type planetary surfaces. The science is based on the hypothesis that if life arose on Mars, the selective pressure of solar radiation would have led to the evolution of pigmented systems to harness the energy of sunlight and to protect cells from concurrent UV stress. Microbial communities would have therefore become stratified by the light gradient, and our remote system would penetrate the near-subsurface profile in a vertical transect of horizontal strata in ancient sediments (such as palaeolake beds). The system will include an extensive array of robotic support to translocate and deploy a Raman spectrometer detectors beneath the surface of Mars ­ it will comprise of a base station lander to support communications, a robotic micro-rover to permit well- separated triplicate profiles made by three ground-penetrating moles mounted in a vertical configuration. Each mole will deploy a tether carrying fibre optic cables coupling the Raman spectrometer onboard the rover and the side-scanning sensor head on the mole. The complete system has been named Vanguard, and it represents a close collaboration between a space robotics engineer (Ellery), an astrobiologist (Wynn-Williams), a molecular spectroscopist (Edwards), an opto-electronic technologist (Dickensheets), a spacecraft engineer (Welch) and a robotic vision specialist (Curley). The autonomy requirement for the Vanguard instrument requires that significant scientific competence is imparted to the instrument through an expert system to ensure that quick-look analysis is performed onboard in real-time as the mole penetrates beneath the surface. Onboard decision-making must be implemented to assess the need for further integrations on the basis of prior sensory data ­ Vanguard is essentially conceived to be a robotic field astrobiologist. In targetting the Martian sub-surface, Vanguard represents the obvious next step in the astrobiological investigation of Mars for Europe, with field trials in Antarctica. A more challenging application of a modified Vanguard instrument might be the astrobiological investigation of the near surface of Europa (with trials in Lake Vostok, Antarctica) if recent allegations concerning the significance of salts in the Europan ice are correct.

  8. Thinking strategically about communications for the space sciences: the case of astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, L.

    2007-12-01

    Ongoing concerns about public understanding of science and scientific literacy, coupled with the growing prominence of science in everyday life, demand that science experts know how to explain the work they do and the value it offers. Public funding of scientific research also argues for communications with the public about it. For research funded by NASA, a statutory requirement is in place to "provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the results thereof." (1958 National Aeronautics and Space Act.) Public interest in space science is substantial, and advances in the field are rapid. Communicating about science is thus an especially important task for researchers working in the space sciences, as well as an obligation for those receiving public funding. This presentation will describe a communication strategy developed for NASA's Astrobiology Program, intended to aid communication among scientists within an expanding and broadly multidisciplinary field as well as communication about science with a range of external audiences. Conceived strategically, communication is an integral element of the overall work of a program or organization. Communication is conceived strategically in the Astrobiology Program. Astrobiology communication strategy offers a way of thinking about communication - an approach to communication, as it were - and provides guidance on methods, messages, tools, and audiences to be considered in implementation. It can help members of the astrobiology community to communicate about their work with experts - in their own fields and in others - and non-experts - employers, funders, policy makers, teachers, students, parents, citizens. It is designed to promote quality, consistency, and continuity in communication endeavors across the astrobiology program and to integrate these endeavors in program planning and activities. Implementation of a communication strategy for the Astrobiology Program is expected to advance NASA's mission to explore the universe and search for life and inspire the next generation of explorers by strengthening efforts to inform the public about astrobiology and its role in space exploration. Implementation can also help to build community in the field of astrobiology. It is not possible to predict the outcomes of research sponsored by the Astrobiology Program or the evolution of the cultural environment in which it is taking place. The Program thus can benefit from the flexibility inherent in this approach to communication. This presentation will address concepts and models of communication, relevant findings in research on communication, and rhetorical strategies for communicating about science.

  9. Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Linda

    INTRODUCTION This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. The Astrobiology Program in the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Public interest in astrobiology is great, and advances in the field are rapid. Hence, the Astrobiology Program supports the widest possible dissemination of timely and useful information about scientific discoveries, technology development, new knowledge, and greater understanding produced by its investigators, employing an approach described as strategic communication planning. That is, the Astrobiology Program aims to integrate communication, education, and outreach into all aspects of program planning and execution. The Program encourages all of its investigators to contribute to the ongoing endeavor of informing public audiences about Astrobiology. The ASTEP element of the Astrobiology Program sponsors terrestrial field campaigns to further scientific research and technology development relevant to future solar system exploration missions. ASTEP science investigations are designed to further biological research in terrestrial environments analogous to those found on other planets, past or present. ASTEP sponsors the development of technologies to enable remote searches for, and identification of, life in extreme environments. ASTEP supports systems-level field campaigns designed to demonstrate and validate the science and technology in extreme environments on Earth. This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with ASTEP field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. SUMMARY The Astrobiology Program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Astrobiology research addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and evolve? Is there life beyond Earth and how can we detect it? What is the future of life on Earth and in the universe? Goals of the Astrobiology Program range from determining the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond to understanding the emergence of life from cosmic and planetary precursors, the interaction of past life on Earth with its changing environment, the formation and evolution of planets, links between planetary and biological evolution, the effects of climate and geology on habitability, and life's precursors and habitats in the outer solar system. Research dedicated to fulfilling these goals is conducted on Earth and in space, with a growing number of astrobiology investigations flying on planetary exploration missions. The field of astrobiology is an endeavor that brings together researchers in a broad range of disciplines including Earth and planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, microbiology and evolutionary biology, and cosmochemistry. Since 1995, the field of astrobiology has grown rapidly, and the pace of discovery has been brisk. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is now a serious scientific question. Research findings over the past decade that are relevant to this question include the controversial 1996 claim of fossil evidence for microbial life in a martian meteorite, evidence of past and perhaps even present liquid water on Mars, the likeliho

  10. Exo/Astrobiology in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, André; Horneck, Gerda; Wynn-Williams, David

    2001-08-01

    The question of the chemical origins of life is engraved in the European scientific patrimony as it can be traced back to the pioneer ideas of Charles Darwin, Louis Pasteur, and more recently to Alexander Oparin. During the last decades, the European community of origin of life scientists has organized seven out of the twelve International Conferences on the Origins of Life held since 1957. This community contributed also to enlarge the field of research to the study of life in extreme environments and to the search for extraterrestrial life, i.e. exobiology in its classical definition or astrobiology if one uses a more NASA-inspired terminology. The present paper aims to describe the European science background in exo/astrobiology as well as the project of a European Network of Exo/Astrobiology.

  11. Astrobiology Workshop: Leadership in Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, D. (Editor); Briggs, G.; Cohen, M.; Cuzzi, J.; DesMarais, D.; Harper, L.; Morrison, D.; Pohorille, A.

    1996-01-01

    Astrobiology is defined in the 1996 NASA Strategic Plan as 'The study of the living universe.' At NASA's Ames Research Center, this endeavor encompasses the use of space to understand life's origin, evolution, and destiny in the universe. Life's origin refers to understanding the origin of life in the context of the origin and diversity of planetary systems. Life's evolution refers to understanding how living systems have adapted to Earth's changing environment, to the all-pervasive force of gravity, and how they may adapt to environments beyond Earth. Life's destiny refers to making long-term human presence in space a reality, and laying the foundation for understanding and managing changes in Earth's environment. The first Astrobiology Workshop brought together a diverse group of researchers to discuss the following general questions: Where and how are other habitable worlds formed? How does life originate? How have the Earth and its biosphere influenced each other over time? Can terrestrial life be sustained beyond our planet? How can we expand the human presence to Mars? The objectives of the Workshop included: discussing the scope of astrobiology, strengthening existing efforts for the study of life in the universe, identifying new cross-disciplinary programs with the greatest potential for scientific return, and suggesting steps needed to bring this program to reality. Ames has been assigned the lead role for astrobiology by NASA in recognition of its strong history of leadership in multidisciplinary research in the space, Earth, and life sciences and its pioneering work in studies of the living universe. This initial science workshop was established to lay the foundation for what is to become a national effort in astrobiology, with anticipated participation by the university community, other NASA centers, and other agencies. This workshop (the first meeting of its kind ever held) involved life, Earth, and space scientists in a truly interdisciplinary sharing of ideas related to life in the universe, and by all accounts was a resounding success.

  12. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  13. Lunar Radio Telescopes: A Staged Approach for Lunar Science, Heliophysics, Astrobiology, Cosmology, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

    2012-01-01

    Observations with radio telescopes address key problems in cosmology, astrobiology, heliophysics, and planetary science including the first light in the Universe (Cosmic Dawn), magnetic fields of extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the lunar ionosphere. The Moon is a unique science platform because it allows access to radio frequencies that do not penetrate the Earth's ionosphere and because its far side is shielded from intense terrestrial emissions. The instrument packages and infrastructure needed for radio telescopes can be transported and deployed as part of Exploration activities, and the resulting science measurements may inform Exploration (e.g., measurements of lunar surface charging). An illustrative roadmap for the staged deployment of lunar radio telescopes

  14. Astrobiological stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Young, Patrick A; Desch, Steven J; Anbar, Ariel D; Barnes, Rory; Hinkel, Natalie R; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Monga, Nikhil; Pagano, Michael D; Riner, Miriam A; Scannapieco, Evan; Shim, Sang-Heon; Truitt, Amanda

    2014-07-01

    Chemical composition affects virtually all aspects of astrobiology, from stellar astrophysics to molecular biology. We present a synopsis of the research results presented at the "Stellar Stoichiometry" Workshop Without Walls hosted at Arizona State University April 11-12, 2013, under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. The results focus on the measurement of chemical abundances and the effects of composition on processes from stellar to planetary scales. Of particular interest were the scientific connections between processes in these normally disparate fields. Measuring the abundances of elements in stars and giant and terrestrial planets poses substantial difficulties in technique and interpretation. One of the motivations for this conference was the fact that determinations of the abundance of a given element in a single star by different groups can differ by more than their quoted errors. The problems affecting the reliability of abundance estimations and their inherent limitations are discussed. When these problems are taken into consideration, self-consistent surveys of stellar abundances show that there is still substantial variation (factors of ? 2) in the ratios of common elements (e.g., C, O, Na, Al, Mg, Si, Ca) important in rock-forming minerals, atmospheres, and biology. We consider how abundance variations arise through injection of supernova nucleosynthesis products into star-forming material and through photoevaporation of protoplanetary disks. The effects of composition on stellar evolution are substantial, and coupled with planetary atmosphere models can result in predicted habitable zone extents that vary by many tens of percent. Variations in the bulk composition of planets can affect rates of radiogenic heating and substantially change the mineralogy of planetary interiors, affecting properties such as convection and energy transport. PMID:25014611

  15. Astrobiological Stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Patrick A.; Desch, Steven J.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Barnes, Rory; Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Monga, Nikhil; Pagano, Michael D.; Riner, Miriam A.; Scannapieco, Evan; Shim, Sang-Heon; Truitt, Amanda

    2014-07-01

    Chemical composition affects virtually all aspects of astrobiology, from stellar astrophysics to molecular biology. We present a synopsis of the research results presented at the "Stellar Stoichiometry" Workshop Without Walls hosted at Arizona State University April 11-12, 2013, under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. The results focus on the measurement of chemical abundances and the effects of composition on processes from stellar to planetary scales. Of particular interest were the scientific connections between processes in these normally disparate fields. Measuring the abundances of elements in stars and giant and terrestrial planets poses substantial difficulties in technique and interpretation. One of the motivations for this conference was the fact that determinations of the abundance of a given element in a single star by different groups can differ by more than their quoted errors. The problems affecting the reliability of abundance estimations and their inherent limitations are discussed. When these problems are taken into consideration, self-consistent surveys of stellar abundances show that there is still substantial variation (factors of ~2) in the ratios of common elements (e.g., C, O, Na, Al, Mg, Si, Ca) important in rock-forming minerals, atmospheres, and biology. We consider how abundance variations arise through injection of supernova nucleosynthesis products into star-forming material and through photoevaporation of protoplanetary disks. The effects of composition on stellar evolution are substantial, and coupled with planetary atmosphere models can result in predicted habitable zone extents that vary by many tens of percent. Variations in the bulk composition of planets can affect rates of radiogenic heating and substantially change the mineralogy of planetary interiors, affecting properties such as convection and energy transport.

  16. Tumbleweed: Wind-propelled Surficial Measurements for Astrobiology and Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Behar, A. E.; Jones, J. A.; Carsey, F.; Coleman, M.; Bearman, G.; Buehler, M.; Boston, P. J.; McKay, C. P.; Rothschild, L.

    2004-01-01

    Tumbleweed is a wind-propelled long-range vehicle based on well-developed and tested technology, instrumented to perform surveys Mars analog environments for habitability and suitable for a variety of missions on Mars. Tumbleweeds are light-weight and relatively inexpensive, making it very attractive for multiple deployments or piggy-backing on a larger mission. Tumbleweeds with rigid structures are also being developed for similar applications. Modeling and testing have shown that a 6 meter diameter Tumbleweed is capable of climbing 25 hills, traveling over 1 meter diameter boulders, and ranging over a thousand kilometers. Tumbleweeds have a potential payload capability of about 10 kilograms with approximately 10-20 Watts of power. Stopping for science investigations can also be accomplished using partial deflation or other braking mechanisms. Surveys for Astrobiology and other applications of tumbleweeds are shown.

  17. Elena Sophia Amador Department of Earth and Space Sciences & Astrobiology Program

    E-print Network

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    , in preparation. Amador, E.S., Bandfield, J.L., Kelley, D.S., and W. Brazelton. The Lost City Hydrothermal Field, D.S., Brazelton, W., (2013) The Lost City Hydrothermal Field: A Spectroscopic and Astrobiological

  18. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, Frank R. (Compiler); McCauley, D. (Compiler); Walker, C. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 10-11, 1996 at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the second NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 80 investigations and 69 principal investigators in FY96, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) scheduled for release in late 1996 by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the MSFC microgravity research facilities was held on June 12, 1996. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference and presentations made by various NASA microgravity science managers.

  19. The Living Universe: NASA and the Development of Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, Steven J.; Strick, James E.

    2004-01-01

    In the opening weeks of 1998 a news article in the British journal Nature reported that NASA was about to enter biology in a big way. A "virtual" Astrobiology Institute was gearing up for business, and NASA administrator Dan Goldin told his external advisory council that he would like to see spending on the new institute eventually reach $100 million per year. "You just wait for the screaming from the physical scientists (when that happens)," Goldin was quoted as saying. Nevertheless, by the time of the second Astrobiology Science Conference in 2002, attended by seven hundred scientists from many disciplines, NASA spending on astrobiology had reached nearly half that amount and was growing at a steady pace. Under NASA leadership numerous institutions around the world applied the latest scientific techniques in the service of astrobiology's ambitious goal: the study of what NASA's 1996 Strategic Plan termed the "living universe." This goal embraced nothing less than an understanding of the origin, history, and distribution of life in the universe, including Earth. Astrobiology, conceived as a broad interdisciplinary research program, held the prospect of being the science for the twenty-first century which would unlock the secrets to some of the great questions of humanity. It is no surprise that these age-old questions should continue into the twenty-first century. But that the effort should be spearheaded by NASA was not at all obvious to those - inside and outside the agency - who thought NASA's mission was human spaceflight, rather than science, especially biological science. NASA had, in fact, been involved for four decades in "exobiology," a field that embraced many of the same questions but which had stagnated after the 1976 Viking missions to Mars. In this volume we tell the colorful story of the rise of the discipline of exobiology, how and why it morphed into astrobiology at the end of the twentieth century, and why NASA was the engine for both the discipline's founding and for its transformation.

  20. 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald (Editor); Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 25-26, 2002, at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. Organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Physical Sciences Research Division, NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and member institutions under the Cooperative Research in Biology and Materials Science (CORBAMS) agreement, the conference provided a forum to review the current research and activities in materials science, discuss the envisioned long-term goals, highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to the Physical Sciences Research Division, and inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity. An abstracts book was published and distributed at the conference to the approximately 240 people attending, who represented industry, academia, and other NASA Centers. This CD-ROM proceedings is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators in the Microgravity Materials Science program.

  1. Summer Research Experiences for Science and Art Teachers to Explore Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, J.; Gaucher, E.; Snell, T.; Greenwood, J.; Angra, A.; Zimmerman, C.; Williams, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosomal Origins and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational program titled, "Life on the Edge: Astrobiology." The purpose of the program was to provide high school educators with the exposure, materials, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with undergraduate students interested in becoming a teacher through the NSF Pre-Teaching REU program. The GIFT and Pre-Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles, which became the focus of a week-long, "Life on the Edge: Astrobiology " summer program developed by three high school educators, two undergraduate students and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. Twenty high school students were introduced to hands-on activities, such as astrobiology inspired art and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact of the Astrobiology program on the GIFT researchers, Pre-Teaching REU students, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

  2. Investigating Changes in Students’ Attitudes Towards Science During an Adaptive Online Astrobiology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Viranga; Buxner, Sanlyn R.; Horodyskyj, Lev; Anbar, Ariel; Semken, Steven; Mead, Chris; Lopatto, David

    2015-11-01

    Online education is an emergent sector of formal education and Arizona State University (ASU) is a leader in offering online courses. One that garners very strong positive feedback on student surveys is Habitable Worlds, which is an interdisciplinary online science course offered every semester since Fall 2011. Primary goals of this course are to teach understanding of scientific reasoning and practices by using principles from trans-disciplinary research in astrobiology. To examine course outcomes we administered the Classroom Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) survey, which has been previously developed to measure student experiences. Here we use the survey for the first time for an online course. The survey was taken before and after completing the course during the Fall 2014 and Spring 2015 semesters (N = 544). Here, we present students’ views of science represented by 22 questions on the survey. For the questions, students responded either "not applicable," "strongly disagree," "disagree," "neutral," "agree," or "strongly agree." In order to interpret the data, we divided the questions into three broader categories for analysis: students’ understanding of the scientific process, students’ scientific self-efficacy and students’ views on science teaching. We study how the sample of students changed their responses to each of the questions as a group by using a paired-samples sign test to gauge the statistical significance of the difference between pre and post responses. We further analyze how individual students changed their responses. For example, we designated a change from “strongly disagree” to “disagree” differently than a change from “agree” to “disagree” since the latter indicated a notable change in the student’s opinion. We found statistically significant changes on 12 of the 22 questions. These early results indicate that there are measurable changes on several identified course objectives. By measuring changes that occurred to the whole group of students as well as identifying in detail what type of changes occurred from student to student for each question, we will be able to improve future offerings of the course as well as to make broader conclusions about online science education.

  3. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held July 14-16, 1998 at the Von Braun Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications. It was the third NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 125 investigations and 100 principal investigators in FY98, almost all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement scheduled for release in late 1998 by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the Marshall Space Flight Center microgravity research facilities was held on July 16, 1998. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference.

  4. Inaugural AGU Science Policy Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-01-01

    AGU will present its inaugural Science Policy Conference, 30 April to 3 May 2012, at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, located in downtown Washington, D. C. This conference will bring together leading scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, press, and other stakeholders to discuss natural hazards, natural resources, oceans, and Arctic science and the role these sciences play in serving communities. To bridge the science and policy fields, AGU plans to host this conference every 2 years and focus on the applications of Earth and space sciences to serve local and national communities. “Our nation faces a myriad of challenges such as the sustainability of our natural resources, current and future energy needs, and the ability to mitigate and adapt to natural and manmade hazards,” said Michael McPhaden, president of AGU. “It is essential that policies to address these challenges be built on a solid foundation of credible scientific knowledge.”

  5. ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 1, Number 4, 2001

    E-print Network

    Gerakines, Perry

    Considerations Relevant to an Exobiology Surface-Science Approach for Europa THOMAS J. WDOWIAK,1 PERRY A. GERAKINES,1 DAVID G. AGRESTI,1 and SIMON J. CLEMETT2 ABSTRACT If Europa is to be of primary exobiological science--Exobiology--Astrobiology. Astrobiology 1, 467­476. 467 INTRODUCTION MOUNTING EVIDENCE SUGGESTS

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology: Analogs and Applications to the Search for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Astrobiology: Analogs and Applications to the Search for Life" included the folowing reports:The Search for Life on Mars Using Macroscopically Visible Microbial Mats (Stromatolites) in 3.5/3.3 Ga Cherts from the Pilbara in Australia and Barberton in South Africa as Analogues; Life in a Mars Analog: Microbial Activity Associated with Carbonate Cemented Lava Breccias from NW Spitsbergen; Groundwater-fed Iron-rich Microbial Mats in a Freshwater Creek: Growth Cycles and Fossilization Potential of Microbial Features; Episodic Fossilization of Microorganisms on an Annual Timescale in an Anthropogenically Modified Natural Environment: Geochemical Controls and Implications for Astrobiology; Proterozoic Microfossils and Their Implications for Recognizing Life on Mars; Microbial Alteration of Volcanic Glass in Modern and Ancient Oceanic Crust as a Proxy for Studies of Extraterrestrial Material ; Olivine Alteration on Earth and Mars; Searching for an Acidic Aquifer in the R!o Tinto Basin. First Geobiology Results of MARTE Project; In-Field Testing of Life Detection Instruments and Protocols in a Mars Analogue Arctic Environment; Habitability of the Shallow Subsurface on Mars: Clues from the Meteorites; Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain; Characterization of the Organic Matter in an Archean Chert (Warrawoona, Australia); and The Solfatara Crater, Italy: Characterization of Hydrothermal Deposits, Biosignatures and Their Astrobiological Implication.

  7. Science Applications of a Multispectral Microscopic Imager for the Astrobiological Exploration of Mars

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Jack D.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A.; Blaney, Diana L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73??m. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars. Key Words: Mars—Microscopic imager—Multispectral imaging—Spectroscopy—Habitability—Arm instrument. Astrobiology 14, 132–169. PMID:24552233

  8. The narrative power of astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Linda

    The narrative power of astrobiology: Telling the story of the quest to understand life's origins and the search for evidence of extraterrestrial life INTRODUCTION The story of the origins and evolution of life is a narrative with nearuniversal appeal. The story of life on Earth is meaningful to all people, and the search for life elsewhere is appealing across cultural boundaries. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funds an Astrobiology Program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate that is dedicated to the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Because public interest in astrobiology is great and advances in the field are rapid, the NASA Astrobiology Program aims to integrate communication, education, and outreach into all aspects of program planning and execution. This strategic approach to communication is intended to promote the widest possible dissemination of timely and useful information about scientific discoveries, technology development, new knowledge, and greater understanding produced by the Astrobiology Program. This paper will address how scientists in the field of astrobiology can participate in the telling of an ongoing story of interest to multicultural audiences and why it is important to tell this story. SUMMARY Astrobiology research addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and evolve? Is there life beyond Earth and how can we detect it? What is the future of life on Earth and in the universe? The field of astrobiology is an endeavor that brings together researchers in a broad range of disciplines including Earth and planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, microbiology and evolutionary biology, and cosmochemistry. Goals of the NASA Astrobiology Program range from determining the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond to understanding the emergence of life from cosmic and planetary precursors, the interaction of past life on Earth with its changing environment, the formation and evolution of planets, links between planetary and biological evolution, the effects of climate and geology on habitability, and life's precursors and habitats in the outer solar system. Research dedicated to fulfilling these goals is conducted on Earth and in space, with a growing number of astrobiology investigations flying on planetary exploration missions. Since 1995, the field of astrobiology has grown rapidly, and the pace of discovery has been brisk. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is now a serious scientific question. Research findings over the past decade that are relevant to this question include the controversial 1996 claim of fossil evidence for microbial life in a martian meteorite, evidence of past and perhaps even present liquid water on Mars, the likelihood of a liquid water ocean on Europa, the possibility of liquid water beneath the surface of Titan, observations of a growing number of extrasolar planets, and identification of new forms of microbial life in an ever-widening range of extreme Earth environments. In the 21st century, the tempo of robotic planetary exploration is speeding up, and scientific and public attention is increasingly focusing on astrobiology research, especially the search for signs of life on Mars and other planetary bodies in our solar system. Mars is currently considered the best site in the solar system to search for evidence of past or present extraterrestrial life. And as Mars exploration proceeds, astrobiological interest in Enceladus, Europa, and Titan - outer solar system bodies that might have liquid water, prebiotic chemistry, or even life - is growing as new data are collected and analyzed. With an expanding array of solar system exploration endeavors involving and advancing astrobiology research, the NASA Astrobiology Program employs a communication strategy designed to establish that communication is an integral element of program planning and activities and an activity of fundamental importance to this scientific enterprise. This str

  9. Educational Outreach for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadooka, M.; Meech, K.

    2009-12-01

    Astrobiology, the search for life in the universe, has fascinating research areas that can excite students and teachers about science. Its integrative nature, relating to astronomy, geology, oceanography, physics, and chemistry, can be used to encourage students to pursue physical sciences careers. Since 2004, the University of Hawaii NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) team scientists have shared their research with secondary teachers at our ALI’I national teacher program to promote the inclusion of astrobiology topics into science courses. Since 2007, our NAI team has co-sponsored the HI STAR program for Hawaii’s middle and high school students to work on authentic astronomy research projects and to be mentored by astronomers. The students get images of asteroids, comets, stars, and extrasolar planets from the Faulkes Telescope North located at Haleakala Observatories on the island of Maui and owned by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network. They also do real time observing with DeKalb Observatory telescope personally owned by Donn Starkey who willing allows any student access to his telescope. Student project results include awards at the Hawaii State Science Fair and the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. We believe that research experience stimulates these students to select STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) majors upon entering college so a longitudinal study is being done. Plans are underway with California and Hawaii ALI’I teachers cooperating on a joint astronomy classroom project. International collaborations with Brazil, Portugal, and Italy astronomers have begun. We envision joint project between hemispheres and crossing time zones. The establishment of networking teachers, astronomers, students and educator liaisons will be discussed.

  10. Science applications of a multispectral microscopic imager for the astrobiological exploration of Mars.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Jorge I; Farmer, Jack D; Sellar, R Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A; Blaney, Diana L

    2014-02-01

    Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73??m. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars. PMID:24552233

  11. Titan's Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, F.; McKay, C.; Lunine, J.; Owen, T.

    This chapter describes the aspects of Saturn's moon Titan of astrobiological interest. Titan's prebiotic-like chemistry is reviewed, from the high atomosphere to the surface and subsurface, using the Cassini-Huygens data, with the help of theoretical modeling and experimental simulations. Similarities with and differences from the environment of the pre-biotic Earth are presented, and the lessons to be learned for Earth's organic chemical evolution on the prebiotic Earth discussed. The question of habitability and life on and in Titan is then considered, including the possibility of an exotic type of life that might exist in the liquid methane/ ethane lakes. Finally, the relation between Titan and the destiny of life on Earth is discussed.

  12. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, David J; Nuth, Joseph A; Allamandola, Louis J; Boss, Alan P; Farmer, Jack D; Hoehler, Tori M; Jakosky, Bruce M; Meadows, Victoria S; Pohorille, Andrew; Runnegar, Bruce; Spormann, Alfred M

    2008-08-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: how does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own Solar System, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority efforts for the next three to five years. These eighteen objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning. PMID:18793098

  13. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, David J; Allamandola, Louis J; Benner, Steven A; Boss, Alan P; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G; Farmer, Jack D; Hedges, S Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M; Knoll, Andrew H; Liskowsky, David R; Meadows, Victoria S; Meyer, Michael A; Pilcher, Carl B; Nealson, Kenneth H; Spormann, Alfred M; Trent, Jonathan D; Turner, William W; Woolf, Neville J; Yorke, Harold W

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning. PMID:14577870

  14. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, David J.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Benner, Steven A.; Boss, Alan P.; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G.; Farmer, Jack D.; Hedges, S. Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Liskowsky, David R.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Meyer, Michael A.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Trent, Jonathan D.; Turner, William W.; Woolf, Neville J.; Yorke, Harold W.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  15. Astrobiology and Society: Building an Interdisciplinary Research Community

    PubMed Central

    Denning, Kathryn; Bertka, Constance M.; Dick, Steven J.; Harrison, Albert A.; Impey, Christopher; Mancinelli, Rocco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper reports recent efforts to gather experts from the humanities and social sciences along with astrobiologists to consider the cultural, societal, and psychological implications of astrobiology research and exploration. We began by convening a workshop to draft a research roadmap on astrobiology's societal implications and later formed a Focus Group on Astrobiology and Society under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI). Just as the Astrobiology Science Roadmap and various astrobiology science focus groups have helped researchers orient and understand their work across disciplinary contexts, our intent was to apply the same approach to examine areas beyond the physical and life sciences and expand interdisciplinary interaction and scholarly understanding. These efforts continue as an experiment in progress, with an open invitation to interested researchers—astrobiologists as well as scholars in the humanities and social sciences—to become involved in research, analysis, and proactive discussions concerning the potential impacts of astrobiology on society as well as the possible impacts of society on progress in astrobiology. Key Words: Astrobiology—Extraterrestrial life—Life detection. Astrobiology 12, 958–965. PMID:23046203

  16. Astrobiology and the Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    Four hundred years ago two astronomical world views hung in the balance: the geocentric and the heliocentric. Today astronomy faces a similar choice between two grand world views: a purely physical universe, in which cosmic evolution commonly ends in planets, stars and galaxies, and a biological universe, in which cosmic evolution routinely results in life, mind and intelligence. Astrobiology is the science providing the data to make this critical choice. This 20th century overview shows how we have arrived at the view that cosmic evolution may have resulted in life and intelligence in the universe. It examines how our astronomical world view has changed over the last century, recalls the opinions of astronomical pioneers like Russell, Shapley, and Struve on life in the universe, and shows how planetary science, planetary systems science, origins of life studies and SETI have combined to form a new discipline. Astrobiology now commands \\$50 million in direct funding from NASA, funds 15 Astrobiology Institute members around the country and four affiliates around the world, and seeks to answer one of astronomy's oldest questions. Whether we live in a mostly physical universe, as exemplified in Isaac Asimov's Foundation series, or in a biological universe, as portrayed in Arthur C. Clarke's works, this reality will have profound consequences, no less than the Copernican theory. Astrobiology also looks to the future of life; taking a long-term ``Stapledonian" view, it is possible we may live in a postbiological universe.

  17. Astrobiological polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Neeraj; Jafarpour, Aliakbar; Thaler, Tracey L.; Trebino, Rick; Bommarius, Andreas S.

    2007-09-01

    Chirality is an excellent indicator of life, but naturally occurring terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples nearly always exhibit massive depolarizing light scattering (DLS). This problem bears a striking resemblance to that of developing a chirality-based non-invasive glucose monitor for diabetics. Both applications require a lightweight, compact, efficient, and robust polarimeter that can operate despite significant DLS. So for astrobiological applications, we developed a polarimeter that was inspired from a polarimetry technique previously investigated for non-invasive in-vivo glucose-sensing. Our polarimeter involves continuously rotating the plane of linear polarization of a laser beam to probe a sample with DLS, and analyzing its transmission with a fixed analyzer to obtain a sinusoidal voltage signal. We lock-in detect this signal using a reference signal from an analogous set up without any sample. With milk as a scatterer, we find that this polarimeter detects chirality in the presence of three orders of magnitude more DLS than conventional polarimeters. It can accurately measure 0.1° of polarization rotation in the presence of 15% milk.

  18. Capturing Student Interest in Astrobiology through Dilemmas and Paradoxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology is an interdisciplinary science course that combines essential questions from life, physical, and Earth sciences. An effective astrobiology course also capitalizes on students' natural curiosity about social science implications of studying the origin of life and the impact of finding life elsewhere in the universe. (Contains 2…

  19. Science Education for Handicapped Theme of Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cheryl A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a conference that included among its participants handicapped students and scientists. The conference was held to explore barriers to science education faced by handicapped students, and how to overcome those barriers. Recommendations were adopted and strategies developed to improve opportunities in science education for handicapped…

  20. Astrosociological Implications of Astrobiology (Revisited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pass, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Supporters of astrobiology continue to organize the field around formalized associations and organizations under the guise of the so-called ``hard'' sciences (e.g., biology and the related physical/natural sciences). The so-called ``soft'' sciences-including sociology and the other social sciences, the behavioral sciences, and the humanities-remain largely separated from this dynamically growing field. However, as argued in this paper, space exploration involving the search for extraterrestrial life should be viewed as consisting of two interrelated parts (i.e., two sides of the same coin): astrobiology and astrosociology. Together, these two fields broadly combine the two major branches of science as they relate to the relationship between human life and alien life, as appropriate. Moreover, with a formalized system of collaboration, these two complimentary fields would also focus on the implications of their research to human beings as well as their cultures and social structures. By placing the astrosociological implications of astrobiology at a high enough priority, scientists interested in the search for alien life can augment their focus to include the social, cultural, and behavioral implications that were always associated with their work (yet previously overlooked or understated, and too often misunderstood). Recognition of the astrosociological implications expands our perception about alien life by creating a new emphasis on their ramifications to human life on Earth.

  1. Astrobiology in Brazil: early history and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Friaça, Amancio C. S.; Lage, Claudia; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Horvath, Jorge E.

    2012-10-01

    This review reports the Brazilian history in astrobiology, as well as the first delineation of a vision of the future development of the field in the country, exploring its abundant biodiversity, highly capable human resources and state-of-the-art facilities, reflecting the last few years of stable governmental investments in science, technology and education, all conditions providing good perspectives on continued and steadily growing funding for astrobiology-related research. Brazil is growing steadily and fast in terms of its worldwide economic power, an effect being reflected in different areas of the Brazilian society, including industry, technology, education, social care and scientific production. In the field of astrobiology, the country has had some important landmarks, more intensely after the First Brazilian Workshop on Astrobiology in 2006. The history of astrobiology in Brazil, however, is not so recent and had its first occurrence in 1958. Since then, researchers carried out many individual initiatives across the country in astrobiology-related fields, resulting in an ever growing and expressive scientific production. The number of publications, including articles and theses, has particularly increased in the last decade, but still counting with the effort of researchers working individually. That scenario started to change in 2009, when a formal group of Brazilian researchers working with astrobiology was organized, aiming at congregating the scientific community interested in the subject and to promote the necessary interactions to achieve a multidisciplinary work, receiving facilities and funding from the University de Sao Paulo and other funding agencies.

  2. Astrobiology in an Urban New York City High School: John Dewey High School's Space Science Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, B.; Dash, H. B.

    2010-04-01

    John Dewey High School's participation in NASA's MESDT and DLN projects and other partnerships provide opportunities for our diverse population, focusing particular attention to under-represented and under-served groups in the field of Space Science.

  3. The NASA astrobiology program.

    PubMed

    Morrison, D

    2001-01-01

    The new discipline of astrobiology addresses fundamental questions about life in the universe: "Where did we come from?" "Are we alone in the universe?" "What is our future beyond the Earth?" Developing capabilities in biotechnology, informatics, and space exploration provide new tools to address these old questions. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has encouraged this new discipline by organizing workshops and technical meetings, establishing a NASA Astrobiology Institute, providing research funds to individual investigators, ensuring that astrobiology goals are incorporated in NASA flight missions, and initiating a program of public outreach and education. Much of the initial effort by NASA and the research community was focused on determining the technical content of astrobiology. This paper discusses the initial answer to the question "What is astrobiology?" as described in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. PMID:12448992

  4. The NASA astrobiology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    2001-01-01

    The new discipline of astrobiology addresses fundamental questions about life in the universe: "Where did we come from?" "Are we alone in the universe?" "What is our future beyond the Earth?" Developing capabilities in biotechnology, informatics, and space exploration provide new tools to address these old questions. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has encouraged this new discipline by organizing workshops and technical meetings, establishing a NASA Astrobiology Institute, providing research funds to individual investigators, ensuring that astrobiology goals are incorporated in NASA flight missions, and initiating a program of public outreach and education. Much of the initial effort by NASA and the research community was focused on determining the technical content of astrobiology. This paper discusses the initial answer to the question "What is astrobiology?" as described in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

  5. Astrobiological Complexity with Probabilistic Cellular Automata

    E-print Network

    Vukoti?, B

    2012-01-01

    Search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous input parameters' space. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding actual empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and ne...

  6. Astrobiology - The New Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sik, A.; Simon, T.

    Background In connection with the complex planetology-education in Hungary [1] we have compiled an Astrobiology coursebook - as a base of its teaching in universities and perhaps in secondary schools as well. We tried to collect and assemble in a logical and thematical order the scientific breakthroughs of the last years, that made possible the fast improvement of astrobiology. The followings are a kind of summary of these. Introduction - The ultimate science Astrobiology is a young science, that search for the possibility, forms and places of extraterrestrial life. But it is not SETI, because do not search for intelligent life, just for living organisms, so SETI is a part of astrobiology. and an extremely important statement: we can search for life-forms that similar to terrestrial life in physiology so we can recognize it as life. Astrobiology is one of the most dynamical-developing sciences of the 21st century. To determine its boundaries is difficult because the complex nature of it: astrobiology melt into itself lot of other sciences, like a kind of ultimate science. The fundamental questions are very simple [2]: When, where and how converted the organic matter into life?; How does life evolve in the Universe?; Has it appeared on other planets?; How does it spread in time and space?; and What is the future of terrestrial life? However, trying to find the answers is quite difficult. So an astrobiologist has to be aware of the basics of astronomy, space research, earth and planetary sciences, and life sciences (mainly ecology, genetics, molecular and evolution biology). But it is not enough - the newest results of these at least as important as the basic knowledge. Part I. - Astro 1. Exoplanets 1995 was a particular year in astronomy: we have found the first planet out of the Solar System. Since that time the discovery of exoplanets progress fast: nowdays more than 80 examples are known and just 6 years passed [3]. The detailed analysis of these distant objects has verified and solidified our theo- ries of planet-formation. The places of this process are contacting clouds of gas and dust, like the Orion Nebula. In these star-birth clouds we can observe clusters of mat- ter in which the temperature and pressure reach a limit and a new-born star begin to "function", or rather radiate. Around the star, the remnant matter settle into a plane, 1 forming a protoplanetary disk. It has different zones: heavy elements nearer to the star, light elements farther from it. The planets are taking shape from these zones - perhaps rocky types and gas giants as well. To see so much example we can state that planetary system-formation is an absolutely normal, everyday process in the Universe. As a consequence there are a lot of planetary system near to our Earth, with planets orbiting around stars. Though, the known exoplanets are not too Earth-like objects. Most of them seems to be lonely gas giants (with mass bigger than our Jupiter) nearer to their star then rocky planets to our Sun (the only known multiple exoplanet sys- tem is around Upsilon Andromedae [4]). Probable the reason of this difference is the weak capability of our instrument and not the speciality of our system. By using ad- vanced methods and instruments (like Next Generation Space Telescope or Terrestrial Planet Finder spacecraft, planned to launch in 5 years [5]) rocky-like planets will be found as well. 2. Water in the Solar System Looking closer, the knowledge of our Solar System has increased intensively during the last years of the 20th century - due to the planetary spacecraft missions, like Lunar Prospector, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor, Galileo and NEAR-Shoemaker. The most important discovery, that liquid water is quite general in our local cosmic environment. and as we know this is the most important condition of life. First and foremost, the most important is Planet Mars. By reconstructing the surface evolution of our outer neighbor it seems that in the past, more billion years ago it had global ocean, the depressions were filled with sea

  7. ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 6, Number 3, 2006

    E-print Network

    Cummer, Steven A.

    of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California. 2Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics, NASA Goddard Space Sciences/Astrobiology Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. 9Department of Earth Sciences), which may have sterilized the surface and hence led to the failure of the Viking life sciences

  8. The Astrobiology Field Guide in World Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalice, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    In collaboration with the Australian Centre for Astrobiology (ACA), and NASA Learning Technologies (NLT), and utilizing the powerful visualization capabilities of their "World Wind" software, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) is crafting a prototype "Astrobiology Field Guide" to bring the field experiences and stories of astrobiology science to the public and classrooms around the world. The prototype focuses on one region in particular - The Pilbara in Western Australia. This first Field Guide "hotspot" is an internationally recognized area hosting the best known example of the earliest evidence of life on Earth - a stromatolitic chert precipitation in the 3.45 Ga Warrawoona Group. The goal of the Astrobiology Field Guide is to engage students of all ages with the ongoing field expeditions of today's astrobiologists as they explore the ends of the Earth searching for clues to life's origin, evolution, and distribution in the Universe. The NAI hopes to expand this Field Guide to include many more astrobiologically relevant areas across the globe such as Cuatro Cienegas in Mexico, the Rio Tinto in Spain, Yellowstone National Park in the US, and the Lost City hydrothermal vent field on the mid-Atlantic ridge - and possibly sites on Mars. To that end, we will be conducting feasibility studies and evaluations with informal and formal education contacts. The Astrobiology Field Guide is also serving as a cornerstone to educational materials being developed focused on the Pilbara region for use in classrooms in Australia, the UK, and potentially the US. These materials are being developed by the Australian Centre for Astrobiology, and the ICT Innovations Centre at Macquarie University in Sydney, in collaboration with the NAI and the Centre for Astronomy and Science Education at the University of Glamorgan in the UK.

  9. Proceedings of the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The sessions in the conference include: Titan, Mars Volcanism, Mars Polar Layered Deposits, Early Solar System Isotopes, SPECIAL SESSION: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: New Ways of Studying the Red Planet, Achondrites: Exploring Oxygen Isotopes and Parent-Body Processes, Solar System Formation and Evolution, SPECIAL SESSION: SMART-1, . Impact Cratering: Observations and Experiments, SPECIAL SESSION: Volcanism and Tectonism on Saturnian Satellites, Solar Nebula Composition, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Asteroid Observations: Spectra, Mostly, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: View from the Surface, Mars Tectonics and Crustal Dichotomy, Stardust: Wild-2 Revealed, Impact Cratering from Observations and Interpretations, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: The Map View, Chondrules and Their Formation, Enceladus, Asteroids and Deep Impact: Structure, Dynamics, and Experiments, Mars Surface Process and Evolution, Martian Meteorites: Nakhlites, Experiments, and the Great Shergottite Age Debate, Stardust: Mainly Mineralogy, Astrobiology, Wind-Surface Interactions on Mars and Earth, Icy Satellite Surfaces, Venus, Lunar Remote Sensing, Space Weathering, and Impact Effects, Interplanetary Dust/Genesis, Mars Cratering: Counts and Catastrophes?, Chondrites: Secondary Processes, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Atmosphere, Soils, Brines, and Minerals, Lunar Interior and Differentiation, Mars Magnetics and Atmosphere: Core to Ionosphere, Metal-rich Chondrites, Organics in Chondrites, Lunar Impacts and Meteorites, Presolar/Solar Grains, Topics for Print Only papers are: Outer Planets/Satellites, Early Solar System, Interplanetary Dust, Comets and Kuiper Belt Objects, Asteroids and Meteoroids, Chondrites, Achondrites, Meteorite Related, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars, Astrobiology, Planetary Differentiation, Impacts, Mercury, Lunar Samples and Modeling, Venus, Missions and Instruments, Global Warming, Education and Public Outreach, Poster sessions are: Asteroids/Kuiper Belt Objects, Galilean Satellites: Geology and Mapping, Titan, Volcanism and Tectonism on Saturnian Satellites, Early Solar System, Achondrite Hodgepodge, Ordinary Chondrites, Carbonaceous Chondrites, Impact Cratering from Observations and Interpretations, Impact Cratering from Experiments and Modeling, SMART-1, Planetary Differentiation, Mars Geology, Mars Volcanism, Mars Tectonics, Mars: Polar, Glacial, and Near-Surface Ice, Mars Valley Networks, Mars Gullies, Mars Outflow Channels, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Spirit and Opportunity, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: New Ways of Studying the Red Planet, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Geology, Layers, and Landforms, Oh, My!, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Viewing Mars Through Multicolored Glasses; Mars Science Laboratory, Phoenix, and ExoMars: Science, Instruments, and Landing Sites; Planetary Analogs: Chemical and Mineral, Planetary Analogs: Physical, Planetary Analogs: Operations, Future Mission Concepts, Planetary Data, Imaging, and Cartography, Outer Solar System, Presolar/Solar Grains, Stardust Mission; Interplanetary Dust, Genesis, Asteroids and Comets: Models, Dynamics, and Experiments, Venus, Mercury, Laboratory Instruments, Methods, and Techniques to Support Planetary Exploration; Instruments, Techniques, and Enabling Techologies for Planetary Exploration; Lunar Missions and Instruments, Living and Working on the Moon, Meteoroid Impacts on the Moon, Lunar Remote Sensing, Lunar Samples and Experiments, Lunar Atmosphere, Moon: Soils, Poles, and Volatiles, Lunar Topography and Geophysics, Lunar Meteorites, Chondrites: Secondary Processes, Chondrites, Martian Meteorites, Mars Cratering, Mars Surface Processes and Evolution, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Regolith, Spectroscopy, and Imaging, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Analogs and Mineralogy, Mars: Magnetics and Atmosphere, Mars Aeolian Geomorphology, Mars Data Processing and Analyses, Astrobiology, Engaging Student Educators and the Public in Planetary Science,

  10. National Workshop on Astrobiology: the life science involvement of AAS-I Laben.

    PubMed

    Adami, Giorgio

    2006-12-01

    The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or for automated biosensor based on cell culture Experiment Container for organic systems Experiment Container for small animals Instrumentation based on fluorescent Biosensors Sensors for Life science experiments for Biopan capsule and Space Vehicle Ray Shielding Materials Random Positioning Machine specialisation (Support ground equipment) The biological features of this heritage is at disposal for the exobiology multi science. The involvement of industries, from the beginning of the exobiology projects, allows a cost effective technologies closed loop development between Research Centres, Principal Investigators and industry. PMID:17171428

  11. Teaching of Astrobiology at UTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    In Fall 2003, the course ``Astrobiology'' has been introduced at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). This course is offered both at the graduate and undergraduate level, and is cross-listed between the Department of Physics, Department of Biology, and Department of Geology. The course is interdisciplinary in nature, encompassing selected topics of astronomy, stellar astrophysics, biochemistry, theoretical, evolutionary, and extremophile biology, geology, planetary science, and atmospheric physics. The outline of the course includes topics such as the nature and definition of life, origin and evolution of life on Earth, the search for life in the solar system, the possibility of life around different types of stars, including multiple stellar systems, stellar habitable zones, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and the Fermi paradox. ``Astrobiology'' is now offered the third time, and has enjoyed a steady increase in popularity. In my presentation, I will discuss the underlying goals, my teaching experience, problems and opportunities, including feed-back from students.

  12. National Workshop on Astrobiology: The Life Science Involvement of AAS I Laben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Giorgio

    2006-12-01

    The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or for automated biosensor based on cell culture Experiment Container for organic systems Experiment Container for small animals Instrumentation based on fluorescent Biosensors Sensors for Life science experiments for Biopan capsule and Space Vehicle Ray Shielding Materials Random Positioning Machine specialisation (Support ground equipment) The biological features of this heritage is at disposal for the exobiology multi science. The involvement of industries, from the beginning of the exobiology projects, allows a cost effective technologies closed loop development between Research Centres, Principal Investigators and industry.

  13. European landscape in astrobiology, results of the AstRoMap consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Rettberg, Petra; Walter, Nicolas; Gomez, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Astrobiology is a multidisciplinary field of research, which encompasses scientists ranging from cosmology, astronomy, planetary sciences, physics, chemistry, geology, paleontology to biology. In order to map the existing astrobiological expertise in Europe a comprehensive community consultation has been performed within the AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping) project that is supported by the European Commission FP7 framework. From this information a data base of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see:

  14. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Material Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in materials science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close to 350 people. Posters were available for viewing during the conference and a dedicated poster session was held on the second day. Nanotechnology radiation shielding materials, Space Station science opportunities, biomaterials research, and outreach and educational aspects of the program were featured in the plenary talks. This volume, the first to be released on CD-ROM for materials science, is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators at the conference.

  15. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Bennett, Nancy; McCauley, Dannah; Murphy, Karen; Poindexter, Samantha

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 3 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close to 350 people, Posters were available for viewing during the conference and a dedicated poster session was held on the second day. Nanotechnology, radiation shielding materials, Space Station science opportunities, biomaterials research, and outreach and educational aspects of the program were featured in the plenary talks. This volume, the first to be released on CD-ROM for materials science, is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators at the conference.

  16. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference %%,its to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close to 350 people, Posters were available for viewing during the conference and a dedicated poster session was held on the second day. Nanotechnology, radiation shielding materials, Space Station science opportunities, biomaterials research, and outreach and educational aspects of the program were featured in the plenary talks. This volume, the first to be released on CD-ROM for materials science, is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators at the conference.

  17. Bridging Science and Policy: The AGU Science Policy Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K.; Landau, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, science has become inextricably linked to the political process. As such, it is more important now than ever for science to forge a better relationship with politics, for the health of both science and society. To help meet this need, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to engage its members, shape policy, and inform society about the excitement of Earth and space science and its role in developing solutions for the sustainability of the planet. In June 2013, AGU held its second annual Science Policy Conference in Washington, D.C. The goal of the conference is to provide a new forum for diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of science policy, with a focus on applications of Earth and space science that serve local, national, and international communities. The meeting brought together more than 300 scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, members of the press, and other stakeholders to discuss the topics concerning the Arctic, climate change, oceans, energy, technology and infrastructure, and natural hazards science as they relate to challenges impacting society. Sessions such as 'The Water-Energy Nexus,' 'Potential for Megadisasters,' 'The Changing Ocean and Impacts on Human Health,' and 'Drowning and Drought: Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change' are examples of some of the intriguing and timely science policy issues addressed at the conference. The findings from the conference were used to develop a summary report. The report highlights key facts and figures to be used as a resource in discussions with policy makers and other stakeholders regarding the conference topics. This presentation will discuss the goals and outcomes of the conference and how the event represents one of the many ways AGU is approaching its 'Science and Society' priority objective as part of the Union's strategic plan; namely by increasing the effectiveness and recognition of AGU among policy makers as an authoritative source of integrated, interdisciplinary Earth and space science information.

  18. International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Jiang, Yiwen

    2014-03-01

    The International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013) took place in Wuhan, P R China from 26-27 October 2013 at the Military Economics Academy. The conference is regularly organized, alternately in Romania and in P R China, by ''Politehnica'' University of Timi?oara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P R China, with the aim to serve as a platform for the exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences, and to promote the communication between the scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The conference has been organized for the first time in 15-16 June 2012 at the Engineering Faculty of Hunedoara, Romania. The topics of the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues: Economical sciences Engineering sciences Fundamental sciences Medical sciences The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has applicability potential in economics, defense, medicine, etc. The number of registered participants was nearly 90 from 5 countries. During the two days of the conference 4 invited and 36 oral talks were delivered. A few of the speakers deserve a special mention: Mircea Octavian Popoviciu, Academy of Romanian Scientist — Timi?oara Branch, Correlations between mechanical properties and cavitation erosion resistance for stainless steels with 12% chromium and variable contents of nickel; Carmen Eleonora H?r?u, ''Politehnica'' University of Timi?oara, SWOT analysis of Romania's integration in EU; Ding Hui, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, Design and engineering analysis of material procurement mobile operation platform; Serban Rosu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ''Victor Babe?'' Timi?oara, Cervical and facial infections — a real life threat, among others. Based on the work presented at the conference, 14 selected papers are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. These papers present new researches in the various fields of materials engineering, mechanical engineering, computers engineering, mathematical engineering and clinical engineering. It's our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering to the scientific community to promote further researches in these areas. We sincerely hope that the papers published in this volume will contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the respective fields. All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the ICAS2013 proceedings, Ludovic Dan Lemle and Yiwen Jiang. Special thanks should be directed to the organizing committee for their tremendous efforts in organizing the conference: General Chair Zhou Laixin, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan Co-chairs Du Qifa, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan Serban Viorel-Aurel, ''Politehnica'' University of Timi?oara Fen Youmei, Wuhan University Lin Pinghua, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Members Lin Darong, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan Guo Zhonghou, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan Sun Honghong, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan Liu Dong, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan We thank the authors for their contributions and we would also like to express our gratitude everyone who contributed to this conference, especially for the generous support of the sponsor: micromega S C Micro-Mega HD S A Ludovic Dan Lemle and Yiwen Jiang Coordinators of the Scientific Committee of ICAS2013 Deatails of organizers and members of the scientific commmittee are available in the PDF

  19. 77 FR 4568 - Annual Computational Science Symposium; Public Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Annual Computational Science Symposium; Public Conference AGENCY... public conference entitled ``The FDA/PhUSE Annual Computational Science Symposium.'' The purpose of the conference is to help the broader community align and share experiences to advance computational science....

  20. 78 FR 10180 - Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference AGENCY... public conference entitled ``The FDA/PhUSE Annual Computational Science Symposium.'' The purpose of the conference is to help the broader community align and share experiences to advance computational science....

  1. How can we teach astrobiology and survive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Telma; Carrapiço, Francisco

    2006-08-01

    Making science was and always will be a continuous challenge; however teaching science is a step forth. A good example is astrobiology. Defined as the scientific study of biological processes on Earth and beyond, it connects research in chemistry, physics, biology, geology, astronomy and planetary sciences. This interconnected scientific network allows us to visualize a new approach of the life's nature and its origins and development on Earth and elsewhere in the universe. With these goals, we wish to look within the nature of life, observing a new paradigm in the construction of the scientific knowledge. Teaching astrobiology is not an easy task. There are several constrains, such as treating and integrating diverse areas of knowledge and teaching a science that embraces so many questions presently unanswered and on which students have so many doubts and wrong pre-instructional beliefs. Another obstacle is the rapidly spreading of Intelligent Design, the new incarnation of creationism, which considers astrobiology as a danger for its policies, dogmas and philosophy. However, the principal barrier for teaching astrobiology is, without doubt, the difficulty to integrate this science in the curricular domain.

  2. Galactic Habitable Zone and Astrobiological Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukotic, B.

    2012-12-01

    This is a short thesis description and for the sake of brevity most things are left out. For more details, those interested are further directed to the thesis related papers in this article reference list. Thesis itself is available at the University of Belgrade library "Svetozar Markovic" (Serbian version only). In this thesis we study the astrobiological history of the Galactic habitable zone through the means of numerical modeling. First group of simulations are unidimensional (time-axis) toy models examine the influence of global regulation mechanisms (gamma-ray bursts and supernovae) on temporal evolution of Galactic astrobiological complexity. It is shown that under the assumption of global regulation classical anti SETI arguments can be undermined. Second group of simulations are more complex bidimensional probabilistic cellular automata models of the Galactic thin disk. They confirm the findings of the toy models and give some insights into the spatial clustering of astrobiological complexity. As a new emerging multidisciplinary science the basic concepts of astrobiology are poorly understood and although all the simulations present here do not include some basic physics (such as Galactic kinematics and dynamics), the input parameters are somewhat arbitrary and could use a future refinement (such as the boundaries of the Galactic habitable zone). This is the cause for low weight and high uncertainty in the output results of the simulations. However, the probabilistic cellular automata has shown as a highly adaptable modeling platform that can simulate various class of astrobiological models with great ease.

  3. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology; Seek Out and Explore: Upcoming and Future Missions; Mars: Early History and Impact Processes; Mars Analogs II: Chemical and Spectral; Achondrites and their Parent Bodies; and Planning for Future Exploration of the Moon The poster sessions were: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1; LRO and LCROSS; Geophysical Analysis of the Lunar Surface and Interior; Remote Observation and Geologic Mapping of the Lunar Surface; Lunar Spectroscopy; Venus Geology, Geophysics, Mapping, and Sampling; Planetary Differentiation; Bunburra and Buzzard Coulee: Recent Meteorite Falls; Meteorites: Terrestrial History; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Volatile and Organic Compounds in Chondrites; Crashing Chondrites: Impact, Shock, and Melting; Ureilite Studies; Petrology and Mineralogy of the SNC Meteorites; Martian Meteorites; Phoenix Landing Site: Perchlorate and Other Tasty Treats; Mars Polar Atmospheres and Climate Modeling; Mars Polar Investigations; Mars Near-Surface Ice; Mars: A Volatile-Rich Planet; Mars: Geochemistry and Alteration Processes; Martian Phyllosilicates: Identification, Formation, and Alteration; Astrobiology; Instrument Concepts, Systems, and Probes for Investigating Rocks and Regolith; Seeing is Believing: UV, VIS, IR, X- and Gamma-Ray Camera and Spectrometer Instruments; Up Close and Personal: In Situ Analysis with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry; Jupiter and Inscrutable Io; Tantalizing Titan; Enigmatic Enceladus and Intriguing Iapetus; Icy Satellites: Cryptic Craters; Icy Satellites: Gelid Geology/Geophysics; Icy Satellites: Cool Chemistry and Spectacular Spectroscopy; Asteroids and Comets; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Hypervelocity Impacts: Stardust Models, LDEF, and ISPE; Presolar Grains; Early Nebular Processes: Models and Isotopes; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Education and Public Outreach; Mercury; Pursuing Lunar Exploration; Sources and Eruptionf Lunar Basalts; Chemical and Physical Properties of the Lunar Regolith; Lunar Dust and Transient

  4. Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Wendell

    1970-01-01

    Report of a conference called to discuss the findings of 142 scientists from their investigations of samples of lunar rock and soil brought back by the Apollo 11 mission. Significant findings reported include the age and composition of the lunar samples, and the absence of water and organic matter. Much discussed was the origin and structure of…

  5. Materials Science & Technology 2006 Conference and Exhibition

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    204 Materials Science & Technology 2006 Conference and Exhibition www.matscitech.org T U E S D A Y Tuesday PM Room: Exhibit Floor Area B October 17, 2006 Location: Duke Energy Center Session Chair: Fred Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Arvid E. Pasto1; 1Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  6. Astrobiology: Discovering New Worlds of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Charles C.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2001-01-01

    Emphasizes discoveries at the frontiers of science. Includes an instructional poster illustrating the hydrothermal vent communities on the deep ocean floor. Describes research activities related to the new discipline of astrobiology, a multidisciplinary approach to studying the emergence of life in the universe. Research activities include the…

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites includes the following topics: 1) Investigating the Impact of UV Radiation on High-Altitude Shallow Lake Habitats, Life Diversity, and Life Survival Strategies: Clues for Mars' Past Habitability Potential? 2) An Analysis of Potential Photosynthetic Life on Mars; 3) Radiation Inactivation of Bacterial spores on Mars; 4) Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers; 5) Optical Detection of Organic Chemical Biosignatures at Hydrothermal Vents; 6) Signs of Life in Meridiani Planum-What Might Opportunity See (or Miss)? 7) Isolation of PUrines and Pyrimidines from the Murchison Meteorite Using Sublimation; and 8) Relative Amino Acid Composition of CM1 Carbonaceous Chondrites.

  8. Astrobiology Research Experience for Undergraduates: An Interdisciplinary REU Program at the SETI Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. B.; Devore, E. K.

    2009-12-01

    The SETI Institute hosts a summer Astrobiology Research Experience for Undergraduates program for highly motivated students interested in astrobiology research. Students work with scientists at the SETI Institute and at the nearby NASA Ames Research Center on projects spanning the field of astrobiology from microbiology to planetary geology to astronomy and astrophysics. Each student is mentored by a scientist for his/her summer research project. As astrobiology is interdisciplinary, the first week includes a seminar series to provide a broad foundation in the field as the students begin their research projects. The 10-week program includes a week-long field trip to the SETI Institute’s Allen Telescope Array, located at the Hat Creek Radio Astronomy Observatory in Northern California, as well as a field experience at hydrothermal systems at nearby Lassen Volcanic National Park. Students also participate in local field trips to places like the California Academy of Sciences and other nearby locations of scientific interest, and attend seminars, lectures, and discussions on astrobiology. Students are also invited to attend events at nearby NASA Ames Research Center, which offers the opportunity to interact with other undergraduate and graduate students participating in NASA summer programs. At the end of the program, students write up and present their research projects, and mentors recommend some projects for submission to a national scientific conference, which the selected students will be funded to attend. The Astrobiology REU program emphasizes three main areas, which are listed in the table along with typical project themes. Each year, specific student research projects are described on the website, and students are asked to select the three that most interest them as a part of their applications. Applications are due in early February. Typically, 10 students apply for each available position. Students have been selected from colleges and universities national-wide, including community colleges. The Astrobiology REU program has served 4 classes of students, and is funded through summer of 2011. A total of 61 students have participated (12 in 2006, 17 in 2007, 17 in 2008, and 15 in 2009); all have successfully completed their internships. Of these students, 59% were women, and 21% were minorities. To date 18 students have gone on to graduate studies, in Master’s or PhD programs at schools including Harvard, UC Berkeley, UC Santa Cruz, Stanford, Univ. of Nebraska, and many others, in fields including astronomy, optical science, space life sciences, geology, physics, mechanical engineering, and molecular and cellular biology. The SETI Institute is a non-profit private scientific research institution located in California’s Silicon Valley. The Astrobiology REU program is supported by National Science Foundation Grant AST-0852095 with additional funding from NASA’s Astrobiology Institute, the SETI Institute and private donors.Main research areas and typical project themes

  9. Astrobiological Complexity with Probabilistic Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukoti?, Branislav; ?irkovi?, Milan M.

    2012-08-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling the astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous space of the input parameters. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories with "Copernican" choice of input parameters and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches.

  10. Astrobiological complexity with probabilistic cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Vukoti?, Branislav; ?irkovi?, Milan M

    2012-08-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling the astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous space of the input parameters. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories with "Copernican" choice of input parameters and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches. PMID:22832998

  11. Cultural Aspects of Astrobiology: A Preliminary Reconnaissance at

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven

    NASA's Astrobiology Roadmap, developed in 1998 by an interdisciplinary team of more than 150 individuals, recognizes ten science goals, 17 more specific science objectives, and four broad principles for the Astrobiology Program. Among the four operating principles, which emphasize multidisciplinarity, planetary stewardship and public outreach, is one that also recognizes broad societal interest for the implications of astrobiology, especially its extraterrestrial life component. Although several meetings ahve been convened in the past decade to discuss the implications of extraterrestrial intelligence, including NASA's own CASETI workshops in 1991-1992, none have surveyed the broader implications of astrobiology as now defined at NASA. In this paper we survey these societal questions raised by astrobiology, and then focus on those related to extraterrestrial life, and in particular how they might differ from SETI concerns already discussed. As we enter the new millennium, the necessity for interdisciplinary studies is increasingly recognized in academia, industry and government. Astrobiology provides an unprecedented opportunity to encourage the unity of knowledge, as recently proposed in E. O. Wilson's book Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. It is incumbent on scientists to support research on the implications of their work, in particular large government-funded scientific projects. The deep insights such study may yield has been amply demonstrated by the Human Genome Project, among others.

  12. Special Issue: European Conference on Surface Science 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opila, Robert L.; Ertas, Gulay

    2015-11-01

    The present Special Issue of Applied Surface Science is intended to provide a collection of peer-reviewed contributions presented at the Symposium "European Conference on Surface Science" held in Antalya (Turkey), August 31-September 5, 2014. This conference is organized annually through the joint efforts of the Surface Science Division of IUVSTA and the Surface and Interface Section of the European Physical Society (EPS). The ECOSS conference series started in 1978 in Amsterdam, Netherlands, and has been held in various cities throughout Europe during the past years. This is the first time that an ECOSS conference was held in Turkey, with the chairmanship of Prof. Sefik Suzer of Bilkent University, Ankara.

  13. Exo-astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoste, Huguette

    2002-11-01

    Contents: Exo/astrobiology activities NASA and ESA; From organic molecules in space via planetary evolution to the earliest organisms on Earth; Organic chemistry in interstellar medium; Space exposure experiments ISS/EXPOSE and BIOPAN; Planetary exploration: laboratory experiments; Chemistry of the origin of life; Organics in comets, meteoroids and cosmic dust; Early traces of life and life in extreme terrestrial environments: analogues for extraterrestrial habitats; Europe goes to Mars: ESA's search for life on the red planet; UV radiation, water content and toxicology of the Martian surface; Early traces and evolution of life; Potential Martian habitats - Earth analogues; Astrobiology relevant instrumentation for Solar System exploration; Subsurface and atmospheres of icy worlds; Preparation for a manned mission to Mars; Permafrost astrobiology; Exploration of planetary surfaces; Search for life on Europa and prebiotic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere; Search for extra-solar terrestrial planets; Scientific objectives for future Mars and planetary exploration; Life detection methods on Mars; The search for extra-solar planets, biosignatures and habitable zones.

  14. PREFACE: International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Jiang, Yiwen

    2015-06-01

    The International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2014) took place in Hunedoara, Romania from 2-4 October 2014 at the Engineering Faculty of Hunedoara. The conference takes place alternately in Romania and in P.R. China and is organized by "Politehnica" University of Timisoara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P.R. China, with the aim to serve as a platform for exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences and to promote the communication between scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The topics of the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues: 1. Economical Sciences 2. Engineering Sciences 3. Fundamental Sciences 4. Medical Sciences The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has the potential for application in economics, defense, medicine, etc. There were nearly 100 registered participants from six countries, and four invited and 56 oral talks were delivered during the two days of the conference. Based on the work presented at the conference, selected papers are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. These papers present new research in the various fields of Materials Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Engineering, and Mathematical Engineering. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering to the scientific community to promote further research in these areas. We sincerely hope that the papers published in this volume will contribute to the advancement of knowledge in their respective fields.

  15. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCES IN PLANT SCIENCE (ICAPS)

    E-print Network

    THE 2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCES IN PLANT SCIENCE (ICAPS) Prepared by Waafeka Vardien (Stellenbosch University) The second International Conference on Advances in Plant Sciences in November (2014 and the conservation of plants on a local and global scale. The scientific programme included 23 sessions on topics

  16. Astrobiology: The Case for Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    The scientific discipline of astrobiology addresses one of the most fundamental unanswered questions of science: are we alone? Is there life elsewhere in the universe, or is life unique to Earth? The field of astrobiology includes the study of the chemical precursors for life in the solar system; it also includes the search for both presently existing life and fossil signs of previously existing life elsewhere in our own solar system, as well as the search for life outside the solar system. Two of the promising environments within the solar system being currently considered are the surface of the planet Mars, and the hypothesized oceans underneath the ice covering the moon Europa. Both of these environments differ in several key ways from the environments where life is found on Earth; the Mars environment in most places too cold and at too low pressure for liquid water to be stable, and the sub-ice environment of Europa lacking an abundance of free energy in the form of sunlight. The only place in the solar system where we know that life exists today is the Earth. To look for life elsewhere in the solar system, one promising search strategy would be to find and study the environment in the solar system with conditions that are most similar to the environmental conditions where life thrives on the Earth. Specifically, we would like to study a location in the solar system with atmospheric pressure near one bar; temperature in the range where water is liquid, 0 to 100 C; abundant solar energy; and with the primary materials required for life, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, present. Other than the surface of the Earth, the only other place where these conditions exist is the atmosphere of Venus, at an altitude of about fifty kilometers above the surface.

  17. NASA's Mission in Education/Public Outreach (E/PO) with Astrobiology

    E-print Network

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    NASA's Mission in Education/Public Outreach (E/PO) with Astrobiology: Inspire, Engage, and Educate, astrophysics, geophysics, paleontology #12;Is there anyone else out there? #12;NASA's Educational Strategic Summer Science Camp, 2009 - 2013 #12;**NASA-sponsored E/PO activities ** Annual Astrobiology Teachers

  18. Editorial: Special Issue (SI): International Conference on Science Education (ICSE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Zhang, BaoHui

    2014-04-01

    In the context of science education globalization, the International Conference on Science Education was held in Nanjing, China, in October 2012. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for science education researchers from China and from the rest of the world to exchange research ideas and best practices in science education. A call for papers for a special issue of the Journal of Science Education and Technology was made to all conference participants, and a set of six articles was resulted from a standard peer review process. This set of six articles provides a snapshot of research in China and in some other countries, and represents a dialogue between Chinese science education researchers and science education researchers from other countries. We call for more exchange and collaboration in science education between China and the rest of the world.

  19. Research in Computational Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, Galina; Colombano, Silvano; Scargle, Jeff; New, Michael H.; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on several projects in the field of computational astrobiology, which is devoted to advancing our understanding of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Universe using theoretical and computational tools. Research projects included modifying existing computer simulation codes to use efficient, multiple time step algorithms, statistical methods for analysis of astrophysical data via optimal partitioning methods, electronic structure calculations on water-nuclei acid complexes, incorporation of structural information into genomic sequence analysis methods and calculations of shock-induced formation of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds.

  20. Amphibious modular robotic astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Mark; Shirmohammadi, Babak; Benelli, David

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents the design of a robot that can traverse land, water, as well as quicksand-like mud. The robot is low cost and modular allowing the replacement of a variety of arms suitable for many of the tasks associated with astrobiological exploration. An astrobiologist on a field study will spend most of the time walking around and exploring the site looking for areas of interest which will be tested in situ or sampled for testing offsite. For a robot replicating these tasks, it must be able to locomote in that terrain, sense the interesting features (or provide sensing for teleoperation), and do a variety of manipulation tasks once an area of interest is reached. The configurations for this robot include 10's of modules that can achieve astrobiological tasks such as amphibious locomotion, digging, core sampling, probing, liquid sampling and exploration. This paper also presents results from the first experiments of this platform at Lake Tyrrell, a salt lake in Australia.

  1. Astrobiology and Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, D. H.; Bullock, M. A.

    2005-12-01

    Venus has not traditionally been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. We propose that Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. 1) Putting Earth life in context: Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. For example, active volcanism is most likely responsible for maintaining the global cloud cover (Bullock and Grinspoon, 2001). Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. 2) The possibility of extant life: Venus almost surely once had warm oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial life. Life, once established in the early oceans of Venus, may have migrated to the clouds which, on present day Venus, may represent a habitable niche. Though highly acidic, this aqueous environment enjoys moderate temperatures, surroundings far from chemical equilibrium, and potentially useful radiation fluxes. Observations of unusual chemistry in the clouds, and particle populations that are not well characterized, suggest that this environment must be explored much more fully before biology can be ruled out. A sulfur-based metabolism for cloud-based life on Venus has recently been proposed (Schulze-Makuch et al., 2004). While speculative, these arguments, along with the discovery of terrestrial extremophile organisms that might survive in the Venusian clouds, establish the credibility of astrobiological exploration of Venus. Arguments for the possible existence of life on Mars or Europa are, by convention and repetition, seen as more mainstream than arguments for life elsewhere, but their logical status is no different from the plausibility arguments for life on Venus. 3) Rare planetary properties of astrobiological interest: All of our ideas about extraterrestrial biochemistry are, of necessity, extrapolations from the single example of life which we have been able to study. Our planetary exploration, with an increasing focus on Astrobiology, is designed to 'follow the water'. This is a reasonable strategy but it is based, at best, on an educated guess about life's universals. If we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Bullock, M.A. and D.H. Grinspoon (2001) Icarus, 150, 19-37 Schulze-Makuch, D.H. Grinspoon., O. Abbas, L.N. Irwin and M. Bullock. (2004) . Astrobiology, 4, 11-18.

  2. Proceedings of NCMSTA'08 Conference National Conference on Mechanism Science and Technology: from Theory to Application

    E-print Network

    Saha, Subir Kumar

    1 Proceedings of NCMSTA'08 Conference National Conference on Mechanism Science and Technology: from Theory to Application November 13-14, 2008 National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur Robotic Competition and is selected through a comprehensive national competition in all participating countries. The students of IIT

  3. Puerto Ricans in Science and Biomedicine: Report of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Twelve divisions and institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cosponsored this conference to examine the barriers to participation of Puerto Ricans in the United States to careers in science and biomedicine. Areas addressed during the conference included: (1) perspectives from the NIH; (2) historical and modern perspectives of…

  4. IUFRO SMALL-SCALE FORESTRY CONFERENCE: SCIENCE FOR

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    IUFRO SMALL-SCALE FORESTRY CONFERENCE: SCIENCE FOR SOLUTIONS 24-27 September 2012 Amherst to gain insight into the effect of social networks on smallscale forestry. Post-Conference Tour Head of Forest Research Organizations Small-scale Forestry Unit 3.08.00 #12;

  5. PREFACE: Tsukuba International Conference on Materials Science 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijima, Masashi; Ohshima, Kenichi; Kojima, Seiji; Nagasaki, Yukio; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kim, Hee Young; Kadowaki, Kazuo; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Nakamura, Junji; Yamamoto, Yohei; Goto, Hiromasa

    2014-03-01

    Tsukuba International Conference on Materials Science (TICMS) was held from 28th August to 6th September, 2013 for the celebration of 40th year anniversary of the University of Tsukuba. The conference was organized by the Division of Materials Science, in cooperation with the Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, and Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science. The purpose of the conference was to provide a unique forum for researchers and students working in various fields of materials science, which have been progressing so rapidly that no single society could cover. The conference consists of following seven workshops to cover various fields. The organizing committee believed that the conference gave all participants new insights into the widespread development of materials science and enhanced the circulation, among them, of information released at the conference. The organizers are grateful for the financial support from University of Tsukuba. This volume contains 25 selected papers from invited and contributed papers, all of which have been screened on the basis of the standard review process of the program committee. The editors express their thanks to those authors who contributed the papers published in this proceedings, which reflects the scientific value of the conference. Nov. 20, 2013 Seiji Kojima, Prof. Dr. Chair, Division of Materials Science Chair, Doctoral Program in Materials Science TICMS 2013 (http://www.ticonfms.tsukuba.ac.jp/) Workshop list The 13th Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Materials Science Summer School of Biomaterials Science The Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies The 2nd Workshop on THz Radiation from Intrinsic Josephson Junctions The 3rd German-Japan Nanoworkshop TICMS and IWP Joint Workshop on Conjugated Polymers International Workshop on Science and Patents (IWP) 2013

  6. Rutgers Applied Probability Conference Department of Management Science & Information Systems

    E-print Network

    2nd Rutgers Applied Probability Conference Department of Management Science & Information Systems and the Management Sciences, New Jersey Chapter Stochastic Methods in Information Technology December 6 in memory of Research and the Management Sciences, New Jersey Chapter Stochastic Methods in Information Technology Ben

  7. Undergraduate Teaching in the Animal Sciences, Proceedings of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

    The proceedings of a conference which reviewed the content of undergraduate animal science curricula, content of courses in the animal sciences, and methods and materials used in undergraduate teaching in the animal sciences are presented in this bulletin. These individual papers are included: Trends in Animal Agriculture and the Future of…

  8. Astrobiological Studies Plan at UCSD and the University of Buckingham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-10-01

    A UC-HBCU grant is requested to assist undergraduate and masters level HBCU Interns to achieve their professional and academic goals by attending summer school classes at UCSD along with graduate students in the UCSD Astrobiology Studies program, and by also attending a NASA sponsored scientific meeting in San Diego on Astrobiology organized by NASA scientist Richard Hoover (the 14th in a sequence). Hoover has recently published a paper in the Journal of Cosmology claiming extraterrestrial life fossils in three meteorites. Students will attend a workshop to prepare research publications on Astrobiological Science for the Journal of Cosmology or equivalent refereed journal, mentored by UCSD faculty and graduate students as co-authors and referees, all committed to the several months of communication usually required to complete a publishable paper. The program is intended to provide pathways to graduate admissions in the broad range of science and engineering fields, and by exposure to fundamental science and engineering disciplines needed by Astrobiologists. A three year UC-HBCU Astrobiological Studies program is proposed: 2011, 2012 and 2013. Interns would be eligible to enter this program when they become advanced graduate students. A center of excellence in astrobiology is planned for UCSD similar to that Directed by Professor Wickramasinghe for many years with Fred Hoyle at Cardiff University, http://www.astrobiology.cf.ac.uk /chandra1.html. Professor Wickramasinghe's CV is attached as Appendix 1. Figures A2-1,2 of Appendix 2 compare Astrobiology timelines of modern fluid mechanical and astrobiological models of Gibson/Wickramasinghe/Schild of the Journal of Cosmology with standard NASA- CDMHC models. NASA support will be sought to support research and educational aspects of both initiatives. Overload teaching of up to two courses a year by UCSD faculty of key astrobiology courses at either UCSD or at HBCU campuses is authorized by recent guidelines of UCSD Senior Vice Chancellor Subramani for Academic Affairs, following recommendations of Dean Seible of the UCSD Jacobs School of Engineering. Appendix 3 summarizes how this proposal will meet the goals of the UCOP initiatives.

  9. Proceedings of the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Sessions with oral presentations include: A SPECIAL SESSION: MESSENGER at Mercury, Mars: Pingos, Polygons, and Other Puzzles, Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Mars: Ice On the Ground and In the Ground, SPECIAL SESSION: Results from Kaguya (SELENE) Mission to the Moon, Outer Planet Satellites: Not Titan, Not Enceladus, SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Science: Past, Present, and Future, Mars: North Pole, South Pole - Structure and Evolution, Refractory Inclusions, Impact Events: Modeling, Experiments, and Observations, Mars Sedimentary Processes from Victoria Crater to the Columbia Hills, Formation and Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites, New Achondrite GRA 06128/GRA 06129 - Origins Unknown, The Science Behind Lunar Missions, Mars Volcanics and Tectonics, From Dust to Planets (Planetary Formation and Planetesimals):When, Where, and Kaboom! Astrobiology: Biosignatures, Impacts, Habitability, Excavating a Comet, Mars Interior Dynamics to Exterior Impacts, Achondrites, Lunar Remote Sensing, Mars Aeolian Processes and Gully Formation Mechanisms, Solar Nebula Shake and Bake: Mixing and Isotopes, Lunar Geophysics, Meteorites from Mars: Shergottite and Nakhlite Invasion, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Chondrules and Chondrule Formation, Lunar Samples: Chronology, Geochemistry, and Petrology, Enceladus, Venus: Resurfacing and Topography (with Pancakes!), Overview of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission, Mars Sulfates, Phyllosilicates, and Their Aqueous Sources, Ordinary and Enstatite Chondrites, Impact Calibration and Effects, Comparative Planetology, Analogs: Environments and Materials, Mars: The Orbital View of Sediments and Aqueous Mineralogy, Planetary Differentiation, Titan, Presolar Grains: Still More Isotopes Out of This World, Poster sessions include: Education and Public Outreach Programs, Early Solar System and Planet Formation, Solar Wind and Genesis, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Carbonaceous Chondrites, Chondrules and Chondrule Formation, Chondrites, Refractory Inclusions, Organics in Chondrites, Meteorites: Techniques, Experiments, and Physical Properties, MESSENGER and Mercury, Lunar Science Present: Kaguya (SELENE) Results, Lunar Remote Sensing: Basins and Mapping of Geology and Geochemistry, Lunar Science: Dust and Ice, Lunar Science: Missions and Planning, Mars: Layered, Icy, and Polygonal, Mars Stratigraphy and Sedimentology, Mars (Peri)Glacial, Mars Polar (and Vast), Mars, You are Here: Landing Sites and Imagery, Mars Volcanics and Magmas, Mars Atmosphere, Impact Events: Modeling, Experiments, and Observation, Ice is Nice: Mostly Outer Planet Satellites, Galilean Satellites, The Big Giant Planets, Astrobiology, In Situ Instrumentation, Rocket Scientist's Toolbox: Mission Science and Operations, Spacecraft Missions, Presolar Grains, Micrometeorites, Condensation-Evaporation: Stardust Ties, Comet Dust, Comparative Planetology, Planetary Differentiation, Lunar Meteorites, Nonchondritic Meteorites, Martian Meteorites, Apollo Samples and Lunar Interior, Lunar Geophysics, Lunar Science: Geophysics, Surface Science, and Extralunar Components, Mars, Remotely, Mars Orbital Data - Methods and Interpretation, Mars Tectonics and Dynamics, Mars Craters: Tiny to Humongous, Mars Sedimentary Mineralogy, Martian Gullies and Slope Streaks, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Mars Aeolian Processes, Mars Data and Mission,s Venus Mapping, Modeling, and Data Analysis, Titan, Icy Dwarf Satellites, Rocket Scientist's Toolbox: In Situ Analysis, Remote Sensing Approaches, Advances, and Applications, Analogs: Sulfates - Earth and Lab to Mars, Analogs: Remote Sensing and Spectroscopy, Analogs: Methods and Instruments, Analogs: Weird Places!. Print Only Early Solar System, Solar Wind, IDPs, Presolar/Solar Grains, Stardust, Comets, Asteroids, and Phobos, Venus, Mercury, Moon, Meteorites, Mars, Astrobiology, Impacts, Outer Planets, Satellites, and Rings, Support for Mission Operations, Analog Education and Public Outreach.

  10. From Astrochemistry to Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe how infrared spectroscopic studies of interstellar space, combined with laboratory simulations of interstellar ice chemistry, have revealed the widespread presence of interstellar PAHs and the composition of interstellar ices, the building blocks of comets. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the photochemical evolution of these materials and astrobiology. Within a molecular cloud, and especially the presolar nebula, materials frozen into the ices are photoprocessed by ultraviolet light and produce more complex molecules. As these materials are the building blocks of comets and related to carbonaceous micrometeorites, they are likely to have been important sources of complex materials delivered to the early Earth and their composition may be related to the origin of life.

  11. Research in Computational Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, Galina; Jaffe, Richard; Liang, Shoudan; New, Michael H.; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    We present results from several projects in the new field of computational astrobiology, which is devoted to advancing our understanding of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Universe using theoretical and computational tools. We have developed a procedure for calculating long-range effects in molecular dynamics using a plane wave expansion of the electrostatic potential. This method is expected to be highly efficient for simulating biological systems on massively parallel supercomputers. We have perform genomics analysis on a family of actin binding proteins. We have performed quantum mechanical calculations on carbon nanotubes and nucleic acids, which simulations will allow us to investigate possible sources of organic material on the early earth. Finally, we have developed a model of protobiological chemistry using neural networks.

  12. Astrobiology of Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Wallis, Max K.; Sheldon, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    We review the current state of knowledge concerning microbial extremophiles and comets and the potential significance of comets to Astrobiology. We model the thermal history of a cometary body, regarded as an assemblage of boulders, dust, ices and organics, as it approaches a perihelion distance of - IAU. The transfer of incident energy from sunlight into the interior leads to the melting of near surface ices, some under stable porous crust, providing possible habitats for a wide range of microorganisms. We provide data concerning new evidence for indigenous microfossils in CI meteorites, which may be the remains of extinct cometary cores. We discuss the dominant microbial communities of polar sea-ice, Antarctic ice sheet, and cryoconite environments as possible analogs for microbial ecosystems that may grow in sub-crustal pools or in ice/water films in comets.

  13. Multispectral Microimager for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellar, R. Glenn; Farmer, Jack D.; Kieta, Andrew; Huang, Julie

    2006-01-01

    A primary goal of the astrobiology program is the search for fossil records. The astrobiology exploration strategy calls for the location and return of samples indicative of environments conducive to life, and that best capture and preserve biomarkers. Successfully returning samples from environments conducive to life requires two primary capabilities: (1) in situ mapping of the mineralogy in order to determine whether the desired minerals are present; and (2) nondestructive screening of samples for additional in-situ testing and/or selection for return to laboratories for more in-depth examination. Two of the most powerful identification techniques are micro-imaging and visible/infrared spectroscopy. The design and test results are presented from a compact rugged instrument that combines micro-imaging and spectroscopic capability to provide in-situ analysis, mapping, and sample screening capabilities. Accurate reflectance spectra should be a measure of reflectance as a function of wavelength only. Other compact multispectral microimagers use separate LEDs (light-emitting diodes) for each wavelength and therefore vary the angles of illumination when changing wavelengths. When observing a specularly-reflecting sample, this produces grossly inaccurate spectra due to the variation in the angle of illumination. An advanced design and test results are presented for a multispectral microimager which demonstrates two key advances relative to previous LED-based microimagers: (i) acquisition of actual reflectance spectra in which the flux is a function of wavelength only, rather than a function of both wavelength and illumination geometry; and (ii) increase in the number of spectral bands to eight bands covering a spectral range of 468 to 975 nm.

  14. The Lassen Astrobiology Intern Program - Concept, Implementation and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Dueck, S. L.; Davis, H. B.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kubo, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The program goal was to provide a hands-on astrobiology learning experience to high school students by introducing astrobiology and providing opportunities to conduct field and lab research with NASA scientists. The program sought to increase interest in interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, math and related careers. Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP), Red Bluff High School and the Ames Team of the NASA Astrobiology Institute led the program. LVNP was selected because it shares aspects of volcanism with Mars and it hosts thermal springs with microbial mat communities. Students documented volcanic deposits, springs and microbial mats. They analyzed waters and sampled rocks, water and microorganisms. They cultured microorganisms and studied chemical reactions between rocks and simulated spring waters. Each student prepared a report to present data and discuss relationships between volcanic rocks and gases, spring waters and microbial mats. At a "graduation" event the students presented their findings to the Red Bluff community. They visited Ames Research Center to tour the facilities and learn about science and technology careers. To evaluate program impact, surveys were given to students after lectures, labs, fieldwork and discussions with Ames scientists. Students' work was scored using rubrics (labs, progress reports, final report, presentation). Students took pre/post tests on core astrobiology concepts. Parents, teachers, rangers, Ames staff and students completed end-of-year surveys on program impact. Several outcomes were documented. Students had a unique and highly valued learning experience with NASA scientists. They understood what scientists do through authentic scientific work, and what scientists are like as individuals. Students became knowledgeable about astrobiology and how it can be pursued in the lab and in the field. The students' interest increased markedly in astrobiology, interdisciplinary studies and science generally.

  15. Astrobiology, Evolution, and Society: Public Engagement Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertka, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    It is unavoidable that the science of astrobiology will intersect with, and inevitably challenge, many deeply held beliefs. Exploration possibilities, particularly those that may include the discovery of extraterrestrial life, will continue to challenge us to reconsider our views of nature and our connection to the rest of the universe. As a scientific discipline, astrobiology works from the assumption that the origin and evolution of life can be accounted for by natural processes, that life could emerge naturally from the physical materials that make up the terrestrial planets. The search for life on other terrestrial planets is focused on “life as we know it.” The only life we currently know of is the life found on Earth, and for the scientific community the shared common ancestry of all Earth life, and its astounding diversity, is explained by the theory of evolution. The work of astrobiology, at its very core, is fueled by the theory of evolution. However, a survey by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (2005) revealed that 42% of US adults believe that “life has existed in its present form since the beginning of time”. This answer persists nearly 150 years after the publication of Charles Darwin’s "On the Origin of the Species", the landmark work in which Darwin proposed that living things share common ancestors and have “descended with modification” from these ancestors through a process of natural selection . Perhaps even more distressing is the fact that these numbers have not changed in decades, despite the astounding advancements in science that have resulted over this same time period. How will these facts bear on the usefulness of astrobiology as a tool for encouraging a US public to share in the excitement of scientific discovery and be informed participants in a public dialogue concerning next steps? When people were asked “to identify the biggest influence on your thinking about how life developed,” the response chosen most frequently was “my religious beliefs.” A review of religious identification in this country will be presented in the context of offering insights for public engagement on the topic of evolution, and the contribution that astrobiology could make to encouraging a positive relationship between science and religion. A widespread acceptance of evolution in the United States may require that the scientific community go beyond a simple contrast approach to science and religion and be willing to encourage, and participate in, a program of in-depth and long-term engagement with theologians and religious community leaders. Astrobiology as a discipline is particularly burdened, perhaps blessed, with the responsibility to engage this issue. After all, humanity itself may be inherently defined by the ability we collectively posses to ask “Where did we come from?,” “Are we alone?,” and “Where are we going?”

  16. PREFACE: The International Conference on Science of Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Kouji; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    The first international conference on the science of friction in Japan was held at Irago, Aichi on 9-13 September 2007. The conference focused on the elementary process of friction phenomena from the atomic and molecular scale view. Topics covered in the conference are shown below.:

  17. Superlubricity and friction
  18. Electronic and phononic contributions to friction
  19. Friction on the atomic and molecular scales
  20. van der Waals friction and Casimir force
  21. Molecular motor and friction
  22. Friction and adhesion in soft matter systems
  23. Wear and crack on the nanoscale
  24. Theoretical studies on the atomic scale friction and energy dissipation
  25. Friction and chaos
  26. Mechanical properties of nanoscale contacts
  27. Friction of powder
  28. The number of participants in the conference was approximately 100, registered from 11 countries. 48 oral and 29 poster talks were presented at the conference. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 23 papers devoted to the above topics of friction. The successful organization of the conference was made possible by the contribution of the members of the Organizing Committee and International Advisory Committee. The conference was made possible thanks to the financial support from Aichi University of Education and the Taihokogyo Tribology Research Foundation (TTRF), and moreover thanks to the approval societies of The Physical Society of Japan, The Surface Science Society of Japan, The Japanese Society of Tribologists and Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute. The details of the conference are available at http://www.science-of-friction.com . Finally we want to thank the speakers for the high quality of their talks and all participants for coming to Irago, Japan and actively contributing to the conference. Kouji Miura and Hiroshi Matsukawa Editors

  29. International Conference: Sciences of Electronic, Technologies of Information and Telecommunications

    E-print Network

    Hamdi, Mounir

    SETIT 2007 4rth International Conference: Sciences of Electronic, Technologies of Information Wang and Mounir Hamdi Hong Kong University of Science and Technology fwang@cse.ust.hk hamdi capacity. In this survey, we investigate the problem of shared memory design in detail and try to find

  30. The Beginnings of Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    2002-04-01

    With the present surge of interest in astrobiology and its emergence as a new scientific discipline in its own right, the role of a celebrated pioneer is all too often forgotten. There can be little doubt that the late Sir Fred Hoyle played a key part in relating astronomical phenomena to questions of life. One of his first contributions in this area was his introduction of the so-called anthropic principle to astronomy. By the late 1940's astronomers had worked out how the simplest chemical element Hydrogen could be converted into Helium in stars, thus providing the main energy source by which stars shine. The building of nuclei beyond Helium by stellar nuclear processes appeared difficult at the time because of instabilities in nuclei with atomic masses 5 and 8. Hoyle had the grand vision of making most if not all of the elements in the Periodic Table in stars. In the early 1950's Hoyle argued that by the very fact of our existence, the existence of life, the element Carbon had to be synthesised in quantity in stars. This could not happen, Hoyle concluded, unless the nucleus of Carbon possessed an energy level corresponding to a hitherto unknown excited state which he was able to calculate. This was necessary so that three Helium nuclei could combine first to form a Carbon nucleus in the excited state that subsequently decayed into the ground state. One of the major triumphs of Hoyle's Anthropic Principle was that his predicted excited state was subsequently discovered in the laboratory by Ward Whaling and Willy Fowler at Caltech. This discovery opened the door to a brand new discipline of Nuclear Astrophysics. In a seminal paper published in 1957, Hoyle together with Willy Fowler, Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge showed that all the chemical elements needed for life C, N, O, P, Mg, Fe, S ... were made in stars. In a sense Hoyle's work in 1957 already provided the foundation stone for astrobiology. He showed that in essence we were made of stardust.

  31. From Astrochemistry to Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty five years thanks to significant developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at, the concept of ices in dense molecular clouds ignored, and the notion of large, abundant, gas phase, carbon-rich molecules widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the composition of interstellar dust is reasonably well understood. In molecular clouds, the birthplace of stars and planets, these cold dust particles are coated with mixed molecular ices whose composition is very well constrained. Lastly, the signature of carbon-rich polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is widespread throughout the Universe. The first part of this talk will describe how infrared spectroscopic studies of interstellar space, combined with laboratory simulations of interstellar ice chemistry, have revealed the widespread presence of interstellar PAHs and the composition of interstellar ices, the building blocks of comets. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the photochemical evolution of these materials and astrobiology. Within a molecular cloud, and especially the presolar nebula, materials frozen into the ices are photoprocessed by ultraviolet light and produce more complex molecules. As these materials are the building blocks of comets and related to carbonaceous micrometeorites, they are likely to have been important sources of complex materials delivered to the early Earth and their composition may be related to the origin of life.

  32. Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.

  1. Astrobiology: An astronomer's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-12-08

    In this review we explore aspects of the field of astrobiology from an astronomical viewpoint. We therefore focus on the origin of life in the context of planetary formation, with additional emphasis on tracing the most abundant volatile elements, C, H, O, and N that are used by life on Earth. We first explore the history of life on our planet and outline the current state of our knowledge regarding the delivery of the C, H, O, N elements to the Earth. We then discuss how astronomers track the gaseous and solid molecular carriers of these volatiles throughout the process of star and planet formation. It is now clear that the early stages of star formation fosters the creation of water and simple organic molecules with enrichments of heavy isotopes. These molecules are found as ice coatings on the solid materials that represent microscopic beginnings of terrestrial worlds. Based on the meteoritic and cometary record, the process of planet formation, and the local environment, lead to additional increases in organic complexity. The astronomical connections towards this stage are only now being directly made. Although the exact details are uncertain, it is likely that the birth process of star and planets likely leads to terrestrial worlds being born with abundant water and organics on the surface.

  2. Astrobiology from early-career scientists' perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Verseux, Cyprien; Serrano, Paloma; Musilova, Michaela; Nauny, Philippe; Samuels, Toby; Schwendner, Petra; Simoncini, Eugenio; Stevens, Adam

    2015-10-01

    What is astrobiology? Which fields does it comprise and what makes an astrobiologist? Ask five scientists and you may end up with six different definitions. This issue was raised at the first symposium of the European network of Astrobiology Graduates (AbGradE), held last year in Edinburgh, when discussing whether the attendees' fields of study were represented in the astrobiology community.

  3. Reconnect Conference 2009 Reconnecting Teaching Faculty to the Mathematical Sciences Enterprise and

    E-print Network

    : This Reconnect conference will introduce participants to basic concepts in visual analytics. Program participantsReconnect Conference 2009 Reconnecting Teaching Faculty to the Mathematical Sciences Enterprise expose faculty teaching undergraduates to the role of the mathematical sciences in homeland security

  4. Astrobiology explorer mission concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; ABE/ASPIRE Science Teams

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) "Where do we come from?" and (2) "Are we alone?" as outlined in NASA's Origins Program. Both concepts use infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission's observational program is focused on investigating the evolution of ice and organics in all phases of the lifecycle of carbon in the universe, from stellar birth through stellar death and exogenous delivery of these compounds to planetary systems. The ASPIRE mission's observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and also addresses the role of silicates and gas-phase materials in interstellar organic chemistry. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20 (40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution ( R > 2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution ( R > 25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions' target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outlined above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA's Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

  5. Visions for a sustainable world: A conference on science, technology and social responsibility. Conference report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This report summarizes the organization, activities, and outcomes of Student Pugwash USA`s 1992 International Conference, Visions for a Sustainable World: A Conference on Science, Technology and Social Responsibility. The conference was held June 14--20, 1992 at Emory University, and brought together 94 students and over 65 experts from industry, academe, and government. The conference addressed issues ranging from global environmental cooperation to the social impacts of the Human Genome Project to minority concerns in the sciences. It provided a valuable forum for talented students and professionals to engage in critical dialogue on many interdisciplinary issues at the juncture of science, technology and society. The conference challenged students -- the world`s future scientists, engineers, and political leaders -- to think broadly about global problems and to devise policy options that are viable and innovative. The success of the conference in stimulating interest, understanding, and enthusiasm about interdisciplinary global issues is clearly evident from both the participants` feedback and their continued involvement in Student Pugwash USA programs. Six working groups met each morning. The working group themes included: environmental challenges for developing countries; energy options: their social and environmental impact; health care in developing countries; changing dynamics of peace and global security; educating for the socially responsible use of technology; ethics and the use of genetic information. The conference was specifically designed to include mechanisms for ensuring its long-term impact. Participants were encouraged to focus on their individual role in helping resolve global issues. This was achieved through each participant`s development of a Personal Plan of Action, a plan which mapped out activities the student could undertake after the conference to continue the dialogue and work towards the resolution of global and local problems.

  6. The NASA Astrobiology Institute: early history and organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, Baruch S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established as a means to advance the field of astrobiology by providing a multidisciplinary, multi-institution, science-directed program, executed by universities, research institutes, and NASA and other government laboratories. The scientific community and NASA defined the science content at several workshops as summarized in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. Teams were chosen nationwide, following the recommendations of external review groups, and the research program began in 1998. There are now 16 national Teams and five international affiliated and associated astrobiology institutions. The NAI has attracted an outstanding group of scientific groups and individuals. The Institute facilitates the involvement of the scientists in its scientific and management vision. Its goal is to support basic research and allow the scientists the freedom to select their projects and alter them as indicated by new research. Additional missions include the education of the public, the involvement of students who will be the astrobiologists of future generations, and the development of a culture of collaboration in NAI, a "virtual institute," spread across many sites nationally and internationally.

  7. Astrobiology and Venus exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, David H.; Bullock, Mark A.

    For hundreds of years prior to the space age, Venus was considered among the most likely homes for extraterrestrial life. Since planetary exploration began, Venus has not been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. However, Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. At present Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. Active volcanism most likely affects the climate and chemical equilibrium state of the atmosphere and surface, and maintains the global cloud cover. Further, if we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Venus almost surely once had warm, habitable oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial life. Life, once established in the early oceans of Venus, may have migrated to the clouds which, on present day Venus, may represent a habitable niche. Though highly acidic, this aqueous environment enjoys moderate temperatures, surroundings far from chemical equilibrium, and potentially useful radiation fluxes. Observations of unusual chemistry in the clouds, and particle populations that are not well characterized, suggest that this environment must be explored much more fully before biology can be ruled out. A sulfur-based metabolism for cloud-based life on Venus has recently been proposed (Schulze-Makuch et al., 2004). While speculative, these arguments, along with the discovery of terrestrial extremophile organisms that point toward the plausibility of survival in the Venusian clouds, establish the credibility of astrobiological exploration of Venus. Arguments for the possible existence of life on Mars or Europa are, by convention and repetition, seen as more mainstream than arguments for life elsewhere, but their logical status is similar to plausibility arguments for life on Venus. With the launch of COROT in 2006 and Kepler in 2008 the demographics of Earth-sized planets in our galaxy should finally become known. Future plans for a Terrestrial Planet Finder or Darwin-type space-based spectrograph should provide the capability of studying the atmospheric composition and other properties of terrestrial planets. One of the prime rationales for building such instruments is the possibility of identifying habitable planets or providing more generalized observational constraints on the habitable zones of stellar systems. Given the prevalence of CO2 dominated atmospheres in our own solar system, it is quite likely that a large fraction of these will be Venus-like in composition and evolutionary history. We will be observing these planets at random times in their evolution. In analogy with our own solar system, it is just as likely that we will find representatives of early Venus and early Earth type planets from the first 2 billion years of their evolution as i

  8. 29TH IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosejevs, Robert

    2002-09-01

    The 29th IEEE Conference on Plasma Science was held in Banff, Alberta, Canada from May 26-30, 2002. A total of 440 abstracts were submitted for Plenary, invited, oral and poster presentations which are included in the Conference Record Book. The presentations covered all major areas of Plasma Science including partially ionized plasmas, space plasmas, microwave devices, Z-pinches, magnetic fusion, laser-produced plasmas, flat panel displays, Plasma processing, medical and biological applications, plasma thrusters, plasma diagnostics and lighting plasmas.

  9. The Third Annual NASA Science Internet User Working Group Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lev, Brian S. (editor); Gary, J. Patrick (editor)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Science Internet (NSI) User Support Office (USO) sponsored the Third Annual NSI User Working Group (NSIUWG) Conference March 30 through April 3, 1992, in Greenbelt, MD. Approximately 130 NSI users attended to learn more about the NSI, hear from projects which use NSI, and receive updates about new networking technologies and services. This report contains material relevant to the conference; copies of the agenda, meeting summaries, presentations, and descriptions of exhibitors. Plenary sessions featured a variety of speakers, including NSI project management, scientists, and NSI user project managers whose projects and applications effectively use NSI, and notable citizens of the larger Internet community. The conference also included exhibits of advanced networking applications; tutorials on internetworking, computer security, and networking technologies; and user subgroup meetings on the future direction of the conference, networking, and user services and applications.

  10. Boulder Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science Topic: History and Philosophy of Climate Science

    E-print Network

    28th Boulder Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science Topic: History and Philosophy Kraus, Associate Dean for the Sciences Introduction of Speaker: Benjamin Hale, Philosophy and ENVS of Climate Science September 14-16, 2012 Friday, September 14th (Hale 270, CU campus): 7:30-9:30 p.m. Keynote

  11. PREFACE: 6th European Thermal Sciences Conference (Eurotherm 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Daniel; Le Niliot, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    About EUROTHERM The aim of the EUROTHERM Committee (www.eurothermcommittee.eu) is to promote and foster European cooperation in Thermal Sciences and Heat Transfer by gathering together scientists and engineers working in specialized areas. The Committee consists of members representing and appointed by national bodies in the EU countries. The current President of EUROTHERM is Professor Anton van Steenhoven from the University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). The Committee organizes and coordinates European scientific events such as the EUROTHERM Seminars (about 4 per year) and the European Thermal Sciences Conference (every 4 years). About the conference This sixth in the series of European Thermal Sciences Conferences (www.eurotherm2012.com) took place in France, in the Conference Centre of Poitiers, Futuroscope. We address special thanks to the 225 reviewers, coming from different European countries, who have evaluated these papers. We also thank the scientific committee, consisting of some EUROTHERM Committee members together with other internationally recognized experts. Their role has been to manage the evaluation of abstracts and the papers selection process as co-coordinators for specific topics. This conference is the joint effort of two laboratories: the PPRIME Institute in Poitiers and the IUSTI laboratory in Marseille. It could not be organized without the efficient help of our secretaries and our technician for the IT support. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 180 articles presented at the conference. Professor Daniel PETIT Chairman, PPRIME Poitiers, France Institut P'(UPR CNRS 3346) ENSMA 1 av. Clément Ader - BP40109 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil France daniel.petit@ensma.fr Professor Christophe LE NILIOT Co-chairman, IUSTI Marseille, France Laboratoire IUSTI UMR CNRS 6595 Technopôle de Chateau-Gombert 5, rue Enrico Fermi 13 453 MARSEILLE CEDEX 13 France christophe.leniliot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr

  12. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  13. Australian Sailing Science Conference February 1999, Hobart, Tasmania

    E-print Network

    2nd Australian Sailing Science Conference February 1999, Hobart, Tasmania page 1 Downwind into a VPP to predict the mean velocity of a yacht when sailing downwind in waves. The software will be used to investigate how design parameters, such as hull and appendage shape and sail and rig configurations, affect

  14. The First International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of articles that have been accepted for presentation at the First International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration. Articles about the geology of the Martian Polar regions were presented, and analogs from Earth's geology were also presented. Presentations also were given about the probable contents of the Martian polar caps

  15. 2014 Healthy Aging Alliance Conference "Harnessing Science and Communities

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    2014 Healthy Aging Alliance Conference "Harnessing Science and Communities for Healthy Brain Aging:45 ­ 4:45 pm Hosted by the OHSU Healthy Aging Alliance in Partnership with: Portland State University@ohsu.edu Alliance Website www.ohsu.edu/xd/research/ healthy-aging-alliance Alliance Email healthyaging@ohsu.edu #12;

  16. International Conference on Materials Science and Technology (ICMST 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Ginson P.

    2015-02-01

    FROM THE CONVENOR'S DESK The Department of Physics, St. Thomas College Pala, is highly privileged to organize an International Conference on Materials Science and Technology (ICMST 2012) during 10-14 June 2012, and as Convenor of the conference it is with legitimate pride and immense gratitude to God that I remember the most enthusiastic responses received for this from scientists all over the world. In a time of tremendous revolutionary changes in Materials Science and Technology, it is quite in keeping with the tradition of a pioneering institute that St. Thomas College is, to have risen to the occasion to make this conference a reality. We have no doubt that this proved to be a historic event, a real breakthrough, not only for us the organizers but also for all the participants. A conference of this kind provides a nonpareil, a distinctly outstanding platform for the scholars, researchers and the scientists to discuss and share ideas with delegates from all over the world. This had been most fruitful to the participants in identifying new collaborations and strengthening existing relations. That experts of diverse disciplines from across the world were sitting under one roof for five days, exchanging views and sharing findings, was a speciality of this conference. The event has evoked excellent responses from all segments of the Materials Science community worldwide. 600 renowned scholars from 28 countries participated in this. We were uniquely honoured to have Prof. C.N.R. Rao, Chairman, Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister of India, to inaugurate this conference. May I take this opportunity to thank all those who have contributed their valuable share, diverse in tone and nature, in the making of this conference. My whole hearted gratitude is due to the international and national members of the advisory committee for their valuable guidance and involvement. I place on record my heartfelt gratitude to our sponsors. I am sure that this conference has contributed to more innovations and inventions in the field and promoted the advancement of Science and Technology in India. It is with immense pain and sorrow that I pay tribute to Prof. Antony Simon, one of the members of the organizing team, who departed from us after bestowing everything that one could for the success of ICMST 2012. I wish all the success to all who contributed papers to the conference. Dr. Ginson P. Joseph Convenor, ICMST 2012

  17. The Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C): a potential rover mission for 2018. Final report of the Mars Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) October 14, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    This report documents the work of the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG), which was assigned to formulate a concept for a potential rover mission that could be launched to Mars in 2018. Based on programmatic and engineering considerations as of April 2009, our deliberations assumed that the potential mission would use the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sky-crane landing system and include a single solar-powered rover. The mission would also have a targeting accuracy of approximately 7 km (semimajor axis landing ellipse), a mobility range of at least 10 km, and a lifetime on the martian surface of at least 1 Earth year. An additional key consideration, given recently declining budgets and cost growth issues with MSL, is that the proposed rover must have lower cost and cost risk than those of MSL--this is an essential consideration for the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG). The MRR-SAG was asked to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps toward the potential return of samples to Earth. The proposed means of achieving these two goals while balancing the trade-offs between them are described here in detail. We propose the name Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher(MAX-C) to reflect the dual purpose of this potential 2018 rover mission. PMID:20298148

  18. Capturing Student Interest in Astrobiology through Dilemmas and Paradoxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.

    2005-12-01

    Traditionally, many non-science majoring undergraduates readily reveal fairly negative opinions about their introductory science survey courses that serve as general education distribution requirements. Often seen as unimportant and unrelated to helping them acquire knowledge and skills for the workplace, such general education courses carry nicknames such as "Physics for Poets" (PHYSICS101), "Bugs for Thugs" (BIOLOGY101), "Rocks for Jocks" (GEOLOGY101), and "Moons for Goons" or "Scopes for Dopes" (ASTRONOMY101). In response, many faculty are experimenting with more modern science course offerings as general education courses in an effort to improve students' attitudes, values, and interests. One might think that ASTROBIOLOGY has natural curb appeal for students. However, despite the seemingly innate appeal of a course on extraterrestrial life, when it comes right down to it, an astrobiology course is still a natural science course at its core. As such, it can suffer from the same student apathy that afflicts traditional science courses if students can not find some personal relevance or interest in the topics. One approach to more fully engaging students is to couch core course concepts in terms of what Grant Wiggin and Jay McTighe (2004, 2000) call "essential questions." Essential questions are intended create enduring understanding in students and help students find deeply meaningful personal relevance to concepts. In response, we have created a series of probing essential questions that tie central concepts in astrobiology to dilemmas, paradoxes, and moral questions with the goal of intellectually engaging our students in the human-side of the astrobiology enterprise.

  19. ASTRIL Robotics Astrobiology

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    Club LoCo Lab (Low-Frequency Cosmology Group ) LROC Science Operations Center Open House Mars Education Mars Science Lab Rover Curiosity Mars Space Flight Facility Marston Exploration Theater NewSpace Real Systems Engineering School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Secondary Ion Mass

  20. Astrobiology: A Roadmap for Charting Life in the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincezi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It provides a biological perspective to many areas of NASA research. It links such endeavors as the search for habitable planets, exploration missions to Mars and the outer Solar System, efforts to understand the origins and early evolution of life, and charting the potential of life to adapt to future challenges, both on Earth and in space. Astrobiology addresses the following three basic questions, which have been asked in some form for generations. How does life begin and evolve? Does life exist elsewhere in the universe? What is future of life on Earth and beyond? The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across several NASA Enterprises: Space Science, Earth Science, and the Human Exploration and Development of Space. The Roadmap is formulated in terms of eight Science Goals that outline key domains of investigation that might require perhaps decades of effort to consolidate. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority near-term efforts for the next three to five years. These twenty objectives will be integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  1. Aliens are us. An innovative course in astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Carlos F.; Barufaldi, James P.

    2009-01-01

    We live in a scientific world; paradoxically, the scientific literacy of the population is minimal at best. Science is an ongoing process, a human endeavour; paradoxically, students tend to believe that science is a finished enterprise. Many non-science major students are not motivated in science classes; paradoxically, there is a public fascination with the possibility of life in the Universe, which is nowadays a scientific endeavour. An astrobiology course was developed at the Center for Science and Mathematics Education at The University of Texas at Austin to address these paradoxes and includes the following objectives: (a) to improve scientific literacy; (b) to demonstrate that science is a work in progress; (c) to enhance the inherent interdisciplinary aspect of science; (d) to demonstrate that science is embedded in society and relates with several social sciences; (e) to improve the content knowledge about the nature of science; (f) to illustrate how engaging learning science can be; and (g) to draw from the intrinsic motivation already incorporated in the general population. The course has been offered, taught and revised for the past three years. The informal course student feedback has been very positive and encouraging. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general overview of the course. In addition, the course's background, content, themes and mode of delivery are outlined, discussed and analysed in this paper. This paper subscribes to an educational philosophy that focuses on the multidisciplinary nature of science and includes critical thinking-based teaching strategies using the dynamic discipline of astrobiology.

  2. The set of habitable planets and astrobiological regulation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukoti?, Branislav

    2010-04-01

    The number of habitable planets in the Milky Way and its temporal variation are major unknowns in the nascent fields of astrobiology and Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence studies. All numerical models developed thus far have suffered from large uncertainties in the input data, in addition to our lack of understanding of the processes of astrobiological dynamics. Here, we argue that at least the input data can now be specified with more confidence, and use a simple Monte Carlo model of the Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) as a flexible platform for their elucidation. Previous papers have described some of the major results of this class of models; in this paper we present its mechanics and input parameters, notably the number of the habitable planets in the GHZ and their temporal distribution, based on the results of Lineweaver et al. (Lineweaver, C.H., Fenner, Y. & Gibson, B.K. (2004). Science 303, 59-62.) Regulation mechanisms (such as gamma-ray bursts or supernovae) and their temporal evolution, assumed to be main agents responsible for large-scale correlation effects, are modelled as type ? (which can sterilize part of or the entire GHZ) and type ? (which are of local importance) events with decreasing mean temporal frequency over the cosmological timescale. The considered global risk function implies as an upper limit that about one out of a hundred habitable sites will achieve high astrobiological complexity. The preliminary results of numerical modelling presented here and elsewhere imply that the lack of a sudden change from an essentially dead Galaxy to a Galaxy filled with complex life - the astrobiological phase transition - in our past (a version of Fermi's paradox) may be understood as a consequence of global astrobiological disequilibrium, strongly indicating such a transitional epoch in our future.

  3. Astrobiology: Study of the Living Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, Donald L.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Astrobiology is defined as the study of the living universe. This endeavor encompasses the use of space to understand life's origin, evolution, and destiny in the universe. Life's origin refers to understanding the origin of life in the context of the origin and diversity of planetary systems. Life's evolution refers to understanding how living systems have adapted to Earth's changing environment, to the all-pervasive force of gravity, and how they may adapt to environments beyond Earth. Life's destiny refers to making long-term human presence in space a reality, and laying the foundation for understanding and managing changes in Earth's environment. This lecture will explore the development of this field of inquiry, the science questions to be examined, and the mechanisms available for participation by the scientific community.

  4. Critical issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Dick, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Fifty years after serious scientific research began in the field of exobiology, and forty years after serious historical research began on the subject of extraterrestrial life, this paper identifies and examines some of the most important issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of what is today known as astrobiology. As in the philosophy of science in general, and in the philosophies of particular sciences, critical issues in the philosophy and sociology of astrobiology are both stimulated and illuminated by history. Among those issues are (1) epistemological issues such as the status of astrobiology as a science, the problematic nature of evidence and inference, and the limits of science; (2) metaphysical/scientific issues, including the question of defining the fundamental concepts of life, mind, intelligence, and culture in a universal context; the role of contingency and necessity in the origin of these fundamental phenomena; and whether or not the universe is in some sense fine-tuned for life and perhaps biocentric; (3) societal issues such as the theological, ethical, and worldview impacts of the discovery of microbial or intelligent life; and the question of whether the search for extraterrestrial life should be pursued at all, and with what precautions; and (4) issues related to the sociology of scientific knowledge, including the diverse attitudes and assumptions of different scientific communities and different cultures to the problem of life beyond Earth, the public "will to believe," and the formation of the discipline of astrobiology. All these overlapping issues are framed by the concept of cosmic evolution-the 13.7 billion year Master Narrative of the Universe-which may result in a physical, biological, or postbiological universe and determine the long-term destiny of humanity. PMID:23078642

  5. Undergraduate Research at SETI in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Monika; Phillips, C.; DeVore, E.; Hubickyj, O.

    2012-05-01

    The SETI Institute and San Jose State University (SJSU) have begun a partnership (URSA: Undergraduate Research at the SETI Institute in Astrobiology) in which undergraduate science and engineering majors from SJSU participate in research at the SETI Institute during the academic year. We are currently in our second year of the three-year NASA-funded grant. The goal of this program is to expose future scientists, engineers and educators to the science of astrobiology and to NASA in general, and by so doing, to prepare them for the transition to their future career in the Silicon Valley or beyond. The URSA students are mentored by a SETI Institute scientist who conducts research at the SETI Institute headquarters or nearby at NASA Ames Research Center. The SETI Institute is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to scientific research, education and public outreach. Its mission is to explore, understand and explain the origin, nature and prevalence of life in the universe. SJSU is a large urban public university that serves the greater Silicon Valley area in California. Students at SJSU come from diverse ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Many of them face financial pressures that force them to pursue part-time work. URSA students are paid to work for 10 hours/week during the academic year, and also participate in monthly group meetings where they practice their presentation skills and discuss future plans. We encourage underserved and underrepresented students, including women, minority, and those who are the first in their family to go to college, to apply to the URSA program and provide ongoing mentoring and support as needed. While preparing students for graduate school is not a primary goal, some of our students have gone on to MS or PhD programs or plan to do so. The URSA program is funded by NASA EPOESS.

  6. Past Conferences and Trainings - Implementation Science

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation National Cancer Institute www.cancer.gov at the National Institutes of Health Cancer Control and Population Sciences: NCI's Bridge to Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy Search: Home About IS Vision Mission Meet the

  7. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The oral and poster sessions of the SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MARS included; The Distribution and Context of Water-related Minerals on Mars; Poster Session: Mars Geology; Geology of the Martian Surface: Lithologic Variation, Composition, and Structure; Water Through Mars' Geologic History; Poster Session: Mars Water and the Martian Interior; Volatiles and Interior Evolution; The Martian Climate and Atmosphere: Variations in Time and Space; Poster Session: The Martian Climate and Current Processes; Modern Mars: Weather, Atmospheric Chemistry, Geologic Processes, and Water Cycle; Public Lecture: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's New View of the Red Planet; The North and South Polar Layered Deposits, Circumpolar Regions, and Changes with Time; Poster Session: Mars Polar Science, Astrobiology, Future Missions/Instruments, and Other Mars Science; Mars Astrobiology and Upcoming Missions; and Martian Stratigraphy and Sedimentology: Reading the Sedimentary Record.

  8. Science Education Future. Proceedings of the Arctic Science Conference (39th, Fairbanks, Alaska, October 7-10, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Fairbanks, AK. Arctic Div.

    This catalog includes abstracts of each of the papers delivered at the Arctic Science Conference. The conference was divided into the following symposia: (1) "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"; (2) "An Update of Alaskan Science and Discovery"; (3) "Science Education for the Public"; (4) "Hubbard Glacier, Russell Fjord and Situk River Studies";…

  9. Second International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that were presented at the Second International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration, August 21-25, 2000. The abstracts of the presentations given are listed. Presentations were given on the advances in technology, data analysis of past and current missions, and new instruments destined for Mars. Particular attention was paid to the polar regions and what they reveal about Mars.

  10. Twenty-Third Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is a collection of papers from the Twenty-Third Lunar and Planetary Science Conference that were chosen for having the greatest potential interest for the general reading public. The presentations avoid jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. Topics covered include electron microscopy studies of a circumstellar rock, the fractal analysis of lava flows, volcanic activity on Venus, the isotopic signature of recent solar wind nitrogen, and the implications of impact crater distribution on Venus.

  11. Searching for Aliens What is astrobiology?

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Internet-connected computers in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). You can participateSearching for Aliens What is astrobiology? Astrobiology is the scientific study of the origin to help search for aliens! There is a scientific project at the University of California that uses

  12. Astrobiological Benefits of Human Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2010-08-01

    An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered.

  13. Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Ian A

    2010-01-01

    An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered. PMID:20735249

  14. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Learning Sciences (5th, Evanston, Illinois, August 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Lawrence, Ed.

    This volume contains the papers presented at the fifth International Conference on the Learning Sciences (formerly the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Education). As the change in name signifies, a strong effort has been made to open the conference to a broader audience, including educational and cognitive psychologists…

  15. Astrobiology: The Search for Life in the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacchioli, David

    2003-01-01

    Each of the 11 lead members of NASA's Astrobiology Institute has a specific mission. According to Hiroshi Ohmoto, director of Penn State s Astrobiology Research Center, Here we are mainly concerned with the origin of life and the evolution and extinction of important organisms. These include bacteria that live on methane, cyanobacteria (the inventors of photosynthesis), eukaryotes (a big category, covering anything with a nucleus, from single-celled organisms to humans), land-dwelling organisms, and early animals. Penn State astrobiologists are studying the environment before there was life on Earth, the origin of oxygen in the atmosphere, the chemical and thermal structures of oceans, and the role of metals in the evolution of life. Overall, they want to understand the connection between changes in environment and changes in life forms in the early Earth. PSARC offers research assistantships for graduate and undergraduate students, fellowships for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows, and an undergraduate minor in astrobiology. The minor covers 18 credits in earth sciences, geochemistry, geophysics, astronomy, biology, biochemistry, meteorology, and microbiology. The goal, says Ohmoto, is to teach students to critically evaluate claims related to this field that they encounter well after their college education has ended. Under a scanning electron microscope, Martian meteorite ALH84001 yields tube-like structures that look a lot like remnants of Earthly bacteria except smaller by a factor of ten.

  16. Astrobiology and the Possibility of Life on Earth and Elsewhere…

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, Hervé; Kotler, Julia Michelle; Bartik, Kristin; Cleaves, H. James; Cockell, Charles S.; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Leuko, Stefan; Ten Kate, Inge Loes; Martins, Zita; Pascal, Robert; Quinn, Richard; Rettberg, Petra; Westall, Frances

    2015-09-01

    Astrobiology is an interdisciplinary scientific field not only focused on the search of extraterrestrial life, but also on deciphering the key environmental parameters that have enabled the emergence of life on Earth. Understanding these physical and chemical parameters is fundamental knowledge necessary not only for discovering life or signs of life on other planets, but also for understanding our own terrestrial environment. Therefore, astrobiology pushes us to combine different perspectives such as the conditions on the primitive Earth, the physicochemical limits of life, exploration of habitable environments in the Solar System, and the search for signatures of life in exoplanets. Chemists, biologists, geologists, planetologists and astrophysicists are contributing extensively to this interdisciplinary research field. From 2011 to 2014, the European Space Agency (ESA) had the initiative to gather a Topical Team of interdisciplinary scientists focused on astrobiology to review the profound transformations in the field that have occurred since the beginning of the new century. The present paper is an interdisciplinary review of current research in astrobiology, covering the major advances and main outlooks in the field. The following subjects will be reviewed and most recent discoveries will be highlighted: the new understanding of planetary system formation including the specificity of the Earth among the diversity of planets, the origin of water on Earth and its unique combined properties among solvents for the emergence of life, the idea that the Earth could have been habitable during the Hadean Era, the inventory of endogenous and exogenous sources of organic matter and new concepts about how chemistry could evolve towards biological molecules and biological systems. In addition, many new findings show the remarkable potential life has for adaptation and survival in extreme environments. All those results from different fields of science are guiding our perspectives and strategies to look for life in other Solar System objects as well as beyond, in extrasolar worlds.

  17. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

  18. South Australian Science Teachers Association Conference and Science Fair, Salisbury Teachers College, July 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The major papers presented at the 1971 conference of the South Australian Science Teachers Association are included in this pamphlet. Scientists from industry, research institutions, and the police forensic laboratory, and practicing teachers presented papers which included descriptions of modern scientific techniques, discussions of the role of…

  19. EDUCATION FOR HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARIANSHIP, PROCEEDINGS OF AN INVITATIONAL CONFERENCE (SEATTLE, SEPTEMBER 10-12, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIEBERMAN, IRVING

    MEDICAL LIBRARIANS, HEALTH SCIENCE FACULTY, AND SPECIALISTS IN RELATED AREAS WERE PARTICIPANTS IN A CONFERENCE HELD TO EXAMINE THE NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR HEALTH SCIENCE LIBRARIANSHIP AND DEVELOP SUGGESTIONS FOR APPROPRIATE LIBRARY SCHOOL PROGRAMS. THIS REPORT CONTAINS THE COMPLETE TEXTS OF WORKING PAPERS PREPARED FOR THE CONFERENCE AND MAJOR…

  20. News Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-07-01

    Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education

  1. Astrobiology and the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Garvin, James B.; Drake, B. G.; Beaty, David

    2010-01-01

    In March 2007, the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) chartered the Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG), co-chaired by J. B. Garvin and J. S. Levine and consisting of about 30 Mars scientists from the U.S. and Europe. HEM-SAG was one of a half dozen teams charted by NASA to consider the human exploration of Mars. Other teams included: Mars Entry, Descent and Landing, Human Health and Performance, Flight and Surface Systems, and Heliospheric/Astrophysics. The results of these Mars teams and the development of an architecture for the human exploration of Mars were summarized in two recent publications: Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 (B. G. Drake, Editor), 100 pages, July 2009 and Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 Addendum (B. G. Drake, Editor), 406 pages, July 2009. This presentation summarizes the HEM-SAG conclusions on astrobiology and the search for life on Mars by humans.

  2. Earth and Space Science: Making Connections in Education and Public Outreach ASP Conference Series, Vol. 443

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Earth and Space Science: Making Connections in Education and Public Outreach ASP Conference Series and Earth Sciences (ROSES) Supplemental Education grant. Our collaborators include science and education 1Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA 2

  3. The Second Annual Graduate Student Conference on Social Choice and Behavioral Sciences

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    The Second Annual Graduate Student Conference on Social Choice and Behavioral Sciences Sponsored by the Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences April 28th , 2004 Social Science Plaza A, room 2112 the on-going research in the growing field of mathematical behavioral sciences. Section 1 Chair ­ Garrett

  4. Science Education and Outreach: Forging a Path to the Future ASP Conference Series, Vol. 431

    E-print Network

    Fillingim, Matthew

    Science Education and Outreach: Forging a Path to the Future ASP Conference Series, Vol. 431, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450, USA 2Center for Science Education, Space Sciences Laboratory, University) in collaboration with Education/Public Outreach specialists at the Center for Science Education at SSL (CSE

  5. 4th International Symposium on Sensor Science (I3S2015): Conference Report.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Peter; Senesky, Debbie G; Schöning, Michael J; Hauser, Peter C; Moser, Roland; Herzig, Hans Peter; Melesse, Assefa M; Broderick, Patricia A; Eugster, Patrick Thomas

    2015-01-01

    An international scientific conference was sponsored by the journal Sensors under the patronage of the University of Basel. The 4th edition of the International Symposium on Sensor Science (I3S2015) ran from 13 to 15 July 2015 in Basel, Switzerland. It comprised five plenary sessions and one morning with three parallel sessions. The conference covered the most exciting aspects and the latest developments in sensor science. The conference dinner took place on the second evening of the conference. The I3S2015 brought together 170 participants from 40 different countries. [...]. PMID:26404306

  6. Aspicilia fruticulosa: A new model for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Iñigo, Fco. Javier; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Mateo Mart, Eva; Horneck, Gerda

    In order to avoid the technological constraints that prevent the performance of experiments in other planets, Astrobiology research implies the development of models that simulate the conditions present in outer space or in planetary bodies. Extremophile organisms, like lichens have been widely studied in Astrobiology due to their high resistance to extremely harsh envi-ronments(5). The vagrant lichen species, Aspicilia fruticulosa lives detached from the substrate, and has a coralloid thalli up to 2.5 cm, which provides a very compact internal structure(6). This species typically grows in deserts and arid areas. Its resistance has been tested several times and amazing results about their vitality have been obtained. Two main experiments have been per-formed: 1. LITHOPANSPERMIA experiment(1): Integrated on board of BIOPAN (multi-user exposure facility, designed for exobiology, radiation biology, radiation dosimetry and material science investigations in space (http://www.spaceflight.esa.int/users/index.cfm?act=default.pagelevel=11p foton-next-pay-Bpan) launched on the Foton M3 satellite in September 2007); the resistance of this lichen species to the combination of the following space conditions during 10 days was tested: Ultraviolet (UV) extraterrestrial radiation, Mars UV-climate, UV-B radiation and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), microgravity, space vacuum of 1x10-6 mbar and extreme temperatures ranging from -23o C to +16o C. After the flight, the samples were revital-ized for a 72h period in a climatic chamber before taking measurements of their photosynthetic activity with a Mini-PAM fluorometer (Heinz Walz GmbH) as described by R. de la Torre et al. 2007b (2). The results showed that the samples exposed to space environment except solar UV radiation, reached a 76.5-1002. A step further on these investigations was carried out in order to study how the viability of this lichen species were affected by a combination of different sim-ulated martian conditions. For this purpose, we used an environmental simulation chamber(4) placed at the CAB (Centro de Astrobiologé to reproduce martian conditions. Three different ?a) exposures, each of them during 80 hours, were performed: a) martian atmosphere (7mbar of atmospheric pressure, with a standard concentration of martian surface gases) and tempera-ture (-93o C); b) martian UV radiation (200-400nm), temperature(-93o C) and space vacuum (1x10-7 mbar); c) combination of martian UV radiation (200-400nm), atmosphere (7mbar of atmospheric pressure) and temperature (-93o C). A set of 8 samples were located on two levels: exposure level (L-1) and dark control level (L-2). A general tendence was observed: all the samples survived. The analysis of the results compared to the pre-simulation data showed: a) photosynthetic activity decreased (74 References: 1 R. DE LA TORRE (2009): Likelihood of interplanetary transfer of rock-inhabiting microbial communities: Results from the space experiment Lithopanspermia. Icarus. Under revision 2 R. DE LA TORRE, L.G. SANCHO, A. PINTADO, P. RETTBERG, E. RABBOW, C. PANITZ, U. DEUTSCHMANN, M. REINA, G. HORNECK (2007b): BIOPAN experi-ment LICHENS on the Foton M2 mission: Pre-flight verification tests of the Rhizocarpon geographicum-granite ecosystem. Advances in Space Research. Volume 40, Issue 11, 2007, Pages 1665-1671 3 G. HORNECK (1994): Exobiology, the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life within the context of cosmic evolution: a review. Planetary and Space Science. 1995 Jan-Feb; 43(1-2):189-217 4 E. MATEO MARTé et al. (2006): A chamber for I studying planetary environments and its applications to astrobiology. Measurement science technology. 2006, vol. 17, no8, pp. 2274-2280 5 L.G. SANCHO, R. de la TORRE A. PIN-TADO (2009): Lichens, new and promising material from experiments in astrobiology. Fungal Biology Reviews. Volume 22, Issues 3-4, Aug-Nov 2008, Pages 103-109 6 L.G. SANCHO, B. SCHROETER R. DEL PRADO (2000): Ecophysiology and morphology of the globular erratic lichen Aspicilia fruticulosa (EVERSM.) FLAG. from

  7. Proceedings of the Plutonium Futures ? The Science 2006 Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M; Hobart, D; Allan, P; Jarvinen, G

    2007-07-12

    Plutonium Futures--The Science 2006 provided opportunities to examine present knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of plutonium and other actinides in complex media and materials; to discuss the current and emerging science (chemistry, physics, materials science, nuclear science, and environmental effects) of plutonium and actinides relevant to enhancing global nuclear security; and to exchange ideas. This international conference also provided a forum for illustrating and enhancing capabilities and interests, and assessing issues in these areas. U.S. and international scientists, engineers, faculty, and students from universities, national laboratories, and DOE's nuclear complex were encouraged to participate and make technical contributions. The Conference ran from Sunday, July 9th through Thursday, July 13th. A popular aspect of the conference was the opening tutorial session on Sunday afternoon intended for students and scientists new to the area of plutonium research. The tutorial was well attended by novices and veterans alike, and featured such diverse topics as; plutonium metallurgy, plutonium in the environment, and international arms control and nonproliferation. Two plenary lectures began each morning and each afternoon session and highlighted the breakout sessions on coordination/organometallic chemistry, solid-state physics, environmental chemistry, materials science, separations and reprocessing, advanced fuels and waste forms, phase transformations, solution and gas-phase chemistry, compounds and complexes, electronic structure and physical properties, and more. Chemistry Highlights--Among the many chemistry highlights presented in this proceedings are the overview of concepts and philosophies on inert nuclear fuel matrices and concerns about the ever-increasing amounts of minor actinides and plutonium generated in the fuel cycle. The various ideas involve multiple reduction schemes for these materials, suggesting fuels for 'burning' or 'cradle-to-grave' accountability for various reactor types. Related work is presented on identification of the unique reaction mechanisms and identification of the intermediate products, including Pu(III), at the end of the PUREX process. In the important area of nuclear forensics, actual scenarios of nuclear materials confiscation and the successes of applying forensics protocols to determine attribution and possible intention are provided. In the area of reactor incidents, there is no other place on Earth like the Chernobyl Site Object Shelter and radioactive aerosol particle characterization studies reflect an important effort described herein. An additional report from another unique environmental site presents results on radionuclide monitoring, fate, and transport in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River in the Krasoyarsk region. In the area of nuclear waste disposal, a study of the ion irradiation damage to pyrochlore compounds with varying amounts of host elements and actinide dopants is presented. Papers on both the aqueous and nonaqueous chemistry of plutonium and other actinides are presented including anhydrous coordination chemistry and redox behavior in the presence of humic materials and the their sorption on common minerals in the environment. Also published herein are reports on the field of anhydrous coordination chemistry of the transuranic elements where there is scarce information. Solid-State and Materials Highlights--Plutonium solid-state and materials research is represented in these proceedings by a wealth of leading edge discovery class research. The breadth of this research is reflected in the topics covered: solid-state; materials science; superconductivity; phase changes, phonons, and entropy; electronic structure and physical properties; surface science and corrosion; and radiation effects, defects, impurities, and property changes. Indeed the scientific challenge and excitement of plutonium can best be highlighted by quoting the tutorial prospectus of Drs. Sarrao and Schwartz. 'Plutonium has long been recognized as a complex and scie

  8. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative pH. The epoch of study of thermophilic microorganisms starts with the discovery of Thermus aquaticus, and presently the maximum temperature for growth at 113 C was found for Pyrolobus fumarii. The microorganisms capable of growth at high temperatures and in hyperacidic environments on Earth are good analogs for life that might be able to survive in hot acidic droplets in the upper regimes of the atmosphere of Venus. The study of barophiles was made possible by engineering achievements leading to the development of the submersible crafts used to study the Black Smokers of the Deep-sea Hydrothermal vents. The first described radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can survive ionizing irradiation and other DNA-damaging assaults at doses that are lethal to all other organisms. These microbes are models for life that might endure high radiation environments in the ice near the surface of comets or on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn and in the seafloor deep beneath icy crusts Europa and Enceladus. This paper presents ESEM and FESEM images showing intact microbes preserved in the deep ice cores extracted from just above Lake Vostok, Antarctica that are considered analogs for life forms that might survive on comets and icy moons.

  9. The 26th IEEE international conference on plasma science

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    Some of the sessions covered by this conference are: Basic Processes in Fully and Partially Ionized Plasmas; Slow Wave Devices; Laser-Produced Plasma; Non-Equilibrium Plasma Processing; Space Plasmas and Partially Ionized Gases; Microwave Plasmas; Inertial Confinement Fusion; Plasma Diagnostics; Computational Plasma Physics; Microwave Systems; Laser Produced Plasmas and Dense Plasma Focus; Intense Electron and Ion Beams; Fast Wave Devices; Spherical Configurations and Ball Lightning; Thermal Plasma Chemistry and Processing and Environmental Issues in Plasma Science; Plasma, Ion, and Electron Sources; Fast Wave Devices and Intense Beams; Fast Z-pinches and X-ray Lasers; Plasma Opening Switches; Plasma for Lighting; Intense Beams; Vacuum Microwaves; Magnetic Fusion Energy; and Plasma Thrusters and Arcs. Separate abstracts were prepared for some of the papers in this volume.

  10. Proceedings of the International Conference e-Learning 2014. Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Lisbon, Portugal, July 15-19, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista Nunes, Miguel, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2014, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Lisbon, Portugal July 15-19, 2014). The e-Learning 2014 conference aims to address the…

  11. Overview of NASA Astrobiology Institute Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.; Grymes, R. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1999-03-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, distribution, and future of life in the universe. The NASA Astrobiology Institute is carrying out innovative Education and Public Outreach initiatives to keep the public informed and involved with new research.

  12. Invited Session, International Conference on the Learning Sciences, Boulder, 2013 Where are the Learning Sciences in the MOOC debate ?

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Gerhard

    as capitalizing on their resultant big data. Among the many applications of learning sciences to MOOCS, automatedInvited Session, International Conference on the Learning Sciences, Boulder, 2013 Where are the Learning Sciences in the MOOC debate ? George Siemens & Pierre Dillenbourg This title reflects the crawling

  13. 11th National Conference on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Saundry

    2012-04-17

    On January 19-21, 2011, The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) successfully convened its 11th National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans in Washington, DC at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center. Over 1,247 participants attended the conference, representing federal, state and local governments, university and colleges across the US, civil society organizations, the business community, and international entities. In addition, the conference was webcast to an audience across several states. The conference provided a forum to examine the profound changes our ocean will undergo over the next 25-50 years and share various perspectives on the new research, tools, and policy initiatives to protect and sustain our ocean. Conference highlights and recommendations are available to the public on NCSE's conference website, www.OurChangingOceans.org.

  14. A European Roadmap for Research in Astrobiology - The AstRoMap Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Horneck, G.; Muller, C.; Rettberg, P.; Capria, M.; Palomba, E.

    2015-10-01

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping activity-www.astromap-eu.org) is a collaborative project which will provide the European Planetary Science Community with a road map in astrobiology. The goals of the project have been: (i) to pose big questions related to astrobiology; and (ii) the identification of experiments, new technology and/or those space missions to be developed in future programs and which could answer those big questions. This collaborative infrastructure includes the organization of expert panels and international workshops in order to discuss about those big questions and the science objectives by the community to be addressed. The main deliverable will be a Roadmap document. The project is steered by a consortium of six European and national research institutes and associations: -­- Centro de Astrobiologica (INTACSIC), Spain -­- European Science Foundation, France -­- Association pour un Réseau Européen d'Exo/Astrobiology (EANA), France -­- B-USOC, Belgium -­- Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany -­- National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), ItalyOrigin and evolution of planetary systems -­- Origin of organic compounds in space -­- Rock-water-carbon interactions, organic synthesis, and steps to life -­- Life and habitability on Earth and in Space -­- -­- Biosignatures as facilitating life detection The key topics will focus on a limited number of strategic scientific objectives to be addressed in the next 20 years by European astrobiologists, and suggest research activities for future development.

  15. Heterocyclic anions of astrobiological interest

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Callie A.; Demarais, Nicholas J.; Bierbaum, Veronica M.; Yang, Zhibo; Snow, Theodore P. E-mail: Nicholas.Demarais@colorado.edu E-mail: Zhibo.Yang@ou.edu

    2013-12-20

    As more complex organic molecules are detected in the interstellar medium, the importance of heterocyclic molecules to astrobiology and the origin of life has become evident. 2-Aminothiazole and 2-aminooxazole have recently been suggested as important nucleotide precursors, highlighting azoles as potential prebiotic molecules. This study explores the gas-phase chemistry of three deprotonated azoles: oxazole, thiazole, and isothiazole. For the first time, their gas-phase acidities are experimentally determined with bracketing and H/D exchange techniques, and their reactivity is characterized with several detected interstellar neutral molecules (N{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, CO, OCS, CO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2}) and other reactive species (CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}Cl, (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}CCl, and (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}CBr). Rate constants and branching fractions for these reactions are experimentally measured using a modified commercial ion trap mass spectrometer whose kinetic data are in good accord with those of a flowing afterglow apparatus reported here. Last, we have examined the fragmentation patterns of these deprotonated azoles to elucidate their destruction mechanisms in high-energy environments. All experimental data are supported and complemented by electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2(full)/aug-cc-pVDZ levels of theory.

  16. Alone? A Discovery Sourcebook for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecnik, B.; Isu Dp1'02 Team

    2003-04-01

    The sourcebook represent an international, interdisciplinary and intercultural approach to the topic of astrobiology. It addresses issues pertaining to the search for and discovery of non-Earth based life, extant or extinct, and not the study thereof. The period of the study is the past, the present and 20 years into the future. Study follows four themes; Current State - Discusses past, present, and planned astrobiology investigations. The Quest for Discovery - Discusses life, what we think life is, where to look for life, and the experiments to use to identify life, as we know it, either extant, or extinct. Overview of possible future space missions is provided, by identifying destinations and mission options. Human Elements - Discusses the impact of astrobiology on the human condition through scenarios. This is followed by a discussion of how education can bridge the gap between astrobiology and the public by functioning as a link among many other fields of study. Synthesis - Concludes the report in a case study of a future astrobiology mission to the Jovian moon Europa.

  17. Proceedings of the New England Conference on Ocean Science Education, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, May 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangelsdorf, Frederick E.; And Others

    Reported are the papers presented at the New England Conference on Ocean Science Education. The purpose of the conference was to bring together prominent oceanographers and New England educators at the primary and secondary level to discuss current progress in oceanographic research and to relate this progress to the needs of schools for materials…

  18. Integrated Science Education Worldwide. International Conference (Nijmegen, Netherlands, March 28-April 7, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council of Associations for Science Education.

    This document contains the full texts of plenary lectures presented at a conference which focused on developments in integrated science education (ISE), between 1968 and 1978, and on issues and new trends in science education in the 1980s and 1990s. These lectures include: (1) "Interaction of Science and Society" (J. C. Terlouw); (2) "A Review of…

  19. A Comparison of the Methodological Quality of Articles in Computer Science Education Journals and Conference Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.; Julnes, George; Bednarik, Roman; Sutinen, Erkki

    2007-01-01

    In this study we empirically investigate the claim that articles published in computer science education journals are more methodologically sound than articles published in computer science education conference proceedings. A random sample of 352 articles was selected from those articles published in major computer science education forums between…

  20. Proceedings of the Redesign in Science Education Conference (RISE) (Columbus, OH, October 20-21, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeth, Michael E., Ed.; Kwon, Hyeoksoon, Ed.; Lee, Gyoungho, Ed.

    This document contains the papers presented at the Redesign in Science Education (RISE) Conference. Papers include: (1) "A Model Development Concept (MDC) for Education: A Framework for Change" (C. K. Barsky, K. G. Wilson, and B. Daviss); (2) "Teaching Science Everyday" (K. L. Scott); (3) "Science Teacher Licensure Requirements in Ohio" (P.…

  1. The O/OREOS Mission - Astrobiology in Low Earth Orbit. [Astrobiology in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Squires, D.; Kitts, C.; Agasid, E.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.; Cook, A.; Mancinelli, R.; Mattioda, A.; Nicholson, W.; Quinn, R.; Santos, O.; Tahu, G.; Voytek, M.; Beasley, C.; Bica, L.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Friedericks, C.; Henschke, M.; Mai, N.; McIntyre, M.; Yost, B.

    2014-01-01

    The O/OREOS (Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses) nanosatellite is the first science demonstration spacecraft and flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small- Payloads Program (ASP). O/OREOS was launched successfully on November 19, 2010, to a high-inclination (72 deg), 650-km Earth orbit aboard a US Air Force Minotaur IV rocket from Kodiak, Alaska. O/OREOS consists of 3 conjoined cubesat (each 1000 cu cm) modules: (i) a control bus; (ii) the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment; and (iii) the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment. Among the innovative aspects of the O/OREOS mission are a real-time analysis of the photostability of organics and biomarkers and the collection of data on the survival and metabolic activity for microorganisms at 3 times during the 6-month mission. We report on the spacecraft characteristics, payload capabilities, and present operational phase and flight data from the O/OREOS mission. The science and technology rationale of O/OREOS supports NASA0s scientific exploration program by investigating the local space environment as well as space biology relevant to Moon and Mars missions. It also serves as a precursor for experiments on small satellites, the International Space Station (ISS), future free-flyers and lunar surface exposure facilities.

  2. National conference on environmental remediation science and technology: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This conference was held September 8--10, 1998 in Greensboro, North Carolina. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on methods and site characterization technologies for environmental monitoring and remedial action planning of hazardous materials. This report contains the abstracts of sixty-one papers presented at the conference.

  3. Proceedings of the Frontiers in Science Education Research Conference, 22 24 March 2009, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus.

    E-print Network

    Brom, Cyril

    Proceedings of the Frontiers in Science Education Research Conference, 22 ­ 24 March 2009, Eastern and animal-like agents Cyril Brom Department of Software and Computer Science Education, Faculty heritage applications, virtual reality environments for cognitive science research, and computational

  4. Astrobiology Sample Analysis as a Design Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.

    2001-01-01

    This effort supports the Astrobiology Objective 8 the Search for LIFE ON MARS PAST AND PRESENT -(Astrobiology Program Office, 1998, p.7). The essential trade analysis is between returning very small samples to the Earth while protecting them versus in situ analysis on Mars. Developing these explicit parameters encompasses design, instrumentation, system integration, human factors and surface operations for both alternatives. This allocation of capability approach incorporates a "humans and machines in the loop" model that recognizes that every exploration system involves both humans and automated systems. The question is where in the loop they occur whether on Earth, in the Mars Base, in the rover or creeping over the Mars surface.

  5. From Titan's chemistry and exobiology to Titan's astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, François

    2015-04-01

    When the IDS proposal « Titan's chemistry and exobiology » was submitted to ESA 25 years ago, in the frame of what will become the Cassini-Huygens mission, Titan was already seen as a quite interesting planetary object in the solar system for Exobiology. Several organic compounds of prebiotic interest were identified in its atmosphere, which was thus was expected to be chemically very active, especially in term of organic processes. Atmospheric aerosols seemed to play a key role in this chemistry. Moreover, the presence of an internal aqueous ocean, compatible with life was suspected. A few years later, when astrobiology was (re)invented, Titan became one of the most interesting planetary target for this new (but very similar to exobiology) field. With the Cassini-Huygens mission, the exo/astrobiological interest of Titan has become more and more important. However, the mission has been providing a vision of Titan quite different from what it was supposed. Its atmospheric organic chemistry is very complex and starts in much higher zones than it was believed before, involving high molecular weight species in the ionosphere. Titan's surface appears to be far from homogeneous: instead of been covered by a global methane-ethane ocean, it is very diversified, with dunes, lakes, bright and dark areas, impact and volcanic craters with potential cryovolcanic activity. These various geological areas are continuously feeded by atmospheric aerosols, which represent an important step in the complexity of Titan's organic chemistry, but probably not the final one. Indeed, after being deposited on the surface, in the potential cryovolvanic zones, these particles may react with water ice and form compounds of exo/astrobiological interest, such as amino acids, purine and pyrimidine bases. Moreover, The Cassini-Huygens data strongly support the potential presence of an internal water ocean, which becomes less and less hypothetical and of great interest for exobiology. These various exobiological aspects of Titan, revealed from Cassini-Huygens observations, especially from the data of the Huygens instruments, coupled to laboratory works, both experimental simulations and modeling, will be quickely reviewed and summarized. References : Raulin, F. (2008), Astrobiology and habitability of Titan, Space Science Reviews 135 (1-4), 37-48 ; Raulin, F. et al. (2012), Prebiotic-like chemistry on Titan. Chemical Society Reviews. 41, 5380-5393 Acknowledgement: Supports from the European Space Agency (ESA) and the French Space Agency (CNES) is deeply acknowledged.

  6. International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-09-01

    The International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015) took place in the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Greece on June 18-20, 2015 and was organized by the Department of Biomedical Engineering. The scope of the conference was to provide a forum on the latest developments in Biomedical Instrumentation and related principles of Physical and Engineering sciences. Scientists and engineers from academic, industrial and health disciplines were invited to participate in the Conference and to contribute both in the promotion and dissemination of the scientific knowledge.

  7. Organization by Gordon Research Conferences of the 2012 Plasma Processing Science Conference 22-27 July 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Chang

    2012-07-27

    The 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in plasma science and technology as well as explore the applications of this nonequilibrium medium in possible approaches relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics and chemistry, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma generation and multi-phase plasmas. Application sessions will explore the impact of plasma technology in renewable energy, the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks and carbon dioxide neutral solar fuels (from carbon dioxide and water), and plasma-enabled medicine and sterilization.

  8. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5-16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept currently under study by a team of partners: NASA's Ames Research Center, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding (1) The evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds and young forming stellar systems, (2) The chemical evolution of organic molecules in the ISM as they transition from AGB outflows to planetary nebulae to the general diffuse ISM to HII regions and dense clouds, (3) The distribution of organics in the diffuse ISM, (4) The nature of organics in the Solar System (in comets, asteroids, satellites), and (5) The nature and distribution of organics in local galaxies. The technical considerations of achieving these science objectives in a MIDEX-sized mission will be presented.

  9. Astrobiology : is humankind ready for the next revolution ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnould, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    The discovery of a first exoplanet, in 1995, did not revolutionize but knocked astronomical sciences over. At the same time, by opening new prospects of research, in particular in the search of planets similar to the Earth and in a possible extraterrestrial life, this discovery, since then abundantly repeated, gave a new breath to the public interest for this scientific field. But is humanity ready to learn the existence from extraterrestrial forms of life or to remain, in spite of its efforts, in ignorance? The question of the plurality of the worlds is one of the oldest interrogations conveyed by the human cultures, as testified by the multiple answers which were brought to it. In the same way, the concept of life is itself an inexhaustible source of philosophical and religious reflexions, with many consequences in moral domains. It is today necessary to accompany the scientific development in the field of astrobiology by attaching the greatest importance to this intellectual patrimony. It constitutes even one of the first stages of an ethical responsibility in astrobiology, as important as that concerning planetary protection.

  10. Conferences

    Cancer.gov

    List of Major Conferences Where NCI Exhibits NCI participates in the following conferences. Check before and during these events to learn about sessions featuring NCI staff and NCI’s booth activities. American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) April

  11. On the First Anthropic Argument in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?irkovi?, Milan M.

    2002-12-01

    We consider the little-known anthropic argument of Fontenelle dealing with the nature of cometary orbits, given a year before the publication of Newton's Principia. This is particularly interesting in view of the rapid development of the recently resurgent theories of cometary catastrophism and their role in the modern astrobiological debates, for instance in the ``rare Earth'' hypothesis of Ward and Brownlee.

  12. ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 3, Number 3, 2003

    E-print Network

    Roopnarine, Peter D.

    ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 3, Number 3, 2003 © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Evaporites, Water, and Life, Part I Complex Morphological Variability in Complex Evaporitic Systems: Thermal Spring Snails from the Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico CAROL M. TANG and PETER D. ROOPNARINE ABSTRACT Thermal springs in evaporitic environments

  13. ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 5, Number 6, 2005

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    --Terrestrial planets--Life--Inner Solar System. Astrobiology 5, 778­795. INTRODUCTION IN TERMS OF PLANETARY EXPLORATION of the inner planets in the Solar System. We are now transitioning into a mode of au- tonomous exploration force of directional selection. Missions to our neighboring planets should therefore be planned

  14. Pioneers of Astrobiology Written in the Stars

    E-print Network

    Seager, Sara

    Pioneers of Astrobiology Written in the Stars Sara Seager Awakening Ifirst really saw the stars, stepping outside the tent, and looking up. I was completely stunned by what I saw. Stars--millions of them guide star was set. I rushed home to tell my father, who immediately harshly lectured that in his view

  15. ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 4, Number 4, 2004

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Russell

    in our Solar System (and beyond), the most likely Earth analogues for extraterrestrial life would those mor- phologically simple life forms would be pre- served in the extraterrestrial rock record and438 ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 4, Number 4, 2004 © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Evaporites, Water, and Life

  16. ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 6, Number 3, 2006

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    or indirectly, by irradiation. The dominant forms of life on Earth either pro- duce or utilize molecular oxygen, and Life JOHN F. COOPER,1 ROBERT E. JOHNSON,2 JOHN D. RICHARDSON,3 and FRANCOIS LEBLANC4 Guest Editors 437 THE ULTIMATE CHALLENGE of astrobiology to- day is to seek and find recognizable signs of life on solar system

  17. ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 2, Number 3, 2002

    E-print Network

    Lineweaver, Charles H.

    ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 2, Number 3, 2002 © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Does the Rapid Appearance of Life% confidence level. This quan- tifies an important term in the Drake Equation but does not necessarily mean with which life appeared on Earth gives us more in- formation. If life were rare it would be unlikely

  18. Understanding the nineteenth century origins of disciplines: lessons for astrobiology today?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazelton, William J.; Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

    2009-10-01

    Astrobiology's goal of promoting interdisciplinary research is an attempt to reverse a trend that began two centuries ago with the formation of the first specialized scientific disciplines. We have examined this era of discipline formation in order to make a comparison with the situation today in astrobiology. Will astrobiology remain interdisciplinary or is it becoming yet another specialty? As a case study, we have investigated effects on the scientific literature when a specialized community is formed by analyzing the citations within papers published during 1802-1856 in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Phil. Trans.), the most important ‘generalist’ journal of its day, and Transactions of the Geological Society of London (Trans. Geol. Soc.), the first important disciplinary journal in the sciences. We find that these two journals rarely cited each other, and papers published in Trans. Geol. Soc. cited fewer interdisciplinary sources than did geology papers in Phil. Trans. After geology had become established as a successful specialized discipline, geologists returned to publishing papers in Phil. Trans., but they wrote in the new, highly specialized style developed in Trans. Geol. Soc. They had succeeded in not only creating a new scientific discipline, but also a new way of doing science with its own modes of research and communication. A similar citation analysis was applied to papers published over the period 2001-2008 in the contemporary journals Astrobiology and the International Journal of Astrobiology to test the hypothesis that astrobiologists are in the early stages of creating their own specialized community. Although still too early to reliably detect any but the largest trends, there is no evidence yet that astrobiologists are drifting into their own isolated discipline. Instead, to date they appear to remain interdisciplinary.

  19. Science, Technology, and the Liberal Arts: Report on a National Conference Held at Lehigh University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutcliffe, Stephen H.; Goldman, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents highlights of a conference which disseminated results of a National Science Foundation (NSF) curriculum development project at Lehigh University (NSF-SER-8005 199, "Elements of Technology in a Liberal Arts Curriculum"). Also discusses activities at other institutions designed to bring science, mathematics, and technology "literacy" into…

  20. European Space Agency European Mars Science and Exploration Conference: Mars Express & ExoMars

    E-print Network

    Withers, Paul

    European Space Agency European Mars Science and Exploration Conference: Mars Express & ExoMars ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 12 - 16 November, 2007 THE STRUCTURE OF THE IONOSPHERE OF MARS AS OBSERVED BY THE MARS EXPRESS RADIO SCIENCE EXPERIMENT M. Pätzold1 , S. Tellmann1 , K. Peter1 , B. Häusler2

  1. Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers from the Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES) are presented. The papers discuss current research in the general field of inverse, semi-inverse, and direct design and optimization in engineering sciences. The rapid growth of this relatively new field is due to the availability of faster and larger computing machines.

  2. Division III Meeting Notes Exley Science Center Conference Rm. 509A

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    1 Division III Meeting Notes Exley Science Center Conference Rm. 509A October 23, 2013 Chair: Jolee in Massachusetts built a shared facility in Holyoke, Massachusetts with state funds with lots of computing power Science servers will be tested (met with Norm Danner and Jim Lipton), and a laptop will be placed

  3. Information Sciences: Conferences, Symposia, Reviews, Supporting Research and STINFO Activities. Vol. IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The bibliography is a compilation of annotated references on information sciences; conferences, symposia, reviews, supporting research, and STINFO (Scientific and Technical Information Project) activities and is volume IV in a four-volume set on information sciences. It is a revision to the unlimited references in the earlier bibliographies,…

  4. Second international AFM BioMed Conference on AFM in life sciences and medicine,

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Sanjay

    Second international AFM BioMed Conference on AFM in life sciences and medicine, 16­18 October 2008 and rapidly growing enthusiasm for the use of AFM in the life sciences and medicine (Parot et al., 2007Med which was organized into five full-length oral sessions, two poster sessions and an evening session

  5. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Science and Technology Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on science and technology libraries which were presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Online Information Service of the Japan Information Center of Science and Technology" (Ryuko Igarashi, Japan); (2) "A View from the Chip--The Influence of Information Technologies on Libraries…

  6. University of Maryland NSFMRSEC Highlight Annual Middle School Student Science Conference (SSC)

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    University of Maryland NSFMRSEC Highlight Annual Middle School Student Science Conference (SSC by sharing their expertise and experiences. ·Creating a Science Community Students reported that the SSC school who had not planned to do so before the SSC. ·Meeting Diversity Goals MRSEC helped to inspire

  7. FOREWORD: 9th Curtin University of Technology Science and Engineering International Conference 2014 (CUTSE2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chieng Chen, Vincent Lee

    2015-04-01

    A very warm welcome to all participants of the 9th Curtin University Technology, Science and Engineering (CUTSE) Conference 2014. This annual conference dates back to 2006 when the first Curtin University of Technology Science and Engineering (CUTSE) Conference was held in Curtin University, Miri Sarawak. CUTSE Conference was initially intended for Curtin's undergraduates such that they are able to experience the presentation of their work in a conference environment. As time passes and following the urge of knowledge dissemination, CUTSE Conference is hence open to public. This year the Department of Mechanical Engineering has been given the honour to organize the 9th CUTSE Conference. It has been a pleasure to watch CUTSE grow from strength to strength over the years. This year, our theme is "Discovering, Innovating and Engineering". We hope that it is in this spirit that CUTSE participants may align their respective work, such that we all aim for a greater and better implementation of "Discovering, Innovating and Engineering". The 9th CUTSE Conference 2014 is an excellent avenue for researchers, engineers, scientists, academicians, professionals from industry and students to share their research findings and initiate further collaborations in their respective fields. Parallel sessions in Mechanical, Electrical, Computer, Civil and Chemical engineering as well as the sciences will be hosted over a period of two days. Each year, the conference attracts participation from a number of countries in addition to Malaysia and Australia. In addition, student participants will get the opportunity to present their research projects and gain valuable feedback from industry professionals. This year the Conference will be organised by the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Curtin Sarawak's School of Engineering and Science in collaboration with The Institute of Engineers Malaysia, Miri Branch. On behalf of the organizing committee, I would like to thank this year's sponsors and supporters. We appreciate your support for CUTSE 2014 and in research and development, and your foresight in nurturing cutting edge research into industrial applications. CUTSE 2014 would not be possible without the dedicated work and efforts of the organizing committee, who worked tirelessly in all aspects of the conference organization. I thank you for your hard work and commitment towards making CUTSE 2014 a success. Selamat Datai (Welcome) and enjoy the conference. Dr Vincent Lee Chieng Chen Organizing Chairperson, 9th CUTSE Conference 2014

  8. A concept for NASA's Mars 2016 astrobiology field laboratory.

    PubMed

    Beegle, Luther W; Wilson, Michael G; Abilleira, Fernando; Jordan, James F; Wilson, Gregory R

    2007-08-01

    The Mars Program Plan includes an integrated and coordinated set of future candidate missions and investigations that meet fundamental science objectives of NASA and the Mars Exploration Program (MEP). At the time this paper was written, these possible future missions are planned in a manner consistent with a projected budget profile for the Mars Program in the next decade (2007-2016). As with all future missions, the funding profile depends on a number of factors that include the exact cost of each mission as well as potential changes to the overall NASA budget. In the current version of the Mars Program Plan, the Astrobiology Field Laboratory (AFL) exists as a candidate project to determine whether there were (or are) habitable zones and life, and how the development of these zones may be related to the overall evolution of the planet. The AFL concept is a surface exploration mission equipped with a major in situ laboratory capable of making significant advancements toward the Mars Program's life-related scientific goals and the overarching Vision for Space Exploration. We have developed several concepts for the AFL that fit within known budget and engineering constraints projected for the 2016 and 2018 Mars mission launch opportunities. The AFL mission architecture proposed here assumes maximum heritage from the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). Candidate payload elements for this concept were identified from a set of recommendations put forth by the Astrobiology Field Laboratory Science Steering Group (AFL SSG) in 2004, for the express purpose of identifying overall rover mass and power requirements for such a mission. The conceptual payload includes a Precision Sample Handling and Processing System that would replace and augment the functionality and capabilities provided by the Sample Acquisition Sample Processing and Handling system that is currently part of the 2009 MSL platform. PMID:17723090

  9. Role of the observer in the scientific process in astrobiology and in defining life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2010-09-01

    The role of the observer in the scientific process has been studied in various contexts, including philosophical. It is notorious that the experiments are theory-loaded, that the observers pick and choose what they consider important based on their scientific and cultural backgrounds, and that the same phenomenon may be studied by different observers from different angles. In this paper we critically review various authors' views of the role of the observer in the scientific process, as they apply to astrobiology. Astrobiology is especially vulnerable to the role of the observer, since it is an interdisciplinary science. Thus, the backgrounds of the observers in the astrobiology field are even more heterogeneous than in the other sciences. The definition of life is also heavily influenced by the observer of life who injects his/her own prejudices in the process of observing and defining life. Such prejudices are often dictated by the state of science, instrumentation, and the science politics at the time, as well as the educational, scientific, cultural and other background of the observer.

  10. Cosmic evolution: the context for astrobiology and its cultural implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2012-10-01

    Astrobiology must be seen in the context of cosmic evolution, the 13.7 billion-year master narrative of the universe. The idea of an evolving universe dates back only to the 19th century, and became a guiding principle for astronomical research only in the second half of the 20th century. The modern synthesis in evolutionary biology hastened the acceptance of the idea in its cosmic setting, as did the confirmation of the Big Bang theory for the origin of the universe. NASA programmes such as Origins incorporated it as a guiding principle. Cosmic evolution encompasses physical, biological and cultural evolution, and may result in a physical, biological or postbiological universe, each with its own implications for long-term human destiny, and each imbuing the meaning of life with different values. It has the status of an increasingly accepted worldview that is beginning to have a profound effect not only in science but also in religion and philosophy.

  11. 1st International Nuclear Science and Technology Conference 2014 (INST2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology has played an important role in many aspects of our lives, including agriculture, energy, materials, medicine, environment, forensics, healthcare, and frontier research. The International Nuclear Science and Technology Conference (INST) aims to bring together scientists, engineers, academics, and students to share knowledge and experiences about all aspects of nuclear sciences. INST has evolved from a series of national conferences in Thailand called Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) Conference, which has been held for 11 times, the first being in 1986. INST2014 was held in August 2014 and hosted by Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT). The theme was "Driving the future with nuclear technology". The conference working language was English. The proceedings were peer reviewed and considered for publication. The topics covered in the conference were: • Agricultural and food applications [AGR] • Environmental applications [ENV] • Radiation processing and industrial applications [IND] • Medical and nutritional applications [MED] • Nuclear physics and engineering [PHY] • Nuclear and radiation safety [SAF] • Other related topics [OTH] • Device and instrument presentation [DEV] Awards for outstanding oral and poster presentations will be given to qualified students who present their work during the conference.

  12. Science Education and the External Perspective on Science A paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on the History and Philosophy of

    E-print Network

    Cobern, William W.

    Science Education and the External Perspective on Science A paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science in Science Teaching, May 11-15, 1992, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada A revised version was published as: Cobern, W. W. (1995). Science

  13. Astrobiology, Mars Exploration and Lassen Volcanic National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The search for evidence of life beyond Earth illustrates how the charters of NASA and the National Park Service share common ground. The mission of NPS is to preserve unimpaired the natural and cultural resources of the National Park System for the enjoyment, education and inspiration of this and future generations. NASA's Astrobiology program seeks to understand the origins, evolution and distribution of life in the universe, and it abides by the principles of planetary stewardship, public outreach, and education. We cannot subject planetary exploration destinations to Earthly biological contamination both for ethical reasons and to preserve their scientific value for astrobiology. We respond to the public's interest in the mysteries of life and the cosmos by honoring their desire to participate in the process of discovery. We involve youth in order to motivate career choices in science and technology and to perpetuate space exploration. The search for evidence of past life on Mars illustrates how the missions of NASA and NPS can become synergistic. Volcanic activity occurs on all rocky planets in our Solar System and beyond, and it frequently interacts with water to create hydrothermal systems. On Earth these systems are oases for microbial life. The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has found evidence of extinct hydrothermal system in Gusev crater, Mars. Lassen Volcanic National Park provides a pristine laboratory for investigating how microorganisms can both thrive and leave evidence of their former presence in hydrothermal systems. NASA scientists, NPS interpretation personnel and teachers can collaborate on field-oriented programs that enhance Mars mission planning, engage students and the public in science and technology, and emphasize the ethics of responsible exploration.

  14. FROM INTERSTELLAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND ICE TO ASTROBIOLOGY

    E-print Network

    1 FROM INTERSTELLAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND ICE TO ASTROBIOLOGY LOUIS J. ALLAMANDOLA hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by earlier interstellar chemistry standards, is widespread

  15. Are We All There Is? Astrobiology in Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, L.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation will address public interest in, opinions about, and interpretations of scientific studies of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe, including the rise and fall and resurrection of the scientific search for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligent life. Astrobiology’s attention to the cultural dimensions of scientific research - societal, ethical, philosophical - will be covered. Depictions of astrobiology in scientific culture and in popular culture will be compared and contrasted, and interactions between scientific and popular culture with regard to astrobiology will be considered.

  16. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on 'How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary U.S. Science Teaching?'

    E-print Network

    Garik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary U.S. Science Teaching? The presentations of the conference speakers and the reports of the working groups are reviewed. Multiple themes emerged for K-16 education from the perspective of the history and philosophy of science. Key ones were that: students need to understand that central to science is argumentation, criticism, and analysis; students should be educated to appreciate science as part of our culture; students should be educated to be science literate; what is meant by the nature of science as discussed in much of the science education literature must be broadened to accommodate a science literacy that includes preparation for soci...

  17. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  18. Eleventh International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences 7 11 October 2007, Paris, FRANCE

    E-print Network

    Eleventh International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences 7 ­ 11 International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences 7 ­ 11 October 2007, Paris), prolonged incubation time is unavoidable to reach sufficient primary binding. The presented integrated

  19. The Fifteenth International Conference on the Science and Application of Nanotubes (NT14)

    SciTech Connect

    cronin, stephen

    2015-01-06

    The Fifteenth International Conference on the Science and Application of Nanotubes (NT14) was held at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California on June 2-6, 2014. NT14 upheld the NT tradition of presenting the latest results in the science and applications of nanotubes and related materials in plenary sessions. Emphasis was given to convivial poster sessions and student participation. Over 225 participants attended the conference, including students, post-docs, faculty, and members from industry. A total of 45 talks were presented, as well as 157 posters.

  20. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on "How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

    2014-01-01

    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: "How Can the History and Philosophy of…

  1. WHAT IS WEB OF SCIENCE? Search over 12,000 journals and 148,000 conference proceedings across the sciences, social sciences,

    E-print Network

    1 WHAT IS WEB OF SCIENCE? Search over 12,000 journals and 148,000 conference proceedings across connections between articles that are established by the expert researchers working in your field. WEB in the Web of Science. Select AND, OR, NOT to change the relationship between search fields. Add another

  2. Perspectives of women of color in science-based education and careers. Summary of the conference on diversity in science

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Research on inequality or stratification in science and engineering tends to concentrate on black/white or male/female difference; very few studies have discussions of both race and gender. Consequently, very little is known about the exact course that women of color take in science-based education and employment or about the course that steers them out of science-based careers. Questions abound: What are the environmental factors that affect the choices in education and science-based careers of women of color? What has influenced women of color who currently are in science-based careers? Is critical mass important and, if so, what are the keys to increasing it? What recommendations can be made to colleges and universities, faculty members, employers, the federal government, women of color themselves, and to improve the conditions and numbers of women of color in science-based careers? These questions prompted the National Research Council`s Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE) to convene a conference on Diversity in Science: Perspectives on the Retention of Minority Women in Science, Engineering, and Health-Care Professions, held on October 21--23, 1995. Confronting the problem of the lack of knowledge about the journey of women of color in science-based education and career, the conference offered opportunities for these women to describe the paths that they have taken and to identify strategies for success. Their perspectives ground this report. For purposes of this document, women of color include women in the following racial or ethnic groups: Hispanics, African-Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indians and Alaskan Natives. Science-based careers include those in the physical sciences and mathematics, life sciences, social sciences, and engineering.

  3. Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities PSI at DLR for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Panitz, C.; Reitz, G.

    2008-09-01

    Ground based experiments, conducted in the controlled planetary and space environment simulation facilities PSI at DLR, are used to investigate astrobiological questions and to complement the corresponding experiments in LEO, for example on free flying satellites or on space exposure platforms on the ISS. In-orbit exposure facilities can only accommodate a limited number of experiments for exposure to space parameters like high vacuum, intense radiation of galactic and solar origin and microgravity, sometimes also technically adapted to simulate extraterrestrial planetary conditions like those on Mars. Ground based experiments in carefully equipped and monitored simulation facilities allow the investigation of the effects of simulated single environmental parameters and selected combinations on a much wider variety of samples. In PSI at DLR, international science consortia performed astrobiological investigations and space experiment preparations, exposing organic compounds and a wide range of microorganisms, reaching from bacterial spores to complex microbial communities, lichens and even animals like tardigrades to simulated planetary or space environment parameters in pursuit of exobiological questions on the resistance to extreme environments and the origin and distribution of life. The Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities PSI of the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at DLR in Köln, Germany, providing high vacuum of controlled residual composition, ionizing radiation of a X-ray tube, polychromatic UV radiation in the range of 170-400 nm, VIS and IR or individual monochromatic UV wavelengths, and temperature regulation from -20°C to +80°C at the sample size individually or in selected combinations in 9 modular facilities of varying sizes are presented with selected experiments performed within.

  4. Development and testing of a Europa Penetrator for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijendran, S.; Perkinson, M.-C.; Waugh, L.; Ratcliffe, A.; Kennedy, T.; Church, P.; Fielding, J.; Taylor, N.

    2014-04-01

    Two phases of Penetrator development activities have been funded by ESA. The first phase focussed on the mission and system definition of a penetrator and delivery system for a mission to Europa and the second phase provided an update of the penetrator design for a larger suite of instruments focused on astrobiology and the demonstration of key system technologies through a programme of small scale and full scale testing. The science focus for the Europa penetrator is Astrobiology while the key science goals can be achieved within the first day of operation but a longer lifetime is required for the transmission of the science data to the orbiter. The extreme temperature environment of the Europan surface drove the design to a solution of a Penetrator with two separate bays. The front bay will be a short lifetime bay which will sample the surface and complete all analysis and data transfer within 10 hours. The rear bay is a warm bay which will house EPSC Abstracts Vol. 9, EPSC2014-642, 2014 European Planetary Science Congress 2014 c Author(s) 2014 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress the penetrator support systems required to transmit all collected data to the orbiter. The scientific instruments housed by the penetrator includeds a optical microimager, a habitability package and a mass spectrometer. A drilling and sampling mechanism is used for accessing the icy material outside the Penetrator for analysis. Small scale trails have been undertaken at the University of Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory to validate the impact modelling techniques and the robustness of critical components. A range of trials have been carried out to assess survivability of key elements of the design, including the sampling mechanism, potting compounds, accelerometers, shell, batteries and Torlon suspension springs. Full scale trials have been carried out to test the overall structural integrity of the system and the penetration profile. This programme was carried out in June 2013 at the MoD test range in Pendine South Wales. Two targets (sand and ice) were used to test the survivability of the design for missions to different planetary surfaces. This paper will present the Penetrator design and the results of the successful test campaigns and the next steps required in the Penetrator

  5. PREFACE: 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013), was held at the Swiss Bell Mangga Besar, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 23 December 2013. The AeroEarth conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. AeroEarth 2013 promotes interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that high-level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Earth Science. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 91 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from 8 countries. There are 3 (three) Plenary Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of AeroEarth 2013. The AeroEarth 2013 Proceedings Editors Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Dr. Benfano Soewito Dr. Amit Desai Further information on the invited plenary speakers and photographs from the conference can be found in the pdf.

  6. Miniature GC: Minicell ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for astrobiology planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or longer mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. We describe here the development of a miniature GC - Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) under development through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA's Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  7. Lower Secondary Students' Views in Astrobiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Astrobiology is, on a profound level, about whether life exists outside of the planet Earth. The question of existence of life elsewhere in the universe has been of interest to many societies throughout history. Recently, the research area of astrobiology has grown at a fast rate, mainly due to the development of observational methods, and the…

  8. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCES IN PLANT SCIENCES (ICAPS 2012)

    E-print Network

    (University of Stellenbosch) In November 2012, the V Sivaram Research Foundation in association with Century presented a paper, on the "Systematic reassessment of Oxalis (Oxalidaceae) in southern Africa". After in Tree Health Biotechnology (CTHB), for sponsoring the attendance of the conference. #12;

  9. 2011 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record NPl.M-225 Graphene Field Effect Transistor

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yong P.

    variety of applications like nuclear security, medicine, and basic research. a. b. Radiat2011 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record NPl.M-225 Graphene Field Effect Transistor of special nuclear material (SNM) is a topic of considerable current interest. Based on the exceptional

  10. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Biological and Medical Science Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on biological and medical science libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The International Programs of the National Library of Medicine" (Lois Ann Colaianni, United States); (2) "Information Needs for International Health. A CDC (Centers for Disease…

  11. Proceedings of the 6th International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering & Technology Conference

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Proceedings of the 6th International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering & Technology Conference FuelCell2008 June 16-18, 2008, Denver, Colorado, USA DRAFT FuelCell2008-65113 PART II OF II: DEPLOYMENT OF MERESS MODEL -- DESIGNING, CONTROLLING, AND INSTALLING STATIONARY COMBINED HEAT AND POWER (CHP) FUEL CELL

  12. Proceedings of FUELCELL2006 The 4th International Conference on FUEL CELL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING and TECHNOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Yao, Bin

    Proceedings of FUELCELL2006 The 4th International Conference on FUEL CELL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING and TECHNOLOGY June 19-21, 2006, Irvine, CA FUELCELL2006-97067 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A MODERN PEM FUEL CELL and advances in hydrogen/air Proton Ex- change Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are incorporated into a dynamic

  13. Undergraduate Education in the Plant and Soil Sciences, Proceedings of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

    The proceedings of the 1967 Conference on Undergraduate Teaching in the Plant and Soil Sciences are presented in this publication. Seven individual presentations and reports from ten working groups review the adequacy and effectiveness of courses and curricula for undergraduate students; discuss instructional materials, methods, and equipment that…

  14. Fifth Annual UT Dallas Frontiers of Research in Marketing Science UT Dallas FORMS Conference

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    pricing, retail competition, price discrimination and Internet marketing. Recently, he has workedFifth Annual UT Dallas Frontiers of Research in Marketing Science UT Dallas FORMS Conference The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080­3021 The Marketing Group

  15. in Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society Erlbaum: Hillsdale NJ

    E-print Network

    Davis, Matt

    in Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society Erlbaum is a dictionary word. For an alternative suggestion see Marslen-Wilson (1996). probabilities (Hayes and Clark in a 20 000 word dictionary are non-unique at their offset, similarly McQueen et al. (1995) have shown

  16. International Scientific Conference Computer Science'2006 Compiling a Turkish-English Bilingual Corpus and

    E-print Network

    Güngör, Tunga

    International Scientific Conference Computer Science'2006 Compiling a Turkish-English Bilingual discuss the compilation of a bilingual Turkish-English corpus and propose a method for sentence alignment-fold: First, we aim at compiling a reliable and comprehensive bilingual Turkish-English corpus

  17. 2005 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) MSM-Based Integrated CMOS Wavelength Tunable

    E-print Network

    Miller, David A. B.

    JTuC72 2005 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) MSM-Based Integrated CMOS: We present a novel MSM wavelength selective photodetector, integrated with its CMOS driver of itself to form an interference pattem on top ofthe fingers ofa metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM

  18. NT10 Eleventh International Conference on the Science and Application of Nanotubes Poster Board | 152

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    154 NT10 Eleventh International Conference on the Science and Application of Nanotubes Poster Board. Poster Board | 154 Effects of physical properties of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on electrical by static/cyclic heating and its underlying mechanism in the nanotube composite. Poster Board | 159 Thermal

  19. Preface: 7th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jinn P.; Hsiung, Gao-Yu; Huang, Weixin; Luo, Meng-Fan; Chiu, Ya-Ping; Horng, Ray-Hua; Hasegawa, Shuji; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2015-11-01

    This special issue contains the papers selected from those presented at the 7th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-7) held on the campus of National Tsing Hua University in Hsinchu city in Taiwan on October 5-9, 2014.

  20. OpTeC Annual Meeting Agenda 1 11 Sept. 2014 Optical Science & Engineering Conference

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    OpTeC Annual Meeting Agenda 1 11 Sept. 2014 Optical Science & Engineering Conference Ballroom A ­ Strand Union Building Montana State University Bozeman, Montana Presented by the MSU Optical Technology 8:30 am Tom Baur ­ invited speaker President of Meadowlark Optics, Frederick, Colorado Optical

  1. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Biological and Medical Sciences Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Four papers on biological and medical sciences libraries were presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. "Activities and Services of Medical Libraries in Japan--Past, Present, and Future" (Kazuo Urata and Toshinobu Suga, Japan) discusses the inauguration of the Japan Medical Library Association…

  2. AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science 2010 Page 1 of 10 Guimares, Portugal

    E-print Network

    13th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science 2010 Page 1 of 10 Guimarães in separate views and so current software do not capitalize on the human visual processing engine to extract, time-focused scheduling charts such as Lifelines (Plaisant et al., 1998) or Microsoft (MS) Project

  3. European Space Agency European Mars Science and Exploration Conference: Mars Express & ExoMars

    E-print Network

    Withers, Paul

    European Space Agency European Mars Science and Exploration Conference: Mars Express & ExoMars@arm.ac.uk Mars, like the Earth, encounters meteoroids of various sizes, composition and origin during its orbital trek around the Sun. Those meteoroids' mass and kinetic energy are incorporated into the Martian

  4. From systems chemistry to systems astrobiology: life in the universe as an emergent phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    2013-01-01

    Although astrobiology is a science midway between the life and physical sciences, it has surprisingly remained largely disconnected from recent trends in certain branches of both life and physical sciences. We discuss potential applications to astrobiology of approaches that aim at integrating rather than reducing. Aiming at discovering how systems properties emerge has proved valuable in chemistry and in biology. The systems approach should also yield insights into astrobiology, especially concerning the ongoing search for alternative abodes for life. This is feasible since new data banks in the case of astrobiology - considered as a branch of biology - are of a geophysical/astronomical kind, rather than the molecular biology data that are used for questions related firstly, to genetics in a systems context and secondly, to biochemistry for solving fundamental problems, such as protein or proteome folding. By focusing on how systems properties emerge in astrobiology we consider the question: can life in the universe be interpreted as an emergent phenomenon? In the search for potential habitable worlds in our galactic sector with current space missions, extensive data banks of geophysical parameters of exoplanets are rapidly emerging. We suggest that it is timely to consider life in the universe as an emergent phenomenon that can be approached with methods beyond the science of chemical evolution - the backbone of previous research in questions related to the origin of life. The application of systems biology to incorporate the emergence of life in the universe is illustrated with a diagram for the familiar case of our own planetary system, where three Earth-like planets are within the habitable zone (HZ) of a G2 V (the complete terminology for the Sun in the Morgan-Keenan system) star. We underline the advantage of plotting the age of Earth-like planets against large atmospheric fraction of a biogenic gas, whenever such anomalous atmospheres are discovered in these worlds. A prediction is made as to the nature of the atmospheres of the planets that lie in the stellar HZs.

  5. PREFACE: 23rd International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT-23)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Satish C.

    2012-07-01

    The 23rd AIRAPT International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology was held at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, from 25-30 September 2011. This conference is part of the series of AIRAPT International Conferences which are held biennially. AIRAPT is an acronym for the French title which translates as 'International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology'. This was the second time the AIRAPT Conference was organized in India. The first was held 20 years ago at the National Aeronautical Laboratory, Bangalore in 1991. The 23rd Conference covered many important topics in the area of both static and dynamic high pressures including theoretical and experimental investigations on the response of materials under high pressures, new developments using neutron and synchrotron sources, investigations on superconductivity under high pressure, studies of geophysical and planetary sciences, biosciences, and the synthesis of new materials. The conference program included Bridgman award lecture, Jemieson award lecture, seven plenary talks, 85 invited talks, 83 oral presentations and about 195 posters. In all there were 372 presentations. 285 scientists from 19 countries participated in the conference. The countries represented included Austria, Canada, China, Estonia, France, Germany, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Nepal, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, Ukraine and USA. Many new developments were presented, for example, measurement techniques using the new generation synchrotron sources, more powerful neutron sources and much brighter laser sources; integration of gas-gun with synchrotron source; the achievement of multi-megabar pressures in shock-less dynamic compressions; and capabilities to synthesize centimeter size diamonds with better quality. All these developments have opened up new opportunities for understanding the physics of materials under high pressures. I would like to thank all those who have made valuable contributions to the success of the conference, which include the members of the AIRAPT executive committee, the International Advisory Committee and National Advisory Committee, the plenary speakers, invited speakers, the chairmen of various sessions, all the participants, and the authors of the papers in this volume. All the papers accepted for the proceedings have been reviewed by two independent referees. I am extremely thankful to all the anonymous referees, who have spent their valuable time to ensure the quality of the papers of this volume. I wish to express my gratitude to the members of the Local Organizing Committee for their help and hard work for the success of the conference. Finally, I convey my special thanks to Dr T C Kaushik and Dr K D Joshi, who worked tirelessly and enthusiastically towards making this conference a success. I am confident that this volume of the Conference proceedings will provide an excellent source of information on the current trends in the field of High Pressure Science and Technology. Satish C Gupta Conference Chairman 25-30 September 2011 Conference logo Conference photograph

  6. Mars Atmospheric Chemistry and Astrobiology Workshop Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M.; Wennberg, P.

    2002-09-01

    The Mars Atmospheric Chemistry and Astrobiology (MACA) Workshop was held on the California Institute of Technology campus December 17-18, 2001. The prime objective of the workshop was to consider whether extant life beneath the surface, if it exists, would be in contact with the atmosphere and introduce a detectable signature in the atmosphere. To answer this question, the workshop also explored how well we understood the abiotic chemistry of the current atmosphere and other drivers of atmospheric composition (volcanoes, surface-atmosphere interactions, escape). The conclusions from this workshop will be presented.

  7. From Astrochemistry to Astrobiology: a methodological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, L.; Danger, G.

    2015-10-01

    Astrochemistry is a well-established discipline of astrophysics devoted mainly to the chemistry that is observed in the interstellar medium. Complex organic molecules are found in many different environments, mainly in molecular clouds in star forming regions. However, it is not clear if these molecules, often presented as prebiotic, are indeed involved in the process leading to life emergence on a planet. Based on astronomical arguments and on different laboratory experiments aiming at the simulation of interstellar ices, we examine the possible connection between astrochemistry and astrobiology.

  8. 2014 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    2014 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2014), was held at the Media Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 13-14 January 2014. The ScieTech 2014 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. ScieTech 2014 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 187 papers and after rigorous review, 50 papers were accepted. The participants come from 16 countries. There are 5 (Five) Paralell Sessions and Four Keynote Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of ScieTech 2014. The Editors of the Scietech 2014 Proceedings: Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Dr. Benfano Soewito Dr. P.N. Gajjar

  9. PREFACE: 2013 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford

    2013-03-01

    The 2013 International Conference on Science and Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2013), was held at the Aston Rasuna Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 24-25 January 2013. The ScieTech 2013 conference aims to bring together scholars, leading researchers and experts from diverse backgrounds and applications areas. Special emphasis is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics, all areas of sciences and applied mathematics. We would like to thank the invited and plenary speakers as well as all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program. This year, we received 197 papers and, after rigorous review, 67 papers were accepted. The participants come from 21 countries. There are 6 (six) Plenary and Invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and we thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed ScieTech 2013 be be sucyh a success. The Editors of the ScieTech 2013 Proceedings Dr Ford Lumban Gaol Dr Hoga Saragih Tumpal Pandiangan Dr Mohamed Bououdina The PDF also contains the abstracts of the Invited and Plenary talks, and some photographs taken during the conference.

  10. LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

  11. A review of "Making Science Social: The Conferences of Theophraste Renaudot 1633-1642" by Kathleen Wellman. 

    E-print Network

    Karol K. Weaver

    2004-01-01

    and instructive work. Kathleen Wellman. Making Science Social: The Conferences of Th?ophraste Renaudot 1633-1642. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003. xviii + 461 pp. + 4 illus. $39.95. Review by KAROL K. WEAVER, SUSQUEHANNA UNIVERSITY. Kathleen... Wellman?s Making Science Social: The Conferences of Th?ophraste Renaudot 1633-1642 traces the history of the seven- teenth-century conferences led by Th?ophraste Renaudot to eluci- date the characteristics of early seventeenth-century science, to show...

  12. Merged beams studies for astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Daniel Wolf; Miller, Kenneth A.; O'Connor, Aodh P.; de Ruette, Nathalie; Stuetzel, Julia; Urbain, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    The chain of chemical reactions leading towards life is thought to begin in molecular clouds when atomic carbon and oxygen react with H3+,leading to the formation of complex organic molecules and of water. Uncertainties in the rate coefficients for these reactions hinder our ability to understand the first links in the chemical chain leading towards life. Theory and experiment have yet to converge in either the magnitude or temperature dependence. We have developed a novel merged beam apparatus to study these reactions at the low collision energies relevant for molecular cloud studies. Photodetachment of atomic anion beams is used to produce beams of neutral C and O, each in their ground term as occurs in molecular clouds. The neutral beam is then merged with a velocity matched, co-propagating H3+beam. The merged beams method allows us to use fast beams (keV in the lab frame), which are easy to handle and monitor, while being able to achieve relative collision energies down to ~ 10 meV. Using the measured merged-beams rate coefficient, we are able to extract cross sections that we can then convolve with a Maxwellian energy spread to generate a thermal rate coefficient for molecular cloud temperatures. Here we report recent results. This work was funded, in part, by the NSF Division of Astronomical Sciences.

  13. Taking the initiative: A leadership conference for women in science and engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference sprang from discussions on the current climate that women face in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. The conference (and this document) is a beginning, not a culmination, of women's learning leadership skills. Conferees were active, articulate, energetic, and ready to learn leadership qualities, some of which seem universal, others that appear to require skills in specific fields. After the introduction, the workshops and presentations are arranged under vision and direction, barriers, alignment and communication, and motivation and inspiration. Some statistics are presented on women degrees and employment in various fields.

  14. Press abstracts of the 21st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Program Committee for the Twenty-fisrt Lunar and Planetary Science Conference has chosen these contributions as having the greatest potential interest for the general public. The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. More technical abstracts will be found in Lunar and Planetary Science XXI. Representative titles are: Ancient Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions on Mars: Global Model and Geological Evidence; Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Ordinary Chondrites and Their Chondrules; Exposure Ages and Collisional History of L-Chondrite Parent Bodies; Models of Solar-Powered Geysers on Triton; and Search for Life: A Science Rationale for a Permanent Base on Mars.

  15. Developing the critical thinking skills of astrobiology students through creative and scientific inquiry.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jamie S; Lemus, Judith D

    2015-01-01

    Scientific inquiry represents a multifaceted approach to explore and understand the natural world. Training students in the principles of scientific inquiry can help promote the scientific learning process as well as help students enhance their understanding of scientific research. Here, we report on the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry, as well as provide practical exercises to build critical thinking skills. The module contained three distinct components: (1) a creative inquiry activity designed to introduce concepts regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry; (2) guidelines to help astrobiology students formulate and self-assess questions regarding various scientific content and imagery; and (3) a practical exercise where students were allowed to watch a scientific presentation and practice their analytical skills. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess the students' perceptions regarding creative and scientific inquiry and whether this activity impacted their understanding of the scientific process. Survey results indicate that the exercise helped improve students' science skills by promoting awareness regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry and building their confidence in formulating and assessing scientific questions. Together, the module and survey results confirm the need to include such inquiry-based activities into the higher education classroom, thereby helping students hone their critical thinking and question asking skill set and facilitating their professional development in astrobiology. PMID:25474292

  16. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5- 16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Furthermore, the presence of D-enriched organics in meteorites suggests that a portion of these materials survives incorporation into protosolar nebulae. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials in space nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are currently well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept designed to use infrared spectroscopy to address outstanding problems in Astrochemistry which are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and are amenable to astronomical observation. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE was selected for Phase A study during the last MIDEX AO round, but has yet to be selected for flight.

  17. An Explorer-Class Astrobiology Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott; Greene, Thomas; Allamandola, Louis; Arno, Roger; Bregman, Jesse; Cox, Sylvia; Davis, Paul K.; Gonzales, Andrew; Haas, Michael; Hanel, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we describe a potential new Explorer-class space mission, the AstroBiology Explorer (ABE), consisting of a relatively modest dedicated space observatory having a 50 cm aperture primary mirror which is passively cooled to T less than 65 K, resides in a low-background orbit (heliocentric orbit at 1 AU, Earth drift-away), and is equipped with a suite of three moderate order (m approx. 10) dispersive spectrographs equipped with first-order cross-dispersers in an "echellette" configuration and large format (1024xl024 pixel) near- and mid-IR detector arrays cooled by a modest amount of cryogen. Such a system would be capable of addressing outstanding problems in Astrochemistry and Astrophysics that are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and addressable via astronomical observation. The observational program of this mission would make fundamental scientific progress in each of the key areas of the cosmic history of molecular carbon, the distribution and chemistry of organic compounds in the diffuse and dense interstellar media, and the evolution of ices and organic matter in young planetary systems. ABE could make fundamental progress in all of these areas by conducting an approximately one year mission to obtain a coordinated set of infrared spectroscopic observations over the 2.5-20 micrometers spectral range at spectral resolutions of R greater than or equal to 1000 of approximately 1000 galaxies, stars, planetary nebulae, and young star planetary systems.

  18. Astrobiological landscape: a platform for the neo-Copernican synthesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?irkovi?, Milan M.; Vukoti?, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    We live in the epoch of explosive development of astrobiology, a novel interdisciplinary field dealing with the origin, evolution and the future of life. The relationship between cosmology and astrobiology is much deeper than it is usually assumed - besides a similarity in the historical model of development of these two disciplines, there is an increasing number of crossover problems and thematic areas which stem from considerations of Copernicanism and observation selection effects. Such a crossover area is both visualized and heuristically strengthened by introduction of the astrobiological landscape, describing complexity of life in the most general context. We argue that this abstract landscape-like structure in the space of astrobiological parameters is a concept capable of unifying different strands of thought and research, a working concept and not only a metaphor. By analogy with phase spaces of complex physical systems, we can understand the astrobiological landscape as a set of viable evolutionary histories of life in a particular region of space. It is a notion complementary to the classical concept of biological morphological space, underscoring the fact that modern astrobiology offers a prospect of both foundational support and vast extension of the domain of applicability of the Darwinian biological evolution. Such a perspective would strengthen foundations upon which various numerical models can be built; the lack of such quantitative models has often been cited as the chief weakness of the entire astrobiological enterprise.

  19. Miniature GC-Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) for In Situ Measurements in Astrobiology Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or ionger mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. The miniCometary Ice and Dust Experiment (miniCIDEX), which combined Gas Chromatography (GC) with helium Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), was capable of providing the wide range of analytical information required for Astrobiology missions. The IMS used here was based on the PCP model 111 IMS. A similar system, the Titan Ice and Dust Experiment (TIDE), was proposed as part of the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission (TOAM). Newer GC systems employing Micro Electro- Mechanical System (MEMS) based technology have greatly reduced both the size and resource requirements for space GCs. These smaller GCs, as well as the continuing miniaturization of Astrobiology analytical instruments in general, has highlighted the need for smaller, dry helium IMS systems. We describe here the development of a miniature, MEMS GC-IMS system (MEMS GC developed by Thorleaf Research Inc.), employing the MiniCell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS), from Ion Applications Inc., developed through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  20. Earth Science Education for the 21st Century Conference (Alexandria, Virginia, April 19-23, 1988). Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Geological Inst., Alexandria, VA.

    This meeting initiates the planning of new guidelines and a framework for teaching the earth sciences from kindergarten through grade 12. The conference report serves as a discussion paper for a series of American Geological Institute (AGI) regional conferences scheduled for fall and winter, 1988-89. It also provides background for an advisory…

  1. UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES FOR STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES, PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    REPORTED ARE THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1966 CONFERENCE WHICH DEALT WITH UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES. THE 167 EDUCATORS (MOSTLY DEANS AND DIRECTORS OF RESIDENT INSTRUCTION) WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE CONFERENCE REPRESENTED AGRICULTURE, RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES, THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, AND…

  2. Undergraduate Education in the Sciences for Students in Agriculture and Natural Resources. Summary of Proceedings of Regional Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

    Following a national conference entitled, "Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences for Students in Agriculture and Natural Resources," four regional conferences ensued, bringing together teaching faculty members from agriculture, forestry, other natural resource areas, and biology. The papers presented at these regional meetings are…

  3. Conference of the Society for Literature and Science. Proceedings (Los Angeles, California, November 2-5, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labinger, Jay, Ed.

    The papers contained in this proceedings from the 1995 Society for Literature and Science Conference are organized into sections with the following themes: (1) Metaphor and Science; (2) The Technological Invasion of the Living Space; (3) Autobiographies and Biographies of Scientists; (4) Science and 19th Century Literature; (5) Visions of the…

  4. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

    2014-09-01

    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching? The presentations of the conference speakers and the reports of the working groups are reviewed. Multiple themes emerged for K-16 education from the perspective of the history and philosophy of science. Key ones were that: students need to understand that central to science is argumentation, criticism, and analysis; students should be educated to appreciate science as part of our culture; students should be educated to be science literate; what is meant by the nature of science as discussed in much of the science education literature must be broadened to accommodate a science literacy that includes preparation for socioscientific issues; teaching for science literacy requires the development of new assessment tools; and, it is difficult to change what science teachers do in their classrooms. The principal conclusions drawn by the editors are that: to prepare students to be citizens in a participatory democracy, science education must be embedded in a liberal arts education; science teachers alone cannot be expected to prepare students to be scientifically literate; and, to educate students for scientific literacy will require a new curriculum that is coordinated across the humanities, history/social studies, and science classrooms.

  5. The Religion/Science Controversy: The Use and Abuse of Science in the Defense of Religion. Proceedings of a Conference (Westville, Indiana, October 5, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanagy, Sherman P., II, Ed.

    Science and religion have been referred to as the two strongest general forces which influence humankind. This document contains the proceedings of a conference which was held to address some of the relationships and controversies surrounding these topics. Included are the texts of the major papers presented at the conference. These are: (1)…

  6. Science Education in Rural and Small Schools. Proceedings from the Rural and Small Schools Conferences, Science Education Sections: 1985-1987 (Manhattan, Kansas).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pembleton, Sil, Ed.; And Others

    For several years at the Rural and Small Schools Conference, a special effort has been made to address the needs that are unique to rural science educators. This publication is a compilation of materials presented at those conferences reflecting the following themes: "In Search of Excellence" (1985); "Rural Education: A Proud Heritage and a Bright…

  7. Sixteenth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Press abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A broad range of topics concerned with lunar and planetary science are discussed. Topics among those included are, the sun, the planets, comets, meteorities, asteroids, satellites, space exploration, and the significance of these to Earth.

  8. From Clark Lake to the Long Wavelength Array: Bill Erickson's Radio Science ASP Conference Series, Vol. 345, 2005

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    From Clark Lake to the Long Wavelength Array: Bill Erickson's Radio Science ASP Conference Series Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA M. J. Reiner The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Ave. N

  9. Research in Science Education, Volume 1990. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (21st, Perth, Western Australia, July 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains selected refereed papers from the 21st Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association. The papers are as follows: "A Learning Model for Science Education: Developing Teaching Strategies" (Appleton); "Researching Balance between Cognition and Affect in Science Teaching" (Baird et al.); "Toward a…

  10. PREFACE: 1st International Conference in Applied Physics and Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    We are delighted to come up with thirty two (32) contributed research papers in these proceedings, focusing on Materials Science and Applied Physics as an output of the 2013 International Conference in Applied Physics and Materials Science (ICAMS2013) held on October 22-24, 2013 at the Ateneo de Davao University, Davao City, Philippines. The conference was set to provide a high level of international forum and had brought together leading academic scientists, industry professionals, researchers and scholars from universities, industries and government agencies who have shared their experiences, research results and discussed the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted as well as the advances in the fields of Applied Physics and Materials Science. This conference has provided a wide opportunity to establish multidisciplinary collaborations with local and foreign experts. ICAMS2013, held concurrently with 15th Samahang Pisika ng Visayas at Mindanao (SPVM) National Physics Conference and 2013 International Meeting for Complex Systems, was organized by the Samahang Pisika ng Visayas at Mindanao (Physics Society of Visayas and Mindanao) based in MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines. The international flavor of converging budding researchers and experts on Materials Science and Applied Physics was the first to be organized in the 19 years of SPVM operation in the Philippines. We highlighted ICAMS2013 gathering by the motivating presence of Dr. Stuart Parkin, a British Physicist, as one of our conference's plenary speakers. Equal measures of gratitude were also due to all other plenary speakers, Dr. Elizabeth Taylor of Institute of Physics (IOP) in London, Dr. Surya Raghu of Advanced Fluidics in Maryland, USA and Prof. Hitoshi Miyata of Niigata University, Japan, Prof. Djulia Onggo of Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia, and Dr. Hironori Katagiri of Nagaoka National College of Technology, Japan. The warm hospitality of the host university, Ateneo de Davao University, Davao City, Philippines blended with the overwhelming enthusiasm of the conference speakers, participants, and the unwavering support of the conference sponsors and donors and the administration of the MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines, all have brought realization to the production of these proceedings.

  11. The AGU Chapman Conference on Communicating Climate Science: A Historic Look to the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; Rasch, P. J.; Andronova, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union hosted a Chapman Conference on Communicating Climate Science at Snow Mountain Ranch, Granby, Colorado, June 8-13, 2013. The goal of the Chapman Conference was to bring together scholars, social scientists and journalists to discuss the history, and more importantly, the present and future of climate change communication. We met to evaluate our current and needed communication capacity, and to develop ways and means to convey advances in the understanding of climate science. Delegates discussed and presented methods and capacity to communicate to policymakers, the media, and society. Our focus was on the efficacy of scientific communication, on improving communication practices, and on building collaborations spawned at the conference, and beyond. The Chapman was a success. Close to 150 of us gathered high in the Colorado Rockies to share almost 100 presentations and nearly 10 hours of group discussions focused on ways and means to better bring the climate change message to society, to educators and policymakers in North America and around the world. This presentation will focus on the outcomes of the Chapman Climate Change Communication Conference; the conclusions of the delegate community; and directions forward.

  12. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (editor); Hariharan, P. C. (editor); Blasso, L. G. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990s.

  13. Astrobiological Research on Tardigrades: Implications for Extraterrestrial Life Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, D. D.

    2013-11-01

    Tardigrades have been considered as a model for astrobiological studies based on their tolerance to extreme environments. Future research on tardigrades might provide important insight into the possibilities of existence of multicellular life forms.

  14. Joining Astrobiology to Medicine, Resurrecting Ancient Alcohol Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, M. A.; Uryasev, O.; Davis, R. W.; Chamberlin, S. G.; Benner, S. A.

    2010-04-01

    We apply an astrobiological approach to understand how primates responded to the emergence of ethanol in their environment by resurrecting two enzymes involved in the degradation of ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrgenase.

  15. Possible Role of a Medical Microbiologist in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Roy, B. K.

    2010-04-01

    Studies of microorganisms present in human body often reveal many extremophiles, silicon-utilizing microorganisms, mutation processes, coacervates etc., thus a medical microbiologist can also take a part in studies on astrobiology in this way.

  16. IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

  17. PREFACE: 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan Bhatti, Javaid; Hussain, Talib; Khan, Wakil

    2013-06-01

    The Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) conference series has been organized to create a new forum in Asia and Australia to discuss vacuum, surface and related sciences, techniques and applications. The conference series is officially endorsed by the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Application (IUVSTA). The International Steering Committee of VASSCAA is comprised of Vacuum Societies in seven countries: Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Pakistan. VASSCAA-1 was organized by the Vacuum Society of Japan in 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. VASSCAA-2 was held in 2002 in Hong Kong, VASSCAA-3 in Singapore in 2005. VASSCAA-4 was held in Matsue, Japan in 2008 and VASSCAA-5 in 2010 in Beijing, China. The 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6) was held from 9-13 October 2012 in the beautiful city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The venue of the conference was the Pak-China Friendship Centre, Islamabad. More than six hundred local delgates and around seventy delegates from different countries participated in this mega event. These delegates included scientists, researchers, engineers, professors, plant operators, designers, vendors, industrialists, businessmen and students from various research organizations, technical institutions, universities, industries and companies from Pakistan and abroad. The focal point of the event was to enhance cooperation between Pakistan and the international community in the fields of vacuum, surface science and other applied technologies. At VASSCAA-6 85 oral presentations were delivered by local and foreign speakers. These were divided into different sessions according to their fields. A poster session was organized at which over 70 researchers and students displayed their posters. The best three posters won prizes. In parallel to the main conference sessions four technical short courses were held. The participants showed keen interest in all these courses. The most significant part of this event was an international exhibition of science, technology, energy and industry. In this international exhibition over 60 prominent international as well as local industrialists and vendors displayed their products. For the recreation of conference participants a cultural program and dinner was arranged. This entertaining program was fully enjoyed by all the participants especially the foreign guests. Recreational trips were also arranged for the foreign delegates. This mega event provided a unique opportunity to our scientific community to benefit from the rich international experience. The conference was a major forum for the exchange of knowledge and provided numerous scientific, technical and social opportunities for meeting leading experts. Editors Dr Javaid Ahsan Bhatti, Dr Talib Hussain, Dr Suleman Qaiser and Dr Wakil Khan National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology (NINVAST) NCP Complex, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan The PDF also contains a list of delegates.

  18. Longitudinal effects of college type and selectivity on degrees conferred upon undergraduate females in physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Stacy Mckimm

    There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  19. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Sessions in this conference include: Mars polar geology and glaciology; Mars and terrestrial radar investigations; Observations, nature, and evolution of the Martian seasonal polar caps; Mars' residual south polar cap; Climate change, ice core analysis, and the redistribution of volatiles on Mars; errestrial Mars analog environments; The Phoenix Scout mission and the nature of the near-polar environment; Moderated Discussion: Key Issues Regarding Phoenix Scout Mission and the nature of the near-polar environment; Panel Discussion: Key Issues in Mars Polar Science and Exploration; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter investigations of the Martian polar regions and climate; Mars Polar Scout Mission concepts; and Panel Discussion: New perspectives on Mars polar science and exploration

  20. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International Journal of Astrobiology , IJA 2011, 10, vol. 3. 137-305 [1] Foing B. et al. (2011) Field astrobiology research at Moon-Mars analogue site: Instruments and methods, IJA 2011, 10 (3), 141;[2] Clarke, J., Stoker, C. Concretions in exhumed & inverted channels near Hanksville Utah: implications for Mars, (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 162;[3] Thiel et al., (2011) PCR-based analysis of microbial communities during the EuroGeoMars campaign at Mars Desert Research Station, Utah. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 177;[4] Direito et al. (2011). A wide variety of putative extremophiles and large beta-diversity at the Mars Desert Research Station (Utah). (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 191;[5] Orzechowska, G. et al (20110 analysis of Mars Analog soils using solid Phase Microextraction, Organics solvent extraction and GCMS, (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 209; [6] Kotler et al. (2011). Analysis of mineral matrices of planetary soils analogs from the Utah Desert. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 221; [7] Martins et al. (2011). Extraction of amino acids from soils close to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), Utah. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 231; [8] Ehrenfreund et al. (2011) Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 239; [9] Stoker C. et al (2011) Mineralogical, Chemical, Organic & Microbial Properties of Subsurface Soil Cores from Mars Desert Research Station, a Phyllosilicate and Sulfate Rich Mars Analog Site, IJA 2011, 10 (3), 269; [10] Rodrigues L. et al (2014, in preparation) Preventing biocontamination during sterile sampling; [11] Rodrigues L. et al (2014, in preparation) Microbial diversity in MDRS rocks and soils; [12] ILEWG EuroMoonMars Team, (2014, special issue in preparation) Results from ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaign 2013 **Acknowledgements: B.H.Foing (1, 2, 6), C. Stoker (3), P. Ehrenfreund (4, 5), I. Rammos (2), L. Rodrigues (2), A. Svendsen (2), D. Oltheten (2), K. Nebergall (6), M. Battler (6, 7), H. v't Houd (8), A. Bruneau (6,9), M. Cross (6,7), V. Maivald (10), C. Orgel (6), A. Elsaesser (4),

  1. Astrobiological and Geological Implications of Convective Transport in Icy Outer Planet Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Zhong, Shi-Jie; Barr, Amy

    2005-01-01

    The oceans of large icy outer planet satellites are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life in our solar system. The goal of our project has been to develop models of ice convection in order to understand convection as an astrobiologically relevant transport mechanism within icy satellites, especially Europa. These models provide valuable constraints on modes of surface deformation and thus the implications of satellite surface geology for astrobiology, and for planetary protection. Over the term of this project, significant progress has been made in three areas: (1) the initiation of convection in large icy satellites, which we find probably requires tidal heating; (2) the relationship of surface features on Europa to internal ice convection, including the likely role of low-melting-temperature impurities; and (3) the effectiveness of convection as an agent of icy satellite surface-ocean material exchange, which seems most plausible if tidal heating, compositional buoyancy, and solid-state convection work in combination. Descriptions of associated publications include: 3 published papers (including contributions to 1 review chapter), 1 manuscript in revision, 1 manuscript in preparation (currently being completed under separate funding), and 1 published popular article. A myriad of conference abstracts have also been published, and only those from the past year are listed.

  2. To be presented at the Twenty-seventh Hawaii International Conference of System Sciences (HICSS), Organizational Memory

    E-print Network

    Ackerman, Mark S.

    of Information and Computer Science University of California, Irvine Organizations are looking to augment efforts. Many of these critical issues will be standard information technology issues: the natureTo be presented at the Twenty-seventh Hawaii International Conference of System Sciences (HICSS

  3. 4th Annual Conference for African-American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4). Preliminary Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tapia, Richard

    1998-06-01

    In June, The Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center, hosted the 4th Annual Conference for African-American Reserachers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4) at Rice University. The main goal of this conference was to highlight current work by African-American researchers and graduate students in mathematics. This conference strengthened the mathematical sciences by encouraging the increased participation of African-American and underrepresented groups into the field, facilitating working relationships between them and helping to cultivate their careers. In addition to the talks there was a graduate student poster session and tutorials on topics in mathematics and computer science. These talks, presentations, and discussions brought a broader perspective to the critical issues involving minority participation in mathematics.

  4. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (editor); Hariharan, P. C. (editor); Blasso, L. G. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Application. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include the following: magnetic disk and tape technologies; optical disk and tape; software storage and file management systems; and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  5. Ike 101: The Dwight D. Eisenhower Program for Mathematics and Science Education National Conference (Arlington, Virginia, November 17-22, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education, College Park, MD.

    A conference was held to discuss educational issues related to mathematics and science education. This document reports the proceedings of the conference by summarizing the comments of several of the conference speakers. The speakers and topics discussed included: (1) Senator Mark Hatfield and Congressman Thomas Sawyer on the perspective of…

  6. PREFACE: IC-MSQUARE 2012: International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Physical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmas, Theocharis; Vagenas, Elias; Vlachos, Dimitrios

    2013-02-01

    The first International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Budapest, Hungary, from Monday 3 to Friday 7 September 2012. The conference was attended by more than 130 participants, and hosted about 290 oral, poster and virtual papers by more than 460 pre-registered authors. The first IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields in which mathematical modelling is used, such as theoretical/mathematical physics, neutrino physics, non-integrable systems, dynamical systems, computational nanoscience, biological physics, computational biomechanics, complex networks, stochastic modelling, fractional statistics, DNA dynamics, and macroeconomics. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, two parallel sessions ran every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful; thus all attendees had a creative time. The mounting question is whether this occurred accidentally, or whether IC-MSQUARE is a necessity in the field of physical and mathematical modelling. For all of us working in the field, the existing and established conferences in this particular field suffer from two distinguished and recognized drawbacks: the first is the increasing orientation, while the second refers to the extreme specialization of the meetings. Therefore, a conference which aims to promote the knowledge and development of high-quality research in mathematical fields concerned with applications of other scientific fields as well as modern technological trends in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, sociology, environmental sciences etc., appears to be a necessity. This is the key role that IC-MSQUARE will play. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to IC-MSQUARE. We would also like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. Conference Chairmen Theocharis Kosmas Department of Physics, University of Ioannina Elias Vagenas RCAAM, Academy of Athens Dimitrios Vlachos Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese The PDF also contains a list of members of the International Scientific Committes and details of the Keynote and Invited Speakers.

  7. Life in ice: implications to astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.

    2009-08-01

    During previous research expeditions to Siberia, Alaska and Antarctica, it was observed that glaciers and ice wedges contained bacterial cells that became motile as soon as the ice melted. This phenomenon of live bacteria in ice was first documented for microbes in ancient ice cores from Vostok, Antarctica. The first validly published species of Pleistocene bacteria alive on Earth today was Carnobacterium pleistocenium. This extremophile had remained for 32,000 years, encased in ice recently exposed in the Fox Tunnel of Alaska. These frozen bacteria began to swim as soon as the ice was thawed. Dark field microscopy studies revealed that large numbers of bacteria exhibited motility as soon as glacial ice was melted during our recent Expeditions to Alaska and Antarctica led to the conclusion that microbial life in ice was not a rare phenomenon. The ability of bacteria to remain alive while frozen in ice for long periods of time is of great significance to Astrobiology. In this paper, we describe the recent observations and advance the hypothesis that life in ice provides valuable clues to how we can more easily search for evidence of life on the Polar Caps of Mars, comets and other icy bodies of our Solar System. It is suggested that cryopanspermia may have played a far more important role in Origin of Life on Earth and the distribution of Life throughout the Cosmos and than previously thought possible.

  8. The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, S. A.; Roellig, T. L.; ASPIRE Team

    2009-01-01

    The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission is one of the Origins Probe Mission Concepts that is currently being studied in preparation for inputs to the upcoming Decadal Survey. The mission is a cooled 1-m class telescope optimized to efficiently obtain high quality infrared spectra in the 2.5-36 micron wavelength region. The principal goal of the mission is to detect, identify, and determine the abundance of molecular species, particularly organics, throughout the universe. This will be done by obtaining spectra for a comprehensive range of Solar System, galactic, and extra-galactic environments and the interfaces between them. ASPIRE will be capable of obtaining continuous moderate resolution spectra from 2.5-36 microns at spectral resolutions of about 2500 (2.5-20 microns) and 900 (20-36 microns). ASPIRE will also be able to obtain high resolution spectra (resolutions of 25,000) over selected windows in the 3.1-18 micron region. The ASPIRE suite of instruments provides the ability to study both gas-phase and solid-state materials in space. The PI for the mission is Scott Sandford and major mission partners include NASA-Ames, JPL, and Ball Aerospace.

  9. Website for the Space Science Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, James; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Science Division at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to research in astrophysics, exobiology, advanced life support technologies, and planetary science. These research programs are structured around Astrobiology (the study of life in the universe and the chemical and physical forces and adaptions that influence life's origin, evolution, and destiny), and address some of the most fundamental questions pursued by science. These questions examine the origin of life and our place in the universe. Ames is recognized as a world leader in Astrobiology. In pursuing our mission in Astrobiology, Space Science Division scientists perform pioneering basic research and technology development.

  10. Life Out There: An Astrobiological Multimedia Experience for the Digital Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Grinspoon, D.

    2013-04-01

    Planetariums have a long history of experimentation with audio and visuals to create new multimedia experiences. We report on a series of innovative experiences in the Gates Planetarium at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in 2009-2011 combining live performances of music and navigation through scientific visualizations. The Life Out There productions featured a story showcasing astrobiology concepts at scales ranging from galactic to molecular, and told using VJ-ing of immersive visualizations and musical performances from the House Band to the Universe. Funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's JPL-Titan Team, these hour-long shows were broken into four separate themed musical movements, with an improvisatory mix of music, dome visuals, and spoken science narrative which resulted in no two performances being exactly alike. Post-performance dissemination is continuing via a recorded version of the performance available as a DVD and online streaming video. Written evaluations from visitors who were present at the live shows reveal high satisfaction, while one of the Life Out There concerts was used to inaugurate a new evening program to draw in a younger audience demographic to DMNS.

  11. PARTICIPANT SUPPORT FOR THE 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE ON PLASMA PROCESSING SCIENCE (JULY 11-16,2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Uwe Kortshagen

    2011-06-14

    The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in low temperature plasma science and will explore the applications of low temperature plasma technology relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma generation and multi-phase plasmas. Application sessions will explore the impact of plasma technology in renewable energy and the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks, plasma-enabled medicine and sterilization, and environmental remediation and waste treatment. The conference will bring together in an informal atmosphere leaders in the field with junior investigators and graduate students. The special format of the Gordon Conferences, with programmed discussion sessions and ample time for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, will provide for a fertile atmosphere of brainstorming and creative thinking among the attendees.

  12. Planetary Atmosphere and Surfaces Chamber (PASC): A Platform to Address Various Challenges in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo-Marti, Eva

    2014-08-01

    The study of planetary environments of astrobiological interest has become a major challenge. Because of the obvious technical and economical limitations on in situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are one of the most feasible research options to make advances both in planetary science and in developing a consistent description of the origin of life. With this objective in mind, we applied vacuum technology to the design of versatile vacuum chambers devoted to the simulation of planetary atmospheres' conditions. These vacuum chambers are able to simulate atmospheres and surface temperatures representative of the majority of planetary objects, and they are especially appropriate for studying the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a particular sample by in situ irradiation or physical parameters in a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers are a promising potential tool in several scientific and technological fields, such as engineering, chemistry, geology and biology. They also offer the possibility of discriminating between the effects of individual physical parameters and selected combinations thereof. The implementation of our vacuum chambers in combination with analytical techniques was specifically developed to make feasible the in situ physico-chemical characterization of samples. Many wide-ranging applications in astrobiology are detailed herein to provide an understanding of the potential and flexibility of these experimental systems. Instruments and engineering technology for space applications could take advantage of our environment-simulation chambers for sensor calibration. Our systems also provide the opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the chemical reactivity of molecules on surfaces under different environments, thereby leading to a greater understanding of interface processes in prebiotic chemical reactions and facilitating studies of UV photostability and photochemistry on surfaces. Furthermore, the stability and presence of certain minerals on planetary surfaces and the potential habitability of microorganisms under various planetary environmental conditions can be studied using our apparatus. Therefore, these simulation chambers can address multiple different challenging and multidisciplinary astrobiological studies.

  13. Too early? On the apparent conflict of astrobiology and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    2006-06-01

    An interesting consequence of the modern cosmological paradigm is the spatial infinity of the universe. When coupled with naturalistic understanding of the origin of life and intelligence, which follows the basic tenets of astrobiology, and with some fairly incontroversial assumptions in the theory of observation selection effects, this infinity leads, as Ken Olum has recently shown, to a paradoxical conclusion. Olum's paradox is related, to the famous Fermi's paradox in astrobiology and SETI studies. We, hereby, present an evolutionary argument countering the apparent inconsistency, and show how, in the framework of a simplified model, deeper picture of the coupling between histories of intelligent/technological civilizations and astrophysical evolution of the Galaxy, can be achieved. This strategy has consequences of importance for both astrobiological studies and philosophy.

  14. Thirty-ninth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2006, Kauai, Hawaii. c 2006 IEEE An estimator of propagation of cascading failure

    E-print Network

    Thirty-ninth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2006, Kauai, Hawaii. c under contract number DE-AC05-00OR22725. Thirty-ninth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2006, Kauai, Hawaii. c 2006 IEEE. We now explain how branching processes can be useful

  15. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Seattle, Washington, January 11-14, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A. Ed.; And Others

    These conference proceedings include papers presented and summaries of presentations made at the 1996 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (AETS). Topics include: English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) Strategies in science methods courses; writing strategies; action research and equity issues;…

  16. Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: state of the science and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Camp, Kathryn M; Parisi, Melissa A; Acosta, Phyllis B; Berry, Gerard T; Bilder, Deborah A; Blau, Nenad; Bodamer, Olaf A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Brown, Christine S; Burlina, Alberto B; Burton, Barbara K; Chang, Christine S; Coates, Paul M; Cunningham, Amy C; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Ferguson, John H; Franklin, Thomas D; Frazier, Dianne M; Grange, Dorothy K; Greene, Carol L; Groft, Stephen C; Harding, Cary O; Howell, R Rodney; Huntington, Kathleen L; Hyatt-Knorr, Henrietta D; Jevaji, Indira P; Levy, Harvey L; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Matalon, Kimberlee; MacDonald, Anita; McPheeters, Melissa L; Mitchell, John J; Mofidi, Shideh; Moseley, Kathryn D; Mueller, Christine M; Mulberg, Andrew E; Nerurkar, Lata S; Ogata, Beth N; Pariser, Anne R; Prasad, Suyash; Pridjian, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Reddy, Uma M; Rohr, Frances J; Singh, Rani H; Sirrs, Sandra M; Stremer, Stephanie E; Tagle, Danilo A; Thompson, Susan M; Urv, Tiina K; Utz, Jeanine R; van Spronsen, Francjan; Vockley, Jerry; Waisbren, Susan E; Weglicki, Linda S; White, Desirée A; Whitley, Chester B; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Yannicelli, Steven; Young, Justin M

    2014-06-01

    New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, particularly the use of the medication sapropterin to treat some individuals with PKU, and to develop a research agenda. Prior to the 2012 conference, five working groups of experts and public members met over a 1-year period. The working groups addressed the following: long-term outcomes and management across the lifespan; PKU and pregnancy; diet control and management; pharmacologic interventions; and molecular testing, new technologies, and epidemiologic considerations. In a parallel and independent activity, an Evidence-based Practice Center supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality conducted a systematic review of adjuvant treatments for PKU; its conclusions were presented at the conference. The conference included the findings of the working groups, panel discussions from industry and international perspectives, and presentations on topics such as emerging treatments for PKU, transitioning to adult care, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory perspective. Over 85 experts participated in the conference through information gathering and/or as presenters during the conference, and they reached several important conclusions. The most serious neurological impairments in PKU are preventable with current dietary treatment approaches. However, a variety of more subtle physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of even well-controlled PKU are now recognized. The best outcomes in maternal PKU occur when blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations are maintained between 120 and 360 ?mol/L before and during pregnancy. The dietary management treatment goal for individuals with PKU is a blood Phe concentration between 120 and 360 ?mol/L. The use of genotype information in the newborn period may yield valuable insights about the severity of the condition for infants diagnosed before maximal Phe levels are achieved. While emerging and established genotype-phenotype correlations may transform our understanding of PKU, establishing correlations with intellectual outcomes is more challenging. Regarding the use of sapropterin in PKU, there are significant gaps in predicting response to treatment; at least half of those with PKU will have either minimal or no response. A coordinated approach to PKU treatment improves long-term outcomes for those with PKU and facilitates the conduct of research to improve diagnosis and treatment. New drugs that are safe, efficacious, and impact a larger proportion of individuals with PKU are needed. However, it is imperative that treatment guidelines and the decision processes for determining access to treatments be tied to a solid evidence base with rigorous standards for robust and consistent data collection. The process that preceded the PKU State-of-the-Science Conference, the conference itself, and the identification of a research agenda have facilitated the development of clinical practice guidelines by professional organizations and serve as a model for other inborn errors of metabolism. PMID:24667081

  17. An International Workshop on Primary Science. Report on the Primary Science Workshop Held after the Conference in Science and Technology Education and Future Human Needs (Bangalore, India, August 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlen, Wynne, Comp.

    A conference on science and technology and future human needs was attended by over 300 science educators from 64 countries. Educators with particular interest in primary science and technology education extended their stay for an additional seminar. This report highlights the events of that seminar. Contents include: (1) recent and on-going work…

  18. Astrobiology Field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments: Preface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

  19. Collaboration as a Strategy to Transform the Impact of EPO Efforts in the New York Center for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirsky, A.; Rogers, K. L.; Meissner, M.; Busby, G.; Roberge, W.

    2014-12-01

    The New York Center for Astrobiology (NYCA) EPO effort is a collaboration combining expertise in evaluation and assessment of STEM educational modules with disciplinary expertise in astrobiology. In practice, the NYCA partners with external experts in professional development, informal education and evaluation to assist in developing and implementing certain programs of the NYCA EPO activities. Two specific program initiatives of the NYCA EPO effort offer excellent examples of programs with strong science content knowledge as well as using effective tools to address the NSF impact categories. These are the ExxonMobil Bernard Harris Summer Science Camp (EMBHSSC, in conjunction with RPI's STEM Pipeline Initiative) and the Astrobiology Teachers Academy (ATA). The EMBHSSC for middle school students focuses on NASA astrobiology initiatives around the "Quest for Life" theme. The Camp has a comprehensive evaluation component and uses pre-and post- assessment of student knowledge and interest in STEM. Recent data suggest that every student has shown a measurable gain in these areas. The ATA is a weeklong summer intensive professional development program for P-12 STEM teachers that combines discipline scientists in the NYCA with an external evaluation organization, the Association for the Cooperative Advancement of Science and Education (ACASE). The goal is for teachers to develop a new learning module for a course they teach that uses astrobiology as a content focus to engage students. The Academy has scientists collaborating with teachers in this effort, providing content and assistance in designing instructional activities. Assessments are woven into the fabric of the work in a few ways: 1. There is a purposeful focus on assessment as part of the learning module, and the content of the ATA; 2. ACASE offers teachers a tool for tracking their students' attainment of the learning goals identified in their learning module; 3. There are daily evaluations of the teachers' experiences to enable mid-course corrections, and a final evaluation of the ATA at the end of the experience. NYCA scientists support the approach of working collaboratively with external experts in evaluation as a paradigm for EPO activities sponsored by NASA. Our presentation will highlight the myriad of tools used to measure outcomes of these activities.

  20. Identifying Organic Molecules in Space: The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse; Ennico, Kimberly; Greene, Thomas; Hudgins, Douglas; Strecker, Donald; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5-16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds are detected and identified in space. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding (1) the evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds and young forming stellar systems, (2) the chemical evolution of organic molecules in the ISM as they transition from AGB outflows to planetary nebulae to the general diffuse ISM to H II regions and dense clouds, (3) the distribution of organics in the diffuse ISM, (4) the nature of organics in the Solar System (in comets, asteroids, satellites), and (5) the nature and distribution of organics in local galaxies. The technical considerations of achieving these science objectives in a MIDEX-sized mission will be described.

  1. The Aouda.X space suit simulator and its applications to astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Groemer, Gernot E; Hauth, Stefan; Luger, Ulrich; Bickert, Klaus; Sattler, Birgit; Hauth, Eva; Föger, Daniel; Schildhammer, Daniel; Agerer, Christian; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Kaineder, Felix; Knoflach, Martin

    2012-02-01

    We have developed the space suit simulator Aouda.X, which is capable of reproducing the physical and sensory limitations a flight-worthy suit would have on Mars. Based upon a Hard-Upper-Torso design, it has an advanced human-machine interface and a sensory network connected to an On-Board Data Handling system to increase the situational awareness in the field. Although the suit simulator is not pressurized, the physical forces that lead to a reduced working envelope and physical performance are reproduced with a calibrated exoskeleton. This allows us to simulate various pressure regimes from 0.3-1 bar. Aouda.X has been tested in several laboratory and field settings, including sterile sampling at 2800 m altitude inside a glacial ice cave and a cryochamber at -110°C, and subsurface tests in connection with geophysical instrumentation relevant to astrobiology, including ground-penetrating radar, geoacoustics, and drilling. The communication subsystem allows for a direct interaction with remote science teams via telemetry from a mission control center. Aouda.X as such is a versatile experimental platform for studying Mars exploration activities in a high-fidelity Mars analog environment with a focus on astrobiology and operations research that has been optimized to reduce the amount of biological cross contamination. We report on the performance envelope of the Aouda.X system and its operational limitations. PMID:22300413

  2. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Minneapolis, MN, January 8-11, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.

    The 40 papers from this international conference addressed the major theme of facilitating science literacy for all teachers and students. Papers include the following: (1) "Confronting the Gender Gap in Science and Mathematics: The Sisters in Science Program" (P. Hammrich); (2) Teaching Instructional Materials for Science Educators with a CD-ROM…

  3. ASTR 202 Life in the Universe "An Introduction to Astrobiology"

    E-print Network

    Shirley, Yancy

    : is there life beyond the Earth? · Become familiar with one of the most exciting and interdisciplinary areasASTR 202 ­ Life in the Universe "An Introduction to Astrobiology" Professor: Yancy Shirley (N310) Teaching Assistant: Charlie Kilpatrick (201F) Course Materials: The textbook for the class is Life

  4. Research Article Astrobiological Implications of Rock Varnish in Tibet

    E-print Network

    Dorn, Ron

    Research Article Astrobiological Implications of Rock Varnish in Tibet David Krinsley,1 Ronald I have occurred on Mars. Most studies of manganese- enhanced rock varnish have focused on samples taken-rich, high-altitude and high-UV flux environment of the Tibetan locale offers new insight into rock varnish

  5. The astrobiological case for renewed robotic and human exploration

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    ) better characterization of the impact cratering rate in the Earth­Moon system, with implicationsThe astrobiological case for renewed robotic and human exploration of the Moon I.A. Crawford School blasted off Earth, Mars and Venus, which may preserve evidence of the early surface environments

  6. Astrobiological studies with extremely halophilic Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendrihan, S.; Lotter, H. Stan

    2007-08-01

    Extremely halophilic Archaea were isolated and characterized by both classical and modern molecular biological methods from hypersaline and haloalkaline lakes, salted soils, solar salterns and rock salt deposits (1). The survival of these micro-organisms after embedding in laboratory-made halite was investigated. Their presence in fluid inclusions was demonstrated by staining with the BacLight LIVE/DEAD kit and observation of their fluorescence by microscopy. Following resuspension of cells from halite crystals, a survival of about 0.5 - 4% according to colony forming units was obtained. In previous studies which focussed on the resistance of halophilic archaea to UV radiation or the space environment, survival of a dose of 110 J/m2 (using liquid cultures) and up to 10 000 J/m2 at a range of 200 - 400 nm was reported, when dried Haloarcula sp. in a single layer were exposed on the Biopan facility (2). We exposed a few haloarchaeal strains to a Martian UV simulator lamp with a range of 200 - 400 nm and an intensity of 41.2 W/m2, obtaining a viability of about 51- 67% of cells following different exposure times. Other studies focus on the detection of haloarchaea in halite by Raman microspectroscopy and by NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy, which are considered to be important future tools for Mars exploration (3). Using the Dilor XY Raman spectrometer with laser excitation at 514.5 nm, equipped with a confocal microscope BX40 (Olympus Corp., Japan) and a Bruker IFS 66 + FRA106 with laser excitation at 1064 nm (Bruker, Germany), instruments, we obtained characteristic carotenoid peaks contained by these microorganisms. 1. Fendrihan S., Legat A., Pfaffenhuemer M., Gruber C., Weidler G., Gerbl F. Stan Lotter H. (2006) Extremely halophilic archaea and the issue of long-term microbial survival. Review. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 5: 203-218. 2. Mancinelli R. L., White M. R., Rothschild L. J. (1998) Biopan survival I : exposure of the osmophiles Synechococcus sp. (Nägeli) and Haloarcula sp. to the space environment. Adv Space Res. 22: 327-334. 3. Ellery A., Wynn-Williams D., Parnell J., Edwards H.G.M., Dickensheets D. (2004) The role of Raman spectroscopy as an astrobiological tool in the exploration of Mars, J. Raman Spectrosc. 35: 441-457.

  7. The Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory (MACO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, Emil; Lyons, James; Richardson, Mark; Folkner, William; Otarola, Angel; Ward, Dale

    We report on an innovative Mars orbiting mission concept with unique capabilities designed to answer key questions regarding habitability and life and the present and past climate as well as provide unprecedented satellite-borne infrastructure support. The concept is called the Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory (MACO). MACO uses two spacecraft with a satellite-to-satellite millimeter-wave limb sounder combined with a copy of the Earth orbiting ACE FTIR high resolution solar occultation spectrometer, an infrared limb sounder to profile aerosols and visible wavelength instruments for aerosols, weather context and surface reconnaissance. In combination, these will determine water climatology, atmospheric dynamics and water transport, dust cycle, potentially biogenic trace gas chemistry, exchange of water and energy between the atmosphere and surface, and search for regions of interest to future landers. Rapidly precessing, high inclination orbits provide (1) pole to pole solar occultation coverage multiple times per season and (2) sufficiently rapid sampling of the diurnal cycle to separate the diurnal and seasonal cycles via the non-solar observations. Satellite to satellite mm-wave occultations are what set MACO apart from other mission concepts. These occultations can profile atmosphere concentrations of trace gases such as H2O, HDO and CO to 1 MACO contributes unique and revolutionary improvements to Mars infrastructure beyond any single-satellite system including (1) redundant telecommunications relay, (2) the beginnings of a GPS-like precision navigation network at Mars through reception of X-band navigation signals from other Martian satellites, (3) a global weather and climate network that precisely determines density at aerobraking and aerocapture altitudes and boundary layer winds and turbulence as needed for EDL to support mission design and operations, (4) localized identifi- cation of trace gas sources to aid in landing site selection. With a HiRise imager, it can provide sub-meter reconnaissance for future landing sites and surface evolution. We are presently building a prototype Earth version of the mm-wavelength occultation instrumentation and will demonstrate the concept and performance in a series of high altitude aircraft to aircraft measurements commencing in early 2009.

  8. Life in Ice: Implications to Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    During the 2008 Tawani International Expedition Schirmacher Oasis/Lake Untersee Antarctica Expedition, living and instantly motile bacteria were found in freshly thawed meltwater from ice of the Schirmacher Oasis Lakes, the Anuchin Glacier ice and samples of the that perennial ice sheet above Lake Untersee. This phenomenon of living bacteria encased in ice had previously been observed in the 32,000 year old ice of the Fox Tunnel. The bacteria found in this ice included the strain FTR1T which was isolated and published as valid new species (Carnobacterium pleistocenium) the first validly published living Pleistocene organism still alive today. Living bacteria were also extracted from ancient ice cores from Vostok, Antarctica. The discovery that many strains of bacteria are able to survive and remain alive while frozen in ice sheets for long periods of time may have direct relevance to Astrobiology. The abundance of viable bacteria in the ice sheets of Antarctica suggests that the presence of live bacteria in ice is common, rather than an isolated phenomenon. This paper will discuss the results of recent studies at NSSTC of bacteria cryopreserved in ice. This paper advances the hypothesis that cryopreserved cells, and perhaps even viable bacterial cells, may exist today--frozen in the water-ice of lunar craters, the Polar Caps or craters of Mars; or in the permafrost of Mars; ice and rocks of comets or water bearing asteroids; or in the frozen crusts of the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The existence of bacterial life in ice suggests that it may not be necessary to drill through a thick ice crust to reach liquid water seas deep beneath the icy crusts of Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus. The presence of viable bacteria in the ice of the Earth s Polar Caps suggests that the possibility that cryo-panspermia (i.e., the trans-planetary transfer of microbial life by impact ejection/spallation of bacteria-rich polar ice masses) deserves serious consideration and study as a possible natural phenomenon of the solar system that may have played a profoundly important role in the Origin of Life on Earth and the Distribution of Life in the Cosmos. The paper concludes with a consideration of the protective properties of ice by absorption of UV-B, UV-C, h-rays, gamma-rays and the high energy proton environment of the Jupiter Radiation Belt. A proposed instrument that may provide additional data on the potential survivability of microbial extremophiles encased in ice and subjected to the simulated space environment will be briefly described.

  9. 2000 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, Princeton University, March 15-17, 2000 The Competitive Complexity Ratio

    E-print Network

    Stine, Robert A.

    2000 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, Princeton University, March 15-17, 2000 The Competitive Complexity Ratio R. A. Stine and D. P. Foster1 Department of Statistics The Wharton School -- The competitive complexity ratio is the worst case ratio of the regret of a data-driven model to that obtained

  10. Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, January 2002, Hawaii. IEEE Growth and Propagation of Disturbances in a Communication Network Model

    E-print Network

    Newman, David

    Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, January 2002, Hawaii. © IEEE Growth and Propagation of Disturbances in a Communication Network Model D. E. Newman Physics Dept., University of Alaska. Therefore, network vulnerability is a major hazard. Analysis of communications system traffic suggests

  11. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Social Science Libraries and Geography and Map Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers presented on social science and map and geography libraries at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Information for the Developing World: NTIS's (National Technical Information Service) Role in Information Transfer to Developing Countries" (Joseph F. Caponio, United States); (2)…

  12. The Science of Enhanced Student Engagement and Employability: Introducing the Psychology Stream of the Inaugural HEA STEM Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Julie; Taylor, Jacqui; Davies, Mark N. O.; Banister, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Higher Education Academy (HEA) is committed to enhancing the quality of learning and teaching for all university students in the UK, and the inaugural conference for the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) subjects, held in April 2012 at Imperial College, London, aimed to showcase research and evidence-based educational…

  13. Virtual Crowdsourcing Community for Open Collaboration in Science Twenty-First Americas Conference on Information Systems, Puerto Rico, 2015 1

    E-print Network

    Blythe, Jim

    on Information Systems, Puerto Rico, 2015 1 A Virtual Crowdsourcing Community for Open Collaboration in Science;Virtual Communities and Collaboration 2 Twenty-first Americas Conference on Information Systems, Puerto Rico, 2015 Crowdsourcing can be defined as a transformation of tasks that are traditionally performed

  14. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON THE CHANGING IDENTITY OF GRADUATE EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION (ATLANTA, JANUARY 25-26, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEAVER, CHARLES E.

    DISCUSSED ARE THE CHANGING IDENTITY OF GRADUATE EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION, THE FACTORS WHICH PRECIPITATED THESE CHANGES, AND THE RESULTING PROBLEMS. THE CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS INCLUDED EARTH SCIENTISTS WITH DIVERSE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUNDS FROM A BROAD GEOGRAPHICAL AREA. SPECIFIC TOPICS COVERED INCLUDED--(1) PRESENT DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE OF EARTH…

  15. Tourism Development in Aqaba and Human Sustainability International Conference, Science and Technology in Archaeology and Conservation, Rome

    E-print Network

    Tourism Development in Aqaba and Human Sustainability 6th International Conference, Science. It is an important issue to compromise between the economic development of the region and the sustainability development plans. Israel's strategies aim at benefiting from regional potentialities (geophysical structure

  16. Presented at: Toward a Science of Consciousness Conference, Tucson, AZ, April, 2008 The Prospects for Creating Conscious Machines

    E-print Network

    Presented at: Toward a Science of Consciousness Conference, Tucson, AZ, April, 2008 The Prospects for Creating Conscious Machines Lyle N. Long+ , Troy D. Kelley* , and Michael, J. Wenger§ While there have been-simplify the issue of building intelligent or conscious machines. We should also not conflat e intelligence

  17. Classroom Assessment in Mathematics: Views from a National Science Foundation Working Conference (Greensboro, North Carolina, May 16-18, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, George W., Ed.; Joyner, Jeane M., Ed.

    This document presents papers from a National Science Foundation (NSF) working conference to identify research issues and implementation strategies that support quality classroom assessment. Papers include: (1) "Understanding and Improving Classroom Assessment: Summary of Issues Raised" (George W. Bright and Jeane M. Joyner); (2) "Recommendations…

  18. 75 FR 2552 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Enhancing Use and Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... cervical cancer. Reasons for this disparity are complex. Unlike most other preventive services, in... Colorectal Cancer Screening Notice is hereby given by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the ``NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Enhancing Use and Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening'' to be...

  19. Exploring Astrobiology: Future and In-Service Teacher Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Snell, T.; Gaucher, E.; Harris, B.; Usselman, M. C.; Millman, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational Astrobiology program titled, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.” The purpose of the program was to provide educators with the materials, exposure, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. A one-week, non-residential summer enrichment program for high school students was conducted and tested by two high school educators, an undergraduate student, and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired in-service teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with an undergraduate student interested in becoming a teacher through the Tech to Teaching program. The GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles which have adapted to life under extreme environmental conditions. As a result, extremophiles became the focus of a week-long, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology” curriculum aligned with the Georgia Performance Standards in Biology. Twenty-five high school students explored the adaptation and survival rates for various types of extremophiles exposed to UV radiation and desiccation; students were also introduced to hands-on activities and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact on everyone invested and involved in the Astrobiology program including the GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

  20. Improving Science Instruction for Students with Disabilities: Proceedings. Working Conference on Science for Persons with Disabilities (Anaheim, California, March 28-29, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanich, Greg P.; Egelston-Dodd, Judy, Ed.

    This proceedings report includes papers presented at a conference on teaching science to students with disabilities. In the first paper, "Family Pedigrees: A Model Lesson Illustrating Strategies for Teaching Students with Disabilities in a Mainstreamed High School Biology Class" (Kathleen Ball and Edward C. Keller, Jr.), strategies are described…

  1. 2011 X-Ray Science Gordon Research Conference (August 7-12, 2011, Colby, College. Waterville, ME)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Stephenson

    2011-08-12

    The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on X-ray Science will feature forefront x-ray-based science enabled by the rapid improvements in synchrotron and x-ray laser sources. Across the world, x-ray sources are playing an increasingly important role in physics, materials, chemistry, and biology, expanding into ever broadening areas of science and engineering. With the first hard x-ray free electron laser source beginning operation and with other advanced x-ray sources operational and planned, it is a very exciting and pivotal time for exchange ideas about the future of x-ray science and applications. The Conference will provide the forum for this interaction. An international cast of speakers will illuminate sessions on ultrafast science, coherence, imaging, in situ studies, extreme conditions, new developments in optics, sources, and detectors, inelastic scattering, nanoscience, life science, and energy sciences. The Conference will bring together investigators at the forefront of these areas, and will provide a venue for young scientists entering a career in x-ray research to present their research in poster format, hold discussions in a friendly setting, and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. Some poster presenters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with ample time for discussion as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, will provide an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to exchange ideas about forefront x-ray techniques and will promote cross-fertilization between the various research areas represented.

  2. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    The third International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place at Madrid, Spain, from Thursday 28 to Sunday 31 August 2014. The Conference was attended by more than 200 participants and hosted about 350 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. More than 600 pre-registered authors were also counted. The third IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral sessions and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful, thus all attendees had a creative time. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  3. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences 2013 (IC-MSQUARE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The second International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place at Prague, Czech Republic, from Sunday 1 September to Thursday 5 September 2013. The Conference was attended by more than 280 participants and hosted about 400 oral, poster, and virtual presentations while counted more than 600 pre-registered authors. The second IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel sessions were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful, thus all attendees had a creative time. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee. Further information on the editors, speakers and committees is available in the attached pdf.

  4. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Dimitrios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-09-01

    The 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Mykonos, Greece, from Friday 5th June to Monday 8th June 2015. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants and hosted about 200 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. There were more than 600 pre-registered authors. The 4th IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather intense as after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high quality of talks creating an innovative and productive scientific environment for all attendees. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  5. News Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

  6. New results on formaldehyde: the 2nd International Formaldehyde Science Conference (Madrid, 19-20 April 2012).

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M; Morfeld, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The toxicology and epidemiology of formaldehyde were discussed on the 2nd International Formaldehyde Science Conference in Madrid, 19-20 April 2012. It was noted that a substantial amount of new scientific data has appeared within the last years since the 1st conference in 2007. Progress has been made in characterisation of genotoxicity, toxicokinetics, formation of exogenous and endogenous DNA adducts, controlled human studies and epidemiology. Thus, new research results are now at hand to be incorporated into existing evaluations on formaldehyde by official bodies. PMID:23138381

  7. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research I. Morphological and Anatomical Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Brandt, A.; Balzer, E.-M.; de la Torre, R.; Sancho, L. G.; de Vera, J.-P.; Ott, S.

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species— Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum—used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research.

  8. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research I. Morphological and anatomical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meeßen, J; Sánchez, F J; Brandt, A; Balzer, E-M; de la Torre, R; Sancho, L G; de Vera, J-P; Ott, S

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species-Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum-used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research. PMID:23868319

  9. Astrobiological Aspects of Mars and Human Presence: Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, G

    2008-01-01

    After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with regard to planetary protection issues. Therefore, before planning any human exploratory mission, the critical issues concerning human health and wellbeing as well as protection of Mars in its pristine condition need to be investigated. PMID:19048093

  10. Astrobiological aspects of Mars and human presence: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G

    2008-08-01

    After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with regard to planetary protection issues. Therefore, before planning any human exploratory mission, the critical issues concerning human health and wellbeing as well as protection of Mars in its pristine condition need to be investigated. PMID:19048093

  11. Building on Family Strengths: Research and Services in Support of Children and Their Families. Proceedings of the Building on Family Strengths Annual Conference (14th, Portland, Oregon, May 31-June 2, 2007) and State of the Science Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, Sandra, Ed.; Friesen, Barbara, Ed.; Holman, Ariel, Ed.; Aue, Nicole, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The State of the Science conference was held in May, 2007 as part of the ongoing series of national conferences, "Building on Family Strengths," conducted by the Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health at Portland State University. The theme of this State-of-the Science conference was "Effective services for all…

  12. The 22nd International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, November 05-09, 2012, Hangzhou, China Limits for short-pulse laser processing of high efficiency

    E-print Network

    and Engineering Conference, November 05-09, 2012, Hangzhou, China 100 nm of plasma-assisted chemical vapourThe 22nd International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, November 05-09, 2012 rear side of the wafers was passivated with 20 nm Al2O3, deposited by plasma assisted atomic layer Fig

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Australian Science Education Association (19th, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, November 18, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie J., Ed.

    The Western Australian Science Education Association is an informal group which meets annually for a conference. This document contains the proceedings of the 1994 conference. Papers included were: (1) "Relationship Between Cognitive Style and Students' Proportional Reasoning Ability" (Ayo Akatugba); (2) "Alternative Modes of Instruction in…

  14. Graduate Research Conference Oral Presentations April 15th ROOM Natural Res. Micro/Animal/Mech Math Stats Kin/Earth Sciences Spanish

    E-print Network

    Graduate Research Conference Oral Presentations April 15th ROOM Natural Res. Micro/Animal/Mech Math Gregory History History History Political Science Physics Economics Sociology Squamscott 9am-10am 10am-11

  15. CASANZ Conference Linking Air Pollution, Science, Policy and Management -Newcastle, NSW Australia 23-27 Nov 2003 Page 1 of 5

    E-print Network

    Kentucky, University of

    CASANZ Conference ­ Linking Air Pollution, Science, Policy and Management - Newcastle, NSW related to ventilation rate changes. Keywords: Chicken, Ventilation, Air Quality, Poultry. 1. Introduction about the industry's impact on local and regional air quality. Quantitative estimates are also required

  16. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, S.; Ennico, K.; Abe/Aspire Science Team

    The AstroBiology Explorer ABE and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer ASPIRE Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions 1 Where do we come from and 2 Are we alone as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity abundance and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to 1 Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions and the young stellar planetary systems that form in them 2 Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows 3 Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids comets and the planets and their satellites 4 Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution abundance and change with environment 5 Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type and 6 Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE s core mission and adds tasks that 7 Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry and 8 Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials ABE ASPIRE achieves these goals using a highly sensitive cryogenically-cooled telescope in an

  17. Case studies approach for an undergraduate astrobiology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burko, Lior M.; Enger, Sandra

    2013-04-01

    Case studies is a well known and widely used method in law schools, medical schools, and business schools, but relatively little used in physics or astronomy courses. We developed an astrobiology course based strongly on the case studies approach, and after teaching it first at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, we have adapted it and are now teaching it at Alabama A&M University, a HBCU. The case studies approach uses several well tested and successful teaching methods - including group work, peer instruction, current interest topics, just-in-time teaching, &c. We have found that certain styles of cases are more popular among students than other styles, and will revise our cases to reflect such student preferences. We chose astrobiology -- an inherently multidisciplinary field -- because of the popularity of the subject matter, its frequent appearance in the popular media (news stories about searches for life in the universe, the discovery of Earth-like exoplanets, etc, in addition to SciFi movies and novels), and the rapid current progress in the field. In this talk we review briefly the case studies method, the styles of cases used in our astrobiology course, and student response to the course as found in our assessment analysis.

  18. Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms: Results From a NASA Astrobiology Nanosatellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Orlando; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Mancinelli, Rocco; Nicholson, Wayne; Ricco, Antonio

    NASA's Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses, or O/OREOS, nanosatellite is a sci-ence demonstration mission that showcases achievements in using hardware from a technology development program led by the Small Spacecraft Division at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Continuing Ames' development of triple-cube nanosatellite tech-nology and flight systems, which includes the successful GeneSat-1 and PharmaSat missions, O/OREOS is constructed from off-the-shelf commercial and NASA-designed parts to create a fully self-contained, automated, stable, light-weight space science laboratory with innovative environment and power control techniques; sensors to monitor the levels of pressure, temper-ature, humidity, radiation and acceleration; and a communications system able to regularly accept commands from the ground and transmit data back to Earth for scientific analysis. The overall goal of the O/OREOS mission is to demonstrate the capability to do low-cost sci-ence experiments on autonomous nanosatellites in space in support of the Astrobiology Small Payloads program under the Planetary Science Division of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. The spacecraft houses two science payloads: the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment will monitor the stability and changes in four classes of organic matter (results presented at another COSPAR session); and the Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms (SESLO) experiment (presented here). SESLO will charac-terize the growth, activity, health, and ability of microorganisms to adapt to the stresses of the space environment. The experiment is sealed in a vessel at one atmosphere and contains two types of microbes commonly found in salt ponds and soil, in a dried and dormant state: Halorubrum chaoviator and Bacillus subtilis. After it reaches orbit, the experiment will initiate and begin to rehydrate and grow three sets of the microbes at three different times: a few days, three months, and six months after launch. Once the satellite is in its highly inclined orbit, the microbes are constantly being exposed to space's high-energy radiation while in micro-gravity. The SESLO experiment measures the microbes' population density as they consume the components of the nutrient medium; a metabolism indicator dye included in the medium changes color, enabling quantitative tracking of metabolic activity. Together, these data en-able determination of the effects of the combined exposure to space radiation and microgravity on organism growth, health and survival. The design of the spacecraft, its ability to support Astrobiology goals, and the actual spaceflight data obtained will be presented.

  19. ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 3, Number 2, 2003

    E-print Network

    Hedges, Blair

    life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Ac- cordingly system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved

  20. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2015-06-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015), was held at The Westin Resort Nusa Dua, Bali on 31 January - 1 February 2015. The ScieTech 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. ScieTech 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics. As we already know that science and technology have brought tremendous benefits for human civilization. People are becoming healthier, wealthier, better educated, more peaceful, increasingly connected, and living longer. Of course, science and technology provide many answers to global challenges, but we will face more complex problems in the next decade due to increasing world population, limitation of energy, and climate change. Therefore, researchers should be more active in conducting research that enables collaboration between one and the others. Interdisciplinary cooperation is absolutely necessary in order to create a smart system for solving the global problems. We need a global and general long-term view of the future with long-range goals for solving complex problems in next decade. Therefore the conference was held to be a forum for researchers from different disciplines to start collaborating and conducting research that provides a solution to the global issues. The theme of ScieTech 2015 was ''The interdisciplinary Application between Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics to enhance the Quality of Life''. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting conference program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 197 papers and after rigorous review, 59 papers were accepted. The participants came from 19 countries, and there were six paralell sessions and four keynote speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of ScieTech 2015.

  1. Astrophysics and Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mould, Jeremy; Brinks, Elias; Khanna, Ramon

    2015-08-01

    Astrophysics and Space Science publishes original contributions and invited reviews covering the entire range of astronomy, astrophysics, astrophysical cosmology, planetary and space science, and the astrophysical aspects of astrobiology. This includes both observational and theoretical research, the techniques of astronomical instrumentation and data analysis, and astronomical space instrumentation. We particularly welcome papers in the general fields of high-energy astrophysics, astrophysical and astrochemical studies of the interstellar medium including star formation, planetary astrophysics, the formation and evolution of galaxies and the evolution of large scale structure in the Universe. Papers in mathematical physics or in general relativity which do not establish clear astrophysical applications will not longer be considered.The journal also publishes topical collections consisting of invited reviews and original research papers selected special issues in research fields of particular scientific interest. These consist of both invited reviews and original research papers.Conference proceedings will not be considered. All papers published in the journal are subject to thorough and strict peer-reviewing.Astrophysics and Space Science has an Impact Factor of 2.4 and features short editorial turnaround times as well as short publication times after acceptance, and colour printing free of charge. Published by Springer the journal has a very wide online dissemination and can be accessed by researchers at a very large number of institutes worldwide.

  2. Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection Instrumentation Development and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; Steele, Andrew; Amashukeli, Xenia; Fisher, Anita; Grunthaner, Frank; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeff; Chiesl, Tom; Stockton, Amanda; Mathies, Rich

    2008-01-01

    Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight instrumentation and for the development of advanced instrumentation technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight instrumentation including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instruments on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer instruments under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help calibrate current spaceflight instrumentation, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 21st, Houston, TX, Mar. 12-16, 1990, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, G.; Sharpton, V.L.

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on lunar and planetary science discusses the geology and geophysics of Venus; the lunar highlands and regolith; magmatic processes of the moon and meteorites; remote sensing of the moon and Mars; chondrites, cosmic dust, and comets; ammonia-water mixtures; and the evolution of volcanism, tectonics, and volatiles on Mars. Attention is given to volcanism on Venus, pristine moon rocks, the search for Crisium Basin ejecta, Apollo 14 glasses, lunar anorthosites, the sources of mineral fragments in impact melts 15445 and 15455, and argon adsorption in the lunar atmosphere. Also discussed are high-pressure experiments on magnesian eucrite compositions, the early results of thermal diffusion in metal-sulfide liquids, preliminary results of imaging spectroscopy of the Humorum Basin region of the moon, high-resolution UV-visible spectroscopy of lunar red spots, and a radar-echo model for Mars. Other topics addressed include nitrogen isotopic signatures in the Acapulco Meteorite, tridymite and maghemite formation in an Fe-SiO smoke, and the enigma of mottled terrain on Mars.

  4. Astrobiology: Using Current Research to Invigorate Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassif, Thomas Harttung; Zeller, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Humans have long pondered the question of life's origins on Earth and sought to understand their place in the vast expanse of the Universe. Are they alone, in which case the inception of life is a phenomenon unique to planet Earth, or will they find signs of life on other terrestrial bodies? Today, technology allows space probes and rovers to…

  5. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: Porting from a wearable computer to the Astrobiology Phone-cam

    E-print Network

    Alexandra Bartolo; Patrick C. McGuire; Kenneth P. Camilleri; Christopher Spiteri; Jonathan C. Borg; Philip J. Farrugia; Jens Ormo; Javier Gomez-Elvira; Jose Antonio Rodriguez-Manfredi; Enrique Diaz-Martinez; Helge Ritter; Robert Haschke; Markus Oesker; Joerg Ontrup

    2007-07-05

    We have used a simple camera phone to significantly improve an `exploration system' for astrobiology and geology. This camera phone will make it much easier to develop and test computer-vision algorithms for future planetary exploration. We envision that the `Astrobiology Phone-cam' exploration system can be fruitfully used in other problem domains as well.

  6. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Organic Molecules in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Ennico, Kimberly; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse; Greene, Thomas; Hudgins, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    One of the principal means by which organic compounds are detected and identified in space is by infrared spectroscopy. Past IR telescopic and laboratory studies have shown that much of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) is in complex organic species but the distribution, abundance and evolutionary relationships of these materials are not well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept designed to conduct IR spectroscopic observations to detect and identify these materials and address outstanding problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. ABE's core science program includes observations of planetary nebulae and stellar outflows, protostellar objects, Solar System objects, and galaxies, and lines of sight through dense molecular clouds and the diffuse ISM. ABE is a cryogenically-cooled 60 cm diameter space telescope equipped with 3 cross-dispersed R-2000 spectrometers that share a single common slit. Each spectrometer measures one spectral octave and together cover the entire 2.5-20 micron region simultaneously. The spectrometers use state-of-the-art InSb and Si:As 1024x1024 pixel detectors. ABE would operate in a heliocentric, Earth drift-away orbit and have a core science mission lasting approximately 1.5 years. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp.

  7. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of AeroEarth 2014. The Editors of the AeroEarth 2014 Proceedings Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Dr. Benfano Soewito

  8. The Conference on Corporate Interference with Science and Health: fracking, food and wireless: genesis, rationale, and results.

    PubMed

    Kopald, Deborah E

    2013-01-01

    A number of serious environmental health hazards created by under-regulated/unregulated industries have morphed into public health crises around the world. The Conference on Corporate Interference with Science and Health (the Conference) was held to examine this trend in three economically significant industries: fracking, food, and wireless. The Conference provided an overview of the structures of these three industries and the history of standard-setting therein, identified the sources of environmental exposures created by these industries, and surveyed the health consequences of these exposures and the policies that have resulted in them. It then examined corporate influence on the setting of these policies and the production of scientific studies and interpretation of their results. The Conference also analyzed the general influence of corporations on the political system and the relationship of this conflict of interest to the aforementioned topics. The concluding discussion focused on what solutions could be implemented to improve public health, including what institutional changes are necessary to promote public awareness and change policy. PMID:24413210

  9. Might Astrobiological Findings Evoke a Religious Crisis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).

  10. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Thomas; Sandford, Scott; Allamandola, Louis; Arno, Roger; Bregman, Jesse; Cox, Sylvia; Davis, Paul; Gonzales, Andrew; Hanel, Robert; Hines, Michael; Hudgins, Douglas; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission concept currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center. ABE will conduct infrared (IR) spectroscopic observations with much better sensitivity than Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) or the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy program (SOFIA) in order to address outstanding astrobiologically important problems in astrochemistry as well as important astrophysical investigations. The core observational astrobiology program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the cosmic history of molecular carbon, the distribution of organic matter in the diffuse interstellar medium, tracing the chemical history of complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium, and the evolution of organic ices in young planetary systems. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.5 m aperture Cassegrain telescope and a suite of three moderate resolution (R = 1000 - 4000) spectrographs which cover the entire lambda = 2.5-20 micron spectral region. Use of large format (1024 x 1024 pixel or larger) IR detector arrays will allow each spectrograph to cover an entire octave of spectral range per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope is passively cooled by a sun shade to below 65 K, and the detectors are cooled with solid H2 cryogen to approximately 8 K. ABE will be placed in an Earth-trailing one AU solar orbit by a Delta II launch vehicle. This energetically favorable orbit provides a low thermal background, affords good access to the entire sky over the one year mission lifetime, and allows adequate communications bandwidth. The spacecraft will be stabilized in three axes and will be pointed to an accuracy of approximately one arcsecond at ABE's several thousand individual scientific targets.

  11. Brazilian research on extremophiles in the context of astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Nóbrega, Felipe; Nakayama, Cristina R.; Pellizari, Vivian H.

    2012-10-01

    Extremophiles are organisms adapted to grow at extreme ranges of environmental variables, such as high or low temperatures, acid or alkaline medium, high salt concentration, high pressures and so forth. Most extremophiles are micro-organisms that belong to the Archaea and Bacteria domains, and are widely spread across the world, which include the polar regions, volcanoes, deserts, deep oceanic sediments, hydrothermal vents, hypersaline lakes, acid and alkaline water bodies, and other extreme environments considered hostile to human life. Despite the tropical climate, Brazil has a wide range of ecosystems which include some permanent or seasonally extreme environments. For example, the Cerrado is a biome with very low soil pH with high Al+3 concentration, the mangroves in the Brazilian coast are anaerobic and saline, Pantanal has thousands of alkaline-saline lakes, the Caatinga arid and hot soils and the deep sea sediments in the Brazilian ocean shelf. These environments harbour extremophilic organisms that, coupled with the high natural biodiversity in Brazil, could be explored for different purposes. However, only a few projects in Brazil intended to study the extremophiles. In the frame of astrobiology, for example, these organisms could provide important models for defining the limits of life and hypothesize about life outside Earth. Brazilian microbiologists have, however, studied the extremophilic micro-organisms inhabiting non-Brazilian environments, such as the Antarctic continent. The experience and previous results obtained from the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR) provide important results that are directly related to astrobiology. This article is a brief synopsis of the Brazilian experience in researching extremophiles, indicating the most important results related to astrobiology and some future perspectives in this area.

  12. Astrobiology at Arizona State University: An Overview of Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack

    2005-01-01

    During our five years as an NAI charter member, Arizona State University sponsored a broadly-based program of research and training in Astrobiology to address the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Solar System. With such a large, diverse and active team, it is not possible in a reasonable space, to cover all details of progress made over the entire five years. The following paragraphs provide an overview update of the specific research areas pursued by the Arizona State University (ASU) Astrobiology team at the end of Year 5 and at the end of the 4 month and subsequent no cost month extensions. for a more detailed review, the reader is referred to the individual annual reports (and Executive Summaries) submitted to the NAI at the end of each of our five years of membership. Appended in electronic form is our complete publication record for all five years, plus a tabulation of undergraduates, graduate students and post-docs supported by our program during this time. The overarching theme of ASU s Astrobiology program was "Exploring the Living Universe: Studies of the Origin, Evolution and Distribution of Life in the Solar System". The NAi-funded research effort was organized under three basic sub- themes: 1. Origins of the Basic Building Blocks of Life. 2. Early Biosphere Evolution. and 3. Exploring for Life in the Solar System. These sub-theme areas were in turn, subdivided into Co-lead research modules. In the paragraphs that follow, accomplishments for individual research modules are briefly outlined, and the key participants presented in tabular form. As noted, publications for each module are appended in hard copy and digital formats, under the name(s) of lead co-Is.

  13. Biomedical Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    As a result of Biomedical Conferences, Vivo Metric Systems Co. has produced cardiac electrodes based on NASA technology. Frequently in science, one highly specialized discipline is unaware of relevant advances made in other areas. In an attempt to familiarize researchers in a variety of disciplines with medical problems and needs, NASA has sponsored conferences that bring together university scientists, practicing physicians and manufacturers of medical instruments.

  14. Broadening Participation in Science, Technology and Medicine: Proceedings of the Annual Technological Literacy Conference (6th, Washington, D.C., February 1-3, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Dennis W., Ed.

    This document contains the text of 50 papers presented at a national conference that focused on the relationships among science, technology, and society (STS). Most of the papers presented featured one of five major thematic areas around which the National Association for Science, Technology and Society is organized: education and information;…

  15. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2002 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002. Papers include: (1) "Teaching Science Methods Courses with Web-Enhanced Activities" (Alec M. Bodzin); (2) "How Is Your Lawnmower Working?…

  16. _____________________________2008 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, The Princeton University, March 19--21, 2008 Identifying Sufficient Statistics in Information Networks

    E-print Network

    Dai, Huaiyu

    _____________________________2008 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, The Princeton University, March 19--21, 2008 Identifying Sufficient Statistics in Information Networks Huaiyu Dai1-mail: Huaiyu_Dai@ncsu.edu 2 Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of Tennessee

  17. MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators & Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (3rd, Columbus, OH, May 15, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costner, Kelly M., Ed.; Reed, Michelle K., Ed.

    The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERs-OSU) is a student organization that grew out of the former OSU Council of Teachers of Mathematics (OSU-CTM). Papers from the third annual conference include: (1) "Gender, Ethnicity, and Science" (Terry Arambula-Greenfield); (2) "Assessment: The…

  18. Science, Technology and the Liberal Arts: Report on a National Conference Held at Lehigh University (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, April 1-3, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutcliffe, Stephen H.; Goldman, Steven L.

    This conference was designed to provide information on the development and implementation of seven undergraduate science courses primarily for non-science majors at Lehigh University, to examine what ought to be the objectives of courses such as these in the liberal arts curriculum, and to describe parallel efforts with similar educational…

  19. Exploring the Proposition of a Joint Conference between State Science, and Technology and Engineering Education Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Loveland, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors collected numerous forms of data to better understand the perceptions of a joint conference from the various stakeholders. From the detailed survey and interview responses, the researchers found that administrators/supervisors had fewer reservations in regards to holding a joint conference. One reason for this may due…

  20. News Astronomy: Science and beauty combined Africa: Physics technicians offer valuable skills Conference: ESERA2013 brings researchers together in Cyprus Physics Olympiad: UK team bring home more medals from the Physics Olympics in Copenhagen Physics Tournament: IOC backs Shrewsbury to host IYPT 2014 Conference: MPTL18 looks at the latest multimedia developments Workshop: The selective absorption of light Science on Stage: Illuminating Science Education in London in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-11-01

    Astronomy: Science and beauty combined Africa: Physics technicians offer valuable skills Conference: ESERA2013 brings researchers together in Cyprus Physics Olympiad: UK team bring home more medals from the Physics Olympics in Copenhagen Physics Tournament: IOC backs Shrewsbury to host IYPT 2014 Conference: MPTL18 looks at the latest multimedia developments Workshop: The selective absorption of light Science on Stage: Illuminating Science Education in London in 2015

  1. PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori

    2013-06-01

    The 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) was held in Kyoto, Japan on 2-5 October 2012 with the 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25). SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. APCPST and SPSM are jointly held biennially to survey the current status of low temperature and thermal plasma physics and chemistry for industrial applications. The whole area of plasma processing was covered from fundamentals to applications. Previous meetings were held in China, Japan, Korea, and Australia, attended by scientists from the Asia-Pacific and other countries. The joint conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 386 participants from 10 countries and 398 presentations, including 26 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that covered green innovation, life innovation, and technical reports from industry. This conference seeks to bring the plasma community together and to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues, the challenges ahead in the field of plasma research and applications among engineers and scientists in Asia, the Pacific Rim, as well as Europe. This volume presents 44 papers that were selected via a strict peer-review process from full papers submitted for the proceedings of the conference. The topics range from the basic physics and chemistry of plasma processing to a broad variety of materials processing and environmental applications. This volume offers an overview of recent advances in thermal and non-equilibrium plasmas as well as on more new and innovative developments in the field of life innovation, green innovation and a technical report session. The editors hope that this volume will be useful and helpful for deepening our understanding of science and technology of plasma materials processing and also for stimulating further development of the plasma technology. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the organizing committee, the advisory committee, the executive committee, the program committee, the publication committee, organizing secretariat and financial support from The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, JSPS. Sponsors and Supporting Organization: The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Organizing Committee Chairperson: Osamu Tsuji, SAMCO Corporation, Japan Advisory Committee Chairperson: Akihisa Matsuda, Osaka University, Japan Executive Committee Chairperson: Masaru Hori, Nagoya University, Japan Program Committee Chairperson: Takamasa Ishigaki, Hosei University, Japan Publication Committee Chairperson: Takayuki Watanabe, Kyushu University Editors of APCPST-11 and SPMS-25 Professor Takayuki Watanabe, Kyushu University, Japan Professor Toshio Kaneko, Tohoku University, Japan Professor Makoto Sekine, Nagoya University, Japan Professor Yasunori Tanaka, Kanazawa University, Japan

  2. Astrobiology Results from ILEWG EuroMoonMars Analogue Field Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We give an update on the astrobiology results from a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme environment of the Utah desert. These are relevant to prepare future lunar landers and polar sample return missions, interpret Moon-Mars data (eg SMART1, LRO, Mars Express, MRO, MER, MSL), study habitability and astrobiology in Moon-Mars environments, or to test human-robotic surface EVA or base operations. In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [0, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from re-mote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geo-chemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Results: Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [0-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. We acknowledge team members and supporting institutes: B.H. Foing (1, 2, 6), C. Stoker (3), P. Ehrenfreund (4, 5), I. Rammos (2), L. Rodrigues (2), A. Svendsen (2), D. Oltheten (2), I. Schlacht (2), K. Nebergall (6), M. Battler (6, 7), H. v’t Houd (8), A. Bruneau (6,9), M. Cross (6,7), V. Maivald (10), C. Orgel (6), A. Elsaesser (4), S.O.L. Direito (2,4), W.F.M. Röling (2), G.R. Davies (2); EuroGeoMars2009 Team, DOMMEX-ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2010-2013 Teams (1) ESA/ ESTEC, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwik, NL; (2) Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth & Life Sciences, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, NL; (3) NASA Ames Research Centre; US; (4) Leiden Institute of Chemistry, NL; (5) Space Policy Institute, GWU, Washington D.C., USA; (6) ILEWG; (7) CPSX; (8) Cerberus Blackshore, ESIC Noordwijk, NL; (9) ENSC Bordeaux; (10) DLR, Bremen References: Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) “Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments”, Special Issue of International Journal of Astrobiology , IJA 2011, 10, vol.3. 137-305; [1] Foing B. et al. (2011) Field astrobiology research at Moon-Mars analogue site: Instruments and methods, IJA 2011, 10 (3), 141; [2] Clarke, J., Stoker, C. Concretions in exhumed & inverte channels near Hanksville Utah: implications for Mars, (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 162; [3] Thiel et al., (2011) PCR-based analysis of microbial communities during the EuroGeoMars campaign at Mars Desert Research Station, Utah. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 177; [4] Direito et al. (2011). A wide variety of putative extremophiles and large beta-diversity at the Mars Desert Research Station (Utah). (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 191; [5] Orzechowska, G. et al (20110 analysis of Mars Analog soils using solid Phase Microextraction, Organics solvent extraction and GCMS, (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 209; [6] Kotler et al. (2011). Analysis of mineral matrices of planetary soils analogs from the Utah Desert. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 221; [7] Martins et al. (2011). Extraction of amino acids from soils close to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), Utah. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 231; [8] Ehrenfreund et al. (2011) Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 239; [9] Stoker C. et al (2011) Mineralogical

  3. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Sandford, Scott; Cox, Sylvia; Ellis, Benton; Gallagher, Dennis; Gautier, Nick; Greene, Thomas; McCreight, Craig; Mills, Gary; Purcell, William; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Corp. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the distribution, identity, and evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds, young forming stellar systems, stellar outflows, the general diffuse ISM, HII regions, Solar System bodies, and external galaxies. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.6 m aperture Cassegrain telescope and two moderate resolution (R = 2000-3000) spectrographs covering the 2.5-16 micron spectral region. Large format (1024x 1024 pixel or larger) IR detector arrays and bandpass filters will allow each spectrograph to cover an entire octave of spectral range or more per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope will be cooled below 50K by a cryogenic dewar shielded by a sunshade. The detectors will be cooled to approximately 8K. The optimum orbital configuration for achieving the scientific objectives of the ABE mission is a low background, 1 AU Earth driftaway orbit requiring a Delta II launch vehicle. This configuration provides a low thermal background and allows adequate communications bandwidth and good access to the entire sky over the approximate 1-2 year mission lifetime.

  4. The O/OREOS mission—Astrobiology in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Squires, D.; Kitts, C.; Agasid, E.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.; Cook, A.; Mancinelli, R.; Mattioda, A.; Nicholson, W.; Quinn, R.; Santos, O.; Tahu, G.; Voytek, M.; Beasley, C.; Bica, L.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Friedericks, C.; Henschke, M.; Landis, D.; Luzzi, E.; Ly, D.; Mai, N.; Minelli, G.; McIntyre, M.; Neumann, M.; Parra, M.; Piccini, M.; Rasay, R.; Ricks, R.; Schooley, A.; Stackpole, E.; Timucin, L.; Yost, B.; Young, A.

    2014-01-01

    The O/OREOS (Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses) nanosatellite is the first science demonstration spacecraft and flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small-Payloads Program (ASP). O/OREOS was launched successfully on November 19, 2010, to a high-inclination (72°), 650-km Earth orbit aboard a US Air Force Minotaur IV rocket from Kodiak, Alaska. O/OREOS consists of 3 conjoined cubesat (each 1000 cm3) modules: (i) a control bus; (ii) the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment; and (iii) the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment. Among the innovative aspects of the O/OREOS mission are a real-time analysis of the photostability of organics and biomarkers and the collection of data on the survival and metabolic activity for microorganisms at 3 times during the 6-month mission. We report on the spacecraft characteristics, payload capabilities, and present operational phase and flight data from the O/OREOS mission. The science and technology rationale of O/OREOS supports NASA's scientific exploration program by investigating the local space environment as well as space biology relevant to Moon and Mars missions. It also serves as a precursor for experiments on small satellites, the International Space Station (ISS), future free-flyers and lunar surface exposure facilities.

  5. Research in Science Education, Volume 5. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (6th, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, May 19-21, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, A. M., Ed.; Power, Colin, N., Ed.

    This volume contains papers presented at the sixth Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (ASERA) held at Flinders University in May, 1975. Paper topics include: pupil learning and classroom climate, teacher structuring behavior, the Australian Science Education Project (ASEP), cognitive preference and…

  6. SCIENCE FOR THE ACADEMICALLY TALENTED STUDENT IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL, REPORT OF A CONFERENCE SPONSORED JOINTLY BY THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION PROJECT ON THE ACADEMICALLY TALENTED STUDENT AND THE NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DONALDSON, ROBERT R.

    RESULTS OF A JOINT NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION-NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION CONFERENCE ON SCIENCE FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED STUDENTS ARE REPORTED. MAJOR TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE TALENTED STUDENT, (2) GUIDELINES FOR THE SELECTION OF COURSE CONTENT, (3) TEACHING METHODS, AND (4) DESIRABLE QUALITIES AND…

  7. Finding Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) Destinations for Human Exploration: Implications for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Rob; Abell, Paul; Barbee, Brent; Johnson, Lindley

    2012-01-01

    The current number of known potential NEA targets for HSF is limited to those objects whose orbital characteristics are similar to that of the Earth. This is due to the projected capabilities of the exploration systems currently under consideration and development at NASA. However, NEAs with such orbital characteristics often have viewing geometries that place them at low solar elongations and thus are difficult to detect from the vicinity of Earth. While ongoing ground-based surveys and data archives maintained by the NEO Program Observation Program Office and the Minor Planet Center (MPC) have provided a solid basis upon which to build, a more complete catalog of the NEO population is required to inform a robust and sustainable HSF exploration program. Since all the present NEO observing assets are currently confined to the vicinity of the Earth, additional effort must be made to provide capabilities for detection of additional HSF targets via assets beyond Earth orbit. A space-based NEO survey telescope located beyond the vicinity of the Earth, has considerable implications for planetary science and astrobiology. Such a telescope will provide foundational knowledge of our Solar System small body population and detect targets of interest for both the HSF and scientific communities. Data from this asset will yield basic characterization data on the NEOs observed (i.e., albedo, size determination, potential for volatiles and organics, etc.) and help down select targets for future HSF missions. Ideally, the most attractive targets from both HSF and astrobiology perspectives are those NEAs that may contain organic and volatile materials, and which could be effectively sampled at a variety of locations and depths. Presented here is an overview of four space-based survey concepts; any one of which after just a few years of operation will discover many highly accessible NEO targets suitable for robotic and human exploration. Such a space-based survey mission will reveal incredible returns for several disciplines including: exploration, in situ resource utilization, planetary defense, and science. Of particular, interest to the scientific

  8. Building Community: A 2005 Conference for Education and Public Outreach Professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.; Bennett, M.; Garmany, K.

    2004-12-01

    In support of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's (ASP) mission to increase the understanding and appreciation of astronomy, the ASP will host an international meeting in September 14-16, 2005 in Tucson focused on building and supporting a vibrant and connected community of individuals and groups engaged in educational and public outreach (EPO) in the disciplines of astronomy, astrobiology, space, and earth science. This conference is specially designed for individuals who are bringing the excitement of astronomy to non-astronomers. This community of science communicators includes: NASA and NSF-funded EPO program managers, developers, evaluators, PIOs, and others who support outreach efforts by government agencies and commercial industries; Scientists working with or assigned to EPO programs or efforts; Individuals working in formal science education: K-14 schools/colleges and minority-serving institutions as faculty or curriculum developers; Informal educators working in widely diverse settings including science centers, planetariums, museums, parks, and youth programs; Amateur astronomers involved in or interested in engaging children and adults in the excitement of astronomy; Public outreach specialists working in observatories, visitor centers, public information offices, and in multimedia broadcasting and journalism. The conference goals are to improve the quality and increase the effective dissemination of EPO materials, products, and programs through a multi-tiered professional development conference utilizing: Visionary plenary talks; Highly interactive panel discussions; Small group workshops and clinics focused on a wide range of EPO topics including evaluation and dissemination, with separate sessions for varying experience levels; Poster and project exhibition segments; Opportunities to increase program leveraging through structured and unstructured networking sessions; and Individual program action planning sessions. There will both separate and combined sessions for individuals working in formal, informal, public outreach, and scientific communications settings; and specific professional development sessions.

  9. BIRKBECK, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    topic in the Planetary Sciences, Earth Sciences, Astronomy, or Astrobiology will in principle1 BIRKBECK, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences BSc Planetary Science to the undergraduate project that forms a major part of the B.Sc. Degree in Planetary Science with Astronomy. Every

  10. Joint Tenure-Track Faculty Position in Exoplanetary Science Earth and Planetary Sciences and Physics Department, McGill University

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Joint Tenure-Track Faculty Position in Exoplanetary Science Earth and Planetary Sciences and Physics Department, McGill University The Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences (www, astrobiology and atmospheric sciences in Earth and Planetary Science and other departments. We seek candidates

  11. Proceedings of the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, Kim; Blasso, Len (editor); Lipscomb, Ann (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the National Space Science Data Center Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications held July 23 through 25, 1991 at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The program includes a keynote address, invited technical papers, and selected technical presentations to provide a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  12. PREFACE: International Conference on Advancement in Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST): Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Hee, Pah Chin

    2013-04-01

    The 4th International Conference on the Advancement of Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST 2012), with theme 'Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications', took place in Kuantan, Malaysia, from Wednesday 7 to Friday 9 November 2012. The conference was attended by more than 100 participants, and hosted about 160 oral and poster papers by more than 140 pre-registered authors. The key topics of the 4th iCAST 2012 include Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Dynamical Systems, Statistics and Financial Mathematics. The scientific program was rather full since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, four parallel sessions ran every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful; thus all attendees had a creative time. The conference aimed to promote the knowledge and development of high-quality research in mathematical fields concerned with the application of other scientific fields as well as modern technological trends in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, sociology and environmental sciences. We would like to thank the Keynote and the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to 4th iCAST 2012. We would also like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. We cannot end without expressing our many thanks to International Islamic University Malaysia and our sponsors for their financial support . This volume presents selected papers which have been peer-reviewed. The editors hope that it may be useful and fruitful for scholars, researchers, and advanced technical members of the industrial laboratory facilities for developing new tools and products. Guest Editors Nasir Ganikhodjaev, Farrukh Mukhamedov and Pah Chin Hee The PDF contains the committee lists, board list and biographies of the plenary speakers.

  13. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science.

    PubMed

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Brown, Glen; Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection.Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement.Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  14. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement. Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  15. The Combined Detection of Morphological and Molecular Biomarkers: Implications for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toporski, J.; Steele, A.; Westall, F.; Avci, R.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated known bacterial fossils using a combination of morphological and spectral techniques for the detection of biomarkers. This approach is considered crucial to unambiguous life detection strategies within Astrobiology. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Discrimination of Pigments of Microalgae, Bacteria and Yeasts Using Lightweight Handheld Raman Spectrometers: Prospects for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehlicka, J.; Osterrothova, K.; Nedbalova, L.; Gunde-Cimerman, N.; Oren, A.

    2014-06-01

    Handheld Raman instrumentation with 532 nm lasers can be used to distinguish carotenoids of autotrophic microalgae, purple sulfur bacteria, halophilic Archaea and pigmented yeasts. Pigments are proposed as biomarkers for astrobiology of Mars.

  17. Model Crystals to Test Techniques in Astrobiological Exploration of Evaporites on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, A. D.; Parnell, J.; Wright, A. J.; Artz, R. R. E.

    2003-03-01

    Model evaporite crystals grown in the laboratory to incorporate organic compounds and/or biomolecules have significant potential to test the various techniques proposed for the astrobiological exploration of Mars.

  18. Astrobiologically Interesting Stars within 10 parsecs of the Sun

    E-print Network

    De Mello, G F P; Ghezzi, L

    2006-01-01

    The existence of life based on carbon chemistry and water oceans relies upon planetary properties, chiefly climate stability, and stellar properties, such as mass, age, metallicity and Galactic orbits. The latter can be well constrained with present knowledge. We present a detailed, up-to-date compilation of the atmospheric parameters, chemical composition, multiplicity and degree of chromospheric activity for the astrobiologically interesting solar-type stars within 10 parsecs of the Sun. We determine their state of evolution, masses, ages and space velocities, and produce an optimized list of candidates that merit serious scientific consideration by the future space-based interferometry probes aimed at directly detecting Earth-sized extrasolar planets and seeking spectroscopic infrared biomarkers as evidence of photosynthetic life. The initially selected stars number 33 solar-type within the population of 182 stars (excluding late M-dwarfs) closer than 10 pc. A comprehensive and detailed data compilation fo...

  19. Astrobiological Effects of Stellar Radiation in Circumstellar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, Manfred; Gurdemir, Levent; Guinan, Edward F.; Kurucz, Robert L.

    2006-10-01

    The centerpiece of all life on Earth is carbon-based biochemistry. Previous scientific research has suggested that biochemistry based on carbon may also play a decisive role in extraterrestrial life forms, i.e., alien life outside of Earth, if existent. In the following, we explore if carbon-based macromolecules (such as DNA) in the environments of stars other than the Sun are able to survive the effects of energetic stellar radiation, such as UV-C in the wavelength band between 200 and 290 nm. We focus on main-sequence stars akin to the Sun, but of hotter (F-type stars) and cooler (K- and M-type stars) surface temperature. Emphasis is placed on investigating the radiative environment in stellar habitable zones (HZs). Stellar habitable zones have an important relevance in astrobiology because they constitute circumstellar regions in which a planet of suitable size can have surface temperatures for water to exist in liquid form.

  20. Earth Science and Public Health: Proceedings of the Second National Conference on USGS Health-Related Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Pierce, Brenda S.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. As the Nation?s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the USGS can play a significant role in providing scientific knowledge and information that will improve our understanding of the relations of environment and wildlife to human health and disease. USGS human health-related research is unique in the Federal government because it brings together a broad spectrum of natural science expertise and information, including extensive data collection and monitoring on varied landscapes and ecosystems across the Nation. USGS can provide a great service to the public health community by synthesizing the scientific information and knowledge on our natural and living resources that influence human health, and by bringing this science to the public health community in a manner that is most useful. Partnerships with health scientists and managers are essential to the success of these efforts. USGS scientists already are working closely with the public health community to pursue rigorous inquiries into the connections between natural science and public health. Partnering agencies include the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration, Mine Safety and Health Administration, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Public Health Service, and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Collaborations between public health scientists and earth scientists can lead to improved solutions for existing and emerging environmental health problems. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions held at the Second National Conference on USGS Health-Related Research, held at the USGS national headquarters in Reston, Virginia. The report presents 68 abstracts of technical presentations made at the conference and summaries of six topical breakout sessions. The abstracts cover a broad range of issues and demonstrate connections between human health and the quality and condition of our environment and wildlife. The summaries of the topical breakout sessions present ideas for advancing interdisciplinary science in areas of earth science and human health.

  1. Astrobiological Phase Transition: Towards Resolution of Fermi's Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?irkovi?, Milan M.; Vukoti?, Branislav

    2008-12-01

    Can astrophysics explain Fermi’s paradox or the “Great Silence” problem? If available, such explanation would be advantageous over most of those suggested in literature which rely on unverifiable cultural and/or sociological assumptions. We suggest, instead, a general astrobiological paradigm which might offer a physical and empirically testable paradox resolution. Based on the idea of James Annis, we develop a model of an astrobiological phase transition of the Milky Way, based on the concept of the global regulation mechanism(s). The dominant regulation mechanisms, arguably, are ?-ray bursts, whose properties and cosmological evolution are becoming well-understood. Secular evolution of regulation mechanisms leads to the brief epoch of phase transition: from an essentially dead place, with pockets of low-complexity life restricted to planetary surfaces, it will, on a short (Fermi-Hart) timescale, become filled with high-complexity life. An observation selection effect explains why we are not, in spite of the very small prior probability, to be surprised at being located in that brief phase of disequilibrium. In addition, we show that, although the phase-transition model may explain the “Great Silence”, it is not supportive of the “contact pessimist” position. To the contrary, the phase-transition model offers a rational motivation for continuation and extension of our present-day Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) endeavours. Some of the unequivocal and testable predictions of our model include the decrease of extinction risk in the history of terrestrial life, the absence of any traces of Galactic societies significantly older than human society, complete lack of any extragalactic intelligent signals or phenomena, and the presence of ubiquitous low-complexity life in the Milky Way.

  2. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (editor); Hariharan, P. C. (editor); Blasso, L. G. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    Papers and viewgraphs from the conference are presented. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disks and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  3. Survey on Astrobiology Research and Teaching Activities Within the United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartnell, Lewis R.; Burchell, Mark J.

    2009-10-01

    While astrobiology is apparently growing steadily around the world, in terms of the number of researchers drawn into this interdisciplinary area and teaching courses provided for new students, there have been very few studies conducted to chart this expansion quantitatively. To address this deficiency, the Astrobiology Society of Britain (ASB) conducted a questionnaire survey of universities and research institutions nationwide to ascertain the current extent of astrobiology research and teaching in the UK. The aim was to provide compiled statistics and an information resource for those who seek research groups or courses of study, and to facilitate new interdisciplinary collaborations. The report here summarizes details gathered on 33 UK research groups, which involved 286 researchers (from undergraduate project students to faculty members). The survey indicates that around 880 students are taking university-level courses, with significant elements of astrobiology included, every year in the UK. Data are also presented on the composition of astrobiology students by their original academic field, which show a significant dominance of physics and astronomy students. This survey represents the first published systematic national assessment of astrobiological academic activity and indicates that this emerging field has already achieved a strong degree of penetration into the UK academic community.

  4. Data Management in Astrobiology: Challenges and Opportunities for an Interdisciplinary Community

    PubMed Central

    Suomela, Todd; Malone, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Data management and sharing are growing concerns for scientists and funding organizations throughout the world. Funding organizations are implementing requirements for data management plans, while scientists are establishing new infrastructures for data sharing. One of the difficulties is sharing data among a diverse set of research disciplines. Astrobiology is a unique community of researchers, containing over 110 different disciplines. The current study reports the results of a survey of data management practices among scientists involved in the astrobiology community and the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) in particular. The survey was administered over a 2-month period in the first half of 2013. Fifteen percent of the NAI community responded (n=114), and additional (n=80) responses were collected from members of an astrobiology Listserv. The results of the survey show that the astrobiology community shares many of the same concerns for data sharing as other groups. The benefits of data sharing are acknowledged by many respondents, but barriers to data sharing remain, including lack of acknowledgement, citation, time, and institutional rewards. Overcoming technical, institutional, and social barriers to data sharing will be a challenge into the future. Key Words: Data management—Data sharing—Data preservation. Astrobiology 14, 451–461. PMID:24840364

  5. Circinaria gyrosa, a new astrobiological model system for studying the effects of heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, María Luisa; Moeller, Ralf; De la Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Raguse, M. Marina

    Up to date, most astrobiological experiments performed on space have been carried out on board of Earth-orbiting spacecrafts (e.g., Foton satellites), or on board of human-tended spacecrafts, (space shuttles and space stations). Organisms included in these experiments have been exposed to harsh space conditions: vacuum, doses of UV and ionizing radiation as well as extreme temperature fluctuations. Space radiation that arrived on these organisms is related with different sources: (e.g. solar particle events, galactic cosmic rays and electromagnetic radiation) [1]. More information on biological effects of cosmic radiation is needed to understand the possible risks for biological systems exposed to space conditions and to broaden our knowledge on the limits of terrestrial life. This study is focused on Circinaria gyrosa (from Aspicilia fruticulosa, ren. see Sohrabi, M., 2012), a vagrant lichen species collected at the steppic highlands of Central Spain. C. gyrosa. has been previously used in various space experiments, e.g., LITHOPANSPERMIA experiment, BIOPAN-6, FOTON M3, 2007, and in ground-based laboratory studies [2]. For example, after intensive UV-C exposure (7.2 x 107J/m2), C. gyrosa showed the highest PS-II activity of all lichens species tested [3]. Based on this high resistance to UV radiation C. gyrosa has been included in the next EXPOSE-R2 ISS experiment called “BIOMEX” (Biology and Mars-Experiment), in which different biological systems will be exposed to space and Martian conditions for nearly one and a half year. Here, we will present our first results of C.gyrosa, which have been obtained in frame of the STARLIFE project, an intercomparison project testing the effects of space-relevant ionizing radiation, i.e., heavy ions and X-rays, on different astrobiological model systems. For C. gyrosa we tested the organism metabolism through pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorescence analysis prior and after the each irradiation experiment. This new data provide further evidence that lichens are suitable organisms to experimentally verify the potential of lichens in a Lithopanspermia scenario, as indicated by Horneck et al. (2008) [4] References [1] L. R. Dartnell. Ionizing radiation and life Astrobiology 11(6): 551-582 (2011) [2] R. de la Torre, L. G. Sancho, G. Horneck, A. de los Rios, J. Wierzchos, K. Olsson-Francis, C. S. Cockell, P. Rettberg, T. Berger, J. P. de Vera, S. Ott, J. Martinez Frias. P. González Melendi, M. M. Lucas, M. Reina, A. Pintado and R. Demets. Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions. Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments. Icarus 208: 735-748 (2010) [3] F. J. Sánchez, E. Mateo-Martí, J. Raggio, J. Meeßen, J. Martínez-Frías, L. G .Sancho, S. Ott and R. de la Torre. The resistance of the lichen Circinaria gyrosa (nom. provis.) towards simulated Mars conditions - a model test for the survival capacity of an eukaryotic extremophile. Planetary and Space Science. 72 (1): 102-110 (2012) [4] Horneck, G., Klaus, D.M., and R. L. Mancinelli. Space microbiology. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: 74(1):121-156 (2010)

  6. Women in Science and Engineering Initiative International Women's Day Conference 2008

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    female scientists and engineers - 2 - #12;Welcome to the 2008 International Women's Day Conference! We of female mentors, increase issue-specific education for graduate students, facilitate interdisciplinary common issues faced by female graduate students and postdoctoral candidates A series of bi

  7. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, and planetary mantles.

  8. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The 3rd International Conference on Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT3), organized by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, was held from May 10 -13, 20...

  9. Hawaii International Conference on System Science, January 2004, Hawaii, copyright 2004 IEEE Dynamical and probabilistic approaches to the study of blackout vulnerability of the

    E-print Network

    to a similar characterization for power transmission system blackouts are identified in the OPA dynamical modelHawaii International Conference on System Science, January 2004, Hawaii, copyright 2004 IEEE Dynamical and probabilistic approaches to the study of blackout vulnerability of the power transmission grid

  10. 2004 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, Princeton University, March 17-19, 2004 Performance Analysis for Transmit-Beamforming with Finite-Rate Feedback

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Shengli

    with finite-rate feedback. A universal lower bound on the outage probability, that is applicable to all beam2004 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, Princeton University, March 17-19, 2004 Performance Analysis for Transmit-Beamforming with Finite-Rate Feedback Shengli Zhou1 , Zhengdao Wang2

  11. Presented at 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science, Waikoloa, HI, Jan. 5-8,2005 Market Structure and the Predictability of Electricity System Line Flows

    E-print Network

    1 Presented at 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science, Waikoloa, HI, Jan. 5-8,2005 Market Structure and the Predictability of Electricity System Line Flows: An Experimental Analysis Nodir to dispatch the system, that relationship between line flow and system load becomes nearly random

  12. Jean Camp & Allan Friedman, "Peer Patching Rapid Response in Distributed Systems," 24th Army Science Conference (Orlando, FL) 28 November 2 December 2004.

    E-print Network

    Camp, L. Jean

    Jean Camp & Allan Friedman, "Peer Patching ­ Rapid Response in Distributed Systems," 24th Army Science Conference (Orlando, FL) 28 November ­ 2 December 2004. PEER PATCHING - RAPID RESPONSE it will depend. Addressing software vulnerabilities in the field, i.e., patching, requires discovery

  13. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Costa Mesa, California, January 18-21, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2001 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Costa Mesa, California, January 18-21, 2001. Papers include: (1) "An Elementary Preservice Teacher's Search for Solutions about the Evolution-Divine Creation Question: The Story of Tracy"…

  14. MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators & Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (4th, Columbus, Ohio, May 6, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costner, Kelly M., Ed.; Herman, Marlena F., Ed.

    The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERs-OSU) is a student organization that grew out of the former Ohio State University Council of Teachers of Mathematics (OSU-CTM). Papers from the fourth annual conference include: (1) "Technology Education Curriculum Models in Michigan Secondary…

  15. MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators & Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (5th, Columbus, Ohio, May 5, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Marlena F., Ed.

    The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERs-OSU) is a student organization that grew out of the former Ohio State University Council of Teachers of Mathematics (OSU-CTM). Papers from the fifth annual conference include: (1) "Models of the Structure of Matter: Why Should We Care about…

  16. The inaugural International Conference on Music Communication Science 5-7 December 2007, Sydney, Australia http://marcs.uws.edu.au/links/ICoMusic

    E-print Network

    Gold, Nicolas

    of the above. 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Motives are short musical ideas characterized by particular unity to musical works [11]. Studies of motive usually concentrate on aspects of music that canThe inaugural International Conference on Music Communication Science 5-7 December 2007, Sydney

  17. Turbomachinery controls conference (TCC) 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The proceedings of the Turbomachinery Controls Conference 1995 are presented. Eleven papers were presented at the conference. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the nine papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. PREFACE: Selected papers from the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Michael S.; Lee, Gil U.

    2005-07-01

    This special issue of Nanotechnology contains research papers contributed by the participants of the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), which was held in Austin, Texas, USA, 7-12 November, 2004. This conference saw 284 oral presentations from institutions around the world, which is the highest number for this topical conference series to date. These presentations were organized into 64 sessions, covering the range of nanotechnology subject areas in which chemical engineers are currently engaged. These sessions included the following areas. ? Fundamentals: thermodynamics at the nanoscale; applications of nanostructured fluids; transport properties in nanophase and nanoscale systems; molecular modelling methods; self and directed assembly at the nanoscale; nanofabrication and nanoscale processing; manipulation of nanophases by external fields; nanoscale systems; adsorption and transport in carbon nanotubes; nanotribology; making the transition from materials and phenomena to new technologies; operation of micro-and nano-systems. ? Materials: nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization; nanoscale structure in polymers; nanotemplating of polymers; synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; nanowires; nanoparticle assemblies and superlattices; nanoelectronic materials; self-assembly of templated inorganic materials; nanostructured hybrid organic/inorganic materials; gas phase synthesis of nanoparticles; multicomponent structured particles; nano energetic materials; liquid-phase synthesis of nanoparticles. ? Energy: synthesis and characterization of nanostructured catalytic materials; nanomaterials and devices for energy applications. ? Biotechnology: nanobiotechnology; nanotechnology for the biotechnology and pharmaceuticals industries; nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology for sensors; advances in biomaterials, bionanotechnology, biomimetic systems and tissue engineering; nanotechnology for drug delivery and imaging; bionanotechnology in cancer and cardiovascular disease; nanostructured biomaterials; nanotechnology in bioengineering; nanofabrication of biosensing devices. We are pleased to present a selection of research papers in this special issue of Nanotechnology on behalf of the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Forum (NSEF). NSEF was established in 2001 as a new division of AIChE to promote nanotechnology efforts in chemical engineering. The chemical engineering discipline deals with the production and processing of chemicals and materials, and does so through a fundamental understanding of the core issues of transport, thermodynamics, and kinetics that exist at multiple length scales. Thus, it should come as no surprise that chemical engineers have been pursuing nanotechnology research for the last fifty years. For example, fuel production has benefited immensely from improved catalysts in which their pore structure is controlled with nanoscale precision, and polymer properties have been improved by controlling the polymer supramolecular structure at the nanometre scale. Chemical engineering will continue to make important contributions to nanotechnology, and will play a critical role in the transition from basic science and engineering research to commercial applications. We would like to thank all of the authors who contributed to this special issue; the three NSEF poster presentation award winners for their papers (Sureshkumar, Sunkara, and Rinaldi groups); Dr Nina Couzin, Publisher of Nanotechnology, for her support and enthusiasm for this project; Drs Sharon Glotzer and Dan Coy who chaired the topical conference; and Drs Meyya Meyyappan and Brett Cruden (NASA Ames Research Center) for their assistance in the initial planning stages. We also take this opportunity to thank the many people and organizations who have supported the 2004 topical conference along the way, which include all the session chairs, Hyperion Catalysis International, Inc., Nanophase Technologies, Inc., and

  19. News Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

  20. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, K-T Boundary Layer, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, planetary mantles, and space exploration.

  1. The Future Scientists and Engineers Conferences: Using Community Resources to Enhance the Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinsel, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Conference attendees arrive at the registration desk at 9:00 a.m. sharp, eager to start their day. While standing in line, they talk excitedly about the sessions they've chosen to see, the original investigation they'll be presenting, off-site field trips for which they've registered, and the businesses scheduled to have booths in the Exhibitor's…

  2. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, K-T Boundary Layer, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, planetary mantles, and space exploration. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  3. Proceedings of the precollege-university partnerships for science and mathematics education conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    In April of 1992 in Atlanta, Georgia, nearly 50 elementary and secondary educators and about 100 postsecondary educators convened to explore their common interests in the conference on precollege-university partnerships. This report summarizes the remarks and conclusions of speakers, panelists, and of attendees gathered in regional work groups. During the course of the conference, attendees heard from federal agencies and foundations which fund education-related projects and learned of their enthusiastic support of partnerships. In our national need to manage education and training resources wisely, these funding agents see partnership benefits such as renewed excitement for teaching at all levels, effective and technologically up-to-date in-service training, more and better-prepared high school graduates entering colleges, and a general enhancement of understanding among educators at all levels of teaching. As an added benefit, the partnership concept promotes discussion and understanding in an atmosphere of respect, appreciation, and self-esteem. Several hours of the conference were devoted to panels addressing five questions important to education coalitions. The panelists represented a wide variety of teaching levels, geographic locations, educational experiences, and ethnic groups.

  4. Astrobiological Aspects of Radiation Chemistry in Europa's Icy Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Hand, K. P.

    2006-05-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa, with its likely subsurface ocean and young, active surface, is a promising habitat for life. Europa orbits in the heart of Jupiter's powerful magnetosphere and suffers intense energetic particle bombardment, producing both positive and negative aspects for astrobiology at Europa. Ionizing radiation can produce oxidants that could support a radiation-driven ecology as proposed by Chyba. On the other hand, biomolecular evidence for life that may be upwelled to the surface is rapidly altered by irradiation, complicating astrobiological searches for evidence of life. We present an overview of laboratory work performed at JPL and elsewhere and observational results related to these two aspects. The oxidants hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen are known to exist on Europa and the radiolytic production of these species has been studied in the laboratory for both electron and ion irradiation. Laboratory- measured equilibrium concentrations of H2O2, where production and destruction rates are equal, are in general agreement with the observed 0.1% molar abundance on Europa. The shape of Europa's peroxide band is consistent with the line shapes observed in radiolysis and with H2O2 dispersed in water ice rather than occurring as H2O2 aggregates. Surprisingly, molecular oxygen may be even more abundant on Europa even though O2 is extremely volatile ande would be expected to escape from the ice surface. Radiolysis can produce molecular oxygen and appears to simultaneously alter the ice matrix, trapping the O2. Other species observed on Europa are CO2 and SO2, and laboratory radiolysis of these species in H2O ice produces carbonic and sulfuric acid, respectively. We are studying the radiolytic degradation of biomarkers in ice at Europa temperatures by studying both simple organics and more complex biomolecules, including microorganisms. Hydrocarbon radiolysis yields carbon dioxide and methane, which can escape the system and results in loss of carbon. In addition, polymerization produces brown, high-molecular weight residues with complex mass spectra. Radiolysis of microorganisms shows the loss of amine, amide, methyl, and methylene groups, and production of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitriles, and isocyanates. Work is continuing to establish useful biosignatures that may persist in the complex mass spectra of irradiated microorganisms.

  5. A Micro Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter for Astrobiology Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Donald W.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    A micro-scale Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (microFACS) for astrobiology applications is under development. This device is designed to have a footprint of 7 cm x 7 cm x 4 cm and allow live-dead counts and sorting of cells that have fluorescent characteristics from staining. The FACS system takes advantage of microfluidics to create a cell sorter that can fit in the palm of the hand. A micron-scale channel allows cells to pass by a blue diode which causes emission of marker-expressed cells which are detected by a filtered photodetector. A small microcontroller then counts cells and operates high speed valves to select which chamber the cell is collected in (a collection chamber or a waste chamber). Cells with the expressed characteristic will be collected in the collection chamber. This system has been built and is currently being tested. We are also designing a system with integrated MEMS-based pumps and valves for a small and compact unit to fly on small satellite-based biology experiments.

  6. Astrobiologically Interesting Stars within 10 parsecs of the Sun

    E-print Network

    G. F. Porto de Mello; E. F. del Peloso; L. Ghezzi

    2005-11-07

    The existence of life based on carbon chemistry and water oceans relies upon planetary properties, chiefly climate stability, and stellar properties, such as mass, age, metallicity and Galactic orbits. The latter can be well constrained with present knowledge. We present a detailed, up-to-date compilation of the atmospheric parameters, chemical composition, multiplicity and degree of chromospheric activity for the astrobiologically interesting solar-type stars within 10 parsecs of the Sun. We determine their state of evolution, masses, ages and space velocities, and produce an optimized list of candidates that merit serious scientific consideration by the future space-based interferometry probes aimed at directly detecting Earth-sized extrasolar planets and seeking spectroscopic infrared biomarkers as evidence of photosynthetic life. The initially selected stars number 33 solar-type within the population of 182 stars (excluding late M-dwarfs) closer than 10 pc. A comprehensive and detailed data compilation for these objects is still essentially lacking: a considerable amount of recent data has so far gone unexplored in this context. We present 13 objects as the nearest "biostars", after eliminating multiple stars, young, chromospherically active, hard X-ray emitting stars, and low metallicity objects. Three of these "biostars", HD 1581, 109358 and 115617, closely reproduce most of the solar properties and are considered as premier targets. We show that approximately 7% of the nearby stars are optimally interesting targets for exobiology.

  7. Life and the Universe: From Astrochemistry to Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    Great strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material thanks to advances in infrared astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by earlier astrochemical standards, are widespread and very abundant throughout much of the cosmos. In cold molecular clouds, the birthplace of planets and stars, interstellar atoms and molecules freeze onto extremely cold dust and ice particles forming mixed molecular ices dominated by simple species such as water, methanol, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. Within these clouds, and especially in the vicinity of star and planet forming regions, these ices and PAHs are processed by ultraviolet light and cosmic rays forming hundreds of far more complex species, some of biogenic interest. Eventually, these are delivered to primordial planets by comets and meteorites. As these materials are the building blocks of comets and related to carbonaceous micrometeorites, they are likely to be important sources of complex organic materials delivered to habitable planets (including the primordial Earth) and their composition may be related to the origin of life. This talk will focus on the chemical evolution of these cosmic materials and their relevance to astrobiology.

  8. Astrobiology, space and the future age of discovery.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Baruch S

    2011-02-13

    Astrobiology is the study of the origins, evolution, distribution and future of life in the Universe, and specifically seeks to understand the origin of life and to test the hypothesis that life exists elsewhere than on Earth. There is a general mathematics, physics and chemistry; that is, scientific laws that obtain on Earth also do so elsewhere. Is there a general biology? Is the Universe life-rich or is Earth an isolated island of biology? Exploration in the Age of Enlightenment required the collection of data in unexplored regions and the use of induction and empiricism to derive models and natural laws. The current search for extra-terrestrial life has a similar goal, but with a much greater amount of data and with computers to help with management, correlations, pattern recognition and analysis. There are 60 active space missions, many of them aiding in the search for life. There is not a universally accepted definition of life, but there are a series of characteristics that can aid in the identification of life elsewhere. The study of locations on Earth with similarities to early Mars and other space objects could provide a model that can be used in the search for extra-terrestrial life. PMID:21220277

  9. Macroengineering in the Galactic Context: A New Agenda for Astrobiology

    E-print Network

    Milan M. Cirkovic

    2006-08-20

    We hereby consider the problem of detectability of macro-engineering projects over interstellar distances, in the context of Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI). Freeman J. Dyson and his imaginative precursors, like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Olaf Stapledon or John B. S. Haldane, suggested macro-engineering projects as focal points in the context of extrapolations about the future of humanity and, by analogy, other intelligent species in the Milky Way. We emphasize that the search for signposts of extraterrestrial macro-engineering projects is not an optional pursuit within the family of ongoing and planned SETI projects; inter alia, the failure of the orthodox SETI thus far clearly indicates this. Instead, this approach (for which we suggest a name of "Dysonian") should be the front-line and mainstay of any cogent SETI strategy in future, being significantly more promising than searches for directed, intentional radio or microwave emissions. This is in accord with our improved astrophysical understanding of the structure and evolution of the Galactic Habitable Zone, as well as with the recent wake-up call of Steven J. Dick to investigate consequences of postbiological evolution for astrobiology in general and SETI programs in particular. The benefits this multidisciplinary approach may bear for astrobiologists, evolutionary theorists and macro-engineers are also briefly highlighted.

  10. Astrobiological Implications of Titan Tholin in Methane Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Bishun N.; McKay, C. P.; McPherson, S.; Cruikshank, D.; Nna-Mvondo, D.; Sekine, Y.

    2010-10-01

    We report here on our ongoing research in the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at NASA Ames Research Center dedicated to determine the degree of solubility of Titan tholin in the methane-ethane lakes. Our work is also directed toward confirming the presence of any astrobiologically significant molecules via hydrolysis and pyrolysis of a simulated lake sample. Our previous work conducted at Cornell University and subsequently in the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at NASA Ames Research Center has established that Titan tholin produces amino acids (Khare et al. Icarus 1986) on hydrolysis, and many compounds including adenine on pyrolysis (Khare et al. Adv. Space Res. 1984). Also, our previous work by Thompson et al. (Icarus 1991) has clearly indicated that when energy is supplied to Titan's atmospheric composition (methane and nitrogen), tholin results from hundreds of contemporary compounds, including highly reactive compounds such as azides and isocyanides. Cassini showed that photolysis of methane produces benzene and many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, along with compounds with very high molecular weights (up to 10000 amu), resulting from the photolytic reactions of CH4 with nitrogen. These heavy aerosols, termed "tholins” by Sagan and Khare (Nature 1979), are also synthesized when Titan intercepts charged particles from the magnetosphere of Saturn. Tholins resulting from both of these syntheses eventually descend to the surface of Titan, where some quantity collects in the methane-ethane lakes. This research is supported by a grant from Planetary Atmospheres.

  11. First Light from Extrasolar Planets and Implications for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, L. Jeremy; Seager, Sara; Harrington, Joseph; Deming, Drake

    2005-01-01

    The first light from an extrasolar planet was recently detected. These results, obtained for two transiting extrasolar planets at different infrared wavelengths, open a new era in the field of extrasolar planet detection and characterization because for the first time we can now detect planets beyond the solar system directly. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope at 24 microns, we observed the modulation of combined light (star plus planet) from the HD 209458 system as the planet disappeared behind the star during secondary eclipse and later re-emerged, thereby isolating the light from the planet. We obtained a planet-to-star ratio of 0.26% at 24 microns, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 1130 + / - 150 K. We will describe this result in detail, explain what it can tell us about the atmosphere of HD 209458 b, and discuss implications for the field of astrobiology. These results represent a significant step on the path to detecting terrestrial planets around other stars and in understanding their atmospheres in terms of composition and temperature.

  12. Data management in astrobiology: challenges and opportunities for an interdisciplinary community.

    PubMed

    Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur; Suomela, Todd; Malone, Jim

    2014-06-01

    Data management and sharing are growing concerns for scientists and funding organizations throughout the world. Funding organizations are implementing requirements for data management plans, while scientists are establishing new infrastructures for data sharing. One of the difficulties is sharing data among a diverse set of research disciplines. Astrobiology is a unique community of researchers, containing over 110 different disciplines. The current study reports the results of a survey of data management practices among scientists involved in the astrobiology community and the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) in particular. The survey was administered over a 2-month period in the first half of 2013. Fifteen percent of the NAI community responded (n=114), and additional (n=80) responses were collected from members of an astrobiology Listserv. The results of the survey show that the astrobiology community shares many of the same concerns for data sharing as other groups. The benefits of data sharing are acknowledged by many respondents, but barriers to data sharing remain, including lack of acknowledgement, citation, time, and institutional rewards. Overcoming technical, institutional, and social barriers to data sharing will be a challenge into the future. PMID:24840364

  13. Year of the Oceans: Science of Information Handling. [Proceedings of the] Annual Conference of the International Association of Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers (10th, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, October 2-5, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundy, R. L., Ed.; Ford, R. T., Ed.

    International Association of Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers (IAMSLIC) conferences provide a format for libraries and information specialists to discuss common interests and concerns so that services and information can be made available to scientists, administrators, engineers, educators and students in the discipline of marine…

  14. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Organic Molecules in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Vincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One of the principal means by which organic compounds are detected and identified in space is by infrared spectroscopy. Past IR studies (telescopic and laboratory) have demonstrated that much of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) is in complex organic species of a variety of types, but the distribution, abundance, and evolutionary relationships of these materials are not well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEAST mission concept designed to conduct IR spectroscopic observations to detect and identify these materials to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. Systematic studies include the observation of planetary nebulae and stellar outflows, protostellar objects, Solar System Objects, and galaxies, and multiple lines of sight through dense molecular clouds and the diffuse ISM. ABE will also search for evidence of D enrichment in complex molecules in all these environments. The mission is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. ABE is a cryogenically-cooled 60 cm diameter space telescope equipped with 3 cryogenic cross-dispersed spectrographs that share a single common slit. The 3 spectrometers each measure single spectral octaves (2.5-5, 5-10, 10-20 microns) and together cover the entire 2.5 - 20 micron region simultaneously. The spectrometers use state-of-the-art 1024x1024 pixel detectors, with a single InSb array for the 2.5-5 micron region and two Si:As arrays for the 5-10 and 10-20 micron regions. The spectral resolution is wavelength dependent but is greater than 2000 across the entire spectral range. ABE would operate in a heliocentric, Earth drift-away orbit and is designed to take maximum advantage of this environment for cooling, thermal stability, and mission lifetime. ABE would have a core science mission lasting approximately 1.5 years.

  15. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Clinical and biomedical prevention science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether to initiate ART at higher CD4+ cell counts than currently recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines received much attention at the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008). If studies presented at the conference ultimately lead to a revision of WHO treatment guidance, the estimated number of people who will need ART globally will increase substantially. Task-shifting is emerging as an important strategy for dealing with the acute shortage of health care workers in many high-burden countries, and several studies presented at AIDS 2008 demonstrated the impressive health system efficiencies garnered by using nurses or other health care providers to deliver HIV care and treatment. Other key presentations and discussion at the conference focused on the optimal time to start TB treatment in HIV-infected patients, the growing risk of resistance in high-burden countries, including its impact on future treatment options, and several large cohort trials testing optimal drug regimens in resource-limited settings. Biomedical prevention research continues to confirm the long-term, protective benefits of circumcision. Several studies involving HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples have produced data suggesting a strong protective effect of ART for HIV-negative partners. Disappointing results from recent vaccine and non-ARV based microbicides trials are nevertheless providing important data to this field, and the expanding number of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials and ARV-based microbicides appear to provide the best hope for a new, efficacious biomedical prevention intervention. PMID:19811670

  16. 27. Annual Offshore Technology Conference: 1995 Proceedings. Volume 1: Geology, earth sciences and environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This is a compilation of papers representing volume 1 of 4 of the Offshore Technology Conference proceedings. It deals with papers which address geologic and geotechnical issues relating to offshore oil and gas developments. It includes papers on foundations and soil interactions associated with offshore platforms; high resolution survey techniques; international standards for oil and gas operations and equipment; techniques for subsalt exploration; and geologic problems associated with pipeline installation and site selection. Numerous papers deal with specific oil and gas exploration techniques in various countries such as Venezuela and Brazil.

  17. Conference of Ministers of Education and Those Responsible for the Promotion of Science and Technology in Relation to Development in Latin America and the Caribbean Convened in Cooperation with ECLA and OAS, Venezuela, December 1971, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Summarized in this report are commission reports, resolutions, and recommendations offered to a 1971 UNESCO conference dealing with education, science, technology, and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. The narrative material serves to illuminate the Conference objectives to: (1) review the progress made in education since a 1966…

  18. MST 1: Proceedings of a conference on the integration of mathematics, science and technology in precollege education

    SciTech Connect

    Swyler, K.

    1995-11-01

    Example MST activities examined here show: (1) an inquiry-driven learning stimulus, involving (2) the synthesis of concepts in math, science and technology, through (3) the application of the scientific method and engineering problem solving/test protocols, and provoking (4) a stimulus for further exploration. A semi-exploratory learning approach offered background aimed at enabling participants to take meaningful courses of investigation; this approach must be balanced by maintaining contact with framework content standards. On the whole, the philosophy underlying the MST learning approach--as envisioned in the draft NYS Framework, and embodied in the example activities--is strongly endorsed. This endorsement is broad-based: those represented include teachers of mathematics, science, and technology, and school district administrators--in roughly equal numbers. Discussion centers not on whether the MST approach should be pursued, but on what is involved in doing it. Teams of conference participants were given time to plan or extend MST initiatives in their own districts. Outlines of the initiatives proposed by ten of the teams are disseminated herein.

  19. Transforming Science and Technology: Our Future Depends on It. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2: Proceedings and Contributions to the International Gender and Science and Technology Conference (7th, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, July 31-August 5, 1993) = Transformer les sciences et la technologie: notre avenir en depend. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2. Les soumissions a la septieme conference internationale sur l'equite des sexes en science et en technologie (du 31 juillet au 5 aout 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggerty, Sharon, Ed.; Holmes, Ann, Ed.

    This two-volume set of papers was produced for the seventh International Gender and Science and Technology (GASTA) Conference. Abstracts of all papers and other presentations have been translated and are published in both English and French. Papers are published in the language in which they were submitted (English or French). GASAT provides a…

  20. Copyright 2003 IEEE. Published in the Proceedings of the Hawai'i International Conference On System Sciences, January 5-8, 2003, Big Island, Hawaii. 1 Markets can interact with power systems in ways that can

    E-print Network

    Copyright 2003 IEEE. Published in the Proceedings of the Hawai'i International Conference On System Sciences, January 5-8, 2003, Big Island, Hawaii. 1 Abstract Markets can interact with power systems in ways

  1. NASA SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE 2007, PAPER D3P2 A Science Model-Driven Autonomous Volcano

    E-print Network

    , but will also result in a more rapid response to alerts of volcanic eruptions. I. INTRODUCTION N A volcanic 96822, USA. P. Kyle and S. Chadde are at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Dep. of Earth and Environmental Science, Socorro, NM 87801, USA. D. Mandl is at the NASA Goddard Space Flight

  2. Walk Through Solar System Times: An Exhibit with an Astrobiology Emphasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this astrobiology outreach project, we attempt to present the research of the Goddard Center for Astrobiology (GCA) in the context of the history of the Solar System. GCA research emphasizes the origin and formation of complex pre-biotic organic materials in extraterrestrial environments and explores whether the delivery of these primordial materials and water to the early Earth enabled the emergence and evolution of life. The content expounds on areas that are usually not touched upon in a timeline of the Earth's formation. The exhibit addresses the questions: How did our solar system form? How is the formation of our solar systems similar or different from others? How did the organic molecules we observe in space get to the Earth? What conditions are most suitable for life? We will address the issues and challenges of designing the exhibit and of explaining advanced astrobiology research topics to the public.

  3. Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    mission in the Mars Scout series, and 10 new teams for the NASA Astrobiology Institute were announced of the 20 members of the subcommittee attended the meeting, and one participated by teleconference's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), on division activities, as well as responses to PSS and NAC

  4. Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

    2014-09-01

    The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children. PMID:25107597

  5. Backward Planetary Protection Issues and Possible Solutions for Icy Plume Sample Return Missions from Astrobiological Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime; McKay, Christopher P.; Anbar, Ariel; Tsou, Peter

    The recent report of possible water vapor plumes at Europa and Ceres, together with the well-known Enceladus plume containing water vapor, salt, ammonia, and organic molecules, suggests that sample return missions could evolve into a generic approach for outer Solar System exploration in the near future, especially for the benefit of astrobiology research. Sampling such plumes can be accomplished via fly-through mission designs, modeled after the successful Stardust mission to capture and return material from Comet Wild-2 and multiple, precise trajectory controls of the Cassini mission to fly through Enceladus’ plume. The proposed LIFE (Life Investigation For Enceladus) mission to Enceladus, which would sample organic molecules from the plume of that apparently habitable world, provides one example of the appealing scientific return of such missions. Beyond plumes, the upper atmosphere of Titan could also be sampled in this manner. The SCIM mission to Mars, also inspired by Stardust, would sample and return aerosol dust in the upper atmosphere of Mars and thus extends this concept even to other planetary bodies. Such missions share common design needs. In particular, they require large exposed sampler areas (or sampler arrays) that can be contained to the standards called for by international planetary protection protocols that COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy (PPP) recommends. Containment is also needed because these missions are driven by astrobiologically relevant science - including interest in organic molecules - which argues against heat sterilization that could destroy scientific value of samples. Sample containment is a daunting engineering challenge. Containment systems must be carefully designed to appropriate levels to satisfy the two top requirements: planetary protection policy and the preserving the scientific value of samples. Planning for Mars sample return tends to center on a hermetic seal specification (i.e., gas-tight against helium escape). While this is an ideal specification, it far exceeds the current PPP requirements for Category-V “restricted Earth return”, which typically center on a probability of escape of a biologically active particle (e.g., < 1 in 10 (6) chance of escape of particles > 50 nm diameter). Particles of this size (orders of magnitude larger than a helium atom) are not volatile and generally “sticky” toward surfaces; the mobility of viruses and biomolecules requires aerosolization. Thus, meeting the planetary protection challenge does not require hermetic seal. So far, only a handful of robotic missions accomplished deep space sample returns, i.e., Genesis, Stardust and Hayabusa. This year, Hayabusa-2 will be launched and OSIRIS-REx will follow in a few years. All of these missions are classified as “unrestricted Earth return” by the COSPAR PPP recommendation. Nevertheless, scientific requirements of organic contamination control have been implemented to all WBS regarding sampling mechanism and Earth return capsule of Hayabusa-2. While Genesis, Stardust and OSIRIS-REx capsules “breathe” terrestrial air as they re-enter Earth’s atmosphere, temporal “air-tight” design was already achieved by the Hayabusa-1 sample container using a double O-ring seal, and that for the Hayabusa-2 will retain noble gas and other released gas from returned solid samples using metal seal technology. After return, these gases can be collected through a filtered needle interface without opening the entire container lid. This expertise can be extended to meeting planetary protection requirements from “restricted return” targets. There are still some areas requiring new innovations, especially to assure contingency robustness in every phase of a return mission. These must be achieved by meeting both PPP and scientific requirements during initial design and WBS of the integrated sampling system including the Earth return capsule. It is also important to note that international communities in planetary protection, sample return science, and deep space engineering must me

  6. The Mojave Desert: A Martian Analog Site for Future Astrobiology Themed Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, E.; Abbey, W.; Bhartia, R.; Beegle, L. W.

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiological interest in Mars is highlighted by evidence that Mars was once warm enough to have liquid water present on its surface long enough to create geologic formations that could only exist in the presense of extended fluvial periods. These periods existed at the same time life on Earth arose. If life began on Mars as well during this period, it is reasonable to assume it may have adapted to the subsurface as environments at the surface changed into the inhospitable state we find today. If the next series of Mars missions (Mars Science Laboratory, the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter proposed for launch in 2016, and potential near surface sample return) fail to discover either extinct or extant life on Mars, a subsurface mission would be necessary to attempt to "close the book" on the existence of martian life. Mars is much colder and drier than Earth, with a very low pressure CO2 environment and no obvious habitats. Terrestrial regions with limited precipitation, and hence reduced active biota, are some of the best martian low to mid latitude analogs to be found on Earth, be they the Antarctic dry valleys, the Atacama or Mojave Deserts. The Mojave Desert/Death Valley region is considered a Mars analog site by the Terrestrial Analogs Panel of the NSF-sponsored decadal survey; a field guide was even developed and a workshop was held on its applicability as a Mars analog. This region has received a great deal of attention due to its accessibility and the variety of landforms and processes observed relevant to martian studies.

  7. ASE Annual Conference 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the ASE Annual Conference 2010 which was held at Nottingham after a gap of 22 years. As always, the main conference was preceded by International Day, an important event for science educators from across the world. There were two strands to the programme: (1) "What works for me?"--sharing new ideas and tried…

  8. USL NASA/RECON project presentations at the 1985 ACM Computer Science Conference: Abstracts and visuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Chum, Frank Y.; Gallagher, Suzy; Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Moreau, Dennis R.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents the abstracts and visuals associated with presentations delivered by six USL NASA/RECON research team members at the above named conference. The presentations highlight various aspects of NASA contract activities pursued by the participants as they relate to individual research projects. The titles of the six presentations are as follows: (1) The Specification and Design of a Distributed Workstation; (2) An Innovative, Multidisciplinary Educational Program in Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval; (3) Critical Comparative Analysis of the Major Commercial IS and R Systems; (4) Design Criteria for a PC-Based Common User Interface to Remote Information Systems; (5) The Design of an Object-Oriented Graphics Interface; and (6) Knowledge-Based Information Retrieval: Techniques and Applications.

  9. Proceedings of the U.S. Geological Survey Eighth Biennial Geographic Information Science Workshop and first The National Map Users Conference, Denver, Colorado, May 10-13, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sieverling, Jennifer B.; Dietterle, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is sponsoring the first The National Map Users Conference in conjunction with the eighth biennial Geographic Information Science (GIS) Workshop on May 10-13, 2011, in Lakewood, Colorado. The GIS Workshop will be held at the USGS National Training Center, located on the Denver Federal Center, Lakewood, Colorado, May 10-11. The National Map Users Conference will be held directly after the GIS Workshop at the Denver Marriott West, a convention hotel in the Lakewood, Colorado area, May 12-13. The National Map is designed to serve the Nation by providing geographic data and knowledge for government, industry, and public uses. The goal of The National Map Users Conference is to enhance communications and collaboration among the communities of users of and contributors to The National Map, including USGS, Department of the Interior, and other government GIS specialists and scientists, as well as the broader geospatial community. The USGS National Geospatial Program intends the conference to serve as a forum to engage users and more fully discover and meet their needs for the products and services of The National Map. The goal of the GIS Workshop is to promote advancement of GIS and related technologies and concepts as well as the sharing of GIS knowledge within the USGS GIS community. This collaborative opportunity for multi-disciplinary GIS and associated professionals will allow attendees to present and discuss a wide variety of geospatial-related topics. The Users Conference and Workshop collaboration will bring together scientists, managers, and data users who, through presentations, posters, seminars, workshops, and informal gatherings, will share accomplishments and progress on a variety of geospatial topics. During this joint event, attendees will have the opportunity to present or demonstrate their work; to develop their knowledge by attending hands-on workshops, seminars, and presentations given by professionals from USGS and other Federal Agencies, GIS related companies, and academia; and to network with other professionals to develop collaborative opportunities. Specific conference topics include scientific and modeling applications using The National Map, opportunities for partnerships, and advances in geospatial technologies. The first part of the week will be the GIS Workshop, offered as a pre-conference seminar. It will focus on hands-on GIS training and seminars concerning current topics of geospatial interest. The focus of the USGS GIS Workshop is to showcase specific techniques and concepts for using GIS in support of science. The presentations will be educational and not a marketing endeavor. To promote awareness of and interaction with selected USGS corporate and local science center data products, as well as promoting collaboration, a “GIS Olympics” event will be held Tuesday evening during the GIS Workshop. The second part of the week will feature interactive briefings and discussions on issues and opportunities of The National Map. The focus of the Users Conference will be on the role of The National Map in supporting science initiatives, emergency response, land and wildlife management, and other activities. All presentations at the Users Conference include use or innovations related to a The National Map data theme or application. On Wednesday evening, a poster session is being held as a combined event for all attendees and as a juncture between the events. On Thursday evening, the Henry Gannett Award will be presented. Additionally, poster awards will be presented. Several prominent speakers are featured at plenary sessions at The National Map Users Conference, including Deanna A. Archuleta, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Water and Science, Department of the Interior; Dr. Barbara P. Buttenfield, Professor of Geography at the University of Colorado in Boulder; best-selling author Frederick Reuss; and Dr. Joel Scheraga, Senior Advisor for Climate Adaptation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Additionally, panel discussions have attracted participation from notabl

  10. Carbon molecules in space: from astrochemistry to astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Sephton, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    How complex carbonaceous molecules in space are, what their abundance is and on what timescales they form are crucial questions within cosmochemistry. Despite the large heterogeneity of galactic and interstellar regions the organic chemistry in the universe seems to follow common pathways. The largest fraction of carbon in the universe is incorporated into aromatic molecules (gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as well as solid macromolecular aromatic structures). Macromolecular carbon constitutes more than half of the interstellar carbon, approximately 80% of the carbon in meteorites, and is likely to be present in comets. Molecules of high astrobiological relevance such as N-heterocycles, amino acids and pre-sugars have all been identified in trace quantities (ppb) in extracts of carbonaceous meteorites. Their presence in inter- and circumstellar regions is either unknown or contentious. In any event such fragile species are easily destroyed by UV radiation, shocks and thermal processing and are unlikely to survive incorporation into Solar System material without some degradation. The more refractory material, in particular macromolecular carbon may retain an interstellar heritage more faithfully. We present laboratory measurements on the photostability of organic compounds and discuss their survival in regions with elevated UV radiation. We also show recent observations of diffuse interstellar bands indicating the presence of fullerenes. We investigate the link between the carbon chemistry in interstellar space and in the Solar System by analyzing the carbonaceous fraction of meteorites and by reviewing stable isotopic data. It also seems evident that both volatile and refractory material from carbonaceous meteoritic has been substantially altered owing to thermal and aqueous processing within the Solar System. PMID:17191452

  11. Infrared Spectroscopy of Parent Volatiles in Comets: Implications for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiSanti, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Current cometary orbits provide information on their recent dynamical history. However, determining a given comet's formation region from its current dynamical state alone is complicated by radial migration in the proto-planetary disk and by dynamical interactions with the growing giant planets. Because comets reside for long periods of time in the outer Solar System, the ices contained in their nuclei (native ices) retain a relatively well-preserved footprint of when and where they formed, and this in turn can provide clues to conditions in the formation epoch. As a comet approaches the Sun, sublimation of its native ices releases parent volatiles into the coma where they can be measured spectroscopically. The past to - 15 years have seen the advent of infrared spectrometers with high sensitivity between about 2.8 and 5.0 micron, enabling a taxonomy among comets based on abundances of parent volatiles (e.g., H2O, CO, CH4, C2H6, HCN, CH30H, H2CO, NH3). Such molecules are of keen interest to Astrobiology, as they include important pre-biotic species that likely were required for the emergence of life on Earth and perhaps elsewhere. Approximately 20 comets have thus far been characterized, beginning with C/1996 82 (Hyakutake) in 1996. Molecular production rates are established through comparison of observed emission line intensities with those predicted by quantum mechanical fluorescence models. Abundances of parent volatiles (relative to H2O) vary among even the relatively small number of comets sampled, with the most volatile species (CO and CH4) displaying the largest variations. Techniques developed for measuring parent volatile abundances in comets will be discussed, as will possible implications for their formation.

  12. A Perspective on the Importance of Reproductive Mode in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Doninck, Karine; Schön, Isa; Martens, Koen

    2003-12-01

    Reproduction is a vital characteristic of life, and sex is the most common reproductive mode in the eukaryotic world. Sex and reproduction are not necessarily linked mechanisms: Sexuality without reproduction exists, while several forms of asexual reproduction are known. The occurrence of sexuality itself is paradoxical, as it is very costly in evolutionary terms. Most of the hypotheses (more than 20) attempting to explain the prevalence of sex fall into two categories: Sex either creates good gene combinations for adaptation to environments or eliminates bad gene combinations counteracting the accumulation of mutations. In spite of this apparent wealth of beneficial effects of sex, asexuality is not rare. Most eukaryotic, asexual lineages are short-lived and can only persist through the presence of sexual roots, but at least two animal groups, bdelloid rotifers and darwinulid ostracods, seem to claim the status of ancient asexuals. Research on (a)sexuality is relevant to astrobiology in a number of ways. First, strong relationships between the origin and persistence of life in extreme environments and reproductive mode are known. Second, the "habitability" of nonterrestrial environments to life greatly depends on reproductive mode. Whereas asexuals can do equally well or better in harsh environments, they fail to adapt fast enough to changing abiotic and biotic environments. Third, it has been shown that plants reproduce mainly asexually in space, and sperm production and motility in some vertebrates are hampered. Both findings indicate that extraterrestrial life under conditions different from Earth might be dominated by asexual reproduction. Finally, for exchange of biological material between planets, the choice of reproductive mode will be important.

  13. (Networking + Integrating) * (Systems + Society). Proceedings of the Annual Canadian Conference of Information Science (12th, Toronto, Ontario, May 14-16, 1984) = (Reseaux + Integration) * (Systemes + Societe). Comptes rendus de la conference annuelle Canadienne des sciences de l'information (12th, Toronto, Ontario, 14-16 mai, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association for Information Science, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Seventeen papers from the 1984 annual conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science (CAIS) are presented in four broad topic areas. The first group, which focuses on changing roles in information access, includes the keynote address by Charles Meadow, "Integrating Access to Information Utilities: Promises, Problems, and Profiles…

  14. Supporting Mars exploration: BIOMEX in Low Earth Orbit and further astrobiological studies on the Moon using Raman and PanCam technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Boettger, Ute; Noetzel, Rosa de la Torre; Sánchez, Francisco J.; Grunow, Dana; Schmitz, Nicole; Lange, Caroline; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm; Billi, Daniela; Baqué, Mickael; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Reitz, Günther; Berger, Thomas; Möller, Ralf; Bohmeier, Maria; Horneck, Gerda; Westall, Frances; Jänchen, Jochen; Fritz, Jörg; Meyer, Cornelia; Onofri, Silvano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Leya, Thomas; Foing, Bernard; Demets, René; Cockell, Charles S.; Bryce, Casey; Wagner, Dirk; Serrano, Paloma; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Joshi, Jasmin; Huwe, Björn; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ott, Sieglinde; Meessen, Joachim; Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Jaumann, Ralf; Spohn, Tilman

    2012-12-01

    The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) experiment Biology and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX) is an interdisciplinary and international space research project selected by ESA. The experiment will be accommodated on the space exposure facility EXPOSE-R2 on the International Space Station (ISS) and is foreseen to be launched in 2013. The prime objective of BIOMEX is to measure to what extent biomolecules, such as pigments and cellular components, are resistant to and able to maintain their stability under space and Mars-like conditions. The results of BIOMEX will be relevant for space proven biosignature definition and for building a biosignature data base (e.g. the proposed creation of an international Raman library). The library will be highly relevant for future space missions such as the search for life on Mars. The secondary scientific objective is to analyze to what extent terrestrial extremophiles are able to survive in space and to determine which interactions between biological samples and selected minerals (including terrestrial, Moon- and Mars analogs) can be observed under space and Mars-like conditions. In this context, the Moon will be an additional platform for performing similar experiments with negligible magnetic shielding and higher solar and galactic irradiation compared to LEO. Using the Moon as an additional astrobiological exposure platform to complement ongoing astrobiological LEO investigations could thus enhance the chances of detecting organic traces of life on Mars. We present a lunar lander mission with two related objectives: a lunar lander equipped with Raman and PanCam instruments which can analyze the lunar surface and survey an astrobiological exposure platform. This dual use of testing mission technology together with geo- and astrobiological analyses will significantly increase the science return, and support the human preparation objectives. It will provide knowledge about the Moon's surface itself and, in addition, monitor the stability of life-markers, such as cells, cell components and pigments, in an extraterrestrial environment with much closer radiation properties to the surface of Mars. The combination of a Raman data base of these data together with data from LEO and space simulation experiments, will lead to further progress on the analysis and interpretation of data that we will obtain from future Moon and Mars exploration missions.

  15. Conference on Nuclear Energy and Science for the 21st Century: Atoms for Peace Plus Fifty - Washington, D.C., October 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Pfaltzgraff, Robert L

    2006-10-22

    This conference's focus was the peaceful uses of the atom and their implications for nuclear science, energy security, nuclear medicine and national security. The conference also provided the setting for the presentation of the prestigious Enrico Fermi Prize, a Presidential Award which recognizes the contributions of distinguished members of the scientific community for a lifetime of exceptional achievement in the science and technology of nuclear, atomic, molecular, and particle interactions and effects. An impressive group of distinguished speakers addressed various issues that included: the impact and legacy of the Eisenhower Administrationâ??s â??Atoms for Peaceâ? concept, the current and future role of nuclear power as an energy source, the challenges of controlling and accounting for existing fissile material, and the horizons of discovery for particle or high-energy physics. The basic goal of the conference was to examine what has been accomplished over the past fifty years as well as to peer into the future to gain insights into what may occur in the fields of nuclear energy, nuclear science, nuclear medicine, and the control of nuclear materials.

  16. European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering ECCOMAS Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference 2001

    E-print Network

    Müller,Bernhard

    is analogous to inte- gration by parts in the continuous energy estimate. They have been applied to linearEuropean Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering ECCOMAS DIFFERENCE METHOD FOR LOW MACH NUMBER AEROACOUSTICS Bernhard M¨uller Department of Scientific Computing

  17. Proceedings of FuelCell2009 Seventh International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference

    E-print Network

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    @umich.edu p pressure T temperature R universal gas constant Afc fuel cell active area s GDL liquid water Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) reduces the overall system cost, weight and volume due to reduced needProceedings of FuelCell2009 Seventh International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology

  18. Proceedings of FuelCell2008 Sixth International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference

    E-print Network

    Papalambros, Panos

    Proceedings of FuelCell2008 Sixth International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Arbor, Michigan 48109 ABSTRACT System research on Hybrid Electric Fuel Cell Vehicles (HEFCV) explores optimization study. For a new technology, such as fuel cells, it is also important to include uncertainties

  19. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition.

  20. Proceedings of FuelCell2008 Sixth International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference

    E-print Network

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Proceedings of FuelCell2008 Sixth International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology neutron imaging. The measurements are performed on a single cell with 53 square centimeter active area relative humidity and air stoichiometric conditions. Neutron imaging of the water while operating the fuel

  1. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  2. Proceedings of the Second Annual NASA Science Internet User Working Group Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Lenore A. (editor); Gary, J. Patrick (editor)

    1991-01-01

    Copies of the agenda, list of attendees, meeting summaries, and all presentations and exhibit material are contained. Included are plenary sessions, exhibits of advanced networking applications, and user subgroup meetings on NASA Science Internet policy, networking, security, and user services and applications topics.

  3. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: H-O

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: planetary geology, lunar geology, meteorites, shock loads, cometary collisions, planetary mapping, planetary atmospheres, chondrites, chondrules, planetary surfaces, impact craters, lava flow, achondrites, geochemistry, stratigraphy, micrometeorites, tectonics, mineralogy, petrology, geomorphology, and volcanology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers from this report.

  4. NASA Science and Technology Conference 2007 Paper B2P2 Coupled Vision and Inertial Navigation

    E-print Network

    Roumeliotis, Stergios I.

    Kalman filter that estimates lander position, velocity and attitude as well as the time varying biases, and states that autonomous precision landing systems are a key requirement for these missions. Pin, Computer Science and Engineering Department ** Principal Engineer, Mobility and Robotics Systems Section

  5. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: H-O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: planetary geology, lunar geology, meteorites, shock loads, cometary collisions, planetary mapping, planetary atmospheres, chondrites, chondrules, planetary surfaces, impact craters, lava flow, achondrites, geochemistry, stratigraphy, micrometeorites, tectonics, mineralogy, petrology, geomorphology, and volcanology.

  6. The Fourth Annual International Conference on Fuzzy Theory and Technology, Proceedings of Second Annual Joint Conference on Information Science, Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, Sept. 28-Oct. 1,

    E-print Network

    Lin, Tsau Young

    , such as power systems, utilize FLC technology in production. Why? First, an immediate reason: Classical FLCThe Fourth Annual International Conference on Fuzzy Theory and Technology, Proceedings of Second, 18-21. 18 Rough-Fuzzy Controllers for Complex Systems An Integrated Approach based on Hard and Soft

  7. Astronomical Polarimetry 2008: Science from Small to Large Telescopes ASP Conference Series, Vol. 449, c 2011

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Glenn

    Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY, 14623, USA 2 Steward Observatory Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY, 14623, USA 5 Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin mk 0.55 µm 2.00 µm 2.04 µm (p%, ) VR 84c (WKK F7) B5 V 10.3 9.34 9.13 5.98,118 1.25,126 1.19,126 VSS

  8. Next conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hexemer, Alexander; Toney, Michael F.

    2010-11-01

    After the successful conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science (SRPS) in Rolduc Abbey (the Netherlands), we are now looking forward to the next meeting in this topical series started in 1995 by H G Zachmann, one of the pioneers of the use of synchrotron radiation techniques in polymer science. Earlier meetings were held in Hamburg (1995), Sheffield (2002), Kyoto (2006), and Rolduc (2009). In September of 2012 the Synchrotron Radiation and Polymer Science V conferences will be organized in a joint effort by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Advanced Light Source at LBL Advanced Light Source at LBL The conference will be organised in the heart of beautiful San Francisco. The program will consist of invited and contributed lectures divided in sessions on the use of synchrotron SAXS/WAXD, imaging and tomography, soft x-rays, x-ray spectroscopy, GISAXS and reflectivity, micro-beams and hyphenated techniques in polymer science. Poster contributions are more than welcome and will be highlighted during the poster sessions. Visits to both SLAC as well as LBL will be organised. San Francisco can easily be reached. It is served by two major international airports San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport. Both are being served by most major airlines with easy connections to Europe and Asia as well as national destinations. Both also boast excellent connections to San Francisco city centre. We are looking forward to seeing you in the vibrant city by the Bay in September 2012. Golden gate bridge Alexander Hexemer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Michael F Toney Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Pk, CA 94025, USA E-mail: ahexemer@lbl.gov, mftoney@slac.stanford.edu

  9. Infrared remote sensing of Mars and the Mars astrobiology exploration strategy

    E-print Network

    Kirkland, Laurel

    in TES data affects interpretations of the geologic and climatic history of Mars. It may also affectInfrared remote sensing of Mars and the Mars astrobiology exploration strategy Laurel E. Kirklanda 32137 ABSTRACT The Mars exploration strategy calls first for the detection from orbit of minerals

  10. PRINT ONLY: ASTROBIOLOGY Horner J. Mousis O. Petit J.-M. Jones B. W.

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    PRINT ONLY: ASTROBIOLOGY Horner J. Mousis O. Petit J.-M. Jones B. W. Differences Between the Impact THE IMPACT REGIMES OF THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS. J. Horner1 , O. Mousis2,3 , J.-M. Petit3 , and B. W. Jones1

  11. TEXTURECAM: AUTONOMOUS IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY SURVEY David R. Thompson1,2

    E-print Network

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    relationships that can classify new surfaces (Figure 1). Stromatolite images were acquired from the PilbaraTEXTURECAM: AUTONOMOUS IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY SURVEY David R. Thompson1,2 , Abigail to targets of opportunity [2]. Such technology would assist Mars sample caching or return missions where

  12. A report requested by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group Mars Astrobiology Explorer-

    E-print Network

    Atreya, Sushil

    .K. Atreya, D.W. Beaty, M.H. Carr, J.A. Crisp, D.J. Des Marais, J.A. Grant, D.P. Glavin, V.E. Hamilton, K Crisp (Joy.Crisp@jpl.nasa.gov). JPL Document Review Clearance CL#09-4589 #12;Proposed Mars Astrobiology Joy Crisp, Mars Program Office, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Chris

  13. Robotic astrobiology - the need for sub-surface penetration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, A.; Ball, A.; Cockell, C.; Coste, P.; Dickensheets, D.; Edwards, H.; Hu, H.; Kolb, C.; Lammer, H.; Lorenz, R.; McKee, G.; Richter, L.; Winfield, A.; Welch, C.

    2002-11-01

    Recent interest in the astrobiological investigation of Mars has culminated in the only planned astrobiology-focussed robotic mission to Mars - the Beagle2 mission to be carried to Mars by the Mars Express spacecraft in 2003. Beagle2 will be primarily investigating the surface and near-surface environment of Mars. However, the results from the Viking Mars lander indicated that the Martian surface is saturated in peroxides and super-oxides which would rapidly degrade any organic material. Furthermore, recent models of gardening due to meteoritic impacts on the Martian surface suggest that the depth of this oxidising layer could extend to depths of 2-3m. Given that the discovery of organic fossilised residues will be the primary target for astrobiological investigation, this implies that future robotic astrobiology missions to Mars must penetrate to below these depths. The need to penetrate into the sub-surface of Mars has recently been given greater urgency with the discovery of extensive water ice-fields as little as 1m from the surface. We review the different technologies that make this penetration into the sub-surface a practical possibility on robotic missions. We further briefly present one such implementation of these technologies through the use of ground-penetrating moles - The Vanguard Mars mission proposal.

  14. How do Medical Societies Select Science for Conference Presentation? How Should They?

    PubMed Central

    Kuczmarski, Thomas M.; Raja, Ali S.; Pallin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nothing has been published to describe the practices of medical societies in choosing abstracts for presentations at their annual meetings. We surveyed medical societies to determine their practices, and also present a theoretical analysis of the topic. Methods We contacted a convenience sample of large U.S. medical conferences, and determined their approach to choosing abstracts. We obtained information from web sites, telephone, and email. Our theoretical analysis compares values-based and empirical approaches for scoring system development. Results We contacted 32 societies and obtained data on 28 (response rate 88%). We excluded one upon learning that research was not presented at its annual meeting, leaving 27 for analysis. Only 2 (7%) made their abstract scoring process available to submitters. Reviews were blinded in most societies (21;78%), and all but one asked reviewers to recuse themselves for conflict of interest (96%). All required ?3 reviewers. Of the 24 providing information on how scores were generated, 21 (88%) reported using a single gestalt score, and three used a combined score created from pooled domain-specific sub-scores. We present a framework for societies to use in choosing abstracts, and demonstrate its application in the development of a new scoring system. Conclusions Most medical societies use subjective, gestalt methods to select research for presentation at their annual meetings and do not disclose to submitters the details of how abstracts are chosen. We present a new scoring system that is transparent to submitters and reviewers alike with an accompanying statement of values and ground rules. We discuss the challenges faced in selecting abstracts for a large scientific meeting and share the values and practical considerations that undergird the new system. PMID:26265966

  15. The SOLID (Signs Of LIfe Detector) instrument concept: an antibody microarray-based biosensor for life detection in astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parro, V.; Rivas, L. A.; Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A.; Blanco, Y.; de Diego-Castilla, G.; Cruz-Gil, P.; Moreno-Paz, M.; García-Villadangos, M.; Compostizo, C.; Herrero, P. L.

    2009-04-01

    Immunosensors have been extensively used since many years for environmental monitoring. Different technological platforms allow new biosensor designs and implementations. We have reported (Rivas et al., 2008) a shotgun approach for antibody production for biomarker detection in astrobiology and environmental monitoring, the production of 150 new polyclonal antibodies against microbial strains and environmental extracts, and the construction and validation of an antibody microarray (LDCHIP200, for "Life Detector Chip") containing 200 different antibodies. We have successfully used the LDCHIP200 for the detection of biological polymers in extreme environments in different parts of the world (e.g., a deep South African mine, Antarctica's Dry valleys, Yellowstone, Iceland, and Rio Tinto). Clustering analysis associated similar immunopatterns to samples from apparently very different environments, indicating that they indeed share similar universal biomarkers. A redundancy in the number of antibodies against different target biomarkers apart of revealing the presence of certain biomolecules, it renders a sample-specific immuno-profile, an "immnuno-fingerprint", which may constitute by itself an indirect biosignature. We will present a case study of immunoprofiling different iron-sulfur as well as phylosilicates rich samples along the Rio Tinto river banks. Based on protein microarray technology, we designed and built the concept instrument called SOLID (for "Signs Of LIfe Detector"; Parro et al., 2005; 2008a, b; http://cab.inta.es/solid) for automatic in situ analysis of soil samples and molecular biomarkers detection. A field prototype, SOLID2, was successfully tested for the analysis of grinded core samples during the 2005 "MARTE" campaign of a Mars drilling simulation experiment by a sandwich microarray immunoassay (Parro et al., 2008b). We will show the new version of the instrument (SOLID3) which is able to perform both sandwich and competitive immunoassays. SOLID3 consists of two separate functional units: a Sample Preparation Unit (SPU), for ten different extractions by ultrasonication, and a Sample Analysis Unit (SAU), for fluorescent immunoassays. The SAU consists of ten different flow cells each of one allocate one antibody microarray (up to 2000 spots), and is equipped with an unique designed optical package for fluorescent detection. We demonstrate the performance of SOLID3 for the detection of a broad range of molecular size compounds, from the amino acid size, peptides, proteins, to whole cells and spores, with sensitivities at the ppb level. References Parro, V., et al., 2005. Planetary and Space Science 53: 729-737. Parro, V., et al., 2008a. Space Science Reviews 135: 293-311 Parro, V., et al., 2008b. Astrobiology 8:987-99 Rivas, L. A., et al., 2008. Analytical Chemistry 80: 7970-7979

  16. Organization of the Optical Society of America Photonic Science Topical Meeting series (1991), volume 16. Conference edition: Summaries of papers presented at the persistent spectral hole-burning: Science and applications topical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Jarus W.

    1992-05-01

    A list of reports presented at the Optical Society of America conference is given. The reports cover the following topics: photorefractive materials, effects, and devices; integrated photonics research; nonlinear guided wave phenomena; optical amplifiers and their applications; optical computing; picosecond electronics and optoelectronics; quantum optoelectronics; photonic switching microphysics of surfaces; beam induced processes; soft x-ray projection lithography; short wavelength coherent radiation--generation and applications; and persistent spectral hole-burning--science and applications.

  17. The Roles of Science and Technology in General and Continuing Education. Proceedings of the Conference of the Association of American Colleges (Washington, District of Columbia, December 16-18, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This conference focused on issues and topics related to the roles of science and technology in general and continuing education. The keynote address is entitled "Technology Transfer to the Third World: The Critical U.S. Challenge for the Eighties" (William Eilers). The section on perspectives on the public understanding of science includes the…

  18. Proceedings of the 3rd European Workshop on Exo-Astrobiology. Mars: The Search for Life. Madrid, pp. 277-278, 2004 EDUCATIONAL GAMES: A FUNNY WAY TO TEACH ASTROBIOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Carrapiço, Francisco

    Proceedings of the 3rd European Workshop on Exo-Astrobiology. Mars: The Search for Life. Madrid, pp of the origin, distribution, and destiny of life in the universe and, naturally, in our planet. To reach

  19. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders; Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association with the Committee on Brain Sciences, Div. of Medical Sciences, National Research Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Francis A., Ed.; Lindsley, Donald B., Ed.

    This book brings together papers presented at a conference on early experience and visual information processing in perceptual and reading disorders sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences. The goal of the conference was to integrate basic knowledge of structure and mechanisms of eye and brain with their function and their behavioral roles…

  20. USAAA Conference in Park City Utah: The Autism Epidemic a Mystery? Only if One Ignores All the Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, K. Paul

    2006-01-01

    This article is a synopsis of a presentation offered by the author at the recent United States Autism and Asperger Association Conference in Park City, Utah. During the USAAA conference, the author voices his concerns over the current autism epidemic. He opines that the failure of the medical profession and many governmental and other public…

  1. Iron world and its astrobiological implications: The Tinto River case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, F.; Amils, A.

    2007-08-01

    Extreme ecosystems have recently attracted considerable interest, not only because they prove that life is robust and adaptable, but also because their existence increases the probability of finding life elsewhere in the universe. Most of the best characterized extreme habitats on Earth correspond to geophysical constraints to which opportunistic microorganisms have adapted. However, some extreme acidic environments are unique in that they are the product of biological activity (chemolithotrophy). The Tinto River (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) is an unusual acidic ecosystem (100 km long, mean pH of 2.3) containing a high concentration of heavy metals and an unexpected level of microbial diversity (1,2). In the past, the extreme conditions of the river were considered the result of intense mining activity. The geomicrobiological analysis of the Tinto ecosystem strongly suggests that these conditions are the result of the metabolic activity of chemolithotrophic prokaryotes, mainly iron-oxidizers (3). The system seems to be controlled by iron, which is not only used as an electron donor, but also as an electron acceptor, allowing a full iron cycle to operate. Furthermore, ferric iron is responsible for the maintenance of the constant pH of the ecosystem and can protect the different organisms thriving in its waters from radiation. Laminar, iron-rich stromatolitic formations are generated by the precipitation of different iron minerals on the surface of the biofilms that cover most of the rocks in the river and the riverbed. These structures are similar to ancient massive bioinduced laminated iron bioformations formed long before the first mining activities started in the area 5000 years ago. The existence of these ancient iron-rich deposits formed prior to any known mining activity, under hydrochemical conditions similar to modern deposits, is considered a strong argument in favor of a natural origin of the river (4,5). Recently, the source area of the Tinto ecosystem has been used like an environmental scenario for new technology validation for astrobiology space missions. M.A.R.T.E. (Mars Analog Research Technology Experiment) was a multidisciplinary project for technology development in the NAI framework. REFERENCES 1.- López-Archilla, A.I., Marín, I., Amils, R. (2001) Microbial Ecol., 41: 20-35. 2.- Amaral-Zettler, L.A., Gómez, F., Zettler, E., Keenan, B.G., Amils, R., Sogin, M. (2002) Nature, 417: 137. 3.- González-Toril, E., Gómez, F., Rodríguez, N., Fernández-Remolar, D., Zuluaga, J., Marín, I., Amils, R., (2002) Hydrometall., in press. 4.- Amils, R., González-Toril, E., Gómez, F., Fernández-Remolar, D., Rodríguez, N. (2000) Spring Meeting American Geophysical Society, Abstract B22B-05. 5.- Fernández-Remolar, D.C., Rodríguez, N., Gómez, F., Amils, R. (2003) J. Geophys. Res., 108, No.E7 doi. 10.1029/2002JE001918

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 18th, Houston, TX, Mar. 16-20, 1987, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham (editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, including petrogenesis and chemistry of lunar samples, geology and petrogenesis of the Apollo 15 landing site, lunar geology and applications, cratering records and cratering effects, differentiated meteorites, chondritic meteorites and asteroids, extraterrestrial grains, Venus, Mars, and icy satellites. The importance of lunar granite and KREEP in very high potassium basalt petrogenesis, indentifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments, glasses in ancient and young Apollo 16 regolith breccias, the formation of the Imbrium basin, the chemistry and petrology of the Apennine Front, lunar mare ridges, studies of Rima Mozart, electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction, detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record, and a search for water on the moon, are among the topics discussed. Other topics include the bidirectional reflectance properties of Fe-Ni meteorites, the nature and origin of C-rich ordinary chondrites and chondritic clasts, the dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine, characteristics of Greenland Fe/Ni cosmic grains, electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle, trapping Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in Si2O3 smokes, gossans on Mars, and a model of the porous structure of icy satellites.

  3. Tuesday, March 14, 2006 POSTER SESSION I: ASTROBIOLOGY: MISSIONS

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Team NASA's 2009 Mars Science Laboratory: An Update [#1940] The Mars Science Laboratory will launch [#2456] We have integrated a biomarker detection system with a rover for the search for sparse life and Geologic Features in Atacama Desert Rover Imagery [#2085] Novelty detection helps planetary rovers perform

  4. The Expose-R2 mission: astrobiology and astrochemistry in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, René

    EXPOSE is an exposure platform developed by ESA which permits scientists to install test samples for 1 to 2 years at the outer surface of the ISS. In that way, the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical sample materials can be explored. This environment, featuring full-spectrum solar light, near-vacuum, cosmic radiation, wide temperature variations and near-weightlessness, is impossible to reproduce in its entirety in the lab. As such, EXPOSE offers astrochemists and astrobiologists a chance to acquire novel scientific data. Astrochemists are interested in Low Earth Orbit conditions due to the fact that photochemistry in space is quite different from photochemistry on Earth, where the high-energy UV compounds of the solar spectrum are filtered away by our atmosphere. As for the astro biologists, EXPOSE offers an attractive opportunity to expand earlier results obtained during short-duration LEO flights, which have shown that particular microbes and, amazingly, even some multi-cellular macroscopic organisms were able to cope with a two-week exposure to space. The open space environment, often described as harsh and hostile, can apparently be tolerated by some robust inhabitants of our Earth - unprotected, in the absence of a space suit! The first mission of EXPOSE, as an external payload on the European Columbus module, happened during 2008-2009 with the test samples provided by five separate research teams. Three additional teams were involved in the monitoring of space environment. The results were published collectively in 2012 in a special issue of the monthly journal Astrobiology. Several organisms survived, having spent 1.5 years in space. The second mission was called EXPOSE-R, the R referring to ‘Russian segment’, the location where the EXPOSE instrument was installed this time. The EXPOSE-R mission took place in 2009-2011, ten science teams were involved. The publication of the results, again as a collection, is currently in preparation. A follow-on mission, EXPOSE-R2, is planned for 2014-2016. The upload of the new sample trays to the ISS will have occurred just before COSPAR 2014. In this presentation the new EXPOSE-R2 experiments are introduced, with an overview of the test samples and the scientific goals. The main characteristics of the EXPOSE platform are addressed including the sensors used to monitor the space environment. The envisaged operational flow in flight and on ground are explained. Moreover, a brief overview of the key lessons learnt from the past EXPOSE missions is provided.

  5. Sara Walker | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Sara Walker works in the School of Life Science and the Beyond Center at Arizona State University. She is also a NASA Astrobiology fellow. She spoke about the deep evolutionary history of life on earth and it’s routes to cancer.

  6. Acquisition and Utilization of Japanese Information in Science, Technology and Commerce in Europe and USA : Report on the International Conference on Japanese Information at the University of Warwick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Takayasu; Miwa, Makiko; Kanda, Toshihiko

    Report on the International Conference on Japanese Information in Science, Technology and Commerce which was organized by the British Library, being supported by NTIS and JICST, at the University of Warwick on 1-4 September 1987. Topics discussed include, US policy on Japanese information, EEC/Japan-Info Project, various private initiatives, language barrier and translation, education of Japanese language and personnel exchange programme, quality and usage of Japanese secondary materials, original document delivery, Japanese produced databases and foreign access to them, requests upon JICST and other Japanese information services.

  7. The 8th international symposium on the breast: Using next-generation science to understand the normal breast and the development of breast cancer- conference report.

    PubMed

    Gomberawalla, Ameer; Love, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation is committed to performing and advancing research that will lead to the discovery of what causes cancer to develop in the human breast. As part of this effort, the Foundation hosted the 8th International Symposium on the Breast in Santa Monica, Calif., Feb. 19 to Feb. 21, 2015. More than 120 forward-thinking clinical researchers, epidemiologists, pathologists, basic scientists, translational investigators, and breast cancer advocates from six countries attended this year's conference, "Using Next Generation Science to Understand the Normal Breast and the Development of Cancer." The highlights from this year's symposium are summarized in this report. PMID:26510852

  8. Diagnostic terminology and morphologic criteria for cytologic diagnosis of thyroid lesions: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Asa, Syl L; Rosai, Juan; Merino, Maria J; Randolph, Gregory; Vielh, Philippe; DeMay, Richard M; Sidawy, Mary K; Frable, William J

    2008-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored the NCI Thyroid Fine-needle Aspiration (FNA) State of the Science Conference on October 22-23, 2007 in Bethesda, MD. The two-day meeting was accompanied by a permanent informational website and several on-line discussion periods between May 1 and December 15, 2007 (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov). This document summarizes matters regarding diagnostic terminology/classification scheme for thyroid FNA interpretation and cytomorphologic criteria for the diagnosis of various benign and malignant thyroid lesions. (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov/pages/info/agenda/). PMID:18478609

  9. How can we teach astrobiology and survive? Telma Rodriguesa

    E-print Network

    Carrapiço, Francisco

    , biology, geology, astronomy and planetary sciences. This interconnected scientific network allows us with discoveries that strongly suggest that running water was present on the surface of Mars in the past3

  10. Internalizing Null Extraterrestrial "Signals": An Astrobiological App for a Technological Society

    E-print Network

    Chaisson, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    One of the beneficial outcomes of searching for life in the Universe is that it grants greater awareness of our own problems here on Earth. Lack of contact with alien beings to date might actually comprise a null "signal" pointing humankind toward a viable future. Astrobiology has surprising practical applications to human society; within the larger cosmological context of cosmic evolution, astrobiology clarifies the energetic essence of complex systems throughout the Universe, including technological intelligence that is intimately dependent on energy and likely will be for as long as it endures. The "message" contained within the "signal" with which today's society needs to cope is reasonably this: Only solar energy can power our civilization going forward without soiling the environment with increased heat yet robustly driving the economy with increased per capita energy usage. The null "signals" from extraterrestrials also offer a rational solution to the Fermi paradox as a principle of cosmic selection l...

  11. Techniques used in astrobiology to search for past or present extraterrestrial life, in particular on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, F.; Westall, F.

    2013-09-01

    The search for life on other bodies than Earth implies use of a wide range of techniques from radioastronomy to in situ molecular analyses. We have constructed a poster providing an overview of more than 10 observation and more than 30 analytical techniques used in different domains of astrobiology. The physical principle and the kinds of data that can obtained by each technique are describe. The possibility to use these techniques for space exploration, in particular for Mars, is also discussed

  12. Techniques used in astrobiology to search for past or present extraterrestrial life, in particular on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, F.; Westall, F.

    2014-04-01

    The search for life on other bodies than Earth implies use of a wide range of techniques from radioastronomy to in situ molecular analyses. We have constructed a poster providing an overview of more than 10 observation and more than 30 analytical techniques used in different domains of astrobiology. The physical principle and the kinds of data that can obtained by each technique are describe. The possibility to use these techniques for space exploration, in particular for Mars, is also discussed.

  13. Mud Volcanoes - A New Class of Sites for Geological and Astrobiological Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C.C.; Oehler, D.Z.; Baker, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Mud volcanoes provide a unique low-temperature window into the Earth s subsurface - including the deep biosphere - and may prove to be significant sources of atmospheric methane. The identification of analogous features on Mars would provide an important new class of sites for geological and astrobiological exploration. We report new work suggesting that features in Acidalia Planitia are most consistent with their being mud volcanoes.

  14. Identifying Organic Molecules in Space: The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L.; Bregman, J.; Cohen, M.; Cruikshank, D.; Dumas, C.; Greene, T.; Hudgins, D.; Kwok, S.

    2004-01-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) mission concept consists of a dedicated space observatory having a 60 cm class primary mirror cooled to T < 50 K equipped with medium resolution cross-dispersed spectrometers having cooled large format near- and mid-infrared detector arrays. Such a system would be capable of addressing outstanding problems in Astrochemistry and Astrophysics that are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and addressable via astronomical observation. The mission s observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in establishing the nature, distribution, formation and evolution of organic and other molecular materials in the following extra-terrestrial environments: 1) The Outflow of Dying Stars, 2) The Diffuse Interstellar Medium, 3) Dense Molecular Clouds, Star Formation Regions, and Young StellarPlanetary Systems, 4) Planets, Satellites, and Small Bodies within the Solar System, and 5 ) The Interstellar Media of Other Galaxies. ABE could make fundamental progress in all of these areas by conducting a 1 to 2 year mission to obtain a coordinated set of infrared spectroscopic observations over the 2.5-20 micron spectral range at a spectral resolution of R > 2000 of about 1500 objects including galaxies, stars, planetary nebulae, young stellar objects, and solar system objects. Keywords: Astrobiology, infrared, Explorers, interstellar organics, telescope, spectrometer, space, infrared detectors

  15. Microbes in the upper atmosphere and unique opportunities for astrobiology research.

    PubMed

    Smith, David J

    2013-10-01

    Microbial taxa from every major biological lineage have been detected in Earth's upper atmosphere. The goal of this review is to communicate (1) relevant astrobiology questions that can be addressed with upper atmosphere microbiology studies and (2) available sampling methods for collecting microbes at extreme altitudes. Precipitation, mountain stations, airplanes, balloons, rockets, and satellites are all feasible routes for conducting aerobiology research. However, more efficient air samplers are needed, and contamination is also a pervasive problem in the field. Measuring microbial signatures without false positives in the upper atmosphere might contribute to sterilization and bioburden reduction methods for proposed astrobiology missions. Intriguingly, environmental conditions in the upper atmosphere resemble the surface conditions of Mars (extreme cold, hypobaria, desiccation, and irradiation). Whether terrestrial microbes are active in the upper atmosphere is an area of intense research interest. If, in fact, microbial metabolism, growth, or replication is achievable independent of Earth's surface, then the search for habitable zones on other worlds should be broadened to include atmospheres (e.g., the high-altitude clouds of Venus). Furthermore, viable cells in the heavily irradiated upper atmosphere of Earth could help identify microbial genes or enzymes that bestow radiation resistance. Compelling astrobiology questions on the origin of life (if the atmosphere synthesized organic aerosols), evolution (if airborne transport influenced microbial mutation rates and speciation), and panspermia (outbound or inbound) are also testable in Earth's upper atmosphere. PMID:24106911

  16. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin in Coahuila, Mexico: An Astrobiological Precambrian Park

    PubMed Central

    Siefert, Janet L.; Escalante, Ana E.; Elser, James J.; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a rare oasis in the Chihuahuan Desert in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. It has a biological endemism similar to that of the Galapagos Islands, and its spring-fed ecosystems have very low nutrient content (nitrogen or phosphorous) and are dominated by diverse microbialites. Thus, it has proven to be a distinctive opportunity for the field of astrobiology, as the CCB can be seen as a proxy for an earlier time in Earth's history, in particular the late Precambrian, the biological frontier when prokaryotic life yielded at least partial dominance to eukaryotes and multicellular life. It is a kind of ecological time machine that provides abundant opportunities for collaborative investigations by geochemists, geologists, ecologists, and population biologists in the study of the evolutionary processes that structured Earth-based life, especially in the microbial realm. The CCB is an object of investigation for the identification of biosignatures of past and present biota that can be used in our search for extraterrestrial life. In this review, we summarize CCB research efforts that began with microbial ecology and population biology projects and have since been expanded into broader efforts that involve biogeochemistry, comparative genomics, and assessments of biosignatures. We also propose that, in the future, the CCB is sanctioned as a “Precambrian Park” for astrobiology. Key Words: Microbial mats—Stromatolites—Early Earth—Extremophilic microorganisms—Microbial ecology. Astrobiology 12, 641–647. PMID:22920514

  17. CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Extragalactic astronomy (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 October 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), "Extragalactic astronomy", was held in the Conference Hall of the Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, RAS, on 28 October 2009. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Varshalovich D A, Ivanchik A V, Balashev S A (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS) "Big Bang nucleosynthesis of deuterium and HD/H2 molecular abundances in interstellar clouds of 12 Gyr ago"; (2) Aptekar R L, Golenetskii S V, Mazets E P (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS). "Studies of cosmic gamma-ray bursts and gamma repeaters with the Ioffe Institute Konus experiments"; (3) Beskin G M, Karpov S V (Special Astrophysical Observatory, RAS), Bondar S V (Scientific Research Institute of Precision Instrument Making) "Discovery of the fast optical variability of the GRB 080319B gamma burst and the prospects for wide-angle high time resolution optical monitoring"; (4) Starobinskii A A (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS) "Experimental and theoretical investigation of dark matter in the Universe"; (5) Zasov A V, Sil'chenko O K (Shternberg State Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University) "Galactic disks and their evolution"; (6) Burdyuzha V V (Astro-Space Center of the Lebedev Physics Institute) "Dark components of the Universe". Papers based of reports 1-3, 5, and 6 are published below. A A Starobinskii's extended report will be presented in the form of a review, which is planned for publication in one of the forthcoming issues of Physics-Uspekhi. • Big Bang nucleosynthesis of deuterium and HD/H2 molecular abundances in interstellar clouds of 12 Gyr ago, D A Varshalovich, A V Ivanchik, S A Balashev, P Petitjean Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 397-401 • Cosmic gamma-ray bursts and gamma repeaters studies with Ioffe Institute Konus experiments, R L Aptekar, S V Golenetskii, E P Mazets, V D Pal'shin, D D Frederiks Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 401-406 • Discovery of the fast optical variability of GRB 080319B and the prospects for wide-field optical monitoring with high time resolution, G M Beskin, S V Karpov, S F Bondar, V L Plokhotnichenko, A Guarnieri, C Bartolini, G Greco, A Piccioni Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 406-414 • Galactic disks and their evolution, A V Zasov, O K Sil'chenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 415-419 • Dark components of the Universe, V V Burdyuzha Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 419-424

  18. Early Childhood Science Education and the Workforce of Tomorrow. A Special Report Based on a Conference Convened by Educational Equity Concepts, Inc., and the New York Academy of Sciences (New York, New York, June 15-16, 1999). A Science in Society Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froschl, Merle, Ed.; Nichols, Rodney W., Ed.; Skopp, Lori, Ed.; Sprung, Barbara, Ed.

    This document reports on a conference that was convened by Educational Equity Concepts, Inc. and the New York Academy of Sciences. Disciplines that were represented included child development, special education, early childhood education, sociology, psychology, physics, mathematics, assessment, teacher education, parent involvement, economics, and…

  19. International Amaldi Conferences of Academies of Sciences and National Scientific Societies on Scientific Questions of Global Security

    E-print Network

    ___________________________________________________________________________ Proceedings Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities represented by the Academy of Sciences on the campus of the German Electron Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg under the auspices of the Hamburg Academy of Sciences and at the joint invitation of the president of the Union of German Academies of Sciences

  20. Third Lunar Science Conference.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A.; Burnett, D.; Doe, B.; Gault, D.; Haskin, L.; Schnoes, H.; Heymann, D.; Melson, W.; Papike, J.; Tilling, R.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the nature and properties of lunar rock as deduced from the examination of Apollo lunar rock samples. The topics include the lunar crust, the Fra Mauro formation, the interior of the moon, lunar chronology, surface processes, and earth-moon environment.

  1. A Global Observing System for Mars: The dual satellite Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory (MACO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Lyons, J.; Newman, C.; Richardson, M. I.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    We summarize a planetary decadal survey white paper describing the rationale for and key elements of a dual satellite orbiting mission (DSM) concept called the Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory (MACO). MACO uses mm-wavelength satellite to satellite (sat-sat) occultations in combination with solar occultations (SO) to answer and strongly constrain many key lower and middle atmosphere Mars science questions previously considered unachievable from orbit. On the climate side, MACO would focus on the hydrological, dust and energy cycles of Mars. MACO would measure the transport of water in the present Martian climate, identify sources and sinks and constrain processes in order to better understand present and past Martian climate and glacial and subsurface water reservoirs. Dust-penetrating, satellite-to-satellite mm-wave occultations would profile water vapor to 3%, temperature to 0.4K, geopotential height of pressure to 10 m, line of sight winds to < 2 m/s and balanced winds via pressure gradients, as well turbulence and certain trace constituents with 60 meter diffraction limited vertical resolution and high precision extending down to the surface. A prototype mm-wave occultation instrument will be demonstrated in 2010 via high altitude aircraft to aircraft occultations. MACO will make coincident thermal IR and shortwave measurements to characterize airborne dust to understand dust storm initiation and evolution and how atmospheric dust concentrations are maintained in general. The combination of sensitivity, accuracy and vertical resolution from the satellite to satellite occultation is simply not possible with radiometers and will provide ~30,000 globally distributed near-entry probe quality profiles each Martian year profiling the boundary layer and exchange between the atmosphere and surface. A near-IR solar occultation instrument, such as the French SOIR or a derivative of the Canadian ACE FTIR instrument, would survey chemical trace species such as methane in the Martian atmosphere to look for signatures of subsurface processes related to possible habitable zones and life. MACO’s winds will be key in tracing plumes back to their source regions. Proposed near-surface ion-related heterogeneous chemistry will be assessed by profiling near surface concentrations of H2O2, H2O and dust to look for predicted enhancements in of H2O2 and how they vary with H2O and dust concentrations. MACO’s combined capabilities are a superset of the Mars Science Orbiter (MSO) recommended by the Calvin et al. (2007) report. MACO would fit as a moderate scale mission in the 2016 launch opportunity. Alternatively, since NASA and ESA have recently announced their intent to fly a single orbiter, trace gas mission in 2016, the MACO mm occultation receiver (which can also measure thermal emission and solar occultations) could be flown on that mission and the occultation transmitter could be carried on another mission flown by an international partner such as Japan or India.

  2. Hopping Microbot Access to Subsurface (Cave) and Rugged Terrain on Mars and Hazardous Extreme Earth Astrobiology Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, P. J.; Dubowsky, S.

    2005-12-01

    Subsurface microbial communities, biosignatures, and geochemistries as revealed in natural caves and lavatubes on Earth are of relevance to the question of extant and former Martian ecologies (Boston et al., 2001, 2005). Such communities have been postulated for the near and mid-subsurface of Mars (Boston et al., 1992; Fisk & Giavannoni, 1999). Recent NASA and ESA missions are providing imaging evidence of numerous lavatube structures (Boston, 2003). In addition, recent evidence of subsurface water ice layers coupled with MER evidence of extensive evaporates (Boynton et al., 2002; Gellert et al., 2004) lends additional plausibility to possible development of solutional cavities possibly by unique extraterrestrial mechanisms (Boston et al., 2005). Successful robotic access to subsurface and rugged, unpredictable surface terrain must be accomplished to allow exploration of such sites on Mars and even for some extreme Earth sites of astrobiological interest (Dubowsky et al., 2004). We have developed the concept of high energy-density polymer "muscle" actuated hopping spherical microbots that can self-deploy as subsurface networks for sensing, telemetering, and recon. Potential instrumentation suitable for life detection and other analyses have been identified as the project moves into a Phase II stage. Boston, P.J. 2003. Extraterrestrial Caves. Encyclopedia of Cave and Karst Science. Fitzroy-Dearborn Publishers, Ltd., London, UK. Boston, P.J., Ivanov, M.V., and McKay, C.P. 1992. On the possibility of chemosynthetic ecosystems in subsurface habitats on Mars. Icarus 95:300-308. Boston, P.J., Spilde, M.N., Northup, D.E., Melim, L.A., Soroka, D.S., Kleina, L.G., Lavoie, K.H., Hose, L.D., Mallory, L.M., Dahm, C.N., Crossey, L.J., and Schelble, R.T. 2001. Cave biosignature suites: Microbes, minerals and Mars. Astrobiology Journal 1(1):25-55. Boston, P.J., Hose, L.D., Northup, D.E., & Spilde, M.N. 2005. The microbial communities of sulfur caves: A newly appreciated geologically driven system on Earth and potential model for Mars. In, R. Harmon, ed. Karst Geomorphology, Hydrology, & Geochemistry Geol. Soc. Amer. Special Paper. Boynton, W. V, et al. 2002, Distribution of hydrogen in the near-surface of Mars: Evidence for subsurface ice deposits: Science, v. 297, p. 81-85. Dubowsky, S., Iagnemma, K., and Boston, P.J. 2004. Microbots for Large-scale Planetary Surface and Subsurface Exploration. Phase I Final report for NIAC CP. 02-02. http://www.niac.usra.edu/files/studies/dubowsky Fisk, M. R., and Giovannoni, S. J., 1999 Sources of nutrients and energy for a deep biosphere on Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 104: 11805-11815 Gellert, R. et al., 2004, Chemistry of rocks and soils in Gusev crater from the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer: Science, v. 305, p. 829-832.

  3. Eighth annual fluidized bed conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Fourteen paper were presented at the Eighth Annual Fluidized Bed Conference held on December 8-9, 1992 in Pittsburgh, PA. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Seventh annual fluidized bed conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen papers were presented at the Seventh Annual Fluidized Bed Conference held on December 9-10, 1991 in Indianapolis, Indiana. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Youth in Transition: The Challenges of Generational Change in Asia. Proceedings of the Biennial General Conference of the Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils (15th, Canberra, Australia, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Fay, Ed.; Fahey, Stephanie, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book originates from a conference of the Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils and contains writings and research reports on Youth in Transition in the Asia and Pacific region. The definition of "youth" varies from country to country and ranges between the ages of 10 to 35. The publication summarizes issues in the region,…

  6. Emerging Frameworks and Methods. Proceedings of the International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science (CoLIS4) (4th, Seattle, Washington, July 21-25, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry, Ed.; Fidel, Raya, Ed.; Ingwersen, Peter, Ed.; Vakkari, Pertti, Ed.

    These proceedings are the fourth in the series of international conferences whose general aim is to provide a broad forum for critically exploring and analyzing library and information science as a discipline and as a field of research from historical, theoretical, philosophical, and empirical perspectives. The papers in this volume cover a wide…

  7. Teacher Shortage in Science and Mathematics: Myths, Realities, and Research. Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the National Institute of Education (Washington, District of Columbia, February 10-11, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John L., Ed.

    This conference was designed to identify salient elements of the national science/mathematics teacher shortage, add corollary data to the existing body of knowledge, and to influence and guide future NIE research in the area. The proceedings include: welcoming and keynote addresses by, respectively, Manuel J. Justiz and T. H. Bell; five…

  8. Desiccation and low temperature attenuate the effect of UVC254 nm in the photobiont of the astrobiologically relevant lichens Circinaria gyrosa and Buellia frigida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, T.; de la Torre, R.; Lyhme, K.; de Vera, J.-P.; Meeßen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Several investigations on lichen photobionts (PBs) after exposure to simulated or real-space parameters consistently reported high viability and recovery of photosynthetic activity. These studies focused on PBs within lichen thalli, mostly exposed in a metabolically inactive state. In contrast, a recent study exposed isolated and metabolically active PBs to the non-terrestrial stressor UVC254 nm and found strong impairment of photosynthetic activity and photo-protective mechanisms (Meeßen et al. in 2014b). Under space and Mars conditions, UVC is accompanied by other stressors as extreme desiccation and low temperatures. The present study exposed the PBs of Buellia frigida and Circinaria gyrosa, to UVC in combination with desiccation and subzero temperatures to gain better insight into the combined stressors' effect and the PBs' inherent potential of resistance. These effects were examined by chlorophyll a fluorescence which is a good indicator of photosynthetic activity (Lüttge & Büdel in 2010) and widely used to test the viability of PBs after (simulated) space exposure. The present results reveal fast recovery of photosynthetic activity after desiccation and subzero temperatures. Moreover, they demonstrate that desiccation and cold confer an additional protective effect on the investigated PBs and attenuate the PBs' reaction to another stressor - even if it is a non-terrestrial one such as UVC. Besides other protective mechanisms (anhydrobiosis, morphological-anatomical traits and secondary lichen compounds), these findings may help to explain the high resistance of lichens observed in astrobiological studies.

  9. Field/Lab Training Workshops in Planetary Geology and Astrobiology for Secondary School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A.; Newsom, H.; Hoehler, T.; Tsairides, C.; Karlstrom, K.; Crossey, L.; Kiefer, W.; Kadel, S.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Aubele, J.; Crumpler, L.

    2003-12-01

    Thematic field-lab-classroom workshops can be successful in training secondary teachers in planetary geology and astrobiology, from the LPI's 4 years experience. A typical workshop includes ˜4 days of field study and ˜3 days of related classroom/lab lectures and exercises. Up to 30 teachers have participated at once, and the staff averages 5 researchers and educators. The 2003 workshop, The Great Desert, focused on geology and life in the Colorado Plateau as analogs for Mars. Specific emphases were on geologic processes exemplified in the Grand Canyon, Sunset Crater and Meteor Crater, and on biotic communities in desert soils and hot springs. The classroom portion, hosted by UNM, included lectures, lab work, and teaching exercises keyed to the field experience and its extensions to Mars. Formal followups: non-directive exit questionnaires; email list-serves for participants; websites with images, presentations, and exercises from the workshop, and links to related materials (e.g., http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/EPO/yellowstone2002/index.html); and interviews for six-month retrospective. Graduate and continuing education credit are available. Past workshops, all relevant to Mars, have targeted: geology and extremophiles of Yellowstone NP, geology of the Cascade volcanos; and giant floods and lava flows of central Washington. The greatest benefit of this workshop format is the teachers' intense, deep experience, emphasizing scientific content. They learn from field, classroom, and laboratory perspectives, and work with PhD level researchers who contribute their excitement, demonstrate and teach critical thought processes, and provide authoritative background and answers. The small group size permits personal interactions (among teachers and presenters) that complement each other's understanding and appreciation of the subject. They log ˜65 contact hours with the staff, in small groups or one-on-one. Teachers return to the classroom with personal experiences, with heightened appreciation, excited, and energetic. The teachers are asked to share their knowledge in their districts (in one case, saving the district thousands of dollars). For the presenters, the workshop format allows personal interactions with the teachers, leading to enhanced appreciation of their perspectives and needs. This year, teacher input assisted with an NSF-sponsored National Park education initiative. And in one case, a meaningful research collaboration has come from these workshops. Logistics is the greatest challenge of this workshop format. Hosts and teaching/lab venues need to be arranged early in sites dictated by science content, not convenience. Travel and lodging must be arranged for teachers and presenters at several sites, usually all distant from the organizing institution. Logistics also dictates that each workshop cannot serve more than about 30 teachers. The depth of knowledge imparted and its long-term effects on the teachers and their districts offsets the small number of teachers reached per year. Authors here are the 2003 organizers and presenters. Many others have organized and presented at past workshops - especially Dr. A.J. Irving of U. Wash. We are grateful for past support from NASA Broker/Facilitator, and now from Sandia National Laboratory and NASA OSS/EPO.

  10. The Chirality Of Life: From Phase Transitions To Astrobiology

    E-print Network

    Marcelo Gleiser; Sara Imari Walker

    2008-11-08

    The search for life elsewhere in the universe is a pivotal question in modern science. However, to address whether life is common in the universe we must first understand the likelihood of abiogenesis by studying the origin of life on Earth. A key missing piece is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: permeating almost every life-form on Earth is the presence of exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars. In this work we discuss recent results suggesting that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events in a mechanism referred to as punctuated chirality. Applying these arguments to other potentially life-bearing platforms has significant implications for the search for extraterrestrial life: we predict that a statistically representative sampling of extraterrestrial stereochemistry will be racemic on average.

  11. The Chirality Of Life: From Phase Transitions To Astrobiology

    E-print Network

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    The search for life elsewhere in the universe is a pivotal question in modern science. However, to address whether life is common in the universe we must first understand the likelihood of abiogenesis by studying the origin of life on Earth. A key missing piece is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: permeating almost every life-form on Earth is the presence of exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars. In this work we discuss recent results suggesting that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events in a mechanism referred to as punctuated chirality. Applying these arguments to other potentially life-bearing platforms has significant implications for the search for extraterrestrial life: we predict that a statistically representative sampling of extraterrestrial stereochemistry will be racemic on average.

  12. Analysis of In-Situ Organic and Mineral Compounds Relevant to Martian Astrobiology Using 266 nm Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshelman, E.; Daly, M. G.; Slater, G.; Dietrich, P.; Gravel, J. F.; Cloutis, E.

    2014-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy has become increasingly desirable for astrobiological investigations on Mars due to the potential for stand-off measurements, sensitivity to organic and mineral targets, and detection on unprepared surfaces. While the majority of existing Raman instruments intended for planetary exploration operate in the visible or near infrared, an ultraviolet Raman wavelength offers potential advantages including increased Raman cross section, decreased fluorescence in the Raman window, and increased signal due to resonance with some organics. This work presents a Raman spectrometer with an excitation of 266 nm, designed around the putative requirements of a flight instrument. We demonstrate spatial mapping of organic and mineral compounds on Mars analogue samples from the Canadian Arctic and the Atacama Desert, showcasing the reduced fluorescence and increased scattering efficiency compared to longer wavelengths. The Raman window provided by a 266 nm excitation is advantageously positioned to observe fluorescence bands that are characteristic to terrestrial bacteria yet do not overlap with the Raman signal. We present the potential for time-resolved nanosecond scale gating of the detector in characterizing mineral and organic fluorescence by measuring the fluorescence lifetime of endoliths in gypsum. The characteristic short lifetime of the bacterial fluorescence provides additional information regarding the presence of organic carbon in the sample, and therefore combined Raman-fluorescence measurements may increase the sensitivity of the instrument to organic carbon. This research was carried out at the Planetary Instrumentation Laboratory at York University, and supported in part by both the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

  13. SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almár, Iván

    2011-11-01

    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

  14. Report on a NASA astrobiology institute-funded workshop without walls: stellar stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Desch, Steven J; Young, Patrick A; Anbar, Ariel D; Hinkel, Natalie; Pagano, Michael; Truitt, Amanda; Turnbull, Margaret

    2014-04-01

    We report on the NASA Astrobiology Institute-funded Workshop Without Walls entitled "Stellar Stoichiometry," hosted by the "Follow the Elements" team at Arizona State University in April 2013. We describe several innovative practices we adopted that made effective use of the Workshop Without Walls videoconferencing format, including use of information technologies, assignment of scientific tasks before the workshop, and placement of graduate students in positions of authority. A companion article will describe the scientific results arising from the workshop. Our intention here is to suggest best practices for future Workshops Without Walls. PMID:24684174

  15. Micro-XRF : Elemental Analysis for In Situ Geology and Astrobiology Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allwood, Abigail; Hodyss, Robert; Wade, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The ability to make close-up measurements of rock chemistry is one of the most fundamental tools for astrobiological exploration of Mars and other rocky bodies of the solar system. When conducting surface-based exploration, lithochemical measurements provide critical data that enable interpretation of the local geology, which in turn is vital for determining habitability and searching for evidence of life. The value of lithochemical measurements for geological interpretations has been repeatedly demonstrated with virtually every landed Mars mission over the past four decades.

  16. Astrobiology in the Environments of Main-Sequence Stars: Effects of Photospheric Radiation

    E-print Network

    M. Cuntz; L. Gurdemir; E. F. Guinan; R. L. Kurucz

    2007-12-19

    We explore if carbon-based macromolecules (such as DNA) in the environments of stars other than the Sun are able to survive the effects of photospheric stellar radiation, such as UV-C. Therefore, we focus on main-sequence stars of spectral types F, G, K, and M. Emphasis is placed on investigating the radiative environment in the stellar habitable zones. Stellar habitable zones are relevant to astrobiology because they constitute circumstellar regions in which a planet of suitable size can maintain surface temperatures for water to exist in fluid form, thus increasing the likelihood of Earth-type life.

  17. An Astrobiological Experiment to Explore the Habitability of Tidally Locked M-Dwarf Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angerhausen, Daniel; Sapers, Haley; Simoncini, Eugenio; Lutz, Stefanie; Alexandre, Marcelo da Rosa; Galante, Douglas

    2014-04-01

    We present a summary of a three-year academic research proposal drafted during the Sao Paulo Advanced School of Astrobiology (SPASA) to prepare for upcoming observations of tidally locked planets orbiting M-dwarf stars. The primary experimental goal of the suggested research is to expose extremophiles from analogue environments to a modified space simulation chamber reproducing the environmental parameters of a tidally locked planet in the habitable zone of a late-type star. Here we focus on a description of the astronomical analysis used to define the parameters for this climate simulation.

  18. Carl Woese, Dick Young, and the roots of astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Rummel, John D

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the space age in the late 1950s gave rise to innovative and interdisciplinary research concepts and perspectives, including the concept of "exobiology" as a way to approach the fundamental aspects of biology through a study of life outside of the Earth, if it existed. This concept was embodied by NASA into its formal Exobiology Program and into the philosophy of the program both before and after the Viking missions that were launched to Mars to search for signs of life in 1975. Due to both management flexibility and an acceptance of the interdisciplinary nature of the problem of "life in the universe," NASA program managers, and particularly Richard S Young who ran the Exobiology Program beginning 1967, have made some excellent investments in paradigm altering science of great use both on Earth and on future space missions. The work of Carl Woese is one such example, which has revolutionized our understanding of the microbial world and the relationships of all life on Earth. PMID:24572623

  19. Mineralogy and astrobiology detection using laser remote sensing instrument.

    PubMed

    Abedin, M Nurul; Bradley, Arthur T; Sharma, Shiv K; Misra, Anupam K; Lucey, Paul G; McKay, Christopher P; Ismail, Syed; Sandford, Stephen P

    2015-09-01

    A multispectral instrument based on Raman, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and a lidar system provides high-fidelity scientific investigations, scientific input, and science operation constraints in the context of planetary field campaigns with the Jupiter Europa Robotic Lander and Mars Sample Return mission opportunities. This instrument conducts scientific investigations analogous to investigations anticipated for missions to Mars and Jupiter's icy moons. This combined multispectral instrument is capable of performing Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy out to a >100??m target distance from the rover system and provides single-wavelength atmospheric profiling over long ranges (>20??km). In this article, we will reveal integrated remote Raman, LIF, and lidar technologies for use in robotic and lander-based planetary remote sensing applications. Discussions are focused on recently developed Raman, LIF, and lidar systems in addition to emphasizing surface water ice, surface and subsurface minerals, organics, biogenic, biomarker identification, atmospheric aerosols and clouds distributions, i.e., near-field atmospheric thin layers detection for next robotic-lander based instruments to measure all the above-mentioned parameters. PMID:26368883

  20. Carl Woese, Dick Young, and the roots of astrobiology

    PubMed Central

    Rummel, John D

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the space age in the late 1950s gave rise to innovative and interdisciplinary research concepts and perspectives, including the concept of “exobiology” as a way to approach the fundamental aspects of biology through a study of life outside of the Earth, if it existed. This concept was embodied by NASA into its formal Exobiology Program and into the philosophy of the program both before and after the Viking missions that were launched to Mars to search for signs of life in 1975. Due to both management flexibility and an acceptance of the interdisciplinary nature of the problem of “life in the universe,” NASA program managers, and particularly Richard S Young who ran the Exobiology Program beginning 1967, have made some excellent investments in paradigm altering science of great use both on Earth and on future space missions. The work of Carl Woese is one such example, which has revolutionized our understanding of the microbial world and the relationships of all life on Earth. PMID:24572623

  1. Drilling Automation Demonstrations in Subsurface Exploration for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, H.; Lee, P.; Hanagud, S.; Davis, K.

    2006-01-01

    This project proposes to study subsurface permafrost microbial habitats at a relevant Arctic Mars-analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada) while developing and maturing the subsurface drilling and drilling automation technologies that will be required by post-2010 missions. It builds on earlier drilling technology projects to add permafrost and ice-drilling capabilities to 5m with a lightweight drill that will be automatically monitored and controlled in-situ. Frozen cores obtained with this drill under sterilized protocols will be used in testing three hypotheses pertaining to near-surface physical geology and ground H2O ice distribution, viewed as a habitat for microbial life in subsurface ice and ice-consolidated sediments. Automation technologies employed will demonstrate hands-off diagnostics and drill control, using novel vibrational dynamical analysis methods and model-based reasoning to monitor and identify drilling fault states before and during faults. Three field deployments, to a Mars-analog site with frozen impact crater fallback breccia, will support science goals, provide a rigorous test of drilling automation and lightweight permafrost drilling, and leverage past experience with the field site s particular logistics.

  2. PREFACE: International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - Eco-Materials and Eco-Innovation for Global Sustainability - The 21st Iketani Conference 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    Conference logo The 21st century has been called the century of environmental revolution. Green innovations and environmentally friendly production systems based on physics, chemistry, materials science, and electronic engineering will be indispensable for ensuring renewable energy and establishing a sustainable society. In particular, production design, materials processing, and fabrication technologies such as welding and joining will be very important components of such green innovations. For these reasons, the International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - eco-materials and eco-innovation for global sustainability - (ECO-MATES 2011) was organized by the Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI) and the Center of Environmental Innovation Design for Sustainability (CEIDS), Osaka University. ECO-MATES 2011 was held at Hotel Hankyu Expo Park, Osaka, Japan from 28-30 November 2011. 435 participants from 20 countries around the world attended the symposium. 149 oral presentations including 60 invited talks and 160 posters were presented at the symposium to discuss the latest research and developments in green innovations in relation to environmental issues. The topics of the symposium covered all environmentally related fields including renewable energy, energy-materials, environment and resources, waste and biomass, power electronics, semiconductor, rare-earth metals, functional materials, organic electronics materials, electronics packaging, smart processing, joining and welding, eco-efficient processes, and green applied physics and chemistry. Therefore, 55 full papers concerning green innovations and environmentally benign production were selected and approved by the editorial board and the program committee of ECO-MATES 2011. All papers were accepted through peer review processes. I believe that all the papers have many informative contents. On behalf of the steering committee of the symposium, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to all the committees and secretariats, authors, participants of ECO-MATES 2011, and everybody involved in the publication of this special issue. It is a great honor for me that the special issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series will contribute to establishing green innovations and a sustainable society. Chairman's signature Yasuo Takahashi Chairman of ECO-MATES 2011 Conference photograph ECO-MATES 2011 November 28-30, 2011 Venue: Hotel Hankyu Expo Park, Osaka, Japan The PDF also contains a list of the organizing committees.

  3. Perspectives on U.S. Competitiveness in Science and Technology. Conference Proceedings (Washington, DC, November 8, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galama, Titus, Ed.; Hosek, James, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Concern has grown that the United States is losing its competitive edge in science and technology (S&T). The factors driving this concern include globalization, the rise of science centers in developing countries such as China and India, the increasing number of foreign-born Ph.D. students in the United States, and claims of a shortage of S&T…

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Australian Science Education Association (23rd, Perth, Western Australia, November 13, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie, Ed.

    These proceedings contain reviewed and edited papers from the 23rd annual meeting of the Western Australian Science Education Association (WASEA). Papers include: (1) Using Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Validate a Questionnaire to Describe Science Teacher Behavior in Taiwan and Australia (Darrell Fisher, David Henderson, and…

  5. Detecting and Identifying Organic Molecules in Space - The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    2001-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5-16 micron (4000-625/cm) range is a principle means by which organic compounds are detected and identified in space. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX (Medium-class Explorer) mission concept currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding (1) the evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds and young forming stellar systems, (2) the chemical evolution of organic molecules in the ISM as they transition from AGB outflows to planetary nebulae to the general diffuse ISM to H II regions and dense clouds, (3) the distribution of organics in the diffuse ISM, (4) the nature of organics in the Solar System (in comets, asteroids, satellites), and (5) the nature and distribution of organics in local galaxies. Both the scientific goals of the mission and how they would be achieved will be discussed.

  6. Detecting and Identifying Organic Molecules in Space: The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5-16 microns (4000-625/cm) range is a principle means by which organic compounds are detected and identified in space. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX (Medium-class Explorer) mission concept currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding (1) the evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds and young forming stellar systems, (2) the chemical evolution of organic molecules in the ISM as they transition from AGB outflows to planetary nebulae to the general diffuse ISM to H II regions and dense clouds, (3) the distribution of organics in the diffuse ISM, (4) the nature of organics in the Solar System (in comets, asteroids, satellites), and (5) the nature and distribution of organics in local galaxies. Both the scientific goals of the mission and how they would be achieved will be discussed.

  7. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Identifying Organic Molecules in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Sandford, Scott; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse; Cohen, Martin; Cruikshank, Dale; Greene, Thomas; Hudgins, Douglas; Kwok, Sun; Lord, Steven; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept, currently under Concept Phase A study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Corp., and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct infrared spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the distribution, identity, and evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds, young forming stellar systems, stellar outflows, the general diffuse ISM, HII regions, Solar System bodies, and external galaxies. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.6 m aperture Ritchey-Chretien telescope and three moderate resolution (R = 2000-3000) spectrometers together covering the 2.5-20 micron spectral region. Large format (1024 x 1024 pixel) IR detector arrays will allow each spectrometer to cover an entire octave of spectral range per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope will be cooled below 50 K by a cryogenic dewar shielded by a sunshade. The detectors will be cooled to approx. 7.5 K by a solid hydrogen cryostat. The optimum orbital configuration for achieving the scientific objectives of the ABE mission is a low background, 1 AU Earth driftaway orbit requiring a Delta II launch vehicle. This configuration provides a low thermal background and allows adequate communications bandwidth and good access to the entire sky over the approx. 1.5 year mission lifetime.

  8. Identifying Organic Molecules in Space: The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Sandford, S.; Allamandola, L.; Bregman, J.; Cohen, M.; Cruikshank, D.; Dumas, C.; Greene, T.; Hudgins, D.; Kwok, S.

    2004-01-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) mission concept consists of a modest dedicated space observatory having a 60 cm class primary mirror cooled to T less than 50 K equipped with medium resolution cross-dispersed spectrometers having cooled large format near- and mid-infrared detector arrays. Such a system would be capable of addressing outstanding problems in Astrochemistry and Astrophysics that are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and addressable via astronomical observation. The mission's observaticxiai program woiild make fundamental scieztific: prngress in establishing the nature, distribution, formation and evolution of organic and other molecular materials in the following extra-terrestrial environments: 1) The Outflow of Dying Stars; 2) The Diffuse Interstellar Medium (DISM); 3) Dense Molecular Clouds, Star Formation Regions, and Young Stellar/Planetary Systems; 4) Planets, Satellites, and Small Bodies within the Solar System; and 5) The Interstellar Media of Other Galaxies ABE could make fundamental progress in all of these area by conducting a 1 to 2 year mission to obtain a coordinated set of infrared spectroscopic observations over the 2.5 - 20 micron spectral range at a spectral resolution of R greater than 2500 of about 1500 galaxies, stars, planetary nebulae, young stellar objects, and solar system objects.

  9. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin in Coahuila, Mexico: an astrobiological Precambrian Park.

    PubMed

    Souza, Valeria; Siefert, Janet L; Escalante, Ana E; Elser, James J; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2012-07-01

    The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a rare oasis in the Chihuahuan Desert in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. It has a biological endemism similar to that of the Galapagos Islands, and its spring-fed ecosystems have very low nutrient content (nitrogen or phosphorous) and are dominated by diverse microbialites. Thus, it has proven to be a distinctive opportunity for the field of astrobiology, as the CCB can be seen as a proxy for an earlier time in Earth's history, in particular the late Precambrian, the biological frontier when prokaryotic life yielded at least partial dominance to eukaryotes and multicellular life. It is a kind of ecological time machine that provides abundant opportunities for collaborative investigations by geochemists, geologists, ecologists, and population biologists in the study of the evolutionary processes that structured Earth-based life, especially in the microbial realm. The CCB is an object of investigation for the identification of biosignatures of past and present biota that can be used in our search for extraterrestrial life. In this review, we summarize CCB research efforts that began with microbial ecology and population biology projects and have since been expanded into broader efforts that involve biogeochemistry, comparative genomics, and assessments of biosignatures. We also propose that, in the future, the CCB is sanctioned as a "Precambrian Park" for astrobiology. PMID:22920514

  10. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110?nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10?s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space. PMID:22680684

  11. Research in Science Education, Volume 15. Selections of Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (16th, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, May 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisher, Richard P., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This publication contains 24 studies which focus on: the fostering of inquiry in secondary school science laboratories; realistic expectations for traditional laboratory work; a content-based, college-level science course for all students; understanding learning at the classroom level; transitions and student task involvement; a project to…

  12. For more information, see: http://www.geology.wisc.edu/astrobiology/ 1 Graduate Student and Post-Doc

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    For more information, see: http://www.geology.wisc.edu/astrobiology/ 1 Graduate Student and Post-Doc students and post-docs to conduct field- and laboratory-based research on the chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic signatures of paleoenvironments and life. We have openings for students and post-docs from diverse

  13. arXiv:1206.3467v1[astro-ph.IM]15Jun2012 Astrobiological Complexity with Probabilistic Cellular

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    Belgrade-74, Serbia E-mail: bvukotic@aob.rs Abstract Search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence--Galaxy: evolution-- extraterrestrial intelligence PACS number(s): 87.18.-h, 89.75.Fb, 89.90.+n, 02.70.-c 1 a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches. Keywords: astrobiology--methods: numerical

  14. Women in engineering conference: capitalizing on today`s challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, S.S.; Martins, S.M.

    1996-06-01

    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Women in Engineering Conference: Capitalizing on Today`s Challenges, held June 1-4, 1996 in Denver, Colorado. Topics included engineering and science education, career paths, workplace issues, and affirmative action.

  15. This paper appeared in 1995 in The Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Cognitive Science Conference, 562567. Pittsburgh: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

    E-print Network

    Epstein, Susan L.

    University of New York New York, NY 10021 epstein@roz.hunter.cuny.edu Jack Gelfand Department of Psychology L. Epstein Department of Computer Science Hunter College and The Graduate School of The City

  16. First International Conference between West and East—Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti D’Oriente (Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi ‘Tao and Science’ will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com PMID:18317548

  17. Ressources en test sur BiblioPlanets 2015 : Astrobiology -Mary Ann Liebert -depuis 2001, vol. 1----

    E-print Network

    van Tiggelen, Bart

    of Physics Soil Science Society of America Journal - Soil Science Society Science Letters ­ Wiley - depuis 2000 ,vol. 1 ---- Canadian Journal of Physics - Canadian Science Publishing ­ depuis 1996 ----- Hydrological

  18. The Astronomical, Astrobiological and Planetary Science Case for Interstellar Spaceflight 1. INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    to a target star (possibly augmented by other astronomical investigations able to make use of the vehicle paper by Long et al. [2]). 2. INTERSTELLAR STUDIES By definition, any interstellar vehicle will have to traverse the interstellar medium between the Solar System and the target star. As any target star

  19. Living strategies of unusual life forms on Earth and the relevance to astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesch, Patrick J.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the astrobiological importance of various viruses, nanobacteria, Archaea and bacteria. Viruses and nanobacteria challenge the current definitions of life, but we consider them here as life forms. Nanobacteria have interesting mode of fossilization and have a potential for creating biosignatures. Archaea and some bacteria make unique lipid-related compounds that can be used as biosignatures. We focus on the organisms and life forms that seem to be well suited for the life on Mars or other extraterrestrial environments that are harsh. Many of these organisms and life forms share their genetic material freely with other organisms and species. Such an altruistic approach may have been typical for the early life on Earth.

  20. Assessing the Ecophysiology of Methanogens in the Context of Recent Astrobiological and Planetological Studies.

    PubMed

    Taubner, Ruth-Sophie; Schleper, Christa; Firneis, Maria G; Rittmann, Simon K-M R

    2015-01-01

    Among all known microbes capable of thriving under extreme and, therefore, potentially extraterrestrial environmental conditions, methanogens from the domain Archaea are intriguing organisms. This is due to their broad metabolic versatility, enormous diversity, and ability to grow under extreme environmental conditions. Several studies revealed that growth conditions of methanogens are compatible with environmental conditions on extraterrestrial bodies throughout the Solar System. Hence, life in the Solar System might not be limited to the classical habitable zone. In this contribution we assess the main ecophysiological characteristics of methanogens and compare these to the environmental conditions of putative habitats in the Solar System, in particular Mars and icy moons. Eventually, we give an outlook on the feasibility and the necessity of future astrobiological studies concerning methanogens. PMID:26703739