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Sample records for astrobiology science conference

  1. Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2010. Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The Program of the 2010 Astrobiology Science Conference: Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond, included sessions on: 50 Years of Exobiology and Astrobiology: Greatest Hits; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System I; Human Exploration, Astronaut Health; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Titan: Past, Present, and Future; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Prebiological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System II; Astrobiology in Orbit; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Science from Rio Tinto: An Acidic Environment; Can We Rule Out Spontaneous Generation of RNA as the Key Step in the Origin of Life?; How Hellish Was the Hadean Earth?; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns I; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life I; Adaptation of Life in Hostile Space Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets I: Formation and Composition; Collaborative Tools and Technology for Astrobiology; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns II; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life II; Survival, Growth, and Evolution of Microrganisms in Model Extraterrestrial Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets II: Habitability and Life; Planetary Science Decadal Survey Update; Astrobiology Research Funding; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time I; State of the Art in Life Detection; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Geochronology and Astrobiology On and Off the Earth; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time II; Origins and Evolution of Genetic Systems; Evolution of Advanced Life; Water-rich Asteroids and Moons: Composition and Astrobiological Potential; Impact Events and Evolution; A Warm, Wet

  2. Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2010. Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The Program of the 2010 Astrobiology Science Conference: Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond, included sessions on: 50 Years of Exobiology and Astrobiology: Greatest Hits; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System I; Human Exploration, Astronaut Health; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Titan: Past, Present, and Future; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Prebiological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System II; Astrobiology in Orbit; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Science from Rio Tinto: An Acidic Environment; Can We Rule Out Spontaneous Generation of RNA as the Key Step in the Origin of Life?; How Hellish Was the Hadean Earth?; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns I; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life I; Adaptation of Life in Hostile Space Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets I: Formation and Composition; Collaborative Tools and Technology for Astrobiology; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns II; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life II; Survival, Growth, and Evolution of Microrganisms in Model Extraterrestrial Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets II: Habitability and Life; Planetary Science Decadal Survey Update; Astrobiology Research Funding; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time I; State of the Art in Life Detection; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Geochronology and Astrobiology On and Off the Earth; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time II; Origins and Evolution of Genetic Systems; Evolution of Advanced Life; Water-rich Asteroids and Moons: Composition and Astrobiological Potential; Impact Events and Evolution; A Warm, Wet

  3. Astrobiology: A pathway to adult science literacy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, C. A.; Fergusson, J.

    2007-10-01

    Adult science illiteracy is widespread. This is concerning for astrobiology, or indeed any other area of science in the communication of science to public audiences. Where and how does this scientific illiteracy arise in the journey to adulthood? Two astrobiology education projects have hinted that science illiteracy may begin in high school. This relationship between high school science education and the public understanding of science is poorly understood. Do adults forget their science education, or did they never grasp it in the first place? A 2003 science education project raised these questions when 24 16-year-olds from 10 Sydney high schools were brought into contact with real science. The unexpected results suggested that even good high school science students have a poor understanding of how science is really undertaken in the field and in the laboratory. This concept is being further tested in a new high school science education project, aimed at the same age group, using authentic astrobiology cutting-edge data, NASA Learning Technologies tools, a purpose-built research Information and Communication Technology-aided learning facility and a collaboration that spans three continents. In addition, a first year university class will be tested for evidence of science illiteracy immediately after high school among non-science oriented but well-educated students.

  4. Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David

    2002-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origins, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It provides a biological perspective to many areas of NASA research, linking such endeavors as the search for habitable planets beyond our solar system, exploration missions to Mars and Europa, and efforts to understand the origin and early evolution of life. Astrobiology addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and develop? Does life exist elsewhere in the universe What is the future of life on Earth and beyond? This talk will address our concepts about the definition of life, how life might have begun, and how our blaspheme and planet have co-evolved for billions of years. The talk will explore how the perspectives gained from interdisciplinary research in the biological, geological and space sciences will prepare us to search for habitable environments and blasphemes elsewhere in the Universe.

  5. Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origins, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It provides a biological perspective to many areas of NASA research, linking such endeavors as the search for habitable planets beyond our solar system, exploration missions to Mars and Europa, and efforts to understand the origin and early evolution of life. Astrobiology addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and develop? Does life exist elsewhere in the universe? What is the future of life on Earth and beyond? This talk will address our concepts about the definition of life, how life might have begun, and how our blaspheme and planet have co-evolved for billions of years. The talk will explore how the perspectives gained from interdisciplinary research in the biological, geological and space sciences will prepare us to search for habitable environments and biospheres elsewhere in the Universe.

  6. The Astrobiology Graduate Conference - A Unique Early Career Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, E. J.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Anderson, R.; Som, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon) is an extremely successful annual meeting of early career researchers and educators involved and interested in the field of astrobiology. The conference has been held eight times in various locations, each time organized by a different group of students. The primary objective of AbGradCon is to stimulate the future of astrobiology research by bringing together graduate students and early post-doctoral fellows in order to create and strengthen interdisciplinary and international networks of early-career astrobiologists who will lead such research in the years to come. The conference is unique in that it is a student-led meeting, from the organization to the presentations. AbGradCon strives to remove the "pressures" of typical scientific meetings by providing a relaxed atmosphere in which presentations and round-table discussions are fostered along with numerous social activities. The success of previous AbGradCons can be attributed to the sheer enthusiasm of the participants for astrobiology, and to the spirit and format of the conference, which is outlined in a charter written by past conference organizers and participants. Because it is organized and attended by only graduate students and early career astrobiologists, AbGradCon is an ideal venue for the next generation of early career astrobiologists to form bonds, share ideas, and discuss the issues that will shape the future of the field.

  7. Astrobiology Student Science Fair Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadooka, M.; Meech, K. J.

    2004-11-01

    Extrasolar Planet Transit and The Light Curve of a Variable Star are some titles of high school student projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. These students were mentored by teachers who participated in the UH Institute for Astronomy Toward Other Planetary Systems summer program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech. After attending several 3-week TOPS NSF workshops from 1999, these teachers in 2003 were trained to do observing plans to obtain telescope images, use image processing software MIRA for photometry, and produce light curves of variable stars and extrasolar planet transits. Others used the software Astrometrica to do astrometry of Kuiper Belt Objects. Using Compaq laptop computers on long term loan, our teachers mentored their students for astronomy projects during the 2003-2004 school year with the assistance of IfA astronomers and graduate students. Observing plans for images from the 31 inch Lowell Telescope in Arizona and the 2.2 meter UH telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory were followed. Students had to learn about variables such as exposure time, magnitude, frequency requirements, and ephemeris. The many iterations were time consuming and demanded patience and perseverance. Poor weather conditions exposed the students to the realities of astronomy research, so they experienced the highs of successful projects. Future projects will be related to the UH NAI team research using the 2.0 meter Faulkes Telescope located on Haleakala on island of Maui. The TOPS program is funded by National Science Foundation.

  8. Engaging in Science through Astrobiology Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergusson, J.; Oliver, C.; Walter, M.

    2011-12-01

    There has been a steady decline in the number of Australian students studying science at the senior high school level. By the time students reach this point in their education, when they can choose whether or not to continue to study science, many have already decided that science is not for them. It is possible that students in the junior high school years may be gaining a false view of the world of science due to the disparity between the way that science is portrayed in schools and "real" science. A study is being undertaken to explore whether engaging in real science through outreach activities may increase students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and whether such activities may heighten students' interest in science and potentially lead to an increase in the number of students studying science at the tertiary level. The study examines three astrobiology-related outreach programs, two in Australia and one in the US. The features of the programs are described and results from the Australian research carried out to date are presented.

  9. Astrobiology as an alternative integrated science curriculum for higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Harold A.

    Many schools now offer an integrated science course to give students a taste of all of the sciences. These courses are types of survey courses that do not demonstrate the interdependencies among the various science disciplines. Students are exposed to each of the science disciplines individually. Astrobiology, as a multidisciplinary science requiring the skills of a physicist, chemist, geologist and biologist can be offered as a new paradigm in the teaching of science for non-science majors. A curriculum for a full-year course in astrobiology based upon sound content and pedagogy is presented.

  10. Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffen, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    If we believe life to be a cosmic imperative, the understanding of life processes becomes a universal aspect of cosmology. How does life fit into our understanding of the universe. As a compliment to NASA's `Origins' Program we are developing a new venture to embark on one of the great scientific questions of our time, our origins, evolution and our destiny. NASA already deals with a number of related biological questions. We are introducing a new unifying approach to biology within the NASA... Astrobiology. Astrobiology is the study of the chemistry, physics and adaptations that influence the origin, evolution and destiny of life. We intent to raise the conscious level relating relevant biological questions to the formation and development of the universe through space missions and research programs. By linking certain aspects of exobiology, ecology, gravitational biology, and adding efforts in molecular biology, evolutionary biology, and planetary biology and joining this to Astronomy and planetology, we seek a deeper understanding of where the living process fits in to our cosmological theories. We do this through laboratory experiments, space observations, computer modeling, missions and discovery of what appear to be extreme conditions for us, but conditions in which life thrives. NASA has formed an international `virtual' Astrobiology Institute as a nucleus to initiate this consolidating idea. NASA's technology will play a major role in this endeavor.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Astrobiology" included the following reports:The Role of Cometary and Meteoritic Delivery in the Origin and Evolution of Life: Biogeological Evidences Revisited; Hopane Biomarkers Traced from Bedrock to Recent Sediments and Ice at the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island: Implications for the Search for Biomarkers on Mars; and Survival of Organic Matter After High Temperature Events (Meteorite Impacts, Igneous Intrusions).

  12. Second Annual NASA Ames Space Science and Astrobiology Jamboree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    The Space Science and Astrobiology Division's researchers are pursuing investigations in a variety of fields, including exoplanets, planetary science, astrobiology, and astrophysics. In addition division personnel support a wide variety of NASA missions. With a wide variety of interesting research going on, distributed among the three branches in at least 5 buildings, it can be difficult to stay abreast of what one's fellow researchers are doing. Our goal in organizing this symposium is to facilitate communication and collaboration among the scientist within the division and to give center management and other ARC researchers and Engineers an opportunity to see what scientific missions work is being done in the division.

  13. Astrobiology in culture: the search for extraterrestrial life as "science".

    PubMed

    Billings, Linda

    2012-10-01

    This analysis examines the social construction of authority, credibility, and legitimacy for exobiology/astrobiology and, in comparison, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), considering English-language conceptions of these endeavors in scientific culture and popular culture primarily in the United States. The questions that define astrobiology as a scientific endeavor are multidisciplinary in nature, and this endeavor is broadly appealing to public audiences as well as to the scientific community. Thus, it is useful to examine astrobiology in culture-in scientific culture, official culture, and popular culture. A researcher may explore science in culture, science as culture, by analyzing its rhetoric, the primary means that people use to construct their social realities-their cultural environment, as it were. This analysis follows this path, considering scientific and public interest in astrobiology and SETI and focusing on scientific and official constructions of the two endeavors. This analysis will also consider whether and how scientific and public conceptions of astrobiology and SETI, which are related but at the same time separate endeavors, converge or diverge and whether and how these convergences or divergences affect the scientific authority, credibility, and legitimacy of these endeavors. PMID:23078644

  14. Astrobiology Courses--A Useful Framework for Teaching Interdisciplinary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauterer, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Explains astrobiology and indicates the possibility of life on other planets and the interest of humankind in this possibility. Defines topics open to public misconception and their primary reinforcements by television shows. Expresses the need for students to learn the connections between different science majors. (YDS)

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The presentations in this session are: 1. A Prototype Life Detection Chip 2. The Geology of Atlantis Basin, Mars, and Its Astrobiological Interest 3. Collecting Bacteria Together with Aerosols in the Martian Atmosphere by the FOELDIX Experimental Instrument Developed with a Nutrient Detector Pattern: Model Measurements of Effectivity 4. 2D and 3D X-ray Imaging of Microorganisms in Meteorites Using Complexity Analysis to Distinguish Field Images of Stromatoloids from Surrounding Rock Matrix in 3.45 Ga Strelley Pool Chert, Western Australia 4. Characterization of Two Isolates from Andean Lakes in Bolivia Short Time Scale Evolution of Microbiolites in Rapidly Receding Altiplanic Lakes: Learning How to Recognize Changing Signatures of Life 5. The Effect of Salts on Electrospray Ionization of Amino Acids in the Negative Mode 6. Determination of Aromatic Ring Number Using Multi-Channel Deep UV Native Fluorescence 7. Microbial D/H Fractionation in Extraterrestrial Materials: Application to Micrometeorites and Mars 8. Carbon Isotope Characteristics of Spring-fed Iron-precipitating Microbial Mats 9. Amino Acid Survival Under Ambient Martian Surface UV Lighting Extraction of Organic Molecules from Terrestrial Material: Quantitative Yields from Heat and Water Extractions 10. Laboratory Detection and Analysis of Organic Compounds in Rocks Using HPLC and XRD Methods 11. Thermal Decomposition of Siderite-Pyrite Assemblages: Implications for Sulfide Mineralogy in Martian Meteorite ALH84001 Carbonate Globules 12. Determination of the Three-Dimensional Morphology of ALH84001 and Biogenic MV-1 Magnetite: Comparison of Results from Electron Tomography and Classical Transmission Electron Microscopy 13. On the Possibility of a Crypto-Biotic Crust on Mars Based on Northern and Southern Ringed Polar Dune Spots 14. Comparative Planetology of the Terrestrial Inner Planets: Implications for Astrobiology 15. A Possible Europa Exobiology 16. A Possible Biogeochemical Model for Titan

  16. Emphasizing Astrobiology: Highlighting Communication in an Elective Course for Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    The project described here involved the design, implementation, and evaluation of an upper level, undergraduate elective course for science majors. Specific course goals were to help students gain an appreciation of the interdisciplinary nature of astrobiology, understand key ideas in astrobiology, and develop the skills necessary to communicate…

  17. Vanguard: A New Science Mission For Experimental Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, A.; Wynn-Williams, D.; Edwards, H.; Dickensheets, D.; Welch, C.; Curley, A.

    As an alternative to technically and financially problemat ic sample return missions, a rover-mounted laser Raman spectrometer sensitive to biomolecules and their mineral substrata is a promising alternative in the search for evidence of former life on Mars. We presented a new remote in situ analysis package being designed for experimental astrobiology on terrestrial-type planetary surfaces. The science is based on the hypothesis that if life arose on Mars, the selective pressure of solar radiation would have led to the evolution of pigmented systems to harness the energy of sunlight and to protect cells from concurrent UV stress. Microbial communities would have therefore become stratified by the light gradient, and our remote system would penetrate the near-subsurface profile in a vertical transect of horizontal strata in ancient sediments (such as palaeolake beds). The system will include an extensive array of robotic support to translocate and deploy a Raman spectrometer detectors beneath the surface of Mars ­ it will comprise of a base station lander to support communications, a robotic micro-rover to permit well- separated triplicate profiles made by three ground-penetrating moles mounted in a vertical configuration. Each mole will deploy a tether carrying fibre optic cables coupling the Raman spectrometer onboard the rover and the side-scanning sensor head on the mole. The complete system has been named Vanguard, and it represents a close collaboration between a space robotics engineer (Ellery), an astrobiologist (Wynn-Williams), a molecular spectroscopist (Edwards), an opto-electronic technologist (Dickensheets), a spacecraft engineer (Welch) and a robotic vision specialist (Curley). The autonomy requirement for the Vanguard instrument requires that significant scientific competence is imparted to the instrument through an expert system to ensure that quick-look analysis is performed onboard in real-time as the mole penetrates beneath the surface. Onboard

  18. Real Science for Real Science Teachers: Providing Astrobiology Science Content and Contemporary Pedagogy for Today's Educators Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offerdahl, E. G.; Prather, E. E.; Slater, T. F.

    2003-12-01

    As teachers strive to improve the way science is taught in the classroom, many are turning to the interdisciplinary science of astrobiology as a way integrate inquiry effectively in the science classroom. However, it is generally recognized that teachers do not often have easy access to understandable and usable cutting-edge science to enrich their science lessons. Through the generous support of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), middle and high school teachers have the opportunity to learn current and provocative scientific results within the context of astrobiology as well as receive training in pedagogically sound methods of incorporating astrobiology appropriately in the classroom. In Astrobiology for Teachers, a 15-week on-line distance learning course co-sponsored by NAI, the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Professional Development Institute, National Teachers Enhancement Network (NTEN), Montana State University, and the Department of Astronomy at University of Arizona, teachers engage in a virtual classroom facilitated by an integrated teaching team of educators and scientists using a standards-based, inquiry curriculum. The collaborative nature of the course encourages, demonstrates, and enhances a professional exchange among scientists and educators which, in turn, fosters implementation of innovative science teaching in today's classroom.

  19. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  20. Thinking strategically about communications for the space sciences: the case of astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, L.

    2007-12-01

    Ongoing concerns about public understanding of science and scientific literacy, coupled with the growing prominence of science in everyday life, demand that science experts know how to explain the work they do and the value it offers. Public funding of scientific research also argues for communications with the public about it. For research funded by NASA, a statutory requirement is in place to "provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the results thereof." (1958 National Aeronautics and Space Act.) Public interest in space science is substantial, and advances in the field are rapid. Communicating about science is thus an especially important task for researchers working in the space sciences, as well as an obligation for those receiving public funding. This presentation will describe a communication strategy developed for NASA's Astrobiology Program, intended to aid communication among scientists within an expanding and broadly multidisciplinary field as well as communication about science with a range of external audiences. Conceived strategically, communication is an integral element of the overall work of a program or organization. Communication is conceived strategically in the Astrobiology Program. Astrobiology communication strategy offers a way of thinking about communication - an approach to communication, as it were - and provides guidance on methods, messages, tools, and audiences to be considered in implementation. It can help members of the astrobiology community to communicate about their work with experts - in their own fields and in others - and non-experts - employers, funders, policy makers, teachers, students, parents, citizens. It is designed to promote quality, consistency, and continuity in communication endeavors across the astrobiology program and to integrate these endeavors in program planning and activities. Implementation of a communication strategy for the Astrobiology

  1. Astrobiology as an Interdisciplinary Starting Point to Natural Sciences for High-potential Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, J. J.; Firneis, M. G.; Hitzenberger, R.

    2013-09-01

    One of the corner stones of the Research Platform on ExoLife, University of Vienna, Austria is public outreach and education with respect to astrobiology, exoplanets, and planetary sciences. Since 2009 several initiatives have been started by the Research Platform to concentrate the interest of students in and outside the University onto natural sciences. Astrobiology as a very interdisciplinary scientific discipline with questions like "Are we alone in the Universe?," "How unique is Earth as a planet?" or "How did life originate?" will fascinate youngsters and junior scientists (see [1]).

  2. Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Linda

    INTRODUCTION This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. The Astrobiology Program in the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Public interest in astrobiology is great, and advances in the field are rapid. Hence, the Astrobiology Program supports the widest possible dissemination of timely and useful information about scientific discoveries, technology development, new knowledge, and greater understanding produced by its investigators, employing an approach described as strategic communication planning. That is, the Astrobiology Program aims to integrate communication, education, and outreach into all aspects of program planning and execution. The Program encourages all of its investigators to contribute to the ongoing endeavor of informing public audiences about Astrobiology. The ASTEP element of the Astrobiology Program sponsors terrestrial field campaigns to further scientific research and technology development relevant to future solar system exploration missions. ASTEP science investigations are designed to further biological research in terrestrial environments analogous to those found on other planets, past or present. ASTEP sponsors the development of technologies to enable remote searches for, and identification of, life in extreme environments. ASTEP supports systems-level field campaigns designed to demonstrate and validate the science and technology in extreme environments on Earth. This

  3. Astrobiology Outreach and the Nature of Science: The Role of Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Carol; Walter, Malcolm R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is concern in many developed countries that school students are turning away from science. However, students may be choosing not to study science and dismissing the possibility of a scientific career because, in the junior secondary years, they gain a false view of science and the work of scientists. There is a disparity between science as it is portrayed at school and science as it is practiced. This paper describes a study to explore whether engaging in science through astrobiology outreach activities may improve students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and how this may influence their interest in a career in science. The results suggest that the students attending these Mars research–related outreach activities are more interested in science than the average student but are lacking in understanding of aspects of the nature of science. A significant difference was detected between pre- and posttest understandings of some concepts of the nature of science. Key Words: Science education—School science—Creativity—Nature and processes of science—Attitudes—Astrobiology. Astrobiology 12, 1143–1153. PMID:23134090

  4. Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Linda

    INTRODUCTION This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. The Astrobiology Program in the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Public interest in astrobiology is great, and advances in the field are rapid. Hence, the Astrobiology Program supports the widest possible dissemination of timely and useful information about scientific discoveries, technology development, new knowledge, and greater understanding produced by its investigators, employing an approach described as strategic communication planning. That is, the Astrobiology Program aims to integrate communication, education, and outreach into all aspects of program planning and execution. The Program encourages all of its investigators to contribute to the ongoing endeavor of informing public audiences about Astrobiology. The ASTEP element of the Astrobiology Program sponsors terrestrial field campaigns to further scientific research and technology development relevant to future solar system exploration missions. ASTEP science investigations are designed to further biological research in terrestrial environments analogous to those found on other planets, past or present. ASTEP sponsors the development of technologies to enable remote searches for, and identification of, life in extreme environments. ASTEP supports systems-level field campaigns designed to demonstrate and validate the science and technology in extreme environments on Earth. This

  5. SALT Science Conference 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David; Schroeder, Anja

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has seen great changes in the last years following the beginning of full time science operations in 2011. The three first generation instruments, namely the SALTICAM imager, the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) and its multiple modes and finally in 2014, the new High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS), have commissioned it. The SALT community now eagerly anticipate the installation and commissioning of the near-infrared arm of RSS, likely to commence in 2016. The the third "Science with SALT" conference was held at the Stellenbosch Institute of Advanced Study from 1-5 June 2015. The goals of this conference were to: -Present and discuss recent results from SALT observations; -Anticipate scientific programs that will be carried out with new SALT instrumentation such as RSS-NIR; -Provide a scientific environment in which to foster inter-institutional and inter-facility collaborations between scientists at the different SALT partners; -Provide an opportunity for students and postdocs to become more engaged in SALT science and operations; -Encourage the scientific strategic planning that will be necessary to insure an important role for SALT in an era of large astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere such as MeerKAT, the SKA, LSST, and ALMA; -Consider options for future instrumentation and technical development of SALT; and, -Present, discuss, and engage in the SALT Collateral Benefits program led by SAAO. Conference proceedings editors: David Buckley and Anja Schroeder

  6. Exo/Astrobiology in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, André; Horneck, Gerda; Wynn-Williams, David

    2001-08-01

    The question of the chemical origins of life is engraved in the European scientific patrimony as it can be traced back to the pioneer ideas of Charles Darwin, Louis Pasteur, and more recently to Alexander Oparin. During the last decades, the European community of origin of life scientists has organized seven out of the twelve International Conferences on the Origins of Life held since 1957. This community contributed also to enlarge the field of research to the study of life in extreme environments and to the search for extraterrestrial life, i.e. exobiology in its classical definition or astrobiology if one uses a more NASA-inspired terminology. The present paper aims to describe the European science background in exo/astrobiology as well as the project of a European Network of Exo/Astrobiology.

  7. Exo/Astrobiology in Europe.

    PubMed

    Brack, A; Horneck, G; Wynn-Williams, D

    2001-01-01

    The question of the chemical origins of life is engraved in the European scientific patrimony as it can be traced back to the pioneer ideas of Charles Darwin, Louis Pasteur, and more recently to Alexander Oparin. During the last decades, the European community of origin of life scientists has organized seven out of the twelve International Conferences on the Origins of Life held since 1957. This community contributed also to enlarge the field of research to the study of life in extreme environments and to the search for extraterrestrial life, i.e. exobiology in its classical definition or astrobiology if one uses a more NASA-inspired terminology. The present paper aims to describe the European science background in exo/astrobiology as well as the project of a European Network of Exo/Astrobiology. PMID:11599180

  8. Lunar Radio Telescopes: A Staged Approach for Lunar Science, Heliophysics, Astrobiology, Cosmology, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

    2012-01-01

    Observations with radio telescopes address key problems in cosmology, astrobiology, heliophysics, and planetary science including the first light in the Universe (Cosmic Dawn), magnetic fields of extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the lunar ionosphere. The Moon is a unique science platform because it allows access to radio frequencies that do not penetrate the Earth's ionosphere and because its far side is shielded from intense terrestrial emissions. The instrument packages and infrastructure needed for radio telescopes can be transported and deployed as part of Exploration activities, and the resulting science measurements may inform Exploration (e.g., measurements of lunar surface charging). An illustrative roadmap for the staged deployment of lunar radio telescopes

  9. Conference OKs science budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    With the budget process all but complete for next fiscal year, the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration observers were saying that science had not done that badly in Congress, for an election year. NSF got half the budget increase it requested, NASA two-thirds. The Space Station did well, at the expense of environmental and social programs, which are funded by Congress from the same pot of money as NASA and NSF.A House-Senate conference finished work on a $59 billion appropriations bill for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and independent agencies, including EPA, NASA, and NSF, in early August. The House and Senate then quickly passed the measure before their recess; the President is expected to sign it soon. Included in the Fiscal Year 1989 spending bill are $1,885 billion for NSF, a 9.8% increase over FY 1988, and $10.7 billion for NASA, 18.5% more than the year before.

  10. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, Frank R. (Compiler); McCauley, D. (Compiler); Walker, C. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 10-11, 1996 at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the second NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 80 investigations and 69 principal investigators in FY96, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) scheduled for release in late 1996 by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the MSFC microgravity research facilities was held on June 12, 1996. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference and presentations made by various NASA microgravity science managers.

  11. 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald (Editor); Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 25-26, 2002, at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. Organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Physical Sciences Research Division, NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and member institutions under the Cooperative Research in Biology and Materials Science (CORBAMS) agreement, the conference provided a forum to review the current research and activities in materials science, discuss the envisioned long-term goals, highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to the Physical Sciences Research Division, and inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity. An abstracts book was published and distributed at the conference to the approximately 240 people attending, who represented industry, academia, and other NASA Centers. This CD-ROM proceedings is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators in the Microgravity Materials Science program.

  12. Astrobiology Workshop: Leadership in Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, D. (Editor); Briggs, G.; Cohen, M.; Cuzzi, J.; DesMarais, D.; Harper, L.; Morrison, D.; Pohorille, A.

    1996-01-01

    Astrobiology is defined in the 1996 NASA Strategic Plan as 'The study of the living universe.' At NASA's Ames Research Center, this endeavor encompasses the use of space to understand life's origin, evolution, and destiny in the universe. Life's origin refers to understanding the origin of life in the context of the origin and diversity of planetary systems. Life's evolution refers to understanding how living systems have adapted to Earth's changing environment, to the all-pervasive force of gravity, and how they may adapt to environments beyond Earth. Life's destiny refers to making long-term human presence in space a reality, and laying the foundation for understanding and managing changes in Earth's environment. The first Astrobiology Workshop brought together a diverse group of researchers to discuss the following general questions: Where and how are other habitable worlds formed? How does life originate? How have the Earth and its biosphere influenced each other over time? Can terrestrial life be sustained beyond our planet? How can we expand the human presence to Mars? The objectives of the Workshop included: discussing the scope of astrobiology, strengthening existing efforts for the study of life in the universe, identifying new cross-disciplinary programs with the greatest potential for scientific return, and suggesting steps needed to bring this program to reality. Ames has been assigned the lead role for astrobiology by NASA in recognition of its strong history of leadership in multidisciplinary research in the space, Earth, and life sciences and its pioneering work in studies of the living universe. This initial science workshop was established to lay the foundation for what is to become a national effort in astrobiology, with anticipated participation by the university community, other NASA centers, and other agencies. This workshop (the first meeting of its kind ever held) involved life, Earth, and space scientists in a truly interdisciplinary sharing

  13. Essays in the Non-Science Major Astrobiology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Cruz, Noella L.

    2014-06-01

    The non-science major "Life in the Universe" class offers students many opportunities to explore topics such as whether or not to send manned missions to Mars, which jovian moon is a suitable candidate for harboring life, etc. Some of these topics are suited to being offered as projects. At Joliet Junior College, Joliet, IL, we offer this general education class every semester to around 40 students. We expect our students to complete three short essays in a semester, instead of doing one or two large projects. The essays enable students to be engaged more deeply with some aspects of the course than is usually possible in the classroom. Some of our essay topics are based on suggestions in the textbook, others have been developed by us. In this poster, we will report on the essay topics and the attitudes of our Fall 2013 and Spring 2014 students to such essays.

  14. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held July 14-16, 1998 at the Von Braun Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications. It was the third NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 125 investigations and 100 principal investigators in FY98, almost all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement scheduled for release in late 1998 by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the Marshall Space Flight Center microgravity research facilities was held on July 16, 1998. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference.

  15. Inaugural AGU Science Policy Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-01-01

    AGU will present its inaugural Science Policy Conference, 30 April to 3 May 2012, at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, located in downtown Washington, D. C. This conference will bring together leading scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, press, and other stakeholders to discuss natural hazards, natural resources, oceans, and Arctic science and the role these sciences play in serving communities. To bridge the science and policy fields, AGU plans to host this conference every 2 years and focus on the applications of Earth and space sciences to serve local and national communities. "Our nation faces a myriad of challenges such as the sustainability of our natural resources, current and future energy needs, and the ability to mitigate and adapt to natural and manmade hazards," said Michael McPhaden, president of AGU. "It is essential that policies to address these challenges be built on a solid foundation of credible scientific knowledge."

  16. An Evolving Astrobiology Glossary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, K. J.; Dolci, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    One of the resources that evolved from the Bioastronomy 2007 meeting was an online interdisciplinary glossary of terms that might not be universally familiar to researchers in all sub-disciplines feeding into astrobiology. In order to facilitate comprehension of the presentations during the meeting, a database driven web tool for online glossary definitions was developed and participants were invited to contribute prior to the meeting. The glossary was downloaded and included in the conference registration materials for use at the meeting. The glossary web tool is has now been delivered to the NASA Astrobiology Institute so that it can continue to grow as an evolving resource for the astrobiology community.

  17. Make Astrobiology Yours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    In this talk, I will give the AbGradCon attendees an overview of astrobiology activities ongoing at NASA as well as a brief description of the various funding programs and careers that they can pursue. After this, I will present to them the case that the future of the field is theirs to determine, and give input on how to effectively make astrobiology and NASA responsive to the needs of the community. This presentation will leverage my experiences leading various efforts in the early career astrobiology community, where I have served as a conference organizer, primer lead editor, community blogger, and unofficial liaison to NASA headquarters.

  18. Tumbleweed: Wind-propelled Surficial Measurements for Astrobiology and Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Behar, A. E.; Jones, J. A.; Carsey, F.; Coleman, M.; Bearman, G.; Buehler, M.; Boston, P. J.; McKay, C. P.; Rothschild, L.

    2004-01-01

    Tumbleweed is a wind-propelled long-range vehicle based on well-developed and tested technology, instrumented to perform surveys Mars analog environments for habitability and suitable for a variety of missions on Mars. Tumbleweeds are light-weight and relatively inexpensive, making it very attractive for multiple deployments or piggy-backing on a larger mission. Tumbleweeds with rigid structures are also being developed for similar applications. Modeling and testing have shown that a 6 meter diameter Tumbleweed is capable of climbing 25 hills, traveling over 1 meter diameter boulders, and ranging over a thousand kilometers. Tumbleweeds have a potential payload capability of about 10 kilograms with approximately 10-20 Watts of power. Stopping for science investigations can also be accomplished using partial deflation or other braking mechanisms. Surveys for Astrobiology and other applications of tumbleweeds are shown.

  19. Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets: Programmatic Preparations for Europa Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    A new era of planetary exploration - and the investigation of whether life exists or has existed beyond Earth - requires the development of biologically relevant instruments capable of extensive, autonomous operations on and below planetary surfaces. In collaboration with other agencies, NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) Program sponsors investigations focused on exploring the Earth's extreme environments through use of terrestrial field campaigns to develop a sound technical and scientific basis upon which to conduct a search for life or life-related molecules on other planets. The ASTEP Program is a science-driven exploration program exercising new science and operational/technological capabilities to enable this next generation of planetary exploration. One focus of ASTEP has been preparing for future missions to Europa, where the challenges of mass, power, volume are acute in accomplishing remote exploration, ice penetration, and following the lure of potential ocean-bottom features (~100km down!) such as hydrothermal venting. This poster will discuss the advantages of extreme-environment expeditions in preparing for the exploration of other worlds, and review current and future ASTEP-funded activities that contribute to Europa exploration. In addition, future mission concepts for Earth-based Europa exploration that might be proposed to a future ASTEP opportunity will be envisioned.

  20. Astrobiological stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Young, Patrick A; Desch, Steven J; Anbar, Ariel D; Barnes, Rory; Hinkel, Natalie R; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Monga, Nikhil; Pagano, Michael D; Riner, Miriam A; Scannapieco, Evan; Shim, Sang-Heon; Truitt, Amanda

    2014-07-01

    Chemical composition affects virtually all aspects of astrobiology, from stellar astrophysics to molecular biology. We present a synopsis of the research results presented at the "Stellar Stoichiometry" Workshop Without Walls hosted at Arizona State University April 11-12, 2013, under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. The results focus on the measurement of chemical abundances and the effects of composition on processes from stellar to planetary scales. Of particular interest were the scientific connections between processes in these normally disparate fields. Measuring the abundances of elements in stars and giant and terrestrial planets poses substantial difficulties in technique and interpretation. One of the motivations for this conference was the fact that determinations of the abundance of a given element in a single star by different groups can differ by more than their quoted errors. The problems affecting the reliability of abundance estimations and their inherent limitations are discussed. When these problems are taken into consideration, self-consistent surveys of stellar abundances show that there is still substantial variation (factors of ∼ 2) in the ratios of common elements (e.g., C, O, Na, Al, Mg, Si, Ca) important in rock-forming minerals, atmospheres, and biology. We consider how abundance variations arise through injection of supernova nucleosynthesis products into star-forming material and through photoevaporation of protoplanetary disks. The effects of composition on stellar evolution are substantial, and coupled with planetary atmosphere models can result in predicted habitable zone extents that vary by many tens of percent. Variations in the bulk composition of planets can affect rates of radiogenic heating and substantially change the mineralogy of planetary interiors, affecting properties such as convection and energy transport. PMID:25014611

  1. Astrobiological Stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Patrick A.; Desch, Steven J.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Barnes, Rory; Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Monga, Nikhil; Pagano, Michael D.; Riner, Miriam A.; Scannapieco, Evan; Shim, Sang-Heon; Truitt, Amanda

    2014-07-01

    Chemical composition affects virtually all aspects of astrobiology, from stellar astrophysics to molecular biology. We present a synopsis of the research results presented at the "Stellar Stoichiometry" Workshop Without Walls hosted at Arizona State University April 11-12, 2013, under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. The results focus on the measurement of chemical abundances and the effects of composition on processes from stellar to planetary scales. Of particular interest were the scientific connections between processes in these normally disparate fields. Measuring the abundances of elements in stars and giant and terrestrial planets poses substantial difficulties in technique and interpretation. One of the motivations for this conference was the fact that determinations of the abundance of a given element in a single star by different groups can differ by more than their quoted errors. The problems affecting the reliability of abundance estimations and their inherent limitations are discussed. When these problems are taken into consideration, self-consistent surveys of stellar abundances show that there is still substantial variation (factors of ~2) in the ratios of common elements (e.g., C, O, Na, Al, Mg, Si, Ca) important in rock-forming minerals, atmospheres, and biology. We consider how abundance variations arise through injection of supernova nucleosynthesis products into star-forming material and through photoevaporation of protoplanetary disks. The effects of composition on stellar evolution are substantial, and coupled with planetary atmosphere models can result in predicted habitable zone extents that vary by many tens of percent. Variations in the bulk composition of planets can affect rates of radiogenic heating and substantially change the mineralogy of planetary interiors, affecting properties such as convection and energy transport.

  2. Astrobiology as a tool for getting high school students interested in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Meer, B. W.; Alletto, James J.; Bryant, Dudley; Carini, Mike; Elliott, Larry; Gelderman, Richard; Mason, Wayne; McDaniel, Kerrie; McGruder, Charles H.; Rinehart, Claire; Tyler, Rico; Walker, Linda

    2000-12-01

    A workshop was held (10/99) for high school students and teachers on astrobiology. NASA provided support through an IDEAS grant. Out of 63 qualified applicants, 29 were accepted: 22 students (11 minorities) and 7 teachers. The worship was held on 2 successive weekends. Activities included: culturing microbes from human skin, discussing 'what is life?', building and using a 2-inch refractive telescope and a van-Leeuwenhoek- type microscope (each participant built and kept them), listening to lectures by Dr. Richard Gelderman on detecting extra solar planets and by Dr. Richard Hoover on life in extreme environments. Other activities included: collecting samples and isolating micro-organisms from the lost river cave, studying microbial life from extreme environments in the laboratory, using the internet as a research tool and debating the logistics and feasibility of a lunar colony. Written evaluations of the workshop led to the following conclusions: 48% of the students considered a possible career in the biological and/or astrophysical sciences, and half of these stated they were spurred on by the workshop itself.

  3. Summer Research Experiences for Science and Art Teachers to Explore Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, J.; Gaucher, E.; Snell, T.; Greenwood, J.; Angra, A.; Zimmerman, C.; Williams, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosomal Origins and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational program titled, "Life on the Edge: Astrobiology." The purpose of the program was to provide high school educators with the exposure, materials, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with undergraduate students interested in becoming a teacher through the NSF Pre-Teaching REU program. The GIFT and Pre-Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles, which became the focus of a week-long, "Life on the Edge: Astrobiology " summer program developed by three high school educators, two undergraduate students and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. Twenty high school students were introduced to hands-on activities, such as astrobiology inspired art and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact of the Astrobiology program on the GIFT researchers, Pre-Teaching REU students, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

  4. Investigating Changes in Students’ Attitudes Towards Science During an Adaptive Online Astrobiology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Viranga; Buxner, Sanlyn R.; Horodyskyj, Lev; Anbar, Ariel; Semken, Steven; Mead, Chris; Lopatto, David

    2015-11-01

    Online education is an emergent sector of formal education and Arizona State University (ASU) is a leader in offering online courses. One that garners very strong positive feedback on student surveys is Habitable Worlds, which is an interdisciplinary online science course offered every semester since Fall 2011. Primary goals of this course are to teach understanding of scientific reasoning and practices by using principles from trans-disciplinary research in astrobiology. To examine course outcomes we administered the Classroom Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) survey, which has been previously developed to measure student experiences. Here we use the survey for the first time for an online course. The survey was taken before and after completing the course during the Fall 2014 and Spring 2015 semesters (N = 544). Here, we present students’ views of science represented by 22 questions on the survey. For the questions, students responded either "not applicable," "strongly disagree," "disagree," "neutral," "agree," or "strongly agree." In order to interpret the data, we divided the questions into three broader categories for analysis: students’ understanding of the scientific process, students’ scientific self-efficacy and students’ views on science teaching. We study how the sample of students changed their responses to each of the questions as a group by using a paired-samples sign test to gauge the statistical significance of the difference between pre and post responses. We further analyze how individual students changed their responses. For example, we designated a change from “strongly disagree” to “disagree” differently than a change from “agree” to “disagree” since the latter indicated a notable change in the student’s opinion. We found statistically significant changes on 12 of the 22 questions. These early results indicate that there are measurable changes on several identified course objectives. By measuring changes that

  5. Astrobiology in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Astrobiology is a relatively new field of study in science, one that has found a home in the curriculum of many major universities. It is a multidisciplinary field that draws participants from a range of scientific specialties: geology, physics, chemistry, engineering, computer science, and of course biology and astronomy. At the middle level, it…

  6. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  7. Non-Science Major Students' Attitudes towards Group Projects in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Cruz, Noella L.

    2010-05-01

    We teach an astrobiology general education course each semester at Joliet Junior College, IL. Over 40 students enroll in the course each semester at this community college. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of astrobiology and to enable students to explore the course material more deeply, we offer two group projects each semester. One project is related to Mars, while the other deals with extrasolar planets. Students make poster projects which are displayed in the college for all to enjoy. In Fall 09, students were asked for their feedback on these projects. Based on their responses, in Spring 10, small changes were made to the assignments. Spring 10 students will be surveyed to find out how they feel about such projects. We will provide details of the projects and the results of both Fall 09 and Spring 10 surveys. We will attempt to gauge the effect that the minor alterations had on these assignments.

  8. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology: Analogs and Applications to the Search for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Astrobiology: Analogs and Applications to the Search for Life" included the folowing reports:The Search for Life on Mars Using Macroscopically Visible Microbial Mats (Stromatolites) in 3.5/3.3 Ga Cherts from the Pilbara in Australia and Barberton in South Africa as Analogues; Life in a Mars Analog: Microbial Activity Associated with Carbonate Cemented Lava Breccias from NW Spitsbergen; Groundwater-fed Iron-rich Microbial Mats in a Freshwater Creek: Growth Cycles and Fossilization Potential of Microbial Features; Episodic Fossilization of Microorganisms on an Annual Timescale in an Anthropogenically Modified Natural Environment: Geochemical Controls and Implications for Astrobiology; Proterozoic Microfossils and Their Implications for Recognizing Life on Mars; Microbial Alteration of Volcanic Glass in Modern and Ancient Oceanic Crust as a Proxy for Studies of Extraterrestrial Material ; Olivine Alteration on Earth and Mars; Searching for an Acidic Aquifer in the R!o Tinto Basin. First Geobiology Results of MARTE Project; In-Field Testing of Life Detection Instruments and Protocols in a Mars Analogue Arctic Environment; Habitability of the Shallow Subsurface on Mars: Clues from the Meteorites; Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain; Characterization of the Organic Matter in an Archean Chert (Warrawoona, Australia); and The Solfatara Crater, Italy: Characterization of Hydrothermal Deposits, Biosignatures and Their Astrobiological Implication.

  9. The Living Universe: NASA and the Development of Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, Steven J.; Strick, James E.

    2004-01-01

    In the opening weeks of 1998 a news article in the British journal Nature reported that NASA was about to enter biology in a big way. A "virtual" Astrobiology Institute was gearing up for business, and NASA administrator Dan Goldin told his external advisory council that he would like to see spending on the new institute eventually reach $100 million per year. "You just wait for the screaming from the physical scientists (when that happens)," Goldin was quoted as saying. Nevertheless, by the time of the second Astrobiology Science Conference in 2002, attended by seven hundred scientists from many disciplines, NASA spending on astrobiology had reached nearly half that amount and was growing at a steady pace. Under NASA leadership numerous institutions around the world applied the latest scientific techniques in the service of astrobiology's ambitious goal: the study of what NASA's 1996 Strategic Plan termed the "living universe." This goal embraced nothing less than an understanding of the origin, history, and distribution of life in the universe, including Earth. Astrobiology, conceived as a broad interdisciplinary research program, held the prospect of being the science for the twenty-first century which would unlock the secrets to some of the great questions of humanity. It is no surprise that these age-old questions should continue into the twenty-first century. But that the effort should be spearheaded by NASA was not at all obvious to those - inside and outside the agency - who thought NASA's mission was human spaceflight, rather than science, especially biological science. NASA had, in fact, been involved for four decades in "exobiology," a field that embraced many of the same questions but which had stagnated after the 1976 Viking missions to Mars. In this volume we tell the colorful story of the rise of the discipline of exobiology, how and why it morphed into astrobiology at the end of the twentieth century, and why NASA was the engine for both the

  10. Science Applications of a Multispectral Microscopic Imager for the Astrobiological Exploration of Mars

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Jack D.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A.; Blaney, Diana L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73 μm. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars. Key Words: Mars—Microscopic imager—Multispectral imaging

  11. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Material Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in materials science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was

  12. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Bennett, Nancy; McCauley, Dannah; Murphy, Karen; Poindexter, Samantha

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 3 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close

  13. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference %%,its to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance

  14. Astrobiology and other Mars science: how can humans help (and from where)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, John; Conley, Catharine

    2016-07-01

    There are many advocates for the human exploration of Mars who wax poetical when discussing how good it is going to be, but there are only a few who may be willing to write requirements for how much direct human surface exploration on Mars needs to be possible before attempting it is worth the investment, or to compare modes of human exploration to see which one is most cost-efficient for the initial human missions to Mars (assuming that humans working in near-Mars space is a goal in and of itself. For example, the recent MEPAG Scientific Objectives for the Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (MEPAG HSO-SAG) [1] stated that "A defensible evaluation of surface science operations options and candidate scenarios cannot be done at this time - we recommend deferring this to a future team." Alternatively [e.g., 2], there are considerations of the science that can be done from the martian moon Phobos that do not require surface operations on Mars at all, except by robots controlled through low-latency telepresence. The promise of how to deliver better Mars science for the money (and risk) will be discussed in this paper, and some estimates made on how often a human has to step outside on Mars (and step back in) to accomplish more science than a telepresent rover. We will also look at what the estimates of contamination from on-site human explorers can mean to the search for possible indigenous life on Mars. Some [3] say that Mars is already "contaminated" by Earth organisms brought to Mars from Earth through impact-generated bolide exchanges, but (as noted in [4]) that statement suggests that they do not really hold a solid concept of what contamination is, and what it may mean to both our understanding of the pre-human past on Mars, as well as to the preservation of Mars resources for future human inhabitants. Refs. 1. Beaty et al., Candidate scientific objectives for the human exploration of Mars, and implications for the identification of Martian

  15. Math/science education action conference report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    On October 8--10, 1989, the US Department of Energy, the Lawrence Hall of Science, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory sponsored a Math/Science Education Action Conference in Berkeley, California. The conference was co-chaired by Admiral James D. Watkins, Secretary of Energy, and Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg Chairman of the Lawrence Hall of Science. Nearly 250 scientists, educators, business executives, and government leaders came together to develop a concrete plan of action for restructuring and revitalizing mathematics and science education. Their target was to improve education for an entire cohort of children--the Class of 2007, the children born this school year--and their governing principle was one of collaboration, both between Federal agencies, and between public and private sectors. The report of the conference co-chairmen and participants is provided in this document. 41 figs.

  16. IEEE International conference on plasma science: Conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The conference covered the following topics: basic plasma physics; vacuum electronics; gaseous and electrical gas discharges; laser-produced plasma; space plasmas; computational plasma science; plasma diagnostics; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave-plasma interactions; magnetic fusion; MHD; plasma focus; ultrafast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; plasma processing; fast-opening switches; EM and ETH launchers; solid-state plasmas and switches; plasmas for lighting; ball lightning and spherical plasma configurations; and environmental/energy issues. Separate abstracts were prepared for 379 items in this conference.

  17. Integrating Astrobiology Research for Exploration of Icy Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanik, I.; Russell, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this abstract is to facilitate transdisciplinary collaborations across the astrobiology community, with other science communities not currently engaged in astrobiology research in exploration of icy bodies.

  18. Proceedings of the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The sessions in the conference include: Titan, Mars Volcanism, Mars Polar Layered Deposits, Early Solar System Isotopes, SPECIAL SESSION: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: New Ways of Studying the Red Planet, Achondrites: Exploring Oxygen Isotopes and Parent-Body Processes, Solar System Formation and Evolution, SPECIAL SESSION: SMART-1, . Impact Cratering: Observations and Experiments, SPECIAL SESSION: Volcanism and Tectonism on Saturnian Satellites, Solar Nebula Composition, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Asteroid Observations: Spectra, Mostly, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: View from the Surface, Mars Tectonics and Crustal Dichotomy, Stardust: Wild-2 Revealed, Impact Cratering from Observations and Interpretations, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: The Map View, Chondrules and Their Formation, Enceladus, Asteroids and Deep Impact: Structure, Dynamics, and Experiments, Mars Surface Process and Evolution, Martian Meteorites: Nakhlites, Experiments, and the Great Shergottite Age Debate, Stardust: Mainly Mineralogy, Astrobiology, Wind-Surface Interactions on Mars and Earth, Icy Satellite Surfaces, Venus, Lunar Remote Sensing, Space Weathering, and Impact Effects, Interplanetary Dust/Genesis, Mars Cratering: Counts and Catastrophes?, Chondrites: Secondary Processes, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Atmosphere, Soils, Brines, and Minerals, Lunar Interior and Differentiation, Mars Magnetics and Atmosphere: Core to Ionosphere, Metal-rich Chondrites, Organics in Chondrites, Lunar Impacts and Meteorites, Presolar/Solar Grains, Topics for Print Only papers are: Outer Planets/Satellites, Early Solar System, Interplanetary Dust, Comets and Kuiper Belt Objects, Asteroids and Meteoroids, Chondrites, Achondrites, Meteorite Related, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars, Astrobiology, Planetary Differentiation, Impacts, Mercury, Lunar Samples and Modeling, Venus, Missions and Instruments, Global Warming, Education and Public Outreach, Poster sessions are: Asteroids/Kuiper Belt Objects

  19. Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Wendell

    1970-01-01

    Report of a conference called to discuss the findings of 142 scientists from their investigations of samples of lunar rock and soil brought back by the Apollo 11 mission. Significant findings reported include the age and composition of the lunar samples, and the absence of water and organic matter. Much discussed was the origin and structure of…

  20. Science applications of a multispectral microscopic imager for the astrobiological exploration of Mars.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Jorge I; Farmer, Jack D; Sellar, R Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A; Blaney, Diana L

    2014-02-01

    Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73 μm. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars. PMID:24552233

  1. Bridging Science and Policy: The AGU Science Policy Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K.; Landau, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, science has become inextricably linked to the political process. As such, it is more important now than ever for science to forge a better relationship with politics, for the health of both science and society. To help meet this need, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to engage its members, shape policy, and inform society about the excitement of Earth and space science and its role in developing solutions for the sustainability of the planet. In June 2013, AGU held its second annual Science Policy Conference in Washington, D.C. The goal of the conference is to provide a new forum for diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of science policy, with a focus on applications of Earth and space science that serve local, national, and international communities. The meeting brought together more than 300 scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, members of the press, and other stakeholders to discuss the topics concerning the Arctic, climate change, oceans, energy, technology and infrastructure, and natural hazards science as they relate to challenges impacting society. Sessions such as 'The Water-Energy Nexus,' 'Potential for Megadisasters,' 'The Changing Ocean and Impacts on Human Health,' and 'Drowning and Drought: Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change' are examples of some of the intriguing and timely science policy issues addressed at the conference. The findings from the conference were used to develop a summary report. The report highlights key facts and figures to be used as a resource in discussions with policy makers and other stakeholders regarding the conference topics. This presentation will discuss the goals and outcomes of the conference and how the event represents one of the many ways AGU is approaching its 'Science and Society' priority objective as part of the Union's strategic plan; namely by increasing the effectiveness and recognition of AGU among policy makers as an authoritative

  2. The Astrobiology Matrix and the "Drake Matrix" in Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizser, A.; Kereszturi, A.

    2003-01-01

    We organized astrobiology lectures in the Eotvos Lorand University of Sciences and the Polaris Observatory in 2002. We present here the "Drake matrix" for the comparison of the astrobiological potential of different bodies [1], and astrobiology matrix for the visualization of the interdisciplinary connections between different fields of astrobiology. Conclusion: In Hungary it is difficult to integrate astrobiology in the education system but the great advantage is that it can connect different scientific fields and improve the view of students. We would like to get in contact with persons and organizations who already have experience in the education of astrobiology.

  3. International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Jiang, Yiwen

    2014-03-01

    The International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013) took place in Wuhan, P R China from 26-27 October 2013 at the Military Economics Academy. The conference is regularly organized, alternately in Romania and in P R China, by ''Politehnica'' University of Timişoara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P R China, with the aim to serve as a platform for the exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences, and to promote the communication between the scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The conference has been organized for the first time in 15-16 June 2012 at the Engineering Faculty of Hunedoara, Romania. The topics of the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues: Economical sciences Engineering sciences Fundamental sciences Medical sciences The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has applicability potential in economics, defense, medicine, etc. The number of registered participants was nearly 90 from 5 countries. During the two days of the conference 4 invited and 36 oral talks were delivered. A few of the speakers deserve a special mention: Mircea Octavian Popoviciu, Academy of Romanian Scientist — Timişoara Branch, Correlations between mechanical properties and cavitation erosion resistance for stainless steels with 12% chromium and variable contents of nickel; Carmen Eleonora Hărău, ''Politehnica'' University of Timişoara, SWOT analysis of Romania's integration in EU; Ding Hui, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, Design and engineering analysis of material procurement mobile operation platform; Serban Rosu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ''Victor Babeş'' Timişoara, Cervical and facial infections — a real life threat, among others. Based on the work presented at the conference, 14 selected papers are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. These papers

  4. Astrobiology: Future Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Irvine, W. M.; Owen, T.; Becker, L.; Blank, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Colangeli, L.; Derenne, S.; Dutrey, A.; Despois, D.; Lazcano, A.; Robert, F.

    2004-07-01

    Astrobiology, a new exciting interdisciplinary research field, seeks to unravel the origin and evolution of life wherever it might exist in the Universe. The current view of the origin of life on Earth is that it is strongly connected to the origin and evolution of our planet and, indeed, of the Universe as a whole. We are fortunate to be living in an era where centuries of speculation about the two ancient and fundamental problems: the origin of life and its prevalence in the Universe are being replaced by experimental science. The subject of Astrobiology can be approached from many different perspectives. This book is focused on abiogenic organic matter from the viewpoint of astronomy and planetary science and considers its potential relevance to the origins of life on Earth and elsewhere. Guided by the review papers in this book, the concluding chapter aims to identify key questions to motivate future research and stimulate astrobiological applications of current and future research facilities and space missions. Today’s rich array of new spacecraft, telescopes and dedicated scientists promises a steady flow of discoveries and insights that will ultimately lead us to the answers we seek.

  5. Educational Outreach for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadooka, M.; Meech, K.

    2009-12-01

    Astrobiology, the search for life in the universe, has fascinating research areas that can excite students and teachers about science. Its integrative nature, relating to astronomy, geology, oceanography, physics, and chemistry, can be used to encourage students to pursue physical sciences careers. Since 2004, the University of Hawaii NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) team scientists have shared their research with secondary teachers at our ALI’I national teacher program to promote the inclusion of astrobiology topics into science courses. Since 2007, our NAI team has co-sponsored the HI STAR program for Hawaii’s middle and high school students to work on authentic astronomy research projects and to be mentored by astronomers. The students get images of asteroids, comets, stars, and extrasolar planets from the Faulkes Telescope North located at Haleakala Observatories on the island of Maui and owned by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network. They also do real time observing with DeKalb Observatory telescope personally owned by Donn Starkey who willing allows any student access to his telescope. Student project results include awards at the Hawaii State Science Fair and the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. We believe that research experience stimulates these students to select STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) majors upon entering college so a longitudinal study is being done. Plans are underway with California and Hawaii ALI’I teachers cooperating on a joint astronomy classroom project. International collaborations with Brazil, Portugal, and Italy astronomers have begun. We envision joint project between hemispheres and crossing time zones. The establishment of networking teachers, astronomers, students and educator liaisons will be discussed.

  6. The narrative power of astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Linda

    The narrative power of astrobiology: Telling the story of the quest to understand life's origins and the search for evidence of extraterrestrial life INTRODUCTION The story of the origins and evolution of life is a narrative with nearuniversal appeal. The story of life on Earth is meaningful to all people, and the search for life elsewhere is appealing across cultural boundaries. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funds an Astrobiology Program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate that is dedicated to the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Because public interest in astrobiology is great and advances in the field are rapid, the NASA Astrobiology Program aims to integrate communication, education, and outreach into all aspects of program planning and execution. This strategic approach to communication is intended to promote the widest possible dissemination of timely and useful information about scientific discoveries, technology development, new knowledge, and greater understanding produced by the Astrobiology Program. This paper will address how scientists in the field of astrobiology can participate in the telling of an ongoing story of interest to multicultural audiences and why it is important to tell this story. SUMMARY Astrobiology research addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and evolve? Is there life beyond Earth and how can we detect it? What is the future of life on Earth and in the universe? The field of astrobiology is an endeavor that brings together researchers in a broad range of disciplines including Earth and planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, microbiology and evolutionary biology, and cosmochemistry. Goals of the NASA Astrobiology Program range from determining the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond to understanding the emergence of life from cosmic and planetary precursors, the interaction of

  7. Synthetic Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  8. Synthetic Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  9. 78 FR 10180 - Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference AGENCY... public conference entitled ``The FDA/PhUSE Annual Computational Science Symposium.'' The purpose of the conference is to help the broader community align and share experiences to advance computational science....

  10. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  11. Astrobiology in an Urban New York City High School: John Dewey High School's Space Science Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, B.; Dash, H. B.

    2010-04-01

    John Dewey High School's participation in NASA's MESDT and DLN projects and other partnerships provide opportunities for our diverse population, focusing particular attention to under-represented and under-served groups in the field of Space Science.

  12. SIAM Conference on Computational Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    2003-01-01

    The Second SIAM Conference on Computational Science and Engineering was held in San Diego from February 10-12, 2003. Total conference attendance was 553. This is a 23% increase in attendance over the first conference. The focus of this conference was to draw attention to the tremendous range of major computational efforts on large problems in science and engineering, to promote the interdisciplinary culture required to meet these large-scale challenges, and to encourage the training of the next generation of computational scientists. Computational Science & Engineering (CS&E) is now widely accepted, along with theory and experiment, as a crucial third mode of scientific investigation and engineering design. Aerospace, automotive, biological, chemical, semiconductor, and other industrial sectors now rely on simulation for technical decision support. For federal agencies also, CS&E has become an essential support for decisions on resources, transportation, and defense. CS&E is, by nature, interdisciplinary. It grows out of physical applications and it depends on computer architecture, but at its heart are powerful numerical algorithms and sophisticated computer science techniques. From an applied mathematics perspective, much of CS&E has involved analysis, but the future surely includes optimization and design, especially in the presence of uncertainty. Another mathematical frontier is the assimilation of very large data sets through such techniques as adaptive multi-resolution, automated feature search, and low-dimensional parameterization. The themes of the 2003 conference included, but were not limited to: Advanced Discretization Methods; Computational Biology and Bioinformatics; Computational Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Computational Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Computational Electromagnetics; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Computational Medicine and Bioengineering; Computational Physics and Astrophysics; Computational Solid Mechanics and Materials; CS

  13. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, David J.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Benner, Steven A.; Boss, Alan P.; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G.; Farmer, Jack D.; Hedges, S. Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Liskowsky, David R.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Meyer, Michael A.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Trent, Jonathan D.; Turner, William W.; Woolf, Neville J.; Yorke, Harold W.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  14. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, David J; Allamandola, Louis J; Benner, Steven A; Boss, Alan P; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G; Farmer, Jack D; Hedges, S Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M; Knoll, Andrew H; Liskowsky, David R; Meadows, Victoria S; Meyer, Michael A; Pilcher, Carl B; Nealson, Kenneth H; Spormann, Alfred M; Trent, Jonathan D; Turner, William W; Woolf, Neville J; Yorke, Harold W

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning. PMID:14577870

  15. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, David J; Nuth, Joseph A; Allamandola, Louis J; Boss, Alan P; Farmer, Jack D; Hoehler, Tori M; Jakosky, Bruce M; Meadows, Victoria S; Pohorille, Andrew; Runnegar, Bruce; Spormann, Alfred M

    2008-08-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: how does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own Solar System, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority efforts for the next three to five years. These eighteen objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning. PMID:18793098

  16. Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Committee On The Review Of The Nasa Astrobiology Institute, National Research Council

    Astrobiology is a scientific discipline devoted to the study of life in the universe - its origin, evolution, distribution, and future. In 1997, NASA established an Astrobiology program (the NASA Astrobiology Institute - NAI) as a result of a series of new results from solar system exploration and astronomical research in the mid-1990s together with advances in the biological sciences. To help evaluate the NAI, NASA asked the NRC to review progress made by the Institute in developing the field of astrobiology. This book presents an evaluation of NAI's success in meeting its goals for fostering interdisciplinary research, training future astrobiology researchers, providing scientific and technical leadership, exploring new research approaches with information technology, and supporting outreach to K-12 education programs.

  17. Astrobiological polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Neeraj; Jafarpour, Aliakbar; Thaler, Tracey L.; Trebino, Rick; Bommarius, Andreas S.

    2007-09-01

    Chirality is an excellent indicator of life, but naturally occurring terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples nearly always exhibit massive depolarizing light scattering (DLS). This problem bears a striking resemblance to that of developing a chirality-based non-invasive glucose monitor for diabetics. Both applications require a lightweight, compact, efficient, and robust polarimeter that can operate despite significant DLS. So for astrobiological applications, we developed a polarimeter that was inspired from a polarimetry technique previously investigated for non-invasive in-vivo glucose-sensing. Our polarimeter involves continuously rotating the plane of linear polarization of a laser beam to probe a sample with DLS, and analyzing its transmission with a fixed analyzer to obtain a sinusoidal voltage signal. We lock-in detect this signal using a reference signal from an analogous set up without any sample. With milk as a scatterer, we find that this polarimeter detects chirality in the presence of three orders of magnitude more DLS than conventional polarimeters. It can accurately measure 0.1° of polarization rotation in the presence of 15% milk.

  18. Astrobiology and the Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    Four hundred years ago two astronomical world views hung in the balance: the geocentric and the heliocentric. Today astronomy faces a similar choice between two grand world views: a purely physical universe, in which cosmic evolution commonly ends in planets, stars and galaxies, and a biological universe, in which cosmic evolution routinely results in life, mind and intelligence. Astrobiology is the science providing the data to make this critical choice. This 20th century overview shows how we have arrived at the view that cosmic evolution may have resulted in life and intelligence in the universe. It examines how our astronomical world view has changed over the last century, recalls the opinions of astronomical pioneers like Russell, Shapley, and Struve on life in the universe, and shows how planetary science, planetary systems science, origins of life studies and SETI have combined to form a new discipline. Astrobiology now commands \\$50 million in direct funding from NASA, funds 15 Astrobiology Institute members around the country and four affiliates around the world, and seeks to answer one of astronomy's oldest questions. Whether we live in a mostly physical universe, as exemplified in Isaac Asimov's Foundation series, or in a biological universe, as portrayed in Arthur C. Clarke's works, this reality will have profound consequences, no less than the Copernican theory. Astrobiology also looks to the future of life; taking a long-term ``Stapledonian" view, it is possible we may live in a postbiological universe.

  19. National Workshop on Astrobiology: the life science involvement of AAS-I Laben.

    PubMed

    Adami, Giorgio

    2006-12-01

    The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or for automated biosensor based on cell culture Experiment Container for organic systems Experiment Container for small animals Instrumentation based on fluorescent Biosensors Sensors for Life science experiments for Biopan capsule and Space Vehicle Ray Shielding Materials Random Positioning Machine specialisation (Support ground equipment) The biological features of this heritage is at disposal for the exobiology multi science. The involvement of industries, from the beginning of the exobiology projects, allows a cost effective technologies closed loop development between Research Centres, Principal Investigators and industry. PMID:17171428

  20. The narrative power of astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Linda

    The narrative power of astrobiology: Telling the story of the quest to understand life's origins and the search for evidence of extraterrestrial life INTRODUCTION The story of the origins and evolution of life is a narrative with nearuniversal appeal. The story of life on Earth is meaningful to all people, and the search for life elsewhere is appealing across cultural boundaries. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funds an Astrobiology Program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate that is dedicated to the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Because public interest in astrobiology is great and advances in the field are rapid, the NASA Astrobiology Program aims to integrate communication, education, and outreach into all aspects of program planning and execution. This strategic approach to communication is intended to promote the widest possible dissemination of timely and useful information about scientific discoveries, technology development, new knowledge, and greater understanding produced by the Astrobiology Program. This paper will address how scientists in the field of astrobiology can participate in the telling of an ongoing story of interest to multicultural audiences and why it is important to tell this story. SUMMARY Astrobiology research addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and evolve? Is there life beyond Earth and how can we detect it? What is the future of life on Earth and in the universe? The field of astrobiology is an endeavor that brings together researchers in a broad range of disciplines including Earth and planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, microbiology and evolutionary biology, and cosmochemistry. Goals of the NASA Astrobiology Program range from determining the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond to understanding the emergence of life from cosmic and planetary precursors, the interaction of

  1. Capturing Student Interest in Astrobiology through Dilemmas and Paradoxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology is an interdisciplinary science course that combines essential questions from life, physical, and Earth sciences. An effective astrobiology course also capitalizes on students' natural curiosity about social science implications of studying the origin of life and the impact of finding life elsewhere in the universe. (Contains 2…

  2. National Workshop on Astrobiology: The Life Science Involvement of AAS I Laben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Giorgio

    2006-12-01

    The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or

  3. Lower Secondary Students' Views in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Astrobiology is, on a profound level, about whether life exists outside of the planet Earth. The question of existence of life elsewhere in the universe has been of interest to many societies throughout history. Recently, the research area of astrobiology has grown at a fast rate, mainly due to the development of observational methods, and the media is frequently reporting on new research findings. International surveys show that astrobiology questions are among those that interest young people the most. The popularity of astrobiology and the way it captures much science content makes it an interesting area for science teaching. However, there is very little research directly focused upon students' views in astrobiology. The study reported in this paper draws from the answers of 186 Swedish lower secondary students (16 years old) to a questionnaire, with closed and open-ended questions regarding their views of issues in astrobiology. The study was guided by the worldview theory (Cobern 1991; Cobern, Science Education 80(5):579-610, 1996; Cobern, Science and Education 9:219-246, 2000). The results show that even though basic reasoning in astrobiology is known by a majority of the students, there is a considerable number of students, for whom this is not the case. Furthermore, it was found that for all questions, there are students answering in different ways when asked to describe their own view and the view they associate with science researchers. The implications of the study for further research and for the teaching of astrobiology in science class are discussed.

  4. Spring Meeting Preview: Sessions Focus on Astrobiology, Geoneutrinos, and International Science Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-05-01

    New technologies, such as the emerging field of geoneutrino research, and new data sets from the Cassini and Voyager spacecrafts have captured the attention of scientists, prompting them to freshly explore the furthest reaches of their fields, from the Earth's deep interior to the outer solar system and beyond. Several sessions at the 23-26 May 2006 AGU Joint Assembly in Baltimore, Md., will offer a glimpse into these new investigations, while others are devoted to discussing plans for coordinated research efforts during upcoming international science years. One session on ``Geoneutrinos: A New Tool for the Study of the Solid Earth'' (U41F) will take place on Wednesday, 25 May at 8:30 A.M. Geoneutrinos, which are anti-neutrinos produced by the radioactive decay of uranium, thorium, and potassium housed within the Earth, have been detected by Japan's Kamioka Liquid-Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) apparatus. With such information, scientists for the first time can directly estimate the amount of radioactive elements present in different regions of the Earth.

  5. Astrosociological Implications of Astrobiology (Revisited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pass, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Supporters of astrobiology continue to organize the field around formalized associations and organizations under the guise of the so-called ``hard'' sciences (e.g., biology and the related physical/natural sciences). The so-called ``soft'' sciences-including sociology and the other social sciences, the behavioral sciences, and the humanities-remain largely separated from this dynamically growing field. However, as argued in this paper, space exploration involving the search for extraterrestrial life should be viewed as consisting of two interrelated parts (i.e., two sides of the same coin): astrobiology and astrosociology. Together, these two fields broadly combine the two major branches of science as they relate to the relationship between human life and alien life, as appropriate. Moreover, with a formalized system of collaboration, these two complimentary fields would also focus on the implications of their research to human beings as well as their cultures and social structures. By placing the astrosociological implications of astrobiology at a high enough priority, scientists interested in the search for alien life can augment their focus to include the social, cultural, and behavioral implications that were always associated with their work (yet previously overlooked or understated, and too often misunderstood). Recognition of the astrosociological implications expands our perception about alien life by creating a new emphasis on their ramifications to human life on Earth.

  6. Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Astrobiology is a scientific discipline devoted to the study of life in the universe--its origins, evolution, distribution, and future. It brings together the physical and biological sciences to address some of the most fundamental questions of the natural world: How do living systems emerge? How do habitable worlds form and how do they evolve? Does life exist on worlds other than Earth? As an endeavor of tremendous breadth and depth, astrobiology requires interdisciplinary investigation in order to be fully appreciated and examined. As part of a concerted effort to undertake such a challenge, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established in 1998 as an innovative way to develop the field of astrobiology and provide a scientific framework for flight missions. Now that the NAI has been in existence for almost a decade, the time is ripe to assess its achievements. At the request of NASA's Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), the Committee on the Review of the NASA Astrobiology Institute undertook the assignment to determine the progress made by the NAI in developing the field of astrobiology. It must be emphasized that the purpose of this study was not to undertake a review of the scientific accomplishments of NASA's Astrobiology program, in general, or of the NAI, in particular. Rather, the objective of the study is to evaluate the success of the NAI in achieving its stated goals of: 1. Conducting, supporting, and catalyzing collaborative interdisciplinary research; 2. Training the next generation of astrobiology researchers; 3. Providing scientific and technical leadership on astrobiology investigations for current and future space missions; 4. Exploring new approaches, using modern information technology, to conduct interdisciplinary and collaborative research among widely distributed investigators; and 5. Supporting outreach by providing scientific content for use in K-12 education programs, teaching undergraduate classes, and

  7. Astrobiology in Brazil: early history and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Friaça, Amancio C. S.; Lage, Claudia; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Horvath, Jorge E.

    2012-10-01

    This review reports the Brazilian history in astrobiology, as well as the first delineation of a vision of the future development of the field in the country, exploring its abundant biodiversity, highly capable human resources and state-of-the-art facilities, reflecting the last few years of stable governmental investments in science, technology and education, all conditions providing good perspectives on continued and steadily growing funding for astrobiology-related research. Brazil is growing steadily and fast in terms of its worldwide economic power, an effect being reflected in different areas of the Brazilian society, including industry, technology, education, social care and scientific production. In the field of astrobiology, the country has had some important landmarks, more intensely after the First Brazilian Workshop on Astrobiology in 2006. The history of astrobiology in Brazil, however, is not so recent and had its first occurrence in 1958. Since then, researchers carried out many individual initiatives across the country in astrobiology-related fields, resulting in an ever growing and expressive scientific production. The number of publications, including articles and theses, has particularly increased in the last decade, but still counting with the effort of researchers working individually. That scenario started to change in 2009, when a formal group of Brazilian researchers working with astrobiology was organized, aiming at congregating the scientific community interested in the subject and to promote the necessary interactions to achieve a multidisciplinary work, receiving facilities and funding from the University de Sao Paulo and other funding agencies.

  8. PREFACE: International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Jiang, Yiwen

    2015-06-01

    The International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2014) took place in Hunedoara, Romania from 2-4 October 2014 at the Engineering Faculty of Hunedoara. The conference takes place alternately in Romania and in P.R. China and is organized by "Politehnica" University of Timisoara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P.R. China, with the aim to serve as a platform for exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences and to promote the communication between scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The topics of the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues: 1. Economical Sciences 2. Engineering Sciences 3. Fundamental Sciences 4. Medical Sciences The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has the potential for application in economics, defense, medicine, etc. There were nearly 100 registered participants from six countries, and four invited and 56 oral talks were delivered during the two days of the conference. Based on the work presented at the conference, selected papers are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. These papers present new research in the various fields of Materials Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Engineering, and Mathematical Engineering. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering to the scientific community to promote further research in these areas. We sincerely hope that the papers published in this volume will contribute to the advancement of knowledge in their respective fields.

  9. Educating Tomorrow's Science Teachers: STEM ACT Conference Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternheim, Morton M.; Feldman, Allan; Berger, Joseph B.; Zhao, Yijie

    2008-01-01

    This document reports on the findings of an NSF-funded conference (STEM ACT) on the alternative certification of science teachers. The conference explored the issues that have arisen in science education as a result of the proliferation of alternative certification programs in the United States, and to identify the research that needs to be done…

  10. Astrobiology and Society: Building an Interdisciplinary Research Community

    PubMed Central

    Denning, Kathryn; Bertka, Constance M.; Dick, Steven J.; Harrison, Albert A.; Impey, Christopher; Mancinelli, Rocco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper reports recent efforts to gather experts from the humanities and social sciences along with astrobiologists to consider the cultural, societal, and psychological implications of astrobiology research and exploration. We began by convening a workshop to draft a research roadmap on astrobiology's societal implications and later formed a Focus Group on Astrobiology and Society under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI). Just as the Astrobiology Science Roadmap and various astrobiology science focus groups have helped researchers orient and understand their work across disciplinary contexts, our intent was to apply the same approach to examine areas beyond the physical and life sciences and expand interdisciplinary interaction and scholarly understanding. These efforts continue as an experiment in progress, with an open invitation to interested researchers—astrobiologists as well as scholars in the humanities and social sciences—to become involved in research, analysis, and proactive discussions concerning the potential impacts of astrobiology on society as well as the possible impacts of society on progress in astrobiology. Key Words: Astrobiology—Extraterrestrial life—Life detection. Astrobiology 12, 958–965. PMID:23046203

  11. The NASA astrobiology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    2001-01-01

    The new discipline of astrobiology addresses fundamental questions about life in the universe: "Where did we come from?" "Are we alone in the universe?" "What is our future beyond the Earth?" Developing capabilities in biotechnology, informatics, and space exploration provide new tools to address these old questions. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has encouraged this new discipline by organizing workshops and technical meetings, establishing a NASA Astrobiology Institute, providing research funds to individual investigators, ensuring that astrobiology goals are incorporated in NASA flight missions, and initiating a program of public outreach and education. Much of the initial effort by NASA and the research community was focused on determining the technical content of astrobiology. This paper discusses the initial answer to the question "What is astrobiology?" as described in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

  12. Astrobiology - The New Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sik, A.; Simon, T.

    Background In connection with the complex planetology-education in Hungary [1] we have compiled an Astrobiology coursebook - as a base of its teaching in universities and perhaps in secondary schools as well. We tried to collect and assemble in a logical and thematical order the scientific breakthroughs of the last years, that made possible the fast improvement of astrobiology. The followings are a kind of summary of these. Introduction - The ultimate science Astrobiology is a young science, that search for the possibility, forms and places of extraterrestrial life. But it is not SETI, because do not search for intelligent life, just for living organisms, so SETI is a part of astrobiology. and an extremely important statement: we can search for life-forms that similar to terrestrial life in physiology so we can recognize it as life. Astrobiology is one of the most dynamical-developing sciences of the 21st century. To determine its boundaries is difficult because the complex nature of it: astrobiology melt into itself lot of other sciences, like a kind of ultimate science. The fundamental questions are very simple [2]: When, where and how converted the organic matter into life?; How does life evolve in the Universe?; Has it appeared on other planets?; How does it spread in time and space?; and What is the future of terrestrial life? However, trying to find the answers is quite difficult. So an astrobiologist has to be aware of the basics of astronomy, space research, earth and planetary sciences, and life sciences (mainly ecology, genetics, molecular and evolution biology). But it is not enough - the newest results of these at least as important as the basic knowledge. Part I. - Astro 1. Exoplanets 1995 was a particular year in astronomy: we have found the first planet out of the Solar System. Since that time the discovery of exoplanets progress fast: nowdays more than 80 examples are known and just 6 years passed [3]. The detailed analysis of these distant objects

  13. The Astrobiology Field Guide in World Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalice, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    In collaboration with the Australian Centre for Astrobiology (ACA), and NASA Learning Technologies (NLT), and utilizing the powerful visualization capabilities of their "World Wind" software, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) is crafting a prototype "Astrobiology Field Guide" to bring the field experiences and stories of astrobiology science to the public and classrooms around the world. The prototype focuses on one region in particular - The Pilbara in Western Australia. This first Field Guide "hotspot" is an internationally recognized area hosting the best known example of the earliest evidence of life on Earth - a stromatolitic chert precipitation in the 3.45 Ga Warrawoona Group. The goal of the Astrobiology Field Guide is to engage students of all ages with the ongoing field expeditions of today's astrobiologists as they explore the ends of the Earth searching for clues to life's origin, evolution, and distribution in the Universe. The NAI hopes to expand this Field Guide to include many more astrobiologically relevant areas across the globe such as Cuatro Cienegas in Mexico, the Rio Tinto in Spain, Yellowstone National Park in the US, and the Lost City hydrothermal vent field on the mid-Atlantic ridge - and possibly sites on Mars. To that end, we will be conducting feasibility studies and evaluations with informal and formal education contacts. The Astrobiology Field Guide is also serving as a cornerstone to educational materials being developed focused on the Pilbara region for use in classrooms in Australia, the UK, and potentially the US. These materials are being developed by the Australian Centre for Astrobiology, and the ICT Innovations Centre at Macquarie University in Sydney, in collaboration with the NAI and the Centre for Astronomy and Science Education at the University of Glamorgan in the UK.

  14. Astrobiology Undergraduate Education: Students' Knowledge and Perceptions of the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Jamie S.; Drew, Jennifer C.

    2009-04-01

    With the field of astrobiology continually evolving, it has become increasingly important to develop and maintain an educational infrastructure for the next generation of astrobiologists. In addition to developing more courses and programs for students, it is essential to monitor the learning experiences and progress of students taking these astrobiology courses. At the University of Florida, a new pilot course in astrobiology was developed that targeted undergraduate students with a wide range of scientific backgrounds. Pre- and post-course surveys along with knowledge assessments were used to evaluate the students' perceived and actual learning experiences. The class incorporated a hybrid teaching platform that included traditional in-person and distance learning technologies. Results indicate that undergraduate students have little prior knowledge of key astrobiology concepts; however, post-course testing demonstrated significant improvements in the students' comprehension of astrobiology. Improvements were not limited to astrobiology knowledge. Assessments revealed that students developed confidence in science writing as well as reading and understanding astrobiology primary literature. Overall, student knowledge of and attitudes toward astrobiological research dramatically increased during this course, which demonstrates the ongoing need for additional astrobiology education programs as well as periodic evaluations of those programs currently underway. Together, these approaches serve to improve the overall learning experiences and perceptions of future astrobiology researchers.

  15. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  16. Editorial: Special Issue (SI): International Conference on Science Education (ICSE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Zhang, BaoHui

    2014-04-01

    In the context of science education globalization, the International Conference on Science Education was held in Nanjing, China, in October 2012. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for science education researchers from China and from the rest of the world to exchange research ideas and best practices in science education. A call for papers for a special issue of the Journal of Science Education and Technology was made to all conference participants, and a set of six articles was resulted from a standard peer review process. This set of six articles provides a snapshot of research in China and in some other countries, and represents a dialogue between Chinese science education researchers and science education researchers from other countries. We call for more exchange and collaboration in science education between China and the rest of the world.

  17. Titan's astrobiology: some new data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, Francois; Coll, Patrice; Buch, Arnaud; Cloix, Megane; Guan, Yuan Yong; Jerome, Murielle; Poch, Olivier; Ramirez, Sandra I.; Szopa, Cyril; Cottin, Hervé

    be a prime astrobiologically oriented target for future exploration of Saturn's largest satellite. Cassini-Huygens has shown that the chemical composition of Titan's aerosols is similar to that of laboratory Titan's tholins. The behavior of those tholins when sub-mitted to high solar UV radiation has recently been studied in Earth orbit. The results show a slight but complex photodegradation in some cases. Moreover, recent laboratory studies of the interaction between Titan's tholins and simulated Titan's surface strongly suggests that many compounds of biological interest, including amino-acids, could be produced on Titan's surface. These new data will be presented together with a general description of Titan's astrobiological aspects as seen from Cassini-Huygens data. References F. Raulin. Astrobiology and habitability of Titan. Space Science Reviews 135, 37-48 (2008) F. Raulin , C. P. McKay , J. I. Lunine and T. Owen. Titan's Astrobiology. In "Titan from Cassini-Huygens" R. Brown, J-P Lebreton H.Waite Eds, Springer, pp. 215-233 (2009) F. Raulin, K. P. Hand, C. P. McKay and M. Viso. Exobiology and planetary protection. In "Moons of the outer solar system: exchange processes involving the interiors", O. Grasset et al. Eds, Space Science Review, in press (Feb. 2010).

  18. Astrobiology and society: building an interdisciplinary research community.

    PubMed

    Race, Margaret; Denning, Kathryn; Bertka, Constance M; Dick, Steven J; Harrison, Albert A; Impey, Christopher; Mancinelli, Rocco

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports recent efforts to gather experts from the humanities and social sciences along with astrobiologists to consider the cultural, societal, and psychological implications of astrobiology research and exploration. We began by convening a workshop to draft a research roadmap on astrobiology's societal implications and later formed a Focus Group on Astrobiology and Society under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI). Just as the Astrobiology Science Roadmap and various astrobiology science focus groups have helped researchers orient and understand their work across disciplinary contexts, our intent was to apply the same approach to examine areas beyond the physical and life sciences and expand interdisciplinary interaction and scholarly understanding. These efforts continue as an experiment in progress, with an open invitation to interested researchers-astrobiologists as well as scholars in the humanities and social sciences-to become involved in research, analysis, and proactive discussions concerning the potential impacts of astrobiology on society as well as the possible impacts of society on progress in astrobiology. PMID:23046203

  19. Teaching of Astrobiology at UTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    In Fall 2003, the course ``Astrobiology'' has been introduced at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). This course is offered both at the graduate and undergraduate level, and is cross-listed between the Department of Physics, Department of Biology, and Department of Geology. The course is interdisciplinary in nature, encompassing selected topics of astronomy, stellar astrophysics, biochemistry, theoretical, evolutionary, and extremophile biology, geology, planetary science, and atmospheric physics. The outline of the course includes topics such as the nature and definition of life, origin and evolution of life on Earth, the search for life in the solar system, the possibility of life around different types of stars, including multiple stellar systems, stellar habitable zones, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and the Fermi paradox. ``Astrobiology'' is now offered the third time, and has enjoyed a steady increase in popularity. In my presentation, I will discuss the underlying goals, my teaching experience, problems and opportunities, including feed-back from students.

  20. Undergraduate Teaching in the Animal Sciences, Proceedings of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

    The proceedings of a conference which reviewed the content of undergraduate animal science curricula, content of courses in the animal sciences, and methods and materials used in undergraduate teaching in the animal sciences are presented in this bulletin. These individual papers are included: Trends in Animal Agriculture and the Future of…

  1. The astrobiology of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, F.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Hebrard, E.; Israel, G.; Nguyen, M.-J.; Szopa, C.; Gpcos Team

    Titan : • liquid water : permanently as a deep sub-surface ocean, and even episodically on the surface, • organic matter : in the internal structure, from chondritic materials, and in the atmosphere and on the surface, from the atmospheric organic chemistry • and energy : in the atmosphere (solar UV photons, energetic electrons from Saturn magnetosphere and cosmic rays) and, probably, in the environment of the sub-surface ocean (radioactive nuclei in the deep interior and tidal energy dissipation) as also supported by the likely presence of cryovolcanism on the surface Thus, it cannot be excluded that life may have emerged on or in Titan. In spite of the extreme conditions in this environment life may have been able to adapt and to persist. Many data are still expected from the Cassini-Huygens mission and future astrobiological exploration mission of Titan are now under consideration. Nevertheless, Titan already looks like another word, with an active prebiotic-like chemistry, but in the absence of permanent liquid water, on the surface: a natural laboratory for prebiotic-like chemistry. References. Fortes, A.D. (2000), `Exobiological implications of a possible ammonia-water ocean inside Titan', Icarus 146, 444-452 Raulin, F. (2005), `Exo-Astrobiological Aspects of Europa and Titan: From Observations to Speculations', Space Science Review 116 (1-2), 471-496. Nature, (2005), `The Huygens probe on Titan', 8 News & Views, Articles and Letters 438, 756-802 Schulze-Makuch, D., and Grinspoon D.H. (2005), `Biologically enhanced energy and carbon cycling on Titan?',Astrobiology 5, 560-567. 2

  2. PREFACE: Tsukuba International Conference on Materials Science 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijima, Masashi; Ohshima, Kenichi; Kojima, Seiji; Nagasaki, Yukio; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kim, Hee Young; Kadowaki, Kazuo; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Nakamura, Junji; Yamamoto, Yohei; Goto, Hiromasa

    2014-03-01

    Tsukuba International Conference on Materials Science (TICMS) was held from 28th August to 6th September, 2013 for the celebration of 40th year anniversary of the University of Tsukuba. The conference was organized by the Division of Materials Science, in cooperation with the Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, and Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science. The purpose of the conference was to provide a unique forum for researchers and students working in various fields of materials science, which have been progressing so rapidly that no single society could cover. The conference consists of following seven workshops to cover various fields. The organizing committee believed that the conference gave all participants new insights into the widespread development of materials science and enhanced the circulation, among them, of information released at the conference. The organizers are grateful for the financial support from University of Tsukuba. This volume contains 25 selected papers from invited and contributed papers, all of which have been screened on the basis of the standard review process of the program committee. The editors express their thanks to those authors who contributed the papers published in this proceedings, which reflects the scientific value of the conference. Nov. 20, 2013 Seiji Kojima, Prof. Dr. Chair, Division of Materials Science Chair, Doctoral Program in Materials Science TICMS 2013 (http://www.ticonfms.tsukuba.ac.jp/) Workshop list The 13th Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Materials Science Summer School of Biomaterials Science The Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies The 2nd Workshop on THz Radiation from Intrinsic Josephson Junctions The 3rd German-Japan Nanoworkshop TICMS and IWP Joint Workshop on Conjugated Polymers International Workshop on Science and Patents (IWP) 2013

  3. European landscape in astrobiology, results of the AstRoMap consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Rettberg, Petra; Walter, Nicolas; Gomez, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Astrobiology is a multidisciplinary field of research, which encompasses scientists ranging from cosmology, astronomy, planetary sciences, physics, chemistry, geology, paleontology to biology. In order to map the existing astrobiological expertise in Europe a comprehensive community consultation has been performed within the AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping) project that is supported by the European Commission FP7 framework. From this information a data base of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see:

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites includes the following topics: 1) Investigating the Impact of UV Radiation on High-Altitude Shallow Lake Habitats, Life Diversity, and Life Survival Strategies: Clues for Mars' Past Habitability Potential? 2) An Analysis of Potential Photosynthetic Life on Mars; 3) Radiation Inactivation of Bacterial spores on Mars; 4) Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers; 5) Optical Detection of Organic Chemical Biosignatures at Hydrothermal Vents; 6) Signs of Life in Meridiani Planum-What Might Opportunity See (or Miss)? 7) Isolation of PUrines and Pyrimidines from the Murchison Meteorite Using Sublimation; and 8) Relative Amino Acid Composition of CM1 Carbonaceous Chondrites.

  5. Proceedings of the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Sessions with oral presentations include: A SPECIAL SESSION: MESSENGER at Mercury, Mars: Pingos, Polygons, and Other Puzzles, Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Mars: Ice On the Ground and In the Ground, SPECIAL SESSION: Results from Kaguya (SELENE) Mission to the Moon, Outer Planet Satellites: Not Titan, Not Enceladus, SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Science: Past, Present, and Future, Mars: North Pole, South Pole - Structure and Evolution, Refractory Inclusions, Impact Events: Modeling, Experiments, and Observations, Mars Sedimentary Processes from Victoria Crater to the Columbia Hills, Formation and Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites, New Achondrite GRA 06128/GRA 06129 - Origins Unknown, The Science Behind Lunar Missions, Mars Volcanics and Tectonics, From Dust to Planets (Planetary Formation and Planetesimals):When, Where, and Kaboom! Astrobiology: Biosignatures, Impacts, Habitability, Excavating a Comet, Mars Interior Dynamics to Exterior Impacts, Achondrites, Lunar Remote Sensing, Mars Aeolian Processes and Gully Formation Mechanisms, Solar Nebula Shake and Bake: Mixing and Isotopes, Lunar Geophysics, Meteorites from Mars: Shergottite and Nakhlite Invasion, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Chondrules and Chondrule Formation, Lunar Samples: Chronology, Geochemistry, and Petrology, Enceladus, Venus: Resurfacing and Topography (with Pancakes!), Overview of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission, Mars Sulfates, Phyllosilicates, and Their Aqueous Sources, Ordinary and Enstatite Chondrites, Impact Calibration and Effects, Comparative Planetology, Analogs: Environments and Materials, Mars: The Orbital View of Sediments and Aqueous Mineralogy, Planetary Differentiation, Titan, Presolar Grains: Still More Isotopes Out of This World, Poster sessions include: Education and Public Outreach Programs, Early Solar System and Planet Formation, Solar Wind and Genesis, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Carbonaceous

  6. AGU Science Policy Conference: 2012 Recap and 2013 Preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, E. R.; Landau, E. A.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, science has become inextricably linked to the political process. As such, it is more important now than ever for science to forge a better relationship with politics, for the health of both science and society. To help meet this need, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to engage its members, shape policy, and inform society about the excitement of Earth and space science and its role in developing solutions for the sustainability of the planet. In the spring of 2012, AGU held its inaugural Science Policy Conference in Washington, D.C. The goal of this new conference is to ensure diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of Earth and space science policy. The meeting brought together more than 300 scientists, policymakers, industry professionals, members of the press, and other stakeholders to discuss Arctic, oceans, natural resources, and natural hazards science as they relate to challenges impacting society. Sessions such as Hydraulic Fracturing, Mitigation and Resiliency to Severe Weather, Governance and Security in the Arctic, and Ocean Acidification are examples of some of the intriguing science policy issues addressed at the conference. The AGU Science Policy Conference will be an annual spring event in Washington, D.C.

  7. PREFACE: The International Conference on Science of Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Kouji; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    The first international conference on the science of friction in Japan was held at Irago, Aichi on 9-13 September 2007. The conference focused on the elementary process of friction phenomena from the atomic and molecular scale view. Topics covered in the conference are shown below.:

  8. Superlubricity and friction
  9. Electronic and phononic contributions to friction
  10. Friction on the atomic and molecular scales
  11. van der Waals friction and Casimir force
  12. Molecular motor and friction
  13. Friction and adhesion in soft matter systems
  14. Wear and crack on the nanoscale
  15. Theoretical studies on the atomic scale friction and energy dissipation
  16. Friction and chaos
  17. Mechanical properties of nanoscale contacts
  18. Friction of powder
  19. The number of participants in the conference was approximately 100, registered from 11 countries. 48 oral and 29 poster talks were presented at the conference. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 23 papers devoted to the above topics of friction. The successful organization of the conference was made possible by the contribution of the members of the Organizing Committee and International Advisory Committee. The conference was made possible thanks to the financial support from Aichi University of Education and the Taihokogyo Tribology Research Foundation (TTRF), and moreover thanks to the approval societies of The Physical Society of Japan, The Surface Science Society of Japan, The Japanese Society of Tribologists and Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute. The details of the conference are available at http://www.science-of-friction.com . Finally we want to thank the speakers for the high quality of their talks and all participants for coming to Irago, Japan and actively contributing to the conference. Kouji Miura and Hiroshi Matsukawa Editors

  20. How can we teach astrobiology and survive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Telma; Carrapiço, Francisco

    2006-08-01

    Making science was and always will be a continuous challenge; however teaching science is a step forth. A good example is astrobiology. Defined as the scientific study of biological processes on Earth and beyond, it connects research in chemistry, physics, biology, geology, astronomy and planetary sciences. This interconnected scientific network allows us to visualize a new approach of the life's nature and its origins and development on Earth and elsewhere in the universe. With these goals, we wish to look within the nature of life, observing a new paradigm in the construction of the scientific knowledge. Teaching astrobiology is not an easy task. There are several constrains, such as treating and integrating diverse areas of knowledge and teaching a science that embraces so many questions presently unanswered and on which students have so many doubts and wrong pre-instructional beliefs. Another obstacle is the rapidly spreading of Intelligent Design, the new incarnation of creationism, which considers astrobiology as a danger for its policies, dogmas and philosophy. However, the principal barrier for teaching astrobiology is, without doubt, the difficulty to integrate this science in the curricular domain.

  21. Astrobiology: Discovering New Worlds of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Charles C.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2001-01-01

    Emphasizes discoveries at the frontiers of science. Includes an instructional poster illustrating the hydrothermal vent communities on the deep ocean floor. Describes research activities related to the new discipline of astrobiology, a multidisciplinary approach to studying the emergence of life in the universe. Research activities include the…

  22. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessa, V. M.; Nieminen, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The present issue of Physica Scripta contains the Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science. This meeting was held in Tampere, Finland 18-20 August, 1982. The original motivation for the conference was to bring together the various Nordic research groups engaged in surface science and related activities. However, soon after the initial announcement the conference attracted considerable interest also beyond the Nordic area, and it eventually obtained a truly international character: more than half of the 150 participants came from non-Nordic countries. At least to some extent this reflects the high international esteem of surface physics and chemistry in the Nordic area, which hosts some of the strongest research centers in this exciting and important branch of science. The conference provided an opportunity to exchange information in this rapidly moving field, to establish new contacts and strengthen old ones. It showed that there certainly is scope for increased collaboration between various groups, both within the Nordic countries and also more internationally. The opinion was expressed by several participants that this conference was a particularly successful one, both in scientific content and in format. It is the hope of the organizers of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science that this would serve as an incentive to consider having this kind of meetings on a more or less regular basis, as an established event in the Nordic surface science community. The cross-disciplinary nature of surface science is clearly reflected in these proceedings. The topics discussed range from those close to more traditional condensed matter spectroscopy through physical chemistry to biology. The formidable array of sophisticated techniques developed for surface investigations is given ample attention, but nevertheless the proceedings also show the trend towards more problem-oriented instead of technique-oriented emphasis. The proceedings are organized in accordance

  23. PREFACE: International Conference on Applied Sciences 2015 (ICAS2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Jiang, Yiwen

    2016-02-01

    The International Conference on Applied Sciences ICAS2015 took place in Wuhan, China on June 3-5, 2015 at the Military Economics Academy of Wuhan. The conference is regularly organized, alternatively in Romania and in P.R. China, by Politehnica University of Timişoara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P.R. China, with the joint aims to serve as a platform for exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences, and to promote the communication between the scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The topics of the conference cover a comprehensive spectrum of issues from: >Economical Sciences and Defense: Management Sciences, Business Management, Financial Management, Logistics, Human Resources, Crisis Management, Risk Management, Quality Control, Analysis and Prediction, Government Expenditure, Computational Methods in Economics, Military Sciences, National Security, and others... >Fundamental Sciences and Engineering: Interdisciplinary applications of physics, Numerical approximation and analysis, Computational Methods in Engineering, Metallic Materials, Composite Materials, Metal Alloys, Metallurgy, Heat Transfer, Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics, Reliability, Electrical Engineering, Circuits and Systems, Signal Processing, Software Engineering, Data Bases, Modeling and Simulation, and others... The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has applicability potential in Engineering, Economics, Defense, etc. The number of participants was 120 from 11 countries (China, Romania, Taiwan, Korea, Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, USA, Jamaica, and Bosnia and Herzegovina). During the three days of the conference four invited and 67 oral talks were delivered. Based on the work presented at the conference, 38 selected papers have been included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. These papers present new research

  24. Astrobiology: Not Just Little Green Men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, D.

    2004-05-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. This new (or at least newly-named) discipline responds to current opportunities to make significant progress on basic questions such as Where did we come from? Are we alone? Can we live on other planets? Every astronomer knows that these questions are frequently asked by the public, along with questions concerning the origin, dimensions, and ultimate fate of the universe itself. What makes curiosity about life in the universe so interesting is that we have some of the tools today to provide answers. Infrared and microwave telescopes characterize the complex chemistry that accompanies the birth of planetary systems. Concepts of planetary habitability emerge from exploring the extremes of life on Earth. We probe the nature of life itself through genetic and genomic insights into heredity and evolution. Our spacecraft are exploring Mars, Europa, and Titan, with the explicit goal of searching for evidence of life, past or present. And the discovery of exo-planetary systems greatly increases our opportunity to explore the diversity of planets and identify other habitable worlds. In addition to its interest as a research field, astrobiology provides an exciting medium for communicating science to students and the public. The questions studied by astrobiologists resonate with non-scientists. Astrobiology is also a popular subject for general-education college science courses. Its interdisciplinary techniques illustrate different ways of doing research such as exploration science versus hypothesis-driven science, or laboratory studies that are complementary to field work or historical science. All of these aspects make astrobiology a "cool" topic, and it will become even more exciting when we find evidence of life on Mars or discover earthlike planets beyond our solar system. (Supported by the NASA Astrobiology Program)

  25. Visions for a sustainable world: A conference on science, technology and social responsibility. Conference report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This report summarizes the organization, activities, and outcomes of Student Pugwash USA`s 1992 International Conference, Visions for a Sustainable World: A Conference on Science, Technology and Social Responsibility. The conference was held June 14--20, 1992 at Emory University, and brought together 94 students and over 65 experts from industry, academe, and government. The conference addressed issues ranging from global environmental cooperation to the social impacts of the Human Genome Project to minority concerns in the sciences. It provided a valuable forum for talented students and professionals to engage in critical dialogue on many interdisciplinary issues at the juncture of science, technology and society. The conference challenged students -- the world`s future scientists, engineers, and political leaders -- to think broadly about global problems and to devise policy options that are viable and innovative. The success of the conference in stimulating interest, understanding, and enthusiasm about interdisciplinary global issues is clearly evident from both the participants` feedback and their continued involvement in Student Pugwash USA programs. Six working groups met each morning. The working group themes included: environmental challenges for developing countries; energy options: their social and environmental impact; health care in developing countries; changing dynamics of peace and global security; educating for the socially responsible use of technology; ethics and the use of genetic information. The conference was specifically designed to include mechanisms for ensuring its long-term impact. Participants were encouraged to focus on their individual role in helping resolve global issues. This was achieved through each participant`s development of a Personal Plan of Action, a plan which mapped out activities the student could undertake after the conference to continue the dialogue and work towards the resolution of global and local problems.

  26. A unifying concept for astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisson, E. J.

    2003-04-01

    Evolution, broadly construed, has become a powerful unifying concept in much of science - not only in the biological evolution of plants and animals, but also in the physical evolution of stars and planets, and the cultural evolution of society and its many varied products. This paper (1) explores the bulk structure and functioning of open, non-equilibrium, thermodynamic systems relevant to the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology, (2) places the astrobiological landscape into an even larger, cosmological context, (3) defines life, complexity and evolution writ large, (4) claims that life depends ultimately on the expansion of the Universe and the flow of energy derived therefrom and (5) proposes a quantitative metric to characterize the rise of complexity throughout all of natural history. That metric is neither information nor negentropy, for these inveterate yet qualitative terms cannot be quantified, nor even defined, to everyone's satisfaction in today's scientific community. Rather, the newly proposed metric is normalized energy flow, a revision of a long-cherished term - energy - that is physically intuitive, well defined and readily measurable. All ordered systems = from rocky planets and shining stars, to buzzing bees and redwood trees - can be best judged empirically and uniformly by gauging the amount of energy acquired, stored and expressed by those systems. Appeals to anthropism are unnecessary to appreciate the impressive hierarchy of the cosmic evolutionary narrative, including a technological civilization that now embraces an energetics agenda designed to better understand, and perhaps to unify, all the natural sciences.

  27. The Third Annual NASA Science Internet User Working Group Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lev, Brian S. (Editor); Gary, J. Patrick (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Science Internet (NSI) User Support Office (USO) sponsored the Third Annual NSI User Working Group (NSIUWG) Conference March 30 through April 3, 1992, in Greenbelt, MD. Approximately 130 NSI users attended to learn more about the NSI, hear from projects which use NSI, and receive updates about new networking technologies and services. This report contains material relevant to the conference; copies of the agenda, meeting summaries, presentations, and descriptions of exhibitors. Plenary sessions featured a variety of speakers, including NSI project management, scientists, and NSI user project managers whose projects and applications effectively use NSI, and notable citizens of the larger Internet community. The conference also included exhibits of advanced networking applications; tutorials on internetworking, computer security, and networking technologies; and user subgroup meetings on the future direction of the conference, networking, and user services and applications.

  28. PREFACE: 6th European Thermal Sciences Conference (Eurotherm 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Daniel; Le Niliot, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    About EUROTHERM The aim of the EUROTHERM Committee (www.eurothermcommittee.eu) is to promote and foster European cooperation in Thermal Sciences and Heat Transfer by gathering together scientists and engineers working in specialized areas. The Committee consists of members representing and appointed by national bodies in the EU countries. The current President of EUROTHERM is Professor Anton van Steenhoven from the University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). The Committee organizes and coordinates European scientific events such as the EUROTHERM Seminars (about 4 per year) and the European Thermal Sciences Conference (every 4 years). About the conference This sixth in the series of European Thermal Sciences Conferences (www.eurotherm2012.com) took place in France, in the Conference Centre of Poitiers, Futuroscope. We address special thanks to the 225 reviewers, coming from different European countries, who have evaluated these papers. We also thank the scientific committee, consisting of some EUROTHERM Committee members together with other internationally recognized experts. Their role has been to manage the evaluation of abstracts and the papers selection process as co-coordinators for specific topics. This conference is the joint effort of two laboratories: the PPRIME Institute in Poitiers and the IUSTI laboratory in Marseille. It could not be organized without the efficient help of our secretaries and our technician for the IT support. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 180 articles presented at the conference. Professor Daniel PETIT Chairman, PPRIME Poitiers, France Institut P'(UPR CNRS 3346) ENSMA 1 av. Clément Ader - BP40109 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil France daniel.petit@ensma.fr Professor Christophe LE NILIOT Co-chairman, IUSTI Marseille, France Laboratoire IUSTI UMR CNRS 6595 Technopôle de Chateau-Gombert 5, rue Enrico Fermi 13 453 MARSEILLE CEDEX 13 France christophe.leniliot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr

  29. The First International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of articles that have been accepted for presentation at the First International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration. Articles about the geology of the Martian Polar regions were presented, and analogs from Earth's geology were also presented. Presentations also were given about the probable contents of the Martian polar caps

  30. 77 FR 4568 - Annual Computational Science Symposium; Public Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Drug Administration (FDA), in cosponsorship with the Pharmaceutical Users Software Exchange (PhUSE), is announcing a public conference entitled ``The FDA/PhUSE Annual Computational Science Symposium.'' The purpose...-5300. Contact: Chris Decker, U.S. Regional Director, Pharmaceutical Users Software Exchange (PhUSE),...

  31. Astrobiology Research Experience for Undergraduates: An Interdisciplinary REU Program at the SETI Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. B.; Devore, E. K.

    2009-12-01

    The SETI Institute hosts a summer Astrobiology Research Experience for Undergraduates program for highly motivated students interested in astrobiology research. Students work with scientists at the SETI Institute and at the nearby NASA Ames Research Center on projects spanning the field of astrobiology from microbiology to planetary geology to astronomy and astrophysics. Each student is mentored by a scientist for his/her summer research project. As astrobiology is interdisciplinary, the first week includes a seminar series to provide a broad foundation in the field as the students begin their research projects. The 10-week program includes a week-long field trip to the SETI Institute’s Allen Telescope Array, located at the Hat Creek Radio Astronomy Observatory in Northern California, as well as a field experience at hydrothermal systems at nearby Lassen Volcanic National Park. Students also participate in local field trips to places like the California Academy of Sciences and other nearby locations of scientific interest, and attend seminars, lectures, and discussions on astrobiology. Students are also invited to attend events at nearby NASA Ames Research Center, which offers the opportunity to interact with other undergraduate and graduate students participating in NASA summer programs. At the end of the program, students write up and present their research projects, and mentors recommend some projects for submission to a national scientific conference, which the selected students will be funded to attend. The Astrobiology REU program emphasizes three main areas, which are listed in the table along with typical project themes. Each year, specific student research projects are described on the website, and students are asked to select the three that most interest them as a part of their applications. Applications are due in early February. Typically, 10 students apply for each available position. Students have been selected from colleges and universities

  32. International Conference on Materials Science and Technology (ICMST 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Ginson P.

    2015-02-01

    FROM THE CONVENOR'S DESK The Department of Physics, St. Thomas College Pala, is highly privileged to organize an International Conference on Materials Science and Technology (ICMST 2012) during 10-14 June 2012, and as Convenor of the conference it is with legitimate pride and immense gratitude to God that I remember the most enthusiastic responses received for this from scientists all over the world. In a time of tremendous revolutionary changes in Materials Science and Technology, it is quite in keeping with the tradition of a pioneering institute that St. Thomas College is, to have risen to the occasion to make this conference a reality. We have no doubt that this proved to be a historic event, a real breakthrough, not only for us the organizers but also for all the participants. A conference of this kind provides a nonpareil, a distinctly outstanding platform for the scholars, researchers and the scientists to discuss and share ideas with delegates from all over the world. This had been most fruitful to the participants in identifying new collaborations and strengthening existing relations. That experts of diverse disciplines from across the world were sitting under one roof for five days, exchanging views and sharing findings, was a speciality of this conference. The event has evoked excellent responses from all segments of the Materials Science community worldwide. 600 renowned scholars from 28 countries participated in this. We were uniquely honoured to have Prof. C.N.R. Rao, Chairman, Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister of India, to inaugurate this conference. May I take this opportunity to thank all those who have contributed their valuable share, diverse in tone and nature, in the making of this conference. My whole hearted gratitude is due to the international and national members of the advisory committee for their valuable guidance and involvement. I place on record my heartfelt gratitude to our sponsors. I am sure that this conference has

  1. Astrobiological complexity with probabilistic cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Vukotić, Branislav; Ćirković, Milan M

    2012-08-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling the astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous space of the input parameters. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories with "Copernican" choice of input parameters and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches. PMID:22832998

  2. Astrobiological Complexity with Probabilistic Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukotić, Branislav; Ćirković, Milan M.

    2012-08-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling the astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous space of the input parameters. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories with "Copernican" choice of input parameters and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches.

  3. Twenty-Third Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is a collection of papers from the Twenty-Third Lunar and Planetary Science Conference that were chosen for having the greatest potential interest for the general reading public. The presentations avoid jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. Topics covered include electron microscopy studies of a circumstellar rock, the fractal analysis of lava flows, volcanic activity on Venus, the isotopic signature of recent solar wind nitrogen, and the implications of impact crater distribution on Venus.

  4. Second International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that were presented at the Second International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration, August 21-25, 2000. The abstracts of the presentations given are listed. Presentations were given on the advances in technology, data analysis of past and current missions, and new instruments destined for Mars. Particular attention was paid to the polar regions and what they reveal about Mars.

  5. The fourth International Conference on Information Science and Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This book comprises the papers accepted by the fourth International Conference on Information Science and Cloud Computing (ISCC), which was held from 18-19 December, 2015 in Guangzhou, China. It has 70 papers divided into four parts. The first part focuses on Information Theory with 20 papers; the second part emphasizes Machine Learning also containing 21 papers; in the third part, there are 21 papers as well in the area of Control Science; and the last part with 8 papers is dedicated to Cloud Science. Each part can be used as an excellent reference by engineers, researchers and students who need to build a knowledge base of the most current advances and state-of-practice in the topics covered by the ISCC conference. Special thanks go to Professor Deyu Qi, General Chair of ISCC 2015, for his leadership in supervising the organization of the entire conference; Professor Tinghuai Ma, Program Chair, and members of program committee for evaluating all the submissions and ensuring the selection of only the highest quality papers; and the authors for sharing their ideas, results and insights. We sincerely hope that you enjoy reading papers included in this book.

  6. Astrobiology - The New Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sik, A.; Simon, T.

    Background In connection with the complex planetology-education in Hungary [1] we have compiled an Astrobiology coursebook - as a base of its teaching in universities and perhaps in secondary schools as well. We tried to collect and assemble in a logical and thematical order the scientific breakthroughs of the last years, that made possible the fast improvement of astrobiology. The followings are a kind of summary of these. Introduction - The ultimate science Astrobiology is a young science, that search for the possibility, forms and places of extraterrestrial life. But it is not SETI, because do not search for intelligent life, just for living organisms, so SETI is a part of astrobiology. and an extremely important statement: we can search for life-forms that similar to terrestrial life in physiology so we can recognize it as life. Astrobiology is one of the most dynamical-developing sciences of the 21st century. To determine its boundaries is difficult because the complex nature of it: astrobiology melt into itself lot of other sciences, like a kind of ultimate science. The fundamental questions are very simple [2]: When, where and how converted the organic matter into life?; How does life evolve in the Universe?; Has it appeared on other planets?; How does it spread in time and space?; and What is the future of terrestrial life? However, trying to find the answers is quite difficult. So an astrobiologist has to be aware of the basics of astronomy, space research, earth and planetary sciences, and life sciences (mainly ecology, genetics, molecular and evolution biology). But it is not enough - the newest results of these at least as important as the basic knowledge. Part I. - Astro 1. Exoplanets 1995 was a particular year in astronomy: we have found the first planet out of the Solar System. Since that time the discovery of exoplanets progress fast: nowdays more than 80 examples are known and just 6 years passed [3]. The detailed analysis of these distant objects

  7. Cultural Aspects of Astrobiology: A Preliminary Reconnaissance at

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven

    NASA's Astrobiology Roadmap, developed in 1998 by an interdisciplinary team of more than 150 individuals, recognizes ten science goals, 17 more specific science objectives, and four broad principles for the Astrobiology Program. Among the four operating principles, which emphasize multidisciplinarity, planetary stewardship and public outreach, is one that also recognizes broad societal interest for the implications of astrobiology, especially its extraterrestrial life component. Although several meetings ahve been convened in the past decade to discuss the implications of extraterrestrial intelligence, including NASA's own CASETI workshops in 1991-1992, none have surveyed the broader implications of astrobiology as now defined at NASA. In this paper we survey these societal questions raised by astrobiology, and then focus on those related to extraterrestrial life, and in particular how they might differ from SETI concerns already discussed. As we enter the new millennium, the necessity for interdisciplinary studies is increasingly recognized in academia, industry and government. Astrobiology provides an unprecedented opportunity to encourage the unity of knowledge, as recently proposed in E. O. Wilson's book Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. It is incumbent on scientists to support research on the implications of their work, in particular large government-funded scientific projects. The deep insights such study may yield has been amply demonstrated by the Human Genome Project, among others.

  8. An Online Astrobiology Course for Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2002-06-01

    A continuing challenge for scientists is to keep K-12 teachers informed about new scientific developments. Over the past few years, this challenge has increased as new research findings have come from the field of astrobiology. In addition to trying to keep abreast of these new discoveries, K-12 teachers must also face the demands of the content and pedagogical goals imposed by state and national science education standards. Furthermore, many teachers lack the scientific content knowledge or training in current teaching methods to create their own activities or to implement appropriately new teaching materials designed to meet the standards. There is a clear need for special courses designed to increase the scientific knowledge of K-12 science teachers. In response to this need, the authors developed a suite of innovative, classroom-ready lessons for grades 5-12 that emphasize an active engagement instructional strategy and focus on the recent discoveries in the field of astrobiology. They further created a graduate-level, Internet-based distance-learning course for teachers to help them become familiar with these astrobiology concepts and to gain firsthand experience with the National Science Education Standards-based instructional strategies.

  9. Science Education Future. Proceedings of the Arctic Science Conference (39th, Fairbanks, Alaska, October 7-10, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Fairbanks, AK. Arctic Div.

    This catalog includes abstracts of each of the papers delivered at the Arctic Science Conference. The conference was divided into the following symposia: (1) "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"; (2) "An Update of Alaskan Science and Discovery"; (3) "Science Education for the Public"; (4) "Hubbard Glacier, Russell Fjord and Situk River Studies";…

  10. Astrobiology: The Case for Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    The scientific discipline of astrobiology addresses one of the most fundamental unanswered questions of science: are we alone? Is there life elsewhere in the universe, or is life unique to Earth? The field of astrobiology includes the study of the chemical precursors for life in the solar system; it also includes the search for both presently existing life and fossil signs of previously existing life elsewhere in our own solar system, as well as the search for life outside the solar system. Two of the promising environments within the solar system being currently considered are the surface of the planet Mars, and the hypothesized oceans underneath the ice covering the moon Europa. Both of these environments differ in several key ways from the environments where life is found on Earth; the Mars environment in most places too cold and at too low pressure for liquid water to be stable, and the sub-ice environment of Europa lacking an abundance of free energy in the form of sunlight. The only place in the solar system where we know that life exists today is the Earth. To look for life elsewhere in the solar system, one promising search strategy would be to find and study the environment in the solar system with conditions that are most similar to the environmental conditions where life thrives on the Earth. Specifically, we would like to study a location in the solar system with atmospheric pressure near one bar; temperature in the range where water is liquid, 0 to 100 C; abundant solar energy; and with the primary materials required for life, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, present. Other than the surface of the Earth, the only other place where these conditions exist is the atmosphere of Venus, at an altitude of about fifty kilometers above the surface.

  11. Robots for Astrobiology!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, Penelope J.

    2016-01-01

    The search for life and its study is known as astrobiology. Conducting that search on other planets in our Solar System is a major goal of NASA and other space agencies, and a driving passion of the community of scientists and engineers around the world. We practice for that search in many ways, from exploring and studying extreme environments on Earth, to developing robots to go to other planets and help us look for any possible life that may be there or may have been there in the past. The unique challenges of space exploration make collaborations between robots and humans essential. The products of those collaborations will be novel and driven by the features of wholly new environments. For space and planetary environments that are intolerable for humans or where humans present an unacceptable risk to possible biologically sensitive sites, autonomous robots or telepresence offer excellent choices. The search for life signs on Mars fits within this category, especially in advance of human landed missions there, but also as assistants and tools once humans reach the Red Planet. For planetary destinations where we do not envision humans ever going in person, like bitterly cold icy moons, or ocean worlds with thick ice roofs that essentially make them planetary-sized ice caves, we will rely on robots alone to visit those environments for us and enable us to explore and understand any life that we may find there. Current generation robots are not quite ready for some of the tasks that we need them to do, so there are many opportunities for roboticists of the future to advance novel types of mobility, autonomy, and bio-inspired robotic designs to help us accomplish our astrobiological goals. We see an exciting partnership between robotics and astrobiology continually strengthening as we jointly pursue the quest to find extraterrestrial life.

  12. The Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms (ASC) curriculum: focusing upon diverse students and teachers.

    PubMed

    Arino de la Rubia, Leigh S

    2012-09-01

    The Minority Institution Astrobiology Collaborative (MIAC) began working with the NASA Goddard Center for Astrobiology in 2003 to develop curriculum materials for high school chemistry and Earth science classes based on astrobiology concepts. The Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms (ASC) modules emphasize interdisciplinary connections in astronomy, biology, chemistry, geoscience, physics, mathematics, and ethics through hands-on activities that address national educational standards. Field-testing of the Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms materials occurred over three years in eight U.S. locations, each with populations that are underrepresented in the career fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Analysis of the educational research upon the high school students participating in the ASC project showed statistically significant increases in students' perceived knowledge and science reasoning. The curriculum is in its final stages, preparing for review to become a NASA educational product. PMID:22984874

  13. Research in Computational Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, Galina; Colombano, Silvano; Scargle, Jeff; New, Michael H.; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on several projects in the field of computational astrobiology, which is devoted to advancing our understanding of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Universe using theoretical and computational tools. Research projects included modifying existing computer simulation codes to use efficient, multiple time step algorithms, statistical methods for analysis of astrophysical data via optimal partitioning methods, electronic structure calculations on water-nuclei acid complexes, incorporation of structural information into genomic sequence analysis methods and calculations of shock-induced formation of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds.

  14. South Australian Science Teachers Association Conference and Science Fair, Salisbury Teachers College, July 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The major papers presented at the 1971 conference of the South Australian Science Teachers Association are included in this pamphlet. Scientists from industry, research institutions, and the police forensic laboratory, and practicing teachers presented papers which included descriptions of modern scientific techniques, discussions of the role of…

  15. Physiology and applied sciences in Nepal: 1st annual conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of medical schools in Nepal, there is an expected increase in the number of Nepalese physiologists. The first medical school was established in the 1970s. We report here about the first annual conference of Nepalese physiologists on 27-28 September 2013 organized by the Department of Clinical Physiology of the Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences (NAIHS) and Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences (KUMS). Nepalese physiologists are trying to form their own physiological society. In this regard, NAIHS and KUMS have played an important role to bring physiologists from different parts of Nepal involved in teaching, learning, and research activities in medical schools. There were a number of foreign invitees (India, Israel, Italy, Japan, and Sweden). There were plenary presentations on the topics that are relevant in Nepal, e.g., high-altitude physiology and wilderness medicine. The final session of the conference was an open session meeting of Nepalese physiologists. There was an open interaction about establishing Nepalese Physiological Society. After much deliberation, there was an agreement to register the society in Kathmandu with the current ad hoc committee which will elect the first executive body of the society. PMID:24580838

  16. Conference Model: Guidelines...for Science Supervisors on How to Conduct a Successful Leadership Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBlasi, Robert V.

    Guidelines of a four-phase model for conducting leadership conferences are outlined. Phase I focuses on initial conference planning, including (1) identifying need and purpose for the conference; (2) selecting a conference chairperson; (3) forming the conference planning committee, listing suggested committees and their responsibilities (program,…

  17. Lunar astrobiology: a review and suggested laboratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Gronstal, Aaron; Cockell, Charles S; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Bittner, Tobias; Clacey, Erik; Clark, Olathe; Ingold, Olivier; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Wathiong, Steven

    2007-10-01

    In October of 2005, the European Space Agency (ESA) and Alcatel Alenia Spazio released a "call to academia for innovative concepts and technologies for lunar exploration." In recent years, interest in lunar exploration has increased in numerous space programs around the globe, and the purpose of our study, in response to the ESA call, was to draw on the expertise of researchers and university students to examine science questions and technologies that could support human astrobiology activity on the Moon. In this mini review, we discuss astrobiology science questions of importance for a human presence on the surface of the Moon and we provide a summary of key instrumentation requirements to support a lunar astrobiology laboratory. PMID:17963476

  18. Astrobiological Studies Plan at UCSD and the University of Buckingham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-10-01

    A UC-HBCU grant is requested to assist undergraduate and masters level HBCU Interns to achieve their professional and academic goals by attending summer school classes at UCSD along with graduate students in the UCSD Astrobiology Studies program, and by also attending a NASA sponsored scientific meeting in San Diego on Astrobiology organized by NASA scientist Richard Hoover (the 14th in a sequence). Hoover has recently published a paper in the Journal of Cosmology claiming extraterrestrial life fossils in three meteorites. Students will attend a workshop to prepare research publications on Astrobiological Science for the Journal of Cosmology or equivalent refereed journal, mentored by UCSD faculty and graduate students as co-authors and referees, all committed to the several months of communication usually required to complete a publishable paper. The program is intended to provide pathways to graduate admissions in the broad range of science and engineering fields, and by exposure to fundamental science and engineering disciplines needed by Astrobiologists. A three year UC-HBCU Astrobiological Studies program is proposed: 2011, 2012 and 2013. Interns would be eligible to enter this program when they become advanced graduate students. A center of excellence in astrobiology is planned for UCSD similar to that Directed by Professor Wickramasinghe for many years with Fred Hoyle at Cardiff University, http://www.astrobiology.cf.ac.uk /chandra1.html. Professor Wickramasinghe's CV is attached as Appendix 1. Figures A2-1,2 of Appendix 2 compare Astrobiology timelines of modern fluid mechanical and astrobiological models of Gibson/Wickramasinghe/Schild of the Journal of Cosmology with standard NASA- CDMHC models. NASA support will be sought to support research and educational aspects of both initiatives. Overload teaching of up to two courses a year by UCSD faculty of key astrobiology courses at either UCSD or at HBCU campuses is authorized by recent guidelines of UCSD

  19. Proceedings of the Plutonium Futures ? The Science 2006 Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M; Hobart, D; Allan, P; Jarvinen, G

    2007-07-12

    Plutonium Futures--The Science 2006 provided opportunities to examine present knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of plutonium and other actinides in complex media and materials; to discuss the current and emerging science (chemistry, physics, materials science, nuclear science, and environmental effects) of plutonium and actinides relevant to enhancing global nuclear security; and to exchange ideas. This international conference also provided a forum for illustrating and enhancing capabilities and interests, and assessing issues in these areas. U.S. and international scientists, engineers, faculty, and students from universities, national laboratories, and DOE's nuclear complex were encouraged to participate and make technical contributions. The Conference ran from Sunday, July 9th through Thursday, July 13th. A popular aspect of the conference was the opening tutorial session on Sunday afternoon intended for students and scientists new to the area of plutonium research. The tutorial was well attended by novices and veterans alike, and featured such diverse topics as; plutonium metallurgy, plutonium in the environment, and international arms control and nonproliferation. Two plenary lectures began each morning and each afternoon session and highlighted the breakout sessions on coordination/organometallic chemistry, solid-state physics, environmental chemistry, materials science, separations and reprocessing, advanced fuels and waste forms, phase transformations, solution and gas-phase chemistry, compounds and complexes, electronic structure and physical properties, and more. Chemistry Highlights--Among the many chemistry highlights presented in this proceedings are the overview of concepts and philosophies on inert nuclear fuel matrices and concerns about the ever-increasing amounts of minor actinides and plutonium generated in the fuel cycle. The various ideas involve multiple reduction schemes for these materials, suggesting fuels for 'burning' or

  20. An Introduction to Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, Iain; Sephton, Mark A.

    2004-05-01

    Compiled by a team of experts, this textbook has been designed for elementary university courses in astrobiology. It begins with an examination of how life may have arisen on Earth and then reviews the evidence for possible life on Mars, Europa and Titan. The potential for life in exoplanetary systems and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence are also discussed. The text contains numerous useful learning features such as boxed summaries, student exercises with full solutions, and a glossary of terms. It is also supported by a website hosting further teaching materials. Written in an accessible style that avoids complex mathematics, this book is suitable for self-study and will appeal to amateur enthusiasts as well as undergraduate students. It contains numerous helpful learning features such as boxed summaries, student exercises with full solutions, and a glossary of terms. The book is also supported by a webstite hosting further teaching materials.

  1. Research in Computational Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, Galina; Jaffe, Richard; Liang, Shoudan; New, Michael H.; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    We present results from several projects in the new field of computational astrobiology, which is devoted to advancing our understanding of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Universe using theoretical and computational tools. We have developed a procedure for calculating long-range effects in molecular dynamics using a plane wave expansion of the electrostatic potential. This method is expected to be highly efficient for simulating biological systems on massively parallel supercomputers. We have perform genomics analysis on a family of actin binding proteins. We have performed quantum mechanical calculations on carbon nanotubes and nucleic acids, which simulations will allow us to investigate possible sources of organic material on the early earth. Finally, we have developed a model of protobiological chemistry using neural networks.

  2. Astrobiology of Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Wallis, Max K.; Sheldon, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    We review the current state of knowledge concerning microbial extremophiles and comets and the potential significance of comets to Astrobiology. We model the thermal history of a cometary body, regarded as an assemblage of boulders, dust, ices and organics, as it approaches a perihelion distance of - IAU. The transfer of incident energy from sunlight into the interior leads to the melting of near surface ices, some under stable porous crust, providing possible habitats for a wide range of microorganisms. We provide data concerning new evidence for indigenous microfossils in CI meteorites, which may be the remains of extinct cometary cores. We discuss the dominant microbial communities of polar sea-ice, Antarctic ice sheet, and cryoconite environments as possible analogs for microbial ecosystems that may grow in sub-crustal pools or in ice/water films in comets.

  3. From Astrochemistry to Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe how infrared spectroscopic studies of interstellar space, combined with laboratory simulations of interstellar ice chemistry, have revealed the widespread presence of interstellar PAHs and the composition of interstellar ices, the building blocks of comets. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the photochemical evolution of these materials and astrobiology. Within a molecular cloud, and especially the presolar nebula, materials frozen into the ices are photoprocessed by ultraviolet light and produce more complex molecules. As these materials are the building blocks of comets and related to carbonaceous micrometeorites, they are likely to have been important sources of complex materials delivered to the early Earth and their composition may be related to the origin of life.

  4. Using Twitter to communicate conservation science from a professional conference.

    PubMed

    Bombaci, Sara P; Farr, Cooper M; Gallo, H Travis; Mangan, Anna M; Stinson, Lani T; Kaushik, Monica; Pejchar, Liba

    2016-02-01

    Scientists are increasingly using Twitter as a tool for communicating science. Twitter can promote scholarly discussion, disseminate research rapidly, and extend and diversify the scope of audiences reached. However, scientists also caution that if Twitter does not accurately convey science due to the inherent brevity of this media, misinformation could cascade quickly through social media. Data on whether Twitter effectively communicates conservation science and the types of user groups receiving these tweets are lacking. To address these knowledge gaps, we examined live tweeting as a means of communicating conservation science at the 2013 International Congress for Conservation Biology (ICCB). We quantified and compared the user groups sending and reading live tweets. We also surveyed presenters to determine their intended audiences, which we compared with the actual audiences reached through live tweeting. We also asked presenters how effectively tweets conveyed their research findings. Twitter reached 14 more professional audience categories relative to those attending and live tweeting at ICCB. However, the groups often reached through live tweeting were not the presenters' intended audiences. Policy makers and government and non-governmental organizations were rarely reached (0%, 4%, and 6% of audience, respectively), despite the intent of the presenters. Plenary talks were tweeted about 6.9 times more than all other oral or poster presentations combined. Over half the presenters believed the tweets about their talks were effective. Ineffective tweets were perceived as vague or missing the presenters' main message. We recommend that presenters who want their science to be communicated accurately and broadly through Twitter should provide Twitter-friendly summaries that incorporate relevant hashtags and usernames. Our results suggest that Twitter can be used to effectively communicate speakers' findings to diverse audiences beyond conference walls. PMID

  5. Conference focuses on challenges, opportunities in key Earth science and policy topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, Elizabeth; Hankin, Erik; Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-07-01

    In our rapidly changing world, integrating Earth and space science into policy is vital to supporting our economy, public safety, and national security. One way in which AGU is striving to bridge the science and policy fields is through discussions and collaborations at the AGU Science Policy Conference. This inaugural conference, held in May 2012 in Washington, D. C., featured experts from government, industry, academia, and nonprofits. The goal of this new conference is to ensure diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of science policy, with a focus on applications of Earth and space science that serve local, national, and international communities.

  6. Multispectral Microimager for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellar, R. Glenn; Farmer, Jack D.; Kieta, Andrew; Huang, Julie

    2006-01-01

    A primary goal of the astrobiology program is the search for fossil records. The astrobiology exploration strategy calls for the location and return of samples indicative of environments conducive to life, and that best capture and preserve biomarkers. Successfully returning samples from environments conducive to life requires two primary capabilities: (1) in situ mapping of the mineralogy in order to determine whether the desired minerals are present; and (2) nondestructive screening of samples for additional in-situ testing and/or selection for return to laboratories for more in-depth examination. Two of the most powerful identification techniques are micro-imaging and visible/infrared spectroscopy. The design and test results are presented from a compact rugged instrument that combines micro-imaging and spectroscopic capability to provide in-situ analysis, mapping, and sample screening capabilities. Accurate reflectance spectra should be a measure of reflectance as a function of wavelength only. Other compact multispectral microimagers use separate LEDs (light-emitting diodes) for each wavelength and therefore vary the angles of illumination when changing wavelengths. When observing a specularly-reflecting sample, this produces grossly inaccurate spectra due to the variation in the angle of illumination. An advanced design and test results are presented for a multispectral microimager which demonstrates two key advances relative to previous LED-based microimagers: (i) acquisition of actual reflectance spectra in which the flux is a function of wavelength only, rather than a function of both wavelength and illumination geometry; and (ii) increase in the number of spectral bands to eight bands covering a spectral range of 468 to 975 nm.

  7. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts: 1996 IEEE international conference on plasma science

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This meeting covered the following topics: space plasmas; non-equilibrium plasma processing; computer simulation of vacuum power tubes; vacuum microelectronics; microwave systems; basic phenomena in partially ionized gases -- gaseous electronics, electrical discharges; ball lightning/spherical plasma configuration; plasma diagnostics; plasmas for lighting; dense plasma focus; intense ion and electron beams; plasma, ion, and electron sources; flat panel displays; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; thermal plasma processing; computational plasma physics; magnetic confinement fusion; microwave-plasma interactions; space plasma engineering; EM and ETH launchers; fast wave devices; intense beam microwaves; slow wave devices; space plasma measurements; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasma -- waves, instabilities, plasma theory, etc; plasma closing switches; fast opening switches; and laser-produced plasma. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this conference.

  8. The 26th IEEE international conference on plasma science

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    Some of the sessions covered by this conference are: Basic Processes in Fully and Partially Ionized Plasmas; Slow Wave Devices; Laser-Produced Plasma; Non-Equilibrium Plasma Processing; Space Plasmas and Partially Ionized Gases; Microwave Plasmas; Inertial Confinement Fusion; Plasma Diagnostics; Computational Plasma Physics; Microwave Systems; Laser Produced Plasmas and Dense Plasma Focus; Intense Electron and Ion Beams; Fast Wave Devices; Spherical Configurations and Ball Lightning; Thermal Plasma Chemistry and Processing and Environmental Issues in Plasma Science; Plasma, Ion, and Electron Sources; Fast Wave Devices and Intense Beams; Fast Z-pinches and X-ray Lasers; Plasma Opening Switches; Plasma for Lighting; Intense Beams; Vacuum Microwaves; Magnetic Fusion Energy; and Plasma Thrusters and Arcs. Separate abstracts were prepared for some of the papers in this volume.

  9. EDUCATION FOR HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARIANSHIP, PROCEEDINGS OF AN INVITATIONAL CONFERENCE (SEATTLE, SEPTEMBER 10-12, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIEBERMAN, IRVING

    MEDICAL LIBRARIANS, HEALTH SCIENCE FACULTY, AND SPECIALISTS IN RELATED AREAS WERE PARTICIPANTS IN A CONFERENCE HELD TO EXAMINE THE NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR HEALTH SCIENCE LIBRARIANSHIP AND DEVELOP SUGGESTIONS FOR APPROPRIATE LIBRARY SCHOOL PROGRAMS. THIS REPORT CONTAINS THE COMPLETE TEXTS OF WORKING PAPERS PREPARED FOR THE CONFERENCE AND MAJOR…

  10. The Lassen Astrobiology Intern Program - Concept, Implementation and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Dueck, S. L.; Davis, H. B.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kubo, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The program goal was to provide a hands-on astrobiology learning experience to high school students by introducing astrobiology and providing opportunities to conduct field and lab research with NASA scientists. The program sought to increase interest in interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, math and related careers. Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP), Red Bluff High School and the Ames Team of the NASA Astrobiology Institute led the program. LVNP was selected because it shares aspects of volcanism with Mars and it hosts thermal springs with microbial mat communities. Students documented volcanic deposits, springs and microbial mats. They analyzed waters and sampled rocks, water and microorganisms. They cultured microorganisms and studied chemical reactions between rocks and simulated spring waters. Each student prepared a report to present data and discuss relationships between volcanic rocks and gases, spring waters and microbial mats. At a "graduation" event the students presented their findings to the Red Bluff community. They visited Ames Research Center to tour the facilities and learn about science and technology careers. To evaluate program impact, surveys were given to students after lectures, labs, fieldwork and discussions with Ames scientists. Students' work was scored using rubrics (labs, progress reports, final report, presentation). Students took pre/post tests on core astrobiology concepts. Parents, teachers, rangers, Ames staff and students completed end-of-year surveys on program impact. Several outcomes were documented. Students had a unique and highly valued learning experience with NASA scientists. They understood what scientists do through authentic scientific work, and what scientists are like as individuals. Students became knowledgeable about astrobiology and how it can be pursued in the lab and in the field. The students' interest increased markedly in astrobiology, interdisciplinary studies and science generally.

  11. Astrobiology, Evolution, and Society: Public Engagement Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertka, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    It is unavoidable that the science of astrobiology will intersect with, and inevitably challenge, many deeply held beliefs. Exploration possibilities, particularly those that may include the discovery of extraterrestrial life, will continue to challenge us to reconsider our views of nature and our connection to the rest of the universe. As a scientific discipline, astrobiology works from the assumption that the origin and evolution of life can be accounted for by natural processes, that life could emerge naturally from the physical materials that make up the terrestrial planets. The search for life on other terrestrial planets is focused on “life as we know it.” The only life we currently know of is the life found on Earth, and for the scientific community the shared common ancestry of all Earth life, and its astounding diversity, is explained by the theory of evolution. The work of astrobiology, at its very core, is fueled by the theory of evolution. However, a survey by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (2005) revealed that 42% of US adults believe that “life has existed in its present form since the beginning of time”. This answer persists nearly 150 years after the publication of Charles Darwin’s "On the Origin of the Species", the landmark work in which Darwin proposed that living things share common ancestors and have “descended with modification” from these ancestors through a process of natural selection . Perhaps even more distressing is the fact that these numbers have not changed in decades, despite the astounding advancements in science that have resulted over this same time period. How will these facts bear on the usefulness of astrobiology as a tool for encouraging a US public to share in the excitement of scientific discovery and be informed participants in a public dialogue concerning next steps? When people were asked “to identify the biggest influence on your thinking about how life developed,” the response chosen most

  12. Memorial tribute to astrobiology pioneers Dr. David S. Mckay and academician Georgy A. Zavarzin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Rozhnov, Sergei V.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2013-09-01

    During the past two years, the world has lost two great pioneers of the field of Astrobiology-Dr. David Stewart McKay who worked at the NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, USA and Academician Georgy Alexandrovich Zavarzin of the Institute of Microbiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Professor of the Moscow State University in Moscow, Russia. The Volume of the Proceedings of the 2013 SPIE Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology XVI is dedicated to the memory of these great scientists. We remember our dear friends and review some of their many important contributions to Planetary Science, Geology, Meteoritics, Microbiology and Astrobiology.

  13. Molecular Simulations in Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.; Schweighofer, Karl; Chipot, Christophe; New, Michael H.

    2000-01-01

    One of the main goals of astrobiology is to understand the origin of cellular life. The most direct approach to this problem is to construct laboratory models of protocells. Such efforts, currently underway in the NASA Astrobiology Program, are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures that are capable of performing protocellular functions. Many of these functions, such as importing nutrients, capturing energy and responding to changes in the environment, are carried out by proteins bound to membranes. We use computer simulations to address the following questions about these proteins: (1) How do small proteins self-organize into ordered structures at water-membrane interfaces and insert into membranes? (2) How do peptides form membrane-spanning structures (e.g. channels)? (3) By what mechanisms do such structures perform their functions? The simulations are performed using the molecular dynamics method. In this method, Newton's equations of motion for each atom in the system are solved iteratively. At each time step, the forces exerted on each atom by the remaining atoms are evaluated by dividing them into two parts. Short-range forces are calculated in real space while long-range forces are evaluated in reciprocal space, using a particle-mesh algorithm which is of order O(NInN). With a time step of 2 femtoseconds, problems occurring on multi-nanosecond time scales (10(exp 6)-10(exp 8) time steps) are accessible. To address a broader range of problems, simulations need to be extended by three orders of magnitude, which requires algorithmic improvements and codes scalable to a large number of processors. Work in this direction is in progress. Two series of simulations are discussed. In one series, it is shown that nonpolar peptides, disordered in water, translocate to the nonpolar interior of the membrane and fold into helical structures (see Figure). Once in the membrane, the peptides

  14. The Beginnings of Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    2002-04-01

    With the present surge of interest in astrobiology and its emergence as a new scientific discipline in its own right, the role of a celebrated pioneer is all too often forgotten. There can be little doubt that the late Sir Fred Hoyle played a key part in relating astronomical phenomena to questions of life. One of his first contributions in this area was his introduction of the so-called anthropic principle to astronomy. By the late 1940's astronomers had worked out how the simplest chemical element Hydrogen could be converted into Helium in stars, thus providing the main energy source by which stars shine. The building of nuclei beyond Helium by stellar nuclear processes appeared difficult at the time because of instabilities in nuclei with atomic masses 5 and 8. Hoyle had the grand vision of making most if not all of the elements in the Periodic Table in stars. In the early 1950's Hoyle argued that by the very fact of our existence, the existence of life, the element Carbon had to be synthesised in quantity in stars. This could not happen, Hoyle concluded, unless the nucleus of Carbon possessed an energy level corresponding to a hitherto unknown excited state which he was able to calculate. This was necessary so that three Helium nuclei could combine first to form a Carbon nucleus in the excited state that subsequently decayed into the ground state. One of the major triumphs of Hoyle's Anthropic Principle was that his predicted excited state was subsequently discovered in the laboratory by Ward Whaling and Willy Fowler at Caltech. This discovery opened the door to a brand new discipline of Nuclear Astrophysics. In a seminal paper published in 1957, Hoyle together with Willy Fowler, Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge showed that all the chemical elements needed for life C, N, O, P, Mg, Fe, S ... were made in stars. In a sense Hoyle's work in 1957 already provided the foundation stone for astrobiology. He showed that in essence we were made of stardust.

  15. Astrobiology: An astronomer's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-12-08

    In this review we explore aspects of the field of astrobiology from an astronomical viewpoint. We therefore focus on the origin of life in the context of planetary formation, with additional emphasis on tracing the most abundant volatile elements, C, H, O, and N that are used by life on Earth. We first explore the history of life on our planet and outline the current state of our knowledge regarding the delivery of the C, H, O, N elements to the Earth. We then discuss how astronomers track the gaseous and solid molecular carriers of these volatiles throughout the process of star and planet formation. It is now clear that the early stages of star formation fosters the creation of water and simple organic molecules with enrichments of heavy isotopes. These molecules are found as ice coatings on the solid materials that represent microscopic beginnings of terrestrial worlds. Based on the meteoritic and cometary record, the process of planet formation, and the local environment, lead to additional increases in organic complexity. The astronomical connections towards this stage are only now being directly made. Although the exact details are uncertain, it is likely that the birth process of star and planets likely leads to terrestrial worlds being born with abundant water and organics on the surface.

  16. Frontiers of Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, Chris; Lunine, Jonathan; Funes, José

    2012-11-01

    Part I. Introduction: Introduction and welcome Cardinal Ljolo; 1. Astrobiology - a new synthesis J. Baross and C. Impey; Part II. Origins of Planets and Life: 2. Towards a theory of life S. Benner and P. Davies; 3. Terran metabolism: the first billion years S. Copley and R. Summons; 4. Planet formation S. Raymond and W. Benz; Part III. History of Life on Earth: 5. The early Earth F. Westall and F. Selsis; 6. Evolution of a habitable planet J. Kasting and J. Kirschvink; 7. Our evolving planet: from dark ages to evolutionary renaissance A. Knoll and E. Gaidos; Part IV. Habitability of the Solar System: 8. Early Mars - cradle or cauldron? A. Azua-Bustos, R. Pierrehumbert and R. Vicuña; 9. Large habitable moons: Titan and Europa A. Coustenis and M. Blanc; 10. Small habitable worlds J. Castillo-Rogez and J. Lunine; Part V. Exoplanets and Life in the Galaxy: 11. Searches for habitable exoplanets S. Seager; 12. Review of known exoplanets C. Lovis and D. Minniti; 13. Characterizing exoplanet atmospheres G. Tinetti; 14. If you want to talk to ET, you must first find ET J. Tarter and C. Impey; Index.

  17. From Astrochemistry to Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty five years thanks to significant developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at, the concept of ices in dense molecular clouds ignored, and the notion of large, abundant, gas phase, carbon-rich molecules widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the composition of interstellar dust is reasonably well understood. In molecular clouds, the birthplace of stars and planets, these cold dust particles are coated with mixed molecular ices whose composition is very well constrained. Lastly, the signature of carbon-rich polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is widespread throughout the Universe. The first part of this talk will describe how infrared spectroscopic studies of interstellar space, combined with laboratory simulations of interstellar ice chemistry, have revealed the widespread presence of interstellar PAHs and the composition of interstellar ices, the building blocks of comets. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the photochemical evolution of these materials and astrobiology. Within a molecular cloud, and especially the presolar nebula, materials frozen into the ices are photoprocessed by ultraviolet light and produce more complex molecules. As these materials are the building blocks of comets and related to carbonaceous micrometeorites, they are likely to have been important sources of complex materials delivered to the early Earth and their composition may be related to the origin of life.

  18. National conference on environmental remediation science and technology: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This conference was held September 8--10, 1998 in Greensboro, North Carolina. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on methods and site characterization technologies for environmental monitoring and remedial action planning of hazardous materials. This report contains the abstracts of sixty-one papers presented at the conference.

  19. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Allen, J. S.; Mortillaro, C.; Ducceschi, C.; Rawlings, P.; Stocco, K.; Tobola, K.; Olendzenski, L.; Angermiller, L.

    2001-03-01

    A JSC-SCH team has produced an astrobiology exhibit and education module to augment the 'Microbes!' traveling exhibit. The astrobiology section focuses on life in extreme environments and considers the possibility of extraterrestrrial life.

  20. The Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C): a potential rover mission for 2018. Final report of the Mars Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) October 14, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    This report documents the work of the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG), which was assigned to formulate a concept for a potential rover mission that could be launched to Mars in 2018. Based on programmatic and engineering considerations as of April 2009, our deliberations assumed that the potential mission would use the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sky-crane landing system and include a single solar-powered rover. The mission would also have a targeting accuracy of approximately 7 km (semimajor axis landing ellipse), a mobility range of at least 10 km, and a lifetime on the martian surface of at least 1 Earth year. An additional key consideration, given recently declining budgets and cost growth issues with MSL, is that the proposed rover must have lower cost and cost risk than those of MSL--this is an essential consideration for the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG). The MRR-SAG was asked to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps toward the potential return of samples to Earth. The proposed means of achieving these two goals while balancing the trade-offs between them are described here in detail. We propose the name Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher(MAX-C) to reflect the dual purpose of this potential 2018 rover mission. PMID:20298148

  1. Astrobiology from early-career scientists' perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Verseux, Cyprien; Serrano, Paloma; Musilova, Michaela; Nauny, Philippe; Samuels, Toby; Schwendner, Petra; Simoncini, Eugenio; Stevens, Adam

    2015-10-01

    What is astrobiology? Which fields does it comprise and what makes an astrobiologist? Ask five scientists and you may end up with six different definitions. This issue was raised at the first symposium of the European network of Astrobiology Graduates (AbGradE), held last year in Edinburgh, when discussing whether the attendees' fields of study were represented in the astrobiology community.

  2. News Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-07-01

    Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education

  3. Astrobiology explorer mission concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; ABE/ASPIRE Science Teams

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) "Where do we come from?" and (2) "Are we alone?" as outlined in NASA's Origins Program. Both concepts use infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission's observational program is focused on investigating the evolution of ice and organics in all phases of the lifecycle of carbon in the universe, from stellar birth through stellar death and exogenous delivery of these compounds to planetary systems. The ASPIRE mission's observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and also addresses the role of silicates and gas-phase materials in interstellar organic chemistry. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20 (40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution ( R > 2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution ( R > 25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions' target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outlined above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA's Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

  4. Molecular Simulations in Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.; Schweighofer, Karl; Chipot, Christophe; New, Michael H.; Vincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the main goals of astrobiology is to understand the origin of cellular life. In the absence of any record of the earliest ancestors of contemporary cells, protocells, the most direct way to test our understanding of their characteristics is to construct laboratory models of protocells. Such efforts, currently underway in the NASA Astrobiology Program, are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures and developing designs of molecules that are capable of performing protocellular functions. Many of these functions, such as importing nutrients, capturing and storing energy, and responding to changes in the environment, are carried out by proteins bound to membranes. We use computer simulations to address the following, questions about these proteins: (1) How do small proteins (peptides) organize themselves into ordered structures at water-membrane interfaces and insert into membranes? (2) How do peptides aggregate to form membrane-spannin(y structures (e.g., channels)? (3) By what mechanisms do such aggregates perform their functions? The simulations are performed using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. In this method, Newton's equations of motion for each atom in the system are solved iteratively. At each time step, the forces exerted on each atom by the remaining atoms are evaluated by dividing them into two parts. Short-range forces are calculated directly in real space while long-range forces are evaluated in reciprocal space, usually using a particle-mesh algorithm which is of order O(NlnN). Currently, a time step of 2 femtoseconds is typically used, thereby making studies of problems occurring on multi-nanosecond time scales (10(exp 6) - 10(exp 8) time steps) accessible. To address a broader range of problems, simulations need to be extended by three orders of magnitude. Such an extension requires both algorithmic improvements and codes scalable to a large number of parallel

  5. Astrobiology and Venus exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, David H.; Bullock, Mark A.

    For hundreds of years prior to the space age, Venus was considered among the most likely homes for extraterrestrial life. Since planetary exploration began, Venus has not been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. However, Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. At present Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. Active volcanism most likely affects the climate and chemical equilibrium state of the atmosphere and surface, and maintains the global cloud cover. Further, if we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Venus almost surely once had warm, habitable oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial

  6. NASA's planetary protection program as an astrobiology teaching module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2005-09-01

    We are currently developing a teaching module on the NASA's Planetary Protection Program for UW-Parkside SENCER courses. SENCER stands for Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibility. It is a national initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF), now in its fifth year, to improve science education by teaching basic sciences through the complex public issues of the 21st century. The Planetary Protection Program is one such complex public issue. Teaching astrobiology and the NASA's goals via the Planetary Protection module within the SENCER courses seems to be a good formula to reach large number of students in an interesting and innovative way. We shall describe the module that we are developing. It will be launched on our web site titled "Astrobiology at Parkside" (http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/chemistry/kolb/organic_chemistry/, or go to Google and then to Vera Kolb Home Page), and thus will be available for teaching to all interested parties.

  7. Astrobiology and Venus exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, David H.; Bullock, Mark A.

    For hundreds of years prior to the space age, Venus was considered among the most likely homes for extraterrestrial life. Since planetary exploration began, Venus has not been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. However, Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. At present Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. Active volcanism most likely affects the climate and chemical equilibrium state of the atmosphere and surface, and maintains the global cloud cover. Further, if we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Venus almost surely once had warm, habitable oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial

  8. 11th National Conference on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Saundry

    2012-04-17

    On January 19-21, 2011, The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) successfully convened its 11th National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans in Washington, DC at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center. Over 1,247 participants attended the conference, representing federal, state and local governments, university and colleges across the US, civil society organizations, the business community, and international entities. In addition, the conference was webcast to an audience across several states. The conference provided a forum to examine the profound changes our ocean will undergo over the next 25-50 years and share various perspectives on the new research, tools, and policy initiatives to protect and sustain our ocean. Conference highlights and recommendations are available to the public on NCSE's conference website, www.OurChangingOceans.org.

  9. The NASA Astrobiology Institute: early history and organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, Baruch S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established as a means to advance the field of astrobiology by providing a multidisciplinary, multi-institution, science-directed program, executed by universities, research institutes, and NASA and other government laboratories. The scientific community and NASA defined the science content at several workshops as summarized in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. Teams were chosen nationwide, following the recommendations of external review groups, and the research program began in 1998. There are now 16 national Teams and five international affiliated and associated astrobiology institutions. The NAI has attracted an outstanding group of scientific groups and individuals. The Institute facilitates the involvement of the scientists in its scientific and management vision. Its goal is to support basic research and allow the scientists the freedom to select their projects and alter them as indicated by new research. Additional missions include the education of the public, the involvement of students who will be the astrobiologists of future generations, and the development of a culture of collaboration in NAI, a "virtual institute," spread across many sites nationally and internationally.

  10. A Comparison of the Methodological Quality of Articles in Computer Science Education Journals and Conference Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.; Julnes, George; Bednarik, Roman; Sutinen, Erkki

    2007-01-01

    In this study we empirically investigate the claim that articles published in computer science education journals are more methodologically sound than articles published in computer science education conference proceedings. A random sample of 352 articles was selected from those articles published in major computer science education forums between…

  11. Proceedings of the Redesign in Science Education Conference (RISE) (Columbus, OH, October 20-21, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeth, Michael E., Ed.; Kwon, Hyeoksoon, Ed.; Lee, Gyoungho, Ed.

    This document contains the papers presented at the Redesign in Science Education (RISE) Conference. Papers include: (1) "A Model Development Concept (MDC) for Education: A Framework for Change" (C. K. Barsky, K. G. Wilson, and B. Daviss); (2) "Teaching Science Everyday" (K. L. Scott); (3) "Science Teacher Licensure Requirements in Ohio" (P.…

  12. Proceedings of the New England Conference on Ocean Science Education, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, May 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangelsdorf, Frederick E.; And Others

    Reported are the papers presented at the New England Conference on Ocean Science Education. The purpose of the conference was to bring together prominent oceanographers and New England educators at the primary and secondary level to discuss current progress in oceanographic research and to relate this progress to the needs of schools for materials…

  13. Organization by Gordon Research Conferences of the 2012 Plasma Processing Science Conference 22-27 July 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jane

    2012-07-27

    The 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in plasma science and technology as well as explore the applications of this nonequilibrium medium in possible approaches relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics and chemistry, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma generation and multi-phase plasmas. Application sessions will explore the impact of plasma technology in renewable energy, the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks and carbon dioxide neutral solar fuels (from carbon dioxide and water), and plasma-enabled medicine and sterilization.

  14. Proceedings of the International Conference e-Learning 2014. Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Lisbon, Portugal, July 15-19, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista Nunes, Miguel, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2014, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Lisbon, Portugal July 15-19, 2014). The e-Learning 2014 conference aims to address the…

  15. Astrobiology Drilling Program of the NASA Astrobiology Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-12-01

    Access to unweathered and uncontaminated samples of the least altered, oldest, sedimentary rocks is essential for understanding the early history of life on Earth and the environments in which it may have existed. For this reason, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has embarked on two international programs, a series of Field Workshops aimed at making the most important surface samples available to investigators, and the Astrobiology Drilling Program (ADP), which serves to provide access to fresh subsurface samples when the scientific objectives require them. The Astrobiology Drilling Program commenced in Western Australia in 2003 with the initiation of its first project, the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP). Funding for the ABDP came mainly from the Japanese Government through Kagoshima University and from NASA through the NAI Team at Pennsylvania State University, but significant technical and logistic support was provided by the Geological of Western Australia and, to a lesser extent, by the University of Western Australia. Six diamond drill cores totalling 1.4 km were obtained from astrobiologically important successions in the 3.3-3.5 Ga-old Pilbara Craton of northern Western Australia. Drilling in 2004 also occurred in Western Australia. The Deep Time Drilling Project (DTDP), a spin-off from the NAI's Mission to Early Earth Focus Group, completed one long hole, aimed mainly at fossil biomolecules (biomarkers) and other geochemical indicators of early life. The DTDP and the ABDP also jointly drilled two other important holes 2004, one through the oldest known erosion surface (and possible soil profile). The other intersected well-preserved middle Archean sediments. These efforts parallel other drilling initiatives within the wider astrobiological community that are taking place in Western Australia, South Africa, Spain, and arctic Canada. The ADP is managed by the NAI through a Steering Committee appointed by the NAI Director. Samples of cores

  16. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The oral and poster sessions of the SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MARS included; The Distribution and Context of Water-related Minerals on Mars; Poster Session: Mars Geology; Geology of the Martian Surface: Lithologic Variation, Composition, and Structure; Water Through Mars' Geologic History; Poster Session: Mars Water and the Martian Interior; Volatiles and Interior Evolution; The Martian Climate and Atmosphere: Variations in Time and Space; Poster Session: The Martian Climate and Current Processes; Modern Mars: Weather, Atmospheric Chemistry, Geologic Processes, and Water Cycle; Public Lecture: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's New View of the Red Planet; The North and South Polar Layered Deposits, Circumpolar Regions, and Changes with Time; Poster Session: Mars Polar Science, Astrobiology, Future Missions/Instruments, and Other Mars Science; Mars Astrobiology and Upcoming Missions; and Martian Stratigraphy and Sedimentology: Reading the Sedimentary Record.

  17. Astrobiology Education and Outreach: New Interdisciplinary Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Greg

    In 1998, UCLA was selected as one of the 11 initial members (5 of which are universities) of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. Concurrently, UCLA implemented a brand new General Education cluster course, GE 70ABC: ``Evolution of the Cosmos and Life,'' which is unique for several reasons. It is (a) interdisciplinary, introducing students to both the life and physical sciences, (b) team-taught by 4 distinguished professors, and 4 advanced graduate teaching fellows, (c) offered for (150) freshmen students exclusively, and (d) a year-long sequence, incorporating lectures, laboratory/discussion sections, field trips, and in the spring quarter, small satellite seminars led by the individual instructors on topics radiating from the cluster theme. Further information about GE 70ABC can be found at the course website (http://www.ess.ucla.edu/Cluster_TOC.html) and the website for UCLA's GE cluster courses (http://www.college.ucla.edu/ge/clusters.htm). This poster will outline the GE 70 content, and describe some of the course's materials, activities, assessment, and student characteristics. Additionally, focus will be placed on the GE 70C seminar course component called ``Life In the Cosmos,'' designed and offered by the poster author for the Spring 1999 quarter. This seminar features a student-centered approach - with lecturing minimized and active learning a key objective - and addresses the extraterrestrial life debate from historical and cultural perspectives as well as the current scientific approaches in astrobiology/bioastronomy.

  18. Classifying Life: The Astrobiological Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, E.

    2013-09-01

    This paper will discuss efforts to define life. I will address how astrobiological research might allows us to conceptualise extreme conditions for life and thus allow us to give a much more nuanced definition of life. I also look at why this has ethical implications for society and humankin.

  19. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  20. International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-09-01

    The International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015) took place in the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Greece on June 18-20, 2015 and was organized by the Department of Biomedical Engineering. The scope of the conference was to provide a forum on the latest developments in Biomedical Instrumentation and related principles of Physical and Engineering sciences. Scientists and engineers from academic, industrial and health disciplines were invited to participate in the Conference and to contribute both in the promotion and dissemination of the scientific knowledge.

  1. Conference on Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences

    Cancer.gov

    The purpose of this conference is to bring together a community of researchers across the cancer control continuum using geospatial tools, models and approaches to address cancer prevention and control.

  2. PREFACE: International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology, Joint AIRAPT-22 & HPCJ-50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viña, Luis; Tejedor, Carlos; Calleja, José M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Joint AIRAPT-22 & HPCJ-50 Conference was held in Odaiba, Tokyo, on 26-31 July 2009. About 480 scientists from 24 countries attended the conference and 464 papers, including 3 plenary lectures, 39 invited talks, and 156 oral presentations, were presented. It is my great pleasure to present this proceedings volume, which is based on the high quality scientific works presented at the conference. The International AIRAPT conference has been held every two years in various countries around the world since 1965, while High Pressure Conference of Japan (HPCJ) has been held annually since 1959 in various Japanese cities. Pressure is a fundamental parameter to control the property of matter. As a result, both AIRAPT and HPCJ have become highly multidisciplinary, and cover Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Biosciences, Food Science, and Technology. Although each discipline has a unique target, they all have high-pressure research in common. This proceedings volume includes about 200 papers of state-of-the-art studies from numerous fields. I hope this proceedings volume provides excellent pieces of information in various fields to further advance high-pressure research. Conference logo Takehiko Yagi Conference Chairman Institute for Solid State Physics The University of Tokyo 7 December 2009 Conference photograph Participants at the conference venue, Tokyo International Exchange Center, Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan. Editor in Chief TAKEMURA Kenichi National Institute for Materials Science, Japan Editorial board Tadashi KONDO Osaka University, Japan Hitoshi MATSUKI The University of Tokushima, Japan Nobuyuki MATUBAYASI Kyoto University, Japan Yoshihisa MORI Okayama University of Science, Japan Osamu OHTAKA Osaka University, Japan Chihiro SEKINE Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan

  3. Development, Evaluation, and Dissemination of an Astrobiology Curriculum for Secondary Students: Establishing a Successful Model for Increasing the Use of Scientific Data by Underrepresented Students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arino de La Rubia, L.; Butler, J.; Gary, T.; Stockman, S.; Mumma, M.; Pfiffner, S.; Davis, K.; Edmonds, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Minority Institution Astrobiology Collaborative began working with the NASA Goddard Center for Astrobiology in 2003 to develop curriculum materials for high school chemistry and Earth science classes based on astrobiology concepts. The Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms modules are being developed to emphasize interdisciplinary connections in astronomy, biology, chemistry, geoscience, physics, mathematics, and ethics through hands-on activities that address national educational standards. Since this time, more NASA Astrobiology Institute Teams have joined this education and public outreach (EPO)effort. Field-testing of the Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms materials began in 2007 in five US locations, each with populations that are underrepresented in the career fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  4. Astrobiology: A Roadmap for Charting Life in the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincezi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It provides a biological perspective to many areas of NASA research. It links such endeavors as the search for habitable planets, exploration missions to Mars and the outer Solar System, efforts to understand the origins and early evolution of life, and charting the potential of life to adapt to future challenges, both on Earth and in space. Astrobiology addresses the following three basic questions, which have been asked in some form for generations. How does life begin and evolve? Does life exist elsewhere in the universe? What is future of life on Earth and beyond? The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across several NASA Enterprises: Space Science, Earth Science, and the Human Exploration and Development of Space. The Roadmap is formulated in terms of eight Science Goals that outline key domains of investigation that might require perhaps decades of effort to consolidate. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority near-term efforts for the next three to five years. These twenty objectives will be integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  5. Unified Science - Premises and Prospects. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Federation for Unified Science Education (FUSE) (8th, Columbus, Ohio, May 2-5, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showalter, Victor, Ed.; And Others

    Included in this record of the proceedings of the eighth annual conference of the Federation for Unified Science Education (FUSE) are texts of major presentations, panel discussions, and contributed papers. Other activities of the conference are also reported. (CP)

  6. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Science and Technology Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on science and technology libraries which were presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Online Information Service of the Japan Information Center of Science and Technology" (Ryuko Igarashi, Japan); (2) "A View from the Chip--The Influence of Information Technologies on Libraries…

  7. IFLA General Conference, 1984. Special Libraries Division. Section on Social Science Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The two papers in this document on social science libraries were presented at the 1984 IFLA general conference. In "Library and Continuing Education with Implications for Developing Countries: A Research Essay," David R. Bender (United States) examines factors impacting upon the skills necessary for effective librarianship in the social sciences,…

  8. Annual Science Education Conference (9th, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, September 23, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Australia Science Education Association.

    This proceedings contains the texts of 14 science education research studies which were presented at the 1983 Western Australia Science Education Conference. They include: "Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium: A Report of Research in Progress" (Patrick J. Garnett, Mark W. Hackling); "Measuring the Learning Environment in Elementary and…

  9. Information Sciences: Conferences, Symposia, Reviews, Supporting Research and STINFO Activities. Vol. IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The bibliography is a compilation of annotated references on information sciences; conferences, symposia, reviews, supporting research, and STINFO (Scientific and Technical Information Project) activities and is volume IV in a four-volume set on information sciences. It is a revision to the unlimited references in the earlier bibliographies,…

  10. Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers from the Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES) are presented. The papers discuss current research in the general field of inverse, semi-inverse, and direct design and optimization in engineering sciences. The rapid growth of this relatively new field is due to the availability of faster and larger computing machines.

  11. Astrobiology: Study of the Living Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, Donald L.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Astrobiology is defined as the study of the living universe. This endeavor encompasses the use of space to understand life's origin, evolution, and destiny in the universe. Life's origin refers to understanding the origin of life in the context of the origin and diversity of planetary systems. Life's evolution refers to understanding how living systems have adapted to Earth's changing environment, to the all-pervasive force of gravity, and how they may adapt to environments beyond Earth. Life's destiny refers to making long-term human presence in space a reality, and laying the foundation for understanding and managing changes in Earth's environment. This lecture will explore the development of this field of inquiry, the science questions to be examined, and the mechanisms available for participation by the scientific community.

  12. Undergraduate Research at SETI in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Monika; Phillips, C.; DeVore, E.; Hubickyj, O.

    2012-05-01

    The SETI Institute and San Jose State University (SJSU) have begun a partnership (URSA: Undergraduate Research at the SETI Institute in Astrobiology) in which undergraduate science and engineering majors from SJSU participate in research at the SETI Institute during the academic year. We are currently in our second year of the three-year NASA-funded grant. The goal of this program is to expose future scientists, engineers and educators to the science of astrobiology and to NASA in general, and by so doing, to prepare them for the transition to their future career in the Silicon Valley or beyond. The URSA students are mentored by a SETI Institute scientist who conducts research at the SETI Institute headquarters or nearby at NASA Ames Research Center. The SETI Institute is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to scientific research, education and public outreach. Its mission is to explore, understand and explain the origin, nature and prevalence of life in the universe. SJSU is a large urban public university that serves the greater Silicon Valley area in California. Students at SJSU come from diverse ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Many of them face financial pressures that force them to pursue part-time work. URSA students are paid to work for 10 hours/week during the academic year, and also participate in monthly group meetings where they practice their presentation skills and discuss future plans. We encourage underserved and underrepresented students, including women, minority, and those who are the first in their family to go to college, to apply to the URSA program and provide ongoing mentoring and support as needed. While preparing students for graduate school is not a primary goal, some of our students have gone on to MS or PhD programs or plan to do so. The URSA program is funded by NASA EPOESS.

  13. The Astrobiology Habitable Environments Database (AHED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, B.; Stone, N.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Astrobiology Habitable Environments Database (AHED) is a central, high quality, long-term searchable repository for archiving and collaborative sharing of astrobiologically relevant data, including, morphological, textural and contextural images, chemical, biochemical, isotopic, sequencing, and mineralogical information. The aim of AHED is to foster long-term innovative research by supporting integration and analysis of diverse datasets in order to: 1) help understand and interpret planetary geology; 2) identify and characterize habitable environments and pre-biotic/biotic processes; 3) interpret returned data from present and past missions; 4) provide a citable database of NASA-funded published and unpublished data (after an agreed-upon embargo period). AHED uses the online open-source software "The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher" (ODR - http://www.opendatarepository.org) [1], which provides a user-friendly interface that research teams or individual scientists can use to design, populate and manage their own database according to the characteristics of their data and the need to share data with collaborators or the broader scientific community. This platform can be also used as a laboratory notebook. The database will have the capability to import and export in a variety of standard formats. Advanced graphics will be implemented including 3D graphing, multi-axis graphs, error bars, and similar scientific data functions together with advanced online tools for data analysis (e. g. the statistical package, R). A permissions system will be put in place so that as data are being actively collected and interpreted, they will remain proprietary. A citation system will allow research data to be used and appropriately referenced by other researchers after the data are made public. This project is supported by the Science-Enabling Research Activity (SERA) and NASA NNX11AP82A, Mars Science Laboratory Investigations. [1] Nate et al. (2015) AGU, submitted.

  14. Critical issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Dick, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Fifty years after serious scientific research began in the field of exobiology, and forty years after serious historical research began on the subject of extraterrestrial life, this paper identifies and examines some of the most important issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of what is today known as astrobiology. As in the philosophy of science in general, and in the philosophies of particular sciences, critical issues in the philosophy and sociology of astrobiology are both stimulated and illuminated by history. Among those issues are (1) epistemological issues such as the status of astrobiology as a science, the problematic nature of evidence and inference, and the limits of science; (2) metaphysical/scientific issues, including the question of defining the fundamental concepts of life, mind, intelligence, and culture in a universal context; the role of contingency and necessity in the origin of these fundamental phenomena; and whether or not the universe is in some sense fine-tuned for life and perhaps biocentric; (3) societal issues such as the theological, ethical, and worldview impacts of the discovery of microbial or intelligent life; and the question of whether the search for extraterrestrial life should be pursued at all, and with what precautions; and (4) issues related to the sociology of scientific knowledge, including the diverse attitudes and assumptions of different scientific communities and different cultures to the problem of life beyond Earth, the public "will to believe," and the formation of the discipline of astrobiology. All these overlapping issues are framed by the concept of cosmic evolution-the 13.7 billion year Master Narrative of the Universe-which may result in a physical, biological, or postbiological universe and determine the long-term destiny of humanity. PMID:23078642

  15. Philosophy of astrobiology: some recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2015-09-01

    We present some recent developments in philosophy of astrobiology which illustrate usefulness of philosophy to astrobiology. We cover applications of Aristotelian views to definition of life, of Priest's dialetheism to the question if viruses are alive, and various thought experiments in regard to these and other astrobiology issues. Thought experiments about the survival of life in the Solar system and about the role of viruses at the beginning and towards the end of life are also described.

  16. Astrobiological Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izenberg, N. R.; Murray, G. M.; van Houten, K. A.; Hofstra, A. A.

    2005-12-01

    Development of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) sensors for astrobiology is intended to provide a new class of microlaboratory sensors compatible with other life or biomarker detection. Molecular imprinting is a process for making selective binding sites in synthetic polymers. The process may be approached by designing the recognition site or by simply choosing monomers that may have favorable interactions with the imprinting molecule. We are working to apply this methodology to astrobiology for development of a reliable, low cost, low mass, low power consumption sensor technology for quantitative in-situ analysis of biochemistry, biomarkers, and other indicators of astrobiological importance. Specific goals of the project are: 1) To develop a general methodology and specific methods for MIP-based sensor construction. The overall methodology will guide procedures for design and testing of any desired sensor. Specific methods will be applied to key families and specific species of astrobiological interest, i.e., alkanes (and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs), amino acids, steroids, and hopanes; 2) To construct and characterize the general family and specific species sensors. We will test for accuracy, precision, interferences, and limitations of the sensor against blanks, standards, and known terrestrial biological environment samples. Additional testing will determine sturdiness and longevity of sensors after exposure to transit conditions (launch and space environment), and at potential target environments (pressure, temperature, pH, etc.); and 3) To construct and demonstrate the combination of multiple sensors into a viable prototype instrument, and roadmap the expansion of potential instrument capabilities and exploration of the ultimate environmental limitations of the technology, and the necessary changes and additions to create a mission-ready instrument. Initial work has resulted successful detection of aqueous alanine (D and L) with simple MIP

  17. FOREWORD: 9th Curtin University of Technology Science and Engineering International Conference 2014 (CUTSE2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chieng Chen, Vincent Lee

    2015-04-01

    A very warm welcome to all participants of the 9th Curtin University Technology, Science and Engineering (CUTSE) Conference 2014. This annual conference dates back to 2006 when the first Curtin University of Technology Science and Engineering (CUTSE) Conference was held in Curtin University, Miri Sarawak. CUTSE Conference was initially intended for Curtin's undergraduates such that they are able to experience the presentation of their work in a conference environment. As time passes and following the urge of knowledge dissemination, CUTSE Conference is hence open to public. This year the Department of Mechanical Engineering has been given the honour to organize the 9th CUTSE Conference. It has been a pleasure to watch CUTSE grow from strength to strength over the years. This year, our theme is "Discovering, Innovating and Engineering". We hope that it is in this spirit that CUTSE participants may align their respective work, such that we all aim for a greater and better implementation of "Discovering, Innovating and Engineering". The 9th CUTSE Conference 2014 is an excellent avenue for researchers, engineers, scientists, academicians, professionals from industry and students to share their research findings and initiate further collaborations in their respective fields. Parallel sessions in Mechanical, Electrical, Computer, Civil and Chemical engineering as well as the sciences will be hosted over a period of two days. Each year, the conference attracts participation from a number of countries in addition to Malaysia and Australia. In addition, student participants will get the opportunity to present their research projects and gain valuable feedback from industry professionals. This year the Conference will be organised by the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Curtin Sarawak's School of Engineering and Science in collaboration with The Institute of Engineers Malaysia, Miri Branch. On behalf of the organizing committee, I would like to thank this year

  18. PREFACE: 1st Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science 2013 (LPBMS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumai, Reiji; Murakami, Youichi

    2014-04-01

    From 29-31 August 2013, the 1st International Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science, LPBMS 2013, took place in the Tsukuba International Congress Center in the city of Tsukuba, Japan. The conference was a continuation of the international series Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science (SRMS), which started in 1994. The last one, SRMS-7, was held in Oxford UK 11-14 July 2010, where the International Advisory Committee (IAC) recommended the conference be enlarged to incorporate Materials Research from Neutron, Muon, and Slow Positron Sources, as well as the science emerging from Synchrotron Light Sources. The conference brought together contributions from academics and industrial researchers with a diverse background and experience from the physics, chemistry and engineering communities. The topics covered in the LPBMS2013 include strongly correlated electron systems, magnetism and magnetic materials, soft matter, interface and surface defects, catalysts, biomaterials, and ceramics. In the 3-day scientific program, the conference consisted of 9 plenary talks, 33 invited talks, 20 oral presentations, and 126 poster presentations. We are pleased to publish the proceedings of the LPBMS2013 in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. This volume contains 58 papers representing the work that was presented and discussed at the conference. We hope that this volume will promote further development of this interdisciplinary materials research emerging from synchrotron light, neutron, muon, and slow positron sciences. Finally, we would like to thank the International Advisory Committee (Chair: Professor G N Greaves), sponsors, all the participants and contributors for making possible this international meeting of researchers. Reiji Kumai & Youichi Murakami Conference photograph Details of the program and organizing committees are available in the pdf

  19. 1st International Nuclear Science and Technology Conference 2014 (INST2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology has played an important role in many aspects of our lives, including agriculture, energy, materials, medicine, environment, forensics, healthcare, and frontier research. The International Nuclear Science and Technology Conference (INST) aims to bring together scientists, engineers, academics, and students to share knowledge and experiences about all aspects of nuclear sciences. INST has evolved from a series of national conferences in Thailand called Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) Conference, which has been held for 11 times, the first being in 1986. INST2014 was held in August 2014 and hosted by Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT). The theme was "Driving the future with nuclear technology". The conference working language was English. The proceedings were peer reviewed and considered for publication. The topics covered in the conference were: • Agricultural and food applications [AGR] • Environmental applications [ENV] • Radiation processing and industrial applications [IND] • Medical and nutritional applications [MED] • Nuclear physics and engineering [PHY] • Nuclear and radiation safety [SAF] • Other related topics [OTH] • Device and instrument presentation [DEV] Awards for outstanding oral and poster presentations will be given to qualified students who present their work during the conference.

  20. Perspectives of women of color in science-based education and careers. Summary of the conference on diversity in science

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Research on inequality or stratification in science and engineering tends to concentrate on black/white or male/female difference; very few studies have discussions of both race and gender. Consequently, very little is known about the exact course that women of color take in science-based education and employment or about the course that steers them out of science-based careers. Questions abound: What are the environmental factors that affect the choices in education and science-based careers of women of color? What has influenced women of color who currently are in science-based careers? Is critical mass important and, if so, what are the keys to increasing it? What recommendations can be made to colleges and universities, faculty members, employers, the federal government, women of color themselves, and to improve the conditions and numbers of women of color in science-based careers? These questions prompted the National Research Council`s Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE) to convene a conference on Diversity in Science: Perspectives on the Retention of Minority Women in Science, Engineering, and Health-Care Professions, held on October 21--23, 1995. Confronting the problem of the lack of knowledge about the journey of women of color in science-based education and career, the conference offered opportunities for these women to describe the paths that they have taken and to identify strategies for success. Their perspectives ground this report. For purposes of this document, women of color include women in the following racial or ethnic groups: Hispanics, African-Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indians and Alaskan Natives. Science-based careers include those in the physical sciences and mathematics, life sciences, social sciences, and engineering.

  1. The Fifteenth International Conference on the Science and Application of Nanotubes (NT14)

    SciTech Connect

    cronin, stephen

    2015-01-06

    The Fifteenth International Conference on the Science and Application of Nanotubes (NT14) was held at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California on June 2-6, 2014. NT14 upheld the NT tradition of presenting the latest results in the science and applications of nanotubes and related materials in plenary sessions. Emphasis was given to convivial poster sessions and student participation. Over 225 participants attended the conference, including students, post-docs, faculty, and members from industry. A total of 45 talks were presented, as well as 157 posters.

  2. Automated Aqueous Sample Concentration Methods for in situ Astrobiological Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, A. D.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    2009-12-01

    of 100μL from 1-10 mL of aqueous sample extract. The selective desorption process involves the derivatization of target analytes in the liquid state which acts to sequester these compounds by reducing their affinity towards the scavenger material. These processes show potential for a single step protocol for the purification of aqueous soil extracts and offer concentration factors of 10-100. These inline processing methods will help address problems of insufficient detection limits for organic detection on Mars and allow for integration as a module within future aqueous in situ flight instruments. REFERENCES: [1] Hecht, M., et al., Science 325, 64-67, 2009. [2] Navarro-González, R., et al., Geophys. Res. Abs., 11, 1549, 2009. [3] Ming, D.W., et al., 40th LPSC Conference, #2241, 2009. [4] Amashukeli, X., et al., J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S16, 2007. [5] Buch, A., et al., J. Chromatogr. A, 999, 165, 2003. [6] Skelley, A.M., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104, 1041-1046, 2005. [7] Liu, D.-L., L.W. Beegle, L.W. and I. Kanik, Astrobiology, 8, 229-241, 2008. [8] Sims, M., et al., AbSciCon, #2-16-P, 2008.

  3. Literature and the Sea. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the Marine Science Center, Newport, Oregon, May 8, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astro, Richard, Ed.

    This document is a collection of eight papers presented at a conference held at the Marine Science Center, Newport, Oregon, May 8, 1976. The conference concluded a course offered jointly by the School of Oceanography and the Department of English at Oregon State University. The conference had two purposes: (1) focus on the relationship between…

  4. Sixteenth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Press abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A broad range of topics concerned with lunar and planetary science are discussed. Topics among those included are, the sun, the planets, comets, meteorities, asteroids, satellites, space exploration, and the significance of these to Earth.

  5. Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Ian A

    2010-01-01

    An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered. PMID:20735249

  6. Astrobiological Benefits of Human Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2010-08-01

    An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered.

  7. Systems astrobiology for a reliable biomarker on exo-worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chela Flores, Julian

    2013-04-01

    Although astrobiology is a science midway between biology and astrophysics, it has surprisingly remained largely disconnected from recent trends in certain branches of both of these disciplines. Aiming at discovering how systems properties emerge has proved valuable in chemistry and in biology and should also yield insights into astrobiology. This is feasible since new large data banks in the case of astrobiology are of a geophysical/astronomical kind, rather than the also large molecular biology data that are used for questions related firstly, to genetics in a systems context and secondly, to biochemistry. The application of systems biology is illustrated for our own planetary system, where 3 Earth-like planets are within the habitable zone of a G2V star and where the process of photosynthesis has led to a single oxygenic atmosphere that was triggered during the Great Oxidation Event some 2,5 billion years before the present. The significance of the biogenic origin of a considerable fraction of our atmosphere has been discussed earlier (Kiang et al., 2007). Bonding of O2 ensures that it is stable enough to accumulate in a world's atmosphere if triggered by a living process. The reduction of F and Cl deliver energy release per e+-transfer, but unlike O2 the weaker bonding properties inhibit large atmospheric accumulation (Catling et al., 2005). The evolution of O2-producing photosynthesis is very likely on exo-worlds (Wolstencroft and Raven, 2002). With our simplifying assumption of evolutionary convergence, we show how to probe for a reliable biomarker in the exo-atmospheres of planets, or their satellites, orbiting stars of different luminosities and ages (Chela-Flores, 2013). We treat the living process as a system of exo-environments capable of radically modifying their geology and atmospheres, both for exo-planets, and especially for exo-moons, the presence of which can be extracted from the Kepler data (Kipping et al., 2012). What we are learning about the

  8. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on "How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

    2014-01-01

    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: "How Can the History and Philosophy of…

  9. PREFACE: 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013), was held at the Swiss Bell Mangga Besar, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 23 December 2013. The AeroEarth conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. AeroEarth 2013 promotes interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that high-level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Earth Science. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 91 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from 8 countries. There are 3 (three) Plenary Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of AeroEarth 2013. The AeroEarth 2013 Proceedings Editors Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Dr. Benfano Soewito Dr. Amit Desai Further information on the invited plenary speakers and photographs from the conference can be found in the pdf.

  10. IEEE conference record -- abstracts: 1995 IEEE international conference on plasma science

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Topics covered at this meeting are: computational plasma physics; slow wave devices; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; microwave-plasma interactions; space plasmas; fast wave devices; plasma processing; plasma, ion, and electron sources; vacuum microelectronics; basic phenomena in partially ionized gases; microwave systems; plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion theory/experiment; fast opening switches; laser-produced plasmas; dense plasma focus; intense ion and electron beams; plasmas for lighting; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense beam microwaves; ball lightning/spherical plasma configuration; environmental plasma science; EM and ETH launchers; and environmental/energy issues in plasma science. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the individual papers.

  11. Open Conference on Information Science in Canada, Proceedings (1st, Montebello, Quebec, May 14 & 15, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauerhoff, Georg R., Comp.

    The papers presented at the first Canadian conference on information science are presented in this volume. Six presentations were given under the general topic of research: Research into Privacy and Data Banks, Communications Knowledge Software Industry for Canada, Census Data Access and Statistical Information Management, Communication System…

  12. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Social Science Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on social science libraries presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Efforts at Computerization in Nigerian Libraries--A State of Development Review" (A. Olugboyega Banjo, Nigeria); (2) "The Information Activities of the National Library of Economics in the Federal Republic of…

  13. IFLA General Conference, 1984. Special Libraries Division. Section on Science and Technology Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on scientific/technical information and libraries presented at the 1984 IFLA general conference include: (1) "Library Ethics and the Special Library Network in Science and Technology" (Dieter Schmidmaier, East Germany); (2) "The Dissemination of Patent Information by Libraries: An Example Demonstrating the Necessity of Libraries in the…

  14. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Science and Technology Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on science and technology libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "UAP (Universal Availability of Publications) and User Training for Categories of Grey Literature" (Dieter Schmidmaier, Mining Academy Freiberg, East Germany); (2) "Resource Sharing in Science…

  15. Conference of the Society for Literature and Science. Proceedings (Atlanta, Georgia, October 10-13, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkowitz, Sidney, Ed.

    The papers contained in these proceedings from the 1996 Society for Literature and Science Conference are organized into sections based on theme. Some of these themes are: (1) Secularizing Enlightenment; (2) Eugenics and the Politics of Knowledge; (3) Reading the Discourses of Psychology; (4) Women and Medicine; (5) The Rhetoric of Public Health;…

  16. Undergraduate Education in the Plant and Soil Sciences, Proceedings of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

    The proceedings of the 1967 Conference on Undergraduate Teaching in the Plant and Soil Sciences are presented in this publication. Seven individual presentations and reports from ten working groups review the adequacy and effectiveness of courses and curricula for undergraduate students; discuss instructional materials, methods, and equipment that…

  17. PHYTOREMEDIATION: STATE OF THE SCIENCE CONFERENCE AND OTHER DEVELOPMENTS. EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION AND SPECIAL COMMENTARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is a pleasure to present six papers in this issue, selected from presentations at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Conference, Phytoremediation: State of the Science held May 1-2, 2000 in Boston, MA, USA. These papers highlight some of the many advances reported...

  18. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Biological and Medical Sciences Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Four papers on biological and medical sciences libraries were presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. "Activities and Services of Medical Libraries in Japan--Past, Present, and Future" (Kazuo Urata and Toshinobu Suga, Japan) discusses the inauguration of the Japan Medical Library Association…

  19. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Biological and Medical Science Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on biological and medical science libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The International Programs of the National Library of Medicine" (Lois Ann Colaianni, United States); (2) "Information Needs for International Health. A CDC (Centers for Disease…

  20. Astrobiology: The Search for Life in the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacchioli, David

    2003-01-01

    Each of the 11 lead members of NASA's Astrobiology Institute has a specific mission. According to Hiroshi Ohmoto, director of Penn State s Astrobiology Research Center, Here we are mainly concerned with the origin of life and the evolution and extinction of important organisms. These include bacteria that live on methane, cyanobacteria (the inventors of photosynthesis), eukaryotes (a big category, covering anything with a nucleus, from single-celled organisms to humans), land-dwelling organisms, and early animals. Penn State astrobiologists are studying the environment before there was life on Earth, the origin of oxygen in the atmosphere, the chemical and thermal structures of oceans, and the role of metals in the evolution of life. Overall, they want to understand the connection between changes in environment and changes in life forms in the early Earth. PSARC offers research assistantships for graduate and undergraduate students, fellowships for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows, and an undergraduate minor in astrobiology. The minor covers 18 credits in earth sciences, geochemistry, geophysics, astronomy, biology, biochemistry, meteorology, and microbiology. The goal, says Ohmoto, is to teach students to critically evaluate claims related to this field that they encounter well after their college education has ended. Under a scanning electron microscope, Martian meteorite ALH84001 yields tube-like structures that look a lot like remnants of Earthly bacteria except smaller by a factor of ten.

  1. Aspicilia fruticulosa: A new model for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Iñigo, Fco. Javier; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Mateo Mart, Eva; Horneck, Gerda

    In order to avoid the technological constraints that prevent the performance of experiments in other planets, Astrobiology research implies the development of models that simulate the conditions present in outer space or in planetary bodies. Extremophile organisms, like lichens have been widely studied in Astrobiology due to their high resistance to extremely harsh envi-ronments(5). The vagrant lichen species, Aspicilia fruticulosa lives detached from the substrate, and has a coralloid thalli up to 2.5 cm, which provides a very compact internal structure(6). This species typically grows in deserts and arid areas. Its resistance has been tested several times and amazing results about their vitality have been obtained. Two main experiments have been per-formed: 1. LITHOPANSPERMIA experiment(1): Integrated on board of BIOPAN (multi-user exposure facility, designed for exobiology, radiation biology, radiation dosimetry and material science investigations in space (http://www.spaceflight.esa.int/users/index.cfm?act=default.pagelevel=11p foton-next-pay-Bpan) launched on the Foton M3 satellite in September 2007); the resistance of this lichen species to the combination of the following space conditions during 10 days was tested: Ultraviolet (UV) extraterrestrial radiation, Mars UV-climate, UV-B radiation and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), microgravity, space vacuum of 1x10-6 mbar and extreme temperatures ranging from -23o C to +16o C. After the flight, the samples were revital-ized for a 72h period in a climatic chamber before taking measurements of their photosynthetic activity with a Mini-PAM fluorometer (Heinz Walz GmbH) as described by R. de la Torre et al. 2007b (2). The results showed that the samples exposed to space environment except solar UV radiation, reached a 76.5-1002. A step further on these investigations was carried out in order to study how the viability of this lichen species were affected by a combination of different sim-ulated martian

  2. Aspicilia fruticulosa: A new model for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Iñigo, Fco. Javier; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Mateo Mart, Eva; Horneck, Gerda

    In order to avoid the technological constraints that prevent the performance of experiments in other planets, Astrobiology research implies the development of models that simulate the conditions present in outer space or in planetary bodies. Extremophile organisms, like lichens have been widely studied in Astrobiology due to their high resistance to extremely harsh envi-ronments(5). The vagrant lichen species, Aspicilia fruticulosa lives detached from the substrate, and has a coralloid thalli up to 2.5 cm, which provides a very compact internal structure(6). This species typically grows in deserts and arid areas. Its resistance has been tested several times and amazing results about their vitality have been obtained. Two main experiments have been per-formed: 1. LITHOPANSPERMIA experiment(1): Integrated on board of BIOPAN (multi-user exposure facility, designed for exobiology, radiation biology, radiation dosimetry and material science investigations in space (http://www.spaceflight.esa.int/users/index.cfm?act=default.pagelevel=11p foton-next-pay-Bpan) launched on the Foton M3 satellite in September 2007); the resistance of this lichen species to the combination of the following space conditions during 10 days was tested: Ultraviolet (UV) extraterrestrial radiation, Mars UV-climate, UV-B radiation and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), microgravity, space vacuum of 1x10-6 mbar and extreme temperatures ranging from -23o C to +16o C. After the flight, the samples were revital-ized for a 72h period in a climatic chamber before taking measurements of their photosynthetic activity with a Mini-PAM fluorometer (Heinz Walz GmbH) as described by R. de la Torre et al. 2007b (2). The results showed that the samples exposed to space environment except solar UV radiation, reached a 76.5-1002. A step further on these investigations was carried out in order to study how the viability of this lichen species were affected by a combination of different sim-ulated martian

  3. Astrobiology and the Possibility of Life on Earth and Elsewhere…

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, Hervé; Kotler, Julia Michelle; Bartik, Kristin; Cleaves, H. James; Cockell, Charles S.; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Leuko, Stefan; Ten Kate, Inge Loes; Martins, Zita; Pascal, Robert; Quinn, Richard; Rettberg, Petra; Westall, Frances

    2015-09-01

    Astrobiology is an interdisciplinary scientific field not only focused on the search of extraterrestrial life, but also on deciphering the key environmental parameters that have enabled the emergence of life on Earth. Understanding these physical and chemical parameters is fundamental knowledge necessary not only for discovering life or signs of life on other planets, but also for understanding our own terrestrial environment. Therefore, astrobiology pushes us to combine different perspectives such as the conditions on the primitive Earth, the physicochemical limits of life, exploration of habitable environments in the Solar System, and the search for signatures of life in exoplanets. Chemists, biologists, geologists, planetologists and astrophysicists are contributing extensively to this interdisciplinary research field. From 2011 to 2014, the European Space Agency (ESA) had the initiative to gather a Topical Team of interdisciplinary scientists focused on astrobiology to review the profound transformations in the field that have occurred since the beginning of the new century. The present paper is an interdisciplinary review of current research in astrobiology, covering the major advances and main outlooks in the field. The following subjects will be reviewed and most recent discoveries will be highlighted: the new understanding of planetary system formation including the specificity of the Earth among the diversity of planets, the origin of water on Earth and its unique combined properties among solvents for the emergence of life, the idea that the Earth could have been habitable during the Hadean Era, the inventory of endogenous and exogenous sources of organic matter and new concepts about how chemistry could evolve towards biological molecules and biological systems. In addition, many new findings show the remarkable potential life has for adaptation and survival in extreme environments. All those results from different fields of science are guiding our

  4. PREFACE: 23rd International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT-23)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Satish C.

    2012-07-01

    The 23rd AIRAPT International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology was held at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, from 25-30 September 2011. This conference is part of the series of AIRAPT International Conferences which are held biennially. AIRAPT is an acronym for the French title which translates as 'International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology'. This was the second time the AIRAPT Conference was organized in India. The first was held 20 years ago at the National Aeronautical Laboratory, Bangalore in 1991. The 23rd Conference covered many important topics in the area of both static and dynamic high pressures including theoretical and experimental investigations on the response of materials under high pressures, new developments using neutron and synchrotron sources, investigations on superconductivity under high pressure, studies of geophysical and planetary sciences, biosciences, and the synthesis of new materials. The conference program included Bridgman award lecture, Jemieson award lecture, seven plenary talks, 85 invited talks, 83 oral presentations and about 195 posters. In all there were 372 presentations. 285 scientists from 19 countries participated in the conference. The countries represented included Austria, Canada, China, Estonia, France, Germany, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Nepal, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, Ukraine and USA. Many new developments were presented, for example, measurement techniques using the new generation synchrotron sources, more powerful neutron sources and much brighter laser sources; integration of gas-gun with synchrotron source; the achievement of multi-megabar pressures in shock-less dynamic compressions; and capabilities to synthesize centimeter size diamonds with better quality. All these developments have opened up new opportunities for understanding the physics of materials under high pressures. I would like

  5. Press abstracts of the 21st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Program Committee for the Twenty-fisrt Lunar and Planetary Science Conference has chosen these contributions as having the greatest potential interest for the general public. The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. More technical abstracts will be found in Lunar and Planetary Science XXI. Representative titles are: Ancient Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions on Mars: Global Model and Geological Evidence; Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Ordinary Chondrites and Their Chondrules; Exposure Ages and Collisional History of L-Chondrite Parent Bodies; Models of Solar-Powered Geysers on Triton; and Search for Life: A Science Rationale for a Permanent Base on Mars.

  6. PREFACE: 2013 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford

    2013-03-01

    The 2013 International Conference on Science and Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2013), was held at the Aston Rasuna Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 24-25 January 2013. The ScieTech 2013 conference aims to bring together scholars, leading researchers and experts from diverse backgrounds and applications areas. Special emphasis is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics, all areas of sciences and applied mathematics. We would like to thank the invited and plenary speakers as well as all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program. This year, we received 197 papers and, after rigorous review, 67 papers were accepted. The participants come from 21 countries. There are 6 (six) Plenary and Invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and we thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed ScieTech 2013 be be sucyh a success. The Editors of the ScieTech 2013 Proceedings Dr Ford Lumban Gaol Dr Hoga Saragih Tumpal Pandiangan Dr Mohamed Bououdina The PDF also contains the abstracts of the Invited and Plenary talks, and some photographs taken during the conference.

  7. 2014 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    2014 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2014), was held at the Media Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 13-14 January 2014. The ScieTech 2014 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. ScieTech 2014 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 187 papers and after rigorous review, 50 papers were accepted. The participants come from 16 countries. There are 5 (Five) Paralell Sessions and Four Keynote Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of ScieTech 2014. The Editors of the Scietech 2014 Proceedings: Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Dr. Benfano Soewito Dr. P.N. Gajjar

  8. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions

  9. Taking the initiative. A leadership conference for women in science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The conference sprang from discussions on the current climate that women face in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. The conference (and this document) is a beginning, not a culmination, of women`s learning leadership skills. Conferees were active, articulate, energetic, and ready to learn leadership qualities, some of which seem universal, others that appear to require skills in specific fields. After the introduction, the workshops and presentations are arranged under vision and direction, barriers, alignment and communication, and motivation and inspiration. Some statistics are presented on women degrees and employment in various fields.

  10. Taking the initiative: A leadership conference for women in science and engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference sprang from discussions on the current climate that women face in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. The conference (and this document) is a beginning, not a culmination, of women's learning leadership skills. Conferees were active, articulate, energetic, and ready to learn leadership qualities, some of which seem universal, others that appear to require skills in specific fields. After the introduction, the workshops and presentations are arranged under vision and direction, barriers, alignment and communication, and motivation and inspiration. Some statistics are presented on women degrees and employment in various fields.

  11. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015), which is an annual event that started in 2012. CMSE 2015, technically supported by the Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering of University of Macau, organized by Wuhan Advance Materials Society, was successfully held at the University of Macau-new campus located on Hengqin Island from August 3rd-6th, 2015. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Macau, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, where East meets West, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this annual international conference. The conference program included keynote presentations, special sessions, oral and poster contributions. From several hundred submissions, 52 of the most promising and mainstream, IOP-relevant, contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence and methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 200 qualified and high-level researchers and experts from over 40 countries, including 10 keynote speakers from 6 countries, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we would like to thank all participants of this conference, and particularly the

  12. The International Journal of Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn-Williams, David D.

    2002-01-01

    The launch of a new journal is appropriately like a space mission. It is the result of a scientific need, the inspiration of a group of committed scientists and technologists, a series of draft proposals, an approved mission protocol, and a launch. Today is the launch day for a journal whose remit has only recently consolidated from diverse disciplines. Cambridge University Press has an international reputation for astronomy. To this we add extreme biology and its associated environmental research to integrate astrobiology as: 'the study of the origin, evolution, adaptation and distribution of past and present life in the Universe'. Astrobiology has three main themes: (1) Origin, evolution and limits of life on Earth; (2) Future of life, both on Earth and elsewhere; (3) Search for habitats, biomolecules and life in the Solar System and elsewhere. These fundamental concepts require the integration of various disciplines, including biology (especially microbiology), chemistry, geology, palaeontology, and the physics of atmospheres, planets and stars. We must also keep our minds wide open about the nature and limits of life. We can safely assume a carbon-based system within Solar Systems as we know them, but our concept of habitable zones expands yearly. We were taught that only the spores of certain bacilli could survive temperatures above the boiling point of water, and yet we now know that the deep-sea vent microbe Pyrolobus can survive an hour at 121 °C, which is the temperature used for sterilising medical instruments. We know of cyanobacteria which can not only live inside deep-frozen Antarctic rocks but also survive on roof-tops in Jerusalem at 80 °C. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans tolerates lethal doses of nuclear radiation, and cyanobacteria inside Antarctic desert sandstone receive so little moisture that their carbon turnover time (from its fixation by photosynthesis to its release as carbon dioxide during respiration) is 10,000 years. Life is

  13. Longitudinal effects of college type and selectivity on degrees conferred upon undergraduate females in physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Stacy Mckimm

    There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  14. Astrobiology and the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Garvin, James B.; Drake, B. G.; Beaty, David

    2010-01-01

    In March 2007, the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) chartered the Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG), co-chaired by J. B. Garvin and J. S. Levine and consisting of about 30 Mars scientists from the U.S. and Europe. HEM-SAG was one of a half dozen teams charted by NASA to consider the human exploration of Mars. Other teams included: Mars Entry, Descent and Landing, Human Health and Performance, Flight and Surface Systems, and Heliospheric/Astrophysics. The results of these Mars teams and the development of an architecture for the human exploration of Mars were summarized in two recent publications: Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 (B. G. Drake, Editor), 100 pages, July 2009 and Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 Addendum (B. G. Drake, Editor), 406 pages, July 2009. This presentation summarizes the HEM-SAG conclusions on astrobiology and the search for life on Mars by humans.

  15. PREFACE: 1st International Conference in Applied Physics and Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    We are delighted to come up with thirty two (32) contributed research papers in these proceedings, focusing on Materials Science and Applied Physics as an output of the 2013 International Conference in Applied Physics and Materials Science (ICAMS2013) held on October 22-24, 2013 at the Ateneo de Davao University, Davao City, Philippines. The conference was set to provide a high level of international forum and had brought together leading academic scientists, industry professionals, researchers and scholars from universities, industries and government agencies who have shared their experiences, research results and discussed the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted as well as the advances in the fields of Applied Physics and Materials Science. This conference has provided a wide opportunity to establish multidisciplinary collaborations with local and foreign experts. ICAMS2013, held concurrently with 15th Samahang Pisika ng Visayas at Mindanao (SPVM) National Physics Conference and 2013 International Meeting for Complex Systems, was organized by the Samahang Pisika ng Visayas at Mindanao (Physics Society of Visayas and Mindanao) based in MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines. The international flavor of converging budding researchers and experts on Materials Science and Applied Physics was the first to be organized in the 19 years of SPVM operation in the Philippines. We highlighted ICAMS2013 gathering by the motivating presence of Dr. Stuart Parkin, a British Physicist, as one of our conference's plenary speakers. Equal measures of gratitude were also due to all other plenary speakers, Dr. Elizabeth Taylor of Institute of Physics (IOP) in London, Dr. Surya Raghu of Advanced Fluidics in Maryland, USA and Prof. Hitoshi Miyata of Niigata University, Japan, Prof. Djulia Onggo of Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia, and Dr. Hironori Katagiri of Nagaoka National College of Technology, Japan. The warm hospitality of the host

  16. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F.; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R.; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems• Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space• Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life• Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability• Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. Key Words: Astrobiology roadmap—Europe—Origin and evolution of life—Habitability—Life detection—Life in extreme environments. Astrobiology 16, 201–243. PMID:27003862

  17. The AGU Chapman Conference on Communicating Climate Science: A Historic Look to the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; Rasch, P. J.; Andronova, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union hosted a Chapman Conference on Communicating Climate Science at Snow Mountain Ranch, Granby, Colorado, June 8-13, 2013. The goal of the Chapman Conference was to bring together scholars, social scientists and journalists to discuss the history, and more importantly, the present and future of climate change communication. We met to evaluate our current and needed communication capacity, and to develop ways and means to convey advances in the understanding of climate science. Delegates discussed and presented methods and capacity to communicate to policymakers, the media, and society. Our focus was on the efficacy of scientific communication, on improving communication practices, and on building collaborations spawned at the conference, and beyond. The Chapman was a success. Close to 150 of us gathered high in the Colorado Rockies to share almost 100 presentations and nearly 10 hours of group discussions focused on ways and means to better bring the climate change message to society, to educators and policymakers in North America and around the world. This presentation will focus on the outcomes of the Chapman Climate Change Communication Conference; the conclusions of the delegate community; and directions forward.

  18. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

    2014-09-01

    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching? The presentations of the conference speakers and the reports of the working groups are reviewed. Multiple themes emerged for K-16 education from the perspective of the history and philosophy of science. Key ones were that: students need to understand that central to science is argumentation, criticism, and analysis; students should be educated to appreciate science as part of our culture; students should be educated to be science literate; what is meant by the nature of science as discussed in much of the science education literature must be broadened to accommodate a science literacy that includes preparation for socioscientific issues; teaching for science literacy requires the development of new assessment tools; and, it is difficult to change what science teachers do in their classrooms. The principal conclusions drawn by the editors are that: to prepare students to be citizens in a participatory democracy, science education must be embedded in a liberal arts education; science teachers alone cannot be expected to prepare students to be scientifically literate; and, to educate students for scientific literacy will require a new curriculum that is coordinated across the humanities, history/social studies, and science classrooms.

  19. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990s.

  20. Conference of the Society for Literature and Science. Proceedings (Los Angeles, California, November 2-5, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labinger, Jay, Ed.

    The papers contained in this proceedings from the 1995 Society for Literature and Science Conference are organized into sections with the following themes: (1) Metaphor and Science; (2) The Technological Invasion of the Living Space; (3) Autobiographies and Biographies of Scientists; (4) Science and 19th Century Literature; (5) Visions of the…

  1. Proceedings of the Klamath Basin Science Conference, Medford, Oregon, February 1-5, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman, (Edited By); VanderKooi, Scott; Duffy, Walter

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Klamath Basin Science Conference (February 2010). A primary purpose of the meeting was to inform and update Klamath Basin stakeholders about areas of scientific progress and accomplishment during the last 5 years. Secondary conference objectives focused on the identification of outstanding information needs and science priorities as they relate to whole watershed management, restoration ecology, and possible reintroduction of Pacific salmon associated with the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA). Information presented in plenary, technical, breakout, and poster sessions has been assembled into chapters that reflect the organization, major themes, and content of the conference. Chapter 1 reviews the major environmental issues and resource management and other stakeholder needs of the basin. Importantly, this assessment of information needs included the possibility of large-scale restoration projects in the future and lessons learned from a case study in South Florida. Other chapters (2-6) summarize information about key components of the Klamath Basin, support conceptual modeling of the aquatic ecosystem (Chapter 7), and synthesize our impressions of the most pressing science priorities for management and restoration. A wealth of information was presented at the conference and this has been captured in chapters addressing environmental setting and human development of the basin, hydrology, watershed processes, fishery resources, and potential effects from climate change. The final chapter (8) culminates in a discussion of many specific research priorities that relate to and bookend the broader management needs and restoration goals identified in Chapter 1. In many instances, the conferees emphasized long-term and process-oriented approaches to watershed science in the basin as planning moves forward.

  2. Science Policy Conference Speakers Examine Megadisasters and Call for Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-07-01

    How well is the United States prepared for a megadisaster, such as a solar storm that knocks out the power grid for months, a large asteroid impact, a giant tsunami, or a rainstorm that lasts for weeks and leads to widespread flooding? Moreover, how can risk reduction efforts be made more effective? These were two topics addressed during two of the hazards sessions at the 2013 AGU Science Policy Conference on 25 and 26 June.

  3. PREFACE: The fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azechi, Hiroshi; Hammel, Bruce; Gauthier, Jean-Claude

    2008-06-01

    The Fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA 2007) was held on 9-14 September 2007 at Kobe International Conference Center in Kobe, Japan. The host organizations for this conference were Osaka University and the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE) at Osaka University; and co-organized by the Institute Lasers and Plasmas (ILP) in France, the Commissariatá l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan, and Kansai Photon Science Institute (KPSI), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The conference objective was to review the state of the art of research in inertial fusion sciences and applications since the last conference held in Biarritz, France, in 2005. 470 abstracts were accepted, and 448 persons from 18 countries attended the conference. These Proceedings contain 287 of the papers presented at IFSA 2007. This collection of papers represents the manuscripts submitted to and passing the peer review process. The program was organized with some specific features: The reviews of influential programs appeared both at the very beginning and at the very end of the Conference to attract attendance throughout the Conference. Each poster session had the same time period as a single oral session, thereby avoiding overlap with oral talks. The everyday program was structured to be as similar as possible so the attendees could easily recognize the program. With a goal of achieving inertial fusion ignition and burn propagation in the laboratory, researchers presented the exciting advances in both traditional hot spot ignition and fast ignition approach, including status report of USA's National Ignition Facility (NIF), French Laser Magajoule (LMJ), Japanese Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX), and European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER). A particular emphasis of the meeting was that the `physics of inertial fusion' category was dominated

  4. The O/OREOS Mission — Astrobiology Data Collected in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Quinn, R.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Cook, A.; Mancinelli, R.; Mattioda, A.; Minelli, G.; Nicholson, W.; Santos, O.; Squire, D.; Kitts, C.; Rasay, R.; Young, A.

    2011-03-01

    The O/OREOS nanosatellite is the first demonstration flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small-Payloads Program (ASP). Sucessfully launched on Nov. 19, 2010 to a 650-km Earth orbit, the spacecraft operates nominal and records first science data.

  5. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Sessions in this conference include: Mars polar geology and glaciology; Mars and terrestrial radar investigations; Observations, nature, and evolution of the Martian seasonal polar caps; Mars' residual south polar cap; Climate change, ice core analysis, and the redistribution of volatiles on Mars; errestrial Mars analog environments; The Phoenix Scout mission and the nature of the near-polar environment; Moderated Discussion: Key Issues Regarding Phoenix Scout Mission and the nature of the near-polar environment; Panel Discussion: Key Issues in Mars Polar Science and Exploration; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter investigations of the Martian polar regions and climate; Mars Polar Scout Mission concepts; and Panel Discussion: New perspectives on Mars polar science and exploration

  6. PREFACE: 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan Bhatti, Javaid; Hussain, Talib; Khan, Wakil

    2013-06-01

    The Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) conference series has been organized to create a new forum in Asia and Australia to discuss vacuum, surface and related sciences, techniques and applications. The conference series is officially endorsed by the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Application (IUVSTA). The International Steering Committee of VASSCAA is comprised of Vacuum Societies in seven countries: Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Pakistan. VASSCAA-1 was organized by the Vacuum Society of Japan in 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. VASSCAA-2 was held in 2002 in Hong Kong, VASSCAA-3 in Singapore in 2005. VASSCAA-4 was held in Matsue, Japan in 2008 and VASSCAA-5 in 2010 in Beijing, China. The 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6) was held from 9-13 October 2012 in the beautiful city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The venue of the conference was the Pak-China Friendship Centre, Islamabad. More than six hundred local delgates and around seventy delegates from different countries participated in this mega event. These delegates included scientists, researchers, engineers, professors, plant operators, designers, vendors, industrialists, businessmen and students from various research organizations, technical institutions, universities, industries and companies from Pakistan and abroad. The focal point of the event was to enhance cooperation between Pakistan and the international community in the fields of vacuum, surface science and other applied technologies. At VASSCAA-6 85 oral presentations were delivered by local and foreign speakers. These were divided into different sessions according to their fields. A poster session was organized at which over 70 researchers and students displayed their posters. The best three posters won prizes. In parallel to the main conference sessions four technical short courses were held. The participants showed keen interest in all these

  7. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  8. UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES FOR STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES, PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    REPORTED ARE THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1966 CONFERENCE WHICH DEALT WITH UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES. THE 167 EDUCATORS (MOSTLY DEANS AND DIRECTORS OF RESIDENT INSTRUCTION) WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE CONFERENCE REPRESENTED AGRICULTURE, RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES, THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, AND…

  9. Earth Science Education for the 21st Century Conference (Alexandria, Virginia, April 19-23, 1988). Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Geological Inst., Alexandria, VA.

    This meeting initiates the planning of new guidelines and a framework for teaching the earth sciences from kindergarten through grade 12. The conference report serves as a discussion paper for a series of American Geological Institute (AGI) regional conferences scheduled for fall and winter, 1988-89. It also provides background for an advisory…

  10. The Religion/Science Controversy: The Use and Abuse of Science in the Defense of Religion. Proceedings of a Conference (Westville, Indiana, October 5, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanagy, Sherman P., II, Ed.

    Science and religion have been referred to as the two strongest general forces which influence humankind. This document contains the proceedings of a conference which was held to address some of the relationships and controversies surrounding these topics. Included are the texts of the major papers presented at the conference. These are: (1)…