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1

Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2010. Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Program of the 2010 Astrobiology Science Conference: Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond, included sessions on: 50 Years of Exobiology and Astrobiology: Greatest Hits; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System I; Human Exploration, Astronaut Health; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Titan: Past, Present, and Future; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Prebiological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System II; Astrobiology in Orbit; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Science from Rio Tinto: An Acidic Environment; Can We Rule Out Spontaneous Generation of RNA as the Key Step in the Origin of Life?; How Hellish Was the Hadean Earth?; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns I; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life I; Adaptation of Life in Hostile Space Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets I: Formation and Composition; Collaborative Tools and Technology for Astrobiology; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns II; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life II; Survival, Growth, and Evolution of Microrganisms in Model Extraterrestrial Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets II: Habitability and Life; Planetary Science Decadal Survey Update; Astrobiology Research Funding; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time I; State of the Art in Life Detection; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Geochronology and Astrobiology On and Off the Earth; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time II; Origins and Evolution of Genetic Systems; Evolution of Advanced Life; Water-rich Asteroids and Moons: Composition and Astrobiological Potential; Impact Events and Evolution; A Warm, Wet Mars?; Titan Versus Europa - Potential for Astrobiology; Habitability Potential of Mars; Biosignatures: Tools and Development I; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite Systems; Ancient Life and Synthetic Biology: Crossroad of the Past and Future; Biosignatures: Tools and Development II; Free Oxygen: Proxies, Causes, and Consequences; Life in Modern Microbialite Systems - Function and Adaptation; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Where Should We Go on Mars to Seek Signs of Life?; Search for Intelligent Life I. Innovative SETI Observing Programs and Future Directions; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Search for Intelligent Life II. Global Engagement and Interstellar Message Construction; Poster sessions included: Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life; RNA World; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Virology and Astrobiology; Horizontal Genetic Transfer and Properties of Ancestral Organisms; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Impact Events and Evolution; Evolution of Advanced Life; Evolution of Intelligent Life; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Policy and Societal Issues: Dealing with Potential Bumps in the Astrobiology Road Ahead; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite stems; Life in Modern Microbialite Systems - Function and Adaptation; Free Oxygen: Proxies, Cause

2010-01-01

2

Astrobiology: A pathway to adult science literacy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult science illiteracy is widespread. This is concerning for astrobiology, or indeed any other area of science in the communication of science to public audiences. Where and how does this scientific illiteracy arise in the journey to adulthood? Two astrobiology education projects have hinted that science illiteracy may begin in high school. This relationship between high school science education and

C. A. Oliver; J. Fergusson

2007-01-01

3

Astrobiology: Science Learning Activities for Afterschool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This product consists of eight astrobiology after-school activities, each of which may be completed in about one hour. The science of astrobiology is concerned with the question of whether or not life exists on other planets. These activities were adapted for use in afterschool programs with ages 5-12. A Astrobiology: Science Learning Activities for Afterschool was produced by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) as a part of a 18 month study and demonstration project funded by NASA.

2006-01-01

4

Planetary Science as Presented in Astrobiology Textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is the relationship between astrobiology and planetary science? Astrobiology is defined as the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. From this definition alone, one might not expect a large overlap with planetary science. In practice, however, much of current research in astrobiology deals with both our planetary system and exoplanets. Many astrobiologists study the history of life on our own planet, and many others investigate the biochemical nature of life and study the life's adaptation to a wide range of environments. However, we have not yet detected any life beyond Earth, nor are there robust ``universal life detection" protocols. Consequently, much of astrobiology today involves issues of habitability as a prelude to later searches of life. Astrobiologists participate in the exploration of Mars, Europa, and Titan from the perspective of their past or present capability to support life. Astrobiology is often characterized in terms of the investigation of the planetary context for life (for example, in the ``follow the water" mantra for Mars). Astrobiology courses at the college level are increasingly popular, especially as an introduction to multidisciplinary science. The four main college texts are The Search for Life in the Universe (Goldsmith & Owen, 2002), Life in the Universe (Bennett, Shostak & Jakosky, 2003), An Introduction to Astrobiology (Gilmore & Stephton, editors, 2004), and Astrobiology: A Multidisciplinary Approach (Lunine 2005). Each of these books covers planetary science extensively, as might be expected from the presence of planetary scientists among the authors. This poster provides a comparison of the coverage of the four texts and suggests that astrobiology courses may become a major venue for teaching college students about our solar system. For undergraduates, studying planets from the perspective of their habitability is an intriguing alternative approach to planetary science.

Morrison, D.

2005-08-01

5

Astrobiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astrobiology refers to the "origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe." Astrobiologists study extreme environments on Earth and characterize the life forms that occupy them. These environments provide Earthly analogues to environments on other planets, and a framework for thinking about the organisms that once did or may now inhabit them. This article provides an overview of this fascinating field of study, and a wealth of content information as it relates to Earth and space science.

Daniella Scalice

2004-11-01

6

Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrobiology is the study of the origins, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It provides a biological perspective to many areas of NASA research, linking such endeavors as the search for habitable planets beyond our solar system, exploration missions to Mars and Europa, and efforts to understand the origin and early evolution of life. Astrobiology addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and develop? Does life exist elsewhere in the universe? What is the future of life on Earth and beyond? This talk will address our concepts about the definition of life, how life might have begun, and how our blaspheme and planet have co-evolved for billions of years. The talk will explore how the perspectives gained from interdisciplinary research in the biological, geological and space sciences will prepare us to search for habitable environments and biospheres elsewhere in the Universe.

DesMarais, David; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

7

Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrobiology is the study of the origins, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It provides a biological perspective to many areas of NASA research, linking such endeavors as the search for habitable planets beyond our solar system, exploration missions to Mars and Europa, and efforts to understand the origin and early evolution of life. Astrobiology addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and develop? Does life exist elsewhere in the universe What is the future of life on Earth and beyond? This talk will address our concepts about the definition of life, how life might have begun, and how our blaspheme and planet have co-evolved for billions of years. The talk will explore how the perspectives gained from interdisciplinary research in the biological, geological and space sciences will prepare us to search for habitable environments and blasphemes elsewhere in the Universe.

DesMarais, David

2002-01-01

8

The Astrobiology Graduate Conference - A Unique Early Career Opportunity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon) is an extremely successful annual meeting of early career researchers and educators involved and interested in the field of astrobiology. The conference has been held eight times in various locations, each time organized by a different group of students. The primary objective of AbGradCon is to stimulate the future of astrobiology research by bringing together graduate students and early post-doctoral fellows in order to create and strengthen interdisciplinary and international networks of early-career astrobiologists who will lead such research in the years to come. The conference is unique in that it is a student-led meeting, from the organization to the presentations. AbGradCon strives to remove the "pressures" of typical scientific meetings by providing a relaxed atmosphere in which presentations and round-table discussions are fostered along with numerous social activities. The success of previous AbGradCons can be attributed to the sheer enthusiasm of the participants for astrobiology, and to the spirit and format of the conference, which is outlined in a charter written by past conference organizers and participants. Because it is organized and attended by only graduate students and early career astrobiologists, AbGradCon is an ideal venue for the next generation of early career astrobiologists to form bonds, share ideas, and discuss the issues that will shape the future of the field.

Knowles, E. J.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Anderson, R.; Som, S. M.

2011-12-01

9

Astrobiology Student Science Fair Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extrasolar Planet Transit and The Light Curve of a Variable Star are some titles of high school student projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. These students were mentored by teachers who participated in the UH Institute for Astronomy Toward Other Planetary Systems summer program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech. After attending several 3-week TOPS NSF

M. Kadooka; K. J. Meech

2004-01-01

10

Astrobiology Student Science Fair Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrasolar Planet Transit and The Light Curve of a Variable Star are some titles of high school student projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. These students were mentored by teachers who participated in the UH Institute for Astronomy Toward Other Planetary Systems summer program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech. After attending several 3-week TOPS NSF workshops from 1999, these teachers in 2003 were trained to do observing plans to obtain telescope images, use image processing software MIRA for photometry, and produce light curves of variable stars and extrasolar planet transits. Others used the software Astrometrica to do astrometry of Kuiper Belt Objects. Using Compaq laptop computers on long term loan, our teachers mentored their students for astronomy projects during the 2003-2004 school year with the assistance of IfA astronomers and graduate students. Observing plans for images from the 31 inch Lowell Telescope in Arizona and the 2.2 meter UH telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory were followed. Students had to learn about variables such as exposure time, magnitude, frequency requirements, and ephemeris. The many iterations were time consuming and demanded patience and perseverance. Poor weather conditions exposed the students to the realities of astronomy research, so they experienced the highs of successful projects. Future projects will be related to the UH NAI team research using the 2.0 meter Faulkes Telescope located on Haleakala on island of Maui. The TOPS program is funded by National Science Foundation.

Kadooka, M.; Meech, K. J.

2004-11-01

11

Astrobiology as an alternative integrated science curriculum for higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many schools now offer an integrated science course to give students a taste of all of the sciences. These courses are types of survey courses that do not demonstrate the interdependencies among the various science disciplines. Students are exposed to each of the science disciplines individually. Astrobiology, as a multidisciplinary science requiring the skills of a physicist, chemist, geologist and

Harold A. Geller

2005-01-01

12

NASA Astrobiology Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site, hosted by NASA Ames Research Center, provides a portal to NASA's astrobiology program. It features astrobiology announcements, events, societal issues, forums, education, and the latest news stories. Links are provided to Astrobiology Magazine, Astrobiology Institute, the astrobiology roadmap, science goals, technologies, missions, workshops, web awards, the media center, public policy, contacts, and more.

2009-08-13

13

NASA Astrobiology Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site, hosted by NASA Ames Research Center, provides a portal to NASA's astrobiology program. It features astrobiology announcements, events, societal issues, forums, education, and the latest news stories. Links are provided to Astrobiology Magazine, Astrobiology Institute, the astrobiology roadmap, science goals, technologies, missions, workshops, web awards, the media center, public policy, contacts, and more.

Ames Research Center (ARC); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

14

Astrobiology can help space science, education and the economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology is a subject dedicated to understanding the origin, evolution and distribution of life. Astrobiology is a multidisciplinary discipline within which useful information comes from a variety of environments and from a myriad of techniques. The challenges of the Global Exploration Roadmap contain intrinsic astrobiology questions and opportunities. The potential astrobiology returns include scientific, educational and economic benefits.

Sephton, M. A.

2014-08-01

15

Life Elsewhere? Astrobiology, Science, and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The search for extraterrestrial life is quixotic--or at least less immediately purposeful than the quest for a cure for cancer. Nonetheless, it falls squarely within the human purpose for science: to explore nature so that we can understand ourselves better.The means by which scientists search for life elsewhere, and the meaning of this enterprise, was the theme of a March 27 lecture sponsored by the Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER), a program of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The featured speaker was Dr. Bruce Jakosky, an astrobiologist involved in the Mars Global Surveyor mission as an Interdisciplinary Scientist for Surface-Atmosphere Interactions.

Catherine Baker (; )

2007-06-28

16

FORUM | PLANETARY SCIENCE & ASTROBIOLOGY Jupiter exploration: high risk and high rewards  

E-print Network

FORUM | PLANETARY SCIENCE & ASTROBIOLOGY Jupiter exploration: high risk and high rewards Edwin S.ac.uk) Jupiter exploration is big science, and only the United States can afford self-contained missions into Jupiter to prevent it from contaminating Europa's ocean, cost $1.6 bn. Despite the failure of its High

Kite, Edwin

17

Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. The Astrobiology Program in the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Public interest in astrobiology is great, and advances in the field are rapid. Hence, the Astrobiology Program supports the widest possible dissemination of timely and useful information about scientific discoveries, technology development, new knowledge, and greater understanding produced by its investigators, employing an approach described as strategic communication planning. That is, the Astrobiology Program aims to integrate communication, education, and outreach into all aspects of program planning and execution. The Program encourages all of its investigators to contribute to the ongoing endeavor of informing public audiences about Astrobiology. The ASTEP element of the Astrobiology Program sponsors terrestrial field campaigns to further scientific research and technology development relevant to future solar system exploration missions. ASTEP science investigations are designed to further biological research in terrestrial environments analogous to those found on other planets, past or present. ASTEP sponsors the development of technologies to enable remote searches for, and identification of, life in extreme environments. ASTEP supports systems-level field campaigns designed to demonstrate and validate the science and technology in extreme environments on Earth. This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with ASTEP field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. SUMMARY The Astrobiology Program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Astrobiology research addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and evolve? Is there life beyond Earth and how can we detect it? What is the future of life on Earth and in the universe? Goals of the Astrobiology Program range from determining the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond to understanding the emergence of life from cosmic and planetary precursors, the interaction of past life on Earth with its changing environment, the formation and evolution of planets, links between planetary and biological evolution, the effects of climate and geology on habitability, and life's precursors and habitats in the outer solar system. Research dedicated to fulfilling these goals is conducted on Earth and in space, with a growing number of astrobiology investigations flying on planetary exploration missions. The field of astrobiology is an endeavor that brings together researchers in a broad range of disciplines including Earth and planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, microbiology and evolutionary biology, and cosmochemistry. Since 1995, the field of astrobiology has grown rapidly, and the pace of discovery has been brisk. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is now a serious scientific question. Research findings over the past decade that are relevant to this question include the controversial 1996 claim of fossil evidence for microbial life in a martian meteorite, evidence of past and perhaps even present liquid water on Mars, the likeliho

Billings, Linda

18

Exo/Astrobiology in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of the chemical origins of life is engraved in the European scientific patrimony as it can be traced back to the pioneer ideas of Charles Darwin, Louis Pasteur, and more recently to Alexander Oparin. During the last decades, the European community of origin of life scientists has organized seven out of the twelve International Conferences on the Origins of Life held since 1957. This community contributed also to enlarge the field of research to the study of life in extreme environments and to the search for extraterrestrial life, i.e. exobiology in its classical definition or astrobiology if one uses a more NASA-inspired terminology. The present paper aims to describe the European science background in exo/astrobiology as well as the project of a European Network of Exo/Astrobiology.

Brack, André; Horneck, Gerda; Wynn-Williams, David

2001-08-01

19

Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs

Linda Billings

2008-01-01

20

Astrobiology Workshop: Leadership in Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrobiology is defined in the 1996 NASA Strategic Plan as 'The study of the living universe.' At NASA's Ames Research Center, this endeavor encompasses the use of space to understand life's origin, evolution, and destiny in the universe. Life's origin refers to understanding the origin of life in the context of the origin and diversity of planetary systems. Life's evolution refers to understanding how living systems have adapted to Earth's changing environment, to the all-pervasive force of gravity, and how they may adapt to environments beyond Earth. Life's destiny refers to making long-term human presence in space a reality, and laying the foundation for understanding and managing changes in Earth's environment. The first Astrobiology Workshop brought together a diverse group of researchers to discuss the following general questions: Where and how are other habitable worlds formed? How does life originate? How have the Earth and its biosphere influenced each other over time? Can terrestrial life be sustained beyond our planet? How can we expand the human presence to Mars? The objectives of the Workshop included: discussing the scope of astrobiology, strengthening existing efforts for the study of life in the universe, identifying new cross-disciplinary programs with the greatest potential for scientific return, and suggesting steps needed to bring this program to reality. Ames has been assigned the lead role for astrobiology by NASA in recognition of its strong history of leadership in multidisciplinary research in the space, Earth, and life sciences and its pioneering work in studies of the living universe. This initial science workshop was established to lay the foundation for what is to become a national effort in astrobiology, with anticipated participation by the university community, other NASA centers, and other agencies. This workshop (the first meeting of its kind ever held) involved life, Earth, and space scientists in a truly interdisciplinary sharing of ideas related to life in the universe, and by all accounts was a resounding success.

DeVincenzi, D. (Editor); Briggs, G.; Cohen, M.; Cuzzi, J.; DesMarais, D.; Harper, L.; Morrison, D.; Pohorille, A.

1996-01-01

21

Astrobiology outreach and the nature of science: the role of creativity.  

PubMed

There is concern in many developed countries that school students are turning away from science. However, students may be choosing not to study science and dismissing the possibility of a scientific career because, in the junior secondary years, they gain a false view of science and the work of scientists. There is a disparity between science as it is portrayed at school and science as it is practiced. This paper describes a study to explore whether engaging in science through astrobiology outreach activities may improve students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and how this may influence their interest in a career in science. The results suggest that the students attending these Mars research-related outreach activities are more interested in science than the average student but are lacking in understanding of aspects of the nature of science. A significant difference was detected between pre- and posttest understandings of some concepts of the nature of science. PMID:23134090

Fergusson, Jennifer; Oliver, Carol; Walter, Malcolm R

2012-12-01

22

Lunar Radio Telescopes: A Staged Approach for Lunar Science, Heliophysics, Astrobiology, Cosmology, and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations with radio telescopes address key problems in cosmology, astrobiology, heliophysics, and planetary science including the first light in the Universe (Cosmic Dawn), magnetic fields of extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the lunar ionosphere. The Moon is a unique science platform because it allows access to radio frequencies that do not penetrate the Earth's ionosphere and because its far side is shielded from intense terrestrial emissions. The instrument packages and infrastructure needed for radio telescopes can be transported and deployed as part of Exploration activities, and the resulting science measurements may inform Exploration (e.g., measurements of lunar surface charging). An illustrative roadmap for the staged deployment of lunar radio telescopes

Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

2012-01-01

23

Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

1982-01-01

24

An Evolving Astrobiology Glossary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the resources that evolved from the Bioastronomy 2007 meeting was an online interdisciplinary glossary of terms that might not be universally familiar to researchers in all sub-disciplines feeding into astrobiology. In order to facilitate comprehension of the presentations during the meeting, a database driven web tool for online glossary definitions was developed and participants were invited to contribute prior to the meeting. The glossary was downloaded and included in the conference registration materials for use at the meeting. The glossary web tool is has now been delivered to the NASA Astrobiology Institute so that it can continue to grow as an evolving resource for the astrobiology community.

Meech, K. J.; Dolci, W. W.

2009-12-01

25

Watershed Management & Science Conference  

E-print Network

Watershed Management & Science Conference May 21­ 22, 2007 Binghamton University Binghamton, New York #12;2 2007 WATERSHED MANAGEMENT & SCIENCE CONFERENCE Monday, May 21, 2007 12:50-1:00 pm Welcome on the fluxes of nitrogen from large watersheds. 1:50-2:40 pm Ann Swanson-Chesapeake Bay Commission Chesapeake

Suzuki, Masatsugu

26

Astrobiology in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astrobiology is a relatively new field of study in science, one that has found a home in the curriculum of many universities. At the middle level, this multidisciplinary field is an exciting mix of topics and questions that can help students see how different fields of science can be integrated. The goal of this article is to define astrobiology and its aims, and to provide some ideas and inspiration for bringing it into a wide range of science classes.

Brennan, Tim

2004-09-01

27

What Is Astrobiology?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from the Science and Technology Chat series, learn about astrobiology, an interdisciplinary field that uses biology, astronomy, and geology to study the origins of life on Earth and to search for possible life on other planets.

Vegaspbs

2008-10-31

28

Astrobiological Stoichiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical composition affects virtually all aspects of astrobiology, from stellar astrophysics to molecular biology. We present a synopsis of the research results presented at the "Stellar Stoichiometry" Workshop Without Walls hosted at Arizona State University April 11-12, 2013, under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. The results focus on the measurement of chemical abundances and the effects of composition on processes from stellar to planetary scales. Of particular interest were the scientific connections between processes in these normally disparate fields. Measuring the abundances of elements in stars and giant and terrestrial planets poses substantial difficulties in technique and interpretation. One of the motivations for this conference was the fact that determinations of the abundance of a given element in a single star by different groups can differ by more than their quoted errors. The problems affecting the reliability of abundance estimations and their inherent limitations are discussed. When these problems are taken into consideration, self-consistent surveys of stellar abundances show that there is still substantial variation (factors of ~2) in the ratios of common elements (e.g., C, O, Na, Al, Mg, Si, Ca) important in rock-forming minerals, atmospheres, and biology. We consider how abundance variations arise through injection of supernova nucleosynthesis products into star-forming material and through photoevaporation of protoplanetary disks. The effects of composition on stellar evolution are substantial, and coupled with planetary atmosphere models can result in predicted habitable zone extents that vary by many tens of percent. Variations in the bulk composition of planets can affect rates of radiogenic heating and substantially change the mineralogy of planetary interiors, affecting properties such as convection and energy transport.

Young, Patrick A.; Desch, Steven J.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Barnes, Rory; Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Monga, Nikhil; Pagano, Michael D.; Riner, Miriam A.; Scannapieco, Evan; Shim, Sang-Heon; Truitt, Amanda

2014-07-01

29

Astrobiological stoichiometry.  

PubMed

Chemical composition affects virtually all aspects of astrobiology, from stellar astrophysics to molecular biology. We present a synopsis of the research results presented at the "Stellar Stoichiometry" Workshop Without Walls hosted at Arizona State University April 11-12, 2013, under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. The results focus on the measurement of chemical abundances and the effects of composition on processes from stellar to planetary scales. Of particular interest were the scientific connections between processes in these normally disparate fields. Measuring the abundances of elements in stars and giant and terrestrial planets poses substantial difficulties in technique and interpretation. One of the motivations for this conference was the fact that determinations of the abundance of a given element in a single star by different groups can differ by more than their quoted errors. The problems affecting the reliability of abundance estimations and their inherent limitations are discussed. When these problems are taken into consideration, self-consistent surveys of stellar abundances show that there is still substantial variation (factors of ? 2) in the ratios of common elements (e.g., C, O, Na, Al, Mg, Si, Ca) important in rock-forming minerals, atmospheres, and biology. We consider how abundance variations arise through injection of supernova nucleosynthesis products into star-forming material and through photoevaporation of protoplanetary disks. The effects of composition on stellar evolution are substantial, and coupled with planetary atmosphere models can result in predicted habitable zone extents that vary by many tens of percent. Variations in the bulk composition of planets can affect rates of radiogenic heating and substantially change the mineralogy of planetary interiors, affecting properties such as convection and energy transport. PMID:25014611

Young, Patrick A; Desch, Steven J; Anbar, Ariel D; Barnes, Rory; Hinkel, Natalie R; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Monga, Nikhil; Pagano, Michael D; Riner, Miriam A; Scannapieco, Evan; Shim, Sang-Heon; Truitt, Amanda

2014-07-01

30

ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 8, Number 4, 2008  

E-print Network

of astrobiology embraces the search for potentially inhabited planets beyond our Solar System, the exploration, information science, space exploration technologies, and related disciplines. The broad interdisciplinary

31

Summer Research Experiences for Science and Art Teachers to Explore Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosomal Origins and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational program titled, "Life on the Edge: Astrobiology." The purpose of the program was to provide high school educators with the exposure, materials, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with undergraduate students interested in becoming a teacher through the NSF Pre-Teaching REU program. The GIFT and Pre-Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles, which became the focus of a week-long, "Life on the Edge: Astrobiology " summer program developed by three high school educators, two undergraduate students and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. Twenty high school students were introduced to hands-on activities, such as astrobiology inspired art and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact of the Astrobiology program on the GIFT researchers, Pre-Teaching REU students, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

Cola, J.; Gaucher, E.; Snell, T.; Greenwood, J.; Angra, A.; Zimmerman, C.; Williams, L. D.

2012-12-01

32

MBL Astrobiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This MBL Astrobiology portal includes information about the MBL Astrobiology team, its personnel, prior work, and publications. The MBL Astrobiology team works toward understanding the patterns and mechanisms of genome evolution and metabolic variation that allowed diverse microorganisms to adapt to new environments, generate novel phenotypes, and effect global-scale changes detectable by remote sensing. Their general strategy emphasizes the integration of molecular approaches to evolutionary biology with studies of metabolic activities in environments that most likely reflect conditions on early Earth. Physiological and microbial diversity studies focus on the hydrothermally altered sediments of Guaymas basin in the Gulf of California, the acidic, heavy metal laden Rio Tinto of southwestern Spain and isolates from the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

Marine Biological Laboratory

33

NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 10-11, 1996 at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the second NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 80 investigations and 69 principal investigators in FY96, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) scheduled for release in late 1996 by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the MSFC microgravity research facilities was held on June 12, 1996. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference and presentations made by various NASA microgravity science managers.

Szofran, Frank R.; McCauley, D.; Walker, C.

1996-10-01

34

NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 10-11, 1996 at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the second NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 80 investigations and 69 principal investigators in FY96, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) scheduled for release in late 1996 by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the MSFC microgravity research facilities was held on June 12, 1996. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference and presentations made by various NASA microgravity science managers.

Szofran, Frank R. (Compiler); McCauley, D. (Compiler); Walker, C. (Compiler)

1996-01-01

35

The Astrobiology Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a preview version of the Astrobiology Curriculum, an interdisciplinary year-long course for middle and high school students developed by TERC and NASA. Through a series of investigations based on the search for life on other planets, students explore diverse concepts in chemistry, biology, Earth and space science, and engineering. Topics include the geologic history of planets, the chemical foundations of life, biological diversity, extremophiles, and the use of remote-sensing instrumentation. Students develop research skills through modeling, lab experiments, field observations, and image and data analysis, and are linked to data from NASA's planetary space missions. The site includes links to the overview, course description, sample activities with teacher guide, student guide and worksheets, and other astrobiology links.

Nasa; Terc

36

The narrative power of astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The narrative power of astrobiology: Telling the story of the quest to understand life's origins and the search for evidence of extraterrestrial life INTRODUCTION The story of the origins and evolution of life is a narrative with nearuniversal appeal. The story of life on Earth is meaningful to all people, and the search for life elsewhere is appealing across cultural boundaries. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funds an Astrobiology Program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate that is dedicated to the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Because public interest in astrobiology is great and advances in the field are rapid, the NASA Astrobiology Program aims to integrate communication, education, and outreach into all aspects of program planning and execution. This strategic approach to communication is intended to promote the widest possible dissemination of timely and useful information about scientific discoveries, technology development, new knowledge, and greater understanding produced by the Astrobiology Program. This paper will address how scientists in the field of astrobiology can participate in the telling of an ongoing story of interest to multicultural audiences and why it is important to tell this story. SUMMARY Astrobiology research addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and evolve? Is there life beyond Earth and how can we detect it? What is the future of life on Earth and in the universe? The field of astrobiology is an endeavor that brings together researchers in a broad range of disciplines including Earth and planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, microbiology and evolutionary biology, and cosmochemistry. Goals of the NASA Astrobiology Program range from determining the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond to understanding the emergence of life from cosmic and planetary precursors, the interaction of past life on Earth with its changing environment, the formation and evolution of planets, links between planetary and biological evolution, the effects of climate and geology on habitability, and life's precursors and habitats in the outer solar system. Research dedicated to fulfilling these goals is conducted on Earth and in space, with a growing number of astrobiology investigations flying on planetary exploration missions. Since 1995, the field of astrobiology has grown rapidly, and the pace of discovery has been brisk. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is now a serious scientific question. Research findings over the past decade that are relevant to this question include the controversial 1996 claim of fossil evidence for microbial life in a martian meteorite, evidence of past and perhaps even present liquid water on Mars, the likelihood of a liquid water ocean on Europa, the possibility of liquid water beneath the surface of Titan, observations of a growing number of extrasolar planets, and identification of new forms of microbial life in an ever-widening range of extreme Earth environments. In the 21st century, the tempo of robotic planetary exploration is speeding up, and scientific and public attention is increasingly focusing on astrobiology research, especially the search for signs of life on Mars and other planetary bodies in our solar system. Mars is currently considered the best site in the solar system to search for evidence of past or present extraterrestrial life. And as Mars exploration proceeds, astrobiological interest in Enceladus, Europa, and Titan - outer solar system bodies that might have liquid water, prebiotic chemistry, or even life - is growing as new data are collected and analyzed. With an expanding array of solar system exploration endeavors involving and advancing astrobiology research, the NASA Astrobiology Program employs a communication strategy designed to establish that communication is an integral element of program planning and activities and an activity of fundamental importance to this scientific enterprise. This str

Billings, Linda

37

Science Applications of a Multispectral Microscopic Imager for the Astrobiological Exploration of Mars  

PubMed Central

Abstract Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73??m. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars. Key Words: Mars—Microscopic imager—Multispectral imaging—Spectroscopy—Habitability—Arm instrument. Astrobiology 14, 132–169. PMID:24552233

Farmer, Jack D.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A.; Blaney, Diana L.

2014-01-01

38

An Authentic Science Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are interested in learning how science works, and an effective way to introduce elementary students to the nature of science is by explicitly incorporating it within the context of their regular science activities. Without this overt attention, s

Anne M. Cox-Petersen

2001-03-01

39

Science applications of a multispectral microscopic imager for the astrobiological exploration of Mars.  

PubMed

Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73??m. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars. PMID:24552233

Núñez, Jorge I; Farmer, Jack D; Sellar, R Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A; Blaney, Diana L

2014-02-01

40

Science and Engineering Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about how to measure the interplanetary magnetic field, or IMF. Learners will act as scientists and engineers at a conference to explain their discoveries from earlier activities of the larger resource where they designed their own ways to measure the IMF. This activity should be used to illustrate how scientists and engineers working with the NASA STEREO-IMPACT mission have solved the same puzzle. This is Activity 3 in Session 3 of a larger resource, Exploring Magnetism in the Solar Wind.

41

Capturing Student Interest in Astrobiology through Dilemmas and Paradoxes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Astrobiology is an interdisciplinary science course that combines essential questions from life, physical, and Earth sciences. An effective astrobiology course also capitalizes on students' natural curiosity about social science implications of studying the origin of life and the impact of finding life elsewhere in the universe. (Contains 2…

Slater, Timothy F.

2006-01-01

42

Lower Secondary Students' Views in Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology is, on a profound level, about whether life exists outside of the planet Earth. The question of existence of life elsewhere in the universe has been of interest to many societies throughout history. Recently, the research area of astrobiology has grown at a fast rate, mainly due to the development of observational methods, and the media is frequently reporting on new research findings. International surveys show that astrobiology questions are among those that interest young people the most. The popularity of astrobiology and the way it captures much science content makes it an interesting area for science teaching. However, there is very little research directly focused upon students' views in astrobiology. The study reported in this paper draws from the answers of 186 Swedish lower secondary students (16 years old) to a questionnaire, with closed and open-ended questions regarding their views of issues in astrobiology. The study was guided by the worldview theory (Cobern 1991; Cobern, Science Education 80(5):579-610, 1996; Cobern, Science and Education 9:219-246, 2000). The results show that even though basic reasoning in astrobiology is known by a majority of the students, there is a considerable number of students, for whom this is not the case. Furthermore, it was found that for all questions, there are students answering in different ways when asked to describe their own view and the view they associate with science researchers. The implications of the study for further research and for the teaching of astrobiology in science class are discussed.

Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas

2013-01-01

43

Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrobiology is a scientific discipline devoted to the study of life in the universe--its origins, evolution, distribution, and future. It brings together the physical and biological sciences to address some of the most fundamental questions of the natural world: How do living systems emerge? How do habitable worlds form and how do they evolve? Does life exist on worlds other than Earth? As an endeavor of tremendous breadth and depth, astrobiology requires interdisciplinary investigation in order to be fully appreciated and examined. As part of a concerted effort to undertake such a challenge, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established in 1998 as an innovative way to develop the field of astrobiology and provide a scientific framework for flight missions. Now that the NAI has been in existence for almost a decade, the time is ripe to assess its achievements. At the request of NASA's Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), the Committee on the Review of the NASA Astrobiology Institute undertook the assignment to determine the progress made by the NAI in developing the field of astrobiology. It must be emphasized that the purpose of this study was not to undertake a review of the scientific accomplishments of NASA's Astrobiology program, in general, or of the NAI, in particular. Rather, the objective of the study is to evaluate the success of the NAI in achieving its stated goals of: 1. Conducting, supporting, and catalyzing collaborative interdisciplinary research; 2. Training the next generation of astrobiology researchers; 3. Providing scientific and technical leadership on astrobiology investigations for current and future space missions; 4. Exploring new approaches, using modern information technology, to conduct interdisciplinary and collaborative research among widely distributed investigators; and 5. Supporting outreach by providing scientific content for use in K-12 education programs, teaching undergraduate classes, and communicating directly with the public. The committee s assessment of the NAI's progress in these five areas is presented in Chapters 2 to 6, respectively.

2008-01-01

44

Astrobiology in Brazil: early history and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review reports the Brazilian history in astrobiology, as well as the first delineation of a vision of the future development of the field in the country, exploring its abundant biodiversity, highly capable human resources and state-of-the-art facilities, reflecting the last few years of stable governmental investments in science, technology and education, all conditions providing good perspectives on continued and steadily growing funding for astrobiology-related research. Brazil is growing steadily and fast in terms of its worldwide economic power, an effect being reflected in different areas of the Brazilian society, including industry, technology, education, social care and scientific production. In the field of astrobiology, the country has had some important landmarks, more intensely after the First Brazilian Workshop on Astrobiology in 2006. The history of astrobiology in Brazil, however, is not so recent and had its first occurrence in 1958. Since then, researchers carried out many individual initiatives across the country in astrobiology-related fields, resulting in an ever growing and expressive scientific production. The number of publications, including articles and theses, has particularly increased in the last decade, but still counting with the effort of researchers working individually. That scenario started to change in 2009, when a formal group of Brazilian researchers working with astrobiology was organized, aiming at congregating the scientific community interested in the subject and to promote the necessary interactions to achieve a multidisciplinary work, receiving facilities and funding from the University de Sao Paulo and other funding agencies.

Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Friaça, Amancio C. S.; Lage, Claudia; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Horvath, Jorge E.

2012-10-01

45

Astrobiological Complexity with Probabilistic Cellular Automata  

E-print Network

Search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous input parameters' space. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding actual empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and ne...

Vukoti?, B

2012-01-01

46

The Astrobiological Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction; Acknowledgements; 1. Astrobiology: the colour out of space?; 2. Cosmology, life, and duration of the past; 3. Cosmology, life, and selection effects; 4. Cosmology, life, and the archipelago; 5. Astrobiology as a natural extension of Darwinism; 6. Rare Earths and the continuity thesis; 7. SETI and its discontents; 8. Natural and artificial: cosmic domain of Arnheim; 9. Astrobiology as the neo-Copernican synthesis?; Index.

?irkovi?, Milan M.

2012-06-01

47

The Astrobiology Field Guide in World Wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In collaboration with the Australian Centre for Astrobiology (ACA), and NASA Learning Technologies (NLT), and utilizing the powerful visualization capabilities of their "World Wind" software, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) is crafting a prototype "Astrobiology Field Guide" to bring the field experiences and stories of astrobiology science to the public and classrooms around the world. The prototype focuses on one region in particular - The Pilbara in Western Australia. This first Field Guide "hotspot" is an internationally recognized area hosting the best known example of the earliest evidence of life on Earth - a stromatolitic chert precipitation in the 3.45 Ga Warrawoona Group. The goal of the Astrobiology Field Guide is to engage students of all ages with the ongoing field expeditions of today's astrobiologists as they explore the ends of the Earth searching for clues to life's origin, evolution, and distribution in the Universe. The NAI hopes to expand this Field Guide to include many more astrobiologically relevant areas across the globe such as Cuatro Cienegas in Mexico, the Rio Tinto in Spain, Yellowstone National Park in the US, and the Lost City hydrothermal vent field on the mid-Atlantic ridge - and possibly sites on Mars. To that end, we will be conducting feasibility studies and evaluations with informal and formal education contacts. The Astrobiology Field Guide is also serving as a cornerstone to educational materials being developed focused on the Pilbara region for use in classrooms in Australia, the UK, and potentially the US. These materials are being developed by the Australian Centre for Astrobiology, and the ICT Innovations Centre at Macquarie University in Sydney, in collaboration with the NAI and the Centre for Astronomy and Science Education at the University of Glamorgan in the UK.

Scalice, D. M.

2004-12-01

48

Archive: From Astrobiology to Zoology: Igniting Students' Interests in Science Careers , May 20, 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web Seminar, sponsored by Sally Ride Science, took place on May 20, 2008, from 6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. Presenting were Brenda Wilson, Vice-President for Content and Out-of-School Programs at Sally Ride Science and Julie Miller from Olathe District Schools in Kansas. This web seminar focused on four science fields and a number of strategies that teachers can use to ignite students' interests in them. For more information about this web seminar, its presenter(s), read what participants said about it, and to see and download its PowerPoint slides go here .

1900-01-01

49

Archive: From Astrobiology to Zoology: Igniting Students' Interests in Science Careers , April 30, 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web Seminar, sponsored by Sally Ride Science, took place on April 30, 2008, from 6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. Presenting were Dr. Karen Flammer, Research Physicist at University of California in San Diego and Senior Vice-President at Sally Ride Science and Julie Miller from Olathe District Schools in Kansas. This web seminar focused on strategies that teachers can use to ignite students' interests in science careers. For more information about this web seminar, its presenter(s), read what participants said about it, and to see and download its PowerPoint slides go here.

1900-01-01

50

Euro3D Science Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly completed 3D instruments - CIRPASS, GMOS, PMAS and SPIFFI. Work on 3D software, being developed as part of the Euro3D RTN, was also described and demonstrated. This proceedings volume, consisting of carefully refereed and edited manuscripts, represents the bulk of the talks at the conference and amply demonstrates that 3D spectroscopy is a lively and burgeoning field of optical observation.

Walsh, J. R.

2004-02-01

51

Conferences and Sessions: NSTA Area Conference on Science Education: Sound Science: Southern Style, Nashville, 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Join us in Music City for NSTA's December conference on science education. Conference strands include: Building Capacity to Lead Professional Learning The Brain-considerate Classroom Understanding a Designed World

1900-01-01

52

Astrobiology - The New Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background In connection with the complex planetology-education in Hungary [1] we have compiled an Astrobiology coursebook - as a base of its teaching in universities and perhaps in secondary schools as well. We tried to collect and assemble in a logical and thematical order the scientific breakthroughs of the last years, that made possible the fast improvement of astrobiology. The

A. Sik; T. Simon

2002-01-01

53

The Astrobiology Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains astrobiology news and links about: astrochemistry, bioinformatics, biosatellites, gravitational biology, hydrothermal vent communities, genomics, astropaleobiology, radiation physiology, the search for exterrestrial intelligence (SETI), extremophiles, exopaleontology, cell biology, evolution, planetary protection, and space medicine. There are also links to NASA TV and video feeds, astrobiology press releases, and an introduction to what an astrobiologist is.

SpaceRef Interactive Inc.

54

Teaching of Astrobiology at UTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Fall 2003, the course ``Astrobiology'' has been introduced at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). This course is offered both at the graduate and undergraduate level, and is cross-listed between the Department of Physics, Department of Biology, and Department of Geology. The course is interdisciplinary in nature, encompassing selected topics of astronomy, stellar astrophysics, biochemistry, theoretical, evolutionary, and extremophile biology, geology, planetary science, and atmospheric physics. The outline of the course includes topics such as the nature and definition of life, origin and evolution of life on Earth, the search for life in the solar system, the possibility of life around different types of stars, including multiple stellar systems, stellar habitable zones, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and the Fermi paradox. ``Astrobiology'' is now offered the third time, and has enjoyed a steady increase in popularity. In my presentation, I will discuss the underlying goals, my teaching experience, problems and opportunities, including feed-back from students.

Cuntz, Manfred

2006-10-01

55

Proceedings of the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sessions in the conference include: Titan, Mars Volcanism, Mars Polar Layered Deposits, Early Solar System Isotopes, SPECIAL SESSION: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: New Ways of Studying the Red Planet, Achondrites: Exploring Oxygen Isotopes and Parent-Body Processes, Solar System Formation and Evolution, SPECIAL SESSION: SMART-1, . Impact Cratering: Observations and Experiments, SPECIAL SESSION: Volcanism and Tectonism on Saturnian Satellites, Solar Nebula Composition, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Asteroid Observations: Spectra, Mostly, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: View from the Surface, Mars Tectonics and Crustal Dichotomy, Stardust: Wild-2 Revealed, Impact Cratering from Observations and Interpretations, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: The Map View, Chondrules and Their Formation, Enceladus, Asteroids and Deep Impact: Structure, Dynamics, and Experiments, Mars Surface Process and Evolution, Martian Meteorites: Nakhlites, Experiments, and the Great Shergottite Age Debate, Stardust: Mainly Mineralogy, Astrobiology, Wind-Surface Interactions on Mars and Earth, Icy Satellite Surfaces, Venus, Lunar Remote Sensing, Space Weathering, and Impact Effects, Interplanetary Dust/Genesis, Mars Cratering: Counts and Catastrophes?, Chondrites: Secondary Processes, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Atmosphere, Soils, Brines, and Minerals, Lunar Interior and Differentiation, Mars Magnetics and Atmosphere: Core to Ionosphere, Metal-rich Chondrites, Organics in Chondrites, Lunar Impacts and Meteorites, Presolar/Solar Grains, Topics for Print Only papers are: Outer Planets/Satellites, Early Solar System, Interplanetary Dust, Comets and Kuiper Belt Objects, Asteroids and Meteoroids, Chondrites, Achondrites, Meteorite Related, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars, Astrobiology, Planetary Differentiation, Impacts, Mercury, Lunar Samples and Modeling, Venus, Missions and Instruments, Global Warming, Education and Public Outreach, Poster sessions are: Asteroids/Kuiper Belt Objects, Galilean Satellites: Geology and Mapping, Titan, Volcanism and Tectonism on Saturnian Satellites, Early Solar System, Achondrite Hodgepodge, Ordinary Chondrites, Carbonaceous Chondrites, Impact Cratering from Observations and Interpretations, Impact Cratering from Experiments and Modeling, SMART-1, Planetary Differentiation, Mars Geology, Mars Volcanism, Mars Tectonics, Mars: Polar, Glacial, and Near-Surface Ice, Mars Valley Networks, Mars Gullies, Mars Outflow Channels, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Spirit and Opportunity, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: New Ways of Studying the Red Planet, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Geology, Layers, and Landforms, Oh, My!, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Viewing Mars Through Multicolored Glasses; Mars Science Laboratory, Phoenix, and ExoMars: Science, Instruments, and Landing Sites; Planetary Analogs: Chemical and Mineral, Planetary Analogs: Physical, Planetary Analogs: Operations, Future Mission Concepts, Planetary Data, Imaging, and Cartography, Outer Solar System, Presolar/Solar Grains, Stardust Mission; Interplanetary Dust, Genesis, Asteroids and Comets: Models, Dynamics, and Experiments, Venus, Mercury, Laboratory Instruments, Methods, and Techniques to Support Planetary Exploration; Instruments, Techniques, and Enabling Techologies for Planetary Exploration; Lunar Missions and Instruments, Living and Working on the Moon, Meteoroid Impacts on the Moon, Lunar Remote Sensing, Lunar Samples and Experiments, Lunar Atmosphere, Moon: Soils, Poles, and Volatiles, Lunar Topography and Geophysics, Lunar Meteorites, Chondrites: Secondary Processes, Chondrites, Martian Meteorites, Mars Cratering, Mars Surface Processes and Evolution, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Regolith, Spectroscopy, and Imaging, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Analogs and Mineralogy, Mars: Magnetics and Atmosphere, Mars Aeolian Geomorphology, Mars Data Processing and Analyses, Astrobiology, Engaging Student Educators and the Public in Planetary Science,

2007-01-01

56

National Workshop on Astrobiology: The Life Science Involvement of AAS I Laben  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or for automated biosensor based on cell culture Experiment Container for organic systems Experiment Container for small animals Instrumentation based on fluorescent Biosensors Sensors for Life science experiments for Biopan capsule and Space Vehicle Ray Shielding Materials Random Positioning Machine specialisation (Support ground equipment) The biological features of this heritage is at disposal for the exobiology multi science. The involvement of industries, from the beginning of the exobiology projects, allows a cost effective technologies closed loop development between Research Centres, Principal Investigators and industry.

Adami, Giorgio

2006-12-01

57

Teachning Astrobiology - a New Discipline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frank Drake's experiment on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence in 1960 not only generated a new field of observational astronomy but also produced spin-offs in the the fields of science education and the social sciences. It also led in the 1990s to the establishement of astrobiology institutes and departments. These broadened the field of SETI studies to include subjects concerned with the discovery of biological and non-biological life in the universe. This paper discusses the astrobioloy program at the University of Western Sydney in Australia.

Bhathal, Ragbir

58

Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is Volume 1 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Material Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in materials science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close to 350 people. Posters were available for viewing during the conference and a dedicated poster session was held on the second day. Nanotechnology radiation shielding materials, Space Station science opportunities, biomaterials research, and outreach and educational aspects of the program were featured in the plenary talks. This volume, the first to be released on CD-ROM for materials science, is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators at the conference.

Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

2001-01-01

59

NAC-Science Committee Meeting July 23, 2012  

E-print Network

that will achieve the National Research Council's Planetary Science Decadal Survey goal of sample return ­ Prepare ­ NRC's Committee on Astrobiology & Planetary Science LPSC ­ Lunar & Planetary Science Conference PSS ­ Planetary Science Subcommittee of NAC MEPAG ­ Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group NRC ­ National

Waliser, Duane E.

60

Galactic Habitable Zone and Astrobiological Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a short thesis description and for the sake of brevity most things are left out. For more details, those interested are further directed to the thesis related papers in this article reference list. Thesis itself is available at the University of Belgrade library "Svetozar Markovic" (Serbian version only). In this thesis we study the astrobiological history of the Galactic habitable zone through the means of numerical modeling. First group of simulations are unidimensional (time-axis) toy models examine the influence of global regulation mechanisms (gamma-ray bursts and supernovae) on temporal evolution of Galactic astrobiological complexity. It is shown that under the assumption of global regulation classical anti SETI arguments can be undermined. Second group of simulations are more complex bidimensional probabilistic cellular automata models of the Galactic thin disk. They confirm the findings of the toy models and give some insights into the spatial clustering of astrobiological complexity. As a new emerging multidisciplinary science the basic concepts of astrobiology are poorly understood and although all the simulations present here do not include some basic physics (such as Galactic kinematics and dynamics), the input parameters are somewhat arbitrary and could use a future refinement (such as the boundaries of the Galactic habitable zone). This is the cause for low weight and high uncertainty in the output results of the simulations. However, the probabilistic cellular automata has shown as a highly adaptable modeling platform that can simulate various class of astrobiological models with great ease.

Vukotic, B.

2012-12-01

61

Astrobiology: Discovering New Worlds of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes discoveries at the frontiers of science. Includes an instructional poster illustrating the hydrothermal vent communities on the deep ocean floor. Describes research activities related to the new discipline of astrobiology, a multidisciplinary approach to studying the emergence of life in the universe. Research activities include the…

James, Charles C.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

2001-01-01

62

Bridging Science and Policy: The AGU Science Policy Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, science has become inextricably linked to the political process. As such, it is more important now than ever for science to forge a better relationship with politics, for the health of both science and society. To help meet this need, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to engage its members, shape policy, and inform society about the excitement of Earth and space science and its role in developing solutions for the sustainability of the planet. In June 2013, AGU held its second annual Science Policy Conference in Washington, D.C. The goal of the conference is to provide a new forum for diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of science policy, with a focus on applications of Earth and space science that serve local, national, and international communities. The meeting brought together more than 300 scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, members of the press, and other stakeholders to discuss the topics concerning the Arctic, climate change, oceans, energy, technology and infrastructure, and natural hazards science as they relate to challenges impacting society. Sessions such as 'The Water-Energy Nexus,' 'Potential for Megadisasters,' 'The Changing Ocean and Impacts on Human Health,' and 'Drowning and Drought: Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change' are examples of some of the intriguing and timely science policy issues addressed at the conference. The findings from the conference were used to develop a summary report. The report highlights key facts and figures to be used as a resource in discussions with policy makers and other stakeholders regarding the conference topics. This presentation will discuss the goals and outcomes of the conference and how the event represents one of the many ways AGU is approaching its 'Science and Society' priority objective as part of the Union's strategic plan; namely by increasing the effectiveness and recognition of AGU among policy makers as an authoritative source of integrated, interdisciplinary Earth and space science information.

Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K.; Landau, E. A.

2013-12-01

63

-1first wageningen conference on applied soil science scientific program  

E-print Network

- 1first wageningen conference on applied soil science scientific program With this conference we want to emphasize the importance of soil science for combating and mitigating the challenges of our- annual Wageningen Conference on Applied Soil Science; informally: Wageningen Soil Meeting), we have

Wall, Diana

64

Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology; Seek Out and Explore: Upcoming and Future Missions; Mars: Early History and Impact Processes; Mars Analogs II: Chemical and Spectral; Achondrites and their Parent Bodies; and Planning for Future Exploration of the Moon The poster sessions were: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1; LRO and LCROSS; Geophysical Analysis of the Lunar Surface and Interior; Remote Observation and Geologic Mapping of the Lunar Surface; Lunar Spectroscopy; Venus Geology, Geophysics, Mapping, and Sampling; Planetary Differentiation; Bunburra and Buzzard Coulee: Recent Meteorite Falls; Meteorites: Terrestrial History; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Volatile and Organic Compounds in Chondrites; Crashing Chondrites: Impact, Shock, and Melting; Ureilite Studies; Petrology and Mineralogy of the SNC Meteorites; Martian Meteorites; Phoenix Landing Site: Perchlorate and Other Tasty Treats; Mars Polar Atmospheres and Climate Modeling; Mars Polar Investigations; Mars Near-Surface Ice; Mars: A Volatile-Rich Planet; Mars: Geochemistry and Alteration Processes; Martian Phyllosilicates: Identification, Formation, and Alteration; Astrobiology; Instrument Concepts, Systems, and Probes for Investigating Rocks and Regolith; Seeing is Believing: UV, VIS, IR, X- and Gamma-Ray Camera and Spectrometer Instruments; Up Close and Personal: In Situ Analysis with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry; Jupiter and Inscrutable Io; Tantalizing Titan; Enigmatic Enceladus and Intriguing Iapetus; Icy Satellites: Cryptic Craters; Icy Satellites: Gelid Geology/Geophysics; Icy Satellites: Cool Chemistry and Spectacular Spectroscopy; Asteroids and Comets; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Hypervelocity Impacts: Stardust Models, LDEF, and ISPE; Presolar Grains; Early Nebular Processes: Models and Isotopes; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Education and Public Outreach; Mercury; Pursuing Lunar Exploration; Sources and Eruptionf Lunar Basalts; Chemical and Physical Properties of the Lunar Regolith; Lunar Dust and Transient

2009-01-01

65

Astrobiology Research Experience for Undergraduates: An Interdisciplinary REU Program at the SETI Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SETI Institute hosts a summer Astrobiology Research Experience for Undergraduates program for highly motivated students interested in astrobiology research. Students work with scientists at the SETI Institute and at the nearby NASA Ames Research Center on projects spanning the field of astrobiology from microbiology to planetary geology to astronomy and astrophysics. Each student is mentored by a scientist for his/her summer research project. As astrobiology is interdisciplinary, the first week includes a seminar series to provide a broad foundation in the field as the students begin their research projects. The 10-week program includes a week-long field trip to the SETI Institute’s Allen Telescope Array, located at the Hat Creek Radio Astronomy Observatory in Northern California, as well as a field experience at hydrothermal systems at nearby Lassen Volcanic National Park. Students also participate in local field trips to places like the California Academy of Sciences and other nearby locations of scientific interest, and attend seminars, lectures, and discussions on astrobiology. Students are also invited to attend events at nearby NASA Ames Research Center, which offers the opportunity to interact with other undergraduate and graduate students participating in NASA summer programs. At the end of the program, students write up and present their research projects, and mentors recommend some projects for submission to a national scientific conference, which the selected students will be funded to attend. The Astrobiology REU program emphasizes three main areas, which are listed in the table along with typical project themes. Each year, specific student research projects are described on the website, and students are asked to select the three that most interest them as a part of their applications. Applications are due in early February. Typically, 10 students apply for each available position. Students have been selected from colleges and universities national-wide, including community colleges. The Astrobiology REU program has served 4 classes of students, and is funded through summer of 2011. A total of 61 students have participated (12 in 2006, 17 in 2007, 17 in 2008, and 15 in 2009); all have successfully completed their internships. Of these students, 59% were women, and 21% were minorities. To date 18 students have gone on to graduate studies, in Master’s or PhD programs at schools including Harvard, UC Berkeley, UC Santa Cruz, Stanford, Univ. of Nebraska, and many others, in fields including astronomy, optical science, space life sciences, geology, physics, mechanical engineering, and molecular and cellular biology. The SETI Institute is a non-profit private scientific research institution located in California’s Silicon Valley. The Astrobiology REU program is supported by National Science Foundation Grant AST-0852095 with additional funding from NASA’s Astrobiology Institute, the SETI Institute and private donors.Main research areas and typical project themes

Phillips, C. B.; Devore, E. K.

2009-12-01

66

Communicating Science: A National Conference on Science Education and Public Outreach ASP Conference Series, Vol. 473  

E-print Network

Communicating Science: A National Conference on Science Education and Public Outreach ASP Yan,3 Kyle Fricke,3 and Leitha Thrall3 1Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA 2Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University

Fillingim, Matthew

67

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The session Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites includes the following topics: 1) Investigating the Impact of UV Radiation on High-Altitude Shallow Lake Habitats, Life Diversity, and Life Survival Strategies: Clues for Mars' Past Habitability Potential? 2) An Analysis of Potential Photosynthetic Life on Mars; 3) Radiation Inactivation of Bacterial spores on Mars; 4) Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers; 5) Optical Detection of Organic Chemical Biosignatures at Hydrothermal Vents; 6) Signs of Life in Meridiani Planum-What Might Opportunity See (or Miss)? 7) Isolation of PUrines and Pyrimidines from the Murchison Meteorite Using Sublimation; and 8) Relative Amino Acid Composition of CM1 Carbonaceous Chondrites.

2004-01-01

68

Economist Conferences to hold international Life Science conference in Uppsala, Sweden  

E-print Network

Economist Conferences to hold international Life Science conference in Uppsala, Sweden Press, Sweden When: November 22, 2012 Group and confere C of Tr In D C ThDelia Meth-Cohn, Editorial Director Speakers Official publication on the conference and Sweden's leading daily newspaper. PR & Media Sofia

69

Open Science Conference honors posters and papers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One hundred students and early-career scientists were honored for outstanding poster and paper presentations given at the World Climate Research Programme's Open Science Conference, which took place 24-28 October 2011 in Denver, Colo. AGU presented 5 honorees with waivers for the 2012 AGU Fall Meeting; 10 honorees received AGU books; and 59 of the students and early-career scientists were awarded membership to AGU. Other groups providing gifts to the honorees included the American Meteorological Society and the European Geophysical Union. The recipients' presentations were among the 1750 posters and 182 papers at the conference.

Showstack, Randy

2011-11-01

70

Astrobiological complexity with probabilistic cellular automata.  

PubMed

The search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling the astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous space of the input parameters. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories with "Copernican" choice of input parameters and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches. PMID:22832998

Vukoti?, Branislav; ?irkovi?, Milan M

2012-08-01

71

Astrobiological Complexity with Probabilistic Cellular Automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling the astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous space of the input parameters. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories with "Copernican" choice of input parameters and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches.

Vukoti?, Branislav; ?irkovi?, Milan M.

2012-08-01

72

Astronomy Behind the Headlines: Astrobiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is a podcast audio presentation about the field of astrobiology and the search for life in the universe. It features an interview with Chris McKay, planetary scientist with the NASA Ames Research Center. Also included is a comprehensive set of links to editor-approved resources on the search for life on Mars and NASA's Kepler Mission to find terrestrial planets (i.e., those one half to twice the size of the Earth), especially those in the habitable zone of their stars where liquid water and possibly life might exist. This resource is one episode of Astronomy Behind the Headlines a web-based monthly periodical that features short interviews about the latest discoveries in astronomy and space science. It is published and maintained by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

Collins-Petersen, Carolyn

2010-03-08

73

SIAM Conference on Computational Science and Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The Second SIAM Conference on Computational Science and Engineering was held in San Diego from February 10-12, 2003. Total conference attendance was 553. This is a 23% increase in attendance over the first conference. The focus of this conference was to draw attention to the tremendous range of major computational efforts on large problems in science and engineering, to promote the interdisciplinary culture required to meet these large-scale challenges, and to encourage the training of the next generation of computational scientists. Computational Science & Engineering (CS&E) is now widely accepted, along with theory and experiment, as a crucial third mode of scientific investigation and engineering design. Aerospace, automotive, biological, chemical, semiconductor, and other industrial sectors now rely on simulation for technical decision support. For federal agencies also, CS&E has become an essential support for decisions on resources, transportation, and defense. CS&E is, by nature, interdisciplinary. It grows out of physical applications and it depends on computer architecture, but at its heart are powerful numerical algorithms and sophisticated computer science techniques. From an applied mathematics perspective, much of CS&E has involved analysis, but the future surely includes optimization and design, especially in the presence of uncertainty. Another mathematical frontier is the assimilation of very large data sets through such techniques as adaptive multi-resolution, automated feature search, and low-dimensional parameterization. The themes of the 2003 conference included, but were not limited to: Advanced Discretization Methods; Computational Biology and Bioinformatics; Computational Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Computational Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Computational Electromagnetics; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Computational Medicine and Bioengineering; Computational Physics and Astrophysics; Computational Solid Mechanics and Materials; CS&E Education; Meshing and Adaptivity; Multiscale and Multiphysics Problems; Numerical Algorithms for CS&E; Discrete and Combinatorial Algorithms for CS&E; Inverse Problems; Optimal Design, Optimal Control, and Inverse Problems; Parallel and Distributed Computing; Problem-Solving Environments; Software and Wddleware Systems; Uncertainty Estimation and Sensitivity Analysis; and Visualization and Computer Graphics.

None

2003-01-01

74

Third annual women in science and technology conference  

SciTech Connect

This report presents discussions presented at the conference for women in science and technology. Topics include balancing careers with the family, choices concerning graduate schools, and sexual harassment.

Not Available

1992-01-01

75

Third annual women in science and technology conference  

SciTech Connect

This report presents discussions presented at the conference for women in science and technology. Topics include balancing careers with the family, choices concerning graduate schools, and sexual harassment.

Not Available

1992-12-31

76

Astrobiology: The Case for Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific discipline of astrobiology addresses one of the most fundamental unanswered questions of science: are we alone? Is there life elsewhere in the universe, or is life unique to Earth? The field of astrobiology includes the study of the chemical precursors for life in the solar system; it also includes the search for both presently existing life and fossil signs of previously existing life elsewhere in our own solar system, as well as the search for life outside the solar system. Two of the promising environments within the solar system being currently considered are the surface of the planet Mars, and the hypothesized oceans underneath the ice covering the moon Europa. Both of these environments differ in several key ways from the environments where life is found on Earth; the Mars environment in most places too cold and at too low pressure for liquid water to be stable, and the sub-ice environment of Europa lacking an abundance of free energy in the form of sunlight. The only place in the solar system where we know that life exists today is the Earth. To look for life elsewhere in the solar system, one promising search strategy would be to find and study the environment in the solar system with conditions that are most similar to the environmental conditions where life thrives on the Earth. Specifically, we would like to study a location in the solar system with atmospheric pressure near one bar; temperature in the range where water is liquid, 0 to 100 C; abundant solar energy; and with the primary materials required for life, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, present. Other than the surface of the Earth, the only other place where these conditions exist is the atmosphere of Venus, at an altitude of about fifty kilometers above the surface.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

2003-01-01

77

Educating Tomorrow's Science Teachers: STEM ACT Conference Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on the findings of an NSF-funded conference (STEM ACT) on the alternative certification of science teachers. The conference explored the issues that have arisen in science education as a result of the proliferation of alternative certification programs in the United States, and to identify the research that needs to be done…

Sternheim, Morton M.; Feldman, Allan; Berger, Joseph B.; Zhao, Yijie

2008-01-01

78

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND STANDARDS IN FORENSIC HANDWRITING ANALYSIS CONFERENCE & WEBCAST  

E-print Network

1 MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND STANDARDS IN FORENSIC HANDWRITING ANALYSIS CONFERENCE & WEBCAST IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENTS June 4-5, 2013 Overview We have several important announcements regarding the Measurement Science and Standards in Forensic Handwriting Analysis Conference & Webcast that starts at 9:00AM Eastern Time on June 4

Magee, Joseph W.

79

Connecting People to Science ASP Conference Series, Vol. 457  

E-print Network

Connecting People to Science ASP Conference Series, Vol. 457 Joseph B. Jensen, James G. Manning and Kyle Fricke2 1Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA 2Center for Science Education, Space Sciences Laboratory (CSE@SSL), University of California

Fillingim, Matthew

80

Astrobiology: The Search for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the latest website from the Exploratorium's _Origins_ series -- a Web-based project that "explores the origins of matter, the universe, earth, and even life itself." In "Astrobiology: The Search for Life," visitors can read up on Earth's extreme environments that support life and serve as models for extraterrestrial environments. The site also introduces some of the scientists working in astrobiology, including Jill Tarter. Other sections explore the tools of the trade (e.g. NASA's Mars Rover) and important ideas in astrobiology (e.g. the Drake Equation). Additionally, during the month of November, the Exploratorium will air live webcasts from field sites like Chile's Licancabur volcano, and broadcast interviews with some of astrobiology's top brass.

81

2012 Bacterial Source Tracking -State of the Science Conference Conference Introductory Materials  

E-print Network

and approaches used to track sources of fecal contamination impacting water quality in streams, rivers, lakes2012 Bacterial Source Tracking - State of the Science Conference Conference Introductory Materials http://texasbst.tamu.edu Title Author Summary Microbial Source Tracking presentation Orin C. Shanks

82

Memorial tribute to astrobiology pioneers Dr. David S. Mckay and academician Georgy A. Zavarzin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past two years, the world has lost two great pioneers of the field of Astrobiology-Dr. David Stewart McKay who worked at the NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, USA and Academician Georgy Alexandrovich Zavarzin of the Institute of Microbiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Professor of the Moscow State University in Moscow, Russia. The Volume of the Proceedings of the 2013 SPIE Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology XVI is dedicated to the memory of these great scientists. We remember our dear friends and review some of their many important contributions to Planetary Science, Geology, Meteoritics, Microbiology and Astrobiology.

Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Rozhnov, Sergei V.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2013-09-01

83

PREFACE: Tsukuba International Conference on Materials Science 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsukuba International Conference on Materials Science (TICMS) was held from 28th August to 6th September, 2013 for the celebration of 40th year anniversary of the University of Tsukuba. The conference was organized by the Division of Materials Science, in cooperation with the Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, and Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science. The purpose of the conference was to provide a unique forum for researchers and students working in various fields of materials science, which have been progressing so rapidly that no single society could cover. The conference consists of following seven workshops to cover various fields. The organizing committee believed that the conference gave all participants new insights into the widespread development of materials science and enhanced the circulation, among them, of information released at the conference. The organizers are grateful for the financial support from University of Tsukuba. This volume contains 25 selected papers from invited and contributed papers, all of which have been screened on the basis of the standard review process of the program committee. The editors express their thanks to those authors who contributed the papers published in this proceedings, which reflects the scientific value of the conference. Nov. 20, 2013 Seiji Kojima, Prof. Dr. Chair, Division of Materials Science Chair, Doctoral Program in Materials Science TICMS 2013 (http://www.ticonfms.tsukuba.ac.jp/) Workshop list The 13th Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Materials Science Summer School of Biomaterials Science The Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies The 2nd Workshop on THz Radiation from Intrinsic Josephson Junctions The 3rd German-Japan Nanoworkshop TICMS and IWP Joint Workshop on Conjugated Polymers International Workshop on Science and Patents (IWP) 2013

Kijima, Masashi; Ohshima, Kenichi; Kojima, Seiji; Nagasaki, Yukio; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kim, Hee Young; Kadowaki, Kazuo; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Nakamura, Junji; Yamamoto, Yohei; Goto, Hiromasa

2014-03-01

84

Undergraduate Teaching in the Animal Sciences, Proceedings of a Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of a conference which reviewed the content of undergraduate animal science curricula, content of courses in the animal sciences, and methods and materials used in undergraduate teaching in the animal sciences are presented in this bulletin. These individual papers are included: Trends in Animal Agriculture and the Future of…

Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

85

Astrobiology: The Story of NASA's Search for Life in the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a graphic novel history about NASA's search for life in the universe. It tells the story of some of the most important people and events that have shaped the NASA Exobiology and Astrobiology science.

86

Astrobiology, Evolution, and Society: Public Engagement Insights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is unavoidable that the science of astrobiology will intersect with, and inevitably challenge, many deeply held beliefs. Exploration possibilities, particularly those that may include the discovery of extraterrestrial life, will continue to challenge us to reconsider our views of nature and our connection to the rest of the universe. As a scientific discipline, astrobiology works from the assumption that the origin and evolution of life can be accounted for by natural processes, that life could emerge naturally from the physical materials that make up the terrestrial planets. The search for life on other terrestrial planets is focused on “life as we know it.” The only life we currently know of is the life found on Earth, and for the scientific community the shared common ancestry of all Earth life, and its astounding diversity, is explained by the theory of evolution. The work of astrobiology, at its very core, is fueled by the theory of evolution. However, a survey by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (2005) revealed that 42% of US adults believe that “life has existed in its present form since the beginning of time”. This answer persists nearly 150 years after the publication of Charles Darwin’s "On the Origin of the Species", the landmark work in which Darwin proposed that living things share common ancestors and have “descended with modification” from these ancestors through a process of natural selection . Perhaps even more distressing is the fact that these numbers have not changed in decades, despite the astounding advancements in science that have resulted over this same time period. How will these facts bear on the usefulness of astrobiology as a tool for encouraging a US public to share in the excitement of scientific discovery and be informed participants in a public dialogue concerning next steps? When people were asked “to identify the biggest influence on your thinking about how life developed,” the response chosen most frequently was “my religious beliefs.” A review of religious identification in this country will be presented in the context of offering insights for public engagement on the topic of evolution, and the contribution that astrobiology could make to encouraging a positive relationship between science and religion. A widespread acceptance of evolution in the United States may require that the scientific community go beyond a simple contrast approach to science and religion and be willing to encourage, and participate in, a program of in-depth and long-term engagement with theologians and religious community leaders. Astrobiology as a discipline is particularly burdened, perhaps blessed, with the responsibility to engage this issue. After all, humanity itself may be inherently defined by the ability we collectively posses to ask “Where did we come from?,” “Are we alone?,” and “Where are we going?”

Bertka, C. M.

2009-12-01

87

2014 Undergraduate Research Conference Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Symposium  

E-print Network

2014 Undergraduate Research Conference Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Symposium First Physics/Mathematics Project Title: Analyzing Heavy Photon Search Simulations to Determine the Potential for Simplified Bluetooth Communication Author: Scott Cypher Advisor: Radim Bartos 2014 URC-Interdisciplinary

New Hampshire, University of

88

Proceedings of the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sessions with oral presentations include: A SPECIAL SESSION: MESSENGER at Mercury, Mars: Pingos, Polygons, and Other Puzzles, Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Mars: Ice On the Ground and In the Ground, SPECIAL SESSION: Results from Kaguya (SELENE) Mission to the Moon, Outer Planet Satellites: Not Titan, Not Enceladus, SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Science: Past, Present, and Future, Mars: North Pole, South Pole - Structure and Evolution, Refractory Inclusions, Impact Events: Modeling, Experiments, and Observations, Mars Sedimentary Processes from Victoria Crater to the Columbia Hills, Formation and Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites, New Achondrite GRA 06128/GRA 06129 - Origins Unknown, The Science Behind Lunar Missions, Mars Volcanics and Tectonics, From Dust to Planets (Planetary Formation and Planetesimals):When, Where, and Kaboom! Astrobiology: Biosignatures, Impacts, Habitability, Excavating a Comet, Mars Interior Dynamics to Exterior Impacts, Achondrites, Lunar Remote Sensing, Mars Aeolian Processes and Gully Formation Mechanisms, Solar Nebula Shake and Bake: Mixing and Isotopes, Lunar Geophysics, Meteorites from Mars: Shergottite and Nakhlite Invasion, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Chondrules and Chondrule Formation, Lunar Samples: Chronology, Geochemistry, and Petrology, Enceladus, Venus: Resurfacing and Topography (with Pancakes!), Overview of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission, Mars Sulfates, Phyllosilicates, and Their Aqueous Sources, Ordinary and Enstatite Chondrites, Impact Calibration and Effects, Comparative Planetology, Analogs: Environments and Materials, Mars: The Orbital View of Sediments and Aqueous Mineralogy, Planetary Differentiation, Titan, Presolar Grains: Still More Isotopes Out of This World, Poster sessions include: Education and Public Outreach Programs, Early Solar System and Planet Formation, Solar Wind and Genesis, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Carbonaceous Chondrites, Chondrules and Chondrule Formation, Chondrites, Refractory Inclusions, Organics in Chondrites, Meteorites: Techniques, Experiments, and Physical Properties, MESSENGER and Mercury, Lunar Science Present: Kaguya (SELENE) Results, Lunar Remote Sensing: Basins and Mapping of Geology and Geochemistry, Lunar Science: Dust and Ice, Lunar Science: Missions and Planning, Mars: Layered, Icy, and Polygonal, Mars Stratigraphy and Sedimentology, Mars (Peri)Glacial, Mars Polar (and Vast), Mars, You are Here: Landing Sites and Imagery, Mars Volcanics and Magmas, Mars Atmosphere, Impact Events: Modeling, Experiments, and Observation, Ice is Nice: Mostly Outer Planet Satellites, Galilean Satellites, The Big Giant Planets, Astrobiology, In Situ Instrumentation, Rocket Scientist's Toolbox: Mission Science and Operations, Spacecraft Missions, Presolar Grains, Micrometeorites, Condensation-Evaporation: Stardust Ties, Comet Dust, Comparative Planetology, Planetary Differentiation, Lunar Meteorites, Nonchondritic Meteorites, Martian Meteorites, Apollo Samples and Lunar Interior, Lunar Geophysics, Lunar Science: Geophysics, Surface Science, and Extralunar Components, Mars, Remotely, Mars Orbital Data - Methods and Interpretation, Mars Tectonics and Dynamics, Mars Craters: Tiny to Humongous, Mars Sedimentary Mineralogy, Martian Gullies and Slope Streaks, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Mars Aeolian Processes, Mars Data and Mission,s Venus Mapping, Modeling, and Data Analysis, Titan, Icy Dwarf Satellites, Rocket Scientist's Toolbox: In Situ Analysis, Remote Sensing Approaches, Advances, and Applications, Analogs: Sulfates - Earth and Lab to Mars, Analogs: Remote Sensing and Spectroscopy, Analogs: Methods and Instruments, Analogs: Weird Places!. Print Only Early Solar System, Solar Wind, IDPs, Presolar/Solar Grains, Stardust, Comets, Asteroids, and Phobos, Venus, Mercury, Moon, Meteorites, Mars, Astrobiology, Impacts, Outer Planets, Satellites, and Rings, Support for Mission Operations, Analog Education and Public Outreach.

2008-01-01

89

Molecular Simulations in Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the main goals of astrobiology is to understand the origin of cellular life. The most direct approach to this problem is to construct laboratory models of protocells. Such efforts, currently underway in the NASA Astrobiology Program, are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures that are capable of performing protocellular functions. Many of these functions, such as importing nutrients, capturing energy and responding to changes in the environment, are carried out by proteins bound to membranes. We use computer simulations to address the following questions about these proteins: (1) How do small proteins self-organize into ordered structures at water-membrane interfaces and insert into membranes? (2) How do peptides form membrane-spanning structures (e.g. channels)? (3) By what mechanisms do such structures perform their functions? The simulations are performed using the molecular dynamics method. In this method, Newton's equations of motion for each atom in the system are solved iteratively. At each time step, the forces exerted on each atom by the remaining atoms are evaluated by dividing them into two parts. Short-range forces are calculated in real space while long-range forces are evaluated in reciprocal space, using a particle-mesh algorithm which is of order O(NInN). With a time step of 2 femtoseconds, problems occurring on multi-nanosecond time scales (10(exp 6)-10(exp 8) time steps) are accessible. To address a broader range of problems, simulations need to be extended by three orders of magnitude, which requires algorithmic improvements and codes scalable to a large number of processors. Work in this direction is in progress. Two series of simulations are discussed. In one series, it is shown that nonpolar peptides, disordered in water, translocate to the nonpolar interior of the membrane and fold into helical structures (see Figure). Once in the membrane, the peptides exhibit orientational flexibility with changing conditions, which may have provided a mechanism of transmitting signals between the protocell and its environment. In another series of simulations, the mechanism by which a simple protein channel efficiently mediates proton transport across membranes was investigated. This process is a key step in cellular bioenergetics. In the channel under study, proton transport is gated by four histidines that occlude the channel pore. The simulations identify the mechanisms by which protons move through the gate.

Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.; Schweighofer, Karl; Chipot, Christophe; New, Michael H.

2000-01-01

90

Astrobiology: An astronomer's perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review we explore aspects of the field of astrobiology from an astronomical viewpoint. We therefore focus on the origin of life in the context of planetary formation, with additional emphasis on tracing the most abundant volatile elements, C, H, O, and N that are used by life on Earth. We first explore the history of life on our planet and outline the current state of our knowledge regarding the delivery of the C, H, O, N elements to the Earth. We then discuss how astronomers track the gaseous and solid molecular carriers of these volatiles throughout the process of star and planet formation. It is now clear that the early stages of star formation fosters the creation of water and simple organic molecules with enrichments of heavy isotopes. These molecules are found as ice coatings on the solid materials that represent microscopic beginnings of terrestrial worlds. Based on the meteoritic and cometary record, the process of planet formation, and the local environment, lead to additional increases in organic complexity. The astronomical connections towards this stage are only now being directly made. Although the exact details are uncertain, it is likely that the birth process of star and planets likely leads to terrestrial worlds being born with abundant water and organics on the surface.

Bergin, Edwin A.

2014-12-01

91

Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.

Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

92

Frontiers of Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Introduction: Introduction and welcome Cardinal Ljolo; 1. Astrobiology - a new synthesis J. Baross and C. Impey; Part II. Origins of Planets and Life: 2. Towards a theory of life S. Benner and P. Davies; 3. Terran metabolism: the first billion years S. Copley and R. Summons; 4. Planet formation S. Raymond and W. Benz; Part III. History of Life on Earth: 5. The early Earth F. Westall and F. Selsis; 6. Evolution of a habitable planet J. Kasting and J. Kirschvink; 7. Our evolving planet: from dark ages to evolutionary renaissance A. Knoll and E. Gaidos; Part IV. Habitability of the Solar System: 8. Early Mars - cradle or cauldron? A. Azua-Bustos, R. Pierrehumbert and R. Vicuña; 9. Large habitable moons: Titan and Europa A. Coustenis and M. Blanc; 10. Small habitable worlds J. Castillo-Rogez and J. Lunine; Part V. Exoplanets and Life in the Galaxy: 11. Searches for habitable exoplanets S. Seager; 12. Review of known exoplanets C. Lovis and D. Minniti; 13. Characterizing exoplanet atmospheres G. Tinetti; 14. If you want to talk to ET, you must first find ET J. Tarter and C. Impey; Index.

Impey, Chris; Lunine, Jonathan; Funes, José

2012-11-01

93

Astrobiology Research in India - A Brief Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

strobiology is study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life on Earth and in the Universe. The discovery of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and complex organic molecules in interstellar clouds, comets and interplanetary dust forced biological interest into space research. The existence of different life forms in extreme environments of Earth, their ability to adapt and survive for long periods in stasis and then recover has given hope that life might exist on other planets. A lot more insight into the origin of life is gained by studying the analogous life on Earth to predict how extraterrestrial life might live. In this paper, a brief account is given on the exogenous and endogenous origin of life on Earth, biochemical basis of life, the need and approach for research in astrobiology, scientific strength of Indian institutions to launch space missions in search of life. A review of the results of the two balloon experiments carried out by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in collaboration with many research institutes in the country as well as the studies carried out elsewhere is also given. An attempt made to address the limitations of the previous experiments, improvements needed, implications of engineering design changes to meet the gaps and institutional resources needed to carry out further studies in astrobiology in the Indian context. A few priority investigations that can be carried out in collaboration with premier national laboratories in India have been identified. A brief account of the international missions that are aimed at finding out habitable Earth-like planets is given. The educational opportunities and interdisciplinary unifying nature of astrobiology research are discussed. The paper concludes with an approach that can be adopted for coordinating the research in this new space science in a programmatic mode.

Peda Nageswara Rao, Pinnamaneni

2012-07-01

94

PREFACE: The International Conference on Science of Friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first international conference on the science of friction in Japan was held at Irago, Aichi on 9-13 September 2007. The conference focused on the elementary process of friction phenomena from the atomic and molecular scale view. Topics covered in the conference are shown below.:

  • Superlubricity and friction
  • Electronic and phononic contributions to friction
  • Friction on the atomic and molecular scales
  • van der Waals friction and Casimir force
  • Molecular motor and friction
  • Friction and adhesion in soft matter systems
  • Wear and crack on the nanoscale
  • Theoretical studies on the atomic scale friction and energy dissipation
  • Friction and chaos
  • Mechanical properties of nanoscale contacts
  • Friction of powder
  • The number of participants in the conference was approximately 100, registered from 11 countries. 48 oral and 29 poster talks were presented at the conference. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 23 papers devoted to the above topics of friction. The successful organization of the conference was made possible by the contribution of the members of the Organizing Committee and International Advisory Committee. The conference was made possible thanks to the financial support from Aichi University of Education and the Taihokogyo Tribology Research Foundation (TTRF), and moreover thanks to the approval societies of The Physical Society of Japan, The Surface Science Society of Japan, The Japanese Society of Tribologists and Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute. The details of the conference are available at http://www.science-of-friction.com . Finally we want to thank the speakers for the high quality of their talks and all participants for coming to Irago, Japan and actively contributing to the conference. Kouji Miura and Hiroshi Matsukawa Editors

    Miura, Kouji; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    95

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute: early history and organization  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established as a means to advance the field of astrobiology by providing a multidisciplinary, multi-institution, science-directed program, executed by universities, research institutes, and NASA and other government laboratories. The scientific community and NASA defined the science content at several workshops as summarized in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. Teams were chosen nationwide, following the recommendations of external review groups, and the research program began in 1998. There are now 16 national Teams and five international affiliated and associated astrobiology institutions. The NAI has attracted an outstanding group of scientific groups and individuals. The Institute facilitates the involvement of the scientists in its scientific and management vision. Its goal is to support basic research and allow the scientists the freedom to select their projects and alter them as indicated by new research. Additional missions include the education of the public, the involvement of students who will be the astrobiologists of future generations, and the development of a culture of collaboration in NAI, a "virtual institute," spread across many sites nationally and internationally.

    Blumberg, Baruch S.

    2003-01-01

    96

    NASA's planetary protection program as an astrobiology teaching module  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We are currently developing a teaching module on the NASA's Planetary Protection Program for UW-Parkside SENCER courses. SENCER stands for Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibility. It is a national initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF), now in its fifth year, to improve science education by teaching basic sciences through the complex public issues of the 21st century. The Planetary Protection Program is one such complex public issue. Teaching astrobiology and the NASA's goals via the Planetary Protection module within the SENCER courses seems to be a good formula to reach large number of students in an interesting and innovative way. We shall describe the module that we are developing. It will be launched on our web site titled "Astrobiology at Parkside" (http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/chemistry/kolb/organic_chemistry/, or go to Google and then to Vera Kolb Home Page), and thus will be available for teaching to all interested parties.

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2005-09-01

    97

    Molecular Simulations in Astrobiology  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    One of the main goals of astrobiology is to understand the origin of cellular life. In the absence of any record of the earliest ancestors of contemporary cells, protocells, the most direct way to test our understanding of their characteristics is to construct laboratory models of protocells. Such efforts, currently underway in the NASA Astrobiology Program, are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures and developing designs of molecules that are capable of performing protocellular functions. Many of these functions, such as importing nutrients, capturing and storing energy, and responding to changes in the environment, are carried out by proteins bound to membranes. We use computer simulations to address the following, questions about these proteins: (1) How do small proteins (peptides) organize themselves into ordered structures at water-membrane interfaces and insert into membranes? (2) How do peptides aggregate to form membrane-spannin(y structures (e.g., channels)? (3) By what mechanisms do such aggregates perform their functions? The simulations are performed using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. In this method, Newton's equations of motion for each atom in the system are solved iteratively. At each time step, the forces exerted on each atom by the remaining atoms are evaluated by dividing them into two parts. Short-range forces are calculated directly in real space while long-range forces are evaluated in reciprocal space, usually using a particle-mesh algorithm which is of order O(NlnN). Currently, a time step of 2 femtoseconds is typically used, thereby making studies of problems occurring on multi-nanosecond time scales (10(exp 6) - 10(exp 8) time steps) accessible. To address a broader range of problems, simulations need to be extended by three orders of magnitude. Such an extension requires both algorithmic improvements and codes scalable to a large number of parallel processors. Work in this direction is in progress. Two specific series of simulations that demonstrate how peptides self-organize and function in membranes are discussed. In one series of simulations, it was shown that nonpolar peptides, disordered in water, translocate to the nonpolar interior of the membrane and, simultaneously, fold into two different helical structures, which remain in equilibrium. Once in the membrane, the peptides can readily change their orientation, especially in response to local electric fields. This structural and orientational flexibility of peptides with changing conditions may have provided a mechanism of transmitting signals between the environment and the interior of the protocell. In another series of simulations, the mechanism by which a simple protein channel efficiently mediates proton transport across membranes was investigated. This process is a key step in cellular bioenergetics. In the channel under study, proton transport is gated by four histidines that occlude the channel pore. The simulations demonstrate that protons move through the gate by a "shuttle" mechanism, wherein one histidine is protonated on the extracellular side and, subsequently, the proton bound on the opposite side is released.

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.; Schweighofer, Karl; Chipot, Christophe; New, Michael H.; Vincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    98

    Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    99

    AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science 2010 Page 1 of 10 Guimares, Portugal  

    E-print Network

    13th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science 2010 Page 1 of 10 Guimarães). #12;13th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science 2010 Page 2 of 10 Guimarães

    100

    Archive: Sally Ride Science/NSTA Symposium: From Astrobiology to Zoology: Igniting Students' Interests in Science Careers, Boston, MA: March 29, 2008  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During this half-day Symposium, scientists and education specialists from SRS, NOAA, and USFS talked about the basic science behind our understanding of climate change, and global impacts on the atmosphere, ecosystems (particularly forests), and oceans ar

    1900-01-01

    101

    How can we teach astrobiology and survive? Telma Rodriguesa  

    E-print Network

    of creationism, which considers astrobiology as a danger for its policies, dogmas and philosophy. However to the existence of an intelligent creator. Astrobiology studies life in the universe, its origins, evolution researchers to implement astrobiology in education

    Carrapiço, Francisco

    102

    Astrobiology: A Roadmap for Charting Life in the Universe  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It provides a biological perspective to many areas of NASA research. It links such endeavors as the search for habitable planets, exploration missions to Mars and the outer Solar System, efforts to understand the origins and early evolution of life, and charting the potential of life to adapt to future challenges, both on Earth and in space. Astrobiology addresses the following three basic questions, which have been asked in some form for generations. How does life begin and evolve? Does life exist elsewhere in the universe? What is future of life on Earth and beyond? The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across several NASA Enterprises: Space Science, Earth Science, and the Human Exploration and Development of Space. The Roadmap is formulated in terms of eight Science Goals that outline key domains of investigation that might require perhaps decades of effort to consolidate. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority near-term efforts for the next three to five years. These twenty objectives will be integrated with NASA strategic planning.

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincezi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    103

    The United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development.  

    PubMed

    Despite a long gestation period in preparation for the United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) and overall expenditures estimated at some $50 million for this Vienna held conference, there were no dramatic results. The Conference faced trying to reach some compromise agreement on the following main points: 1) a global information system, and governing principles for the transfer of technology; 2) institutional arrangements, particularly within the United Nations system, which would ensure a high status for an Intergovernmental Committee on Science and Technology for development; and 3) automatically renewable financing to be supplied primarily by the industrialized countries to implement the Plan of Action. Arguments concerning these points occupied 2 committees for 10 working days of the conference. The outcome of negotiations on these identified points included the following: 1) minimal progress in facilitating access to industrial information, and to patent rights and transfer of technology in general; 2) the proposed Intergovernmental Committee on Science and Technology for Development will be open to all interested countries and will report to the United Nations General Assembly through ECOSOC; 3) coordination of the post-conference program of the Plan of Action will be centered in the office of Director-General for Development and International Economic Cooperation at the United Nations; 4) $250 million was named as the target for the first 2 years of operation; and 5) groups of experts will be convened on an ad hoc basis to advise on various matters. PMID:524886

    Kaplan, M M

    1979-12-01

    104

    The set of habitable planets and astrobiological regulation mechanisms  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The number of habitable planets in the Milky Way and its temporal variation are major unknowns in the nascent fields of astrobiology and Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence studies. All numerical models developed thus far have suffered from large uncertainties in the input data, in addition to our lack of understanding of the processes of astrobiological dynamics. Here, we argue that at least the input data can now be specified with more confidence, and use a simple Monte Carlo model of the Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) as a flexible platform for their elucidation. Previous papers have described some of the major results of this class of models; in this paper we present its mechanics and input parameters, notably the number of the habitable planets in the GHZ and their temporal distribution, based on the results of Lineweaver et al. (Lineweaver, C.H., Fenner, Y. & Gibson, B.K. (2004). Science 303, 59-62.) Regulation mechanisms (such as gamma-ray bursts or supernovae) and their temporal evolution, assumed to be main agents responsible for large-scale correlation effects, are modelled as type ? (which can sterilize part of or the entire GHZ) and type ? (which are of local importance) events with decreasing mean temporal frequency over the cosmological timescale. The considered global risk function implies as an upper limit that about one out of a hundred habitable sites will achieve high astrobiological complexity. The preliminary results of numerical modelling presented here and elsewhere imply that the lack of a sudden change from an essentially dead Galaxy to a Galaxy filled with complex life - the astrobiological phase transition - in our past (a version of Fermi's paradox) may be understood as a consequence of global astrobiological disequilibrium, strongly indicating such a transitional epoch in our future.

    Vukoti?, Branislav

    2010-04-01

    105

    PREFACE: 6th European Thermal Sciences Conference (Eurotherm 2012)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    About EUROTHERM The aim of the EUROTHERM Committee (www.eurothermcommittee.eu) is to promote and foster European cooperation in Thermal Sciences and Heat Transfer by gathering together scientists and engineers working in specialized areas. The Committee consists of members representing and appointed by national bodies in the EU countries. The current President of EUROTHERM is Professor Anton van Steenhoven from the University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). The Committee organizes and coordinates European scientific events such as the EUROTHERM Seminars (about 4 per year) and the European Thermal Sciences Conference (every 4 years). About the conference This sixth in the series of European Thermal Sciences Conferences (www.eurotherm2012.com) took place in France, in the Conference Centre of Poitiers, Futuroscope. We address special thanks to the 225 reviewers, coming from different European countries, who have evaluated these papers. We also thank the scientific committee, consisting of some EUROTHERM Committee members together with other internationally recognized experts. Their role has been to manage the evaluation of abstracts and the papers selection process as co-coordinators for specific topics. This conference is the joint effort of two laboratories: the PPRIME Institute in Poitiers and the IUSTI laboratory in Marseille. It could not be organized without the efficient help of our secretaries and our technician for the IT support. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 180 articles presented at the conference. Professor Daniel PETIT Chairman, PPRIME Poitiers, France Institut P'(UPR CNRS 3346) ENSMA 1 av. Clément Ader - BP40109 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil France daniel.petit@ensma.fr Professor Christophe LE NILIOT Co-chairman, IUSTI Marseille, France Laboratoire IUSTI UMR CNRS 6595 Technopôle de Chateau-Gombert 5, rue Enrico Fermi 13 453 MARSEILLE CEDEX 13 France christophe.leniliot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr

    Petit, Daniel; Le Niliot, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    106

    The Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C): a potential rover mission for 2018. Final report of the Mars Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) October 14, 2009.  

    PubMed

    This report documents the work of the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG), which was assigned to formulate a concept for a potential rover mission that could be launched to Mars in 2018. Based on programmatic and engineering considerations as of April 2009, our deliberations assumed that the potential mission would use the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sky-crane landing system and include a single solar-powered rover. The mission would also have a targeting accuracy of approximately 7 km (semimajor axis landing ellipse), a mobility range of at least 10 km, and a lifetime on the martian surface of at least 1 Earth year. An additional key consideration, given recently declining budgets and cost growth issues with MSL, is that the proposed rover must have lower cost and cost risk than those of MSL--this is an essential consideration for the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG). The MRR-SAG was asked to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps toward the potential return of samples to Earth. The proposed means of achieving these two goals while balancing the trade-offs between them are described here in detail. We propose the name Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher(MAX-C) to reflect the dual purpose of this potential 2018 rover mission. PMID:20298148

    2010-03-01

    107

    Astrobiology: Study of the Living Universe  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astrobiology is defined as the study of the living universe. This endeavor encompasses the use of space to understand life's origin, evolution, and destiny in the universe. Life's origin refers to understanding the origin of life in the context of the origin and diversity of planetary systems. Life's evolution refers to understanding how living systems have adapted to Earth's changing environment, to the all-pervasive force of gravity, and how they may adapt to environments beyond Earth. Life's destiny refers to making long-term human presence in space a reality, and laying the foundation for understanding and managing changes in Earth's environment. This lecture will explore the development of this field of inquiry, the science questions to be examined, and the mechanisms available for participation by the scientific community.

    DeVincenzi, Donald L.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    108

    PHYTOREMEDIATION: STATE OF THE SCIENCE CONFERENCE AND OTHER DEVELOPMENTS  

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is a pleasure to present six papers in this issue, selected from presentations at the USEPA conference, Phytoremediation: State of the Science, 5/1-2/2000, Boston, MA. These papers highlight some of the many advances reported in representative areas of phytoremediation. In add...

    109

    The First International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    This volume contains abstracts of articles that have been accepted for presentation at the First International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration. Articles about the geology of the Martian Polar regions were presented, and analogs from Earth's geology were also presented. Presentations also were given about the probable contents of the Martian polar caps

    1998-01-01

    110

    Undergraduate Research at SETI in Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The SETI Institute and San Jose State University (SJSU) have begun a partnership (URSA: Undergraduate Research at the SETI Institute in Astrobiology) in which undergraduate science and engineering majors from SJSU participate in research at the SETI Institute during the academic year. We are currently in our second year of the three-year NASA-funded grant. The goal of this program is to expose future scientists, engineers and educators to the science of astrobiology and to NASA in general, and by so doing, to prepare them for the transition to their future career in the Silicon Valley or beyond. The URSA students are mentored by a SETI Institute scientist who conducts research at the SETI Institute headquarters or nearby at NASA Ames Research Center. The SETI Institute is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to scientific research, education and public outreach. Its mission is to explore, understand and explain the origin, nature and prevalence of life in the universe. SJSU is a large urban public university that serves the greater Silicon Valley area in California. Students at SJSU come from diverse ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Many of them face financial pressures that force them to pursue part-time work. URSA students are paid to work for 10 hours/week during the academic year, and also participate in monthly group meetings where they practice their presentation skills and discuss future plans. We encourage underserved and underrepresented students, including women, minority, and those who are the first in their family to go to college, to apply to the URSA program and provide ongoing mentoring and support as needed. While preparing students for graduate school is not a primary goal, some of our students have gone on to MS or PhD programs or plan to do so. The URSA program is funded by NASA EPOESS.

    Kress, Monika; Phillips, C.; DeVore, E.; Hubickyj, O.

    2012-05-01

    111

    Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Mars  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The oral and poster sessions of the SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MARS included; The Distribution and Context of Water-related Minerals on Mars; Poster Session: Mars Geology; Geology of the Martian Surface: Lithologic Variation, Composition, and Structure; Water Through Mars' Geologic History; Poster Session: Mars Water and the Martian Interior; Volatiles and Interior Evolution; The Martian Climate and Atmosphere: Variations in Time and Space; Poster Session: The Martian Climate and Current Processes; Modern Mars: Weather, Atmospheric Chemistry, Geologic Processes, and Water Cycle; Public Lecture: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's New View of the Red Planet; The North and South Polar Layered Deposits, Circumpolar Regions, and Changes with Time; Poster Session: Mars Polar Science, Astrobiology, Future Missions/Instruments, and Other Mars Science; Mars Astrobiology and Upcoming Missions; and Martian Stratigraphy and Sedimentology: Reading the Sedimentary Record.

    2007-01-01

    112

    Searching for Aliens What is astrobiology?  

    E-print Network

    Internet-connected computers in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). You can participateSearching for Aliens What is astrobiology? Astrobiology is the scientific study of the origin to help search for aliens! There is a scientific project at the University of California that uses

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    113

    Systems astrobiology for a reliable biomarker on exo-worlds  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Although astrobiology is a science midway between biology and astrophysics, it has surprisingly remained largely disconnected from recent trends in certain branches of both of these disciplines. Aiming at discovering how systems properties emerge has proved valuable in chemistry and in biology and should also yield insights into astrobiology. This is feasible since new large data banks in the case of astrobiology are of a geophysical/astronomical kind, rather than the also large molecular biology data that are used for questions related firstly, to genetics in a systems context and secondly, to biochemistry. The application of systems biology is illustrated for our own planetary system, where 3 Earth-like planets are within the habitable zone of a G2V star and where the process of photosynthesis has led to a single oxygenic atmosphere that was triggered during the Great Oxidation Event some 2,5 billion years before the present. The significance of the biogenic origin of a considerable fraction of our atmosphere has been discussed earlier (Kiang et al., 2007). Bonding of O2 ensures that it is stable enough to accumulate in a world's atmosphere if triggered by a living process. The reduction of F and Cl deliver energy release per e+-transfer, but unlike O2 the weaker bonding properties inhibit large atmospheric accumulation (Catling et al., 2005). The evolution of O2-producing photosynthesis is very likely on exo-worlds (Wolstencroft and Raven, 2002). With our simplifying assumption of evolutionary convergence, we show how to probe for a reliable biomarker in the exo-atmospheres of planets, or their satellites, orbiting stars of different luminosities and ages (Chela-Flores, 2013). We treat the living process as a system of exo-environments capable of radically modifying their geology and atmospheres, both for exo-planets, and especially for exo-moons, the presence of which can be extracted from the Kepler data (Kipping et al., 2012). What we are learning about the moons of our solar system (Chela-Flores, 2010), and will learn in the foreseeable future with the JUICE Mission will be relevant to systems astrobiology. The distribution of systems of habitable worlds with their biomarkers will be testable in the short term with forthcoming space missions: FINNESSE, EChO and TESS. This would justify subsequent use of quantitative systems biology methods that are available from its repertoire of analytic approaches. References Catling et al. (2005). Why O2 is required by complex life on habitable planets and the concept of planetary "oxygenation time", Astrobiology, 5, 415-438. Chela-Flores, J. (2010). Instrumentation for the search of habitable ecosystems in the future exploration of Europa and Ganymede. International Journal of Astrobiology, 9, 101-108. http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/jcf_IJA_2010.pdf Chela-Flores, J. (2013). From systems chemistry to systems astrobiology: Life in the universe as an emergent phenomenon. Published online: 26 July 2012. International Journal of Astrobiology, 12,8-16. http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/Int_J_AB_SAB_3.pdf Kiang, N.Y., et al (2007). Spectral signatures of photosynthesis II. Astrobiology 7, 252-274. Kipping, D. M. et al (2012). The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler. arXiv:1201.0752 [astro-ph.EP]. Wolstencroft, R.D. and Raven, J.A. (2002). Photosynthesis: likelihood of occurrence and possibility of detection on earth-like planets. Icarus 157, 535-548.

    Chela Flores, Julian

    2013-04-01

    114

    Past Conferences and Trainings - Implementation Science  

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation National Cancer Institute www.cancer.gov at the National Institutes of Health Cancer Control and Population Sciences: NCI's Bridge to Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy Search: Home About IS Vision Mission Meet the

    115

    Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.  

    PubMed

    An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered. PMID:20735249

    Crawford, Ian A

    2010-01-01

    116

    Science Education Future. Proceedings of the Arctic Science Conference (39th, Fairbanks, Alaska, October 7-10, 1988).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This catalog includes abstracts of each of the papers delivered at the Arctic Science Conference. The conference was divided into the following symposia: (1) "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"; (2) "An Update of Alaskan Science and Discovery"; (3) "Science Education for the Public"; (4) "Hubbard Glacier, Russell Fjord and Situk River Studies";…

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Fairbanks, AK. Arctic Div.

    117

    Twenty-Third Lunar and Planetary Science Conference  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presented here is a collection of papers from the Twenty-Third Lunar and Planetary Science Conference that were chosen for having the greatest potential interest for the general reading public. The presentations avoid jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. Topics covered include electron microscopy studies of a circumstellar rock, the fractal analysis of lava flows, volcanic activity on Venus, the isotopic signature of recent solar wind nitrogen, and the implications of impact crater distribution on Venus.

    1992-01-01

    118

    Second International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    This volume contains abstracts that were presented at the Second International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration, August 21-25, 2000. The abstracts of the presentations given are listed. Presentations were given on the advances in technology, data analysis of past and current missions, and new instruments destined for Mars. Particular attention was paid to the polar regions and what they reveal about Mars.

    2000-01-01

    119

    Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    120

    Astrobiology: The Search for Life in the Universe  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Each of the 11 lead members of NASA's Astrobiology Institute has a specific mission. According to Hiroshi Ohmoto, director of Penn State s Astrobiology Research Center, Here we are mainly concerned with the origin of life and the evolution and extinction of important organisms. These include bacteria that live on methane, cyanobacteria (the inventors of photosynthesis), eukaryotes (a big category, covering anything with a nucleus, from single-celled organisms to humans), land-dwelling organisms, and early animals. Penn State astrobiologists are studying the environment before there was life on Earth, the origin of oxygen in the atmosphere, the chemical and thermal structures of oceans, and the role of metals in the evolution of life. Overall, they want to understand the connection between changes in environment and changes in life forms in the early Earth. PSARC offers research assistantships for graduate and undergraduate students, fellowships for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows, and an undergraduate minor in astrobiology. The minor covers 18 credits in earth sciences, geochemistry, geophysics, astronomy, biology, biochemistry, meteorology, and microbiology. The goal, says Ohmoto, is to teach students to critically evaluate claims related to this field that they encounter well after their college education has ended. Under a scanning electron microscope, Martian meteorite ALH84001 yields tube-like structures that look a lot like remnants of Earthly bacteria except smaller by a factor of ten.

    Pacchioli, David

    2003-01-01

    121

    Astrobiology and the Risk Landscape  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We live in the epoch of explosive development of astrobiology, a novel interdisciplinary field dealing with the origin, evolution, and the future of life. While at first glance its relevance for risk analysis is small, there is an increasing number of crossover problems and thematic areas which stem from considerations of observation selection effects and the cosmic future of humanity, as well as better understanding of our astrophysical environment and the open nature of the Earth system. In considering the totality of risks facing any intelligent species in the most general cosmic context (a natural generalization of the concept of global catastrophic risks or GCRs), there is a complex dynamical hierarchy of natural and anthropogenic risks, often tightly interrelated. I shall argue that this landscape-like structure can be defined in the space of astrobiological/SETI parameters and that it is a concept capable of unifying different strands of thought and research, a working concept and not only a metaphor. Fermi's Paradox or the "Great Silence" problem represents the crucial boundary condition on generic evolutionary trajectories of individual intelligent species; I briefly consider the conditions of its applicability as far as quantification of GCRs is concerned. Overall, such a perspective would strengthen foundations upon which various numerical models of the future of humanity can be built; the lack of such quantitative models has often been cited as the chief weakness of the entire GCR enterprise.

    Cirkovic, M. M.

    2013-09-01

    122

    Science and Technology Christmas Conference Tuesday 16 December 2008 -Management School Building  

    E-print Network

    and materials science and nano-technology. All accelerators employ high power radio waves to accelerate tiny Science and Technology Christmas Conference Tuesday 16 December 2008 - Management School Building The Faculty of Science and Technology's annual Christmas Conference is a chance for faculty members to hear

    Meju, Max

    123

    Developing the Critical Thinking Skills of Astrobiology Students through Creative and Scientific Inquiry.  

    PubMed

    Scientific inquiry represents a multifaceted approach to explore and understand the natural world. Training students in the principles of scientific inquiry can help promote the scientific learning process as well as help students enhance their understanding of scientific research. Here, we report on the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry, as well as provide practical exercises to build critical thinking skills. The module contained three distinct components: (1) a creative inquiry activity designed to introduce concepts regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry; (2) guidelines to help astrobiology students formulate and self-assess questions regarding various scientific content and imagery; and (3) a practical exercise where students were allowed to watch a scientific presentation and practice their analytical skills. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess the students' perceptions regarding creative and scientific inquiry and whether this activity impacted their understanding of the scientific process. Survey results indicate that the exercise helped improve students' science skills by promoting awareness regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry and building their confidence in formulating and assessing scientific questions. Together, the module and survey results confirm the need to include such inquiry-based activities into the higher education classroom, thereby helping students hone their critical thinking and question asking skill set and facilitating their professional development in astrobiology. Key Words: Scientific inquiry-Critical thinking-Curriculum development-Astrobiology-Microbialites. Astrobiology 15, 89-99. PMID:25474292

    Foster, Jamie S; Lemus, Judith D

    2015-01-01

    124

    South Australian Science Teachers Association Conference and Science Fair, Salisbury Teachers College, July 1971.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The major papers presented at the 1971 conference of the South Australian Science Teachers Association are included in this pamphlet. Scientists from industry, research institutions, and the police forensic laboratory, and practicing teachers presented papers which included descriptions of modern scientific techniques, discussions of the role of…

    1971

    125

    43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2010 (best paper award) Combining Phasor Measurements to Monitor Cutset Angles  

    E-print Network

    43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2010 (best paper award) Combining11231. 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2010, Kauai, Hawaii. c 2010 IEEE

    Dobson, Ian

    126

    The O/OREOS Mission — Astrobiology Data Collected in Low Earth Orbit  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The O/OREOS nanosatellite is the first demonstration flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small-Payloads Program (ASP). Sucessfully launched on Nov. 19, 2010 to a 650-km Earth orbit, the spacecraft operates nominal and records first science data.

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Quinn, R.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Cook, A.; Mancinelli, R.; Mattioda, A.; Minelli, G.; Nicholson, W.; Santos, O.; Squire, D.; Kitts, C.; Rasay, R.; Young, A.

    2011-03-01

    127

    Taking the Plunge: Next Steps in Engaged Learning: Project Kaleidoscope-Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges Conference for Science Educators.  

    PubMed

    College and university science educators from across Connecticut gathered at Yale's West Campus in April 2010 for a Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) program entitled "Taking the Plunge: Next Steps in Engaged Learning." Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and co-sponsored by the Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges (CCIC) and Yale's McDougal Graduate Teaching Center, the event was the latest in a PKAL series of one-day conferences aimed at equipping science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) instructors with effective approaches to engaging students and training future scientists. PMID:20885897

    Frederick, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    128

    Aspicilia fruticulosa: A new model for Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In order to avoid the technological constraints that prevent the performance of experiments in other planets, Astrobiology research implies the development of models that simulate the conditions present in outer space or in planetary bodies. Extremophile organisms, like lichens have been widely studied in Astrobiology due to their high resistance to extremely harsh envi-ronments(5). The vagrant lichen species, Aspicilia fruticulosa lives detached from the substrate, and has a coralloid thalli up to 2.5 cm, which provides a very compact internal structure(6). This species typically grows in deserts and arid areas. Its resistance has been tested several times and amazing results about their vitality have been obtained. Two main experiments have been per-formed: 1. LITHOPANSPERMIA experiment(1): Integrated on board of BIOPAN (multi-user exposure facility, designed for exobiology, radiation biology, radiation dosimetry and material science investigations in space (http://www.spaceflight.esa.int/users/index.cfm?act=default.pagelevel=11p foton-next-pay-Bpan) launched on the Foton M3 satellite in September 2007); the resistance of this lichen species to the combination of the following space conditions during 10 days was tested: Ultraviolet (UV) extraterrestrial radiation, Mars UV-climate, UV-B radiation and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), microgravity, space vacuum of 1x10-6 mbar and extreme temperatures ranging from -23o C to +16o C. After the flight, the samples were revital-ized for a 72h period in a climatic chamber before taking measurements of their photosynthetic activity with a Mini-PAM fluorometer (Heinz Walz GmbH) as described by R. de la Torre et al. 2007b (2). The results showed that the samples exposed to space environment except solar UV radiation, reached a 76.5-1002. A step further on these investigations was carried out in order to study how the viability of this lichen species were affected by a combination of different sim-ulated martian conditions. For this purpose, we used an environmental simulation chamber(4) placed at the CAB (Centro de Astrobiologé to reproduce martian conditions. Three different ?a) exposures, each of them during 80 hours, were performed: a) martian atmosphere (7mbar of atmospheric pressure, with a standard concentration of martian surface gases) and tempera-ture (-93o C); b) martian UV radiation (200-400nm), temperature(-93o C) and space vacuum (1x10-7 mbar); c) combination of martian UV radiation (200-400nm), atmosphere (7mbar of atmospheric pressure) and temperature (-93o C). A set of 8 samples were located on two levels: exposure level (L-1) and dark control level (L-2). A general tendence was observed: all the samples survived. The analysis of the results compared to the pre-simulation data showed: a) photosynthetic activity decreased (74 References: 1 R. DE LA TORRE (2009): Likelihood of interplanetary transfer of rock-inhabiting microbial communities: Results from the space experiment Lithopanspermia. Icarus. Under revision 2 R. DE LA TORRE, L.G. SANCHO, A. PINTADO, P. RETTBERG, E. RABBOW, C. PANITZ, U. DEUTSCHMANN, M. REINA, G. HORNECK (2007b): BIOPAN experi-ment LICHENS on the Foton M2 mission: Pre-flight verification tests of the Rhizocarpon geographicum-granite ecosystem. Advances in Space Research. Volume 40, Issue 11, 2007, Pages 1665-1671 3 G. HORNECK (1994): Exobiology, the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life within the context of cosmic evolution: a review. Planetary and Space Science. 1995 Jan-Feb; 43(1-2):189-217 4 E. MATEO MARTé et al. (2006): A chamber for I studying planetary environments and its applications to astrobiology. Measurement science technology. 2006, vol. 17, no8, pp. 2274-2280 5 L.G. SANCHO, R. de la TORRE A. PIN-TADO (2009): Lichens, new and promising material from experiments in astrobiology. Fungal Biology Reviews. Volume 22, Issues 3-4, Aug-Nov 2008, Pages 103-109 6 L.G. SANCHO, B. SCHROETER R. DEL PRADO (2000): Ecophysiology and morphology of the globular erratic lichen Aspicilia fruticulosa (EVERSM.) FLAG. from

    Sánchez Iñigo, Fco. Javier; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Mateo Mart, Eva; Horneck, Gerda

    129

    Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative pH. The epoch of study of thermophilic microorganisms starts with the discovery of Thermus aquaticus, and presently the maximum temperature for growth at 113 C was found for Pyrolobus fumarii. The microorganisms capable of growth at high temperatures and in hyperacidic environments on Earth are good analogs for life that might be able to survive in hot acidic droplets in the upper regimes of the atmosphere of Venus. The study of barophiles was made possible by engineering achievements leading to the development of the submersible crafts used to study the Black Smokers of the Deep-sea Hydrothermal vents. The first described radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can survive ionizing irradiation and other DNA-damaging assaults at doses that are lethal to all other organisms. These microbes are models for life that might endure high radiation environments in the ice near the surface of comets or on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn and in the seafloor deep beneath icy crusts Europa and Enceladus. This paper presents ESEM and FESEM images showing intact microbes preserved in the deep ice cores extracted from just above Lake Vostok, Antarctica that are considered analogs for life forms that might survive on comets and icy moons.

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    130

    Lunar Beagle and Lunar Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The study of the elements and molecules of astrobiological interest on the Moon can be made with the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) and associated instruments developed for the Beagle 2 Mars Express Payload. The permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon may offer a unique location for the "cold-trapping" of the light elements (i.e. H, C, N, O, etc.) and their simple compounds. Studies of the returned lunar samples have shown that lunar materials have undergone irradiation with the solar wind and adsorb volatiles from possible cometary and micrometeoroid impacts. The Beagle 2's analytical instrument package including the sample processing facility and the GAP mass spectrometer can provide vital isotopic information that can distinguish whether the lunar volatiles are indigenous to the moon, solar wind derived, cometary in origin or from meteoroids impacting on the Moon. As future Lunar Landers are being considered, the suite of instruments developed for the Mars Beagle 2 lander can be consider as the baseline for any lunar volatile or resource instrument package.

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Waugh, Lester J.

    2010-12-01

    131

    Science Education and Outreach: Forging a Path to the Future ASP Conference Series, Vol. 431  

    E-print Network

    Science Education and Outreach: Forging a Path to the Future ASP Conference Series, Vol. 431 Guevara,3 and Scott Randol3 1Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450, USA 2Center for Science Education, Space Sciences Laboratory, University

    Fillingim, Matthew

    132

    Earth and Space Science: Making Connections in Education and Public Outreach ASP Conference Series, Vol. 443  

    E-print Network

    Earth and Space Science: Making Connections in Education and Public Outreach ASP Conference Series and Earth Sciences (ROSES) Supplemental Education grant. Our collaborators include science and education 1Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA 2

    Fillingim, Matthew

    133

    Dissecting the Butterfly: Representation of Disciplines Publishing at the Web Science Conference Series  

    E-print Network

    Dissecting the Butterfly: Representation of Disciplines Publishing at the Web Science Conference Science butterfly' diagram and the Web Science Subject Categorization. We discuss the benefits butterfly' diagram, which was used early on in the life of Web Science to convey the vision [8]. Nowadays

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    134

    Astrobiology and Microbial Diversity Websites at MBL  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) mission is to study the origin, evolution and future of life in the Universe. The MBL Astrobiology team explores the evolution and interaction of genomes of diverse organisms that play significant roles in environmental biology over evolutionary time scales. Communication about our research includes the personal contact of teacher workshops, and the development of web-based resources. Microbial Life Educational Resources (MLER) provides an expanding internet resource about the ecology, diversity and evolution for students, K-12 teachers, university faculty, and the general public. MLER includes websites, PowerPoint presentations, teaching activities, data sets, and other useful materials for creating or enhancing courses related to astrobiology. Our second site, micro*scope (http://microscope.mbl.edu), has images of microbes, classification schemes, descriptions of organisms, talks and other educational resources to improve awareness of the biodiversity of our microbial partners.

    Bahr, M.; Bordenstein, S. R.

    2006-12-01

    135

    The O/OREOS Mission - Astrobiology in Low Earth Orbit. [Astrobiology in Low Earth Orbit  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The O/OREOS (Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses) nanosatellite is the first science demonstration spacecraft and flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small- Payloads Program (ASP). O/OREOS was launched successfully on November 19, 2010, to a high-inclination (72 deg), 650-km Earth orbit aboard a US Air Force Minotaur IV rocket from Kodiak, Alaska. O/OREOS consists of 3 conjoined cubesat (each 1000 cu cm) modules: (i) a control bus; (ii) the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment; and (iii) the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment. Among the innovative aspects of the O/OREOS mission are a real-time analysis of the photostability of organics and biomarkers and the collection of data on the survival and metabolic activity for microorganisms at 3 times during the 6-month mission. We report on the spacecraft characteristics, payload capabilities, and present operational phase and flight data from the O/OREOS mission. The science and technology rationale of O/OREOS supports NASA0s scientific exploration program by investigating the local space environment as well as space biology relevant to Moon and Mars missions. It also serves as a precursor for experiments on small satellites, the International Space Station (ISS), future free-flyers and lunar surface exposure facilities.

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Squires, D.; Kitts, C.; Agasid, E.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.; Cook, A.; Mancinelli, R.; Mattioda, A.; Nicholson, W.; Quinn, R.; Santos, O.; Tahu, G.; Voytek, M.; Beasley, C.; Bica, L.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Friedericks, C.; Henschke, M.; Mai, N.; McIntyre, M.; Yost, B.

    2014-01-01

    136

    Proceedings of the Plutonium Futures ? The Science 2006 Conference  

    SciTech Connect

    Plutonium Futures--The Science 2006 provided opportunities to examine present knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of plutonium and other actinides in complex media and materials; to discuss the current and emerging science (chemistry, physics, materials science, nuclear science, and environmental effects) of plutonium and actinides relevant to enhancing global nuclear security; and to exchange ideas. This international conference also provided a forum for illustrating and enhancing capabilities and interests, and assessing issues in these areas. U.S. and international scientists, engineers, faculty, and students from universities, national laboratories, and DOE's nuclear complex were encouraged to participate and make technical contributions. The Conference ran from Sunday, July 9th through Thursday, July 13th. A popular aspect of the conference was the opening tutorial session on Sunday afternoon intended for students and scientists new to the area of plutonium research. The tutorial was well attended by novices and veterans alike, and featured such diverse topics as; plutonium metallurgy, plutonium in the environment, and international arms control and nonproliferation. Two plenary lectures began each morning and each afternoon session and highlighted the breakout sessions on coordination/organometallic chemistry, solid-state physics, environmental chemistry, materials science, separations and reprocessing, advanced fuels and waste forms, phase transformations, solution and gas-phase chemistry, compounds and complexes, electronic structure and physical properties, and more. Chemistry Highlights--Among the many chemistry highlights presented in this proceedings are the overview of concepts and philosophies on inert nuclear fuel matrices and concerns about the ever-increasing amounts of minor actinides and plutonium generated in the fuel cycle. The various ideas involve multiple reduction schemes for these materials, suggesting fuels for 'burning' or 'cradle-to-grave' accountability for various reactor types. Related work is presented on identification of the unique reaction mechanisms and identification of the intermediate products, including Pu(III), at the end of the PUREX process. In the important area of nuclear forensics, actual scenarios of nuclear materials confiscation and the successes of applying forensics protocols to determine attribution and possible intention are provided. In the area of reactor incidents, there is no other place on Earth like the Chernobyl Site Object Shelter and radioactive aerosol particle characterization studies reflect an important effort described herein. An additional report from another unique environmental site presents results on radionuclide monitoring, fate, and transport in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River in the Krasoyarsk region. In the area of nuclear waste disposal, a study of the ion irradiation damage to pyrochlore compounds with varying amounts of host elements and actinide dopants is presented. Papers on both the aqueous and nonaqueous chemistry of plutonium and other actinides are presented including anhydrous coordination chemistry and redox behavior in the presence of humic materials and the their sorption on common minerals in the environment. Also published herein are reports on the field of anhydrous coordination chemistry of the transuranic elements where there is scarce information. Solid-State and Materials Highlights--Plutonium solid-state and materials research is represented in these proceedings by a wealth of leading edge discovery class research. The breadth of this research is reflected in the topics covered: solid-state; materials science; superconductivity; phase changes, phonons, and entropy; electronic structure and physical properties; surface science and corrosion; and radiation effects, defects, impurities, and property changes. Indeed the scientific challenge and excitement of plutonium can best be highlighted by quoting the tutorial prospectus of Drs. Sarrao and Schwartz. 'Plutonium has long been recognized as a complex and scie

    Fluss, M; Hobart, D; Allan, P; Jarvinen, G

    2007-07-12

    137

    Astrobiology Sample Analysis as a Design Driver  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    This effort supports the Astrobiology Objective 8 the Search for LIFE ON MARS PAST AND PRESENT -(Astrobiology Program Office, 1998, p.7). The essential trade analysis is between returning very small samples to the Earth while protecting them versus in situ analysis on Mars. Developing these explicit parameters encompasses design, instrumentation, system integration, human factors and surface operations for both alternatives. This allocation of capability approach incorporates a "humans and machines in the loop" model that recognizes that every exploration system involves both humans and automated systems. The question is where in the loop they occur whether on Earth, in the Mars Base, in the rover or creeping over the Mars surface.

    Cohen, Marc M.

    2001-01-01

    138

    The Role of Astrobiology in Solar System Exploration: Report from the NASA Astrobiology Institute to the NRC Solar-System Exploration Steering Group  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrobiology as related to solar-system exploration addresses far more than just the search for life in our solar system. It is about understanding the planets in our solar system as representing different outcomes in their formation, the nature of processes that affected those outcomes, and how those same processes might have operated elsewhere. It is about understanding planetary evolution and its connection to habitability as well as the actual distribution of life. It is about looking at the solar system as an integrated system, and seeing the connections between the evolution of the inner solar system, the outer solar system, and small bodies, as viewed through the connecting perspective of habitability and biology. In this context, finding no life on Mars or Europa is not a failure but is an important scientific result; it allows us to better understand the conditions required for a planet to support life and the relationship between biology and planetary processes. The strength of the connections between planetary exploration and astrobiology is clear if one examines a list of spacecraft missions currently operating or under development; most, if not all, are addressing questions and themes that are linked strongly to astrobiology. Astrobiology is an integrating theme that brings together a substantial fraction of the issues in solar-system exploration under a common thread of understanding planetary habitability. This theme allows us to explain to the non-expert the connections between the component disciplines within planetary science, and to do so in a way that most people will appreciate as addressing core issues in human thought. Astrobiology is certainly one of the several highest-level themes that unites and integrates solar-system exploration and, as such, will need to be strongly integrated into the solar system strategy. The full text of the report from the NAI to the NRC is available at the DPS decadal strategy web site.

    Jakosky, B. M.; Des Marais, D. J.; NASA Astrobiology Institute Executive Council

    2001-11-01

    139

    11th National Conference on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans  

    SciTech Connect

    On January 19-21, 2011, The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) successfully convened its 11th National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans in Washington, DC at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center. Over 1,247 participants attended the conference, representing federal, state and local governments, university and colleges across the US, civil society organizations, the business community, and international entities. In addition, the conference was webcast to an audience across several states. The conference provided a forum to examine the profound changes our ocean will undergo over the next 25-50 years and share various perspectives on the new research, tools, and policy initiatives to protect and sustain our ocean. Conference highlights and recommendations are available to the public on NCSE's conference website, www.OurChangingOceans.org.

    Peter Saundry

    2012-04-17

    140

    8th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences September 2630, 2004, Malm, Sweden  

    E-print Network

    ­30, 2004, Malmö, Sweden xi #12;8th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences September 26­30, 2004, Malmö, Sweden xii #12;8th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences September 26­30, 2004, Malmö, Sweden xiii #12;8th International Conference

    Oh, Kwang W.

    141

    A Toolkit for Democratizing Science and Technology Policy: The Practical Mechanics of Organizing a Consensus Conference  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A widely touted approach to involving laypeople in science and technology policy-related decisions is the consensus conference. Virtually nothing written on the topic provides detailed discussion of the many steps from citizen recruitment to citizen report. Little attention is paid to how and why the mechanics of the consensus conference process might influence the diversity of the participants in theses

    Daniel Lee Kleinman; Maria Powell; Joshua Grice; Judith Adrian; Carol Lobes

    2007-01-01

    142

    Agriculture and Life Sciences Complex Shared Conference Room & Meeting Space Guidelines Reservations  

    E-print Network

    in the AGLS complex. A/V 1. Each shared room is equipped with a TV monitor and computer for presentations. Shared conference room reservations may be made through the Outlook Resources system. Find a howto guideJune 2011 Agriculture and Life Sciences Complex Shared Conference Room & Meeting Space

    143

    A Toolkit for Democratizing Science and Technology Policy: The Practical Mechanics of Organizing a Consensus Conference  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A widely touted approach to involving laypeople in science and technology policy-related decisions is the consensus conference. Virtually nothing written on the topic provides detailed discussion of the many steps from citizen recruitment to citizen report. Little attention is paid to how and why the mechanics of the consensus conference process…

    Kleinman, Daniel Lee; Powell, Maria; Grice, Joshua; Adrian, Judith; Lobes, Carol

    2007-01-01

    144

    Astrobiology : is humankind ready for the next revolution ?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The discovery of a first exoplanet, in 1995, did not revolutionize but knocked astronomical sciences over. At the same time, by opening new prospects of research, in particular in the search of planets similar to the Earth and in a possible extraterrestrial life, this discovery, since then abundantly repeated, gave a new breath to the public interest for this scientific field. But is humanity ready to learn the existence from extraterrestrial forms of life or to remain, in spite of its efforts, in ignorance? The question of the plurality of the worlds is one of the oldest interrogations conveyed by the human cultures, as testified by the multiple answers which were brought to it. In the same way, the concept of life is itself an inexhaustible source of philosophical and religious reflexions, with many consequences in moral domains. It is today necessary to accompany the scientific development in the field of astrobiology by attaching the greatest importance to this intellectual patrimony. It constitutes even one of the first stages of an ethical responsibility in astrobiology, as important as that concerning planetary protection.

    Arnould, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    145

    Planetary Geology, Astrobiology, and Dusty Plasmas  

    E-print Network

    , and space-based instruments to understand the origins of our Solar System and the planets, planetary dust, and whether life exists or was present in the past elsewhere in our Solar System. Astrobiology exploration Many others at CU contribute to detailing the evolution of the terrestrial planets and in some

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    146

    Proceedings of the Redesign in Science Education Conference (RISE) (Columbus, OH, October 20-21, 2000).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This document contains the papers presented at the Redesign in Science Education (RISE) Conference. Papers include: (1) "A Model Development Concept (MDC) for Education: A Framework for Change" (C. K. Barsky, K. G. Wilson, and B. Daviss); (2) "Teaching Science Everyday" (K. L. Scott); (3) "Science Teacher Licensure Requirements in Ohio" (P.…

    Beeth, Michael E., Ed.; Kwon, Hyeoksoon, Ed.; Lee, Gyoungho, Ed.

    147

    The Callaway Gardens Conference on Building a Multiyear, Multidisciplinary, High School Science Program. Final Report.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In addition to a summary of the proceedings of the Callaway Gardens Conference attended by selected science educators, scientists, and psychologists, invited papers by Robert Gagne ("The High School Science Program--A Psychologist's Assessment") and Clifford Swartz ("The High School Science Program--A Scientist's Assessment") are printed in full.…

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee.

    148

    Integrated Science Education Worldwide. International Conference (Nijmegen, Netherlands, March 28-April 7, 1978).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This document contains the full texts of plenary lectures presented at a conference which focused on developments in integrated science education (ISE), between 1968 and 1978, and on issues and new trends in science education in the 1980s and 1990s. These lectures include: (1) "Interaction of Science and Society" (J. C. Terlouw); (2) "A Review of…

    International Council of Associations for Science Education.

    149

    A Comparison of the Methodological Quality of Articles in Computer Science Education Journals and Conference Proceedings  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In this study we empirically investigate the claim that articles published in computer science education journals are more methodologically sound than articles published in computer science education conference proceedings. A random sample of 352 articles was selected from those articles published in major computer science education forums between…

    Randolph, Justus J.; Julnes, George; Bednarik, Roman; Sutinen, Erkki

    2007-01-01

    150

    Proceedings of Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Society Conference, Dayton, 1998, pp. 124-131.  

    E-print Network

    Proceedings of Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Society Conference, Dayton system, CIRCSIM- Tutor tutors first-year medical students on blood pressure regulation based students on blood pressure regulation. The students are requested to predict the qualitative change

    151

    National conference on environmental remediation science and technology: Abstracts  

    SciTech Connect

    This conference was held September 8--10, 1998 in Greensboro, North Carolina. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on methods and site characterization technologies for environmental monitoring and remedial action planning of hazardous materials. This report contains the abstracts of sixty-one papers presented at the conference.

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    152

    3rd European Conference for AeroSpace Sciences (EUCASS) Paper 2009-374 1 THE RESPONSE OF PREMIXED FLAMES TO PRESSURE OSCILLATIONS  

    E-print Network

    3rd European Conference for AeroSpace Sciences (EUCASS) Paper 2009-374 1 THE RESPONSE OF PREMIXED for Aerospace Sciences (EUCASS), Versailles : France (2009)" #12;3rd European Conference for AeroSpace Sciences

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    153

    Conferences and Sessions: NSTA Area Conference on Science Education: Science: The Foundation of the Future, Kansas City, 2010  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Join your colleagues on the banks of the Missouri River for the first of NSTA's 2010 fall conferences. Conference strands include: Data-driven Learning Developing and Communicating Conceptual Understanding for All Students Scient

    1900-01-01

    154

    Astrobiology: traces of life in the cosmos  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The discovery of traces of life in the ancient Mars meteorite triggered the development of the rapidly emerging field of Astrobiology. Astrobiologists are seeking to develop conclusive methods to recognize biosignatures and microfossils of bacteria and other microbiota as well as to understand the spatial, temporal, environmental and chemical limitations of microbial extremophiles. Recent discoveries have revealed the great distribution and diversity of microbial extremophiles on Earth and profoundly increased the probability that life may exist elsewhere in the Cosmos. The rapidly emerging science of Bacterial Paleontology has provided important new information critical to the recognition of fossil bacteria on Earth and in Astromaterials. We have recently conducted independent scanning electron microscopy and x-ray analysis investigations in the US and Russia in order to better understand the morphology and chemical composition of microfossils in ancient terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites. In this paper, we review some aspects of microbial extremophiles of Earth as modals for life on other bodies of the Solar System. We consider several of the important chemical, mineral and morphological biomarkers that provide definitive evidence of biogenic activity in ancient rocks and meteorites. We present Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope images of microfossils found in-situ in freshly fractured meteorite surfaces and describe Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and Link microprobe analysis of the chemical elements in the mineralized and/or kerogenous microfossils and meteorite rock matrix. We also discuss technqiues and methods that may be used to help discriminate indigenous microfosils from recent terrestrial contaminants. We will also present new data from our in-situ investigations of living cyanobacteria and bacteria and freshly broken surfaces of terrestrial rocks and meteorites. Comparative analysis of these images are interpreted as providing dramatic evidence of indigenous microfossils of magnetotactic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and acritarchs in the Nogoya, Efremovka, Orgueil, Murchison and Tagish Lake Meteorites. Many of the forms in carbonaceous meteorites are large and complex providing strong evidence of biogenicity. Many of the forms found in carbonaceous meteorites are strikingly similar to microfossils of bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi we know from the Cambrian phosphorites of Khubsugul, Mongolia and high carbon Phanerozoic and Precambrian rocks of the Siberian and Russian Platforms. Some meteorite microfossil assemblages are consistent with known characteristics of distinct microbial life cycles and reproductive stages of Nostocacean cyanobacteria. We also recognize assemblages consistent with microbial ecosystems we studied in permafrost and cryoconite communities of Antarctica, Alaska and Siberia and microfossil ecosystems from the Cambrian of Mongolia.

    Hoover, Richard B.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.

    2002-07-01

    155

    Cosmic evolution: the context for astrobiology and its cultural implications  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrobiology must be seen in the context of cosmic evolution, the 13.7 billion-year master narrative of the universe. The idea of an evolving universe dates back only to the 19th century, and became a guiding principle for astronomical research only in the second half of the 20th century. The modern synthesis in evolutionary biology hastened the acceptance of the idea in its cosmic setting, as did the confirmation of the Big Bang theory for the origin of the universe. NASA programmes such as Origins incorporated it as a guiding principle. Cosmic evolution encompasses physical, biological and cultural evolution, and may result in a physical, biological or postbiological universe, each with its own implications for long-term human destiny, and each imbuing the meaning of life with different values. It has the status of an increasingly accepted worldview that is beginning to have a profound effect not only in science but also in religion and philosophy.

    Dick, Steven J.

    2012-10-01

    156

    Are We All There Is? Astrobiology in Culture  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This presentation will address public interest in, opinions about, and interpretations of scientific studies of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe, including the rise and fall and resurrection of the scientific search for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligent life. Astrobiology’s attention to the cultural dimensions of scientific research - societal, ethical, philosophical - will be covered. Depictions of astrobiology in scientific culture and in popular culture will be compared and contrasted, and interactions between scientific and popular culture with regard to astrobiology will be considered.

    Billings, L.

    2009-12-01

    157

    PREFACE The International Conference on Science of Friction 2010 (ICSF2010)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The second international conference on science of friction in Japan was held at Ise-Shima, Mie on 13-18 September 2010. The conference focused on the elementary process of friction phenomena from atomic and molecular scale view. Topics covered at the conference were: Superlubricity and friction Electronic and phononic contributions to friction Friction on the atomic and molecular scales van der Waals friction and Casimir force Molecular motor and friction Friction and adhesion in soft matter system Wear and crack on the nanocsale Theoretical studies on the atomic scale friction and energy dissipatin Friction and Chaos Mechanical properties of nanoscale contacts Friction of powder The number of participants in the conference was approximately 85, registered from 8 countries. 40 oral and 16 poster talks were presented at the conference. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 19 papers devoted to the topics of friction. The successful organization of the conference was made possible by the contribution of the members of the organizing Committee. The conference was made possible thanks to the financial support from Aichi University of Education, and moreover thanks to the approval societies of The Physical Society of Japan, The surface Science Society of Japan and The Japanese Society of Tribologists. The details of the conference are available on http://www.science-of-friction.com/2010/. Finally we would like to thank the speakers for the high quality of their talks and all participants for coming to Ise-Shima, Japan and actively contributing to the conference. Kouji Miura and Hiroshi Matsukawa Editors

    Miura, Kouji; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    158

    An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    159

    IFLA General Conference, 1984. Special Libraries Division. Section on Social Science Libraries. Papers.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The two papers in this document on social science libraries were presented at the 1984 IFLA general conference. In "Library and Continuing Education with Implications for Developing Countries: A Research Essay," David R. Bender (United States) examines factors impacting upon the skills necessary for effective librarianship in the social sciences,…

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    160

    Science, Technology, and the Liberal Arts: Report on a National Conference Held at Lehigh University.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presents highlights of a conference which disseminated results of a National Science Foundation (NSF) curriculum development project at Lehigh University (NSF-SER-8005 199, "Elements of Technology in a Liberal Arts Curriculum"). Also discusses activities at other institutions designed to bring science, mathematics, and technology "literacy" into…

    Cutcliffe, Stephen H.; Goldman, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    161

    Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES-3)  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papers from the Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES) are presented. The papers discuss current research in the general field of inverse, semi-inverse, and direct design and optimization in engineering sciences. The rapid growth of this relatively new field is due to the availability of faster and larger computing machines.

    Dulikravich, George S. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    162

    Proceedings: Fifteenth annual EPRI conference on fuel science  

    SciTech Connect

    Research is presented from a conference on fuel science. Topics presented included: Recent Progress in Coal Liquefaction at Wilsonville; HRI's Co-Processing Program; Distillate Product Quality from Liquefaction of Low Rank Coals; Modeling the Chem-Coal Process; Organic Sulfur Nitrogen Species in Illinois Basin Coals; Distribution of Organic Sulfur Containing Structures in High Organic Sulfur Coals; New Approaches to the Direct Measurement of Sulfur Forms in Coal; Process Engineering Studies of the Perchloroethylene Coal Cleaning Process; XAFS Investigation of the Molecular Forms of Organic Sulfur in Coal; LPMEOH: Beyond LaPorte -- Next Step to Commercialization; Development of Single-Stage, Liquid-Phase Dimethyl Ether Synthesis Process from CO-Rich Syngas; Biomimetic Catalyst: Mechanistic Aspects of the C-H Activation; Low Temperature Methanol Catalyst Some Aspects of Process Scale-up; Recovery of Methanol from a Catalyst Slurry by Membrane Pervaporation; Site-Specific IGCC Methanol Co-Production Study; Proof-of-Concept Results using the Arcanum/Bechtel Spherical Agglomeration Approach to Clean Ultra-Fine Coals; Pyrite Removal from Bituminous Coals by Aglofloat Process; Coal Desulfurization by Perchloroethylene Processing; Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration Technology; Development of Clean Soil Technology using Coal as Oily/Tarry Contaminant Removal; Evaluation of Hydrothermally Reformed Lignite for use at Minnesota Power's Clay Boswell Station; Development of an Ozonation Process for Degradation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons; Fungal Composting for Accelerated Degradation of PAHs from Coal Tars; and Development of an Engineering Model of Mixing Process in Residual Fuel Oil Storage. Individual projects are processed separately on the data bases.

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    163

    PREFACE: 1st Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science 2013 (LPBMS2013)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    From 29-31 August 2013, the 1st International Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science, LPBMS 2013, took place in the Tsukuba International Congress Center in the city of Tsukuba, Japan. The conference was a continuation of the international series Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science (SRMS), which started in 1994. The last one, SRMS-7, was held in Oxford UK 11-14 July 2010, where the International Advisory Committee (IAC) recommended the conference be enlarged to incorporate Materials Research from Neutron, Muon, and Slow Positron Sources, as well as the science emerging from Synchrotron Light Sources. The conference brought together contributions from academics and industrial researchers with a diverse background and experience from the physics, chemistry and engineering communities. The topics covered in the LPBMS2013 include strongly correlated electron systems, magnetism and magnetic materials, soft matter, interface and surface defects, catalysts, biomaterials, and ceramics. In the 3-day scientific program, the conference consisted of 9 plenary talks, 33 invited talks, 20 oral presentations, and 126 poster presentations. We are pleased to publish the proceedings of the LPBMS2013 in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. This volume contains 58 papers representing the work that was presented and discussed at the conference. We hope that this volume will promote further development of this interdisciplinary materials research emerging from synchrotron light, neutron, muon, and slow positron sciences. Finally, we would like to thank the International Advisory Committee (Chair: Professor G N Greaves), sponsors, all the participants and contributors for making possible this international meeting of researchers. Reiji Kumai & Youichi Murakami Conference photograph Details of the program and organizing committees are available in the pdf

    Kumai, Reiji; Murakami, Youichi

    2014-04-01

    164

    Astrobiology: Life in the Universe  

    E-print Network

    .F., Whitmire, D.P., & Reynolds, R.T. Science, 101, 108 (1993) #12;Habitable Zones Around Other Stars Stellar with the Earth ­Original atmosphere is stripped ­Moon forms in debris disk · 3.9 Gya: surface is pulverized

    Walter, Frederick M.

    165

    Commentary: Professional Development and Resources for Educators in Astrobiology  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In addition to catalyzing and promoting interdisciplinary research in astrobiology, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) also seeks to train the next generation of astrobiologists. To accomplish this, NAI provides a wealth of resources and support for educators. This month's Commentary column highlights products, programs, and summer workshops that are offered through NAI's network.

    Daniella Scalice

    2005-02-01

    166

    Lower Secondary Students' Views in Astrobiology  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astrobiology is, on a profound level, about whether life exists outside of the planet Earth. The question of existence of life elsewhere in the universe has been of interest to many societies throughout history. Recently, the research area of astrobiology has grown at a fast rate, mainly due to the development of observational methods, and the…

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    167

    News Festival: Science on stage deadline approaches Conference: Welsh conference attracts teachers Data: New phase of CERN openlab tackles exascale IT challenges for science Meeting: German Physical Society holds its physics education spring meeting Conference: Association offers golden opportunity in Norway Competition: So what's the right answer then?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festival: Science on stage deadline approaches Conference: Welsh conference attracts teachers Data: New phase of CERN openlab tackles exascale IT challenges for science Meeting: German Physical Society holds its physics education spring meeting Conference: Association offers golden opportunity in Norway Competition: So what's the right answer then?

    2012-07-01

    168

    Development and testing of a Europa Penetrator for Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Two phases of Penetrator development activities have been funded by ESA. The first phase focussed on the mission and system definition of a penetrator and delivery system for a mission to Europa and the second phase provided an update of the penetrator design for a larger suite of instruments focused on astrobiology and the demonstration of key system technologies through a programme of small scale and full scale testing. The science focus for the Europa penetrator is Astrobiology while the key science goals can be achieved within the first day of operation but a longer lifetime is required for the transmission of the science data to the orbiter. The extreme temperature environment of the Europan surface drove the design to a solution of a Penetrator with two separate bays. The front bay will be a short lifetime bay which will sample the surface and complete all analysis and data transfer within 10 hours. The rear bay is a warm bay which will house EPSC Abstracts Vol. 9, EPSC2014-642, 2014 European Planetary Science Congress 2014 c Author(s) 2014 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress the penetrator support systems required to transmit all collected data to the orbiter. The scientific instruments housed by the penetrator includeds a optical microimager, a habitability package and a mass spectrometer. A drilling and sampling mechanism is used for accessing the icy material outside the Penetrator for analysis. Small scale trails have been undertaken at the University of Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory to validate the impact modelling techniques and the robustness of critical components. A range of trials have been carried out to assess survivability of key elements of the design, including the sampling mechanism, potting compounds, accelerometers, shell, batteries and Torlon suspension springs. Full scale trials have been carried out to test the overall structural integrity of the system and the penetration profile. This programme was carried out in June 2013 at the MoD test range in Pendine South Wales. Two targets (sand and ice) were used to test the survivability of the design for missions to different planetary surfaces. This paper will present the Penetrator design and the results of the successful test campaigns and the next steps required in the Penetrator

    Vijendran, S.; Perkinson, M.-C.; Waugh, L.; Ratcliffe, A.; Kennedy, T.; Church, P.; Fielding, J.; Taylor, N.

    2014-04-01

    169

    Science Education and the External Perspective on Science A paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on the History and Philosophy of  

    E-print Network

    Science Education and the External Perspective on Science A paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science in Science Teaching, May 11-15, 1992, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada A revised version was published as: Cobern, W. W. (1995). Science

    Cobern, William W.

    170

    An Astrobiology Summer Program for High School Teachers and Students  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosomal Origins and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational summer program titled, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.” The purpose of the program was to expose high school educators to the field of astrobiology and provide them with skills and classroom activities necessary to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. Astrobiology activities for a week-long summer enrichment program for high school students was developed by three high school educators, two undergraduate students and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. Twenty-four high school students were introduced to hands-on activities and techniques such as gel electrophoresis, thin layer chromatography, and manual polymerase chain reaction. The impact of the astrobiology summer program on teachers and high school students will be discussed.

    Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Gaucher, E.; Snell, T.

    2010-12-01

    171

    From systems chemistry to systems astrobiology: life in the universe as an emergent phenomenon  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Although astrobiology is a science midway between the life and physical sciences, it has surprisingly remained largely disconnected from recent trends in certain branches of both life and physical sciences. We discuss potential applications to astrobiology of approaches that aim at integrating rather than reducing. Aiming at discovering how systems properties emerge has proved valuable in chemistry and in biology. The systems approach should also yield insights into astrobiology, especially concerning the ongoing search for alternative abodes for life. This is feasible since new data banks in the case of astrobiology - considered as a branch of biology - are of a geophysical/astronomical kind, rather than the molecular biology data that are used for questions related firstly, to genetics in a systems context and secondly, to biochemistry for solving fundamental problems, such as protein or proteome folding. By focusing on how systems properties emerge in astrobiology we consider the question: can life in the universe be interpreted as an emergent phenomenon? In the search for potential habitable worlds in our galactic sector with current space missions, extensive data banks of geophysical parameters of exoplanets are rapidly emerging. We suggest that it is timely to consider life in the universe as an emergent phenomenon that can be approached with methods beyond the science of chemical evolution - the backbone of previous research in questions related to the origin of life. The application of systems biology to incorporate the emergence of life in the universe is illustrated with a diagram for the familiar case of our own planetary system, where three Earth-like planets are within the habitable zone (HZ) of a G2 V (the complete terminology for the Sun in the Morgan-Keenan system) star. We underline the advantage of plotting the age of Earth-like planets against large atmospheric fraction of a biogenic gas, whenever such anomalous atmospheres are discovered in these worlds. A prediction is made as to the nature of the atmospheres of the planets that lie in the stellar HZs.

    Chela-Flores, J.

    2013-01-01

    172

    Future Directions in 3D Materials Science: Outlook from the First International Conference on 3D Materials Science  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The First International Conference on Three-Dimensional Materials Science was held in July 2012 in Seven Springs, Pennsylvania. The final session of the meeting consisted of a panel and audience discussion of the future directions of 3D materials science. Here we summarize these directions in four categories: improving data collection capabilities; increasing efficiency of collection, analysis, and modeling of data; error quantification; and data management.

    Lewis, Alexis C.; Howe, David

    2014-04-01

    173

    Astrobiological landscape: a platform for the neo-Copernican synthesis?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We live in the epoch of explosive development of astrobiology, a novel interdisciplinary field dealing with the origin, evolution and the future of life. The relationship between cosmology and astrobiology is much deeper than it is usually assumed - besides a similarity in the historical model of development of these two disciplines, there is an increasing number of crossover problems and thematic areas which stem from considerations of Copernicanism and observation selection effects. Such a crossover area is both visualized and heuristically strengthened by introduction of the astrobiological landscape, describing complexity of life in the most general context. We argue that this abstract landscape-like structure in the space of astrobiological parameters is a concept capable of unifying different strands of thought and research, a working concept and not only a metaphor. By analogy with phase spaces of complex physical systems, we can understand the astrobiological landscape as a set of viable evolutionary histories of life in a particular region of space. It is a notion complementary to the classical concept of biological morphological space, underscoring the fact that modern astrobiology offers a prospect of both foundational support and vast extension of the domain of applicability of the Darwinian biological evolution. Such a perspective would strengthen foundations upon which various numerical models can be built; the lack of such quantitative models has often been cited as the chief weakness of the entire astrobiological enterprise.

    ?irkovi?, Milan M.; Vukoti?, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    174

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introduction: Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5- 16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Furthermore, the presence of D-enriched organics in meteorites suggests that a portion of these materials survives incorporation into protosolar nebulae. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials in space nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are currently well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept designed to use infrared spectroscopy to address outstanding problems in Astrochemistry which are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and are amenable to astronomical observation. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE was selected for Phase A study during the last MIDEX AO round, but has yet to be selected for flight.

    Sandford, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    175

    78 FR 10180 - Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference  

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

    ...at least 14 days before the meeting. II. Information for Presenters...conference should submit an abstract online at http://www...NewProjectsCSS.aspx. Suggested poster abstract topics include: Data submission...efficiency, and cost. All abstracts must be received by...

    2013-02-13

    176

    2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record Evaluation of Genetic Algorithm-Generated  

    E-print Network

    2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record Evaluation of Genetic Algorithm-Generated generate color tables satisfying defined requirements for the fused display of high-resolution and dynamic. Radiologists were asked to evaluate images created using several different fusion-for-visualization techniques

    177

    METHODOLOGY IN QUESTION International PhD conference in the History of Science and Ideas  

    E-print Network

    METHODOLOGY IN QUESTION International PhD conference in the History of Science and Ideas Stockholm an opportunity to address methodological problems as have presented them- selves in the process of empirical are requested to use their empirical material as context or framework for discussions of methodological

    178

    Cement & Concrete Science Conference: Leeds, 2009 Hydration of alite containing aluminium  

    E-print Network

    Cement & Concrete Science Conference: Leeds, 2009 Hydration of alite containing aluminium Begarin in cement is tricalcium silicate which leads during its hydration to the nucleation and growth of calcium silicate hydrate (referred to C-S-H (CaO)x-SiO2-(H2O)y). The development of this hydrate around the cement

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    179

    ISTE Annual Conference and Exposition: Inaugural NSTA Science Education Technology Strand, Denver, CO: June 29, 2010  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thousands of science educators interested in learning more about using technology in education and the ease of using web-based tools to communicate and collaborate attended the ISTE Annual Conference and Exposition in Denver, CO, June 27-30, 2010.

    1900-01-01

    180

    Open Conference on Information Science in Canada, Proceedings (1st, Montebello, Quebec, May 14 & 15, 1973).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The papers presented at the first Canadian conference on information science are presented in this volume. Six presentations were given under the general topic of research: Research into Privacy and Data Banks, Communications Knowledge Software Industry for Canada, Census Data Access and Statistical Information Management, Communication System…

    Mauerhoff, Georg R., Comp.

    181

    Water Environment Federation. National TMDL Science and Policy Conference. Phoenix, AZ. November 13 16, 2002.  

    E-print Network

    Water Environment Federation. National TMDL Science and Policy Conference. Phoenix, AZ. November 13 ­ 16, 2002. AVAILABILITY OF ATMOSPHERICALLY DEPOSITED MERCURY TO RUNOFF AND RECEIVING WATERS Mark C to receiving waters; such estimates are overly conservative, and do not reflect the complex nature of mercury

    Pitt, Robert E.

    182

    PHYTOREMEDIATION: STATE OF THE SCIENCE CONFERENCE AND OTHER DEVELOPMENTS. EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION AND SPECIAL COMMENTARY  

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is a pleasure to present six papers in this issue, selected from presentations at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Conference, Phytoremediation: State of the Science held May 1-2, 2000 in Boston, MA, USA. These papers highlight some of the many advances reported...

    183

    X-rays at Sharp Focus: Chandra Science Symposium ASP Conference Series, Vol. 262, 2002  

    E-print Network

    X-rays at Sharp Focus: Chandra Science Symposium ASP Conference Series, Vol. 262, 2002 eds. Eric M. Schlegel and Saeqa Dil Vrtilek The temporal characteristics of the Chandra X-ray Observatory high energy Abstract. It was observed early on in the Chandra X-ray Observatory mission that the background rates

    Grant, Catherine E.

    184

    The 5th international atmospheric sciences and applications to air quality conference  

    SciTech Connect

    This document contains one page abstracts from the Fifth International Atmospheric Sciences and Applications to Air Quality Conference. Topics include the following: emissions and integrated assessment; ozone analysis and modeling; acid deposition; measurements and monitoring; advances in air pollution modeling; removal processes; long range transport; meteorological modeling and emergency response; urban air quality; aerosol processes and characterization.

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    185

    International Scientific Conference Computer Science'2008 Near-Native Protein Folding  

    E-print Network

    International Scientific Conference Computer Science'2008 61 Near-Native Protein Folding Stefka: The protein folding problem is a fundamental problem in computational molecular biology. The high resolution 3. After that the folding problem is de- fined like optimization problem. Keywords: Protein folding

    Fidanova, Stefka

    186

    EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR AEROSPACE SCIENCES Study on the eddy current damping of the spin dynamics of  

    E-print Network

    4TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR AEROSPACE SCIENCES Study on the eddy current damping of the spin consideration in this article, are impacted by torques generated by eddy currents as the conducting non, the permanent magnetic field from the magnetosphere generates eddy current in the spinning, conducting body

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    187

    IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Biological and Medical Science Libraries. Papers.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papers on biological and medical science libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The International Programs of the National Library of Medicine" (Lois Ann Colaianni, United States); (2) "Information Needs for International Health. A CDC (Centers for Disease…

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    188

    Proceedings of Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Society Conference, Dayton, 1998, pp. 124-131.  

    E-print Network

    Proceedings of Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Society Conference, Dayton tutoring system, CIRCSIM- Tutor tutors first-year medical students on blood pressure regulation based to tutor first-year medical students on blood pressure regulation. The students are requested to predict

    189

    STUDENT CONFERENCE IN CONSERVATION SCIENCE, THEME: BIODIVERSITY IN AFRICA PRESENT STATE, CHALLENGES AND  

    E-print Network

    entitled: "Biodiversity and ecology of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with native trees in the CapeSTUDENT CONFERENCE IN CONSERVATION SCIENCE, THEME: BIODIVERSITY IN AFRICA ­ PRESENT STATE, Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and services and Conservation of carnivores. Although all 4 workshops

    190

    IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Biological and Medical Sciences Libraries. Papers.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Four papers on biological and medical sciences libraries were presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. "Activities and Services of Medical Libraries in Japan--Past, Present, and Future" (Kazuo Urata and Toshinobu Suga, Japan) discusses the inauguration of the Japan Medical Library Association…

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    191

    Proceedings of the 7th Python in Science Conference (SciPy 2008)  

    E-print Network

    Proceedings of the 7th Python in Science Conference (SciPy 2008) Exploring Network Structure NetworkX is a Python language package for explo- ration and analysis of networks and network algo- rithmsX graphs can be any (hashable) Python object and edges can contain arbitrary data; this flexibil- ity makes

    Hagberg, Aric

    192

    Proceedings of the 7th Python in Science Conference (SciPy 2008)  

    E-print Network

    Proceedings of the 7th Python in Science Conference (SciPy 2008) Mayavi: Making 3D Data to use, both by relying on standard numerical objects (numpy arrays) and by using the features of Python the com- mand line, · An embedded Python shell that can be used to script the application, · The ability

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    193

    Conference of the Society for Literature and Science. Proceedings (Atlanta, Georgia, October 10-13, 1996).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The papers contained in these proceedings from the 1996 Society for Literature and Science Conference are organized into sections based on theme. Some of these themes are: (1) Secularizing Enlightenment; (2) Eugenics and the Politics of Knowledge; (3) Reading the Discourses of Psychology; (4) Women and Medicine; (5) The Rhetoric of Public Health;…

    Perkowitz, Sidney, Ed.

    194

    Taking the initiative: A leadership conference for women in science and engineering  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The conference sprang from discussions on the current climate that women face in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. The conference (and this document) is a beginning, not a culmination, of women's learning leadership skills. Conferees were active, articulate, energetic, and ready to learn leadership qualities, some of which seem universal, others that appear to require skills in specific fields. After the introduction, the workshops and presentations are arranged under vision and direction, barriers, alignment and communication, and motivation and inspiration. Some statistics are presented on women degrees and employment in various fields.

    1994-01-01

    195

    Joining Astrobiology to Medicine, Resurrecting Ancient Alcohol Metabolism  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We apply an astrobiological approach to understand how primates responded to the emergence of ethanol in their environment by resurrecting two enzymes involved in the degradation of ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrgenase.

    Carrigan, M. A.; Uryasev, O.; Davis, R. W.; Chamberlin, S. G.; Benner, S. A.

    2010-04-01

    196

    Astrobiological Research on Tardigrades: Implications for Extraterrestrial Life Forms  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardigrades have been considered as a model for astrobiological studies based on their tolerance to extreme environments. Future research on tardigrades might provide important insight into the possibilities of existence of multicellular life forms.

    Horikawa, D. D.

    2013-11-01

    197

    Press abstracts of the 21st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The Program Committee for the Twenty-fisrt Lunar and Planetary Science Conference has chosen these contributions as having the greatest potential interest for the general public. The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. More technical abstracts will be found in Lunar and Planetary Science XXI. Representative titles are: Ancient Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions on Mars: Global Model and Geological Evidence; Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Ordinary Chondrites and Their Chondrules; Exposure Ages and Collisional History of L-Chondrite Parent Bodies; Models of Solar-Powered Geysers on Triton; and Search for Life: A Science Rationale for a Permanent Base on Mars.

    1990-01-01

    198

    Mobile Raman spectroscopy in astrobiology research.  

    PubMed

    Raman spectroscopy has proved to be a very useful technique in astrobiology research. Especially, working with mobile instrumentation during fieldwork can provide useful experiences in this field. In this work, we provide an overview of some important aspects of this research and, apart from defining different types of mobile Raman spectrometers, we highlight different reasons for this research. These include gathering experience and testing of mobile instruments, the selection of target molecules and to develop optimal data processing techniques for the identification of the spectra. We also identify the analytical techniques that it would be most appropriate to combine with Raman spectroscopy to maximize the obtained information and the synergy that exists with Raman spectroscopy research in other research areas, such as archaeometry and forensics. PMID:25368355

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehli?ka, Jan

    2014-12-13

    199

    IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    200

    Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International Journal of Astrobiology , IJA 2011, 10, vol. 3. 137-305 [1] Foing B. et al. (2011) Field astrobiology research at Moon-Mars analogue site: Instruments and methods, IJA 2011, 10 (3), 141;[2] Clarke, J., Stoker, C. Concretions in exhumed & inverted channels near Hanksville Utah: implications for Mars, (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 162;[3] Thiel et al., (2011) PCR-based analysis of microbial communities during the EuroGeoMars campaign at Mars Desert Research Station, Utah. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 177;[4] Direito et al. (2011). A wide variety of putative extremophiles and large beta-diversity at the Mars Desert Research Station (Utah). (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 191;[5] Orzechowska, G. et al (20110 analysis of Mars Analog soils using solid Phase Microextraction, Organics solvent extraction and GCMS, (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 209; [6] Kotler et al. (2011). Analysis of mineral matrices of planetary soils analogs from the Utah Desert. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 221; [7] Martins et al. (2011). Extraction of amino acids from soils close to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), Utah. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 231; [8] Ehrenfreund et al. (2011) Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 239; [9] Stoker C. et al (2011) Mineralogical, Chemical, Organic & Microbial Properties of Subsurface Soil Cores from Mars Desert Research Station, a Phyllosilicate and Sulfate Rich Mars Analog Site, IJA 2011, 10 (3), 269; [10] Rodrigues L. et al (2014, in preparation) Preventing biocontamination during sterile sampling; [11] Rodrigues L. et al (2014, in preparation) Microbial diversity in MDRS rocks and soils; [12] ILEWG EuroMoonMars Team, (2014, special issue in preparation) Results from ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaign 2013 **Acknowledgements: B.H.Foing (1, 2, 6), C. Stoker (3), P. Ehrenfreund (4, 5), I. Rammos (2), L. Rodrigues (2), A. Svendsen (2), D. Oltheten (2), K. Nebergall (6), M. Battler (6, 7), H. v't Houd (8), A. Bruneau (6,9), M. Cross (6,7), V. Maivald (10), C. Orgel (6), A. Elsaesser (4),

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    201

    Undergraduate Education in the Sciences for Students in Agriculture and Natural Resources. Summary of Proceedings of Regional Conferences.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Following a national conference entitled, "Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences for Students in Agriculture and Natural Resources," four regional conferences ensued, bringing together teaching faculty members from agriculture, forestry, other natural resource areas, and biology. The papers presented at these regional meetings are…

    Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

    202

    UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES FOR STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES, PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REPORTED ARE THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1966 CONFERENCE WHICH DEALT WITH UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES. THE 167 EDUCATORS (MOSTLY DEANS AND DIRECTORS OF RESIDENT INSTRUCTION) WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE CONFERENCE REPRESENTED AGRICULTURE, RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES, THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, AND…

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    203

    PARTICIPANT SUPPORT FOR THE 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE ON PLASMA PROCESSING SCIENCE (JULY 11-16,2010)  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in low temperature plasma science and will explore the applications of low temperature plasma technology relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma

    Uwe Kortshagen

    2011-01-01

    204

    The Religion/Science Controversy: The Use and Abuse of Science in the Defense of Religion. Proceedings of a Conference (Westville, Indiana, October 5, 1985).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and religion have been referred to as the two strongest general forces which influence humankind. This document contains the proceedings of a conference which was held to address some of the relationships and controversies surrounding these topics. Included are the texts of the major papers presented at the conference. These are: (1)…

    Kanagy, Sherman P., II, Ed.

    205

    Research in Science Education, Volume 1990. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (21st, Perth, Western Australia, July 1990).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This book contains selected refereed papers from the 21st Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association. The papers are as follows: "A Learning Model for Science Education: Developing Teaching Strategies" (Appleton); "Researching Balance between Cognition and Affect in Science Teaching" (Baird et al.); "Toward a…

    Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    206

    Astrobiological and Geological Implications of Convective Transport in Icy Outer Planet Satellites  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The oceans of large icy outer planet satellites are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life in our solar system. The goal of our project has been to develop models of ice convection in order to understand convection as an astrobiologically relevant transport mechanism within icy satellites, especially Europa. These models provide valuable constraints on modes of surface deformation and thus the implications of satellite surface geology for astrobiology, and for planetary protection. Over the term of this project, significant progress has been made in three areas: (1) the initiation of convection in large icy satellites, which we find probably requires tidal heating; (2) the relationship of surface features on Europa to internal ice convection, including the likely role of low-melting-temperature impurities; and (3) the effectiveness of convection as an agent of icy satellite surface-ocean material exchange, which seems most plausible if tidal heating, compositional buoyancy, and solid-state convection work in combination. Descriptions of associated publications include: 3 published papers (including contributions to 1 review chapter), 1 manuscript in revision, 1 manuscript in preparation (currently being completed under separate funding), and 1 published popular article. A myriad of conference abstracts have also been published, and only those from the past year are listed.

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Zhong, Shi-Jie; Barr, Amy

    2005-01-01

    207

    NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 3  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990s.

    Kobler, Ben (editor); Hariharan, P. C. (editor); Blasso, L. G. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    208

    PREFACE: The fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA2007)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA 2007) was held on 9-14 September 2007 at Kobe International Conference Center in Kobe, Japan. The host organizations for this conference were Osaka University and the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE) at Osaka University; and co-organized by the Institute Lasers and Plasmas (ILP) in France, the Commissariatá l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan, and Kansai Photon Science Institute (KPSI), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The conference objective was to review the state of the art of research in inertial fusion sciences and applications since the last conference held in Biarritz, France, in 2005. 470 abstracts were accepted, and 448 persons from 18 countries attended the conference. These Proceedings contain 287 of the papers presented at IFSA 2007. This collection of papers represents the manuscripts submitted to and passing the peer review process. The program was organized with some specific features: The reviews of influential programs appeared both at the very beginning and at the very end of the Conference to attract attendance throughout the Conference. Each poster session had the same time period as a single oral session, thereby avoiding overlap with oral talks. The everyday program was structured to be as similar as possible so the attendees could easily recognize the program. With a goal of achieving inertial fusion ignition and burn propagation in the laboratory, researchers presented the exciting advances in both traditional hot spot ignition and fast ignition approach, including status report of USA's National Ignition Facility (NIF), French Laser Magajoule (LMJ), Japanese Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX), and European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER). A particular emphasis of the meeting was that the `physics of inertial fusion' category was dominated by fast-ignition and related ultra-intense laser interaction. Progress in direct drive over the past few years resulted in the achievement of high-density cryogenic implosions at OMEGA. Continuous progresses in hohlraum physics gave confidence in the achievement of ignition at NIF and LMJ. Advances in Z-pinch included double-hohlraum irradiation symmetry and the PW laser beam for the Z-facility. Progress of laser material development for IFE driver was a very interesting topic of inertial fusion energy drivers, including KrF and DPSSL lasers and particle beams. Of special interest, a future session was focused on strategy of inertial fusion energy development. Laboratory tours were held in the middle of the Conference. The Laser for Fusion EXperiments (LFEX), a new high-energy petawatt laser at ILE, was one of the key attractions of IFSA 2007. 83 participants toured LFEX and GEKKO XII lasers, and 35 joined a tour of KPSA-JAEA. In parallel to the tour, the `Symposium on Academics-Industries Cooperation for Applications of High-Power Lasers' was held with more than 90 participants mostly from the industrial community. These Proceedings start with special chapters on the keynote and focus speeches and the Teller lectures. The keynotes and focus give an overview of progress in inertial fusion in Asia, North America, and Europe. The Teller lectures show the contributions of this year's two winners: Brian Thomas of AWE, UK and Kunioki Mima of ILE. The remainder of the Proceedings is divided into three parts. Part A covers the physics of inertial fusion; Part B covers laser, particle beams, and fusion technology including IFE reactors and target fabrication; and Part C covers science and technology applications such as laboratory astrophysics, laser particle acceleration, x-ray and EUV sources, and new applications of intense lasers. These parts are further divided into chapters covering specific areas of science or technology. Within each chapter the talks relevant to that subject are gathered. The IFSA International Organizing Committee and Scientific Advisory Board

    Azechi, Hiroshi; Hammel, Bruce; Gauthier, Jean-Claude

    2008-06-01

    209

    PREFACE: 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) conference series has been organized to create a new forum in Asia and Australia to discuss vacuum, surface and related sciences, techniques and applications. The conference series is officially endorsed by the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Application (IUVSTA). The International Steering Committee of VASSCAA is comprised of Vacuum Societies in seven countries: Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Pakistan. VASSCAA-1 was organized by the Vacuum Society of Japan in 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. VASSCAA-2 was held in 2002 in Hong Kong, VASSCAA-3 in Singapore in 2005. VASSCAA-4 was held in Matsue, Japan in 2008 and VASSCAA-5 in 2010 in Beijing, China. The 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6) was held from 9-13 October 2012 in the beautiful city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The venue of the conference was the Pak-China Friendship Centre, Islamabad. More than six hundred local delgates and around seventy delegates from different countries participated in this mega event. These delegates included scientists, researchers, engineers, professors, plant operators, designers, vendors, industrialists, businessmen and students from various research organizations, technical institutions, universities, industries and companies from Pakistan and abroad. The focal point of the event was to enhance cooperation between Pakistan and the international community in the fields of vacuum, surface science and other applied technologies. At VASSCAA-6 85 oral presentations were delivered by local and foreign speakers. These were divided into different sessions according to their fields. A poster session was organized at which over 70 researchers and students displayed their posters. The best three posters won prizes. In parallel to the main conference sessions four technical short courses were held. The participants showed keen interest in all these courses. The most significant part of this event was an international exhibition of science, technology, energy and industry. In this international exhibition over 60 prominent international as well as local industrialists and vendors displayed their products. For the recreation of conference participants a cultural program and dinner was arranged. This entertaining program was fully enjoyed by all the participants especially the foreign guests. Recreational trips were also arranged for the foreign delegates. This mega event provided a unique opportunity to our scientific community to benefit from the rich international experience. The conference was a major forum for the exchange of knowledge and provided numerous scientific, technical and social opportunities for meeting leading experts. Editors Dr Javaid Ahsan Bhatti, Dr Talib Hussain, Dr Suleman Qaiser and Dr Wakil Khan National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology (NINVAST) NCP Complex, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan The PDF also contains a list of delegates.

    Ahsan Bhatti, Javaid; Hussain, Talib; Khan, Wakil

    2013-06-01

    210

    Contribution to a symbiogenic approach in astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This article intends to continue our previous work on the symbiogenic approach to chemical and biological evolution. We believe that cooperative and synergistic processes were responsible, using terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials, for the creation of a large prebiotic pool, closely related to geochemical contexts, and intense interactions within. Probably, a series of synergistic and cooperative effects produced a wide source of creativity, and functional advantages that pushed the emergence of complex and functionally integrated biological systems, through the evolution of self-organization and auto-catalysis. It was only after this biochemical evolution of structures, which produced the informational capabilities necessary for self-replication, that the Darwinian mechanisms could arise. This way of perceiving the emergence of life follows the proposals regarding life's initial evolution in which the progenote proposed consisted in an open community of very diverse primitive cellular entities with intense symbiotic associations, antagonisms, and competition, and with a rapid and reticulate pattern of evolution. We believe this symbiogenic approach should be considered in the understanding of chemical and biological evolution. This discussion contributes to the development of astrobiological knowledge, since it gives other perspectives about life's appearance and development on Earth and elsewhere.

    Carrapiço, Francisco; Pereira, Luísa; Rodrigues, Telma

    2007-09-01

    211

    Life Out There: An Astrobiological Multimedia Experience for the Digital Planetarium  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planetariums have a long history of experimentation with audio and visuals to create new multimedia experiences. We report on a series of innovative experiences in the Gates Planetarium at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in 2009-2011 combining live performances of music and navigation through scientific visualizations. The Life Out There productions featured a story showcasing astrobiology concepts at scales ranging from galactic to molecular, and told using VJ-ing of immersive visualizations and musical performances from the House Band to the Universe. Funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's JPL-Titan Team, these hour-long shows were broken into four separate themed musical movements, with an improvisatory mix of music, dome visuals, and spoken science narrative which resulted in no two performances being exactly alike. Post-performance dissemination is continuing via a recorded version of the performance available as a DVD and online streaming video. Written evaluations from visitors who were present at the live shows reveal high satisfaction, while one of the Life Out There concerts was used to inaugurate a new evening program to draw in a younger audience demographic to DMNS.

    Yu, K. C.; Grinspoon, D.

    2013-04-01

    212

    From Clark Lake to the Long Wavelength Array: Bill Erickson's Radio Science ASP Conference Series, Vol. 345, 2005  

    E-print Network

    From Clark Lake to the Long Wavelength Array: Bill Erickson's Radio Science ASP Conference Series Center, Code 695, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA S. D. Bale Physics Department and Space Sciences Laboratory. L. Jones Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 138-308, 4800 Oak

    California at Berkeley, University of

    213

    4th Annual Conference for African-American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4). Preliminary Program  

    SciTech Connect

    In June, The Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center, hosted the 4th Annual Conference for African-American Reserachers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4) at Rice University. The main goal of this conference was to highlight current work by African-American researchers and graduate students in mathematics. This conference strengthened the mathematical sciences by encouraging the increased participation of African-American and underrepresented groups into the field, facilitating working relationships between them and helping to cultivate their careers. In addition to the talks there was a graduate student poster session and tutorials on topics in mathematics and computer science. These talks, presentations, and discussions brought a broader perspective to the critical issues involving minority participation in mathematics.

    Tapia, Richard

    1998-06-01

    214

    Website for the Space Science Division  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The Space Science Division at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to research in astrophysics, exobiology, advanced life support technologies, and planetary science. These research programs are structured around Astrobiology (the study of life in the universe and the chemical and physical forces and adaptions that influence life's origin, evolution, and destiny), and address some of the most fundamental questions pursued by science. These questions examine the origin of life and our place in the universe. Ames is recognized as a world leader in Astrobiology. In pursuing our mission in Astrobiology, Space Science Division scientists perform pioneering basic research and technology development.

    Schilling, James; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    215

    PREFACE: Third Conference of the Asian Consortium for Computational Materials Science (ACCMS-3)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Following the tradition of the ACCMS-1 held in Bangalore, India, in November 2001, and the ACCMS-2 in Novosibirsk, Russia, during July 14-16, 2004, this conference, held at the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, 8-11 September 2005, has been set up to promote research and development activities in computational materials science in Asian countries. Computational materials science has emerged as a distinct multidisciplinary branch of science whose relevance and importance has come from (a) the desire to have a microscopic understanding of complex materials and phenomena, (b) the need to design novel materials with a desired combination of physical, chemical and metallurgical properties, and (c) the possibility to describe the basic interatomic interactions in materials via appropriate quantum mechanical and statistical mechanical tools. With the unprecedented growth of computer power and the developments of efficient and smart algorithms and codes, it is now possible to do large scale simulations of real materials with increasing complexity. A synergy amongst a wide variety of disciplines such as physics, chemistry, metallurgy, geology, biology, computer science and information technology is gradually coming to a reality due to advances in computer simulations. What follows here are the written ACCMS-3 proceedings based on the presentations, oral and poster, of the research pursued by the various participating groups, which cover topics, such as density functional theory-based methods, Monte Carlo, molecular and lattice dynamics simulations, tight-binding and effective medium approaches, coarse graining and mesoscopic modeling, continuum and quasi-continuum approaches, etc and their applications to different materials. ACCMS-3 was chaired by Professor Enge Wang, and co-chaired by professors B.L. Gu, Y. Kawazoe and G.P. Das, and organized and supported by the Institute of Physics (Beijing), Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University. In addition, financial supports from Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) are gratefully acknowledged. The conference was held at the Institute of Physics, CAS, in its newly built conference hall. The excellent facilities and the competent support of the professional staff, headed by Dr Jian-tao Wang, created a genial environment for scientific discussion and exchange. Their invaluable assistance is also gratefully acknowledged.

    Wang, Ding-sheng; Chen, Gang

    2006-01-01

    216

    NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 2  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Application. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include the following: magnetic disk and tape technologies; optical disk and tape; software storage and file management systems; and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

    Kobler, Ben (editor); Hariharan, P. C. (editor); Blasso, L. G. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    217

    Ike 101: The Dwight D. Eisenhower Program for Mathematics and Science Education National Conference (Arlington, Virginia, November 17-22, 1991).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A conference was held to discuss educational issues related to mathematics and science education. This document reports the proceedings of the conference by summarizing the comments of several of the conference speakers. The speakers and topics discussed included: (1) Senator Mark Hatfield and Congressman Thomas Sawyer on the perspective of…

    Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education, College Park, MD.

    218

    Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Cincinnati, OH, January 9-12, 1997).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This proceedings of the 1997 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (AETS) includes a copy of the conference program and 43 papers and presentation summaries from the meeting, placed in order by conference session. Among the topics of the papers include are: reading-to-learn and writing-to-learn…

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; And Others

    219

    Astrobiology Field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments: Preface  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    220

    PREFACE: IC-MSQUARE 2012: International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Physical Sciences  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The first International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Budapest, Hungary, from Monday 3 to Friday 7 September 2012. The conference was attended by more than 130 participants, and hosted about 290 oral, poster and virtual papers by more than 460 pre-registered authors. The first IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields in which mathematical modelling is used, such as theoretical/mathematical physics, neutrino physics, non-integrable systems, dynamical systems, computational nanoscience, biological physics, computational biomechanics, complex networks, stochastic modelling, fractional statistics, DNA dynamics, and macroeconomics. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, two parallel sessions ran every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful; thus all attendees had a creative time. The mounting question is whether this occurred accidentally, or whether IC-MSQUARE is a necessity in the field of physical and mathematical modelling. For all of us working in the field, the existing and established conferences in this particular field suffer from two distinguished and recognized drawbacks: the first is the increasing orientation, while the second refers to the extreme specialization of the meetings. Therefore, a conference which aims to promote the knowledge and development of high-quality research in mathematical fields concerned with applications of other scientific fields as well as modern technological trends in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, sociology, environmental sciences etc., appears to be a necessity. This is the key role that IC-MSQUARE will play. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to IC-MSQUARE. We would also like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. Conference Chairmen Theocharis Kosmas Department of Physics, University of Ioannina Elias Vagenas RCAAM, Academy of Athens Dimitrios Vlachos Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese The PDF also contains a list of members of the International Scientific Committes and details of the Keynote and Invited Speakers.

    Kosmas, Theocharis; Vagenas, Elias; Vlachos, Dimitrios

    2013-02-01

    221

    The Aouda.X space suit simulator and its applications to astrobiology.  

    PubMed

    We have developed the space suit simulator Aouda.X, which is capable of reproducing the physical and sensory limitations a flight-worthy suit would have on Mars. Based upon a Hard-Upper-Torso design, it has an advanced human-machine interface and a sensory network connected to an On-Board Data Handling system to increase the situational awareness in the field. Although the suit simulator is not pressurized, the physical forces that lead to a reduced working envelope and physical performance are reproduced with a calibrated exoskeleton. This allows us to simulate various pressure regimes from 0.3-1 bar. Aouda.X has been tested in several laboratory and field settings, including sterile sampling at 2800 m altitude inside a glacial ice cave and a cryochamber at -110°C, and subsurface tests in connection with geophysical instrumentation relevant to astrobiology, including ground-penetrating radar, geoacoustics, and drilling. The communication subsystem allows for a direct interaction with remote science teams via telemetry from a mission control center. Aouda.X as such is a versatile experimental platform for studying Mars exploration activities in a high-fidelity Mars analog environment with a focus on astrobiology and operations research that has been optimized to reduce the amount of biological cross contamination. We report on the performance envelope of the Aouda.X system and its operational limitations. PMID:22300413

    Groemer, Gernot E; Hauth, Stefan; Luger, Ulrich; Bickert, Klaus; Sattler, Birgit; Hauth, Eva; Föger, Daniel; Schildhammer, Daniel; Agerer, Christian; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Kaineder, Felix; Knoflach, Martin

    2012-02-01

    222

    PARTICIPANT SUPPORT FOR THE 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE ON PLASMA PROCESSING SCIENCE (JULY 11-16,2010)  

    SciTech Connect

    The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in low temperature plasma science and will explore the applications of low temperature plasma technology relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma generation and multi-phase plasmas. Application sessions will explore the impact of plasma technology in renewable energy and the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks, plasma-enabled medicine and sterilization, and environmental remediation and waste treatment. The conference will bring together in an informal atmosphere leaders in the field with junior investigators and graduate students. The special format of the Gordon Conferences, with programmed discussion sessions and ample time for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, will provide for a fertile atmosphere of brainstorming and creative thinking among the attendees.

    Uwe Kortshagen

    2011-06-14

    223

    Tuesday, March 14, 2006 POSTER SESSION I: ASTROBIOLOGY: MISSIONS  

    E-print Network

    . Maule J. Monaco L. Flores G. Steele A. Microarray Technology for Space Exploration [#2124] We discuss be planned to explore potentially life-containing refuges and return samples for analysis. Sample returnTuesday, March 14, 2006 POSTER SESSION I: ASTROBIOLOGY: MISSIONS 7:00 p.m. Fitness Center Starke V

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    224

    Is there intelligent life out there? Astrobiology Biogeocatalysis  

    E-print Network

    for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) project is listening to the galaxy intently for signals. Another NASA projectThe Drake equaTion Is there intelligent life out there? Astrobiology Biogeocatalysis Research The Drake Equation is a formula used to estimate the number of intelligent civilizations that may be in our

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    225

    Life on Earth...and Elsewhere? Astrobiology in Your Classroom  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The hands-on activities in this educators guide lay the conceptual groundwork for understanding questions fundamental to the field of astrobiology. They enable students to examine the nature of life, what it requires, its limits, and where it might be found. Through these experiences, students learn ideas related to the search for extraterrestrial life.

    2005-01-01

    226

    Astrobiological Implications of Titan Tholin in Methane Lakes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    We report here on our ongoing research in the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at NASA Ames Research Center dedicated to determine the degree of solubility of Titan tholin in the methane-ethane lakes. Our work is also directed toward confirming the presence of any astrobiologically significant molecules via hydrolysis and pyrolysis of a simulated lake sample. Our previous work conducted at

    Bishun N. Khare; C. P. McKay; S. McPherson; D. Cruikshank; D. Nna-Mvondo; Y. Sekine

    2010-01-01

    227

    Recent Aqueous Environments in Martian Impact Craters: An Astrobiological Perspective  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The discovery of gullies and debris aprons raises the question of the existence of aqueous environments on Mars in recent geological times and its astrobiological implications. Three cases of such environments are surveyed at MOC high resolution in the E-Gorgonum chaos and Newton and Hale craters. The regional setting of these craters suggests that the mechanisms of aquifer destabilization, flow

    Nathalie A Cabrol; David D Wynn-Williams; David A Crawford; Edmond A Grin

    2001-01-01

    228

    Thirty-ninth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2006, Kauai, Hawaii. c 2006 IEEE An estimator of propagation of cascading failure  

    E-print Network

    Thirty-ninth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2006, Kauai, Hawaii. c under contract number DE-AC05-00OR22725. Thirty-ninth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2006, Kauai, Hawaii. c 2006 IEEE. We now explain how branching processes can be useful

    229

    Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: state of the science and future research needs.  

    PubMed

    New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, particularly the use of the medication sapropterin to treat some individuals with PKU, and to develop a research agenda. Prior to the 2012 conference, five working groups of experts and public members met over a 1-year period. The working groups addressed the following: long-term outcomes and management across the lifespan; PKU and pregnancy; diet control and management; pharmacologic interventions; and molecular testing, new technologies, and epidemiologic considerations. In a parallel and independent activity, an Evidence-based Practice Center supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality conducted a systematic review of adjuvant treatments for PKU; its conclusions were presented at the conference. The conference included the findings of the working groups, panel discussions from industry and international perspectives, and presentations on topics such as emerging treatments for PKU, transitioning to adult care, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory perspective. Over 85 experts participated in the conference through information gathering and/or as presenters during the conference, and they reached several important conclusions. The most serious neurological impairments in PKU are preventable with current dietary treatment approaches. However, a variety of more subtle physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of even well-controlled PKU are now recognized. The best outcomes in maternal PKU occur when blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations are maintained between 120 and 360 ?mol/L before and during pregnancy. The dietary management treatment goal for individuals with PKU is a blood Phe concentration between 120 and 360 ?mol/L. The use of genotype information in the newborn period may yield valuable insights about the severity of the condition for infants diagnosed before maximal Phe levels are achieved. While emerging and established genotype-phenotype correlations may transform our understanding of PKU, establishing correlations with intellectual outcomes is more challenging. Regarding the use of sapropterin in PKU, there are significant gaps in predicting response to treatment; at least half of those with PKU will have either minimal or no response. A coordinated approach to PKU treatment improves long-term outcomes for those with PKU and facilitates the conduct of research to improve diagnosis and treatment. New drugs that are safe, efficacious, and impact a larger proportion of individuals with PKU are needed. However, it is imperative that treatment guidelines and the decision processes for determining access to treatments be tied to a solid evidence base with rigorous standards for robust and consistent data collection. The process that preceded the PKU State-of-the-Science Conference, the conference itself, and the identification of a research agenda have facilitated the development of clinical practice guidelines by professional organizations and serve as a model for other inborn errors of metabolism. PMID:24667081

    Camp, Kathryn M; Parisi, Melissa A; Acosta, Phyllis B; Berry, Gerard T; Bilder, Deborah A; Blau, Nenad; Bodamer, Olaf A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Brown, Christine S; Burlina, Alberto B; Burton, Barbara K; Chang, Christine S; Coates, Paul M; Cunningham, Amy C; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Ferguson, John H; Franklin, Thomas D; Frazier, Dianne M; Grange, Dorothy K; Greene, Carol L; Groft, Stephen C; Harding, Cary O; Howell, R Rodney; Huntington, Kathleen L; Hyatt-Knorr, Henrietta D; Jevaji, Indira P; Levy, Harvey L; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Matalon, Kimberlee; MacDonald, Anita; McPheeters, Melissa L; Mitchell, John J; Mofidi, Shideh; Moseley, Kathryn D; Mueller, Christine M; Mulberg, Andrew E; Nerurkar, Lata S; Ogata, Beth N; Pariser, Anne R; Prasad, Suyash; Pridjian, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Reddy, Uma M; Rohr, Frances J; Singh, Rani H; Sirrs, Sandra M; Stremer, Stephanie E; Tagle, Danilo A; Thompson, Susan M; Urv, Tiina K; Utz, Jeanine R; van Spronsen, Francjan; Vockley, Jerry; Waisbren, Susan E; Weglicki, Linda S; White, Desirée A; Whitley, Chester B; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Yannicelli, Steven; Young, Justin M

    2014-06-01

    230

    Life in Ice: Implications to Astrobiology  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    During the 2008 Tawani International Expedition Schirmacher Oasis/Lake Untersee Antarctica Expedition, living and instantly motile bacteria were found in freshly thawed meltwater from ice of the Schirmacher Oasis Lakes, the Anuchin Glacier ice and samples of the that perennial ice sheet above Lake Untersee. This phenomenon of living bacteria encased in ice had previously been observed in the 32,000 year old ice of the Fox Tunnel. The bacteria found in this ice included the strain FTR1T which was isolated and published as valid new species (Carnobacterium pleistocenium) the first validly published living Pleistocene organism still alive today. Living bacteria were also extracted from ancient ice cores from Vostok, Antarctica. The discovery that many strains of bacteria are able to survive and remain alive while frozen in ice sheets for long periods of time may have direct relevance to Astrobiology. The abundance of viable bacteria in the ice sheets of Antarctica suggests that the presence of live bacteria in ice is common, rather than an isolated phenomenon. This paper will discuss the results of recent studies at NSSTC of bacteria cryopreserved in ice. This paper advances the hypothesis that cryopreserved cells, and perhaps even viable bacterial cells, may exist today--frozen in the water-ice of lunar craters, the Polar Caps or craters of Mars; or in the permafrost of Mars; ice and rocks of comets or water bearing asteroids; or in the frozen crusts of the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The existence of bacterial life in ice suggests that it may not be necessary to drill through a thick ice crust to reach liquid water seas deep beneath the icy crusts of Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus. The presence of viable bacteria in the ice of the Earth s Polar Caps suggests that the possibility that cryo-panspermia (i.e., the trans-planetary transfer of microbial life by impact ejection/spallation of bacteria-rich polar ice masses) deserves serious consideration and study as a possible natural phenomenon of the solar system that may have played a profoundly important role in the Origin of Life on Earth and the Distribution of Life in the Cosmos. The paper concludes with a consideration of the protective properties of ice by absorption of UV-B, UV-C, h-rays, gamma-rays and the high energy proton environment of the Jupiter Radiation Belt. A proposed instrument that may provide additional data on the potential survivability of microbial extremophiles encased in ice and subjected to the simulated space environment will be briefly described.

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    231

    News Competition: School team launches a rocket Conference: Norway focuses on physics teaching Science on Stage: Canadian science acts take to the stage Particle Physics: Teachers get a surprise at CERN Teaching: Exploring how students learn physics University: Oxford opens doors to science teachers Lasers: Lasers shine light on meeting Science Fair: Malawi promotes science education  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Competition: School team launches a rocket Conference: Norway focuses on physics teaching Science on Stage: Canadian science acts take to the stage Particle Physics: Teachers get a surprise at CERN Teaching: Exploring how students learn physics University: Oxford opens doors to science teachers Lasers: Lasers shine light on meeting Science Fair: Malawi promotes science education

    2010-11-01

    232

    An International Workshop on Primary Science. Report on the Primary Science Workshop Held after the Conference in Science and Technology Education and Future Human Needs (Bangalore, India, August 1985).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A conference on science and technology and future human needs was attended by over 300 science educators from 64 countries. Educators with particular interest in primary science and technology education extended their stay for an additional seminar. This report highlights the events of that seminar. Contents include: (1) recent and on-going work…

    Harlen, Wynne, Comp.

    233

    Field astrobiology research in Moon-Mars analogue environments: instruments and methods  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We describe the field demonstration of astrobiology instruments and research methods conducted in and from the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah during the EuroGeoMars campaign 2009 coordinated by ILEWG, ESA/ESTEC and NASA Ames, with the contribution of academic partners. We discuss the entire experimental approach from determining the geological context using remote sensing, in situ measurements, sorties with sample collection and characterization, analysis in the field laboratory, to the post sample analysis using advanced laboratory facilities. We present the rationale for terrestrial field campaigns to strengthen astrobiology research and the link between in situ and orbital remote sensing data. These campaigns are supporting the preparation for future missions such as Mars Science Laboratory, ExoMars or Mars Sample Return. We describe the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign conducted by MDRS crew 76 and 77, focused on the investigation of surface processes in their geological context. Special emphasis was placed on sample collection and pre-screening using in-situ portable instruments. Science investigations included geological and geochemical measurements as well as detection and diagnostic of water, oxidants, organic matter, minerals, volatiles and biota. EuroGeoMars 2009 was an example of a Moon-Mars field research campaign dedicated to the demonstration of astrobiology instruments and a specific methodology of comprehensive measurements from selected sampling sites. We discuss in sequence: the campaign objectives and trade-off based on science, technical or operational constraints. This includes remote sensing data and maps, and geological context; the monitoring of environmental parameters; the geophysical context and mineralogy studies; geology and geomorphology investigations; geochemistry characterization and subsurface studies. We describe sample handling (extraction and collection) methods, and the sample analysis of soils and rocks performed in the MDRS laboratory using close inspection, initial petrological characterization, microscopy, Visible-NIR spectrometry, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, soil analysis, electrochemical and biological measurements. The results from post-mission analysis of returned samples using advanced facilities in collaborator institutes are described in companion papers in this issue. We present examples of in-situ analysis, and describe an example investigation on the exploration and analysis of endolithic microbial mats (from reconnaissance, in-situ imaging, sampling, local analysis to post-mission sample analysis).

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Zavaleta, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Thiel, C.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D.; Page, J.; Pletser, V.; Hendrikse, J.; Direito, S.; Kotler, J. M.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G.; Gross, C.; Wendt, L.; Clarke, J.; Borst, A. M.; Peters, S. T. M.; Wilhelm, M.-B.; Davies, G. R.; Davies

    2011-07-01

    234

    Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research I. Morphological and anatomical characteristics.  

    PubMed

    Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species-Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum-used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research. PMID:23868319

    Meeßen, J; Sánchez, F J; Brandt, A; Balzer, E-M; de la Torre, R; Sancho, L G; de Vera, J-P; Ott, S

    2013-06-01

    235

    Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Minneapolis, MN, January 8-11, 1998).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The 40 papers from this international conference addressed the major theme of facilitating science literacy for all teachers and students. Papers include the following: (1) "Confronting the Gender Gap in Science and Mathematics: The Sisters in Science Program" (P. Hammrich); (2) Teaching Instructional Materials for Science Educators with a CD-ROM…

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.

    236

    Art, Science & Visual Literacy: Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (24th, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, September 30-October 4, 1992).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Following an introductory paper on Pittsburgh and the arts, 57 conference papers are presented under the following four major categories: (1) "Imagery, Science and the Arts," including discovery in art and science, technology and art, visual design of newspapers, multimedia science education, science learning and interactive videodisc technology,…

    Braden, Roberts A., Ed.; And Others

    237

    Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, January 2002, Hawaii. IEEE Growth and Propagation of Disturbances in a Communication Network Model  

    E-print Network

    Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, January 2002, Hawaii. © IEEE Growth and Propagation of Disturbances in a Communication Network Model D. E. Newman Physics Dept., University of Alaska. Therefore, network vulnerability is a major hazard. Analysis of communications system traffic suggests

    Newman, David

    238

    Classroom Assessment in Mathematics: Views from a National Science Foundation Working Conference (Greensboro, North Carolina, May 16-18, 1997).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This document presents papers from a National Science Foundation (NSF) working conference to identify research issues and implementation strategies that support quality classroom assessment. Papers include: (1) "Understanding and Improving Classroom Assessment: Summary of Issues Raised" (George W. Bright and Jeane M. Joyner); (2) "Recommendations…

    Bright, George W., Ed.; Joyner, Jeane M., Ed.

    239

    Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 13th, Houston, TX, March 15-19, 1982, Proceedings. Part 1  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The present conference on planetary and lunar science considers theoretical models for the composition of the Venus crust, the lunar crust, the prediction of phase relationships in planetary mantles, the volumetric analysis of complex lunar craters, grazing impacts on Mars, the determination of lunar structure by means of electrical conductivity and seismic experiments, results of studies on the Apollo 16

    W. V. Boynton; T. J. Ahrens

    1982-01-01

    240

    IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Social Science Libraries and Geography and Map Libraries. Papers.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papers presented on social science and map and geography libraries at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Information for the Developing World: NTIS's (National Technical Information Service) Role in Information Transfer to Developing Countries" (Joseph F. Caponio, United States); (2)…

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    241

    Proceedings ofthe 29th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences -19% Optimistic Fossil Collection for Time Warp Simulation*  

    E-print Network

    Proceedings ofthe 29th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences - 19% Optimistic that they will be needed in the future. Comparing this prob- ability against a user-specified risk factor, the fossil of two rollback models for optimistic fossil col- lection. The first assumes a geometrically distributed

    Tropper, Carl

    242

    12th Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Conference, Oxford OH, 2001, pp. 16--23 CIRCSIMTutor: An Intelligent Tutoring System  

    E-print Network

    12th Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Conference, Oxford OH, 2001, pp. 16--23 CIRCSIM in cardiovascular physiology dealing with the regulation of blood pressure. We describe the lessons learned about of the important topics that beginning medical students must learn is how blood pressure is regulated in the human

    243

    12th Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Conference, Oxford OH, 2001, pp. 1623 CIRCSIM-Tutor: An Intelligent Tutoring System  

    E-print Network

    12th Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Conference, Oxford OH, 2001, pp. 16­23 CIRCSIM with the regulation of blood pressure. We describe the lessons learned about knowledge representation, input that beginning medical students must learn is how blood pressure is regulated in the human body. Human life

    244

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON THE CHANGING IDENTITY OF GRADUATE EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION (ATLANTA, JANUARY 25-26, 1965).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DISCUSSED ARE THE CHANGING IDENTITY OF GRADUATE EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION, THE FACTORS WHICH PRECIPITATED THESE CHANGES, AND THE RESULTING PROBLEMS. THE CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS INCLUDED EARTH SCIENTISTS WITH DIVERSE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUNDS FROM A BROAD GEOGRAPHICAL AREA. SPECIFIC TOPICS COVERED INCLUDED--(1) PRESENT DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE OF EARTH…

    WEAVER, CHARLES E.

    245

    Astrobiological Aspects of Mars and Human Presence: Pros and Cons  

    PubMed Central

    After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with regard to planetary protection issues. Therefore, before planning any human exploratory mission, the critical issues concerning human health and wellbeing as well as protection of Mars in its pristine condition need to be investigated. PMID:19048093

    Horneck, G

    2008-01-01

    246

    Astrobiological aspects of Mars and human presence: pros and cons.  

    PubMed

    After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with regard to planetary protection issues. Therefore, before planning any human exploratory mission, the critical issues concerning human health and wellbeing as well as protection of Mars in its pristine condition need to be investigated. PMID:19048093

    Horneck, G

    2008-08-01

    247

    Organics in the solar system and the Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) mission  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a proposed NASA\\/Mid-Explorer (MIDEX) space telescope mission that uses infrared spectroscopy to address outstanding questions in astrochemistry and astrobiology. ABE observations of approximately 1,600 objects will provide a powerful tool to understand the role of astrochemical evolution in astrobiology and in the creation and evolution of organics in the universe. One of ABE's principal tasks

    S. A. Sandford; L. J. Allamandola; J. D. Bregman; M. Cohen; D. P. Cruikshank; C. Dumas; K. Ennico; T. Greene; D. Hudgins; S. Kwok; S. D. Lord; S. C. Madden; C. R. McCreight; T. L. Roellig; D. W. Strecker; A. G. Tielens; M. W. Werner; K. Wilmoth

    2003-01-01

    248

    Case--studies approach to transferring introductory STEM classes: a course on astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    There is a growing awareness to the need for moving away from lecture--mode approaches in undergraduate STEM education and to the importance of increasing innovation and diversity in STEM education programs. We adopt the case--studies approach, and have taught an introductory course on astrobiology ---the science of life in the universe--- at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. We have created teaching materials using different types of cases, and have conducted an evaluation study. We intend to refine our teaching materials based on the evaluation study, and repeat the course next year. Following this study the teaching materials will be made available free of charge to any instructor, and the approach will be applied to other disciplines, including large enrollment classes.

    Burko, Lior M.; Enger, Sandra K.

    2011-04-01

    249

    Improving Science Instruction for Students with Disabilities: Proceedings. Working Conference on Science for Persons with Disabilities (Anaheim, California, March 28-29, 1994).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This proceedings report includes papers presented at a conference on teaching science to students with disabilities. In the first paper, "Family Pedigrees: A Model Lesson Illustrating Strategies for Teaching Students with Disabilities in a Mainstreamed High School Biology Class" (Kathleen Ball and Edward C. Keller, Jr.), strategies are described…

    Stefanich, Greg P.; Egelston-Dodd, Judy, Ed.

    250

    PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE 2014)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The third International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place at Madrid, Spain, from Thursday 28 to Sunday 31 August 2014. The Conference was attended by more than 200 participants and hosted about 350 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. More than 600 pre-registered authors were also counted. The third IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral sessions and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful, thus all attendees had a creative time. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

    2015-01-01

    251

    PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences 2013 (IC-MSQUARE 2013)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The second International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place at Prague, Czech Republic, from Sunday 1 September to Thursday 5 September 2013. The Conference was attended by more than 280 participants and hosted about 400 oral, poster, and virtual presentations while counted more than 600 pre-registered authors. The second IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel sessions were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful, thus all attendees had a creative time. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee. Further information on the editors, speakers and committees is available in the attached pdf.

    2014-03-01

    252

    Case studies approach for an undergraduate astrobiology course  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case studies is a well known and widely used method in law schools, medical schools, and business schools, but relatively little used in physics or astronomy courses. We developed an astrobiology course based strongly on the case studies approach, and after teaching it first at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, we have adapted it and are now teaching it at Alabama A&M University, a HBCU. The case studies approach uses several well tested and successful teaching methods - including group work, peer instruction, current interest topics, just-in-time teaching, &c. We have found that certain styles of cases are more popular among students than other styles, and will revise our cases to reflect such student preferences. We chose astrobiology -- an inherently multidisciplinary field -- because of the popularity of the subject matter, its frequent appearance in the popular media (news stories about searches for life in the universe, the discovery of Earth-like exoplanets, etc, in addition to SciFi movies and novels), and the rapid current progress in the field. In this talk we review briefly the case studies method, the styles of cases used in our astrobiology course, and student response to the course as found in our assessment analysis.

    Burko, Lior M.; Enger, Sandra

    2013-04-01

    253

    Building on Family Strengths: Research and Services in Support of Children and Their Families. Proceedings of the Building on Family Strengths Annual Conference (14th, Portland, Oregon, May 31-June 2, 2007) and State of the Science Report  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The State of the Science conference was held in May, 2007 as part of the ongoing series of national conferences, "Building on Family Strengths," conducted by the Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health at Portland State University. The theme of this State-of-the Science conference was "Effective services for all…

    Swart, Sandra, Ed.; Friesen, Barbara, Ed.; Holman, Ariel, Ed.; Aue, Nicole, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    254

    Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms: Results From a NASA Astrobiology Nanosatellite Mission  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA's Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses, or O/OREOS, nanosatellite is a sci-ence demonstration mission that showcases achievements in using hardware from a technology development program led by the Small Spacecraft Division at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Continuing Ames' development of triple-cube nanosatellite tech-nology and flight systems, which includes the successful GeneSat-1 and PharmaSat missions, O/OREOS is constructed from off-the-shelf commercial and NASA-designed parts to create a fully self-contained, automated, stable, light-weight space science laboratory with innovative environment and power control techniques; sensors to monitor the levels of pressure, temper-ature, humidity, radiation and acceleration; and a communications system able to regularly accept commands from the ground and transmit data back to Earth for scientific analysis. The overall goal of the O/OREOS mission is to demonstrate the capability to do low-cost sci-ence experiments on autonomous nanosatellites in space in support of the Astrobiology Small Payloads program under the Planetary Science Division of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. The spacecraft houses two science payloads: the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment will monitor the stability and changes in four classes of organic matter (results presented at another COSPAR session); and the Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms (SESLO) experiment (presented here). SESLO will charac-terize the growth, activity, health, and ability of microorganisms to adapt to the stresses of the space environment. The experiment is sealed in a vessel at one atmosphere and contains two types of microbes commonly found in salt ponds and soil, in a dried and dormant state: Halorubrum chaoviator and Bacillus subtilis. After it reaches orbit, the experiment will initiate and begin to rehydrate and grow three sets of the microbes at three different times: a few days, three months, and six months after launch. Once the satellite is in its highly inclined orbit, the microbes are constantly being exposed to space's high-energy radiation while in micro-gravity. The SESLO experiment measures the microbes' population density as they consume the components of the nutrient medium; a metabolism indicator dye included in the medium changes color, enabling quantitative tracking of metabolic activity. Together, these data en-able determination of the effects of the combined exposure to space radiation and microgravity on organism growth, health and survival. The design of the spacecraft, its ability to support Astrobiology goals, and the actual spaceflight data obtained will be presented.

    Santos, Orlando; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Mancinelli, Rocco; Nicholson, Wayne; Ricco, Antonio

    255

    Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Australian Science Education Association (19th, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, November 18, 1994).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Western Australian Science Education Association is an informal group which meets annually for a conference. This document contains the proceedings of the 1994 conference. Papers included were: (1) "Relationship Between Cognitive Style and Students' Proportional Reasoning Ability" (Ayo Akatugba); (2) "Alternative Modes of Instruction in…

    Rennie, Leonie J., Ed.

    256

    ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 5, Number 6, 2005  

    E-print Network

    (including ge- 1Department of Geology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. Departments of 2Hydrology and Water Resources and 5Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. 3Centro de interest to better un- derstand environmental conditions (e.g., geology, hydrology, climate, etc

    Arizona, University of

    257

    Girls And Science And Technology (GASAT). Contributions to the Conference (1st, Eindhaven, The Netherlands, November 9-13, 1981). Volume 2.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This document contains the full text of 21 papers presented at an international conference on Girls And Science And Technology (GASAT). They include: "Women in Science and Engineering: A Case of Awareness and Encouragement" (Mary Anderson); "A Multi-phased Program for Recruiting Southern Women into Science Based on Extensive Media Use and…

    Raat, Jan H.; And Others

    258

    Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection Instrumentation Development and Calibration  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight instrumentation and for the development of advanced instrumentation technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight instrumentation including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instruments on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer instruments under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help calibrate current spaceflight instrumentation, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.

    Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; Steele, Andrew; Amashukeli, Xenia; Fisher, Anita; Grunthaner, Frank; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeff; Chiesl, Tom; Stockton, Amanda; Mathies, Rich

    2008-01-01

    259

    Copyright 1998 IEEE. Published in the Proceedings of the Hawai'i International Conference On System Sciences, January 6-9, 1998, Kona, Hawaii.  

    E-print Network

    Copyright 1998 IEEE. Published in the Proceedings of the Hawai'i International Conference On System Sciences, January 6- 9, 1998, Kona, Hawaii. A Simulation Based Approach to Pricing Reactive Power James D

    260

    Copyright 1998 IEEE. Published in the Proceedings of the Hawai'i International Conference On System Sciences, January 6-9, 1998, Kona, Hawaii.  

    E-print Network

    Copyright 1998 IEEE. Published in the Proceedings of the Hawai'i International Conference On System Sciences, January 6- 9, 1998, Kona, Hawaii. Inclusion of Price Dependent Load Models in the Optimal Power

    261

    EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR AEROSPACE SCIENCES (EUCASS) Copyright 2011 by Nicolas Praly and Nicolas Petit. Published by the EUCASS association with permission.  

    E-print Network

    4TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR AEROSPACE SCIENCES (EUCASS) Copyright © 2011 by Nicolas Praly the performance improvement that could be obtained using state-of-the-art magnetometer technology onboard heavy

    262

    CASANZ Conference Linking Air Pollution, Science, Policy and Management -Newcastle, NSW Australia 23-27 Nov 2003 Page 1 of 5  

    E-print Network

    CASANZ Conference ­ Linking Air Pollution, Science, Policy and Management - Newcastle, NSW related to ventilation rate changes. Keywords: Chicken, Ventilation, Air Quality, Poultry. 1. Introduction about the industry's impact on local and regional air quality. Quantitative estimates are also required

    Kentucky, University of

    263

    Tenth Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Conference (MAICS 99), Bloomington, IN. (to appear) NOVICE VS. EXPERT TUTORS: A COMPARISON OF STYLE  

    E-print Network

    Tenth Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Conference (MAICS Ã?99), Bloomington, IN designed to tutor first-year medical students on the baroreceptor reflex, a mechanism for blood pressure

    264

    Proc. 13th Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Society Conference, MAICS-2002, Chicago, pp. 161168. Building an Ontology for CIRCSIM-Tutor  

    E-print Network

    Proc. 13th Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Society Conference, MAICS-2002, Chicago, pp. 161-Tutor is on the baroreceptor reflex, the negative feedback system that controls blood pressure in the human body (Evens et al

    265

    Proc. 13th Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Society Conference, MAICS2002, Chicago, pp. 161--168. Building an Ontology for CIRCSIMTutor  

    E-print Network

    Proc. 13th Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Society Conference, MAICS­2002, Chicago, pp. 161­Tutor is on the baroreceptor reflex, the negative feedback system that controls blood pressure in the human body (Evens et al

    266

    The Cyborg Astrobiologist: Porting from a wearable computer to the Astrobiology Phone-cam  

    E-print Network

    We have used a simple camera phone to significantly improve an `exploration system' for astrobiology and geology. This camera phone will make it much easier to develop and test computer-vision algorithms for future planetary exploration. We envision that the `Astrobiology Phone-cam' exploration system can be fruitfully used in other problem domains as well.

    Alexandra Bartolo; Patrick C. McGuire; Kenneth P. Camilleri; Christopher Spiteri; Jonathan C. Borg; Philip J. Farrugia; Jens Ormo; Javier Gomez-Elvira; Jose Antonio Rodriguez-Manfredi; Enrique Diaz-Martinez; Helge Ritter; Robert Haschke; Markus Oesker; Joerg Ontrup

    2007-07-05

    267

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Organic Molecules in Space  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    One of the principal means by which organic compounds are detected and identified in space is by infrared spectroscopy. Past IR telescopic and laboratory studies have shown that much of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) is in complex organic species but the distribution, abundance and evolutionary relationships of these materials are not well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept designed to conduct IR spectroscopic observations to detect and identify these materials and address outstanding problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. ABE's core science program includes observations of planetary nebulae and stellar outflows, protostellar objects, Solar System objects, and galaxies, and lines of sight through dense molecular clouds and the diffuse ISM. ABE is a cryogenically-cooled 60 cm diameter space telescope equipped with 3 cross-dispersed R-2000 spectrometers that share a single common slit. Each spectrometer measures one spectral octave and together cover the entire 2.5-20 micron region simultaneously. The spectrometers use state-of-the-art InSb and Si:As 1024x1024 pixel detectors. ABE would operate in a heliocentric, Earth drift-away orbit and have a core science mission lasting approximately 1.5 years. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp.

    Sandford, Scott A.; Ennico, Kimberly; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse; Greene, Thomas; Hudgins, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    268

    Might Astrobiological Findings Evoke a Religious Crisis?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).

    Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    269

    Astrobiology at Arizona State University: An Overview of Accomplishments  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    During our five years as an NAI charter member, Arizona State University sponsored a broadly-based program of research and training in Astrobiology to address the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Solar System. With such a large, diverse and active team, it is not possible in a reasonable space, to cover all details of progress made over the entire five years. The following paragraphs provide an overview update of the specific research areas pursued by the Arizona State University (ASU) Astrobiology team at the end of Year 5 and at the end of the 4 month and subsequent no cost month extensions. for a more detailed review, the reader is referred to the individual annual reports (and Executive Summaries) submitted to the NAI at the end of each of our five years of membership. Appended in electronic form is our complete publication record for all five years, plus a tabulation of undergraduates, graduate students and post-docs supported by our program during this time. The overarching theme of ASU s Astrobiology program was "Exploring the Living Universe: Studies of the Origin, Evolution and Distribution of Life in the Solar System". The NAi-funded research effort was organized under three basic sub- themes: 1. Origins of the Basic Building Blocks of Life. 2. Early Biosphere Evolution. and 3. Exploring for Life in the Solar System. These sub-theme areas were in turn, subdivided into Co-lead research modules. In the paragraphs that follow, accomplishments for individual research modules are briefly outlined, and the key participants presented in tabular form. As noted, publications for each module are appended in hard copy and digital formats, under the name(s) of lead co-Is.

    Farmer, Jack

    2005-01-01

    270

    CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences dedicated to the centenary of L D Landau's birth (22-23 January 2008)  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences dedicated to the centenary of L D Landau's birth was held in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, on 22 and 23 January 2008. An Opening Address by A F Andreev and the following reports were presented at the session:

    A. F. Andreev; Yu M. Kagan; L. P. Pitaevskii; I. M. Khalatnikov; A. Yu Kamenshchik; B. L. Ioffe; L. B. Okun; L. N. Lipatov

    2008-01-01

    271

    Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 21st, Houston, TX, Mar. 12-16, 1990, Proceedings  

    SciTech Connect

    The present conference on lunar and planetary science discusses the geology and geophysics of Venus; the lunar highlands and regolith; magmatic processes of the moon and meteorites; remote sensing of the moon and Mars; chondrites, cosmic dust, and comets; ammonia-water mixtures; and the evolution of volcanism, tectonics, and volatiles on Mars. Attention is given to volcanism on Venus, pristine moon rocks, the search for Crisium Basin ejecta, Apollo 14 glasses, lunar anorthosites, the sources of mineral fragments in impact melts 15445 and 15455, and argon adsorption in the lunar atmosphere. Also discussed are high-pressure experiments on magnesian eucrite compositions, the early results of thermal diffusion in metal-sulfide liquids, preliminary results of imaging spectroscopy of the Humorum Basin region of the moon, high-resolution UV-visible spectroscopy of lunar red spots, and a radar-echo model for Mars. Other topics addressed include nitrogen isotopic signatures in the Acapulco Meteorite, tridymite and maghemite formation in an Fe-SiO smoke, and the enigma of mottled terrain on Mars.

    Ryder, G.; Sharpton, V.L.; (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX)

    1991-01-01

    272

    Astrobiology Results from ILEWG EuroMoonMars Analogue Field Research  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We give an update on the astrobiology results from a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme environment of the Utah desert. These are relevant to prepare future lunar landers and polar sample return missions, interpret Moon-Mars data (eg SMART1, LRO, Mars Express, MRO, MER, MSL), study habitability and astrobiology in Moon-Mars environments, or to test human-robotic surface EVA or base operations. In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [0, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from re-mote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geo-chemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Results: Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [0-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. We acknowledge team members and supporting institutes: B.H. Foing (1, 2, 6), C. Stoker (3), P. Ehrenfreund (4, 5), I. Rammos (2), L. Rodrigues (2), A. Svendsen (2), D. Oltheten (2), I. Schlacht (2), K. Nebergall (6), M. Battler (6, 7), H. v’t Houd (8), A. Bruneau (6,9), M. Cross (6,7), V. Maivald (10), C. Orgel (6), A. Elsaesser (4), S.O.L. Direito (2,4), W.F.M. Röling (2), G.R. Davies (2); EuroGeoMars2009 Team, DOMMEX-ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2010-2013 Teams (1) ESA/ ESTEC, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwik, NL; (2) Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth & Life Sciences, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, NL; (3) NASA Ames Research Centre; US; (4) Leiden Institute of Chemistry, NL; (5) Space Policy Institute, GWU, Washington D.C., USA; (6) ILEWG; (7) CPSX; (8) Cerberus Blackshore, ESIC Noordwijk, NL; (9) ENSC Bordeaux; (10) DLR, Bremen References: Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) “Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments”, Special Issue of International Journal of Astrobiology , IJA 2011, 10, vol.3. 137-305; [1] Foing B. et al. (2011) Field astrobiology research at Moon-Mars analogue site: Instruments and methods, IJA 2011, 10 (3), 141; [2] Clarke, J., Stoker, C. Concretions in exhumed & inverte channels near Hanksville Utah: implications for Mars, (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 162; [3] Thiel et al., (2011) PCR-based analysis of microbial communities during the EuroGeoMars campaign at Mars Desert Research Station, Utah. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 177; [4] Direito et al. (2011). A wide variety of putative extremophiles and large beta-diversity at the Mars Desert Research Station (Utah). (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 191; [5] Orzechowska, G. et al (20110 analysis of Mars Analog soils using solid Phase Microextraction, Organics solvent extraction and GCMS, (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 209; [6] Kotler et al. (2011). Analysis of mineral matrices of planetary soils analogs from the Utah Desert. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 221; [7] Martins et al. (2011). Extraction of amino acids from soils close to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), Utah. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 231; [8] Ehrenfreund et al. (2011) Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 239; [9] Stoker C. et al (2011) Mineralogical

    Foing, Bernard H.

    273

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Corp. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the distribution, identity, and evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds, young forming stellar systems, stellar outflows, the general diffuse ISM, HII regions, Solar System bodies, and external galaxies. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.6 m aperture Cassegrain telescope and two moderate resolution (R = 2000-3000) spectrographs covering the 2.5-16 micron spectral region. Large format (1024x 1024 pixel or larger) IR detector arrays and bandpass filters will allow each spectrograph to cover an entire octave of spectral range or more per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope will be cooled below 50K by a cryogenic dewar shielded by a sunshade. The detectors will be cooled to approximately 8K. The optimum orbital configuration for achieving the scientific objectives of the ABE mission is a low background, 1 AU Earth driftaway orbit requiring a Delta II launch vehicle. This configuration provides a low thermal background and allows adequate communications bandwidth and good access to the entire sky over the approximate 1-2 year mission lifetime.

    Ennico, Kimberly; Sandford, Scott; Cox, Sylvia; Ellis, Benton; Gallagher, Dennis; Gautier, Nick; Greene, Thomas; McCreight, Craig; Mills, Gary; Purcell, William; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    274

    Report on the 10th anniversary of international drug discovery science and technology conference, 8 - 10 november 2012, nanjing, china.  

    PubMed

    The 10th Anniversary of International Drug Discovery Science and Technology (IDDST) Conference was held in Nanjing, China from 8 to 10 November 2012. The conference ran in parallel with the 2nd Annual Symposium of Drug Delivery Systems. Over 400 delegates from both conferences came together for the Opening Ceremony and Keynote Addresses but otherwise pursued separate paths in the huge facilities of the Nanjing International Expo Centre. The IDDST was arranged into 19 separate Chapters covering drug discovery biology, target validation, chemistry, rational drug design, pharmacology and toxicology, drug screening technology, 'omics' technologies, analytical, automation and enabling technologies, informatics, stem cells and regenerative medicine, bioprocessing, generics, biosimilars and biologicals and seven disease areas: cancer, CNS, respiratory and inflammation, autoimmune, emerging infectious, bone and orphan diseases. There were also two sessions of a 'Bench to Bedside to Business' Program and a Chinese Scientist programme. In each period of the IDDST conference, up to seven sessions were running in parallel. This Meeting Highlight samples just a fraction of the content of this large meeting. The talks included have as a link, the use of new approaches to drug discovery. Many other excellent talks could have been highlighted and the author has necessarily had to be selective. PMID:23339328

    Everett, Jeremy R

    2013-03-01

    275

    Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2002 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002. Papers include: (1) "Teaching Science Methods Courses with Web-Enhanced Activities" (Alec M. Bodzin); (2) "How Is Your Lawnmower Working?…

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

    276

    MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators & Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (3rd, Columbus, OH, May 15, 1999).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERs-OSU) is a student organization that grew out of the former OSU Council of Teachers of Mathematics (OSU-CTM). Papers from the third annual conference include: (1) "Gender, Ethnicity, and Science" (Terry Arambula-Greenfield); (2) "Assessment: The…

    Costner, Kelly M., Ed.; Reed, Michelle K., Ed.

    277

    The O/OREOS mission—Astrobiology in low Earth orbit  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The O/OREOS (Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses) nanosatellite is the first science demonstration spacecraft and flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small-Payloads Program (ASP). O/OREOS was launched successfully on November 19, 2010, to a high-inclination (72°), 650-km Earth orbit aboard a US Air Force Minotaur IV rocket from Kodiak, Alaska. O/OREOS consists of 3 conjoined cubesat (each 1000 cm3) modules: (i) a control bus; (ii) the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment; and (iii) the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment. Among the innovative aspects of the O/OREOS mission are a real-time analysis of the photostability of organics and biomarkers and the collection of data on the survival and metabolic activity for microorganisms at 3 times during the 6-month mission. We report on the spacecraft characteristics, payload capabilities, and present operational phase and flight data from the O/OREOS mission. The science and technology rationale of O/OREOS supports NASA's scientific exploration program by investigating the local space environment as well as space biology relevant to Moon and Mars missions. It also serves as a precursor for experiments on small satellites, the International Space Station (ISS), future free-flyers and lunar surface exposure facilities.

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Squires, D.; Kitts, C.; Agasid, E.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.; Cook, A.; Mancinelli, R.; Mattioda, A.; Nicholson, W.; Quinn, R.; Santos, O.; Tahu, G.; Voytek, M.; Beasley, C.; Bica, L.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Friedericks, C.; Henschke, M.; Landis, D.; Luzzi, E.; Ly, D.; Mai, N.; Minelli, G.; McIntyre, M.; Neumann, M.; Parra, M.; Piccini, M.; Rasay, R.; Ricks, R.; Schooley, A.; Stackpole, E.; Timucin, L.; Yost, B.; Young, A.

    2014-01-01

    278

    Finding Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) Destinations for Human Exploration: Implications for Astrobiology  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The current number of known potential NEA targets for HSF is limited to those objects whose orbital characteristics are similar to that of the Earth. This is due to the projected capabilities of the exploration systems currently under consideration and development at NASA. However, NEAs with such orbital characteristics often have viewing geometries that place them at low solar elongations and thus are difficult to detect from the vicinity of Earth. While ongoing ground-based surveys and data archives maintained by the NEO Program Observation Program Office and the Minor Planet Center (MPC) have provided a solid basis upon which to build, a more complete catalog of the NEO population is required to inform a robust and sustainable HSF exploration program. Since all the present NEO observing assets are currently confined to the vicinity of the Earth, additional effort must be made to provide capabilities for detection of additional HSF targets via assets beyond Earth orbit. A space-based NEO survey telescope located beyond the vicinity of the Earth, has considerable implications for planetary science and astrobiology. Such a telescope will provide foundational knowledge of our Solar System small body population and detect targets of interest for both the HSF and scientific communities. Data from this asset will yield basic characterization data on the NEOs observed (i.e., albedo, size determination, potential for volatiles and organics, etc.) and help down select targets for future HSF missions. Ideally, the most attractive targets from both HSF and astrobiology perspectives are those NEAs that may contain organic and volatile materials, and which could be effectively sampled at a variety of locations and depths. Presented here is an overview of four space-based survey concepts; any one of which after just a few years of operation will discover many highly accessible NEO targets suitable for robotic and human exploration. Such a space-based survey mission will reveal incredible returns for several disciplines including: exploration, in situ resource utilization, planetary defense, and science. Of particular, interest to the scientific

    Landis, Rob; Abell, Paul; Barbee, Brent; Johnson, Lindley

    2012-01-01

    279

    The Combined Detection of Morphological and Molecular Biomarkers: Implications for Astrobiology  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    We have investigated known bacterial fossils using a combination of morphological and spectral techniques for the detection of biomarkers. This approach is considered crucial to unambiguous life detection strategies within Astrobiology. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

    Toporski, J.; Steele, A.; Westall, F.; Avci, R.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    280

    Astrobiological Investigation of Pitch Lake, Trinidad, and its Potential as an Analog for Titan  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Located in Trinidad, Pitch Lake is a natural liquid asphalt lake. It is one of the best terrestrial analogs to the surface of Titan currently available for study on the Earth and should be the subject of targeted astrobiological investigations.

    Shivak, J. N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.

    2014-02-01

    281

    Micro-XRF: Elemental Analysis for In Situ Geology and Astrobiology Exploration  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close-up measurements of rock chemistry are fundamental for exploration of Mars and other rocky bodies. Micro-XRF will vastly improve the speed and spatial resolution of such measurements in order to enable detailed geological and astrobiological interpretations.

    Allwood, A. C.; Hodyss, R.; Wade, L.

    2012-10-01

    282

    Investigating the state of the Sun-Earth system during extreme events: First science results of a worldwide online conference series  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This presentation reports on new science results from an online conference entitled "Return to the Auroral Oval for the Anniversary of the IGY" designed to bring together researchers worldwide: (1) to investigate newly reported features in the auroral oval during substorms that occur in the main phase of superstorms and how these features map throughout geospace, (2) to explore implications for the state of the geospace system, (3) to identify signatures associated with this geospace state from equatorial to polar latitudes, (4) to investigate the unusual aspects of the solar sources, and (5) to understand how propagation from Sun to Earth modified the observed solar drivers. The main focus of the first conference is on worldwide data exchange, the construction of global data products and assimilative global views, and identifying coupled chains of events from sun-to-Earth. The collaborative conference data products and enhanced understanding of the observed features of the events will form the basis for a follow-on conference in 2007 focused primarily on theoretical studies and collaborative simulation efforts between modeling groups, observers and data analysts. This conference is the first in a series of sun-Earth connection online conferences, sponsored by CAWSES, IHY, eGY, ICESTAR, NASA/LWS, and NSF Atmospheric Science Programs, and designed to bring interdisciplinary researchers together with the vast developing cyber-infrastructure of large international data sets, high performance computing and advanced visualizations to address grand challenge science issues in a way not previously possible.

    Kozyra, J. U.; Shibata, K.; Fox, N. J.; Basu, S.; Coster, A. J.; Davila, J. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Liou, K.; Lu, G.; Mann, I. R.; Pallamraju, D.; Paxton, L. J.; Peterson, W. K.; Talaat, E. R.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Young, C. A.; Zanetti, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    283

    Joint Tenure-Track Faculty Position in Exoplanetary Science Earth and Planetary Sciences and Physics Department, McGill University  

    E-print Network

    Joint Tenure-Track Faculty Position in Exoplanetary Science Earth and Planetary Sciences and Physics Department, McGill University The Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences (www, astrobiology and atmospheric sciences in Earth and Planetary Science and other departments. We seek candidates

    Kambhampati, Patanjali

    284

    Astrobiological phase transition: towards resolution of Fermi's paradox.  

    PubMed

    Can astrophysics explain Fermi's paradox or the "Great Silence" problem? If available, such explanation would be advantageous over most of those suggested in literature which rely on unverifiable cultural and/or sociological assumptions. We suggest, instead, a general astrobiological paradigm which might offer a physical and empirically testable paradox resolution. Based on the idea of James Annis, we develop a model of an astrobiological phase transition of the Milky Way, based on the concept of the global regulation mechanism(s). The dominant regulation mechanisms, arguably, are gamma-ray bursts, whose properties and cosmological evolution are becoming well-understood. Secular evolution of regulation mechanisms leads to the brief epoch of phase transition: from an essentially dead place, with pockets of low-complexity life restricted to planetary surfaces, it will, on a short (Fermi-Hart) timescale, become filled with high-complexity life. An observation selection effect explains why we are not, in spite of the very small prior probability, to be surprised at being located in that brief phase of disequilibrium. In addition, we show that, although the phase-transition model may explain the "Great Silence", it is not supportive of the "contact pessimist" position. To the contrary, the phase-transition model offers a rational motivation for continuation and extension of our present-day Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) endeavours. Some of the unequivocal and testable predictions of our model include the decrease of extinction risk in the history of terrestrial life, the absence of any traces of Galactic societies significantly older than human society, complete lack of any extragalactic intelligent signals or phenomena, and the presence of ubiquitous low-complexity life in the Milky Way. PMID:18855114

    Cirkovi?, Milan M; Vukoti?, Branislav

    2008-12-01

    285

    Astrobiological Phase Transition: Towards Resolution of Fermi's Paradox  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can astrophysics explain Fermi’s paradox or the “Great Silence” problem? If available, such explanation would be advantageous over most of those suggested in literature which rely on unverifiable cultural and/or sociological assumptions. We suggest, instead, a general astrobiological paradigm which might offer a physical and empirically testable paradox resolution. Based on the idea of James Annis, we develop a model of an astrobiological phase transition of the Milky Way, based on the concept of the global regulation mechanism(s). The dominant regulation mechanisms, arguably, are ?-ray bursts, whose properties and cosmological evolution are becoming well-understood. Secular evolution of regulation mechanisms leads to the brief epoch of phase transition: from an essentially dead place, with pockets of low-complexity life restricted to planetary surfaces, it will, on a short (Fermi-Hart) timescale, become filled with high-complexity life. An observation selection effect explains why we are not, in spite of the very small prior probability, to be surprised at being located in that brief phase of disequilibrium. In addition, we show that, although the phase-transition model may explain the “Great Silence”, it is not supportive of the “contact pessimist” position. To the contrary, the phase-transition model offers a rational motivation for continuation and extension of our present-day Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) endeavours. Some of the unequivocal and testable predictions of our model include the decrease of extinction risk in the history of terrestrial life, the absence of any traces of Galactic societies significantly older than human society, complete lack of any extragalactic intelligent signals or phenomena, and the presence of ubiquitous low-complexity life in the Milky Way.

    ?irkovi?, Milan M.; Vukoti?, Branislav

    2008-12-01

    286

    Proceedings of the 25th annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1: Geology, earth sciences and environment  

    SciTech Connect

    This conference proceedings represents volume 1 of a 4 volume conference relating to offshore operations in both energy and non-energy fields of resource development. This volume discusses the use of geophysical surveying techniques and equipment for mapping the seafloor; the design and use of offshore platforms; safety engineering systems; interpretation techniques for offshore survey data; environmental impacts from offshore operations; geology of offshore areas; and regulations pertaining to the development of offshore resources.

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    287

    Circinaria gyrosa, a new astrobiological model system for studying the effects of heavy ion irradiation  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Up to date, most astrobiological experiments performed on space have been carried out on board of Earth-orbiting spacecrafts (e.g., Foton satellites), or on board of human-tended spacecrafts, (space shuttles and space stations). Organisms included in these experiments have been exposed to harsh space conditions: vacuum, doses of UV and ionizing radiation as well as extreme temperature fluctuations. Space radiation that arrived on these organisms is related with different sources: (e.g. solar particle events, galactic cosmic rays and electromagnetic radiation) [1]. More information on biological effects of cosmic radiation is needed to understand the possible risks for biological systems exposed to space conditions and to broaden our knowledge on the limits of terrestrial life. This study is focused on Circinaria gyrosa (from Aspicilia fruticulosa, ren. see Sohrabi, M., 2012), a vagrant lichen species collected at the steppic highlands of Central Spain. C. gyrosa. has been previously used in various space experiments, e.g., LITHOPANSPERMIA experiment, BIOPAN-6, FOTON M3, 2007, and in ground-based laboratory studies [2]. For example, after intensive UV-C exposure (7.2 x 107J/m2), C. gyrosa showed the highest PS-II activity of all lichens species tested [3]. Based on this high resistance to UV radiation C. gyrosa has been included in the next EXPOSE-R2 ISS experiment called “BIOMEX” (Biology and Mars-Experiment), in which different biological systems will be exposed to space and Martian conditions for nearly one and a half year. Here, we will present our first results of C.gyrosa, which have been obtained in frame of the STARLIFE project, an intercomparison project testing the effects of space-relevant ionizing radiation, i.e., heavy ions and X-rays, on different astrobiological model systems. For C. gyrosa we tested the organism metabolism through pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorescence analysis prior and after the each irradiation experiment. This new data provide further evidence that lichens are suitable organisms to experimentally verify the potential of lichens in a Lithopanspermia scenario, as indicated by Horneck et al. (2008) [4] References [1] L. R. Dartnell. Ionizing radiation and life Astrobiology 11(6): 551-582 (2011) [2] R. de la Torre, L. G. Sancho, G. Horneck, A. de los Rios, J. Wierzchos, K. Olsson-Francis, C. S. Cockell, P. Rettberg, T. Berger, J. P. de Vera, S. Ott, J. Martinez Frias. P. González Melendi, M. M. Lucas, M. Reina, A. Pintado and R. Demets. Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions. Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments. Icarus 208: 735-748 (2010) [3] F. J. Sánchez, E. Mateo-Martí, J. Raggio, J. Meeßen, J. Martínez-Frías, L. G .Sancho, S. Ott and R. de la Torre. The resistance of the lichen Circinaria gyrosa (nom. provis.) towards simulated Mars conditions - a model test for the survival capacity of an eukaryotic extremophile. Planetary and Space Science. 72 (1): 102-110 (2012) [4] Horneck, G., Klaus, D.M., and R. L. Mancinelli. Space microbiology. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: 74(1):121-156 (2010)

    Martín, María Luisa; Moeller, Ralf; De la Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Raguse, M. Marina

    288

    Research in Science Education, Volume 6. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (7th, The University of Newcastle, New South Wales, May 17-19, 1976).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This volume contains papers presented at the seventh Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association held at the University of Newcastle in May, 1976. Paper topics include: undergraduate research experience for future teachers, programmable calculator effects on attitude towards physics, development of science concepts…

    Maddock, M. N., Ed.; Power, Colin N., Ed.

    289

    Research in Science Education, Volume 5. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (6th, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, May 19-21, 1975).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This volume contains papers presented at the sixth Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (ASERA) held at Flinders University in May, 1975. Paper topics include: pupil learning and classroom climate, teacher structuring behavior, the Australian Science Education Project (ASEP), cognitive preference and…

    Lucas, A. M., Ed.; Power, Colin, N., Ed.

    290

    Proceedings of the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The proceedings of the National Space Science Data Center Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications held July 23 through 25, 1991 at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The program includes a keynote address, invited technical papers, and selected technical presentations to provide a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

    Blackwell, Kim; Blasso, Len (editor); Lipscomb, Ann (editor)

    1991-01-01

    291

    PREFACE: International Conference on Advancement in Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST): Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 4th International Conference on the Advancement of Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST 2012), with theme 'Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications', took place in Kuantan, Malaysia, from Wednesday 7 to Friday 9 November 2012. The conference was attended by more than 100 participants, and hosted about 160 oral and poster papers by more than 140 pre-registered authors. The key topics of the 4th iCAST 2012 include Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Dynamical Systems, Statistics and Financial Mathematics. The scientific program was rather full since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, four parallel sessions ran every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful; thus all attendees had a creative time. The conference aimed to promote the knowledge and development of high-quality research in mathematical fields concerned with the application of other scientific fields as well as modern technological trends in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, sociology and environmental sciences. We would like to thank the Keynote and the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to 4th iCAST 2012. We would also like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. We cannot end without expressing our many thanks to International Islamic University Malaysia and our sponsors for their financial support . This volume presents selected papers which have been peer-reviewed. The editors hope that it may be useful and fruitful for scholars, researchers, and advanced technical members of the industrial laboratory facilities for developing new tools and products. Guest Editors Nasir Ganikhodjaev, Farrukh Mukhamedov and Pah Chin Hee The PDF contains the committee lists, board list and biographies of the plenary speakers.

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Hee, Pah Chin

    2013-04-01

    292

    XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science  

    PubMed Central

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement. Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

    2009-01-01

    293

    Earth Science and Public Health: Proceedings of the Second National Conference on USGS Health-Related Research  

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. As the Nation?s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the USGS can play a significant role in providing scientific knowledge and information that will improve our understanding of the relations of environment and wildlife to human health and disease. USGS human health-related research is unique in the Federal government because it brings together a broad spectrum of natural science expertise and information, including extensive data collection and monitoring on varied landscapes and ecosystems across the Nation. USGS can provide a great service to the public health community by synthesizing the scientific information and knowledge on our natural and living resources that influence human health, and by bringing this science to the public health community in a manner that is most useful. Partnerships with health scientists and managers are essential to the success of these efforts. USGS scientists already are working closely with the public health community to pursue rigorous inquiries into the connections between natural science and public health. Partnering agencies include the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration, Mine Safety and Health Administration, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Public Health Service, and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Collaborations between public health scientists and earth scientists can lead to improved solutions for existing and emerging environmental health problems. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions held at the Second National Conference on USGS Health-Related Research, held at the USGS national headquarters in Reston, Virginia. The report presents 68 abstracts of technical presentations made at the conference and summaries of six topical breakout sessions. The abstracts cover a broad range of issues and demonstrate connections between human health and the quality and condition of our environment and wildlife. The summaries of the topical breakout sessions present ideas for advancing interdisciplinary science in areas of earth science and human health.

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Pierce, Brenda S.

    2007-01-01

    294

    JP Morgan Hambrecht & Quist - 19th Annual Healthcare Conference. Gilead Sciences, American Home Products and Curis.  

    PubMed

    The 19th Annual JP Morgan H and Q Healthcare Conference provided yet another fascinating opportunity to meet with, and hear presentations by, a number of representatives of wellestablished Big Pharma companies, biotech start-up companies and the healthcare service and healthcare 'dot.com' industries. The conference was hosted by JP Morgan H and Q, part of the newly formed JP Morgan - the wholesale banking group of JP Morgan Chase and Co - which led-managed 13 IPOs in the healthcare industry in 2000. This year, the conference was attended by over 5000 delegates, and in excess of 270 company presentations in six parallel sessions were made to members of the healthcare industries, the media and the investment community. PMID:16025374

    Hookes, J

    2001-03-01

    295

    NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 1  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papers and viewgraphs from the conference are presented. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disks and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

    Kobler, Benjamin (editor); Hariharan, P. C. (editor); Blasso, L. G. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    296

    The Role of Astrobiology in Solar System Exploration: Report from the NASA Astrobiology Institute to the NRC Solar-System Exploration Steering Group  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrobiology as related to solar-system exploration addresses far more than just the search for life in our solar system. It is about understanding the planets in our solar system as representing different outcomes in their formation, the nature of processes that affected those outcomes, and how those same processes might have operated elsewhere. It is about understanding planetary evolution and

    B. M. Jakosky; D. J. Des Marais

    2001-01-01

    297

    Astrobiological Aspects of Radiation Chemistry in Europa's Icy Regolith  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupiter's moon Europa, with its likely subsurface ocean and young, active surface, is a promising habitat for life. Europa orbits in the heart of Jupiter's powerful magnetosphere and suffers intense energetic particle bombardment, producing both positive and negative aspects for astrobiology at Europa. Ionizing radiation can produce oxidants that could support a radiation-driven ecology as proposed by Chyba. On the other hand, biomolecular evidence for life that may be upwelled to the surface is rapidly altered by irradiation, complicating astrobiological searches for evidence of life. We present an overview of laboratory work performed at JPL and elsewhere and observational results related to these two aspects. The oxidants hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen are known to exist on Europa and the radiolytic production of these species has been studied in the laboratory for both electron and ion irradiation. Laboratory- measured equilibrium concentrations of H2O2, where production and destruction rates are equal, are in general agreement with the observed 0.1% molar abundance on Europa. The shape of Europa's peroxide band is consistent with the line shapes observed in radiolysis and with H2O2 dispersed in water ice rather than occurring as H2O2 aggregates. Surprisingly, molecular oxygen may be even more abundant on Europa even though O2 is extremely volatile ande would be expected to escape from the ice surface. Radiolysis can produce molecular oxygen and appears to simultaneously alter the ice matrix, trapping the O2. Other species observed on Europa are CO2 and SO2, and laboratory radiolysis of these species in H2O ice produces carbonic and sulfuric acid, respectively. We are studying the radiolytic degradation of biomarkers in ice at Europa temperatures by studying both simple organics and more complex biomolecules, including microorganisms. Hydrocarbon radiolysis yields carbon dioxide and methane, which can escape the system and results in loss of carbon. In addition, polymerization produces brown, high-molecular weight residues with complex mass spectra. Radiolysis of microorganisms shows the loss of amine, amide, methyl, and methylene groups, and production of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitriles, and isocyanates. Work is continuing to establish useful biosignatures that may persist in the complex mass spectra of irradiated microorganisms.

    Carlson, R. W.; Hand, K. P.

    2006-05-01

    298

    Second international AFM BioMed Conference on AFM in life sciences and medicine,  

    E-print Network

    , Monterey, CA, USA Founded in June 2006, AFM BioMed organized its first international conference from 19 mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. Calderon and colleagues develop an elegant modelling framework with which materials and micro- manipulation. The first oral session, New AFM-Based Instrumentation for Biology

    Kumar, Sanjay

    299

    Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Mathematics and Computational Methods Applied to Nuclear Science and Engineering - M and C 2013  

    SciTech Connect

    The Mathematics and Computation Division of the American Nuclear (ANS) and the Idaho Section of the ANS hosted the 2013 International Conference on Mathematics and Computational Methods Applied to Nuclear Science and Engineering (M and C 2013). This proceedings contains over 250 full papers with topics ranging from reactor physics; radiation transport; materials science; nuclear fuels; core performance and optimization; reactor systems and safety; fluid dynamics; medical applications; analytical and numerical methods; algorithms for advanced architectures; and validation verification, and uncertainty quantification.

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    300

    Schunn, C. D., & Klahr, D. (1995). A 4-space model of scientific discovery. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.  

    E-print Network

    Schunn, C. D., & Klahr, D. (1995). A 4-space model of scientific discovery. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. A 4-Space Model of Scientific Discovery An extension of Klahr and Dunbar's (1988) Dual space model of scientific discovery is presented. We propose

    Klahr, David

    301

    MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators & Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (4th, Columbus, Ohio, May 6, 2000).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERs-OSU) is a student organization that grew out of the former Ohio State University Council of Teachers of Mathematics (OSU-CTM). Papers from the fourth annual conference include: (1) "Technology Education Curriculum Models in Michigan Secondary…

    Costner, Kelly M., Ed.; Herman, Marlena F., Ed.

    302

    Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2001, Maui, Hawaii. 2001 IEEE Evidence for Self-Organized Criticality in Electric Power System Blackouts  

    E-print Network

    for Self-Organized Criticality in Electric Power System Blackouts B. A. Carreras Oak Ridge National a 15-year time series of North American electric power system blackouts for evidence of self- organizedHawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2001, Maui, Hawaii. 2001 IEEE Evidence

    Dobson, Ian

    303

    Hawaii International Conference on System Science, January 2004, Hawaii, copyright 2004 IEEE Dynamical and probabilistic approaches to the study of blackout vulnerability of the  

    E-print Network

    Hawaii International Conference on System Science, January 2004, Hawaii, copyright 2004 IEEE for cascading failures gives a simple characterization of the transition from an isolated failure to a system-wide collapse as system loading increases. Using the basic ideas of this model, the parameters that lead

    304

    Thirty-seventh Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2004, Big Island, Hawaii. c 2004 IEEE. A branching process approximation to cascading load-dependent system failure  

    E-print Network

    Thirty-seventh Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 2004, Big Island, Hawaii. c 2004 IEEE. A branching process approximation to cascading load-dependent system failure Ian Dobson, electric power transmission systems must be designed and operated to reduce the risk of widespread

    Dobson, Ian

    305

    Presented at 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science, Waikoloa, HI, Jan. 5-8,2005 Market Structure and the Predictability of Electricity System Line Flows  

    E-print Network

    1 Presented at 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science, Waikoloa, HI, Jan. 5-8,2005 Market Structure and the Predictability of Electricity System Line Flows: An Experimental Analysis Nodir system load when that system is optimally dispatched using accurate generator cost data. By comparison

    306

    Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Costa Mesa, California, January 18-21, 2001).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2001 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Costa Mesa, California, January 18-21, 2001. Papers include: (1) "An Elementary Preservice Teacher's Search for Solutions about the Evolution-Divine Creation Question: The Story of Tracy"…

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

    307

    There will be a meeting of the UNIVERSITY COURT on Tuesday 25 March 2014 at 9am in the LEVEL 7 CONFERENCE ROOM, INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, Foresterhill.  

    E-print Network

    CONFERENCE ROOM, INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, Foresterhill. Mr B Purdon Policy, Planning and Governance Tel from the Senior Governor 4.2 Report from the Principal CT13-14:31 5 10.15 RISK AND STRATEGIC PLANNING.00 IMPLICATIONS OF SCOTTISH INDEPENDENCE FOR HE CT13-14:37 (Strictly Confidential) #12;9 12.30 COMPLIANCE

    Levi, Ran

    308

    In Search of Gender Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education. [Proceedings of a Preconference Research Workshop at the National Educational Computing Conference (Nashville, Tennessee, June 24, 1990).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This monograph includes nine papers delivered at a National Educational Computing Conference (NECC) preconference workshop, and a previously unpublished paper on gender and attitudes. The papers, which are presented in four categories, are: (1) "Report on the Workshop: In Search of Gender Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education" (C. Dianne…

    Martin, C. Dianne, Ed.; Murchie-Beyma, Eric, Ed.

    309

    2012 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science 978-1-4673-4510-1/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE  

    E-print Network

    2012 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science 978 the use of distributed computing infrastructures such as Grids and Clouds, equipped with GPUs, in order. Keywords-component; Distributed and parallel computing, Grid, Cloud, GPU, OpenCL, machine learning

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    310

    2012 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science 978-1-4673-4510-1/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE  

    E-print Network

    2012 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science 978Reduce applications that couples cloud computing with distributed embedded computing. Specifically, our system as Cloud services. These large- scale centers provide all sorts of computational services to a multiplicity

    Hone, James

    311

    Commerce Secretary, President's Science Advisor to Keynote Conference on Economic and Social Implications of Information Technology  

    NSF Publications Database

    ... What's Cool | Publications | Partners | History | About Us You are in: NSF Home > OLPA Home ... s Science Advisor Floyd Kvamme, Co-chair, President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology ...

    312

    Macroengineering in the Galactic Context: A New Agenda for Astrobiology  

    E-print Network

    We hereby consider the problem of detectability of macro-engineering projects over interstellar distances, in the context of Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI). Freeman J. Dyson and his imaginative precursors, like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Olaf Stapledon or John B. S. Haldane, suggested macro-engineering projects as focal points in the context of extrapolations about the future of humanity and, by analogy, other intelligent species in the Milky Way. We emphasize that the search for signposts of extraterrestrial macro-engineering projects is not an optional pursuit within the family of ongoing and planned SETI projects; inter alia, the failure of the orthodox SETI thus far clearly indicates this. Instead, this approach (for which we suggest a name of "Dysonian") should be the front-line and mainstay of any cogent SETI strategy in future, being significantly more promising than searches for directed, intentional radio or microwave emissions. This is in accord with our improved astrophysical understanding of the structure and evolution of the Galactic Habitable Zone, as well as with the recent wake-up call of Steven J. Dick to investigate consequences of postbiological evolution for astrobiology in general and SETI programs in particular. The benefits this multidisciplinary approach may bear for astrobiologists, evolutionary theorists and macro-engineers are also briefly highlighted.

    Milan M. Cirkovic

    2006-08-20

    313

    A Micro Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter for Astrobiology Applications  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    A micro-scale Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (microFACS) for astrobiology applications is under development. This device is designed to have a footprint of 7 cm x 7 cm x 4 cm and allow live-dead counts and sorting of cells that have fluorescent characteristics from staining. The FACS system takes advantage of microfluidics to create a cell sorter that can fit in the palm of the hand. A micron-scale channel allows cells to pass by a blue diode which causes emission of marker-expressed cells which are detected by a filtered photodetector. A small microcontroller then counts cells and operates high speed valves to select which chamber the cell is collected in (a collection chamber or a waste chamber). Cells with the expressed characteristic will be collected in the collection chamber. This system has been built and is currently being tested. We are also designing a system with integrated MEMS-based pumps and valves for a small and compact unit to fly on small satellite-based biology experiments.

    Platt, Donald W.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    314

    Astrobiologically Interesting Stars Within 10 Parsecs of the Sun  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The existence of life based on carbon chemistry and water oceans relies upon planetary properties, chiefly climate stability, and stellar properties, such as mass, age, metallicity, and galactic orbits. The latter can be well constrained with present knowledge. We present a detailed, up-to-date compilation of the atmospheric parameters, chemical composition, multiplicity, and degree of chromospheric activity for the astrobiologically interesting solar-type stars within 10 parsecs of the Sun. We determined their state of evolution, masses, ages, and space velocities, and produced an optimized list of candidates that merit serious scientific consideration by the future space-based interferometry probes aimed at directly detecting Earthsized extrasolar planets and seeking spectroscopic infrared biomarkers as evidence of photosynthetic life. The initially selected stars number 33 solar-type within the total population (excluding some incompleteness for late M-dwarfs) of 182 stars closer than 10 parsecs. A comprehensive and detailed data compilation for these objects is still lacking; a considerable amount of recent data has so far gone unexplored in this context. We present 13 objects as the nearest "biostars," after eliminating multiple stars, young, chromospherically active, hard xray- emitting stars, and low metallicity objects. Three of these "biostars"-Zeta Tucanae, Beta Canum Venaticorum, and 61 Virginis-closely reproduce most of the solar properties and are considered as premier targets. We show that approximately 7% of the nearby stars are optimally interesting targets for exobiology.

    Porto de Mello, Gustavo; del Peloso, Eduardo F.; Ghezzi, Luan

    2006-04-01

    315

    First Light from Extrasolar Planets and Implications for Astrobiology  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The first light from an extrasolar planet was recently detected. These results, obtained for two transiting extrasolar planets at different infrared wavelengths, open a new era in the field of extrasolar planet detection and characterization because for the first time we can now detect planets beyond the solar system directly. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope at 24 microns, we observed the modulation of combined light (star plus planet) from the HD 209458 system as the planet disappeared behind the star during secondary eclipse and later re-emerged, thereby isolating the light from the planet. We obtained a planet-to-star ratio of 0.26% at 24 microns, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 1130 + / - 150 K. We will describe this result in detail, explain what it can tell us about the atmosphere of HD 209458 b, and discuss implications for the field of astrobiology. These results represent a significant step on the path to detecting terrestrial planets around other stars and in understanding their atmospheres in terms of composition and temperature.

    Richardson, L. Jeremy; Seager, Sara; Harrington, Joseph; Deming, Drake

    2005-01-01

    316

    Deprotonated purine dissociation: experiments, computations, and astrobiological implications.  

    PubMed

    A central focus of astrobiology is the determination of abiotic formation routes to important biomolecules. The dissociation mechanisms of these molecules lend valuable insights into their synthesis pathways. Because of the detection of organic anions in the interstellar medium (ISM), it is imperative to study their role in these syntheses. This work aims to experimentally and computationally examine deprotonated adenine and guanine dissociation in an effort to illuminate potential anionic precursors to purine formation. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) products and their branching fractions are experimentally measured using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Deprotonated guanine dissociates primarily by deammoniation (97%) with minor losses of carbodiimide (HNCNH) and/or cyanamide (NH2CN), and isocyanic acid (HNCO). Deprotonated adenine fragments by loss of hydrogen cyanide and/or isocyanide (HCN/HNC; 90%) and carbodiimide (HNCNH) and/or cyanamide (NH2CN; 10%). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) experiments reveal that deprotonated guanine fragments lose additional HCN and CO, while deprotonated adenine fragments successively lose HNC and HCN. Every neutral fragment observed in this study has been detected in the ISM, highlighting the potential for nucleobases such as these to form in such environments. Lastly, the acidity of abundant fragment ions is experimentally bracketed. Theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory are performed to delineate the mechanisms of dissociation and analyze the energies of reactants, intermediates, transition states, and products of these CID processes. PMID:25559322

    Cole, Callie A; Wang, Zhe-Chen; Snow, Theodore P; Bierbaum, Veronica M

    2015-01-15

    317

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Organic Molecules in Space  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    One of the principal means by which organic compounds are detected and identified in space is by infrared spectroscopy. Past IR studies (telescopic and laboratory) have demonstrated that much of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) is in complex organic species of a variety of types, but the distribution, abundance, and evolutionary relationships of these materials are not well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEAST mission concept designed to conduct IR spectroscopic observations to detect and identify these materials to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. Systematic studies include the observation of planetary nebulae and stellar outflows, protostellar objects, Solar System Objects, and galaxies, and multiple lines of sight through dense molecular clouds and the diffuse ISM. ABE will also search for evidence of D enrichment in complex molecules in all these environments. The mission is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. ABE is a cryogenically-cooled 60 cm diameter space telescope equipped with 3 cryogenic cross-dispersed spectrographs that share a single common slit. The 3 spectrometers each measure single spectral octaves (2.5-5, 5-10, 10-20 microns) and together cover the entire 2.5 - 20 micron region simultaneously. The spectrometers use state-of-the-art 1024x1024 pixel detectors, with a single InSb array for the 2.5-5 micron region and two Si:As arrays for the 5-10 and 10-20 micron regions. The spectral resolution is wavelength dependent but is greater than 2000 across the entire spectral range. ABE would operate in a heliocentric, Earth drift-away orbit and is designed to take maximum advantage of this environment for cooling, thermal stability, and mission lifetime. ABE would have a core science mission lasting approximately 1.5 years.

    Sandford, Scott A.; Vincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    318

    Astrobiology Research on Board of the International Space Station as part of the European Space Exploration Initiative  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exposure facilities on board of the ISS have provided unique opportunities to study a variety of questions of astrobiology importance. ESA has developed several astrobiology facilities (BIOPAN, STONE, EXPOSE-E, EXPOSE-R, EXPOSE-R2) for such studies.

    Horneck, G.

    2013-11-01

    319

    National Science Education Standards Project Update. Prepared for the Secretary's Invitational Conference, October, 1992.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The National Research Council is coordinating the effort to develop national standards for science education. The goal is to develop, and publish by fall, 1994, science education standards that represent the consensus of teachers and other science educators, scientists, and the general public about what is important for all students to attain in…

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    320

    Walk Through Solar System Times: An Exhibit with an Astrobiology Emphasis  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    In this astrobiology outreach project, we attempt to present the research of the Goddard Center for Astrobiology (GCA) in the context of the history of the Solar System. GCA research emphasizes the origin and formation of complex pre-biotic organic materials in extraterrestrial environments and explores whether the delivery of these primordial materials and water to the early Earth enabled the emergence and evolution of life. The content expounds on areas that are usually not touched upon in a timeline of the Earth's formation. The exhibit addresses the questions: How did our solar system form? How is the formation of our solar systems similar or different from others? How did the organic molecules we observe in space get to the Earth? What conditions are most suitable for life? We will address the issues and challenges of designing the exhibit and of explaining advanced astrobiology research topics to the public.

    Cheung, C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    321

    Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z  

    SciTech Connect

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, K-T Boundary Layer, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, planetary mantles, and space exploration. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    322

    Backward Planetary Protection Issues and Possible Solutions for Icy Plume Sample Return Missions from Astrobiological Targets  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The recent report of possible water vapor plumes at Europa and Ceres, together with the well-known Enceladus plume containing water vapor, salt, ammonia, and organic molecules, suggests that sample return missions could evolve into a generic approach for outer Solar System exploration in the near future, especially for the benefit of astrobiology research. Sampling such plumes can be accomplished via fly-through mission designs, modeled after the successful Stardust mission to capture and return material from Comet Wild-2 and multiple, precise trajectory controls of the Cassini mission to fly through Enceladus’ plume. The proposed LIFE (Life Investigation For Enceladus) mission to Enceladus, which would sample organic molecules from the plume of that apparently habitable world, provides one example of the appealing scientific return of such missions. Beyond plumes, the upper atmosphere of Titan could also be sampled in this manner. The SCIM mission to Mars, also inspired by Stardust, would sample and return aerosol dust in the upper atmosphere of Mars and thus extends this concept even to other planetary bodies. Such missions share common design needs. In particular, they require large exposed sampler areas (or sampler arrays) that can be contained to the standards called for by international planetary protection protocols that COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy (PPP) recommends. Containment is also needed because these missions are driven by astrobiologically relevant science - including interest in organic molecules - which argues against heat sterilization that could destroy scientific value of samples. Sample containment is a daunting engineering challenge. Containment systems must be carefully designed to appropriate levels to satisfy the two top requirements: planetary protection policy and the preserving the scientific value of samples. Planning for Mars sample return tends to center on a hermetic seal specification (i.e., gas-tight against helium escape). While this is an ideal specification, it far exceeds the current PPP requirements for Category-V “restricted Earth return”, which typically center on a probability of escape of a biologically active particle (e.g., < 1 in 10 (6) chance of escape of particles > 50 nm diameter). Particles of this size (orders of magnitude larger than a helium atom) are not volatile and generally “sticky” toward surfaces; the mobility of viruses and biomolecules requires aerosolization. Thus, meeting the planetary protection challenge does not require hermetic seal. So far, only a handful of robotic missions accomplished deep space sample returns, i.e., Genesis, Stardust and Hayabusa. This year, Hayabusa-2 will be launched and OSIRIS-REx will follow in a few years. All of these missions are classified as “unrestricted Earth return” by the COSPAR PPP recommendation. Nevertheless, scientific requirements of organic contamination control have been implemented to all WBS regarding sampling mechanism and Earth return capsule of Hayabusa-2. While Genesis, Stardust and OSIRIS-REx capsules “breathe” terrestrial air as they re-enter Earth’s atmosphere, temporal “air-tight” design was already achieved by the Hayabusa-1 sample container using a double O-ring seal, and that for the Hayabusa-2 will retain noble gas and other released gas from returned solid samples using metal seal technology. After return, these gases can be collected through a filtered needle interface without opening the entire container lid. This expertise can be extended to meeting planetary protection requirements from “restricted return” targets. There are still some areas requiring new innovations, especially to assure contingency robustness in every phase of a return mission. These must be achieved by meeting both PPP and scientific requirements during initial design and WBS of the integrated sampling system including the Earth return capsule. It is also important to note that international communities in planetary protection, sample return science, and deep space engineering must me

    Yano, Hajime; McKay, Christopher P.; Anbar, Ariel; Tsou, Peter

    323

    Preface to Special Topic: Papers from the 2009 Conference on Advances in Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Hong Kong, 2009  

    PubMed Central

    The inaugural conference on Advances in Microfluidics and Nanofluidics was held at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology on 5–7 January 2009 and brought together leading researchers from across a wide variety of disciplines from North America, Europe, Asia, and Oceania. This Special Topic section forms the second of the two issues dedicated to original contributions covering both fundamental physicochemical aspects of microfluidics and nanofluidics as well as their applications to the miniaturization of chemical and biological systems that were presented at the conference. PMID:19693335

    Yeo, Leslie Y.

    2009-01-01

    324

    Science Education on the Internet: Conference for Developers of OnLine Curricula ''Learning Strategies for Science Education Websites''  

    SciTech Connect

    Internet-based science education programs are coming of age. Educators now look seriously to the Internet as a source of accessible classroom materials, and they are finding many high-quality online science programs. Beyond providing solid curriculum, these programs have many advantages. They provide materials that are far more current than what textbooks offer and are more accessible to disadvantaged and rural population. Students can engage in inquiry-based learning online through interactive and virtual activities, accessing databases, tracking nature occurrences in real time, joining online science communities and conversing with scientists.

    Gesteland,Raymond F.; Dart, Dorothy S.; Logan,Jennifer; Stark, Louisa

    2000-09-01

    325

    Infrared Spectroscopy of Parent Volatiles in Comets: Implications for Astrobiology  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Current cometary orbits provide information on their recent dynamical history. However, determining a given comet's formation region from its current dynamical state alone is complicated by radial migration in the proto-planetary disk and by dynamical interactions with the growing giant planets. Because comets reside for long periods of time in the outer Solar System, the ices contained in their nuclei (native ices) retain a relatively well-preserved footprint of when and where they formed, and this in turn can provide clues to conditions in the formation epoch. As a comet approaches the Sun, sublimation of its native ices releases parent volatiles into the coma where they can be measured spectroscopically. The past to - 15 years have seen the advent of infrared spectrometers with high sensitivity between about 2.8 and 5.0 micron, enabling a taxonomy among comets based on abundances of parent volatiles (e.g., H2O, CO, CH4, C2H6, HCN, CH30H, H2CO, NH3). Such molecules are of keen interest to Astrobiology, as they include important pre-biotic species that likely were required for the emergence of life on Earth and perhaps elsewhere. Approximately 20 comets have thus far been characterized, beginning with C/1996 82 (Hyakutake) in 1996. Molecular production rates are established through comparison of observed emission line intensities with those predicted by quantum mechanical fluorescence models. Abundances of parent volatiles (relative to H2O) vary among even the relatively small number of comets sampled, with the most volatile species (CO and CH4) displaying the largest variations. Techniques developed for measuring parent volatile abundances in comets will be discussed, as will possible implications for their formation.

    DiSanti, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    326

    Year of the Oceans: Science of Information Handling. [Proceedings of the] Annual Conference of the International Association of Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers (10th, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, October 2-5, 1984).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers (IAMSLIC) conferences provide a format for libraries and information specialists to discuss common interests and concerns so that services and information can be made available to scientists, administrators, engineers, educators and students in the discipline of marine…

    Grundy, R. L., Ed.; Ford, R. T., Ed.

    327

    MST 1: Proceedings of a conference on the integration of mathematics, science and technology in precollege education  

    SciTech Connect

    Example MST activities examined here show: (1) an inquiry-driven learning stimulus, involving (2) the synthesis of concepts in math, science and technology, through (3) the application of the scientific method and engineering problem solving/test protocols, and provoking (4) a stimulus for further exploration. A semi-exploratory learning approach offered background aimed at enabling participants to take meaningful courses of investigation; this approach must be balanced by maintaining contact with framework content standards. On the whole, the philosophy underlying the MST learning approach--as envisioned in the draft NYS Framework, and embodied in the example activities--is strongly endorsed. This endorsement is broad-based: those represented include teachers of mathematics, science, and technology, and school district administrators--in roughly equal numbers. Discussion centers not on whether the MST approach should be pursued, but on what is involved in doing it. Teams of conference participants were given time to plan or extend MST initiatives in their own districts. Outlines of the initiatives proposed by ten of the teams are disseminated herein.

    Swyler, K. [ed.

    1995-11-01

    328

    Developing cyber-infrastructure for addressing grand challenge questions in Sun-Earth system science: First results of a testbed worldwide online conference series  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Software supporting an online conference series was developed with the purpose of catalyzing interdisciplinary investigations in Sun-Earth system science among large groups of researchers worldwide in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year in 2007. Transformative science in this area lies at the edges and intersections of individual elements (the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere) whose collective behavior determines the global system response. Continuing progress requires access to a vast developing cyber-infrastructure of large international data sets, high performance computing and advanced visualization. However, it also requires the development of new tools that bring these advances into contact with groups of interdisciplinary and international researchers so they can be used to attack grand challenge science issues in a manner not previously possible. This presentation describes the results of an eGY showcase project to develop a testbed online conference series for this purpose. The conference series is a collaborative effort between the CAWSES, IHY, eGY, ICESTAR, NASA/LWS and NSF Atmospheric Sciences Programs. Lessons learned in developing this first interface, as well as a discussion of key elements and how they worked will be presented.

    Kozyra, J. U.; Barnes, R.; Fox, N. J.; Fox, P. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Morrison, D.; Pallamraju, D.; Papitashvili, V.; Ridley, A.; Talaat, E. R.; Weiss, M.; Young, C. A.; Zanetti, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    329

    Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.  

    PubMed

    The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children. PMID:25107597

    Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

    2014-09-01

    330

    Wu, J. and A.M. Agogino, "Automating Keyphrase Building with Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm", Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, HICSS, CD ROM, 2003.  

    E-print Network

    _______________________________________________________ Wu, J. and A.M. Agogino, "Automating Keyphrase Building with Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm", Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, HICSS, CD ROM, 2003. Automating Keyphrase Extraction with Multi

    Agogino, Alice M.

    331

    Iowa energy conferences  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Texts of conference speakers and excerpted reports of ten regional conferences are included in this report. Carl J. Hocevar of Aerojet Nuclear Co. and the Union of Concerned Scientists opened by stressing public awareness of nuclear risks. Dr. Ralph Lapp of Nuclear Science Service countered by emphasizing the low probability factor of a nuclear accident. John H. Kyl of the

    C. J. Hocevar; R. Lapp; J. H. Kyl; R. W. Sant; W. Clark; S. D. Freeman

    1975-01-01

    332

    ASE Annual Conference 2010  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In this article, the author describes the ASE Annual Conference 2010 which was held at Nottingham after a gap of 22 years. As always, the main conference was preceded by International Day, an important event for science educators from across the world. There were two strands to the programme: (1) "What works for me?"--sharing new ideas and tried…

    McCune, Roger

    2010-01-01

    333

    Robotic astrobiology - the need for sub-surface penetration of Mars  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent interest in the astrobiological investigation of Mars has culminated in the only planned astrobiology-focussed robotic mission to Mars - the Beagle2 mission to be carried to Mars by the Mars Express spacecraft in 2003. Beagle2 will be primarily investigating the surface and near-surface environment of Mars. However, the results from the Viking Mars lander indicated that the Martian surface is saturated in peroxides and super-oxides which would rapidly degrade any organic material. Furthermore, recent models of gardening due to meteoritic impacts on the Martian surface suggest that the depth of this oxidising layer could extend to depths of 2-3m. Given that the discovery of organic fossilised residues will be the primary target for astrobiological investigation, this implies that future robotic astrobiology missions to Mars must penetrate to below these depths. The need to penetrate into the sub-surface of Mars has recently been given greater urgency with the discovery of extensive water ice-fields as little as 1m from the surface. We review the different technologies that make this penetration into the sub-surface a practical possibility on robotic missions. We further briefly present one such implementation of these technologies through the use of ground-penetrating moles - The Vanguard Mars mission proposal.

    Ellery, A.; Ball, A.; Cockell, C.; Coste, P.; Dickensheets, D.; Edwards, H.; Hu, H.; Kolb, C.; Lammer, H.; Lorenz, R.; McKee, G.; Richter, L.; Winfield, A.; Welch, C.

    2002-11-01

    334

    Electrical properties of saline ices and ice-silicate mixtures: geophysical and astrobiological consequences (Invited)  

    E-print Network

    -silicate mixtures: geophysical and astrobiological consequences, Eos Trans. AGU, 90(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract-silicate mixtures, as well as terrestrial polar ices and permafrosts (see also Grimm et al, NS04, this meeting, 3, 343, 2003; Mohlman, op cit, 5, 770, 2005). However, the DC electrical conductivity of interfacial

    Stillman, David E.

    335

    Invited Session, International Conference on the Learning Sciences, Boulder, 2013 Where are the Learning Sciences in the MOOC debate ?  

    E-print Network

    ) at the University of Colorado at Boulder. He is a member of the Computer Human Interaction Academy (CHI; 2007, and collaborating, human-computer interaction, and design. His recent work is centered on social creativity, meta the strengths and weaknesses of MOOCs. Bio. Gerhard Fischer is a Professor of Computer Science, a Fellow

    Fischer, Gerhard

    336

    USL NASA/RECON project presentations at the 1985 ACM Computer Science Conference: Abstracts and visuals  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    This Working Paper Series entry represents the abstracts and visuals associated with presentations delivered by six USL NASA/RECON research team members at the above named conference. The presentations highlight various aspects of NASA contract activities pursued by the participants as they relate to individual research projects. The titles of the six presentations are as follows: (1) The Specification and Design of a Distributed Workstation; (2) An Innovative, Multidisciplinary Educational Program in Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval; (3) Critical Comparative Analysis of the Major Commercial IS and R Systems; (4) Design Criteria for a PC-Based Common User Interface to Remote Information Systems; (5) The Design of an Object-Oriented Graphics Interface; and (6) Knowledge-Based Information Retrieval: Techniques and Applications.

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Chum, Frank Y.; Gallagher, Suzy; Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Moreau, Dennis R.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1985-01-01

    337

    13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications\\/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9–13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and

    Wolfgang Jacob; Christian Linsmeier; Marek Rubel

    2011-01-01

    338

    The SOLID (Signs Of LIfe Detector) instrument concept: an antibody microarray-based biosensor for life detection in astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immunosensors have been extensively used since many years for environmental monitoring. Different technological platforms allow new biosensor designs and implementations. We have reported (Rivas et al., 2008) a shotgun approach for antibody production for biomarker detection in astrobiology and environmental monitoring, the production of 150 new polyclonal antibodies against microbial strains and environmental extracts, and the construction and validation of an antibody microarray (LDCHIP200, for "Life Detector Chip") containing 200 different antibodies. We have successfully used the LDCHIP200 for the detection of biological polymers in extreme environments in different parts of the world (e.g., a deep South African mine, Antarctica's Dry valleys, Yellowstone, Iceland, and Rio Tinto). Clustering analysis associated similar immunopatterns to samples from apparently very different environments, indicating that they indeed share similar universal biomarkers. A redundancy in the number of antibodies against different target biomarkers apart of revealing the presence of certain biomolecules, it renders a sample-specific immuno-profile, an "immnuno-fingerprint", which may constitute by itself an indirect biosignature. We will present a case study of immunoprofiling different iron-sulfur as well as phylosilicates rich samples along the Rio Tinto river banks. Based on protein microarray technology, we designed and built the concept instrument called SOLID (for "Signs Of LIfe Detector"; Parro et al., 2005; 2008a, b; http://cab.inta.es/solid) for automatic in situ analysis of soil samples and molecular biomarkers detection. A field prototype, SOLID2, was successfully tested for the analysis of grinded core samples during the 2005 "MARTE" campaign of a Mars drilling simulation experiment by a sandwich microarray immunoassay (Parro et al., 2008b). We will show the new version of the instrument (SOLID3) which is able to perform both sandwich and competitive immunoassays. SOLID3 consists of two separate functional units: a Sample Preparation Unit (SPU), for ten different extractions by ultrasonication, and a Sample Analysis Unit (SAU), for fluorescent immunoassays. The SAU consists of ten different flow cells each of one allocate one antibody microarray (up to 2000 spots), and is equipped with an unique designed optical package for fluorescent detection. We demonstrate the performance of SOLID3 for the detection of a broad range of molecular size compounds, from the amino acid size, peptides, proteins, to whole cells and spores, with sensitivities at the ppb level. References Parro, V., et al., 2005. Planetary and Space Science 53: 729-737. Parro, V., et al., 2008a. Space Science Reviews 135: 293-311 Parro, V., et al., 2008b. Astrobiology 8:987-99 Rivas, L. A., et al., 2008. Analytical Chemistry 80: 7970-7979

    Parro, V.; Rivas, L. A.; Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A.; Blanco, Y.; de Diego-Castilla, G.; Cruz-Gil, P.; Moreno-Paz, M.; García-Villadangos, M.; Compostizo, C.; Herrero, P. L.

    2009-04-01

    339

    The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: H-O  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: planetary geology, lunar geology, meteorites, shock loads, cometary collisions, planetary mapping, planetary atmospheres, chondrites, chondrules, planetary surfaces, impact craters, lava flow, achondrites, geochemistry, stratigraphy, micrometeorites, tectonics, mineralogy, petrology, geomorphology, and volcanology.

    1994-01-01

    340

    European Space Agency European Mars Science and Exploration Conference: Mars Express & ExoMars  

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS ON THE MARTIAN ENVIRONMENT A. A. Christou1 , A. D. Griffiths2 , J. P. McAuliffe3 , D. Koschny3 , M Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, UK 2 Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking

    Withers, Paul

    341

    Proceedings of the Second Annual NASA Science Internet User Working Group Conference  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copies of the agenda, list of attendees, meeting summaries, and all presentations and exhibit material are contained. Included are plenary sessions, exhibits of advanced networking applications, and user subgroup meetings on NASA Science Internet policy, networking, security, and user services and applications topics.

    Jackson, Lenore A. (editor); Gary, J. Patrick (editor)

    1991-01-01

    342

    To Appear: 1997 Cognitive Science Conference Comprehensible Knowledge-Discovery in Databases  

    E-print Network

    and Computer Science W. Rodman Shankle (rshankle@uci.edu) Department of Neurology The University of California school. While it is important that such knowledge be an accurate summary of the data, it is equally). The particular problem of interest is to identify patients with early signs of dementia. Most demented patients

    Pazzani, Michael J.

    343

    Mycorrhiza for science and society--5th International Conference on Mycorrhiza (ICOM5)  

    E-print Network

    and the splendid social events that have shown us the jewels of Andalusian culture, we have heard about-related Functional Ecol- ogy, Mycorrhizal Networking and Mycorrhizosphere Inter- actions and Biology. The third (*) :J. Albrechtova Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Pruhonice 272 53

    Silver, Whendee

    344

    Abstracts submitted to the 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC 2011) by HIGP personnel.  

    E-print Network

    ., Allen, J., and Wilson, L. "Pitted Deposits in Fresh Martian Impact Craters." Campbell, B. A., Hawke, B., and the LROC Science Team "A Tale of Two Craters: Impact Melt at Two Very Small Craters on the Moon." Hawke, B of the King Crater Region with an Emphasis on Melt Pond Anatomy--Evidence for Subsurface Drainage on the Moon

    Dong, Yingfei

    345

    Next conference  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    After the successful conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science (SRPS) in Rolduc Abbey (the Netherlands), we are now looking forward to the next meeting in this topical series started in 1995 by H G Zachmann, one of the pioneers of the use of synchrotron radiation techniques in polymer science. Earlier meetings were held in Hamburg (1995), Sheffield (2002), Kyoto (2006), and Rolduc (2009). In September of 2012 the Synchrotron Radiation and Polymer Science V conferences will be organized in a joint effort by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Advanced Light Source at LBL Advanced Light Source at LBL The conference will be organised in the heart of beautiful San Francisco. The program will consist of invited and contributed lectures divided in sessions on the use of synchrotron SAXS/WAXD, imaging and tomography, soft x-rays, x-ray spectroscopy, GISAXS and reflectivity, micro-beams and hyphenated techniques in polymer science. Poster contributions are more than welcome and will be highlighted during the poster sessions. Visits to both SLAC as well as LBL will be organised. San Francisco can easily be reached. It is served by two major international airports San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport. Both are being served by most major airlines with easy connections to Europe and Asia as well as national destinations. Both also boast excellent connections to San Francisco city centre. We are looking forward to seeing you in the vibrant city by the Bay in September 2012. Golden gate bridge Alexander Hexemer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Michael F Toney Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Pk, CA 94025, USA E-mail: ahexemer@lbl.gov, mftoney@slac.stanford.edu

    Hexemer, Alexander; Toney, Michael F.

    2010-11-01

    346

    The Expose-R2 mission: astrobiology and astrochemistry in low Earth orbit  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EXPOSE is an exposure platform developed by ESA which permits scientists to install test samples for 1 to 2 years at the outer surface of the ISS. In that way, the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical sample materials can be explored. This environment, featuring full-spectrum solar light, near-vacuum, cosmic radiation, wide temperature variations and near-weightlessness, is impossible to reproduce in its entirety in the lab. As such, EXPOSE offers astrochemists and astrobiologists a chance to acquire novel scientific data. Astrochemists are interested in Low Earth Orbit conditions due to the fact that photochemistry in space is quite different from photochemistry on Earth, where the high-energy UV compounds of the solar spectrum are filtered away by our atmosphere. As for the astro biologists, EXPOSE offers an attractive opportunity to expand earlier results obtained during short-duration LEO flights, which have shown that particular microbes and, amazingly, even some multi-cellular macroscopic organisms were able to cope with a two-week exposure to space. The open space environment, often described as harsh and hostile, can apparently be tolerated by some robust inhabitants of our Earth - unprotected, in the absence of a space suit! The first mission of EXPOSE, as an external payload on the European Columbus module, happened during 2008-2009 with the test samples provided by five separate research teams. Three additional teams were involved in the monitoring of space environment. The results were published collectively in 2012 in a special issue of the monthly journal Astrobiology. Several organisms survived, having spent 1.5 years in space. The second mission was called EXPOSE-R, the R referring to ‘Russian segment’, the location where the EXPOSE instrument was installed this time. The EXPOSE-R mission took place in 2009-2011, ten science teams were involved. The publication of the results, again as a collection, is currently in preparation. A follow-on mission, EXPOSE-R2, is planned for 2014-2016. The upload of the new sample trays to the ISS will have occurred just before COSPAR 2014. In this presentation the new EXPOSE-R2 experiments are introduced, with an overview of the test samples and the scientific goals. The main characteristics of the EXPOSE platform are addressed including the sensors used to monitor the space environment. The envisaged operational flow in flight and on ground are explained. Moreover, a brief overview of the key lessons learnt from the past EXPOSE missions is provided.

    Demets, René

    347

    Bedward, J., Wiebe, E. N., Madden, L., Carter, M., & Minogue, J. (April, 2009). Graphic Literacy in Elementary Science Education: Enhancing Inquiry, Engineering Problem-solving and Reasoning Skills. Presented at the ASEE Annual Conference, Austin, TX.  

    E-print Network

    at the ASEE Annual Conference, Austin, TX. 1 Graphic literacy in elementary science education: Enhancing focused on integrating engineering, reading literacy and elementary science topics2,3 . AnotherBedward, J., Wiebe, E. N., Madden, L., Carter, M., & Minogue, J. (April, 2009). Graphic Literacy

    348

    USAAA Conference in Park City Utah: The Autism Epidemic a Mystery? Only if One Ignores All the Science  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This article is a synopsis of a presentation offered by the author at the recent United States Autism and Asperger Association Conference in Park City, Utah. During the USAAA conference, the author voices his concerns over the current autism epidemic. He opines that the failure of the medical profession and many governmental and other public…

    Stoller, K. Paul

    2006-01-01

    349

    Internalizing Null Extraterrestrial "Signals": An Astrobiological App for a Technological Society  

    E-print Network

    One of the beneficial outcomes of searching for life in the Universe is that it grants greater awareness of our own problems here on Earth. Lack of contact with alien beings to date might actually comprise a null "signal" pointing humankind toward a viable future. Astrobiology has surprising practical applications to human society; within the larger cosmological context of cosmic evolution, astrobiology clarifies the energetic essence of complex systems throughout the Universe, including technological intelligence that is intimately dependent on energy and likely will be for as long as it endures. The "message" contained within the "signal" with which today's society needs to cope is reasonably this: Only solar energy can power our civilization going forward without soiling the environment with increased heat yet robustly driving the economy with increased per capita energy usage. The null "signals" from extraterrestrials also offer a rational solution to the Fermi paradox as a principle of cosmic selection l...

    Chaisson, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    350

    Astrobiology And Extrasolar Planets- A New Lecture Course At Potsdam University  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrobiology studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life on Earth and in the Universe. This addresses a very wide range of questions that have been asked by mankind from the beginning. On the other hand, the discovery of the first extrasolar planet orbiting a Sun-like star by Mayor and Queloz in 1995 opened a new area for astrobiological research. Although most of the newly discovered extrasolar planets are giants with no underlying solid surfaces or oceans that could support a biosphere, the distribution of masses lets scientists suppose that there must be a multitude of planets with lower masses, including Earth-mass planets. The lecture course contains the following topics: Survey about Extrasolar Planets, Detection Methods, Simple Earth System Models, Dynamical Earth System Models, Habitable Zones, Dynamical Habitability, Rare Earth Hypothesis, Drake Formula, Panspermia, Origin of Life, Cambrian Explosion, Impacts and Climate, Long-Term Future Scenarios, Future Space Missions.

    Franck, S. A.; von Bloh, W.; Bounama, Ch.

    2006-08-01

    351

    Characterisation of sites of astrobiology interest for Mars landers and sample return missions  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Introduction: The aim of this work is to nominate and assess candidate landing sites for missions of astrobiological interest to Mars. We report in particular on science and technical criteria and our data analysis for sites suitable for an ExoMars-class mission. This includes information from previous missions (such as Mars Express, MGS, Odyssey, MRO and MER rovers) on mineralogical composition, geomorphology, evidence from past water history from imaging and spectroscopic data, and existence of in-situ prior information from landers and rovers (concerning evidences for volatiles, organics and habitability conditions). Science Goals and Objectives: Firstly, we look for morphological evidence of hydrological activity, including sedimentary deposits (deltas, valley networks), areas of ancient hydrothermal activity (spring deposits). Secondly, we look for mineralogical evidence of hydrological activity, such as phyllosilicates (formed by alteration due to water, indicate prolonged exposure to standing water), hydrated sulphates (formed by alteration due to water, not necessarily standing water), other water-containing minerals. Thirdly, we prioritise Noachian terrain (during this epoch, ~3.5 billion years ago, the Martian climate may have been warmer, and liquid water may have been stable on the surface). Finally, we look for sites where the potential for preservation of biosignatures is high (exposed bedrock, subsurface regions, spring sinters). Engineering Constraints: We consider the engineering constraints placed on the ExoMars misson. These include latitude (sufficient insolation for power), landing altitude (sufficient atmosphere for EDL), horizontal winds, shear, and wind turbulence (airbag free fall), radar altimeter reflectivity (for descent and landing control), obstacles and rock distribution (airbag landing), slopes (airbag landing), rover egress, and rover locomotion. The Priority Sites: Out of a short-list of ten proposed locations, we select two top priority sites and a safe-haven. The sites chosen are Mawrth Vallis (21.6°N, 344.0°E) and Vernal Crater (5.9°N, 355.3°E), and a safe-haven in Eastern Meridiani (0° N, 3.7°E). The entire length of Mawrth Vallis is of interest, not least because the source is unknown. It doesn't begin in chaotic terrain like the majority of outflow channels. Weathered phyllosilicates are prevalent and their variety, concentration and surface area are currently unmatched compared to anywhere on Mars. They exist in layered outcrops. Structures in Vernal Crater are strongly suggestive of spring deposits, which would have a high potential for preservation of biosignatures. Other key features of interest at this site include probable lake-shore and regional fluvial deposits, lacustrine layers and evidence of methane activity. Eastern Meridiani has been nominated as a potential safe-haven. The science interest of this site includes many diverse layers, evidence of phyllosilicates, and excavation of underlying material by cratering. General references: G. Neukum, R. Jaumann et al., HRSC: The High Resolution Stereo Camera of Mars Express, in Mars Express: The scientific payload, edited by A. Wilson, pp. 17-35, ESA, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004; R. Jaumann, G. Neukum, T. Behnke, T.C. Duxburry, K. Eichentopf, S. van Gasselt, B. Giese, K. Gwinner, E. Hauber, H. Hoffmann, A. Hoffmeister, U. Köhler, K.D; Matz, T.B. McCord, V. Mertens, J. Oberst, R. Pischel, D. Reiß, E. Ress, T. Roatsch, P. Saiger, F. Scholten, G. Schwarz, K. Stephan, M. Wählisch, and the HRSC; Co-Investigator Team: The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Experiment on Mars Express: Instrument Aspects and Experiment Conduct from Interplanetary; Cruise through Nominal Mission, Planetary and Space Science, 55, 928-952, 2007.

    Wills, D. E. S.; Monaghan, E. P.; Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    352

    The Proposed Mars Astrobiology Explorer - Cacher [MAX-C] Rover: First Step in a Potential Sample Return Campaign  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sample return from Mars has been advocated by numerous scientific advisory panels for over 30 years, most prominently beginning with the National Research Council s [1] strategy for the exploration of the inner solar system, and most recently by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG s) Next Decade Science Analysis Group [2]. Analysis of samples here on Earth would have enormous advantages over in situ analyses in producing the data quality needed to address many of the complex scientific questions the community has posed about Mars. Instead of a small, predetermined set of analytical techniques, state of the art preparative and instrumental resources of the entire scientific community could be applied to the samples. The analytical emphasis could shift as the meaning of each result becomes better appreciated. These arguments apply both to igneous rocks and to layered sedimentary materials, either of which could contain water and other volatile constituents. In 2009 MEPAG formed the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high-priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps towards the potential return of samples to Earth. This analysis resulted in a mission concept named the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C), which was envisioned for launch in the 2018 opportunity. After extensive discussion, this group concluded that by far the most definitive contribution to sample return by this mission would be to collect and cache, in an accessible location, a suite of compelling samples that could potentially be recovered and returned by a subsequent mission. This would have the effect of separating two of the essential functions of MSR, the acquisition of the sample collection and its delivery to martian orbit, into two missions.

    Allen, Carlton C.; Beaty, David W.

    2010-01-01

    353

    Sara Walker | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

    Cancer.gov

    Sara Walker works in the School of Life Science and the Beyond Center at Arizona State University. She is also a NASA Astrobiology fellow. She spoke about the deep evolutionary history of life on earth and it’s routes to cancer.

    354

    Mud Volcanoes - A New Class of Sites for Geological and Astrobiological Exploration of Mars  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mud volcanoes provide a unique low-temperature window into the Earth s subsurface - including the deep biosphere - and may prove to be significant sources of atmospheric methane. The identification of analogous features on Mars would provide an important new class of sites for geological and astrobiological exploration. We report new work suggesting that features in Acidalia Planitia are most consistent with their being mud volcanoes.

    Allen, C.C.; Oehler, D.Z.; Baker, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    355

    A Planetary System Exploration Project for Introductory Astronomy and Astrobiology Courses  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    I have created three-part projects for the introductory astronomy and astrobiology courses at Westfield State University which simulate the exploration of a fictional planetary system. The introductory astronomy project is an initial reconnaissance of the system by a robotic spacecraft, culminating in close flybys of two or three planets. The astrobiology project is a follow-up mission concluding with the landing of a roving lander on a planet or moon. Student responses in earlier parts of each project can be used to determine which planets are targeted for closer study in later parts. Highly realistic views of the planets from space and from their surfaces can be created using programs such as Celestia and Terragen; images and video returned by the spacecraft are thus a highlight of the project. Although designed around the particular needs and mechanics of the introductory astronomy and astrobiology courses for non-majors at WSU, these projects could be adapted for use in courses at many different levels.

    Rees, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    356

    Biological stoichiometry: a theoretical framework connecting ecosystem ecology, evolution, and biochemistry for application in astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrobiology is an extremely wide-ranging field and thus is in special need of conceptual and theoretical frameworks that can integrate its various arenas of study. In this paper I review recent work associated with a conceptual framework known as "ecological stoichiometry" and even more recent extensions in the development of "biological stoichiometry". Ecological stoichiometry is the study of the balance of energy and multiple chemical elements in ecological interactions and has developed rapidly in the study of nutrient cycling and energy flow in aquatic food webs. It identifies the elemental composition of interacting biota as central in understanding the nature of their interactions and dynamics, including key feedbacks via nutrient recycling. Biological stoichiometry extends this mode of thinking to all types of biological systems. It especially seeks to better understand, at the biochemical and genetic levels, the factors influencing the elemental composition of living things and the evolutionary forces that drive and constrain that elemental composition. By connecting key concepts of ecosystem ecology, evolutionary biology and biochemistry, stoichiometric theory integrates biological information into a more coherent whole that holds considerable promise for application in astrobiology. Several examples of potential astrobiological applications of stoichiometric analysis are offered, including ones related to pre-biotic evolution, the Cambrian explosion, biosignatures and biological feedbacks on planetary carbon cycling.

    Elser, James J.

    2003-07-01

    357

    The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin in Coahuila, Mexico: An Astrobiological Precambrian Park  

    PubMed Central

    Abstract The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a rare oasis in the Chihuahuan Desert in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. It has a biological endemism similar to that of the Galapagos Islands, and its spring-fed ecosystems have very low nutrient content (nitrogen or phosphorous) and are dominated by diverse microbialites. Thus, it has proven to be a distinctive opportunity for the field of astrobiology, as the CCB can be seen as a proxy for an earlier time in Earth's history, in particular the late Precambrian, the biological frontier when prokaryotic life yielded at least partial dominance to eukaryotes and multicellular life. It is a kind of ecological time machine that provides abundant opportunities for collaborative investigations by geochemists, geologists, ecologists, and population biologists in the study of the evolutionary processes that structured Earth-based life, especially in the microbial realm. The CCB is an object of investigation for the identification of biosignatures of past and present biota that can be used in our search for extraterrestrial life. In this review, we summarize CCB research efforts that began with microbial ecology and population biology projects and have since been expanded into broader efforts that involve biogeochemistry, comparative genomics, and assessments of biosignatures. We also propose that, in the future, the CCB is sanctioned as a “Precambrian Park” for astrobiology. Key Words: Microbial mats—Stromatolites—Early Earth—Extremophilic microorganisms—Microbial ecology. Astrobiology 12, 641–647. PMID:22920514

    Siefert, Janet L.; Escalante, Ana E.; Elser, James J.; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2012-01-01

    358

    Identifying Organic Molecules in Space: The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission Concept  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) mission concept consists of a dedicated space observatory having a 60 cm class primary mirror cooled to T < 50 K equipped with medium resolution cross-dispersed spectrometers having cooled large format near- and mid-infrared detector arrays. Such a system would be capable of addressing outstanding problems in Astrochemistry and Astrophysics that are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and addressable via astronomical observation. The mission s observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in establishing the nature, distribution, formation and evolution of organic and other molecular materials in the following extra-terrestrial environments: 1) The Outflow of Dying Stars, 2) The Diffuse Interstellar Medium, 3) Dense Molecular Clouds, Star Formation Regions, and Young StellarPlanetary Systems, 4) Planets, Satellites, and Small Bodies within the Solar System, and 5 ) The Interstellar Media of Other Galaxies. ABE could make fundamental progress in all of these areas by conducting a 1 to 2 year mission to obtain a coordinated set of infrared spectroscopic observations over the 2.5-20 micron spectral range at a spectral resolution of R > 2000 of about 1500 objects including galaxies, stars, planetary nebulae, young stellar objects, and solar system objects. Keywords: Astrobiology, infrared, Explorers, interstellar organics, telescope, spectrometer, space, infrared detectors

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L.; Bregman, J.; Cohen, M.; Cruikshank, D.; Dumas, C.; Greene, T.; Hudgins, D.; Kwok, S.

    2004-01-01

    359

    Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 18th, Houston, TX, Mar. 16-20, 1987, Proceedings  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, including petrogenesis and chemistry of lunar samples, geology and petrogenesis of the Apollo 15 landing site, lunar geology and applications, cratering records and cratering effects, differentiated meteorites, chondritic meteorites and asteroids, extraterrestrial grains, Venus, Mars, and icy satellites. The importance of lunar granite and KREEP in very high potassium basalt petrogenesis, indentifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments, glasses in ancient and young Apollo 16 regolith breccias, the formation of the Imbrium basin, the chemistry and petrology of the Apennine Front, lunar mare ridges, studies of Rima Mozart, electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction, detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record, and a search for water on the moon, are among the topics discussed. Other topics include the bidirectional reflectance properties of Fe-Ni meteorites, the nature and origin of C-rich ordinary chondrites and chondritic clasts, the dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine, characteristics of Greenland Fe/Ni cosmic grains, electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle, trapping Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in Si2O3 smokes, gossans on Mars, and a model of the porous structure of icy satellites.

    Ryder, Graham (editor)

    1988-01-01

    360

    [26th Conference of the Spanish Society of Quality in Healthcare: a good balance between quality, innovation, science and participation].  

    PubMed

    The experience and learning process of preparing a scientific conference programme, organising and conducting a conference ccompletes the quality circle with the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the process and results. The transmission of this experience and learning process through this paper will improve the performance of committees of future conference venues, partners and participants and collaborators. The method for performing this evaluation is the assessment of the activities of both the scientific and organising committees of the XXVI Conference of the Spanish Society of Quality Healthcare in October 2008 in Zaragoza. The methodology evaluated the observance of the timetable and tasks assigned to the committees in the Congress Manual of the society along with the presentation of final results of the congress concerning scientific participation and overall satisfaction. There were a total of 1211 communications with a rejection rate of 9.1%. Of the total, 577 communications were presented in oral format and 544 in poster format. Aragon was the community of origin of 24% of communications. By subject areas, those of most interest were patient safety, organisational and management processes, and patient perspectives. A total of 83 participants attended 7 of the 11 workshops offered. The average attendance for each workshop was 12 people. The response rate to the assessment of workshops questionnaire was 54.2% with an average score of 4 (scale of 1 to 5). A total of 1131 people attended the conference of which 17% (193) were SECA associates. Out of a total of 1075 overall satisfaction conference questionnaires distributed there was a response rate of 9.30% (100). The scientific content was assessed with an average score of 3.6 and the organization with 3.87, both on a total score of 5 points. According to the number of abstracts received, number of conferences, level of satisfaction with the scientific program and organisation, we can conclude that the XXVI Conference of the Society has been a success, although we are still in our continuous quality improvement circle that will make conferences even better. PMID:20621533

    Astier-Peña, M P; Barrasa-Villar, I; García-Mata, J R; Aranaz-Andrés, J; Enriquez-Martín, N; Vela-Marquina, M L

    2010-01-01

    361

    Umist, the solid state physics conference. Conference report  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A digest of selected papers read at the Solid State Physics Conference held at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, 4-6 January 1972 is given. A complete list of papers presented is included.

    Condell

    1972-01-01

    362

    The Astrobiology Primer: An Outline of General Knowledge-Version 1, 2006  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Astrobiology Primer has been created as a reference tool for those who are interested in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology. The field incorporates many diverse research endeavors, but it is our hope that this slim volume will present the reader with all he or she needs to know to become involved and to understand, at least at a fundamental level, the state of the art. Each section includes a brief overview of a topic and a short list of readable and important literature for those interested in deeper knowledge. Because of the great diversity of material, each section was written by a different author with a different expertise. Contributors, authors, and editors are listed at the beginning, along with a list of those chapters and sections for which they were responsible. We are deeply indebted to the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), in particular to Estelle Dodson, David Morrison, Ed Goolish, Krisstina Wilmoth, and Rose Grymes for their continued enthusiasm and support. The Primer came about in large part because of NAI support for graduate student research, collaboration, and inclusion as well as direct funding. We have entitled the Primer version 1 in hope that it will be only the first in a series, whose future volumes will be produced every 3-5 years. This way we can insure that the Primer keeps up with the current state of research. We hope that it will be a great resource for anyone trying to stay abreast of an ever-changing field. If you have noticed any errors of fact or wish to be involved in future incarnations of the project, please contact Lucas Mix (e-mail: lucas@flirble.org).

    Billings, L.; Cameron, V.; Claire, M.; Dick, G. J.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Javaux, E. J.; Johnson, O. J.; Laws, C.; Race, M. S.; Rask, J.; Rummel, J. D.; Schelble, R. T.; Vance, S.

    2006-10-01

    363

    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE E-LEARNING 2013  

    E-print Network

    IN AN ORGANISATIONAL CONTEXT Christine Rogerson and Elsje Scott 49 SOCIAL E-LEARNING IN TOPOLOR: A CASE STUDY Lei Shi#12;INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE E-LEARNING 2013 part of the MULTI CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS 2013 #12;iii PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE E-LEARNING 2013 Prague, Czech

    Stanchev, Peter

    364

    History of Academy Conference, 1926-1970.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This publication details some of the history of the Academy Conference from 1926-1970. The Academy Conference was an organization of affiliated Academies of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The conference met each year during the AAAS convention. Included in the materials are: (1) Summary of Early Meetings; (2)…

    Baker, C. L.

    365

    Field/Lab Training Workshops in Planetary Geology and Astrobiology for Secondary School Teachers  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thematic field-lab-classroom workshops can be successful in training secondary teachers in planetary geology and astrobiology, from the LPI's 4 years experience. A typical workshop includes ˜4 days of field study and ˜3 days of related classroom/lab lectures and exercises. Up to 30 teachers have participated at once, and the staff averages 5 researchers and educators. The 2003 workshop, The Great Desert, focused on geology and life in the Colorado Plateau as analogs for Mars. Specific emphases were on geologic processes exemplified in the Grand Canyon, Sunset Crater and Meteor Crater, and on biotic communities in desert soils and hot springs. The classroom portion, hosted by UNM, included lectures, lab work, and teaching exercises keyed to the field experience and its extensions to Mars. Formal followups: non-directive exit questionnaires; email list-serves for participants; websites with images, presentations, and exercises from the workshop, and links to related materials (e.g., http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/EPO/yellowstone2002/index.html); and interviews for six-month retrospective. Graduate and continuing education credit are available. Past workshops, all relevant to Mars, have targeted: geology and extremophiles of Yellowstone NP, geology of the Cascade volcanos; and giant floods and lava flows of central Washington. The greatest benefit of this workshop format is the teachers' intense, deep experience, emphasizing scientific content. They learn from field, classroom, and laboratory perspectives, and work with PhD level researchers who contribute their excitement, demonstrate and teach critical thought processes, and provide authoritative background and answers. The small group size permits personal interactions (among teachers and presenters) that complement each other's understanding and appreciation of the subject. They log ˜65 contact hours with the staff, in small groups or one-on-one. Teachers return to the classroom with personal experiences, with heightened appreciation, excited, and energetic. The teachers are asked to share their knowledge in their districts (in one case, saving the district thousands of dollars). For the presenters, the workshop format allows personal interactions with the teachers, leading to enhanced appreciation of their perspectives and needs. This year, teacher input assisted with an NSF-sponsored National Park education initiative. And in one case, a meaningful research collaboration has come from these workshops. Logistics is the greatest challenge of this workshop format. Hosts and teaching/lab venues need to be arranged early in sites dictated by science content, not convenience. Travel and lodging must be arranged for teachers and presenters at several sites, usually all distant from the organizing institution. Logistics also dictates that each workshop cannot serve more than about 30 teachers. The depth of knowledge imparted and its long-term effects on the teachers and their districts offsets the small number of teachers reached per year. Authors here are the 2003 organizers and presenters. Many others have organized and presented at past workshops - especially Dr. A.J. Irving of U. Wash. We are grateful for past support from NASA Broker/Facilitator, and now from Sandia National Laboratory and NASA OSS/EPO.

    Treiman, A.; Newsom, H.; Hoehler, T.; Tsairides, C.; Karlstrom, K.; Crossey, L.; Kiefer, W.; Kadel, S.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Aubele, J.; Crumpler, L.

    2003-12-01

    366

    Report on a NASA astrobiology institute-funded workshop without walls: stellar stoichiometry.  

    PubMed

    We report on the NASA Astrobiology Institute-funded Workshop Without Walls entitled "Stellar Stoichiometry," hosted by the "Follow the Elements" team at Arizona State University in April 2013. We describe several innovative practices we adopted that made effective use of the Workshop Without Walls videoconferencing format, including use of information technologies, assignment of scientific tasks before the workshop, and placement of graduate students in positions of authority. A companion article will describe the scientific results arising from the workshop. Our intention here is to suggest best practices for future Workshops Without Walls. PMID:24684174

    Desch, Steven J; Young, Patrick A; Anbar, Ariel D; Hinkel, Natalie; Pagano, Michael; Truitt, Amanda; Turnbull, Margaret

    2014-04-01

    367

    Building a Winogradsky Column: An Educator Guide with Activities in Astrobiology  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 27-page educator guide is a NASA Quest resource about Microbial Ecology and related Astrobiology activities. Students will construct a Winogradsky Column to observe the growth of microbes in a column of mud. During this investigation students will develop a hypothesis, record their observations and results, and form conclusions. They will compare and contrast their methods during the investigation with those of the astrobiologists performing research in the field and the laboratory. It includes student handouts and assessment rubrics that may be duplicated without copyright restrictions.

    Bodony, Deborah; Chaussee, Amberlee; Samuelson, Bonnie

    2010-02-19

    368

    An Astrobiological Experiment to Explore the Habitability of Tidally Locked M-Dwarf Planets  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We present a summary of a three-year academic research proposal drafted during the Sao Paulo Advanced School of Astrobiology (SPASA) to prepare for upcoming observations of tidally locked planets orbiting M-dwarf stars. The primary experimental goal of the suggested research is to expose extremophiles from analogue environments to a modified space simulation chamber reproducing the environmental parameters of a tidally locked planet in the habitable zone of a late-type star. Here we focus on a description of the astronomical analysis used to define the parameters for this climate simulation.

    Angerhausen, Daniel; Sapers, Haley; Simoncini, Eugenio; Lutz, Stefanie; Alexandre, Marcelo da Rosa; Galante, Douglas

    2014-04-01

    369

    SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

    Almár, Iván

    2011-11-01

    370

    News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    2012-05-01

    371

    Youth in Transition: The Challenges of Generational Change in Asia. Proceedings of the Biennial General Conference of the Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils (15th, Canberra, Australia, 2005)  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This book originates from a conference of the Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils and contains writings and research reports on Youth in Transition in the Asia and Pacific region. The definition of "youth" varies from country to country and ranges between the ages of 10 to 35. The publication summarizes issues in the region,…

    Gale, Fay, Ed.; Fahey, Stephanie, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    372

    Emerging Frameworks and Methods. Proceedings of the International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science (CoLIS4) (4th, Seattle, Washington, July 21-25, 2002).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    These proceedings are the fourth in the series of international conferences whose general aim is to provide a broad forum for critically exploring and analyzing library and information science as a discipline and as a field of research from historical, theoretical, philosophical, and empirical perspectives. The papers in this volume cover a wide…

    Bruce, Harry, Ed.; Fidel, Raya, Ed.; Ingwersen, Peter, Ed.; Vakkari, Pertti, Ed.

    373

    Teacher Shortage in Science and Mathematics: Myths, Realities, and Research. Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the National Institute of Education (Washington, District of Columbia, February 10-11, 1983).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This conference was designed to identify salient elements of the national science/mathematics teacher shortage, add corollary data to the existing body of knowledge, and to influence and guide future NIE research in the area. The proceedings include: welcoming and keynote addresses by, respectively, Manuel J. Justiz and T. H. Bell; five…

    Taylor, John L., Ed.

    374

    The Place of the Liberal Arts and Sciences in the Curriculum: A Renewed Commitment. Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (Richmond, Virginia, December 17-18, 1984).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of a conference on Virginia's undergraduate curriculum are presented. Attention is focused on the future of the traditional arts and sciences disciplines. Contents include: (1) a keynote address on benefits of studying the humanities, along with answers to audience questions (William H. Bennett, head of the National Endowment for the…

    Potter, David L., Ed.

    375

    Drilling Automation Demonstrations in Subsurface Exploration for Astrobiology  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    This project proposes to study subsurface permafrost microbial habitats at a relevant Arctic Mars-analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada) while developing and maturing the subsurface drilling and drilling automation technologies that will be required by post-2010 missions. It builds on earlier drilling technology projects to add permafrost and ice-drilling capabilities to 5m with a lightweight drill that will be automatically monitored and controlled in-situ. Frozen cores obtained with this drill under sterilized protocols will be used in testing three hypotheses pertaining to near-surface physical geology and ground H2O ice distribution, viewed as a habitat for microbial life in subsurface ice and ice-consolidated sediments. Automation technologies employed will demonstrate hands-off diagnostics and drill control, using novel vibrational dynamical analysis methods and model-based reasoning to monitor and identify drilling fault states before and during faults. Three field deployments, to a Mars-analog site with frozen impact crater fallback breccia, will support science goals, provide a rigorous test of drilling automation and lightweight permafrost drilling, and leverage past experience with the field site s particular logistics.

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, H.; Lee, P.; Hanagud, S.; Davis, K.

    2006-01-01

    376

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Identifying Organic Molecules in Space  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept, currently under Concept Phase A study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Corp., and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct infrared spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the distribution, identity, and evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds, young forming stellar systems, stellar outflows, the general diffuse ISM, HII regions, Solar System bodies, and external galaxies. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.6 m aperture Ritchey-Chretien telescope and three moderate resolution (R = 2000-3000) spectrometers together covering the 2.5-20 micron spectral region. Large format (1024 x 1024 pixel) IR detector arrays will allow each spectrometer to cover an entire octave of spectral range per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope will be cooled below 50 K by a cryogenic dewar shielded by a sunshade. The detectors will be cooled to approx. 7.5 K by a solid hydrogen cryostat. The optimum orbital configuration for achieving the scientific objectives of the ABE mission is a low background, 1 AU Earth driftaway orbit requiring a Delta II launch vehicle. This configuration provides a low thermal background and allows adequate communications bandwidth and good access to the entire sky over the approx. 1.5 year mission lifetime.

    Ennico, Kimberly; Sandford, Scott; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse; Cohen, Martin; Cruikshank, Dale; Greene, Thomas; Hudgins, Douglas; Kwok, Sun; Lord, Steven; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    377

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Identifying Organic Molecules in Space  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept, currently under Concept Phase A study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace &Technologies, Corp., and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct infrared spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the distribution, identity, and evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds, young forming stellar systems, stellar outflows, the general diffuse ISM, HII regions, Solar System bodies, and external galaxies. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.6 m aperture Ritchey-Chretien telescope and three moderate resolution (R = 2000-3000) spectrometers together covering the 2.5-20 micron spectral region. Large format (1024 x 1024 pixel) IR detector arrays will allow each spectrometer to cover an entire octave of spectral range per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope will be cooled below 50 K by a cryogenic dewar shielded by a sunshade. The detectors will be cooled to ~7.5 K by a solid hydrogen cryostat. The optimum orbital configuration for achieving the scientific objectives of the ABE mission is a low background, 1 AU Earth driftaway orbit requiring a Delta II launch vehicle. This configuration provides a low thermal background and allows adequate communications bandwidth and good access to the entire sky over the ~1.5 year mission lifetime.

    Ennico, Kimberly A.; Sandford, Scott; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse D.; Cohen, Martin; Cruikshank, Dale; Greene, Thomas P.; Hudgins, Douglas; Kwok, Sun; Lord, Steven D.; Madden, Suzanne; McCreight, Craig R.; Roellig, Thomas L.; Strecker, Donald W.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Werner, Michael W.

    2003-03-01

    378

    EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.  

    PubMed

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110?nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10?s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space. PMID:22680684

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    379

    Proceedings of the Annual Western Australian Science Education Association Conference (21st, November 29, 1996, Perth, Western Australia, Australia).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This proceedings is comprised of the edited papers presented at the 21st meeting of the Western Australian Science Education Association (WASEA). The 26 papers included here relate to many different topics such as proportional reasoning, the state of primary science in Western Australia, faculty culture, concept formation in elementary science,…

    Hackling, Mark W., Ed.

    380

    Conference Strand addressed: Community and Conservation Education Citizen Science: Active, Inquiry and Service Learning for Environmental Educators  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Citizen Science engages individuals who are not professional scientists in scientific research, providing an excellent tool for teaching natural history and science content through hands-on activities that often address critical questioning and analysis skills. We summarize outcomes of citizen science using two case studies, one that illustrates how an environmental education center (Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont) uses a

    Michelle Prysby; Karen Oberhauser; Cindy Petersen

    381

    Annual Fall Conference  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Our two-day fall conference focuses on training science faculty to teach with case studies and to write their own cases. It features a track for beginners and a track for more experienced case teachers as well as a third track on Saturday for high school teachers.

    2010-01-01

    382

    arXiv:1206.3467v1[astro-ph.IM]15Jun2012 Astrobiological Complexity with Probabilistic Cellular  

    E-print Network

    Belgrade-74, Serbia E-mail: bvukotic@aob.rs Abstract Search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence--Galaxy: evolution-- extraterrestrial intelligence PACS number(s): 87.18.-h, 89.75.Fb, 89.90.+n, 02.70.-c 1 a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches. Keywords: astrobiology--methods: numerical

    Masci, Frank

    383

    The SOLID (Signs Of LIfe Detector) instrument concept: an antibody microarray-based biosensor for life detection in astrobiology  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Immunosensors have been extensively used since many years for environmental monitoring. Different technological platforms allow new biosensor designs and implementations. We have reported (Rivas et al., 2008) a shotgun approach for antibody production for biomarker detection in astrobiology and environmental monitoring, the production of 150 new polyclonal antibodies against microbial strains and environmental extracts, and the construction and validation of

    V. Parro; L. A. Rivas; J. A. Rodríguez-Manfredi; Y. Blanco; G. de Diego-Castilla; P. Cruz-Gil; M. Moreno-Paz; M. García-Villadangos; C. Compostizo; P. L. Herrero

    2009-01-01

    384

    APS Presents Awards at 2007 ABRCMS Conference  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The APS presented awards to six minority undergraduate researchers for their oral and poster presentations in the physiological sciences at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) at the Austin Convention Center in Austin, TX from November 7-10, 2007. ABRCMS is a national conference designed to facilitate increased minority involvement in biomedical and behavioral science careers.

    APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

    2008-02-01

    385

    Lighting the Blue Touchpaper for UK e-Science - Closing Conference of ESLEA Project. ESLEA, March 26-28, 2007, Edinburgh  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESLEA, an EPSRC-funded project, aims to demonstrate the potential benefits of circuit-switched optical networks (lightpaths) to the UK e-Science community. This is being achieved by running a number of "proof of benefit" pilot applications over UKLight, the UK's first national optical research network. UKLight provides a new way for researchers to obtain dedicated "lightpaths" between remote sites and to deploy and test novel networking methods and technologies. It facilitates collaboration on global projects by providing a point of access to the fast growing international optical R&D infrastructure. A diverse range of data-intensive fields of academic endeavour are participating in the ESLEA project; all these groups require the integration of high-bandwidth switched lightpath circuits into their experimental and analysis infrastructure for international transport of high-volume applications data. In addition, network protocol research and development of circuit reservation mechanisms has been carried out to help the pilot applications to exploit the UKLight infrastructure effectively. Further information about ESLEA can be viewed at www.eslea.uklight.ac.uk. ESLEA activities are now coming to an end and work will finish from February to July 2007, depending upon the terms of funding of each pilot application. The first quarter of 2007 is considered the optimum time to hold a closing conference for the project. The objectives of the conference are to: 1. Provide a forum for the dissemination of research findings and learning experiences from the ESLEA project. 2. Enable colleagues from the UK and international e-Science communities to present, discuss and learn about the latest developments in networking technology. 3. Raise awareness about the deployment of the UKLight infrastructure and its relationship to SuperJANET 5. 4. Identify potential uses of UKLight by existing or future research projects

    Clarke, Peter; Davenhall, Clive; Greenwood, Colin; Strong, Matthew

    386

    PREFACE: International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - Eco-Materials and Eco-Innovation for Global Sustainability - The 21st Iketani Conference 2011  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conference logo The 21st century has been called the century of environmental revolution. Green innovations and environmentally friendly production systems based on physics, chemistry, materials science, and electronic engineering will be indispensable for ensuring renewable energy and establishing a sustainable society. In particular, production design, materials processing, and fabrication technologies such as welding and joining will be very important components of such green innovations. For these reasons, the International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - eco-materials and eco-innovation for global sustainability - (ECO-MATES 2011) was organized by the Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI) and the Center of Environmental Innovation Design for Sustainability (CEIDS), Osaka University. ECO-MATES 2011 was held at Hotel Hankyu Expo Park, Osaka, Japan from 28-30 November 2011. 435 participants from 20 countries around the world attended the symposium. 149 oral presentations including 60 invited talks and 160 posters were presented at the symposium to discuss the latest research and developments in green innovations in relation to environmental issues. The topics of the symposium covered all environmentally related fields including renewable energy, energy-materials, environment and resources, waste and biomass, power electronics, semiconductor, rare-earth metals, functional materials, organic electronics materials, electronics packaging, smart processing, joining and welding, eco-efficient processes, and green applied physics and chemistry. Therefore, 55 full papers concerning green innovations and environmentally benign production were selected and approved by the editorial board and the program committee of ECO-MATES 2011. All papers were accepted through peer review processes. I believe that all the papers have many informative contents. On behalf of the steering committee of the symposium, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to all the committees and secretariats, authors, participants of ECO-MATES 2011, and everybody involved in the publication of this special issue. It is a great honor for me that the special issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series will contribute to establishing green innovations and a sustainable society. Chairman's signature Yasuo Takahashi Chairman of ECO-MATES 2011 Conference photograph ECO-MATES 2011 November 28-30, 2011 Venue: Hotel Hankyu Expo Park, Osaka, Japan The PDF also contains a list of the organizing committees.

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    387

    Invited Plenary Speech, Second International Conference on Cognitive Science. July 2730, 1999. Japan. 1 Artificial Intelligence for Improving Children's Thinking  

    E-print Network

    . Japan. 1 Artificial Intelligence for Improving Children's Thinking Charles X. Ling Department intelligence tests. 2 Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Cognitive science studies how the human@csd.uwo.ca Extended Abstract 1 Human Intelligence There is no universally accepted definition for intelli­ gence among

    Ling, Charles X.

    388

    Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Australian Science Education Association (23rd, Perth, Western Australia, November 13, 1998).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    These proceedings contain reviewed and edited papers from the 23rd annual meeting of the Western Australian Science Education Association (WASEA). Papers include: (1) Using Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Validate a Questionnaire to Describe Science Teacher Behavior in Taiwan and Australia (Darrell Fisher, David Henderson, and…

    Rennie, Leonie, Ed.

    389

    BEARS conference UC Berkeley  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Berkeley EECS Annual Research Symposium (BEARS) is a conference hosted by UC Berkeley's Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences department in the College of Engineering. This website provides the agenda for the 2005 BEARS (held on February 10 and 11) along with information on the presenters and abstracts and video footage of their presentations. The conference highlights work from EECS scientists on "advances enabling computing and communications to connect diverse aspects of our world." Topics include: wireless networks, optical communication, the future of the internet, embedded software, machine learning, security, and trust.

    390

    Investigation of low-energy proton effects on aptamer performance for astrobiological applications.  

    PubMed

    Biochips are promising instruments for the search for organic molecules in planetary environments. Nucleic acid aptamers are powerful affinity receptors known for their high affinity and specificity, and therefore are of great interest for space biochip development. A wide variety of aptamers have already been selected toward targets of astrobiological interest (from amino acids to microorganisms). We present a first study to test the resistance of these receptors to the constraints of the space environment. The emphasis is on the effect of cosmic rays on the molecular recognition properties of DNA aptamers. Experiments on beam-line facilities have been conducted with 2 MeV protons and fluences much higher than expected for a typical mission to Mars. Our results show that this irradiation process did not affect the performances of DNA aptamers as molecular recognition tools. PMID:21434764

    Baqué, M; Le Postollec, A; Ravelet, C; Peyrin, E; Coussot, G; Desvignes, I; Incerti, S; Moretto, P; Dobrijevic, M; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O

    2011-04-01

    391

    Biomarkers and their Raman spectroscopic signatures: a spectral challenge for analytical astrobiology.  

    PubMed

    The remote robotic exploration of extraterrestrial scenarios for evidence of biological colonization in 'search for life' missions using Raman spectroscopy is critically dependent on two major factors: firstly, the Raman spectral recognition of characteristic biochemical spectral signatures in the presence of mineral matrix features; and secondly, the positive unambiguous identification of molecular biomaterials which are indicative of extinct or extant life. Both of these factors are considered here: the most important criterion is the clear definition of which biochemicals truly represent biomarkers, whose presence in the planetary geological record from an analytical astrobiological standpoint will unambiguously be indicative of life as recognized from its remote instrumental interrogation. Also discussed in this paper are chemical compounds which are associated with living systems, including biominerals, which may not in themselves be definitive signatures of life processes and origins but whose presence provides an indicator of potential life-bearing matrices. PMID:25368349

    Edwards, Howell G M; Hutchinson, Ian B; Ingley, Richard; Jehli?ka, Jan

    2014-12-13

    392

    An updated photochemical model of the atmosphere of Titan for astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A new comprehensive Titan atmospheric model has been developed as part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute JPL-Titan team effort to understand the complexity of organic chemistry in the combined Titan atmosphere/surface system. The code is based on previous work (e.g., Allen et al., 1981; Yung et al., 1984) and has been improved to answer increasingly more complex questions on the chemical and dynamical processes responsible for the spatial and temporal distribution of chemical species in planetary atmospheres. The current reaction network consists of 1266 species and over 20,000 reactions including photolysis, neutral-neutral and ion-molecule reactions. We present preliminary results from the atmospheric simulation, focusing on the flux of molecular hydrogen in the lower atmosphere and the partitioning of carbon in the material settling to the surface, and the relative upper atmosphere/lower atmosphere source for this material

    Willacy, Karen; Allen, Mark; Yung, Yuk

    2014-11-01

    393

    An ultraviolet Raman wavelength for the in-situ analysis of organic compounds relevant to astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A UV Raman instrument holds great promise for future in-situ astrobiology investigations on Mars and elsewhere in the solar system due to its potential for high organic sensitivity, stand-off detection, and detection on unprepared samples. We characterize the fluorescence spectra of a range of organic compounds including amino acids, fatty acids, alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at three UV excitations to determine at what Raman excitation fluorescence is minimized. Both Raman and fluorescence measurements indicate that a Raman instrument operating with an excitation of 266 nm will result in less fluorescence compared to an excitation of 355 nm. Raman spectra of organic compounds at a 1% concentration in a silica sand matrix are obtained at an excitation wavelength of 266 nm, and demonstrate either an absence of fluorescence or a reduction of fluorescence to a magnitude on the order of the Raman intensity, increasing the sensitivity of the instrument to organic compounds.

    Eshelman, E.; Daly, M. G.; Slater, G.; Dietrich, P.; Gravel, J.-F.

    2014-04-01

    394

    Investigation of Low-Energy Proton Effects on Aptamer Performance for Astrobiological Applications  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biochips are promising instruments for the search for organic molecules in planetary environments. Nucleic acid aptamers are powerful affinity receptors known for their high affinity and specificity, and therefore are of great interest for space biochip development. A wide variety of aptamers have already been selected toward targets of astrobiological interest (from amino acids to microorganisms). We present a first study to test the resistance of these receptors to the constraints of the space environment. The emphasis is on the effect of cosmic rays on the molecular recognition properties of DNA aptamers. Experiments on beam-line facilities have been conducted with 2 MeV protons and fluences much higher than expected for a typical mission to Mars. Our results show that this irradiation process did not affect the performances of DNA aptamers as molecular recognition tools.

    Baqué, M.; Le Postollec, A.; Ravelet, C.; Peyrin, E.; Coussot, G.; Desvignes, I.; Incerti, S.; Moretto, P.; Dobrijevic, M.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.

    2011-04-01

    395

    Astrobiology Biogeocatalysis  

    E-print Network

    or believes. Which of the statements below are facts and which are opinions? 1. Microbes are tiny organisms. 2.Microbes live in Yellowstone hot springs. 3.It is important to try and learn about life on other planets. 4 of microbes. Microbes are tiny living things that you usually need a microscope to see. While visitors

    396

    The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).  

    PubMed

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions. PMID:19105757

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    397

    PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The scientific program of the conference began with an overview of high energy nuclear physics in China by Professor Wenqing Shen, vice president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Professor Shen highlighted many contributions made by the Chinese scientists in both theory and experiment. Dr Nick Samios, former director of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), gave a vivid account of the early years of RHIC and recent accomplishments. Highlights of the conference include new results from RHIC at BNL and SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Many experimental results reported at the conference support the notion that the quark-gluon matter at RHIC behaves like a perfect liquid with minimum viscosity to entropy ratio. There were 15 plenary sessions which covered 54 plenary talks, 12 parallel sessions and 1 poster session. A total of 320 abstracts were submitted to the conference out of which 124 were selected for oral presentation and the rest were assigned to the poster session. Talks and posters in the conference covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical progress in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, which includes new evidence of sQGP, jet quenching and heavy quark energy loss, heavy-ion collision phenomenology, quantum field theory at finite temperature and/or density, and relevant areas of astrophysics and plasma physics. The Quark Matter 2006 conference coincided with the 80th birthday of Professor T D Lee. A special reception was held in the banquet hall of the Shanghai Grand Theatre to celebrate Professor Lee's birthday and to honor his great contributions to physics, in particular, to the development of high energy nuclear physics research in China. We would like to thank the members of the International Advisory Committee for providing valuable advice on a variety of matters, from the general structure of the conference to the selection of the plenary speakers and selection of abstracts for oral presentations. Professors T Hemmick, H Satz, D T Son and N Xu gave excellent pedagogical

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    398

    The future of science, technology and innovation policy: linking research and practice. SPRU 40th Anniversary Conference,  

    E-print Network

    in terms of either technology transfer or technology convergence and highlights both the benefits connotations related to the benefits a nation could generate from exploiting civilian technologies to developThe future of science, technology and innovation policy: linking research and practice. SPRU 40th

    Sussex, University of

    399

    Appeared in: Proceedings of the Class of 2005 Senior Conference, page 15 Computer Science Department, Swarthmore College  

    E-print Network

    of German Nominal Compounds Nori Heikkinen Computer Science Department Swarthmore College Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, USA nori@sccs.swarthmore.edu Abstract Among the most daunting words in German to a non smaller words. A problem posed by these words is that of automatic segmentation into pieces in order

    Wicentowski, Richard

    400

    Instructional Practices in Fifth-Through Eighth-Grade Science Classrooms of a Selected Seventh-Day Adventist Conference  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This investigation focused on instructional practices within fifth- through eighth-grade science classes of selected Seventh-day Adventist schools. Teachers reported regular use of discussion, student projects, and tests or quizzes. Most respondents said they did not feel prepared or had "never heard of" inquiry, the learning cycle, or…

    Burton, Larry D.; Nino, Ruth J.; Hollingsead, Candice C.

    2004-01-01

    401

    Research in Science Education. Volume 14. Selections of Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (15th, Victoria, Australia, May 1984).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This publication contains studies which focus on students' science concepts and the alternative frameworks they use to interpret natural phenomena. Among the specific areas investigated are: conceptions held by Year 11 chemistry students about stoichiometry; how some 9-year-old students interpret the word "solid" to mean hard, unbreakable,…

    Tisher, Richard P., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    402

    Cognitive Science mailing list  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COGSCI is an open, unmoderated discussion list about Cognitive Science. Topics including artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, connectionism, psychology, conferences, lectures, and publications.

    1997-01-01

    403

    Science Impact www.science-impact.ac.at  

    E-print Network

    Science Impact www.science-impact.ac.at International Conference 10­11 May 2007, Vienna Rethinking the Impact of Basic Research on Society and the Economy #12;CONTACT & COMMUNICATION If you have any questions concerning the Science Impact Conference, please write an E-mail to science.impact@fwf.ac.at or via postal

    Blatt, Rainer

    404

    College of Science, Engineering & Food Science Annual Graduate  

    E-print Network

    Conference at UCC 39 Talented Bacteria make Food Poisoning Unpredictable 40 School of Engineering ConferencesCollege of Science, Engineering & Food Science Annual Graduate Newsletter & Report Issue No. 4 KEEPING YOU IN TOUCH WITH DEVELOPMENTS IN SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND FOOD SCIENCE AT UCC August 2011 #12

    Schellekens, Michel P.

    405

    Towards big data science in the decade ahead from ten years of InCoB and the 1st ISCB-Asia Joint Conference  

    PubMed Central

    The 2011 International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) conference, which is the annual scientific conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), is hosted by Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, is co-organized with the first ISCB-Asia conference of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB). InCoB and the sequencing of the human genome are both celebrating their tenth anniversaries and InCoB’s goalposts for the next decade, implementing standards in bioinformatics and globally distributed computational networks, will be discussed and adopted at this conference. Of the 49 manuscripts (selected from 104 submissions) accepted to BMC Genomics and BMC Bioinformatics conference supplements, 24 are featured in this issue, covering software tools, genome/proteome analysis, systems biology (networks, pathways, bioimaging) and drug discovery and design. PMID:22372736

    2011-01-01

    406

    2007 Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This text brings together peer-reviewed papers from the 2007 Physics Education Research Conference, whose theme was Cognitive Science and Physics Education Research. The conference brought together researchers studying a wide variety of topics in physics education including transfer of knowledge, learning in physics courses at all levels, teacher education, and cross-disciplinary learning.

    2009-10-25

    407

    Undergraduate Research Conference at Queens College Announcement  

    E-print Network

    Undergraduate Research Conference at Queens College 2nd Announcement There will be an Undergraduate Research Conference at Queens College sponsored by the Division of Mathematics and Natural Sciences in the NSB Lobby, and oral presentations of research will be in room D-139. Abstracts are due on September 13

    Engel, Robert

    408

    USGS Gulf Coast Science Conference and Florida Integrated Science Center Meeting: Proceedings with Abstracts, October 20-23, 2008, Orlando, Florida  

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welcome! The USGS is the Nation's premier source of information in support of science-based decision making for resource management. We are excited to have the opportunity to bring together a diverse array of USGS scientists, managers, specialists, and others from science centers around the Gulf working on biologic, geologic, and hydrologic issues related to the Gulf of Mexico and the State of Florida. We've organized the meeting around the major themes outlined in the USGS Circular 1309, Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017. USGS senior leadership will provide a panel discussion about the Gulf of Mexico and Integrated Science. Capstone talks will summarize major topics and key issues. Interactive poster sessions each evening will provide the opportunity for you to present your results and talk with your peers. We hope that discussions and interactions at this meeting will help USGS scientists working in Florida and the Gulf Coast region find common interests, forge scientific collaborations and chart a direction for the future. We hope that the meeting environment will encourage interaction, innovation and stimulate ideas among the many scientists working throughout the region. We'd like to create a community of practice across disciplines and specialties that will help us address complex scientific and societal issues. Please take advantage of this opportunity to visit with colleagues, get to know new ones, share ideas and brainstorm about future possibilities. It is our pleasure to provide this opportunity. We are glad you're here.

    Edited and compiled by Lavoie, Dawn; Rosen, Barry; Sumner, Dave; Haag, Kim; Tihansky, Ann; Boynton, Betsy; Koenig, Renee

    2008-01-01

    409

    Science for all: is public engagement engaging the public? 34 April 2006  

    E-print Network

    Science for all: is public engagement engaging the public? 3­4 April 2006 Manchester Conference Centre Conference Report ENGAGING SCIENCE CONFERENCE #12;2 INTRODUCTION Public engagement with science the people involved to meet and consider what they are doing. The Wellcome Trust Conference, `Science for all

    Rambaut, Andrew

    410

    Shape and thermal modeling of the possible cryovolcanic dome Ganesa Macula on Titan: Astrobiological implications  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Observations of Titan by the Cassini spacecraft have revealed to us a world with an intricate and varied geology. In particular, there is evidence of extensive cryovolcanism. The 180 km structure Ganesa Macula observed in SAR imaging from Cassini's TA encounter in October 2004 resembles the pancake domes seen on Venus by the Magellan spacecraft and is comparable (in terms of years of planetary heatflow required to melt the lava volume) with the Deccan Traps on Earth. Cryovolcanism has important astrobiological implications, as it provides a means of exposing surface organics to liquid water. Aqueous chemistry permits Titan's hydrocarbons and nitriles to form more evolved and oxidized prebiotic species, such as amino acids and pyrimidines. In this work, we use Titan's observed backscatter function to model the radar appearance of domes of various shapes and heights to compare with the image of Ganesa: the SAR data are better fit by a ``spreading viscous drop" (``Huppert") shape than by one constrained by a skin strength (``Nye"). We then model the freezing of the model dome using a finite-element heat conduction code. Estimation of the dome height is presently underway, but even a dome only 1 km in height takes some 5 x 103 years to freeze for lava made entirely of liquid water, and 12 x 103 years for lava made of ammonia dihydrate. These timescales open a window for prebiotic chemistry far wider than can be explored in terrestrial laboratory experiments. This work was supported by the Cassini project.

    Neish, C. D.; Lorenz, R. D.; O'Brien, D. P.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2005-08-01

    411

    A new empirical approach in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Astrobiological nonlocality at the cosmological level  

    E-print Network

    Over a period of several decades a concerted effort has been made to determine whether intelligent life exists outside of our solar system, known as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence or SETI. This has been based primarily upon attempting to intercept possible radio transmissions at different frequencies with arrays of radio telescopes. In addition, astrophysical observations have also been undertaken to see if other worlds or solar systems exist with similar conditions such as ours, which might be conducive to life. And, numerous papers have been written exploring different possibilities for the existence of life or why we have not observed it as of yet, since none of these approaches have been successful. It may now be possible to explore this issue from another standpoint. Recent theoretical and experimental results in the field of biophysics appear to indicate the possibility of quantum entanglement and nonlocality at the biological level, between spatially separated pairs of human subjects and also between basins containing neurons derived from human neural stem cells. If this research continues to be upheld in a more replicable fashion, this could have very important implications in the area of controllable superluminal communication. Experiments are proposed in an attempt to address the issue of whether controllable superluminal communication is possible and, if it is, to utilize it in an attempt to determine if extraterrestrial intelligence really exists, within the framework of astrobiological nonlocality.

    Fred H. Thaheld

    2006-08-29

    412

    The astrobiological potential of Titan and Enceladus through the atmosphere-surface connection  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Saturnian moons, Titan and Enceladus, are considered as excellent candidates for prebiotic research since their astrobiological potential has been recognized for quite some time now from evidence brought by the still on-going Cassini-Huygens mission. Titan is the only body in the Solar System besides Earth that possesses a dense atmosphere composed essentially of nitrogen (˜98%) and in which the combination with methane (˜1.4%), gives rise to a host of organic compounds. Some of these species are of prebiotic importance, such as C6H6, HC3N and HCN. Due to the wealth of the Cassini-Huygens data a detailed study of the trace gases, the minor species and the isotopologues derive the isotopic ratios of C, N, H and O throughout its atmosphere and give temporal variations of temperature and composition [1, 2]. In particular, with Composite Infrared Spectrometric (CIRS) data, the presence of C6H6 and HCN is extremely interesting, as they may contribute to the synthesis of biological building blocks. The products of this complex organic chemistry observed on the atmosphere are eventually deposited on the surface. Titan's surface displays unique geomorphological features while it probably overlays an internal liquid water ocean. Atmospheric methane may be supplemented by lakes and seas of methane and ethane, centered at Titan's high latitudes, the only place other than the Earth where such exposed liquid extents are observed. It has been argued that a different form of life could exist in such environments [3]. Other surface expressions with astrobiological interest are the expansive organic dunes that produce an equatorial belt around the surface and the cryovolcanic candidates that most likely present the geodynamic potential of the satellite. According to Clark et al. [4] another possible life indicator on Titan is the lack of acetylene on the surface as expected and perhaps some form of life on the surface uses it as an energy source. Additionally, Strobel [5] suggests that the sudden disappearance of hydrogen flows on the surface resembles the oxygen consumption occurring on the Earth. All of these reasons, in addition to a number of other interesting scientific facts, render the investigation of the surface chemical composition of Titan essential. We therefore examine the surface chemical composition through the use of spectro-imaging CIRS and VIMS Cassini data. The Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) obtains spectro-imaging data from the seven narrow methane spectral ``windows'' that allow us to extract some information on the lower atmospheric context and the surface parameters. We applied a statistical method [6] and a radiative transfer method [7] focusing on three potentially ``active'' regions on Titan, i.e. regions possibly subject to change over time (in brightness and/or in color etc). This allowed us to isolate specific regions of distinct and diverse chemical composition to which we applied the radiative transfer (RT) code. By superposing these results onto the PCA maps, we can correlate composition and morphology. The surface albedo of the regions of interest should lead to the identification of Titan's surface chemical composition, on which we will report. Furthermore, such high-resolution analysis of the surface will help to define astrobiologically interesting landing sites for future space missions. For the case of Enceladus, the intriguing Cassini discovery of warm outgassing water fountains that indicate a possible subsurface large liquid deposit [8,9] possibly indicates an astrobiological correlation between the two moons, even though Enceladus significantly differs from Titan by means of size (1/10 that of Titan's size) in addition to the fact that it is five times closer to Saturn compared to Titan [10]. Future missions (e.g. TSSM [11]; TiME [12]) through the acquisition of high resolution data will focus on enhancing our understanding of Titan's and Enceladus' atmospheres, surfaces and interiors, determining the pre- and proto-biotic chemistry that may be occurring on both obj

    Coustenis, Athena; Raulin, Francois; Solomonidou, Anezina; Bampasidis, Georgios

    2012-07-01

    413

    An ultrasonic sampler and sensor platform for in situ astrobiological exploration  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The search for existing or past life in the Universe is one of the most important objectives of NASA"s mission. In support of this objective, ultrasonic based mechanisms are currently being developed at JPL to allow probing and sampling of rocks and to use the mechanisms as a sensor platform for in-situ astrobiological analysis. The technology is based on the novel Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), which requires low axial force, thereby overcoming one of the major limitations of planetary sampling using conventional drills in low gravity environments. The USDC was demonstrated to 1) drill ice and various rocks including granite, diorite, basalt and limestone, 2) not require bit sharpening, and 3) operate at high and low temperatures. The capabilities that are being investigated include probing the ground to select sampling sites, collecting various forms of samples, and hosting sensors for measuring various properties. A series of modifications of the USDC basic configuration were implemented leading to an ultrasonic abrasion tool (URAT), Ultrasonic Gopher for deep drilling, and the Lab-on-a-drill.

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart

    2003-08-01

    414

    The astrobiological mission EXPOSE-R on board of the International Space Station  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EXPOSE-R flew as the second of the European Space Agency (ESA) EXPOSE multi-user facilities on the International Space Station. During the mission on the external URM-D platform of the Zvezda service module, samples of eight international astrobiology experiments selected by ESA and one Russian guest experiment were exposed to low Earth orbit space parameters from March 10th, 2009 to January 21st, 2011. EXPOSE-R accommodated a total of 1220 samples for exposure to selected space conditions and combinations, including space vacuum, temperature cycles through 273 K, cosmic radiation, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110, >170 or >200 nm at various fluences up to GJ m-2. Samples ranged from chemical compounds via unicellular organisms and multicellular mosquito larvae and seeds to passive radiation dosimeters. Additionally, one active radiation measurement instrument was accommodated on EXPOSE-R and commanded from ground in accordance with the facility itself. Data on ultraviolet radiation, cosmic radiation and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry and data carrier every few months. The EXPOSE-R trays and samples returned to Earth on March 9th, 2011 with Shuttle flight, Space Transportation System (STS)-133/ULF 5, Discovery, after successful total mission duration of 27 months in space. The samples were analysed in the individual investigators laboratories. A parallel Mission Ground Reference experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions following to the data transmitted from the flight mission.

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Burfeindt, Jürgen; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Pereira, Carlos; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    415

    Photooxidation of nucleic acids on metal oxides: physico-chemical and astrobiological perspectives  

    PubMed Central

    Photocatalytic oxidation of nucleic acid components on aqueous metal oxides (TiO2, ?-FeOOH, and ?-Fe2O3) has been studied. The oxidation of purine nucleotides results in the formation of the purine radical cations and sugar-phosphate radicals, whereas the oxidation of pyrimidine nucleotides other than thymine results in the oxidation of only the sugar-phosphate. The oxidation of the thymine (and to a far less extent for the 5-methylcytosine) derivatives results in deprotonation from the methyl group of the base. Some single stranded (ss) oligoribonucleotides and wild-type ss RNA were oxidized at purine sites. In contrast, double stranded (ds) oligoribonucleotides and DNA were not oxidized. These results account for observations suggesting that cellular ds DNA is not damaged by exposure to photoirradiated TiO2 nanoparticles inserted into the cell, whereas ss RNA is extensively damaged. The astrobiological import of our observations is that the rapid degradation of monomer nucleotides make them poor targets as biosignatures, whereas duplex DNA is a better target as it is resilient to oxidative diagenesis. Another import of our studies is that ds DNA (as opposed to ss RNA) appears to be optimized to withstand oxidative stress both due to the advantageous polymer morphology and the subtle details of its radical chemistry. This peculiarity may account for the preference for DNA over RNA as a “molecule of life” provided that metal oxides served as the template for synthesis of polynucleotides, as suggested by Orgel and others. PMID:21399705

    Shkrob, Ilya A.; Marin, Timothy M.; Adhikary, Amitava; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    416

    CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences dedicated to the centenary of L D Landau's birth (22-23 January 2008)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences dedicated to the centenary of L D Landau's birth was held in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, on 22 and 23 January 2008. An Opening Address by A F Andreev and the following reports were presented at the session: (1) Andreev A F (Kapitza Institute of Physical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences) "Supersolidity of quantum glasses" (2) Kagan Yu M (Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Moscow) "Formation kinetics of the Bose condensate and long-range order"; (3) Pitaevskii L P (Kapitza Institute of Physical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences; Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and BDC Center, Trento, Italy) "Superfluid Fermi liquid in a unitary regime"; (4) Lebedev V V (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region) "Kolmogorov, Landau, and the modern theory of turbulence"; (5) Khalatnikov I M (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), Kamenshchik A Yu (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna, Italy) "Lev Landau and the problem of singularities in cosmology"; (6) Ioffe B L (Russian State Scientific Center Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow) "Axial anomaly in quantum electro- and chromodynamics and the structure of the vacuum in quantum chromodynamics"; (7) Okun L B (Russian State Scientific Center Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow) "The theory of relativity and the Pythagorean theorem"; (8) Lipatov L N (St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg) "Bjorken and Regge asymptotics of scattering amplitudes in QCD and in supersymmetric gauge models." A brief presentation of the Opening Address by A F Andreev and reports 2, 3, and 5 — 8 is given below. • L D Landau: 100th anniversary (Introductory talk), A F Andreev Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Pages 601-602 • Formation kinetics of the Bose condensate and long-range order, Yu M Kagan Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Page 603 • Superfluid Fermi liquid in a unitary regime, L P Pitaevskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Pages 603-608 • Lev Landau and the problem of singularities in cosmology, I M Khalatnikov and A Yu Kamenshchik Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Pages 609-616 • Axial anomaly in quantum electro- and chromodynamics and the structure of the vacuum in quantum chromodynamics, B L Ioffe Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Pages 616-622 • The theory of relativity and the Pythagorean theorem, L B Okun Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Pages 622-631 • Bjorken and Regge asymptotics of scattering amplitudes in QCD and in supersymmetric gauge models, L N Lipatov Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Pages 631-636

    Andreev, A. F.; Kagan, Yu M.; Pitaevskii, L. P.; Khalatnikov, I. M.; Kamenshchik, A. Yu; Ioffe, B. L.; Okun, L. B.; Lipatov, L. N.

    2008-06-01

    417

    Department of Computer Science, USC Viterbi School of Engineering Annual Research Review (March 23, 2010) Davidson Conference Center -AGENDA FINAL SCHEDULE  

    E-print Network

    Department of Computer Science, USC Viterbi School of Engineering ­ Annual. Mudd Professor of Engineering and Professor of Computer Science Chairman, Computer Science Computer Science Department Overview 0930 Randall W. Hill, Jr. Research

    Southern California, University of

    418

    History of NAMES Conferences  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco-Russian International Centre was demonstrated. By the high standards of the reports presented, as well as by its overall organization, the second Seminar met the standards of an international conference. Reviews of state-of-the-art developments in materials science were given by leading scientists from Moscow and from the Lorraine region. The three days of the seminar were structured into four main themes: Functional Materials Coatings, Films and Surface Engineering Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies The Environment and three Round Table discussions: Defining practical means of carrying out Franco-Russian collaborations in technology transfer and innovation Materials science ARCUS: Lorraine-Russian collaboration in materials science and the environment 32 oral and 25 poster presentations within four sections were given by a total of 110 participants. NAMES 2007, the 3rd Franco-Russian Seminar on New Achievements in Materials and Environmental Sciences, took place in Metz, France on 7-9 November 2007. The conference highlights fundamentals and development of the five main themes connected to the Lorraine-Russia ARCUS project with possible extension to other topics. The five main subjects included in the ARCUS project are: Bulk-surface-interface material sciences Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies Environment and natural resources Plasma physics—ITER project Vibrational dynamics The first, second and third NAMES conferences were financially supported by the following organizations: Ambassade de France à Moscou Communauté Urbaine du Grand Nancy Région Lorraine Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine Université de Metz Université Henry Poincaré CNRS ANVAR Federal Agency on Science and Innovations of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation Moscow Committee on Science and Technologies Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys (Technological University) The 4th conference is supported by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France and the Lorraine Region Council. The conferences have indicated directions for f

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    419

    Interdisciplinary Science & Engineering Symposium  

    E-print Network

    the ISE Excellent Good Fair Poor Project/Research Poster Presentation Oral Presentation #12;ConnorsInterdisciplinary Science & Engineering Symposium April 23, 2014 Whittemore Center Arena #12;Undergraduate Research Conference Interdisciplinary Science & Engineering Symposium (ISE) ORIENTATION AGENDA

    New Hampshire, University of

    420

    PREFACE: The Irago Conference 2012  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Irago Conference 2012 - 360 degree outlook on critical scientific and technological challenges for a sustainable society Organized by the Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS) at Toyohashi University of Technology, the Irago Conference, held recently (15-16 November) in Aichi, Japan, aimed to enhance mutual understanding between scientists, engineers and policymakers. Over 180 participants tackled topics ranging from energy and natural resources to public health and disaster prevention. The 360-degree outlook of the conference impressed speakers and guests. ''This conference has been extremely informative,'' noted Robert Gellar from the University of Tokyo. ''A unique conference with experts from a range of backgrounds,'' agreed Uracha Ruktanonchai from the National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC) in Thailand. Similarly, G P Li, professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of California Irvine commented that he had been ''able to think the unthinkable'' as a range of topics came together. The conference was streamed live on Ustream to ensure that researchers from across the world could benefit from thought-provoking presentations examining global issues such as energy, disaster mitigation and nanotechnology. ''This was wonderful,'' said Oussama Khatib from Stanford University, ''A good recipe of speakers from such a range of backgrounds.'' Manuscripts submitted to the organizers were peer-reviewed, and the papers in this proceedings were accepted for Journal of Physics: Conference Series. In addition to the formal speaker programme, graduate-student sessions provided a platform for graduate students to describe their latest findings as oral presentations. A series of excursions to relevant locations, such as the Tahara megasolar region under construction and a local car-manufacturing factory, gave participants the opportunity to further consider practical applications of their research in industry. Irago Conference 2013 is scheduled to be held in October 2013 as a platform for participants from a wide range of backgrounds and specialities to interact and discuss solutions to increasingly important environmental, social, and technological challenges people of the 21st century. Conference photograph

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    421

    Science Across Borders: 5th Annual Natural Health Product Research Conference—March 26–29, 2008, Toronto, Canada  

    PubMed Central

    Canada is experiencing a growing interest in the use of alternative therapies and products particularly natural health products (NHP). In 1997, Canadians spent around C$ 2 billion on NHP. In an attempt to catch with this popularity of NHP use, Canadian researchers and administrators from academia, industry and government jointly established the Natural Health Product Research Society of Canada (NHPRS). Since its formation, NHPRS has been organizing an annual meeting which brings together world renowned researchers and experts in the area of NHP research. For 2008, the annual NHPRS meeting took place in Toronto from the 26th to 29th of March with a focus on ‘Science Across Borders: Global Natural Health Products Research’. The scientific program was spread into three days of plenary lectures and oral presentations. The different sessions containing these talks were on: ethnobotany around the world; chemical analysis of NHP; product standards and quality control; ethnomedicine; novel analytical approaches; systemic research, nutrisciences and molecular medicine; and drug development from NHP. The meeting proved to be a great success in terms of the speakers that were invited and based on the data that was presented which highlighted recent research taking place in the field of NHP not only in Canada but from many parts of the world. PMID:18955362

    2010-01-01

    422

    Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

    1992-01-01

    423

    An Automated, Low Mass, Low Power Drill for Acquiring Subsurface Samples of Ground Ice for Astrobiology Studies on Earth and on Mars  

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    As a project that is part of NASA s Astrobiology Technology & Instrument Development Program (ASTID), we are developing a low mass (approx.20kg) drill that will be operated without drilling fluids and at very low power levels (approx.60 watts electrical) to access and retrieve samples from permafrost regions of Earth and Mars. The drill, designed and built as a joint effort by NASA JSC and Baker-Hughes International, takes the form of a down-hole unit attached to a cable so that it can, in principle, be scaled easily to reach significant depths. A parallel laboratory effort is being carried out at UC Berkeley to characterize the physics of dry drilling under martian conditions of pressure, temperature and atmospheric composition. Data from the UCB and JSC laboratory experiments are being used as input to a drill simulation program which is under development to provide autonomous control of the drill. The first Arctic field test of the unit is planned for May 2004. A field expedition to Eureka on Ellesmere Island in Spring 2003 provided an introduction for several team members to the practical aspects of drilling under Arctic conditions. The field effort was organized by Wayne Pollard of McGill University and Christopher McKay of NASA ARC. A conventional science drill provided by New Zealand colleagues was used to recover ground ice cores for analysis of their microbial content and also to develop techniques using tracers to track the depth of penetration of contamination from the core surface into the interior of the samples.

    Briggs, G. A.; McKay, C.; George, J.; Derkowski, G.; Cooper, G.; Zacny, K.; Baker, R. Fincher; Pollard, W.; Clifford, S.

    2003-01-01

    424

    Computer modeling and experimental work on the astrobiological implications of the martian subsurface ionising radiation environment  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Any microbial life extant in the top meters of the martian subsurface is likely to be held dormant for long periods of time by the current permafrost conditions. In this potential habitable zone, a major environmental hazard is the ionising radiation field generated by the flux of exogenous energetic particles: solar energetic protons and galactic cosmic rays. The research reported here constitutes the first multidisciplinary approach to assessing the astrobiological impact of this radiation on Mars. A sophisticated computer model has been constructed de novo to characterise this complex subsurface ionising radiation field and explore the influence of variation in crucial parameters such as atmospheric density, surface composition, and primary radiation spectra. Microbiological work has been conducted to isolate novel cold-tolerant bacterial strains from the Dry Valleys environment of Antarctica, an analogue site to the martian surface, and determine their phylogenetic diversity and survival under high-dose gamma-ray exposure frozen at -79 °C, a temperature characteristic of the martian mid-latitude permafrost. Original results are presented pertinent to microbial survival time, persistence of organic biomarkers, and calibration of the optically stimulated luminescence dating technique, as a function of depth. The model predicts a population of radiation resistant cells to survive in martian permafrost soil for 450,000 years at 2 m depth, the proposed drill length of the ExoMars rover. The Antarctic culturing studies identified representatives of four bacterial genera. The novel isolate Brevundimonas sp. MV.7 is found to show 99% 16S sequence similarity to cells discovered in NASA spacecraft assembly clean rooms, with the experimental irradiation determining this strain to suffer 10-6 population inactivation after a radiation dose of 7.5 kGy in martian permafrost conditions. Integrating the modelling and experimental irradiation, this research finds a contaminant population of such cells deposited just beneath the martian surface would survive the ambient cosmic radiation field for 117,000 years.

    Dartnell, Lewis R.

    425

    Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference  

    SciTech Connect

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether lands, 10 of the 28 speakers and 2 of the 9 discussion leaders were from outside the USA. The program was composed of speakers and discussion leaders (selected through open peer discussion) from a wide range of universities, institutes, government laboratories, and industries. The Conference has traditionally drawn many non-U.S. conferees. In typical Gordon Conference style, the Conference sessions were informal, off the record, and open to all participants for the expression of their views. Meetings were held in the morning and evening. Afternoons were available for participation in small, informal discussion groups. The latest and often unpublished findings were emphasized. Following each evening session, conferees were able to gather in a central location where additional discussion occurred. Poster sessions facilitated informal discussion in the afternoon and evenings. The entire atmosphere of the Conference was designed to foster informal interaction. In fact, publication of a proceedings was not permitted by the Gordon Conferences in order to promote discussion of unpublished data. This type of meeting is a valuable means of disseminating information and ideas in a way that cannot be achieved through the usual channels of publication and presentations at large scientific meetings. The primary criteria for admittance to this Conference were scientific commitment and, implicitly, an interest in active and meaningful participation in the discussions.

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    426

    An RF-powered micro-extractor (?EX) for the detection of astrobiological target molecules on Mars  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major goals of space exploration are to look for extant or extinct life (i.e. chemical biomarker molecules) and to determine the factors that make an environment habitable; an extension of this goal is to better understand prebiotic chemistry and the features that allow life to occur. In situ detection remains the most widely used method in missions that address these questions. Missions to astrobiological or geochemical planetary targets will require an efficient and non-altering extraction technique for efficient detection and characterization of biomarkers. Two new instruments are described that have been developed for use in the exploration of Mars - a target that attracts considerable attention from the astrobiology community; however it will be applicable to any mission requiring in situ analysis of planetary regolith and ice. The first of these instruments is a micro-extractor (?EXc) that exploits the unique property of water to modify its dielectric constant when affected by radio-frequency (RF) radiation; the second is a miniature version of the Sub-Critical Water Extractor (?SCWE). These instruments will be tested first on stock solutions of potential biomarkers to monitor any chemical changes and demonstrate some bond breaking capabilities, then on various planetary-analog samples for extraction. The best protocols for extraction of various bio-markers will be determined while maximizing efficiencies and minimizing the degradation of the targets and appropriate detection methods for each will be examined.

    Scott, V.; Amashukeli, X.; Siegel, P.; Lin, R.; Bae, Y.; Fisher, A.

    2011-12-01