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1

Astrobiology: A pathway to adult science literacy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adult science illiteracy is widespread. This is concerning for astrobiology, or indeed any other area of science in the communication of science to public audiences. Where and how does this scientific illiteracy arise in the journey to adulthood? Two astrobiology education projects have hinted that science illiteracy may begin in high school. This relationship between high school science education and the public understanding of science is poorly understood. Do adults forget their science education, or did they never grasp it in the first place? A 2003 science education project raised these questions when 24 16-year-olds from 10 Sydney high schools were brought into contact with real science. The unexpected results suggested that even good high school science students have a poor understanding of how science is really undertaken in the field and in the laboratory. This concept is being further tested in a new high school science education project, aimed at the same age group, using authentic astrobiology cutting-edge data, NASA Learning Technologies tools, a purpose-built research Information and Communication Technology-aided learning facility and a collaboration that spans three continents. In addition, a first year university class will be tested for evidence of science illiteracy immediately after high school among non-science oriented but well-educated students.

Oliver, C. A.; Fergusson, J.

2007-10-01

2

Methodological Aspects of Astrobiology as a Multidisciplinary Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents wide range of diversity in astrobiology research including methodology, philosophy of science and linguistics. The main purpose of my article is to analyze and confront relationships of interchangeably used notations related to astrobiology.

Czyzewska, U. K.

2010-04-01

3

Astrobiology Student Science Fair Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extrasolar Planet Transit and The Light Curve of a Variable Star are some titles of high school student projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. These students were mentored by teachers who participated in the UH Institute for Astronomy Toward Other Planetary Systems summer program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech. After attending several 3-week TOPS NSF

M. Kadooka; K. J. Meech

2004-01-01

4

Engaging in Science through Astrobiology Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a steady decline in the number of Australian students studying science at the senior high school level. By the time students reach this point in their education, when they can choose whether or not to continue to study science, many have already decided that science is not for them. It is possible that students in the junior high school years may be gaining a false view of the world of science due to the disparity between the way that science is portrayed in schools and "real" science. A study is being undertaken to explore whether engaging in real science through outreach activities may increase students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and whether such activities may heighten students' interest in science and potentially lead to an increase in the number of students studying science at the tertiary level. The study examines three astrobiology-related outreach programs, two in Australia and one in the US. The features of the programs are described and results from the Australian research carried out to date are presented.

Fergusson, J.; Oliver, C.; Walter, M.

2011-12-01

5

Astrobiology: Science Learning Activities for Afterschool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The science of astrobiology is concerned with the question of whether or not life exists on other planets. This educator's guide presents eight activities in which younger students investigate this question and explore topics related to the search for life beyond their own planet by using some of the same strategies that astrobiologists use. They will express their opinions on the existence of alien life in a survey, compare living to non-living objects, investigate the observable characteristics of living things, and learn about the conditions necessary for living things to survive. They will expand their thinking to consider microbes as living things, and match recently discovered life forms with the extreme environments in which they live. Then the students will examine images of planets, moons, and the sun, read about the environmental conditions on each, and try to decide if any of these bodies might support life. In a final activity, they will revisit their ideas, repeat the survey of the opening activity, and look for information and evidence that influenced their current opinions.

6

Bringing Astrobiology to Middle School Students: ExxonMobil Bernard Harris Summer Science Camp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology is a great method of teaching, because of its use of multiple fields of science. The Bernard Harris Summer Science Camp is an opportunity for middle school students to begin learning about Astrobiology.

Mayeur, P. A.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Delano, J.; Smith, C.

2010-04-01

7

Science Conferences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Would you like to know what professional conferences are being held around the world at any specific time? AllConferences.net provides this free service. Over thirty science categories are represented and include everything from the 2002 Geological Society of America Annual meeting in Denver to the upcoming Environmental Flows for River Systems Conference & Fourth Ecohydraulics Symposium in Cape Town, South Africa. Each entry includes a description of the event, times, locations, contact information, and relevant links. Users can search or browse the events by category and even submit a conference of their own. Now all you need is funding for the trip.

2000-01-01

8

Life Elsewhere? Astrobiology, Science, and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The search for extraterrestrial life is quixotic--or at least less immediately purposeful than the quest for a cure for cancer. Nonetheless, it falls squarely within the human purpose for science: to explore nature so that we can understand ourselves better.The means by which scientists search for life elsewhere, and the meaning of this enterprise, was the theme of a March 27 lecture sponsored by the Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER), a program of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The featured speaker was Dr. Bruce Jakosky, an astrobiologist involved in the Mars Global Surveyor mission as an Interdisciplinary Scientist for Surface-Atmosphere Interactions.

Catherine Baker (;)

2007-06-28

9

Emphasizing Astrobiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The project described here involved the design, implementation, and evaluation of an upper-level, undergraduate elective course for science majors. Specific course goals were to help students gain an appreciation of the interdisciplinary nature of astrobiology, understand key ideas in astrobiology, and develop the skills necessary to communicate successfully with scientists across disciplines.

Prather, Edward E.; Offerdahl, Erika G.; Slater, Timothy F.

2004-11-01

10

Astrobiology Roadmap  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides some goals for research and technology development in the field of astrobiology. It is divided up into seven Science Goals that outline the domains of the investigations such as; habitable planets, life in our Solar System, origins of life, the limits of life and more.

2005-04-25

11

Thinking strategically about communications for the space sciences: the case of astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing concerns about public understanding of science and scientific literacy, coupled with the growing prominence of science in everyday life, demand that science experts know how to explain the work they do and the value it offers. Public funding of scientific research also argues for communications with the public about it. For research funded by NASA, a statutory requirement is in place to "provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the results thereof." (1958 National Aeronautics and Space Act.) Public interest in space science is substantial, and advances in the field are rapid. Communicating about science is thus an especially important task for researchers working in the space sciences, as well as an obligation for those receiving public funding. This presentation will describe a communication strategy developed for NASA's Astrobiology Program, intended to aid communication among scientists within an expanding and broadly multidisciplinary field as well as communication about science with a range of external audiences. Conceived strategically, communication is an integral element of the overall work of a program or organization. Communication is conceived strategically in the Astrobiology Program. Astrobiology communication strategy offers a way of thinking about communication - an approach to communication, as it were - and provides guidance on methods, messages, tools, and audiences to be considered in implementation. It can help members of the astrobiology community to communicate about their work with experts - in their own fields and in others - and non-experts - employers, funders, policy makers, teachers, students, parents, citizens. It is designed to promote quality, consistency, and continuity in communication endeavors across the astrobiology program and to integrate these endeavors in program planning and activities. Implementation of a communication strategy for the Astrobiology Program is expected to advance NASA's mission to explore the universe and search for life and inspire the next generation of explorers by strengthening efforts to inform the public about astrobiology and its role in space exploration. Implementation can also help to build community in the field of astrobiology. It is not possible to predict the outcomes of research sponsored by the Astrobiology Program or the evolution of the cultural environment in which it is taking place. The Program thus can benefit from the flexibility inherent in this approach to communication. This presentation will address concepts and models of communication, relevant findings in research on communication, and rhetorical strategies for communicating about science.

Billings, L.

2007-12-01

12

Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)|

Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

1982-01-01

13

Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. The Astrobiology Program in the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Public interest in astrobiology is great, and advances in the field are rapid. Hence, the Astrobiology Program supports the widest possible dissemination of timely and useful information about scientific discoveries, technology development, new knowledge, and greater understanding produced by its investigators, employing an approach described as strategic communication planning. That is, the Astrobiology Program aims to integrate communication, education, and outreach into all aspects of program planning and execution. The Program encourages all of its investigators to contribute to the ongoing endeavor of informing public audiences about Astrobiology. The ASTEP element of the Astrobiology Program sponsors terrestrial field campaigns to further scientific research and technology development relevant to future solar system exploration missions. ASTEP science investigations are designed to further biological research in terrestrial environments analogous to those found on other planets, past or present. ASTEP sponsors the development of technologies to enable remote searches for, and identification of, life in extreme environments. ASTEP supports systems-level field campaigns designed to demonstrate and validate the science and technology in extreme environments on Earth. This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with ASTEP field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. SUMMARY The Astrobiology Program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Astrobiology research addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and evolve? Is there life beyond Earth and how can we detect it? What is the future of life on Earth and in the universe? Goals of the Astrobiology Program range from determining the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond to understanding the emergence of life from cosmic and planetary precursors, the interaction of past life on Earth with its changing environment, the formation and evolution of planets, links between planetary and biological evolution, the effects of climate and geology on habitability, and life's precursors and habitats in the outer solar system. Research dedicated to fulfilling these goals is conducted on Earth and in space, with a growing number of astrobiology investigations flying on planetary exploration missions. The field of astrobiology is an endeavor that brings together researchers in a broad range of disciplines including Earth and planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, microbiology and evolutionary biology, and cosmochemistry. Since 1995, the field of astrobiology has grown rapidly, and the pace of discovery has been brisk. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is now a serious scientific question. Research findings over the past decade that are relevant to this question include the controversial 1996 claim of fossil evidence for microbial life in a martian meteorite, evidence of past and perhaps even present liquid water on Mars, the likeliho

Billings, Linda

14

Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs

Linda Billings

2008-01-01

15

Bringing Astrobiology to Middle School Students: ExxonMobil Bernard Harris Summer Science Camp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ExxonMobil Bernard Harris Summer Science Camp (BHSSC) is a free, academic program of The Harris Foundation, which takes an active role in shaping education in students entering grade 6,7, or 8 in the fall. Science, technology, engineering and mathematics are critical to society’s infrastructure for the 21st century and preserving that future requires an investment, such as the BHSSC, in our youth today. At Rensselaer Polytechnic the topic of study in Summer 2009 was "The Search for Life" and 50 stu-dents learned about Astrobiology and also what was necessary for life outside of Earth. The object was to teach New York state education standards while using Astrobiology. Further, we wanted to show the students how the fields of science are connected. This is a great opportunity for Astrobiologist to teach the future gen-erations about their field while at the same time peak their interest in the subject.

Mayeur, Paul A.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Delano, J.

2010-01-01

16

Astrobiology outreach and the nature of science: the role of creativity.  

PubMed

There is concern in many developed countries that school students are turning away from science. However, students may be choosing not to study science and dismissing the possibility of a scientific career because, in the junior secondary years, they gain a false view of science and the work of scientists. There is a disparity between science as it is portrayed at school and science as it is practiced. This paper describes a study to explore whether engaging in science through astrobiology outreach activities may improve students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and how this may influence their interest in a career in science. The results suggest that the students attending these Mars research-related outreach activities are more interested in science than the average student but are lacking in understanding of aspects of the nature of science. A significant difference was detected between pre- and posttest understandings of some concepts of the nature of science. PMID:23134090

Fergusson, Jennifer; Oliver, Carol; Walter, Malcolm R

2012-11-07

17

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in

David J. Des Marais; Louis J. Allamandola; Steven A. Benner; Alan P. Boss; David Deamer; Paul G. Falkowski; Jack D. Farmer; S. Blair Hedges; Bruce M. Jakosky; Andrew H. Knoll; David R. Liskowsky; Victoria S. Meadows; Michael A. Meyer; Carl B. Pilcher; Kenneth H. Nealson; Alfred M. Spormann; Jonathan D. Trent; William W. Turner; Neville J. Woolf; Harold W. Yorke

2003-01-01

18

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: how does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in

David J. Des Marais; Joseph A. Nuth III; Louis J. Allamandola; Alan P. Boss; Jack D. Farmer; Tori M. Hoehler; Bruce M. Jakosky; Victoria S. Meadows; Andrew Pohorille; Bruce Runnegar; Alfred M. Spormann

2008-01-01

19

What Is Astrobiology?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from the Science and Technology Chat series, learn about astrobiology, an interdisciplinary field that uses biology, astronomy, and geology to study the origins of life on Earth and to search for possible life on other planets.

Vegaspbs

2008-10-31

20

Inaugural AGU Science Policy Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU will present its inaugural Science Policy Conference, 30 April to 3 May 2012, at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, located in downtown Washington, D. C. This conference will bring together leading scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, press, and other stakeholders to discuss natural hazards, natural resources, oceans, and Arctic science and the role these sciences play in serving communities. To bridge the science and policy fields, AGU plans to host this conference every 2 years and focus on the applications of Earth and space sciences to serve local and national communities. “Our nation faces a myriad of challenges such as the sustainability of our natural resources, current and future energy needs, and the ability to mitigate and adapt to natural and manmade hazards,” said Michael McPhaden, president of AGU. “It is essential that policies to address these challenges be built on a solid foundation of credible scientific knowledge.”

Uhlenbrock, Kristan

2012-01-01

21

Research Into Students' Pre-Instructional Beliefs of Astrobiology Related Science Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to identify and document student beliefs and reasoning difficulties concerning astrobiology related topics. This was accomplished by surveying over two thousand middle school, high school, and college (science and non-science majors) students. Students were surveyed utilizing student-supplied response questions focused on the definition of life and its limitations, evolution of Earth (biologically and geologically), and the role of water for life as we know it. Careful, inductive analysis of student responses revealed that the majority of students correctly identify that liquid water is necessary for life and that life forms can exist without sunlight. However, many students incorrectly state that life cannot survive without oxygen. Furthermore, when students are asked to reason about life in extreme environments, they most often cite complex organisms (such as plants, animals and humans) rather than the more ubiquitous microorganisms. Students also have well-established models of the relationship between the geologic and biologic evolution of Earth. Results of this study were used to guide the development of a set of inquiry-based activities, which will be highlighted.

Offerdahl, E.

2002-12-01

22

Astrobiology: The Case for Venus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scientific discipline of astrobiology addresses one of the most fundamental unanswered questions of science: are we alone. Is there life elsewhere in the universe, or is life unique to Earth. The field of astrobiology includes the study of the chemica...

G. A. Landis

2003-01-01

23

Astrobiology as a tool for getting high school students interested in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

A workshop was held (10\\/99) for high school students and teachers on astrobiology. NASA provided support through an IDEAS grant. Out of 63 qualified applicants, 29 were accepted: 22 students (11 minorities) and 7 teachers. The worship was held on 2 successive weekends. Activities included: culturing microbes from human skin, discussing 'what is life?', building and using a 2-inch refractive

B. W. Van der Meer; James J. Alletto; Dudley Bryant; Mike Carini; Larry Elliott; Richard Gelderman; Wayne Mason; Kerrie McDaniel; Charles H. McGruder; Claire Rinehart; Rico Tyler; Linda Walker

2000-01-01

24

Seventh international conference on coal science: Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains camera-ready papers based on poster presentations made at the Seventh International Conference on Coal Science, held in Banff, Alberta, September 12--17, 1993. The theme of the conference was ``Coal Science -- A Bridge to a Clean Future.`` The subject areas of the poster sessions span a wide range of topics in coal science. Papers were presented in

Michaelian

1993-01-01

25

Astrobiology Education and Outreach: A ``Life In the Cosmos" Seminar Course and an Astrobiology Society at UCLA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will outline two unique, related activities in astrobiology education and outreach: a seminar course on "Life In the Cosmos" and an Astrobiology Society, each of which sprung up at UCLA in 1999. The "Life In the Cosmos" seminar, for first-year general education students, looked at a variety of issues surrounding the questions of "what are the prospects for life elsewhere in the universe?" and "how do we search for evidence of such life?" The extraterrestrial life debate was studied from different angles, including historical and cultural perspectives as well as the current scientific approaches within the emerging interdisciplinary field of astrobiology. The seminar course was very student-centered, with lecturing minimized and active learning a key objective. The conference poster will include detailed course materials/resources developed for the seminar (and sharable with interested individuals), including (a) the two-page syllabus outlining major subjects, course objectives, grading, books, etc., (b) two lists of available materials for student research, including 45 books put on library reserve (many after getting them added to the UCLA collection) and 74 articles from periodicals or conference proceedings, (c) a survey/assignment given the first week, to assess student backgrounds, interests, etc., (d) a table of course activities and assignments, and (e) two detailed sets of guidelines, for group presentations on major subjects, and for (individual) papers and presentations on special topics. Largely inspired by the above seminar course and UCLA's role in the NASA Astrobiology Institute, a student-oriented Astrobiology Society has been founded and continued to be led at UCLA by two "Life in the Cosmos" students, Laurel Methot and Jason Finley, with ongoing mentorship from the present author. The UCLA Astrobiology Society website (URL below) has additional, up-to-date information. Encouraging and developing similar efforts elsewhere provides a rich opportunity for further science education and outreach.

Schultz, G.

2000-12-01

26

Euro3D Science Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly completed 3D instruments - CIRPASS, GMOS, PMAS and SPIFFI. Work on 3D software, being developed as part of the Euro3D RTN, was also described and demonstrated. This proceedings volume, consisting of carefully refereed and edited manuscripts, represents the bulk of the talks at the conference and amply demonstrates that 3D spectroscopy is a lively and burgeoning field of optical observation.

Walsh, J. R.

2004-02-01

27

The astrobiology of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The known organic environments in the solar system other than the Earth and certain meteorites are in the outer solar system. Those of astrobiological potential are Europa, Titan, and comets. Titan is of interest because its nitrogen-methane atmosphere generates hydrocarbons and nitriles which fall to the surface and are protected from damaging particle and UV radiation by a thick atmosphere. Further chemistry, including in the presence of transient and localized areas of cryovolcanic- or impact-generated liquid water, may proceed on the surface in staccato fashion over geologic time. The Cassini-Huygens mission will initiate the detailed exploration of Titan in 2004, and this fall NASA solicited mission concepts for post Cassini-Huygens missions to Titan. A focus group on the astrobiological exploration of Titan has been founded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute under the leadership of the author. It will provide science rationales from an astrobiological perspective on the future exploration of Titan, i.e. beyond Cassini-Huygens, through electronic discussions and workshops. Early results of the Focus Group will be described in this talk.

Lunine, J. I.

2003-12-01

28

Conferences and Sessions: NSTA Area Conference on Science Education: Sound Science: Southern Style, Nashville, 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Join us in Music City for NSTA's December conference on science education. Conference strands include: Building Capacity to Lead Professional Learning The Brain-considerate Classroom Understanding a Designed World

1900-01-01

29

Astrobiological polarimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chirality is an excellent indicator of life, but naturally occurring terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples nearly always exhibit massive depolarizing light scattering (DLS). This problem bears a striking resemblance to that of developing a chirality-based non-invasive glucose monitor for diabetics. Both applications require a lightweight, compact, efficient, and robust polarimeter that can operate despite significant DLS. So for astrobiological applications, we

Neeraj Kothari; Aliakbar Jafarpour; Tracey L. Thaler; Rick Trebino; Andreas S. Bommarius

2007-01-01

30

Astrobiology, Evolution, and Society: Public Engagement Insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unavoidable that the science of astrobiology will intersect with, and inevitably challenge, many deeply held beliefs. Exploration possibilities, particularly those that may include the discovery of extraterrestrial life, will continue to challenge us to reconsider our views of nature and our connection to the rest of the universe. As a scientific discipline, astrobiology works from the assumption that

C. M. Bertka

2009-01-01

31

Astrosociological Implications of Astrobiology (Revisited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supporters of astrobiology continue to organize the field around formalized associations and organizations under the guise of the so-called ``hard'' sciences (e.g., biology and the related physical\\/natural sciences). The so-called ``soft'' sciences-including sociology and the other social sciences, the behavioral sciences, and the humanities-remain largely separated from this dynamically growing field. However, as argued in this paper, space exploration involving

Jim Pass

2010-01-01

32

Astrobiology: Future Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology, a new exciting interdisciplinary research field, seeks to unravel the origin and evolution of life wherever it might exist in the Universe. The current view of the origin of life on Earth is that it is strongly connected to the origin and evolution of our planet and, indeed, of the Universe as a whole. We are fortunate to be living in an era where centuries of speculation about the two ancient and fundamental problems: the origin of life and its prevalence in the Universe are being replaced by experimental science. The subject of Astrobiology can be approached from many different perspectives. This book is focused on abiogenic organic matter from the viewpoint of astronomy and planetary science and considers its potential relevance to the origins of life on Earth and elsewhere. Guided by the review papers in this book, the concluding chapter aims to identify key questions to motivate future research and stimulate astrobiological applications of current and future research facilities and space missions. Today’s rich array of new spacecraft, telescopes and dedicated scientists promises a steady flow of discoveries and insights that will ultimately lead us to the answers we seek.

Ehrenfreund, P.; Irvine, W. M.; Owen, T.; Becker, L.; Blank, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Colangeli, L.; Derenne, S.; Dutrey, A.; Despois, D.; Lazcano, A.; Robert, F.

2004-07-01

33

Seventh international conference on coal science: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains camera-ready papers based on poster presentations made at the Seventh International Conference on Coal Science, held in Banff, Alberta, September 12--17, 1993. The theme of the conference was ``Coal Science -- A Bridge to a Clean Future.`` The subject areas of the poster sessions span a wide range of topics in coal science. Papers were presented in the following sessions: (1) combustion and gasification; pyrolysis and low temperatures carbonization; environmental science; (2) petrology and chemical characterization; combustion and gasification; (3) petrology and chemical characterization; liquefaction and hydropyrolysis; (4) structure and properties; environmental science; (5) chemical reactions; pyrolysis and low temperature carbonization; liquefaction and hydropyrolysis and (6) petrology and chemical characterization; and chemical reactions; environmental science. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Michaelian, K.H. [ed.

1993-12-31

34

Math/science education action conference report  

SciTech Connect

On October 8--10, 1989, the US Department of Energy, the Lawrence Hall of Science, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory sponsored a Math/Science Education Action Conference in Berkeley, California. The conference was co-chaired by Admiral James D. Watkins, Secretary of Energy, and Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg Chairman of the Lawrence Hall of Science. Nearly 250 scientists, educators, business executives, and government leaders came together to develop a concrete plan of action for restructuring and revitalizing mathematics and science education. Their target was to improve education for an entire cohort of children--the Class of 2007, the children born this school year--and their governing principle was one of collaboration, both between Federal agencies, and between public and private sectors. The report of the conference co-chairmen and participants is provided in this document. 41 figs.

Not Available

1990-05-01

35

Mars Science Laboratory: An Opportunity for Public Engagement in the First Astrobiology Mission Since Viking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After two years of the thrills brought to us by MESENGER, Dawn, EPOXI, Stardust NExT, GRAIL, and Juno, MSL takes the stage to round out the Year of the Solar System. The possibility of life on Mars has become a scientific issue of profound importance and of public interest. Since 1976, with the Viking landings on Mars, our concepts of the limits to life have continued to shrink and our expectation of the habitability of Mars has continued to expand. Mars has been discovered to have had standing bodies of water, transforming our imagined lifeless desert planet to one that has the potential for life in the past, or even the present. Our exploration endeavors will culminate in November/December 2011 with the launch of MSL, landing on Mars in August of 2012. The first roving analytical laboratory and first astrobiology mission to Mars since Viking will begin exploring Mars carrying ten instruments including environmental sensors and a laboratory capable of determining elemental composition, mineralogy, and able to discover and characterize organic compounds. This mission sets the stage for the coming decade, as Mars exploration moves from the theme “follow the water” to “seek the signs of life”. Even if investigations do not find evidence of life, nevertheless they would provide snapshots of the environmental conditions back through time to the earliest periods of the solar system, when life arose on Earth. This mission is an important component of a series of planetary missions in the Year of the Solar System. MSL project will engage the public and bring them along in the excitement of exploring our neighboring planet.

Meyer, M. A.

2010-12-01

36

IEEE International conference on plasma science: Conference record--Abstracts  

SciTech Connect

The conference covered the following topics: basic plasma physics; vacuum electronics; gaseous and electrical gas discharges; laser-produced plasma; space plasmas; computational plasma science; plasma diagnostics; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave-plasma interactions; magnetic fusion; MHD; plasma focus; ultrafast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; plasma processing; fast-opening switches; EM and ETH launchers; solid-state plasmas and switches; plasmas for lighting; ball lightning and spherical plasma configurations; and environmental/energy issues. Separate abstracts were prepared for 379 items in this conference.

Not Available

1993-01-01

37

Thinking strategically about communications for the space sciences: the case of astrobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing concerns about public understanding of science and scientific literacy, coupled with the growing prominence of science in everyday life, demand that science experts know how to explain the work they do and the value it offers. Public funding of scientific research also argues for communications with the public about it. For research funded by NASA, a statutory requirement is

L. Billings

2007-01-01

38

Does astrobiology inclu de human space flight?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Katinka Apagyi and Mark J Burchell argue that aspects of astronautics overlap with astrobiology, in the same way that aspects of geophysics and planetary science do. The gap between these disciplines is an artificial separation that should be overcome.

Apagyi, Katinka; Burchell, Mark J.

2011-02-01

39

Science and technology alliance -- Materials conference `93  

SciTech Connect

The Science and Technology Alliance-Materials Conference `93 was held on October 27--29, 1993 at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for the exchange of information on recent developments in various advanced materials systems including composite, and electronic materials and materials technology. The conference reflected theories as well as experimental techniques and practices, development and applications of advanced materials and structures. Sections covered such topics as ceramic materials, ceramic composites, processing of materials, characterization of materials, and geological and highway materials. Fifty two papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1995-06-01

40

Astrobiology and Society: Building an Interdisciplinary Research Community  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper reports recent efforts to gather experts from the humanities and social sciences along with astrobiologists to consider the cultural, societal, and psychological implications of astrobiology research and exploration. We began by convening a workshop to draft a research roadmap on astrobiology's societal implications and later formed a Focus Group on Astrobiology and Society under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI). Just as the Astrobiology Science Roadmap and various astrobiology science focus groups have helped researchers orient and understand their work across disciplinary contexts, our intent was to apply the same approach to examine areas beyond the physical and life sciences and expand interdisciplinary interaction and scholarly understanding. These efforts continue as an experiment in progress, with an open invitation to interested researchers—astrobiologists as well as scholars in the humanities and social sciences—to become involved in research, analysis, and proactive discussions concerning the potential impacts of astrobiology on society as well as the possible impacts of society on progress in astrobiology. Key Words: Astrobiology—Extraterrestrial life—Life detection. Astrobiology 12, 958–965.

Denning, Kathryn; Bertka, Constance M.; Dick, Steven J.; Harrison, Albert A.; Impey, Christopher; Mancinelli, Rocco

2012-01-01

41

Australian Centre for Astrobiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Centre for Astrobiology performs research in physics, astronomy, and cosmology, as well as investigates the possibility of life beyond Earth. After learning about the Centre's latest news and events, users can find summaries of the many current research projects including studies of ancient hydrothermal systems, remote sensing of the atmosphere of Venus, and varying constants. The website features the research, papers, and achievements of Professor Paul Davies and the Centre's other members. Students and educators can discover research and scholarship opportunities. This site is also reviewed in the June 25, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

42

Conference report: the conference on small molecule science.  

PubMed

The Conference on Small Molecule Science (CoSMoS), organized by the Society for Small Molecule Science (a 501(c)(3) nonprofit chartered organization), was held in Portland, Oregon, USA, on the 27-29 September 2010. The meeting is focused on analytical scientists, from varied scientific and industrial backgrounds, to foster practical 'how to' discussions. CoSMoS organizes highly interactive workshop environments, where in addition to presentations of a unique topical value, a discussion of what has been tried and didn't work, including reasons why, is an instructive part of the proceedings. The conference included six plenary sessions and five workshop sessions. This year CoSMoS was jointly hosted with the 'small molecule' NMR spectroscopy meeting, SMASH, and the program for the final day represented a combination of topics spanning the two interdisciplinary groups. PMID:21320045

Bowers, Gary

2011-02-01

43

Capturing Student Interest in Astrobiology through Dilemmas and Paradoxes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Astrobiology is an interdisciplinary science course that combines essential questions from life, physical, and Earth sciences. An effective astrobiology course also capitalizes on students' natural curiosity about social science implications of studying the origin of life and the impact of finding life elsewhere in the universe. (Contains 2…

Slater, Timothy F.

2006-01-01

44

Science Conference Presenters' Images of Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inquiry-focused professional development and conceptions of inquiry held by eight professional development leaders were investigated within the context of a state science teacher conference. The prominent session format involved session leaders modeling classroom experiences. In all sessions, classroom inquiry was portrayed as a teacher-guided…

Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.; Dias, Michael J.; Atkinson, Jennifer Lance

2009-01-01

45

Origin and Evolution of the UCLA AstroBiology Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co-sponsored by the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) at UCLA, and the Center for the Study of Evolution and the Origin of Life (CSEOL), the UCLA AstroBiology Society (ABS) was founded in 1999 to become the first student-run organization devoted to astrobiology. An interdisciplinary group, ABS unifies undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty of all fields through events and discussions centered around the diversity of themes that compose astrobiology science. ABS provides particular benefit to NAI's Education and Public Outreach efforts as a means of increasing awareness of and appreciation for astrobiology, particularly in the college community. A greater goal of the organization involves networking to seed AstroBiology Societies on other college campuses nation-wide. Additionally, ABS is currently doing research for NAI's Astrobiology Pathfinder program, which will help students at all stages to become Astrobiologists.

Methot, Laurel; Finley, Jason

2004-06-01

46

Astrobiology in an Urban New York City High School: John Dewey High School's Space Science Academy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John Dewey High School's participation in NASA's MESDT and DLN projects and other partnerships provide opportunities for our diverse population, focusing particular attention to under-represented and under-served groups in the field of Space Science.

Fried, B.; Dash, H. B.

2010-04-01

47

Bringing Astrobiology to Middle School Students: ExxonMobil Bernard Harris Summer Science Camp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ExxonMobil Bernard Harris Summer Science Camp (BHSSC) is a free, academic program of The Harris Foundation, which takes an active role in shaping education in students entering grade 6,7, or 8 in the fall. Science, technology, engineering and mathematics are critical to society's infrastructure for the 21st century and preserving that future requires an investment, such as the BHSSC,

Paul A. Mayeur; D. C. B. Whittet; J. Delano

2010-01-01

48

Systems Theory and Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The breadth and topics of astrobiology provide a testing ground for exploring systems concepts. Currently astrobiology to deal with the question "What is life?" Systems thinking offers a way of breaking out of our mental box.

Woolf, N., J.

2010-04-01

49

Astro-Venture: An Integrated Earth and Space Science Curriculum Supplement Focused on Astrobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astro-Venture is an example of a NASA educational product that successfully integrates Earth and space science by engaging students in grades 5-8 in the search for and design of a planet with the necessary characteristics for human habitation. Students study the Earth to understand how it meets human needs for survival in the areas of astronomy, geology, biology and atmospheric

C. M. O'Guinn; K. L. Wilmoth; L. K. Coe

2005-01-01

50

Astrobiological polarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chirality is an excellent indicator of life, but naturally occurring terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples nearly always exhibit massive depolarizing light scattering (DLS). This problem bears a striking resemblance to that of developing a chirality-based non-invasive glucose monitor for diabetics. Both applications require a lightweight, compact, efficient, and robust polarimeter that can operate despite significant DLS. So for astrobiological applications, we developed a polarimeter that was inspired from a polarimetry technique previously investigated for non-invasive in-vivo glucose-sensing. Our polarimeter involves continuously rotating the plane of linear polarization of a laser beam to probe a sample with DLS, and analyzing its transmission with a fixed analyzer to obtain a sinusoidal voltage signal. We lock-in detect this signal using a reference signal from an analogous set up without any sample. With milk as a scatterer, we find that this polarimeter detects chirality in the presence of three orders of magnitude more DLS than conventional polarimeters. It can accurately measure 0.1° of polarization rotation in the presence of 15% milk.

Kothari, Neeraj; Jafarpour, Aliakbar; Thaler, Tracey L.; Trebino, Rick; Bommarius, Andreas S.

2007-10-01

51

Astrosociological Implications of Astrobiology (Revisited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supporters of astrobiology continue to organize the field around formalized associations and organizations under the guise of the so-called ``hard'' sciences (e.g., biology and the related physical/natural sciences). The so-called ``soft'' sciences-including sociology and the other social sciences, the behavioral sciences, and the humanities-remain largely separated from this dynamically growing field. However, as argued in this paper, space exploration involving the search for extraterrestrial life should be viewed as consisting of two interrelated parts (i.e., two sides of the same coin): astrobiology and astrosociology. Together, these two fields broadly combine the two major branches of science as they relate to the relationship between human life and alien life, as appropriate. Moreover, with a formalized system of collaboration, these two complimentary fields would also focus on the implications of their research to human beings as well as their cultures and social structures. By placing the astrosociological implications of astrobiology at a high enough priority, scientists interested in the search for alien life can augment their focus to include the social, cultural, and behavioral implications that were always associated with their work (yet previously overlooked or understated, and too often misunderstood). Recognition of the astrosociological implications expands our perception about alien life by creating a new emphasis on their ramifications to human life on Earth.

Pass, Jim

2010-01-01

52

National Workshop on Astrobiology: the life science involvement of AAS-I Laben.  

PubMed

The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or for automated biosensor based on cell culture Experiment Container for organic systems Experiment Container for small animals Instrumentation based on fluorescent Biosensors Sensors for Life science experiments for Biopan capsule and Space Vehicle Ray Shielding Materials Random Positioning Machine specialisation (Support ground equipment) The biological features of this heritage is at disposal for the exobiology multi science. The involvement of industries, from the beginning of the exobiology projects, allows a cost effective technologies closed loop development between Research Centres, Principal Investigators and industry. PMID:17171428

Adami, Giorgio

2006-12-01

53

Astro-Venture: An Integrated Earth and Space Science Curriculum Supplement Focused on Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astro-Venture is an example of a NASA educational product that successfully integrates Earth and space science by engaging students in grades 5-8 in the search for and design of a planet with the necessary characteristics for human habitation. Students study the Earth to understand how it meets human needs for survival in the areas of astronomy, geology, biology and atmospheric sciences. They then extend these ideas in simulated searches and analyses of stellar and planetary data sets to determine whether other planets or moons might be habitable. Astro-Venture uses online multimedia activities and off-line inquiry explorations to engage students in guided inquiry aligned with the 5 E inquiry model. For each core science area, students engage in an online training module in which they isolate variables and observe the affects on Earth. They then draw conclusions about which characteristics allow Earth to remain habitable. Following this experience, students engage in classroom, hands-on activities that teach them core standards-based concepts and focus on why the identified characteristics are vital to human habitability. These concepts include: states of matter, flow of energy, chemical properties, planetary geology, plate tectonics, human health and systems theory. With an understanding of the "whats" and the "whys" students then engage in a mission module in which they simulate the methods scientists would use to go about finding a planet with these characteristics. This helps them to understand the "hows". By meeting education standards, teachers can easily integrate this product into their classroom curriculum. Students apply all that they've learned to design a planet that meets the requirements for human habitability in all areas. Through this process, they learn about the Earth within the context of the solar system and how all parts work as a system in meeting our needs.

O'Guinn, C. M.; Wilmoth, K. L.; Coe, L. K.

2005-05-01

54

National Workshop on Astrobiology: The Life Science Involvement of AAS I Laben  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or for automated biosensor based on cell culture Experiment Container for organic systems Experiment Container for small animals Instrumentation based on fluorescent Biosensors Sensors for Life science experiments for Biopan capsule and Space Vehicle Ray Shielding Materials Random Positioning Machine specialisation (Support ground equipment) The biological features of this heritage is at disposal for the exobiology multi science. The involvement of industries, from the beginning of the exobiology projects, allows a cost effective technologies closed loop development between Research Centres, Principal Investigators and industry.

Adami, Giorgio

2006-12-01

55

Spring Meeting Preview: Sessions Focus on Astrobiology, Geoneutrinos, and International Science Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New technologies, such as the emerging field of geoneutrino research, and new data sets from the Cassini and Voyager spacecrafts have captured the attention of scientists, prompting them to freshly explore the furthest reaches of their fields, from the Earth's deep interior to the outer solar system and beyond. Several sessions at the 23-26 May 2006 AGU Joint Assembly in Baltimore, Md., will offer a glimpse into these new investigations, while others are devoted to discussing plans for coordinated research efforts during upcoming international science years. One session on ``Geoneutrinos: A New Tool for the Study of the Solid Earth'' (U41F) will take place on Wednesday, 25 May at 8:30 A.M. Geoneutrinos, which are anti-neutrinos produced by the radioactive decay of uranium, thorium, and potassium housed within the Earth, have been detected by Japan's Kamioka Liquid-Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) apparatus. With such information, scientists for the first time can directly estimate the amount of radioactive elements present in different regions of the Earth.

Kumar, Mohi

2006-05-01

56

Astrobiology Undergraduate Education: Students' Knowledge and Perceptions of the Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the field of astrobiology continually evolving, it has become increasingly important to develop and maintain an educational infrastructure for the next generation of astrobiologists. In addition to developing more courses and programs for students, it is essential to monitor the learning experiences and progress of students taking these astrobiology courses. At the University of Florida, a new pilot course in astrobiology was developed that targeted undergraduate students with a wide range of scientific backgrounds. Pre- and post-course surveys along with knowledge assessments were used to evaluate the students' perceived and actual learning experiences. The class incorporated a hybrid teaching platform that included traditional in-person and distance learning technologies. Results indicate that undergraduate students have little prior knowledge of key astrobiology concepts; however, post-course testing demonstrated significant improvements in the students' comprehension of astrobiology. Improvements were not limited to astrobiology knowledge. Assessments revealed that students developed confidence in science writing as well as reading and understanding astrobiology primary literature. Overall, student knowledge of and attitudes toward astrobiological research dramatically increased during this course, which demonstrates the ongoing need for additional astrobiology education programs as well as periodic evaluations of those programs currently underway. Together, these approaches serve to improve the overall learning experiences and perceptions of future astrobiology researchers.

Foster, Jamie S.; Drew, Jennifer C.

2009-04-01

57

Astrobiology and society: building an interdisciplinary research community.  

PubMed

This paper reports recent efforts to gather experts from the humanities and social sciences along with astrobiologists to consider the cultural, societal, and psychological implications of astrobiology research and exploration. We began by convening a workshop to draft a research roadmap on astrobiology's societal implications and later formed a Focus Group on Astrobiology and Society under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI). Just as the Astrobiology Science Roadmap and various astrobiology science focus groups have helped researchers orient and understand their work across disciplinary contexts, our intent was to apply the same approach to examine areas beyond the physical and life sciences and expand interdisciplinary interaction and scholarly understanding. These efforts continue as an experiment in progress, with an open invitation to interested researchers-astrobiologists as well as scholars in the humanities and social sciences-to become involved in research, analysis, and proactive discussions concerning the potential impacts of astrobiology on society as well as the possible impacts of society on progress in astrobiology. PMID:23046203

Race, Margaret; Denning, Kathryn; Bertka, Constance M; Dick, Steven J; Harrison, Albert A; Impey, Christopher; Mancinelli, Rocco

2012-10-09

58

The NASA astrobiology program.  

PubMed

The new discipline of astrobiology addresses fundamental questions about life in the universe: "Where did we come from?" "Are we alone in the universe?" "What is our future beyond the Earth?" Developing capabilities in biotechnology, informatics, and space exploration provide new tools to address these old questions. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has encouraged this new discipline by organizing workshops and technical meetings, establishing a NASA Astrobiology Institute, providing research funds to individual investigators, ensuring that astrobiology goals are incorporated in NASA flight missions, and initiating a program of public outreach and education. Much of the initial effort by NASA and the research community was focused on determining the technical content of astrobiology. This paper discusses the initial answer to the question "What is astrobiology?" as described in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. PMID:12448992

Morrison, D

2001-01-01

59

The Astrobiological Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction; Acknowledgements; 1. Astrobiology: the colour out of space?; 2. Cosmology, life, and duration of the past; 3. Cosmology, life, and selection effects; 4. Cosmology, life, and the archipelago; 5. Astrobiology as a natural extension of Darwinism; 6. Rare Earths and the continuity thesis; 7. SETI and its discontents; 8. Natural and artificial: cosmic domain of Arnheim; 9. Astrobiology as the neo-Copernican synthesis?; Index.

?irkovi?, Milan M.

2012-06-01

60

Titan's astrobiology: some new data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini-Huygens observations of Titan have strongly strengthened its astrobiological impor-tance, clearly showing that Titan is one of the key planetary bodies for astrobiological studies. Indeed the Cassini-Huygens data show that there are many similarities which can be found when comparing Titan and the early Earth, in spite of much lower temperatures for Titan. One of these similarities is the presence of an active and complex organic chemistry in Titan's environment, which occurs from the high atmosphere to the surface and very likely in the sub-surface. This organic chemistry involves several of the key compounds of terrestrial prebiotic chemistry, and it represents, by itself, a major astrobiological aspect of Titan. Moreover, the potential presence of an internal water-ocean makes Titan a potential habitable environment, of obvious astrobiological importance. In fact, after five years of close observation by remote sensing and in situ instrumentations from the Cassini-Huygens mission, Titan does not look any more like a frozen primitive Earth, but it looks like an evolving planet, geologically active, with cryo-volcanism, eolian erosion, clouds and precipitations, and a methane cycle analogous to the water cycle on Earth. But the new data also show that a complex organic chemistry is taking place in the very high atmospheric layers of the satellite, with the formation in the ionosphere of high molecular weight (up about 10 000 Daltons) ions. Are these ions abundant enough in the lower atmosphere zones to act as organic monomers which then grow by aggregation, sedimentation and condensation down to the surface? This is one of the key questions that chemical models have now to answer. Cassini-Huygens observations have shown that there is no large surface ocean on Titan, but large regional lakes which behave like evolving liquid media. Those lakes are probably accumulating complex organics of astrobiological interest, including organic aerosols, and could be a prime astrobiologically oriented target for future exploration of Saturn's largest satellite. Cassini-Huygens has shown that the chemical composition of Titan's aerosols is similar to that of laboratory Titan's tholins. The behavior of those tholins when sub-mitted to high solar UV radiation has recently been studied in Earth orbit. The results show a slight but complex photodegradation in some cases. Moreover, recent laboratory studies of the interaction between Titan's tholins and simulated Titan's surface strongly suggests that many compounds of biological interest, including amino-acids, could be produced on Titan's surface. These new data will be presented together with a general description of Titan's astrobiological aspects as seen from Cassini-Huygens data. References F. Raulin. Astrobiology and habitability of Titan. Space Science Reviews 135, 37-48 (2008) F. Raulin , C. P. McKay , J. I. Lunine and T. Owen. Titan's Astrobiology. In "Titan from Cassini-Huygens" R. Brown, J-P Lebreton H.Waite Eds, Springer, pp. 215-233 (2009) F. Raulin, K. P. Hand, C. P. McKay and M. Viso. Exobiology and planetary protection. In "Moons of the outer solar system: exchange processes involving the interiors", O. Grasset et al. Eds, Space Science Review, in press (Feb. 2010).

Raulin, Francois; Coll, Patrice; Buch, Arnaud; Cloix, Megane; Guan, Yuan Yong; Jerome, Murielle; Poch, Olivier; Ramirez, Sandra I.; Szopa, Cyril; Cottin, Hervé

61

Multispectral Microimager for Astrobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary goal of the astrobiology program is the search for fossil records. The astrobiology exploration strategy calls for the location and return of samples indicative of environments conducive to life, and that best capture and preserve biomarkers. Successfully returning samples from environments conducive to life requires two primary capabilities: (1) in situ mapping of the mineralogy in order to

R. Glenn Sellar; Jack D. Farmerb; Andrew Kietac; Julie Huangd

62

The Astrobiology Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains astrobiology news and links about: astrochemistry, bioinformatics, biosatellites, gravitational biology, hydrothermal vent communities, genomics, astropaleobiology, radiation physiology, the search for exterrestrial intelligence (SETI), extremophiles, exopaleontology, cell biology, evolution, planetary protection, and space medicine. There are also links to NASA TV and video feeds, astrobiology press releases, and an introduction to what an astrobiologist is.

63

The astrobiology of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Largest satellite of Saturn and the only satellite in the solar system having a dense atmosphere, Titan is one of the key planetary bodies for astrobiological studies, due to several aspects: Its analogies with planet Earth, in spite of much lower temperatures, The Cassini-Huygens data have largely confirmed the many analogies between Titan and our own planet. Both have similar vertical temperature profiles, (although much colder, of course, on Titan). Both have condensable and non condensable greenhouse gases in their atmosphere. Both are geologically very active. Furthermore, the data also suggest strongly the presence of a methane cycle on Titan analogous to the water cycle on Earth. The presence of an active organic chemistry, involving several of the key compounds of prebiotic chemistry. The recent data obtained from the Huygens instruments show that the organic matter in Titan low atmosphere (stratosphere and troposphere) is mainly concentrated in the aerosol particles. Because of the vertical temperature profile in this part of the atmosphere, most of the volatile organics are probably mainly condensed on the aerosol particles. The nucleus of these particles seems to be made of complex macromolecular organic matter, well mimicked in the laboratory by the "Titan's tholins". Now, laboratory tholins are known to release many organic compounds of biological interest, such as amino acids and purine and pyrimidine bases, when they are in contact with liquid water. Such hydrolysis may have occurred on the surface of Titan, in the bodies of liquid water which episodically may form on Titan's surface from meteoritic and cometary impacts. The formation of biologically interesting compounds may also occur in the deep water ocean, from the hydrolysis of complex organic material included in the chrondritic matter accreted during the formation of Titan. The possible emergence and persistence of Life on Titan 1 All ingredients which seems necessary for Life are present on Titan : • liquid water : permanently as a deep sub-surface ocean, and even episodically on the surface, • organic matter : in the internal structure, from chondritic materials, and in the atmosphere and on the surface, from the atmospheric organic chemistry • and energy : in the atmosphere (solar UV photons, energetic electrons from Saturn magnetosphere and cosmic rays) and, probably, in the environment of the sub-surface ocean (radioactive nuclei in the deep interior and tidal energy dissipation) as also supported by the likely presence of cryovolcanism on the surface Thus, it cannot be excluded that life may have emerged on or in Titan. In spite of the extreme conditions in this environment life may have been able to adapt and to persist. Many data are still expected from the Cassini-Huygens mission and future astrobiological exploration mission of Titan are now under consideration. Nevertheless, Titan already looks like another word, with an active prebiotic-like chemistry, but in the absence of permanent liquid water, on the surface: a natural laboratory for prebiotic-like chemistry. References. Fortes, A.D. (2000), `Exobiological implications of a possible ammonia-water ocean inside Titan', Icarus 146, 444-452 Raulin, F. (2005), `Exo-Astrobiological Aspects of Europa and Titan: From Observations to Speculations', Space Science Review 116 (1-2), 471-496. Nature, (2005), `The Huygens probe on Titan', 8 News & Views, Articles and Letters 438, 756-802 Schulze-Makuch, D., and Grinspoon D.H. (2005), `Biologically enhanced energy and carbon cycling on Titan?',Astrobiology 5, 560-567. 2

Raulin, F.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Hebrard, E.; Israel, G.; Nguyen, M.-J.; Szopa, C.; Gpcos Team

64

Employing Autonomous Underwater Vehicles to Develop New Techniques for Astrobiological Exploration: Recent Field Results and Future Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two recent expeditions funded by NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) program that demonstrate how advances in telemetry and autonomy can advance investigation astrobiological exploration methodologies.

J. C. Kinsey; M. V. Jakuba; A. D. Bowen; D. R. Yoerger; L. Whitcomb; R. Camilli; C. R. German; D. L. Valentine

2010-01-01

65

Employing Autonomous Underwater Vehicles to Develop New Techniques for Astrobiological Exploration: Recent Field Results and Future Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report two recent expeditions funded by NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) program that demonstrate how advances in telemetry and autonomy can advance investigation astrobiological exploration methodologies.

Kinsey, J. C.; Jakuba, M. V.; Bowen, A. D.; Yoerger, D. R.; Whitcomb, L.; Camilli, R.; German, C. R.; Valentine, D. L.

2010-04-01

66

Conferences, Workshops, and Special Meetings in the Mathematical Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that supplements the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. For conferences, workshops, international travel, and special meetings, the Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS) invites proposals of two types: (1) regular conference, symposia, and workshop proposals, and (2) proposals for special meetings (SM). DMS has long supported both regular conference proposals and special meetings...

67

Philosophical Aspects of Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in biology, geology, planetary science, and astrophysics have brought excitement in the potential for life elsewhere to a high level. One of the less-often-discussed aspects of the resulting search concerns why we are interested in the potential for life elsewhere, what the philosophical issues are that drive us to search, and what it would mean to find (or to not find) convincing evidence for extraterrestrial life. That such a large fraction of the public is interested in the issues and that much of the research in the planetary and astrophysical aspects of astrobiology has few practical applications, yet enjoys widespread support regardless, underscores the deep meaning of the results. This likely connects up to the value of exploration in our society, to the desire to understand our origins and how we as a species and as a society fit into the world around us. That is, it connects to understanding what the nature of humanity is and what it means to be human. We as a society have been exploring the world around us for more than 2000 years, and, in fact, that exploration arguably is the hallmark of civilization. These issues will be discussed, along with the connections between science in general and society and the religious aspects of extraterrestrial life.

Jakosky, Bruce

68

Astrobiology: Discovering New Worlds of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes discoveries at the frontiers of science. Includes an instructional poster illustrating the hydrothermal vent communities on the deep ocean floor. Describes research activities related to the new discipline of astrobiology, a multidisciplinary approach to studying the emergence of life in the universe. Research activities include the…

James, Charles C.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

2001-01-01

69

Astrobiology: Discovering New Worlds of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emphasizes discoveries at the frontiers of science. Includes an instructional poster illustrating the hydrothermal vent communities on the deep ocean floor. Describes research activities related to the new discipline of astrobiology, a multidisciplinary approach to studying the emergence of life in the universe. Research activities include the…

James, Charles C.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

2001-01-01

70

Galactic Habitable Zone and Astrobiological Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a short thesis description and for the sake of brevity most things are left out. For more details, those interested are further directed to the thesis related papers in this article reference list. Thesis itself is available at the University of Belgrade library "Svetozar Markovic" (Serbian version only). In this thesis we study the astrobiological history of the Galactic habitable zone through the means of numerical modeling. First group of simulations are unidimensional (time-axis) toy models examine the influence of global regulation mechanisms (gamma-ray bursts and supernovae) on temporal evolution of Galactic astrobiological complexity. It is shown that under the assumption of global regulation classical anti SETI arguments can be undermined. Second group of simulations are more complex bidimensional probabilistic cellular automata models of the Galactic thin disk. They confirm the findings of the toy models and give some insights into the spatial clustering of astrobiological complexity. As a new emerging multidisciplinary science the basic concepts of astrobiology are poorly understood and although all the simulations present here do not include some basic physics (such as Galactic kinematics and dynamics), the input parameters are somewhat arbitrary and could use a future refinement (such as the boundaries of the Galactic habitable zone). This is the cause for low weight and high uncertainty in the output results of the simulations. However, the probabilistic cellular automata has shown as a highly adaptable modeling platform that can simulate various class of astrobiological models with great ease.

Vukotic, B.

2012-12-01

71

Undergraduate Teaching in the Animal Sciences, Proceedings of a Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The proceedings of a conference which reviewed the content of undergraduate animal science curricula, content of courses in the animal sciences, and methods and materials used in undergraduate teaching in the animal sciences are presented in this bulletin. These individual papers are included: Trends in Animal Agriculture and the Future of…

Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

72

Proceedings of 23RD Conference of Coal Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ninety five reports of the 23rd (1986) conference on coal science sponsored by Fuel Association of Japan were collected. Seventeen reports on solvents of coal liquefaction, eighteen reports on coke properties and gasifications of coal, and sixty reports o...

1986-01-01

73

Proceeding of the Coal Science Conference (25th) (1988).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proceeding of the 25th Coal Science Conference (1988) is compiled. On the coal liquefaction; reaction kinetics analysis, hydrogen shuttler, deashing pretreatment, effect of preheat treatment, and so on, are presented. On the study of solvent; solvent extr...

1988-01-01

74

Sixteenth annual EPRI conference on fuel science: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

EPRI's Sixteenth Annual Contractor's Conference on Fuel Science was held on June 18--20, 1991 in Palo Alto, California. The Conference focused on the following activities: use of coal pretreatment as a Clean Air compliance strategy, alternative fuels (methanol, coal derived liquids), and cleanup of soil contaminated by fuels (including Manufactured Gas Plant sites).

Not Available

1992-04-01

75

Astrobiology Research Experience for Undergraduates: An Interdisciplinary REU Program at the SETI Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SETI Institute hosts a summer Astrobiology Research Experience for Undergraduates program for highly motivated students interested in astrobiology research. Students work with scientists at the SETI Institute and at the nearby NASA Ames Research Center on projects spanning the field of astrobiology from microbiology to planetary geology to astronomy and astrophysics. Each student is mentored by a scientist for his/her summer research project. As astrobiology is interdisciplinary, the first week includes a seminar series to provide a broad foundation in the field as the students begin their research projects. The 10-week program includes a week-long field trip to the SETI Institute’s Allen Telescope Array, located at the Hat Creek Radio Astronomy Observatory in Northern California, as well as a field experience at hydrothermal systems at nearby Lassen Volcanic National Park. Students also participate in local field trips to places like the California Academy of Sciences and other nearby locations of scientific interest, and attend seminars, lectures, and discussions on astrobiology. Students are also invited to attend events at nearby NASA Ames Research Center, which offers the opportunity to interact with other undergraduate and graduate students participating in NASA summer programs. At the end of the program, students write up and present their research projects, and mentors recommend some projects for submission to a national scientific conference, which the selected students will be funded to attend. The Astrobiology REU program emphasizes three main areas, which are listed in the table along with typical project themes. Each year, specific student research projects are described on the website, and students are asked to select the three that most interest them as a part of their applications. Applications are due in early February. Typically, 10 students apply for each available position. Students have been selected from colleges and universities national-wide, including community colleges. The Astrobiology REU program has served 4 classes of students, and is funded through summer of 2011. A total of 61 students have participated (12 in 2006, 17 in 2007, 17 in 2008, and 15 in 2009); all have successfully completed their internships. Of these students, 59% were women, and 21% were minorities. To date 18 students have gone on to graduate studies, in Master’s or PhD programs at schools including Harvard, UC Berkeley, UC Santa Cruz, Stanford, Univ. of Nebraska, and many others, in fields including astronomy, optical science, space life sciences, geology, physics, mechanical engineering, and molecular and cellular biology. The SETI Institute is a non-profit private scientific research institution located in California’s Silicon Valley. The Astrobiology REU program is supported by National Science Foundation Grant AST-0852095 with additional funding from NASA’s Astrobiology Institute, the SETI Institute and private donors.Main research areas and typical project themes

Phillips, C. B.; Devore, E. K.

2009-12-01

76

A unifying concept for astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution, broadly construed, has become a powerful unifying concept in much of science - not only in the biological evolution of plants and animals, but also in the physical evolution of stars and planets, and the cultural evolution of society and its many varied products. This paper (1) explores the bulk structure and functioning of open, non-equilibrium, thermodynamic systems relevant to the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology, (2) places the astrobiological landscape into an even larger, cosmological context, (3) defines life, complexity and evolution writ large, (4) claims that life depends ultimately on the expansion of the Universe and the flow of energy derived therefrom and (5) proposes a quantitative metric to characterize the rise of complexity throughout all of natural history. That metric is neither information nor negentropy, for these inveterate yet qualitative terms cannot be quantified, nor even defined, to everyone's satisfaction in today's scientific community. Rather, the newly proposed metric is normalized energy flow, a revision of a long-cherished term - energy - that is physically intuitive, well defined and readily measurable. All ordered systems = from rocky planets and shining stars, to buzzing bees and redwood trees - can be best judged empirically and uniformly by gauging the amount of energy acquired, stored and expressed by those systems. Appeals to anthropism are unnecessary to appreciate the impressive hierarchy of the cosmic evolutionary narrative, including a technological civilization that now embraces an energetics agenda designed to better understand, and perhaps to unify, all the natural sciences.

Chaisson, E. J.

2003-04-01

77

Joint 15. biennial conference of the West African Science Association and 19. biennial conference of Ghana Science Association: Book of abstracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains abstracts of the joint fifteenth biennial conference of the West African Science Association and the nineteenth biennial conference of the Ghana Science Association,held at the University of Cape Coast,Ghana in September 1995. The...

1995-01-01

78

Pahs and Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dense molecular clouds, the birthplace of stars and planets, interstellar atoms and molecules freeze onto extremely cold dust and ice particles. These ices are processed by ultraviolet light and cosmic rays forming hundreds of far more complex species, some of astrobiological interest. Eventually, these rain down on primordial planets where they take part in the young chemistry on these new worlds. Although the IR spectroscopy and energetic processing of interstellar ice analogs have been studied for nearly 30 years, similar studies of PAH containing ices have only just begun. This paper presents recent results from laboratory studies on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photochemistry of PAHs in water ice at low temperatures to assess the roles they play in the photochemical evolution of interstellar ices and their relevance to astrobiology. A number of "surprises" were found in these studies on PAH containing water-rich ices, indicating that PAHs likely play very important, unexpected roles in cosmic ice chemistry, physics and astrobiology.

Allamandola, L. J.

2011-03-01

79

PREFACE: The International Conference on Science of Friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first international conference on the science of friction in Japan was held at Irago, Aichi on 9-13 September 2007. The conference focused on the elementary process of friction phenomena from the atomic and molecular scale view. Topics covered in the conference are shown below.:

  • Superlubricity and friction
  • Electronic and phononic contributions to friction
  • Friction on the atomic and molecular scales
  • van der Waals friction and Casimir force
  • Molecular motor and friction
  • Friction and adhesion in soft matter systems
  • Wear and crack on the nanoscale
  • Theoretical studies on the atomic scale friction and energy dissipation
  • Friction and chaos
  • Mechanical properties of nanoscale contacts
  • Friction of powder
  • The number of participants in the conference was approximately 100, registered from 11 countries. 48 oral and 29 poster talks were presented at the conference. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 23 papers devoted to the above topics of friction. The successful organization of the conference was made possible by the contribution of the members of the Organizing Committee and International Advisory Committee. The conference was made possible thanks to the financial support from Aichi University of Education and the Taihokogyo Tribology Research Foundation (TTRF), and moreover thanks to the approval societies of The Physical Society of Japan, The Surface Science Society of Japan, The Japanese Society of Tribologists and Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute. The details of the conference are available at http://www.science-of-friction.com . Finally we want to thank the speakers for the high quality of their talks and all participants for coming to Irago, Japan and actively contributing to the conference. Kouji Miura and Hiroshi Matsukawa Editors

    Miura, Kouji; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    80

    An Introduction to Astrobiology  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Compiled by a team of experts, this textbook has been designed for elementary university courses in astrobiology. It begins with an examination of how life may have arisen on Earth and then reviews the evidence for possible life on Mars, Europa and Titan. The potential for life in exoplanetary systems and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence are also discussed. The

    Iain Gilmour; Mark A. Sephton

    2004-01-01

    81

    Astrobiology and SETI  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    “Are we alone?” “Where did we come from?” These are the defining questions of the new field of Astrobiology, and they are also the questions that have tantalized humanity throughout recorded history. The SKA will afford an excellent opportunity to answer these old questions and thereby calibrate our place in the cosmos. With the SKA we may discover another technological

    Jill C. Tarter

    2004-01-01

    82

    Astrobiology: Frontier or fiction  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrobiology, the study of life in the Universe, is sometimes criticized as being a fashionable label with which to rebrand existing research fields. Its practitioners, however, argue that the discipline provides a broad framework for developing a better understanding of the frontiers of biology. A biologist and a planetary scientist offer their views.

    Lazcano, Antonio; Hand, Kevin P.

    2012-08-01

    83

    Cultural Aspects of Astrobiology: A Preliminary Reconnaissance at  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA's Astrobiology Roadmap, developed in 1998 by an interdisciplinary team of more than 150 individuals, recognizes ten science goals, 17 more specific science objectives, and four broad principles for the Astrobiology Program. Among the four operating principles, which emphasize multidisciplinarity, planetary stewardship and public outreach, is one that also recognizes broad societal interest for the implications of astrobiology, especially its extraterrestrial life component. Although several meetings ahve been convened in the past decade to discuss the implications of extraterrestrial intelligence, including NASA's own CASETI workshops in 1991-1992, none have surveyed the broader implications of astrobiology as now defined at NASA. In this paper we survey these societal questions raised by astrobiology, and then focus on those related to extraterrestrial life, and in particular how they might differ from SETI concerns already discussed. As we enter the new millennium, the necessity for interdisciplinary studies is increasingly recognized in academia, industry and government. Astrobiology provides an unprecedented opportunity to encourage the unity of knowledge, as recently proposed in E. O. Wilson's book Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. It is incumbent on scientists to support research on the implications of their work, in particular large government-funded scientific projects. The deep insights such study may yield has been amply demonstrated by the Human Genome Project, among others.

    Dick, Steven

    84

    Astronomy Behind the Headlines: Astrobiology  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This item is a podcast audio presentation about the field of astrobiology and the search for life in the universe. It features an interview with Chris McKay, planetary scientist with the NASA Ames Research Center. Also included is a comprehensive set of links to editor-approved resources on the search for life on Mars and NASA's Kepler Mission to find terrestrial planets (i.e., those one half to twice the size of the Earth), especially those in the habitable zone of their stars where liquid water and possibly life might exist. This resource is one episode of Astronomy Behind the Headlines a web-based monthly periodical that features short interviews about the latest discoveries in astronomy and space science. It is published and maintained by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

    Collins-Petersen, Carolyn

    2010-03-08

    85

    Sea Changes in Social Science Education: Woods Hole 2000. The Social Science Education Consortium Conference Series.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The agenda for the Social Science Education Consortium conference at Woods Hole (Massachusetts) was designed to continue a tradition of examining scholarship relative to the social sciences in K-12 education. The content focus for this volume, is political science, economics, and sociology. Following a "Foreword" (Matthew T. Downey; Joseph P.…

    White, Charles S., Ed.

    86

    Visions for a sustainable world: A conference on science, technology and social responsibility. Conference report  

    SciTech Connect

    This report summarizes the organization, activities, and outcomes of Student Pugwash USA`s 1992 International Conference, Visions for a Sustainable World: A Conference on Science, Technology and Social Responsibility. The conference was held June 14--20, 1992 at Emory University, and brought together 94 students and over 65 experts from industry, academe, and government. The conference addressed issues ranging from global environmental cooperation to the social impacts of the Human Genome Project to minority concerns in the sciences. It provided a valuable forum for talented students and professionals to engage in critical dialogue on many interdisciplinary issues at the juncture of science, technology and society. The conference challenged students -- the world`s future scientists, engineers, and political leaders -- to think broadly about global problems and to devise policy options that are viable and innovative. The success of the conference in stimulating interest, understanding, and enthusiasm about interdisciplinary global issues is clearly evident from both the participants` feedback and their continued involvement in Student Pugwash USA programs. Six working groups met each morning. The working group themes included: environmental challenges for developing countries; energy options: their social and environmental impact; health care in developing countries; changing dynamics of peace and global security; educating for the socially responsible use of technology; ethics and the use of genetic information. The conference was specifically designed to include mechanisms for ensuring its long-term impact. Participants were encouraged to focus on their individual role in helping resolve global issues. This was achieved through each participant`s development of a Personal Plan of Action, a plan which mapped out activities the student could undertake after the conference to continue the dialogue and work towards the resolution of global and local problems.

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    87

    NASA Astrobiology Institute  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides information on NAI research, a library of publications, sections for teachers and students, and an Ask An Expert section. The student section features Astro-Venture, where students can search for and build a habitable planet; Habitable Worlds, to search the solar system for planets that might support life; and Mysteries of Microbes, containing videos and biographies of astrobiologists. The teacher section contains an astrobiology-related resource catalog of NASA sites.

    NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC)

    88

    NASA Astrobiology Institute  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides information on NAI research, a library of publications, sections for teachers and students, and an Ask An Expert section. The student section features Astro-Venture, where students can search for and build a habitable planet; Habitable Worlds, to search the solar system for planets that might support life; and Mysteries of Microbes, containing videos and biographies of astrobiologists. The teacher section contains an astrobiology-related resource catalog of NASA sites.

    2010-03-05

    89

    NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI)  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides information on NAI research, a library of publications, sections for teachers and students, and an Ask An Expert section. The student section features Astro-Venture, where students can search for and build a habitable planet; Habitable Worlds, to search the solar system for planets that might support life; and Mysteries of Microbes, containing videos and biographies of astrobiologists. The teacher section contains an astrobiology-related resource catalog of NASA sites.

    90

    Exo-astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contents: Exo/astrobiology activities NASA and ESA; From organic molecules in space via planetary evolution to the earliest organisms on Earth; Organic chemistry in interstellar medium; Space exposure experiments ISS/EXPOSE and BIOPAN; Planetary exploration: laboratory experiments; Chemistry of the origin of life; Organics in comets, meteoroids and cosmic dust; Early traces of life and life in extreme terrestrial environments: analogues for extraterrestrial habitats; Europe goes to Mars: ESA's search for life on the red planet; UV radiation, water content and toxicology of the Martian surface; Early traces and evolution of life; Potential Martian habitats - Earth analogues; Astrobiology relevant instrumentation for Solar System exploration; Subsurface and atmospheres of icy worlds; Preparation for a manned mission to Mars; Permafrost astrobiology; Exploration of planetary surfaces; Search for life on Europa and prebiotic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere; Search for extra-solar terrestrial planets; Scientific objectives for future Mars and planetary exploration; Life detection methods on Mars; The search for extra-solar planets, biosignatures and habitable zones.

    Lacoste, Huguette

    2002-11-01

    91

    PREFACE: 6th European Thermal Sciences Conference (Eurotherm 2012)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    About EUROTHERM The aim of the EUROTHERM Committee (www.eurothermcommittee.eu) is to promote and foster European cooperation in Thermal Sciences and Heat Transfer by gathering together scientists and engineers working in specialized areas. The Committee consists of members representing and appointed by national bodies in the EU countries. The current President of EUROTHERM is Professor Anton van Steenhoven from the University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). The Committee organizes and coordinates European scientific events such as the EUROTHERM Seminars (about 4 per year) and the European Thermal Sciences Conference (every 4 years). About the conference This sixth in the series of European Thermal Sciences Conferences (www.eurotherm2012.com) took place in France, in the Conference Centre of Poitiers, Futuroscope. We address special thanks to the 225 reviewers, coming from different European countries, who have evaluated these papers. We also thank the scientific committee, consisting of some EUROTHERM Committee members together with other internationally recognized experts. Their role has been to manage the evaluation of abstracts and the papers selection process as co-coordinators for specific topics. This conference is the joint effort of two laboratories: the PPRIME Institute in Poitiers and the IUSTI laboratory in Marseille. It could not be organized without the efficient help of our secretaries and our technician for the IT support. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 180 articles presented at the conference. Professor Daniel PETIT Chairman, PPRIME Poitiers, France Institut P'(UPR CNRS 3346) ENSMA 1 av. Clément Ader - BP40109 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil France daniel.petit@ensma.fr Professor Christophe LE NILIOT Co-chairman, IUSTI Marseille, France Laboratoire IUSTI UMR CNRS 6595 Technopôle de Chateau-Gombert 5, rue Enrico Fermi 13 453 MARSEILLE CEDEX 13 France christophe.leniliot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr

    Petit, Daniel; Le Niliot, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    92

    Summer Research Experiences for Teachers to Explore Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational Astrobiology program titled, "Life on the Edge: Astrobiology." .

    Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Harris, B.; Snell, T.; Gaucher, E.; Usselman, M.

    2010-04-01

    93

    APS Promotes Physiology to Science Educators at National Science Teacher Association Conference in Indianapolis  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article is on page 139 of The Physiologist, August 2012. The APS highlighted physiology to science teachers with two workshops presented by past Frontiers in Physiology Research Teachers and Online Teacher Fellows at the 2012 National Science Teacher AssociationÃÂs (NSTA) conference in late March.

    APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

    2012-08-01

    94

    Lunar Astrobiology: A Review and Suggested Laboratory Equipment  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In October of 2005, the European Space Agency (ESA) and Alcatel Alenia Spazio released a ``call to academia for innovative concepts and technologies for lunar exploration.'' In recent years, interest in lunar exploration has increased in numerous space programs around the globe, and the purpose of our study, in response to the ESA call, was to draw on the expertise of researchers and university students to examine science questions and technologies that could support human astrobiology activity on the Moon. In this mini review, we discuss astrobiology science questions of importance for a human presence on the surface of the Moon and we provide a summary of key instrumentation requirements to support a lunar astrobiology laboratory.

    Gronstal, Aaron; Cockell, Charles S.; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Bittner, Tobias; Clacey, Erik; Clark, Olathe; Ingold, Olivier; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Wathiong, Steven

    2007-10-01

    95

    Astrobiology and Venus Exploration  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venus has not traditionally been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. We propose that Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. 1) Putting Earth life in context: Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. For example, active volcanism is most likely responsible for maintaining the global cloud cover (Bullock and Grinspoon, 2001). Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. 2) The possibility of extant life: Venus almost surely once had warm oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial life. Life, once established in the early oceans of Venus, may have migrated to the clouds which, on present day Venus, may represent a habitable niche. Though highly acidic, this aqueous environment enjoys moderate temperatures, surroundings far from chemical equilibrium, and potentially useful radiation fluxes. Observations of unusual chemistry in the clouds, and particle populations that are not well characterized, suggest that this environment must be explored much more fully before biology can be ruled out. A sulfur-based metabolism for cloud-based life on Venus has recently been proposed (Schulze-Makuch et al., 2004). While speculative, these arguments, along with the discovery of terrestrial extremophile organisms that might survive in the Venusian clouds, establish the credibility of astrobiological exploration of Venus. Arguments for the possible existence of life on Mars or Europa are, by convention and repetition, seen as more mainstream than arguments for life elsewhere, but their logical status is no different from the plausibility arguments for life on Venus. 3) Rare planetary properties of astrobiological interest: All of our ideas about extraterrestrial biochemistry are, of necessity, extrapolations from the single example of life which we have been able to study. Our planetary exploration, with an increasing focus on Astrobiology, is designed to 'follow the water'. This is a reasonable strategy but it is based, at best, on an educated guess about life's universals. If we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Bullock, M.A. and D.H. Grinspoon (2001) Icarus, 150, 19-37 Schulze-Makuch, D.H. Grinspoon., O. Abbas, L.N. Irwin and M. Bullock. (2004) . Astrobiology, 4, 11-18.

    Grinspoon, D. H.; Bullock, M. A.

    2005-12-01

    96

    UK Astrobiology : Vanguard: a new development in experimental astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex Ellery and David Wynn-Williams propose a new UK astrobiology project, in which a micro-rover would deploy ground-penetrating moles to burrow into the Martian subsurface. One of the linchpins of the UK's contribution to the burgeoning field of astrobiology is the Beagle 2 mission, due to fly to Mars in 2003 on the Mars Express bus. Given that NASA has declared its intention to focus on ``whole planet'' geological investigation in its future Mars missions, beginning with the Mars Exploration Rovers which are due to fly in 2003/2004, the UK is well placed to consider post-Beagle 2 astrobiology-focused Mars missions to ensure its leadership in the future in astrobiology. In this paper we present such a proposal - Vanguard.

    Ellery, Alex; Wynn-Williams, David

    2002-04-01

    97

    Memorial tribute to astrobiology pioneers Dr. David S. Mckay and academician Georgy A. Zavarzin  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    During the past two years, the world has lost two great pioneers of the field of Astrobiology-Dr. David Stewart McKay who worked at the NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, USA and Academician Georgy Alexandrovich Zavarzin of the Institute of Microbiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Professor of the Moscow State University in Moscow, Russia. The Volume of the Proceedings of the 2013 SPIE Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology XVI is dedicated to the memory of these great scientists. We remember our dear friends and review some of their many important contributions to Planetary Science, Geology, Meteoritics, Microbiology and Astrobiology.

    Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Rozhnov, Sergei V.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2013-09-01

    98

    Astrobiology: The Search for Life  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the latest website from the Exploratorium's _Origins_ series -- a Web-based project that "explores the origins of matter, the universe, earth, and even life itself." In "Astrobiology: The Search for Life," visitors can read up on Earth's extreme environments that support life and serve as models for extraterrestrial environments. The site also introduces some of the scientists working in astrobiology, including Jill Tarter. Other sections explore the tools of the trade (e.g. NASA's Mars Rover) and important ideas in astrobiology (e.g. the Drake Equation). Additionally, during the month of November, the Exploratorium will air live webcasts from field sites like Chile's Licancabur volcano, and broadcast interviews with some of astrobiology's top brass.

    99

    ESA planetary missions and astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the course of the present decade, scientific results are expected from a number of planetary missions launched by ESA, some of which will address the issue of astrobiology. In late 2004, the Huygens probe will provide atmospheric descent and possibly surface data of Titan, the largest methane-rich satellite of Saturn. The Rosetta mission will focus on the primordial bodies of our Solar System, observing first various asteroids on its way to orbiting and landing on a comet in 2011. Before then, however, the Mars Express mission, including an orbiter spacecraft and a small Beagle-2 lander, will be launched in 2003 by a Soyuz rocket from Baikonur. In addition to a wide variety of scientific objectives concerning the global coverage of the planet for studies of the surface geology and mineralogy, subsurface structure, and atmospheric circulation, composition and escape, as well as the detailed chemical and morphological study of the Beagle-2 landing site, the Mars Express mission will address the issue of astrobiology on Mars both directly and indirectly. The majority of instruments on the orbiter will look for indications of favourable conditions to the existence of life, either at present or during the planet's past, and in particular for traces of liquid, solid or gaseous water. Therefore, the HRSC camera will take pictures of ancient riverbeds, the OMEGA spectrometer will look for minerals with OH- radicals formed in the presence of water, the MARSIS radar will look for subsurface ice and liquid water, the PFS and SPICAM spectrometers will analyse water vapour in the atmosphere, and finally the ASPERA analyser and MaRS radio science will study neutral atom escape from the atmosphere, in particular O2 coming from water and carbonates. The instruments on Beagle-2 will look for the presence of water in the soil, rocks and the atmosphere, but will also try to find traces of life with direct measurements, such as presence of methane (CH 4) indicative of extanct life, and a larger amount of the light C12 isotope compared to the heavier C1 3, which would even indicate extinct life. Also, close cooperation with the Japanese Nozomi mission, which will arrive at Mars shortly after Mars Express, will allow to monitor Mars from two complementary orbits, Nozomi being in an equatorial orbit while Mars Express is in a polar one. Since NASA's Viking mission in 1976, it is the first time that the exhaustive search for life is so central to a space mission to Mars.

    Chicarro, A.

    100

    South Australian Science Teachers Association Conference and Science Fair, Salisbury Teachers College, July 1971.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The major papers presented at the 1971 conference of the South Australian Science Teachers Association are included in this pamphlet. Scientists from industry, research institutions, and the police forensic laboratory, and practicing teachers presented papers which included descriptions of modern scientific techniques, discussions of the role of…

    1971

    101

    What Synthetic Biology Can Do for Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrobiology utilizes traditional fields to tackle three questions. Synthetic biol-ogy aims to design and construct artificial biological systems. Synthetic biology could contribute in essential ways to astrobiology.

    Rothschild, L. J.

    2010-04-01

    102

    NASA's planetary protection program as an astrobiology teaching module  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We are currently developing a teaching module on the NASA's Planetary Protection Program for UW-Parkside SENCER courses. SENCER stands for Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibility. It is a national initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF), now in its fifth year, to improve science education by teaching basic sciences through the complex public issues of the 21st century. The Planetary Protection Program is one such complex public issue. Teaching astrobiology and the NASA's goals via the Planetary Protection module within the SENCER courses seems to be a good formula to reach large number of students in an interesting and innovative way. We shall describe the module that we are developing. It will be launched on our web site titled "Astrobiology at Parkside" (http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/chemistry/kolb/organic_chemistry/, or go to Google and then to Vera Kolb Home Page), and thus will be available for teaching to all interested parties.

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2005-09-01

    103

    The Beginnings of Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    With the present surge of interest in astrobiology and its emergence as a new scientific discipline in its own right, the role of a celebrated pioneer is all too often forgotten. There can be little doubt that the late Sir Fred Hoyle played a key part in relating astronomical phenomena to questions of life. One of his first contributions in this area was his introduction of the so-called anthropic principle to astronomy. By the late 1940's astronomers had worked out how the simplest chemical element Hydrogen could be converted into Helium in stars, thus providing the main energy source by which stars shine. The building of nuclei beyond Helium by stellar nuclear processes appeared difficult at the time because of instabilities in nuclei with atomic masses 5 and 8. Hoyle had the grand vision of making most if not all of the elements in the Periodic Table in stars. In the early 1950's Hoyle argued that by the very fact of our existence, the existence of life, the element Carbon had to be synthesised in quantity in stars. This could not happen, Hoyle concluded, unless the nucleus of Carbon possessed an energy level corresponding to a hitherto unknown excited state which he was able to calculate. This was necessary so that three Helium nuclei could combine first to form a Carbon nucleus in the excited state that subsequently decayed into the ground state. One of the major triumphs of Hoyle's Anthropic Principle was that his predicted excited state was subsequently discovered in the laboratory by Ward Whaling and Willy Fowler at Caltech. This discovery opened the door to a brand new discipline of Nuclear Astrophysics. In a seminal paper published in 1957, Hoyle together with Willy Fowler, Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge showed that all the chemical elements needed for life C, N, O, P, Mg, Fe, S ... were made in stars. In a sense Hoyle's work in 1957 already provided the foundation stone for astrobiology. He showed that in essence we were made of stardust.

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    2002-04-01

    104

    Proceedings: Fourteenth annual EPRI conference on fuel science  

    SciTech Connect

    EPRI's Fourteenth Annual Contractors' Conference on Fuel Science was held on May 18--19, 1989 in Palo Alto, CA. The conference featured results of work on coal science, coal liquefaction, methanol production, and coal oil coprocessing and coal upgrading. The following topics were discussed: recent development in coal liquefaction at the Wilsonville Clean Coal Research Center; British coal's liquid solvent extraction (LSE) process; feedstock reactivity in coal/oil co-processing; utility applications for coal-oil coprocessed fuels; effect of coal rank and quality on two-stage liquefaction; organic sulfur compounds in coals; the perchloroethylene refining process of high-sulfur coals; extraction of sulfur coals; extraction of sulfur from coal; agglomeration of bituminous and subbituminous coals; solubilization of coals by cell-free extracts derived from polyporus versicolor; remediation technologies and services; preliminary results from proof-of-concept testing of heavy liquid cyclone cleaning technology; clean-up of soil contaminated with tarry/oily organics; midwest ore processing company's coal benefication technology: recent prep plant, scale and laboratory activities; combustion characterization of coal-oil agglomerate fuels; status report on the liquid phase methanol project; biomimetic catalysis; hydroxylation of C{sub 2} {minus} C{sub 3} and cycloc{sub 6} hydrocarbons with Fe cluster catalysts as models for methane monooxygenase enzyme; methanol production scenarios; and modeling studies of the BNL low temperature methanol catalyst. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    105

    The Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C): a potential rover mission for 2018. Final report of the Mars Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) October 14, 2009.  

    PubMed

    This report documents the work of the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG), which was assigned to formulate a concept for a potential rover mission that could be launched to Mars in 2018. Based on programmatic and engineering considerations as of April 2009, our deliberations assumed that the potential mission would use the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sky-crane landing system and include a single solar-powered rover. The mission would also have a targeting accuracy of approximately 7 km (semimajor axis landing ellipse), a mobility range of at least 10 km, and a lifetime on the martian surface of at least 1 Earth year. An additional key consideration, given recently declining budgets and cost growth issues with MSL, is that the proposed rover must have lower cost and cost risk than those of MSL--this is an essential consideration for the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG). The MRR-SAG was asked to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps toward the potential return of samples to Earth. The proposed means of achieving these two goals while balancing the trade-offs between them are described here in detail. We propose the name Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher(MAX-C) to reflect the dual purpose of this potential 2018 rover mission. PMID:20298148

    2010-03-01

    106

    Frontiers of Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Part I. Introduction: Introduction and welcome Cardinal Ljolo; 1. Astrobiology - a new synthesis J. Baross and C. Impey; Part II. Origins of Planets and Life: 2. Towards a theory of life S. Benner and P. Davies; 3. Terran metabolism: the first billion years S. Copley and R. Summons; 4. Planet formation S. Raymond and W. Benz; Part III. History of Life on Earth: 5. The early Earth F. Westall and F. Selsis; 6. Evolution of a habitable planet J. Kasting and J. Kirschvink; 7. Our evolving planet: from dark ages to evolutionary renaissance A. Knoll and E. Gaidos; Part IV. Habitability of the Solar System: 8. Early Mars - cradle or cauldron? A. Azua-Bustos, R. Pierrehumbert and R. Vicuña; 9. Large habitable moons: Titan and Europa A. Coustenis and M. Blanc; 10. Small habitable worlds J. Castillo-Rogez and J. Lunine; Part V. Exoplanets and Life in the Galaxy: 11. Searches for habitable exoplanets S. Seager; 12. Review of known exoplanets C. Lovis and D. Minniti; 13. Characterizing exoplanet atmospheres G. Tinetti; 14. If you want to talk to ET, you must first find ET J. Tarter and C. Impey; Index.

    Impey, Chris; Lunine, Jonathan; Funes, José

    2012-11-01

    107

    Proceedings of the Plutonium Futures ? The Science 2006 Conference  

    SciTech Connect

    Plutonium Futures--The Science 2006 provided opportunities to examine present knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of plutonium and other actinides in complex media and materials; to discuss the current and emerging science (chemistry, physics, materials science, nuclear science, and environmental effects) of plutonium and actinides relevant to enhancing global nuclear security; and to exchange ideas. This international conference also provided a forum for illustrating and enhancing capabilities and interests, and assessing issues in these areas. U.S. and international scientists, engineers, faculty, and students from universities, national laboratories, and DOE's nuclear complex were encouraged to participate and make technical contributions. The Conference ran from Sunday, July 9th through Thursday, July 13th. A popular aspect of the conference was the opening tutorial session on Sunday afternoon intended for students and scientists new to the area of plutonium research. The tutorial was well attended by novices and veterans alike, and featured such diverse topics as; plutonium metallurgy, plutonium in the environment, and international arms control and nonproliferation. Two plenary lectures began each morning and each afternoon session and highlighted the breakout sessions on coordination/organometallic chemistry, solid-state physics, environmental chemistry, materials science, separations and reprocessing, advanced fuels and waste forms, phase transformations, solution and gas-phase chemistry, compounds and complexes, electronic structure and physical properties, and more. Chemistry Highlights--Among the many chemistry highlights presented in this proceedings are the overview of concepts and philosophies on inert nuclear fuel matrices and concerns about the ever-increasing amounts of minor actinides and plutonium generated in the fuel cycle. The various ideas involve multiple reduction schemes for these materials, suggesting fuels for 'burning' or 'cradle-to-grave' accountability for various reactor types. Related work is presented on identification of the unique reaction mechanisms and identification of the intermediate products, including Pu(III), at the end of the PUREX process. In the important area of nuclear forensics, actual scenarios of nuclear materials confiscation and the successes of applying forensics protocols to determine attribution and possible intention are provided. In the area of reactor incidents, there is no other place on Earth like the Chernobyl Site Object Shelter and radioactive aerosol particle characterization studies reflect an important effort described herein. An additional report from another unique environmental site presents results on radionuclide monitoring, fate, and transport in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River in the Krasoyarsk region. In the area of nuclear waste disposal, a study of the ion irradiation damage to pyrochlore compounds with varying amounts of host elements and actinide dopants is presented. Papers on both the aqueous and nonaqueous chemistry of plutonium and other actinides are presented including anhydrous coordination chemistry and redox behavior in the presence of humic materials and the their sorption on common minerals in the environment. Also published herein are reports on the field of anhydrous coordination chemistry of the transuranic elements where there is scarce information. Solid-State and Materials Highlights--Plutonium solid-state and materials research is represented in these proceedings by a wealth of leading edge discovery class research. The breadth of this research is reflected in the topics covered: solid-state; materials science; superconductivity; phase changes, phonons, and entropy; electronic structure and physical properties; surface science and corrosion; and radiation effects, defects, impurities, and property changes. Indeed the scientific challenge and excitement of plutonium can best be highlighted by quoting the tutorial prospectus of Drs. Sarrao and Schwartz. 'Plutonium has long been recognized as a complex and scie

    Fluss, M; Hobart, D; Allan, P; Jarvinen, G

    2007-07-12

    108

    Toward Excellence in Science Education. Proceedings of Annual Curriculum Update Conference (June 18-23, 1982).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Horizons Committee met in Iowa City (Iowa) before the 1982 Curriculum Update Conference. The committee was charged with planning a new future of science education. The thinking of the members of the Horizons Committee provided the framework for the 1982 conference. These proceedings represent a…

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Science Education Center.

    109

    Astrobiology and Venus exploration  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For hundreds of years prior to the space age, Venus was considered among the most likely homes for extraterrestrial life. Since planetary exploration began, Venus has not been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. However, Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. At present Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. Active volcanism most likely affects the climate and chemical equilibrium state of the atmosphere and surface, and maintains the global cloud cover. Further, if we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Venus almost surely once had warm, habitable oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial life. Life, once established in the early oceans of Venus, may have migrated to the clouds which, on present day Venus, may represent a habitable niche. Though highly acidic, this aqueous environment enjoys moderate temperatures, surroundings far from chemical equilibrium, and potentially useful radiation fluxes. Observations of unusual chemistry in the clouds, and particle populations that are not well characterized, suggest that this environment must be explored much more fully before biology can be ruled out. A sulfur-based metabolism for cloud-based life on Venus has recently been proposed (Schulze-Makuch et al., 2004). While speculative, these arguments, along with the discovery of terrestrial extremophile organisms that point toward the plausibility of survival in the Venusian clouds, establish the credibility of astrobiological exploration of Venus. Arguments for the possible existence of life on Mars or Europa are, by convention and repetition, seen as more mainstream than arguments for life elsewhere, but their logical status is similar to plausibility arguments for life on Venus. With the launch of COROT in 2006 and Kepler in 2008 the demographics of Earth-sized planets in our galaxy should finally become known. Future plans for a Terrestrial Planet Finder or Darwin-type space-based spectrograph should provide the capability of studying the atmospheric composition and other properties of terrestrial planets. One of the prime rationales for building such instruments is the possibility of identifying habitable planets or providing more generalized observational constraints on the habitable zones of stellar systems. Given the prevalence of CO2 dominated atmospheres in our own solar system, it is quite likely that a large fraction of these will be Venus-like in composition and evolutionary history. We will be observing these planets at random times in their evolution. In analogy with our own solar system, it is just as likely that we will find representatives of early Venus and early Earth type planets from the first 2 billion years of their evolution as i

    Grinspoon, David H.; Bullock, Mark A.

    110

    Development, Evaluation, and Dissemination of an Astrobiology Curriculum for Secondary Students: Establishing a Successful Model for Increasing the Use of Scientific Data by Underrepresented Students.  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Minority Institution Astrobiology Collaborative began working with the NASA Goddard Center for Astrobiology in 2003 to develop curriculum materials for high school chemistry and Earth science classes based on astrobiology concepts. The Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms modules are being developed to emphasize interdisciplinary connections in astronomy, biology, chemistry, geoscience, physics, mathematics, and ethics through hands-on activities that address national educational standards. Since this time, more NASA Astrobiology Institute Teams have joined this education and public outreach (EPO)effort. Field-testing of the Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms materials began in 2007 in five US locations, each with populations that are underrepresented in the career fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

    Arino de La Rubia, L.; Butler, J.; Gary, T.; Stockman, S.; Mumma, M.; Pfiffner, S.; Davis, K.; Edmonds, J.

    2009-12-01

    111

    Astrobiology Education and Outreach: New Interdisciplinary Initiatives  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In 1998, UCLA was selected as one of the 11 initial members (5 of which are universities) of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. Concurrently, UCLA implemented a brand new General Education cluster course, GE 70ABC: ``Evolution of the Cosmos and Life,'' which is unique for several reasons. It is (a) interdisciplinary, introducing students to both the life and physical sciences, (b) team-taught by 4 distinguished professors, and 4 advanced graduate teaching fellows, (c) offered for (150) freshmen students exclusively, and (d) a year-long sequence, incorporating lectures, laboratory/discussion sections, field trips, and in the spring quarter, small satellite seminars led by the individual instructors on topics radiating from the cluster theme. Further information about GE 70ABC can be found at the course website (http://www.ess.ucla.edu/Cluster_TOC.html) and the website for UCLA's GE cluster courses (http://www.college.ucla.edu/ge/clusters.htm). This poster will outline the GE 70 content, and describe some of the course's materials, activities, assessment, and student characteristics. Additionally, focus will be placed on the GE 70C seminar course component called ``Life In the Cosmos,'' designed and offered by the poster author for the Spring 1999 quarter. This seminar features a student-centered approach - with lecturing minimized and active learning a key objective - and addresses the extraterrestrial life debate from historical and cultural perspectives as well as the current scientific approaches in astrobiology/bioastronomy.

    Schultz, Greg

    112

    The 26th IEEE international conference on plasma science  

    SciTech Connect

    Some of the sessions covered by this conference are: Basic Processes in Fully and Partially Ionized Plasmas; Slow Wave Devices; Laser-Produced Plasma; Non-Equilibrium Plasma Processing; Space Plasmas and Partially Ionized Gases; Microwave Plasmas; Inertial Confinement Fusion; Plasma Diagnostics; Computational Plasma Physics; Microwave Systems; Laser Produced Plasmas and Dense Plasma Focus; Intense Electron and Ion Beams; Fast Wave Devices; Spherical Configurations and Ball Lightning; Thermal Plasma Chemistry and Processing and Environmental Issues in Plasma Science; Plasma, Ion, and Electron Sources; Fast Wave Devices and Intense Beams; Fast Z-pinches and X-ray Lasers; Plasma Opening Switches; Plasma for Lighting; Intense Beams; Vacuum Microwaves; Magnetic Fusion Energy; and Plasma Thrusters and Arcs. Separate abstracts were prepared for some of the papers in this volume.

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    113

    IEEE conference record -- Abstracts: 1996 IEEE international conference on plasma science  

    SciTech Connect

    This meeting covered the following topics: space plasmas; non-equilibrium plasma processing; computer simulation of vacuum power tubes; vacuum microelectronics; microwave systems; basic phenomena in partially ionized gases -- gaseous electronics, electrical discharges; ball lightning/spherical plasma configuration; plasma diagnostics; plasmas for lighting; dense plasma focus; intense ion and electron beams; plasma, ion, and electron sources; flat panel displays; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; thermal plasma processing; computational plasma physics; magnetic confinement fusion; microwave-plasma interactions; space plasma engineering; EM and ETH launchers; fast wave devices; intense beam microwaves; slow wave devices; space plasma measurements; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasma -- waves, instabilities, plasma theory, etc; plasma closing switches; fast opening switches; and laser-produced plasma. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this conference.

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    114

    Aliens are us. An innovative course in astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We live in a scientific world; paradoxically, the scientific literacy of the population is minimal at best. Science is an ongoing process, a human endeavour; paradoxically, students tend to believe that science is a finished enterprise. Many non-science major students are not motivated in science classes; paradoxically, there is a public fascination with the possibility of life in the Universe, which is nowadays a scientific endeavour. An astrobiology course was developed at the Center for Science and Mathematics Education at The University of Texas at Austin to address these paradoxes and includes the following objectives: (a) to improve scientific literacy; (b) to demonstrate that science is a work in progress; (c) to enhance the inherent interdisciplinary aspect of science; (d) to demonstrate that science is embedded in society and relates with several social sciences; (e) to improve the content knowledge about the nature of science; (f) to illustrate how engaging learning science can be; and (g) to draw from the intrinsic motivation already incorporated in the general population. The course has been offered, taught and revised for the past three years. The informal course student feedback has been very positive and encouraging. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general overview of the course. In addition, the course's background, content, themes and mode of delivery are outlined, discussed and analysed in this paper. This paper subscribes to an educational philosophy that focuses on the multidisciplinary nature of science and includes critical thinking-based teaching strategies using the dynamic discipline of astrobiology.

    Oliveira, Carlos F.; Barufaldi, James P.

    2009-01-01

    115

    The narrative power of astrobiology  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The narrative power of astrobiology: Telling the story of the quest to understand life's origins and the search for evidence of extraterrestrial life INTRODUCTION The story of the origins and evolution of life is a narrative with nearuniversal appeal. The story of life on Earth is meaningful to all people, and the search for life elsewhere is appealing across cultural

    Linda Billings

    2008-01-01

    116

    Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    117

    Nonlinear aspects of astrobiological research  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Several aspects of mathematical astrobiology are discussed. It is argued that around the time of the origin of life the handedness of biomolecules must have established itself through an instability. Possible pathways of producing a certain handedness include mechanisms involving either autocatalysis or, alternatively, epimerization as governing effects. Concepts for establishing hereditary information are discussed in terms of the theory

    Axel Brandenburg

    2008-01-01

    118

    Capturing Student Interest in Astrobiology through Dilemmas and Paradoxes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traditionally, many non-science majoring undergraduates readily reveal fairly negative opinions about their introductory science survey courses that serve as general education distribution requirements. Often seen as unimportant and unrelated to helping them acquire knowledge and skills for the workplace, such general education courses carry nicknames such as "Physics for Poets" (PHYSICS101), "Bugs for Thugs" (BIOLOGY101), "Rocks for Jocks" (GEOLOGY101), and "Moons for Goons" or "Scopes for Dopes" (ASTRONOMY101). In response, many faculty are experimenting with more modern science course offerings as general education courses in an effort to improve students' attitudes, values, and interests. One might think that ASTROBIOLOGY has natural curb appeal for students. However, despite the seemingly innate appeal of a course on extraterrestrial life, when it comes right down to it, an astrobiology course is still a natural science course at its core. As such, it can suffer from the same student apathy that afflicts traditional science courses if students can not find some personal relevance or interest in the topics. One approach to more fully engaging students is to couch core course concepts in terms of what Grant Wiggin and Jay McTighe (2004, 2000) call "essential questions." Essential questions are intended create enduring understanding in students and help students find deeply meaningful personal relevance to concepts. In response, we have created a series of probing essential questions that tie central concepts in astrobiology to dilemmas, paradoxes, and moral questions with the goal of intellectually engaging our students in the human-side of the astrobiology enterprise.

    Slater, T. F.

    2005-12-01

    119

    Using Astrobiology as a Context for Teaching and Learning in New South Wales Schools K-12  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Contextual learning has long been regarded as a powerful tool by Science educators for teaching and learning in Science, but the availability of stimulating, real-life, contemporary, contexts which allow both syllabus outcomes to be met and students to enjoy science have been at a premium. The context of astrobiology, including both the searches for primitive life in our own solar

    Craig Brown

    2002-01-01

    120

    Critical issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of astrobiology.  

    PubMed

    Fifty years after serious scientific research began in the field of exobiology, and forty years after serious historical research began on the subject of extraterrestrial life, this paper identifies and examines some of the most important issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of what is today known as astrobiology. As in the philosophy of science in general, and in the philosophies of particular sciences, critical issues in the philosophy and sociology of astrobiology are both stimulated and illuminated by history. Among those issues are (1) epistemological issues such as the status of astrobiology as a science, the problematic nature of evidence and inference, and the limits of science; (2) metaphysical/scientific issues, including the question of defining the fundamental concepts of life, mind, intelligence, and culture in a universal context; the role of contingency and necessity in the origin of these fundamental phenomena; and whether or not the universe is in some sense fine-tuned for life and perhaps biocentric; (3) societal issues such as the theological, ethical, and worldview impacts of the discovery of microbial or intelligent life; and the question of whether the search for extraterrestrial life should be pursued at all, and with what precautions; and (4) issues related to the sociology of scientific knowledge, including the diverse attitudes and assumptions of different scientific communities and different cultures to the problem of life beyond Earth, the public "will to believe," and the formation of the discipline of astrobiology. All these overlapping issues are framed by the concept of cosmic evolution-the 13.7 billion year Master Narrative of the Universe-which may result in a physical, biological, or postbiological universe and determine the long-term destiny of humanity. PMID:23078642

    Dick, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    121

    News Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education

    2011-07-01

    122

    Proceedings: international conference on transfer of forest science ...  

    Treesearch

    ... publications were written or produced by Forest Service personnel and are in the ... Titles contained within Proceedings: international conference on transfer of ... technology transfer specialists, and others at an international conference that ...

    123

    A Comparison of the Methodological Quality of Articles in Computer Science Education Journals and Conference Proceedings  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |In this study we empirically investigate the claim that articles published in computer science education journals are more methodologically sound than articles published in computer science education conference proceedings. A random sample of 352 articles was selected from those articles published in major computer science education forums…

    Randolph, Justus J.; Julnes, George; Bednarik, Roman; Sutinen, Erkki

    2007-01-01

    124

    PREFACE: The fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA2007)  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA 2007) was held on 9-14 September 2007 at Kobe International Conference Center in Kobe, Japan. The host organizations for this conference were Osaka University and the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE) at Osaka University; and co-organized by the Institute Lasers and Plasmas (ILP) in France, the Commissariatá l'Energie Atomique

    Hiroshi Azechi; Bruce Hammel; Jean-Claude Gauthier

    2008-01-01

    125

    Astrobiological molecularly imprinted polymer sensors  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The purpose of the Astrobiological MIP Sensor (AMS) Project is to develop reliable, low-cost, low-mass, low-power consumption detection technologies for in situ analysis of biochemical markers, and other indicators of astrobiological importance. To this end, we are investigating the potential role that molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) could serve in the recognition of pre-biotic and biotic compounds in planetary, astrobiological and geochemical mission profiles. While MIPs are effective molecular recognition tools, a signal transduction method must be developed so that the recognition of analytes can be realized. In the course of this study, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) will be the detection method of the MIP recognition event. In addition, MIP-coated SPR substrates were subjected to vibration, temperature and radiation testing to demonstrate that they could withstand the rigors of space travel. The methods developed in this study require capture of the biomarkers onto the SPR sensor chip, followed by addition of a MIP. It is the binding of the MIP to the SPR bound analyte that amplifies the SPR signal associated with binding of the low molecular weight analyte. The MIPs, developed in this study are water-soluble processable star polymers while the SPR device used was SensíQ™ by Nomatics. Proof-of-principal experiments were first demonstrated using amino biotin.

    Izenberg, Noam R.; Murrray, George M.; Pilato, Robert S.; Baird, Lance M.; Levin, Scott M.; Van Houten, Kelly A.

    2009-06-01

    126

    Proceedings of the New England Conference on Ocean Science Education, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, May 1966.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Reported are the papers presented at the New England Conference on Ocean Science Education. The purpose of the conference was to bring together prominent oceanographers and New England educators at the primary and secondary level to discuss current progress in oceanographic research and to relate this progress to the needs of schools for…

    Mangelsdorf, Frederick E.; And Others

    127

    Astrobiology Education Poster  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This poster includes science background narratives and three classroom activities: Activity 1 Life: What is it? Where is it?; Activity 2 Life: What is it? Where is it?; and Activity 3 Life: How Do We Find It? The poster and activities can be downloaded as PDFs.

    2004-07-01

    128

    Proceedings: Fifteenth annual EPRI conference on fuel science  

    SciTech Connect

    Research is presented from a conference on fuel science. Topics presented included: Recent Progress in Coal Liquefaction at Wilsonville; HRI's Co-Processing Program; Distillate Product Quality from Liquefaction of Low Rank Coals; Modeling the Chem-Coal Process; Organic Sulfur Nitrogen Species in Illinois Basin Coals; Distribution of Organic Sulfur Containing Structures in High Organic Sulfur Coals; New Approaches to the Direct Measurement of Sulfur Forms in Coal; Process Engineering Studies of the Perchloroethylene Coal Cleaning Process; XAFS Investigation of the Molecular Forms of Organic Sulfur in Coal; LPMEOH: Beyond LaPorte -- Next Step to Commercialization; Development of Single-Stage, Liquid-Phase Dimethyl Ether Synthesis Process from CO-Rich Syngas; Biomimetic Catalyst: Mechanistic Aspects of the C-H Activation; Low Temperature Methanol Catalyst Some Aspects of Process Scale-up; Recovery of Methanol from a Catalyst Slurry by Membrane Pervaporation; Site-Specific IGCC Methanol Co-Production Study; Proof-of-Concept Results using the Arcanum/Bechtel Spherical Agglomeration Approach to Clean Ultra-Fine Coals; Pyrite Removal from Bituminous Coals by Aglofloat Process; Coal Desulfurization by Perchloroethylene Processing; Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration Technology; Development of Clean Soil Technology using Coal as Oily/Tarry Contaminant Removal; Evaluation of Hydrothermally Reformed Lignite for use at Minnesota Power's Clay Boswell Station; Development of an Ozonation Process for Degradation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons; Fungal Composting for Accelerated Degradation of PAHs from Coal Tars; and Development of an Engineering Model of Mixing Process in Residual Fuel Oil Storage. Individual projects are processed separately on the data bases.

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    129

    Systems astrobiology for a reliable biomarker on exo-worlds  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Although astrobiology is a science midway between biology and astrophysics, it has surprisingly remained largely disconnected from recent trends in certain branches of both of these disciplines. Aiming at discovering how systems properties emerge has proved valuable in chemistry and in biology and should also yield insights into astrobiology. This is feasible since new large data banks in the case of astrobiology are of a geophysical/astronomical kind, rather than the also large molecular biology data that are used for questions related firstly, to genetics in a systems context and secondly, to biochemistry. The application of systems biology is illustrated for our own planetary system, where 3 Earth-like planets are within the habitable zone of a G2V star and where the process of photosynthesis has led to a single oxygenic atmosphere that was triggered during the Great Oxidation Event some 2,5 billion years before the present. The significance of the biogenic origin of a considerable fraction of our atmosphere has been discussed earlier (Kiang et al., 2007). Bonding of O2 ensures that it is stable enough to accumulate in a world's atmosphere if triggered by a living process. The reduction of F and Cl deliver energy release per e+-transfer, but unlike O2 the weaker bonding properties inhibit large atmospheric accumulation (Catling et al., 2005). The evolution of O2-producing photosynthesis is very likely on exo-worlds (Wolstencroft and Raven, 2002). With our simplifying assumption of evolutionary convergence, we show how to probe for a reliable biomarker in the exo-atmospheres of planets, or their satellites, orbiting stars of different luminosities and ages (Chela-Flores, 2013). We treat the living process as a system of exo-environments capable of radically modifying their geology and atmospheres, both for exo-planets, and especially for exo-moons, the presence of which can be extracted from the Kepler data (Kipping et al., 2012). What we are learning about the moons of our solar system (Chela-Flores, 2010), and will learn in the foreseeable future with the JUICE Mission will be relevant to systems astrobiology. The distribution of systems of habitable worlds with their biomarkers will be testable in the short term with forthcoming space missions: FINNESSE, EChO and TESS. This would justify subsequent use of quantitative systems biology methods that are available from its repertoire of analytic approaches. References Catling et al. (2005). Why O2 is required by complex life on habitable planets and the concept of planetary "oxygenation time", Astrobiology, 5, 415-438. Chela-Flores, J. (2010). Instrumentation for the search of habitable ecosystems in the future exploration of Europa and Ganymede. International Journal of Astrobiology, 9, 101-108. http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/jcf_IJA_2010.pdf Chela-Flores, J. (2013). From systems chemistry to systems astrobiology: Life in the universe as an emergent phenomenon. Published online: 26 July 2012. International Journal of Astrobiology, 12,8-16. http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/Int_J_AB_SAB_3.pdf Kiang, N.Y., et al (2007). Spectral signatures of photosynthesis II. Astrobiology 7, 252-274. Kipping, D. M. et al (2012). The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler. arXiv:1201.0752 [astro-ph.EP]. Wolstencroft, R.D. and Raven, J.A. (2002). Photosynthesis: likelihood of occurrence and possibility of detection on earth-like planets. Icarus 157, 535-548.

    Chela Flores, Julian

    2013-04-01

    130

    Aspicilia fruticulosa: A new model for Astrobiology  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In order to avoid the technological constraints that prevent the performance of experiments in other planets, Astrobiology research implies the development of models that simulate the conditions present in outer space or in planetary bodies. Extremophile organisms, like lichens have been widely studied in Astrobiology due to their high resistance to extremely harsh envi-ronments(5). The vagrant lichen species, Aspicilia fruticulosa

    Fco. Javier Sánchez Iñigo; Rosa de La Torre Noetzel; Jesus Martinez-Frias; Eva Mateo Mart; Gerda Horneck

    2010-01-01

    131

    SETI and Astrobiology: Contact - A Youth Perspective  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Contact with extraterrestrial life was discussed at the Space Generation Forum (SGF), at UNISPACE-III. SETI and Astrobiology have been a main area of activity for students and young professionals in recent years. Ideas, recommendations, and visions for astrobiology and SETI are being further developed at the Space Generation Summit (SGS), an event at World Space Congress (WSC) that will unite

    W. Marshall; Sgs Delegates

    2002-01-01

    132

    Using an Australian Mars Analogue Research Facility for Astrobiology, Education and Outreach  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Mars Society is an international private organisation advocating the exploration and settlement of Mars. Part of its mission involves selecting areas for Martian analogue research, to test hardware, technology, strategies and human factors relevant to sending people to Mars. Mars Society Australia has selected an area in the Arkaroola region in the Flinders Ranges as the site for the first Australian analogue facility.The facility will be an invaluable public education and outreach tool for Australian science, focusing on astrobiology, and its role in future human Mars missions; demonstrating Australian contributions to astrobiology related science and work on terrestrial analogues to Martian environments.

    Laing, Jennifer H.; Clarke, J.; Deckert, J.; Gostin, V.; Hoogland, J.; Lemke, L.; Leyden, J.; Mann, G.; Murphy, G.; Stoker, C.; Thomas, M.; Waldie, J.; Walter, M.; West, M.

    2004-06-01

    133

    Science, Technology, and the Liberal Arts: Report on a National Conference Held at Lehigh University.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Presents highlights of a conference which disseminated results of a National Science Foundation (NSF) curriculum development project at Lehigh University (NSF-SER-8005 199, "Elements of Technology in a Liberal Arts Curriculum"). Also discusses activities at other institutions designed to bring science, mathematics, and technology "literacy" into…

    Cutcliffe, Stephen H.; Goldman, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    134

    Astrobiological Benefits of Human Space Exploration  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered.

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2010-08-01

    135

    PREFACE: Third Conference of the Asian Consortium for Computational Materials Science (ACCMS-3)  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Following the tradition of the ACCMS-1 held in Bangalore, India, in November 2001, and the ACCMS-2 in Novosibirsk, Russia, during July 14-16, 2004, this conference, held at the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, 8-11 September 2005, has been set up to promote research and development activities in computational materials science in Asian countries. Computational materials science

    Ding-sheng Wang; Gang Chen

    2006-01-01

    136

    Sound science: Marking ten international conferences on auditory display  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This special issue of ACM Transactions on Applied Perception is intended to commemorate the tenth International Conference on Auditory Display (ICAD) and to serve as an introduction and overview of the field of auditory displays. This paper discusses the goals of the issue and describes the paper selection process. The selected papers are also introduced, with their connections to each

    Gregory Kramer; Bruce N. Walker

    2005-01-01

    137

    Teaching Social Sciences in the Clinical Years through Psychosocial Conferences.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |A program during clerkships in internal medicine, pediatrics, and surgery at Ben-Gurion University emphasizes psychosocial conferences teaching to include tutorial guidance throughout the student's preparation of a case presentation in which psychological, sociological, and anthropological aspects of the patients' coping with illness and the…

    Priel, Beatrice; Rabinowitz, Betty

    1988-01-01

    138

    A Global Observing System for Mars: The dual satellite Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory (MACO)  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    We summarize a planetary decadal survey white paper describing the rationale for and key elements of a dual satellite orbiting mission (DSM) concept called the Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory (MACO). MACO uses mm-wavelength satellite to satellite (sat-sat) occultations in combination with solar occultations (SO) to answer and strongly constrain many key lower and middle atmosphere Mars science questions previously

    E. R. Kursinski; J. Lyons; C. Newman; M. I. Richardson; D. Ward; A. C. Otarola

    2009-01-01

    139

    Allerton Invitational Conference on Education for Health Sciences Librarianship. Proceedings of a Conference Held at Monticello, Illinois on April 2-4, 1979.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The conference described in this report had five objectives: to examine the existing curricula for medical librarianship in accredited library school programs, to examine trends in post-master's training programs for health sciences librarianship, to expl...

    R. A. Berk

    1979-01-01

    140

    The International Journal of Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The launch of a new journal is appropriately like a space mission. It is the result of a scientific need, the inspiration of a group of committed scientists and technologists, a series of draft proposals, an approved mission protocol, and a launch. Today is the launch day for a journal whose remit has only recently consolidated from diverse disciplines. Cambridge University Press has an international reputation for astronomy. To this we add extreme biology and its associated environmental research to integrate astrobiology as: 'the study of the origin, evolution, adaptation and distribution of past and present life in the Universe'. Astrobiology has three main themes: (1) Origin, evolution and limits of life on Earth; (2) Future of life, both on Earth and elsewhere; (3) Search for habitats, biomolecules and life in the Solar System and elsewhere. These fundamental concepts require the integration of various disciplines, including biology (especially microbiology), chemistry, geology, palaeontology, and the physics of atmospheres, planets and stars. We must also keep our minds wide open about the nature and limits of life. We can safely assume a carbon-based system within Solar Systems as we know them, but our concept of habitable zones expands yearly. We were taught that only the spores of certain bacilli could survive temperatures above the boiling point of water, and yet we now know that the deep-sea vent microbe Pyrolobus can survive an hour at 121 °C, which is the temperature used for sterilising medical instruments. We know of cyanobacteria which can not only live inside deep-frozen Antarctic rocks but also survive on roof-tops in Jerusalem at 80 °C. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans tolerates lethal doses of nuclear radiation, and cyanobacteria inside Antarctic desert sandstone receive so little moisture that their carbon turnover time (from its fixation by photosynthesis to its release as carbon dioxide during respiration) is 10,000 years. Life is tolerant, adaptable and tenacious.

    Wynn-Williams, David D.

    2002-01-01

    141

    IFLA General Conference, 1984. Special Libraries Division. Section on Science and Technology Libraries. Papers.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Papers on scientific/technical information and libraries presented at the 1984 IFLA general conference include: (1) "Library Ethics and the Special Library Network in Science and Technology" (Dieter Schmidmaier, East Germany); (2) "The Dissemination of Patent Information by Libraries: An Example Demonstrating the Necessity of Libraries in the…

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    142

    The 5th international atmospheric sciences and applications to air quality conference  

    SciTech Connect

    This document contains one page abstracts from the Fifth International Atmospheric Sciences and Applications to Air Quality Conference. Topics include the following: emissions and integrated assessment; ozone analysis and modeling; acid deposition; measurements and monitoring; advances in air pollution modeling; removal processes; long range transport; meteorological modeling and emergency response; urban air quality; aerosol processes and characterization.

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    143

    IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Biological and Medical Science Libraries. Papers.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Papers on biological and medical science libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The International Programs of the National Library of Medicine" (Lois Ann Colaianni, United States); (2) "Information Needs for International Health. A CDC (Centers for Disease…

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    144

    News Festival: Science on stage deadline approaches Conference: Welsh conference attracts teachers Data: New phase of CERN openlab tackles exascale IT challenges for science Meeting: German Physical Society holds its physics education spring meeting Conference: Association offers golden opportunity in Norway Competition: So what's the right answer then?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festival: Science on stage deadline approaches Conference: Welsh conference attracts teachers Data: New phase of CERN openlab tackles exascale IT challenges for science Meeting: German Physical Society holds its physics education spring meeting Conference: Association offers golden opportunity in Norway Competition: So what's the right answer then?

    2012-07-01

    145

    Using Astrobiology as a Context for Teaching and Learning in New South Wales Schools K-12  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contextual learning has long been regarded as a powerful tool by Science educators for teaching and learning in Science, but the availability of stimulating, real-life, contemporary, contexts which allow both syllabus outcomes to be met and students to enjoy science have been at a premium. The context of astrobiology, including both the searches for primitive life in our own solar system and intelligent extra-terrestrial life within our own galaxy, fulfils all the pre-requisites for successful contextualised learning. In the New South Wales science syllabuses, which cover K-12, there are excellent opportunities for educators to use astrobiology as a context for teaching a range of investigative and communication skills, knowledge, values and attitudes. These experiences not only assist in the fulfillment of many mandatory outcomes in the NSW education system, but more importantly, make a valuable contribution to the student as a life long learner. In addition, it prepares students to deal with issues that will no doubt confront society at large in the future in one form or another. The use of astrobiology as a scientific context has been used by the author to facilitate the achievement of Science related outcomes by students in Year 4, 7, 9 and Year 11 Biology. Generally, students are excited, fascinated and eager to explore the diverse range of learning experiences, which this context can offer. Making links between Science, current research and the reality on which most entertaining science fiction is built, is a very powerful tool for the Science educator. There is clear evidence that the context of astrobiology can be used successfully in Science Education, in NSW schools K-12, to achieve student outcomes and no doubt this success could be experienced by educators in other educational systems.

    Brown, Craig

    146

    IEEE conference record -- abstracts: 1995 IEEE international conference on plasma science  

    SciTech Connect

    Topics covered at this meeting are: computational plasma physics; slow wave devices; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; microwave-plasma interactions; space plasmas; fast wave devices; plasma processing; plasma, ion, and electron sources; vacuum microelectronics; basic phenomena in partially ionized gases; microwave systems; plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion theory/experiment; fast opening switches; laser-produced plasmas; dense plasma focus; intense ion and electron beams; plasmas for lighting; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense beam microwaves; ball lightning/spherical plasma configuration; environmental plasma science; EM and ETH launchers; and environmental/energy issues in plasma science. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the individual papers.

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    147

    An Astrobiology Summer Program for High School Teachers and Students  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosomal Origins and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational summer program titled, ``Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.'' The purpose of the program was to expose high school educators to the field of astrobiology and provide them with skills and classroom activities necessary to foster student interest in scientific discovery

    J. Cola; L. D. Williams; E. Gaucher; T. Snell

    2010-01-01

    148

    Lunar Beagle and Lunar Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The study of the elements and molecules of astrobiological interest on the Moon can be made with the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) and associated instruments developed for the Beagle 2 Mars Express Payload. The permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon may offer a unique location for the "cold-trapping" of the light elements (i.e. H, C, N, O, etc.) and their simple compounds. Studies of the returned lunar samples have shown that lunar materials have undergone irradiation with the solar wind and adsorb volatiles from possible cometary and micrometeoroid impacts. The Beagle 2's analytical instrument package including the sample processing facility and the GAP mass spectrometer can provide vital isotopic information that can distinguish whether the lunar volatiles are indigenous to the moon, solar wind derived, cometary in origin or from meteoroids impacting on the Moon. As future Lunar Landers are being considered, the suite of instruments developed for the Mars Beagle 2 lander can be consider as the baseline for any lunar volatile or resource instrument package.

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Waugh, Lester J.

    2010-12-01

    149

    PREFACE: 2013 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2013)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 2013 International Conference on Science and Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2013), was held at the Aston Rasuna Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 24–25 January 2013. The ScieTech 2013 conference aims to bring together scholars, leading researchers and experts from diverse backgrounds and applications areas. Special emphasis is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics, all areas of sciences and applied mathematics. We would like to thank the invited and plenary speakers as well as all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program. This year, we received 197 papers and, after rigorous review, 67 papers were accepted. The participants come from 21 countries. There are 6 (six) Plenary and Invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and we thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed ScieTech 2013 be be sucyh a success. The Editors of the ScieTech 2013 Proceedings Dr Ford Lumban Gaol Dr Hoga Saragih Tumpal Pandiangan Dr Mohamed Bououdina The PDF also contains the abstracts of the Invited and Plenary talks, and some photographs taken during the conference.

    Lumban Gaol, Ford

    2013-03-01

    150

    Proceedings of the 1998 national conference on environmental remediation science and technology  

    SciTech Connect

    The National Conference on Environmental Remediation Science and Technology was held in Greensboro, North Carolina, in September 1998. The conference focused on bioremediation, fate and transport of contaminants, pollution prevention, and other innovative technologies and research. Specifically, the book covers stripping of organic pollutants, extraction of pollutants with organic surfactants, photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, estimation scheme for subsurface contaminant transport model, biodegradation of explosives, numerical solution for linear and nonlinear equations in groundwater flow modeling, and technology innovations for environmental restoration. The proceedings contain 30 technical papers.

    Uzochukwu, G.A.; Reddy, G.B. [eds.

    1999-10-01

    151

    Taking the initiative. A leadership conference for women in science and engineering  

    SciTech Connect

    The conference sprang from discussions on the current climate that women face in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. The conference (and this document) is a beginning, not a culmination, of women`s learning leadership skills. Conferees were active, articulate, energetic, and ready to learn leadership qualities, some of which seem universal, others that appear to require skills in specific fields. After the introduction, the workshops and presentations are arranged under vision and direction, barriers, alignment and communication, and motivation and inspiration. Some statistics are presented on women degrees and employment in various fields.

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    152

    Conference of the Society for Literature and Science. Proceedings (Los Angeles, California, November 2-5, 1995).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The papers contained in this proceedings from the 1995 Society for Literature and Science Conference are organized into sections with the following themes: (1) Metaphor and Science; (2) The Technological Invasion of the Living Space; (3) Autobiographies and Biographies of Scientists; (4) Science and 19th Century Literature; (5) Visions of the…

    Labinger, Jay, Ed.

    153

    Astrobiology : is humankind ready for the next revolution ?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The discovery of a first exoplanet, in 1995, did not revolutionize but knocked astronomical sciences over. At the same time, by opening new prospects of research, in particular in the search of planets similar to the Earth and in a possible extraterrestrial life, this discovery, since then abundantly repeated, gave a new breath to the public interest for this scientific field. But is humanity ready to learn the existence from extraterrestrial forms of life or to remain, in spite of its efforts, in ignorance? The question of the plurality of the worlds is one of the oldest interrogations conveyed by the human cultures, as testified by the multiple answers which were brought to it. In the same way, the concept of life is itself an inexhaustible source of philosophical and religious reflexions, with many consequences in moral domains. It is today necessary to accompany the scientific development in the field of astrobiology by attaching the greatest importance to this intellectual patrimony. It constitutes even one of the first stages of an ethical responsibility in astrobiology, as important as that concerning planetary protection.

    Arnould, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    154

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission Concept  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High resolution (R greater than 2500) infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5-16 micron range is a principal means by which gas phase and solid organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Unfortunately, the distribution of these materials, and their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other and their environments, are currently not well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept currently under study by a team of partner institutions: NASA's Ames Research Center, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding (1) the evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds and young stellar systems, (2) the chemical evolution of organic molecules in the ISM as they transition from AGB outflows to planetary nebulae to the diffuse ISM to HII regions and dense molecular clouds, (3) the distribution of organics in the diffuse ISM, (4) the nature of organics in the Solar System (in comets, asteroids, satellites), and (5) the nature and distribution of organics in local galaxies. The technical considerations of achieving these science objectives in a MIDEX-sized mission will be presented.

    Sandford, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    155

    Understanding the nineteenth century origins of disciplines: lessons for astrobiology today?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrobiology's goal of promoting interdisciplinary research is an attempt to reverse a trend that began two centuries ago with the formation of the first specialized scientific disciplines. We have examined this era of discipline formation in order to make a comparison with the situation today in astrobiology. Will astrobiology remain interdisciplinary or is it becoming yet another specialty? As a case study, we have investigated effects on the scientific literature when a specialized community is formed by analyzing the citations within papers published during 1802-1856 in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Phil. Trans.), the most important ‘generalist’ journal of its day, and Transactions of the Geological Society of London (Trans. Geol. Soc.), the first important disciplinary journal in the sciences. We find that these two journals rarely cited each other, and papers published in Trans. Geol. Soc. cited fewer interdisciplinary sources than did geology papers in Phil. Trans. After geology had become established as a successful specialized discipline, geologists returned to publishing papers in Phil. Trans., but they wrote in the new, highly specialized style developed in Trans. Geol. Soc. They had succeeded in not only creating a new scientific discipline, but also a new way of doing science with its own modes of research and communication. A similar citation analysis was applied to papers published over the period 2001-2008 in the contemporary journals Astrobiology and the International Journal of Astrobiology to test the hypothesis that astrobiologists are in the early stages of creating their own specialized community. Although still too early to reliably detect any but the largest trends, there is no evidence yet that astrobiologists are drifting into their own isolated discipline. Instead, to date they appear to remain interdisciplinary.

    Brazelton, William J.; Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

    2009-10-01

    156

    The Religion/Science Controversy: The Use and Abuse of Science in the Defense of Religion. Proceedings of a Conference (Westville, Indiana, October 5, 1985).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Science and religion have been referred to as the two strongest general forces which influence humankind. This document contains the proceedings of a conference which was held to address some of the relationships and controversies surrounding these topics. Included are the texts of the major papers presented at the conference. These are: (1)…

    Kanagy, Sherman P., II, Ed.

    157

    Undergraduate Education in the Sciences for Students in Agriculture and Natural Resources. Summary of Proceedings of Regional Conferences.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Following a national conference entitled, "Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences for Students in Agriculture and Natural Resources," four regional conferences ensued, bringing together teaching faculty members from agriculture, forestry, other natural resource areas, and biology. The papers presented at these regional meetings are…

    Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

    158

    UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES FOR STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES, PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REPORTED ARE THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1966 CONFERENCE WHICH DEALT WITH UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES. THE 167 EDUCATORS (MOSTLY DEANS AND DIRECTORS OF RESIDENT INSTRUCTION) WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE CONFERENCE REPRESENTED AGRICULTURE, RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES, THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, AND…

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    159

    PREFACE: 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) conference series has been organized to create a new forum in Asia and Australia to discuss vacuum, surface and related sciences, techniques and applications. The conference series is officially endorsed by the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Application (IUVSTA). The International Steering Committee of VASSCAA is comprised of Vacuum Societies in seven countries: Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Pakistan. VASSCAA-1 was organized by the Vacuum Society of Japan in 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. VASSCAA-2 was held in 2002 in Hong Kong, VASSCAA-3 in Singapore in 2005. VASSCAA-4 was held in Matsue, Japan in 2008 and VASSCAA-5 in 2010 in Beijing, China. The 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6) was held from 9-13 October 2012 in the beautiful city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The venue of the conference was the Pak-China Friendship Centre, Islamabad. More than six hundred local delgates and around seventy delegates from different countries participated in this mega event. These delegates included scientists, researchers, engineers, professors, plant operators, designers, vendors, industrialists, businessmen and students from various research organizations, technical institutions, universities, industries and companies from Pakistan and abroad. The focal point of the event was to enhance cooperation between Pakistan and the international community in the fields of vacuum, surface science and other applied technologies. At VASSCAA-6 85 oral presentations were delivered by local and foreign speakers. These were divided into different sessions according to their fields. A poster session was organized at which over 70 researchers and students displayed their posters. The best three posters won prizes. In parallel to the main conference sessions four technical short courses were held. The participants showed keen interest in all these courses. The most significant part of this event was an international exhibition of science, technology, energy and industry. In this international exhibition over 60 prominent international as well as local industrialists and vendors displayed their products. For the recreation of conference participants a cultural program and dinner was arranged. This entertaining program was fully enjoyed by all the participants especially the foreign guests. Recreational trips were also arranged for the foreign delegates. This mega event provided a unique opportunity to our scientific community to benefit from the rich international experience. The conference was a major forum for the exchange of knowledge and provided numerous scientific, technical and social opportunities for meeting leading experts. Editors Dr Javaid Ahsan Bhatti, Dr Talib Hussain, Dr Suleman Qaiser and Dr Wakil Khan National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology (NINVAST) NCP Complex, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan The PDF also contains a list of delegates.

    Ahsan Bhatti, Javaid; Hussain, Talib; Khan, Wakil

    2013-06-01

    160

    Space activities in exo-astrobiology  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A brief overview is given about astronomical (NGST, GAIA, COROT, EDDINGTON, KEPLER and DARWIN) and planetary (CASSINI-HUYGENS, STARDUST, ROSETTA, MARS-EXPRESS and future Mars missions, Europa missions, Moon, Mercury missions) space missions, which will investigate astrobiological aspects during their operation phase.

    Bernard H. Foing

    2002-01-01

    161

    Role of the observer in the scientific process in astrobiology and in defining life  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The role of the observer in the scientific process has been studied in various contexts, including philosophical. It is notorious that the experiments are theory-loaded, that the observers pick and choose what they consider important based on their scientific and cultural backgrounds, and that the same phenomenon may be studied by different observers from different angles. In this paper we critically review various authors' views of the role of the observer in the scientific process, as they apply to astrobiology. Astrobiology is especially vulnerable to the role of the observer, since it is an interdisciplinary science. Thus, the backgrounds of the observers in the astrobiology field are even more heterogeneous than in the other sciences. The definition of life is also heavily influenced by the observer of life who injects his/her own prejudices in the process of observing and defining life. Such prejudices are often dictated by the state of science, instrumentation, and the science politics at the time, as well as the educational, scientific, cultural and other background of the observer.

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2010-08-01

    162

    A concept for NASA's Mars 2016 astrobiology field laboratory.  

    PubMed

    The Mars Program Plan includes an integrated and coordinated set of future candidate missions and investigations that meet fundamental science objectives of NASA and the Mars Exploration Program (MEP). At the time this paper was written, these possible future missions are planned in a manner consistent with a projected budget profile for the Mars Program in the next decade (2007-2016). As with all future missions, the funding profile depends on a number of factors that include the exact cost of each mission as well as potential changes to the overall NASA budget. In the current version of the Mars Program Plan, the Astrobiology Field Laboratory (AFL) exists as a candidate project to determine whether there were (or are) habitable zones and life, and how the development of these zones may be related to the overall evolution of the planet. The AFL concept is a surface exploration mission equipped with a major in situ laboratory capable of making significant advancements toward the Mars Program's life-related scientific goals and the overarching Vision for Space Exploration. We have developed several concepts for the AFL that fit within known budget and engineering constraints projected for the 2016 and 2018 Mars mission launch opportunities. The AFL mission architecture proposed here assumes maximum heritage from the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). Candidate payload elements for this concept were identified from a set of recommendations put forth by the Astrobiology Field Laboratory Science Steering Group (AFL SSG) in 2004, for the express purpose of identifying overall rover mass and power requirements for such a mission. The conceptual payload includes a Precision Sample Handling and Processing System that would replace and augment the functionality and capabilities provided by the Sample Acquisition Sample Processing and Handling system that is currently part of the 2009 MSL platform. PMID:17723090

    Beegle, Luther W; Wilson, Michael G; Abilleira, Fernando; Jordan, James F; Wilson, Gregory R

    2007-08-01

    163

    Deep Impact at Europa: A Hypervelocity Impact Mission for Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traditional applications of passive reflectance or emission spectroscopy are poorly suited for astrobiology of icy satellite surfaces, because ice is strongly absorbing and masks spectral regions where organics are active. Two recent Flagship missions, Galileo and Cassini, observed Europa with multiple instruments but failed to detect any organic molecules on its surface, highlighting the difficulty of conducting astrobiology from orbit. We are studying a new mission concept that would directly address the organic composition and habitability of the subsurface. This mission, inspired by the recent success of Deep Impact, uses a hypervelocity impactor launched from a Jupiter-orbiting spacecraft, to excavate to below the depth of the radiation-altered layer. The aim is not to penetrate to the ocean, but to impact into a region where material from the ocean likely migrated toward the surface. Although now frozen, this material is expected to contain remnants of organics and other oceanic material, unaltered by irradiation given a sufficient excavation depth. The organic and bulk compositions of the near surface will be characterized in the plumes and in the fallen ejecta using emission and reflectance spectroscopy. Additionally, high-resolution images of the crater will be taken during subsequent flybys to determine approximate properties of the ice shell. We expect such a mission could use conventional propulsion and could potentially fit within a New Frontiers class cost-cap. Such a mission would serve to bridge the science gap between an orbiter and a lander, and would provide vital information that will help in the science planning and instrument selection for follow-on landed missions. Alternatively, this mission concept could be used in conjunction with a Flagship-class orbiter mission to dramatically increase its science return. This mission concept has general applicability and would be relevant to all airless icy satellites of interest, including Europa and Enceladus.

    Prockter, Louise; Hibbitts, K.; Schultz, P.; Lisse, C.; Dunham, D.; Meech, K.; Paranicas, C.; Collins, G.

    2006-09-01

    164

    Students' Pre-Instructional Beliefs and Reasoning Strategies About Astrobiology Concepts  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The purpose of this study is to identify and document student beliefs and reasoning difficulties concerning topics related to astrobiology. This was accomplished by surveying over two thousand middle school, high school, and college (science and non-science majors) students. Students were surveyed utilizing student-supplied response questions focused on the definition of life and its limitations. Careful, inductive analysis of student responses revealed that the majority of students correctly identify that liquid water is necessary for life and that life forms can exist without sunlight. However, many students incorrectly state that life cannot survive without oxygen. Furthermore, when students are asked to reason about life in extreme environments, they most often cite complex organisms (such as plants, animals, and humans) rather than the more ubiquitous microorganisms. Results of this study were used to inform the development of astrobiology curriculum materials.

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Timothy F.

    165

    Reconsidering the Character and Role of Inquiry in School Science: Analysis of a Conference  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    We summarize a conference on scientific inquiry bringing together science educators, cognitive scientists and philosophers\\u000a of science with three goals: \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a to establish how much consensus exists about scientific inquiry,\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a to discuss implications of that consensus for teaching science,\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a to identify areas where consensus is lacking to establish where further research and discussion would be most valuable.

    Richard Grandy; Richard A. Duschl

    2007-01-01

    166

    Cosmic evolution: the context for astrobiology and its cultural implications  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrobiology must be seen in the context of cosmic evolution, the 13.7 billion-year master narrative of the universe. The idea of an evolving universe dates back only to the 19th century, and became a guiding principle for astronomical research only in the second half of the 20th century. The modern synthesis in evolutionary biology hastened the acceptance of the idea in its cosmic setting, as did the confirmation of the Big Bang theory for the origin of the universe. NASA programmes such as Origins incorporated it as a guiding principle. Cosmic evolution encompasses physical, biological and cultural evolution, and may result in a physical, biological or postbiological universe, each with its own implications for long-term human destiny, and each imbuing the meaning of life with different values. It has the status of an increasingly accepted worldview that is beginning to have a profound effect not only in science but also in religion and philosophy.

    Dick, Steven J.

    2012-10-01

    167

    Presented Papers of the European Division Mathematics & Science Conference (1st, Heidelberg, West Germany, February 28-March 2, 1986).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This document contains the papers presented at a conference designed to provide a forum to discuss the European Division mathematics and science program and to allow an opportunity for professional development. Papers on approaches to teaching specific topics in the Maryland mathematics and science curriculum, as well as on other aspects of…

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Univ. Coll.

    168

    Information in the Language Sciences: Proceedings of the Conference Held at Warrenton, Virginia, March 4-6, 1966.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This collection of 22 papers from the Conference on Information in the Language Sciences held in Warrenton, Va., in 1966, sponsored by the Center for Applied Linguistics, stresses three themes: general trends, information needs of the languages sciences, and system design. Discussions attempt to formulate modern rational approaches to the complex…

    Freeman, Robert R., Ed.; And Others

    169

    Annual Conference for African-American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4) (4th). Preliminary Program.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    In June, The Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center, hosted the 4th Annual Conference for African-American Reserachers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4) at Rice University. The main goal of thi...

    R. Tapia

    1998-01-01

    170

    Information in the Language Sciences: Proceedings of the Conference Held at Warrenton, Virginia, March 4-6, 1966.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This collection of 22 papers from the Conference on Information in the Language Sciences held in Warrenton, Va., in 1966, sponsored by the Center for Applied Linguistics, stresses three themes: general trends, information needs of the languages sciences, and system design. Discussions attempt to formulate modern rational approaches to the complex…

    Freeman, Robert R., Ed.; And Others

    171

    Helping Science and Drug Development to Succeed through Pharma-Academia Partnerships: Yale Healthcare Conference 2013.  

    PubMed

    The theme of the 2013 Yale Healthcare Conference was "Partnerships in Healthcare: Cultivating Collaborative Solutions." The April conference brought together leaders across several sectors of health care, including academic research, pharmaceuticals, information technology, policy, and life sciences investing. In particular, the breakout session titled "Taking R&D Back to School: The Rise of Pharma-Academia Alliances" centered on the partnerships between academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies. Attendees of the session included members of the pharmaceutical industry, academic researchers, and physicians, as well as graduate and professional students. The discussion was led by Dr. Thomas Lynch of Yale University. Several topics emerged from the discussion, including resources for scientific discovery and the management of competing interests in collaborations between academia and the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24058318

    Yang, Daniel X; Kim, Yunsoo A

    2013-09-20

    172

    PREFACE: IC-MSQUARE 2012: International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Physical Sciences  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The first International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Budapest, Hungary, from Monday 3 to Friday 7 September 2012. The conference was attended by more than 130 participants, and hosted about 290 oral, poster and virtual papers by more than 460 pre-registered authors. The first IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields in which mathematical modelling is used, such as theoretical/mathematical physics, neutrino physics, non-integrable systems, dynamical systems, computational nanoscience, biological physics, computational biomechanics, complex networks, stochastic modelling, fractional statistics, DNA dynamics, and macroeconomics. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, two parallel sessions ran every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful; thus all attendees had a creative time. The mounting question is whether this occurred accidentally, or whether IC-MSQUARE is a necessity in the field of physical and mathematical modelling. For all of us working in the field, the existing and established conferences in this particular field suffer from two distinguished and recognized drawbacks: the first is the increasing orientation, while the second refers to the extreme specialization of the meetings. Therefore, a conference which aims to promote the knowledge and development of high-quality research in mathematical fields concerned with applications of other scientific fields as well as modern technological trends in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, sociology, environmental sciences etc., appears to be a necessity. This is the key role that IC-MSQUARE will play. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to IC-MSQUARE. We would also like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. Conference Chairmen Theocharis Kosmas Department of Physics, University of Ioannina Elias Vagenas RCAAM, Academy of Athens Dimitrios Vlachos Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese The PDF also contains a list of members of the International Scientific Committes and details of the Keynote and Invited Speakers.

    Kosmas, Theocharis; Vagenas, Elias; Vlachos, Dimitrios

    2013-02-01

    173

    Microfossil Phosphatization and Its Astrobiological Implications  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    One of the major tasks of astrobiology is to critically examine evidence of past or present ecosystems beyond our planet.\\u000a As Earth is the only planet that is known to have hosted life, perhaps as early as 3.8–3.5 billion years ago (or Ga, Giga anna) as illustrated by biologically-meaningful carbon isotopic signatures and prokaryotic microfossils (Mojzsis et al., 1996;\\u000a Schopf,

    Shuhai Xiao; James D. Schiffbauer

    174

    Synergy Conference: Industry`s role in the reform of mathematics, science and technology education  

    SciTech Connect

    The nation is in the midst of a unique period of educational change; at the cutting edge is the reform of mathematics, science, and technology education. With a history of trying to fix the parts, we now are attempting systemic reform. With a tradition of locally controlled school systems, we now are developing national standards. How can industry contribute to the systemic reform of K-12 mathematics, silence, and technology education? To help answer this question, the Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education and ten cosponsors hosted a Synergy Conference in June 1993. Industry representatives listened to presentations, held small-group discussions, and developed action plans and recommendations for ``synergy,`` where the outcome is greater than the sum of individual efforts.

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    175

    Computational Science - ICCS 2008, 8th International Conference, Kraków, Poland, June 23-25, 2008, Proceedings, Part I  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The three-volume set LNCS 5101-5103 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Science, ICCS 2008, held in Krakow, Poland in June 2008. The 167 revised papers of the main conference track presented together with the abstracts of 7 keynote talks and the 100 revised papers from 14 workshops were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in

    Marian Bubak; G. Dick van Albada; Jack Dongarra; Peter M. A. Sloot

    2008-01-01

    176

    Computational Science - ICCS 2008, 8th International Conference, Kraków, Poland, June 23-25, 2008, Proceedings, Part III  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The three-volume set LNCS 5101-5103 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Science, ICCS 2008, held in Krakow, Poland in June 2008. The 167 revised papers of the main conference track presented together with the abstracts of 7 keynote talks and the 100 revised papers from 14 workshops were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in

    Marian Bubak; G. Dick van Albada; Jack Dongarra; Peter M. A. Sloot

    2008-01-01

    177

    Wilderness Science in a Time of Change Conference. Volume 1: Changing Perspectives and Future Directions. Held in Missoula, Montana on May 23-27, 1999.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Contents: Wilderness Science in a Time of Change: A Conference; Global Change and Wilderness Science; Future Trends in Society and Technology: Implications for Wilderness Research and Management; Contemporary Criticisms of the Received Wilderness Idea; Th...

    D. N. Cole S. F. McCool W. Freimund J. O'Loughlin

    2000-01-01

    178

    The set of habitable planets and astrobiological regulation mechanisms  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The number of habitable planets in the Milky Way and its temporal variation are major unknowns in the nascent fields of astrobiology and Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence studies. All numerical models developed thus far have suffered from large uncertainties in the input data, in addition to our lack of understanding of the processes of astrobiological dynamics. Here, we argue that

    Branislav Vukotic

    2010-01-01

    179

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute: A Decade of Education and Outreach  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The mission statement of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) charts a course to establishing astrobiology as a new and influential field of scientific inquiry. It integrates world class, interdisciplinary research with training for the next generation of astrobiologists. It enables collaboration between distributed research teams by prioritizing the use of modern information technologies, and empowers astrobiologists to provide leadership for

    Daniella Scalice

    2008-01-01

    180

    Ethical issues in astrobiology: a Christian perspective (Invited)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    With its focus on the origin, extent, and future of life, Astrobiology raises exciting, multidisciplinary questions for science. At the same time, Astrobiology raises important questions for the humanities. For instance, the prospect of discovering extraterrestrial life - either intelligent or unintelligent - raises questions about humans’ place in the universe and our relationship with nature on planet Earth. Fundamentally, such questions are rooted in our understanding of what it means to be human. From a Christian perspective, the foundational claim about human nature is that all persons bear the "imago dei", the image of God. This concept forms the basis for how humans relate to one another (dignity) and how humans relate to nature (stewardship). For many Christians the "imago dei" also suggests that humans are at the center of the universe. The discovery of extraterrestrial life would be another scientific development - similar to evolution - that essentially de-centers humanity. For some Christian perspectives this de-centering may be problematic, but I will argue that the discovery of extraterrestrial life would actually offer a much needed theological corrective for contemporary Christians’ understanding of the "imago dei". I will make this argument by examining two clusters of ethical issues confronting Astrobiology: 1. What ethical obligations would human explorers owe to extraterrestrial life? Are there ethical obligations to protect extraterrestrial ecosystems from harm or exploitation by human explorers? Do our ethical considerations change, if the extraterrestrial life is a “second genesis;” in other words a form of life completely different and independent from the carbon-based life that we know on Earth? 2. Do we have an ethical obligation to promote life as much as we can? If human explorers discover extraterrestrial life and through examination determine that it is struggling to survive, do we have an ethical obligation to assist that ecological community to become stronger? If after a thorough investigation we determine that no life exists and that a planet is nothing more than a lifeless body of rocks and dust, do we have an ethical obligation to attempt the creation of life through a process called planetary ecosynthesis? Or, do we have the opposite obligation to respect the rocks and dust for what they are, and refrain from any attempts to engineer life on a lifeless planet? While these two clusters of issues pose new ethical questions, I will argue that from a Christian perspective the framework for responding to these challenges would remain the Genesis Creation stories and the concept of the "imago dei". However, the new ethical challenges posed by Astrobiology require a re-framing of the "imago dei" that is closer to the intent of the original scriptures and that predicts simultaneously the presence of extraterrestrial life and the de-centering of humanity.

    Randolph, R. O.

    2009-12-01

    181

    Ike 101: The Dwight D. Eisenhower Program for Mathematics and Science Education National Conference (Arlington, Virginia, November 17-22, 1991).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A conference was held to discuss educational issues related to mathematics and science education. This document reports the proceedings of the conference by summarizing the comments of several of the conference speakers. The speakers and topics discussed included: (1) Senator Mark Hatfield and Congressman Thomas Sawyer on the perspective of…

    Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education, College Park, MD.

    182

    Index covering conferences cited in Nuclear Science Abstracts and the DOE Energy Data Base: 1962 to 1983. Parts 1-4  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The purpose of this publication is to list energy-related conferences, meetings, symposia, and congresses within the programmatic interests of the Department of Energy. The publication includes conferences assigned a number in the CONF- report number series from 1962 through 1983. All conferences cited in Nuclear Science Abstracts and the Energy Data Base are listed. The Office of Scientific and Technical

    Vannoy

    1984-01-01

    183

    Future Exploration of Titan -Astrobiological Aspects  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The only known chemical systems sophisticated enough to execute the functions of life are those made from carbon-based compounds. Saturn's moon Titan presents us with an extensive and rich inventory of complex organics, and is therefore of great astrobiological interest. Astrobiology at Titan has two principal facets. First is the prospect of an internal water ocean (like other icy satellites, albeit perhaps with a higher concentration of ammonia and organics) and related aqueous chemistry that may occur in transient surface exposures of water in impact melt sheets or cryovolcanic flows. The other is chemistry that may occur in the nonpolar solvents ethane and methane that form Titan's polar lakes and seas. The astrobiological potential of the latter systems is essentially unknown, although the environments are more accessible to affordable exploration. Recent studies have identified many mission possibilities within the framework of a Flagship-class mission, including orbiters, landers on (organic) dunefields, landers in lakes, and aerial platforms such as Montgolfiere balloons acting in a coordinated, synergistic manner. However, such a mission is not likely to take place until circa 2030. More modest missions, that might consider one of these elements on a standalone basis, could be considered under PI-led mission categories such as New Frontiers or Discovery. A lake lander, for example, could carry a mass spectrometer to analyze the detailed composition of a lake. Even the earliest of these possibilities, the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) Discovery proposal presently being considered, would not arrive until 2022-2023. In the meantime, the recent approval by NASA of the Cassini Solstice Mission (until 2017) will enable many new findings at Titan, in particular with regard to Titan's interior, and seasonal changes in its organic lakes.

    Lorenz, Ralph

    184

    Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Seattle, Washington, January 11-14, 1996).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |These conference proceedings include papers presented and summaries of presentations made at the 1996 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (AETS). Topics include: English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) Strategies in science methods courses; writing strategies; action research and equity issues;…

    Rubba, Peter A. Ed.; And Others

    185

    Science preparedness and science response: perspectives on the dynamics of preparedness conference.  

    PubMed

    The ability of the scientific modeling community to meaningfully contribute to postevent response activities during public health emergencies was the direct result of a discrete set of preparedness activities as well as advances in theory and technology. Scientists and decision-makers have recognized the value of developing scientific tools (e.g. models, data sets, communities of practice) to prepare them to be able to respond quickly--in a manner similar to preparedness activities by first-responders and emergency managers. Computational models have matured in their ability to better inform response plans by modeling human behaviors and complex systems. We advocate for further development of science preparedness activities as deliberate actions taken in advance of an unpredicted event (or an event with unknown consequences) to increase the scientific tools and evidence-base available to decision makers and the whole-of-community to limit adverse outcomes. PMID:23903391

    Lant, Timothy; Lurie, Nicole

    186

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute & Collaboration: A Critical Orientation for Today's World  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrobiology is a science of collaboration. The pursuit of answers to questions about the origin and evolution of life in the universe requires input from many different specialized fields. Biologists team up with geologists and paleontologists in order to understand the nature of ancient earth when life first began; astronomers and chemists work together to build a picture of distant star systems and the presence of organic compounds in them; and all these scientists must work with engineers to build the necessary equipment used in scientific exploration of our universe. Astrobiology then is the perfect backdrop for a discussion of how and why collaboration is important and how it fits into the modern world. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) works to explore advanced communication tools and to build a culture supportive of collaborative work. NAI must also actively seek ways in which to recruit and train the next generation of researchers including preparing them for collaborative working environments. Collaborations between scientists and teachers are essential to achieving those goals. Discussions will include NAI's current efforts in collaboration in both scientific and educational communities.

    Wilmoth, Krisstina; Faithorn, Lisa

    187

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from NASA presents a comprehensive overview of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project, which is developing drilling, sample handling, and instrument technologies relevant to searching for life in the Martian subsurface, and demonstrating them in a field test at a site with a Mars-analog subsurface biosphere on Earth. The site highlights the many problems inherent to drilling for subsurface life on Mars, and tracks the Rio Tinto project in Spain which is seen as a proxy for future Mars missions.

    Experiment, Mars A.; Nasa

    188

    The 2009 Astrobiology Graduate Student Conference (AbGradCon)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 2009 AbGradCon was held at the University of Washington in July 2009. It brought together 67 participants from 8 different countries and 34 different universities. AbGradCon also took place in the virtual world of Second Life.

    Som, S. M.; Anderson, R.; Antonio, M.; Cash, M. C.; Claire, M.; Cowan, N.; Ewert, M.; Goldman, A.; Snowden, D.; Stüeken, E.

    2010-04-01

    189

    Art, Science & Visual Literacy: Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (24th, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, September 30-October 4, 1992).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Following an introductory paper on Pittsburgh and the arts, 57 conference papers are presented under the following four major categories: (1) "Imagery, Science and the Arts," including discovery in art and science, technology and art, visual design of newspapers, multimedia science education, science learning and interactive videodisc technology,…

    Braden, Roberts A., Ed.; And Others

    190

    Art, Science & Visual Literacy: Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (24th, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, September 30-October 4, 1992).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Following an introductory paper on Pittsburgh and the arts, 57 conference papers are presented under the following four major categories: (1) "Imagery, Science and the Arts," including discovery in art and science, technology and art, visual design of newspapers, multimedia science education, science learning and interactive videodisc technology,…

    Braden, Roberts A., Ed.; And Others

    191

    Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Minneapolis, MN, January 8-11, 1998).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The 40 papers from this international conference addressed the major theme of facilitating science literacy for all teachers and students. Papers include the following: (1) "Confronting the Gender Gap in Science and Mathematics: The Sisters in Science Program" (P. Hammrich); (2) Teaching Instructional Materials for Science Educators with a CD-ROM…

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.

    192

    Proceedings of the lunar and planetary science conference, 13th, part 2  

    SciTech Connect

    The second part of the proceedings of the Thirteenth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference considers sedimentary processes and crustal cycling on Venus, a model for the formation of the earth's core, evidence of resurfacing in the lunar nearside highlands, the geology of Tethys, thermal stresses in planetary elastic lithospheres, the petrology and comparative thermal and mechanical histories of clasts in breccia 62236, lunar paleointensity data and its implications for the origin of lunar magnetism, and a model for the accumulation of solar wind radiation damage effects in lunar dust grains. Also discussed are fluid inclusions in stony meteorites, nuclear track and compositional studies of olivines in CI and CM chondrites, the impact of an asteroid or comet in the ocean and the extinction of terrestrial life, cooling rates for glass-containing lunar compositions, and the homogeneity of lava flows.

    Boynton, W.V.; Ahrens, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    193

    Improving Science Instruction for Students with Disabilities: Proceedings. Working Conference on Science for Persons with Disabilities (Anaheim, California, March 28-29, 1994).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This proceedings report includes papers presented at a conference on teaching science to students with disabilities. In the first paper, "Family Pedigrees: A Model Lesson Illustrating Strategies for Teaching Students with Disabilities in a Mainstreamed High School Biology Class" (Kathleen Ball and Edward C. Keller, Jr.), strategies are described…

    Stefanich, Greg P.; Egelston-Dodd, Judy, Ed.

    194

    Improving Science Instruction for Students with Disabilities: Proceedings. Working Conference on Science for Persons with Disabilities (Anaheim, California, March 28-29, 1994).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This proceedings report includes papers presented at a conference on teaching science to students with disabilities. In the first paper, "Family Pedigrees: A Model Lesson Illustrating Strategies for Teaching Students with Disabilities in a Mainstreamed High School Biology Class" (Kathleen Ball and Edward C. Keller, Jr.), strategies are described…

    Stefanich, Greg P.; Egelston-Dodd, Judy, Ed.

    195

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON THE CHANGING IDENTITY OF GRADUATE EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION (ATLANTA, JANUARY 25-26, 1965).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DISCUSSED ARE THE CHANGING IDENTITY OF GRADUATE EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION, THE FACTORS WHICH PRECIPITATED THESE CHANGES, AND THE RESULTING PROBLEMS. THE CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS INCLUDED EARTH SCIENTISTS WITH DIVERSE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUNDS FROM A BROAD GEOGRAPHICAL AREA. SPECIFIC TOPICS COVERED INCLUDED--(1) PRESENT DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE OF EARTH…

    WEAVER, CHARLES E.

    196

    Classroom Assessment in Mathematics: Views from a National Science Foundation Working Conference (Greensboro, North Carolina, May 16-18, 1997).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This document presents papers from a National Science Foundation (NSF) working conference to identify research issues and implementation strategies that support quality classroom assessment. Papers include: (1) "Understanding and Improving Classroom Assessment: Summary of Issues Raised" (George W. Bright and Jeane M. Joyner); (2) "Recommendations…

    Bright, George W., Ed.; Joyner, Jeane M., Ed.

    197

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON THE CHANGING IDENTITY OF GRADUATE EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION (ATLANTA, JANUARY 25-26, 1965).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |DISCUSSED ARE THE CHANGING IDENTITY OF GRADUATE EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION, THE FACTORS WHICH PRECIPITATED THESE CHANGES, AND THE RESULTING PROBLEMS. THE CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS INCLUDED EARTH SCIENTISTS WITH DIVERSE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUNDS FROM A BROAD GEOGRAPHICAL AREA. SPECIFIC TOPICS COVERED INCLUDED--(1) PRESENT DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE OF EARTH…

    WEAVER, CHARLES E.

    198

    Education in Library and Information Science. Proceedings of the International Conference (Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, May 21-26, 1984).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An international conference attended by 59 participants from 12 countries was organized to present Yugoslavia as a case study to the international audience, to bring to the Yugoslav audience a variety of international experiences in library and information science education and training, and to acquaint participants with some of the new…

    Mihel, Ivan, Ed.; Tudor-Silovic, Neva, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    199

    2011 X-Ray Science Gordon Research Conference (August 7-12, 2011, Colby, College. Waterville, ME)  

    SciTech Connect

    The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on X-ray Science will feature forefront x-ray-based science enabled by the rapid improvements in synchrotron and x-ray laser sources. Across the world, x-ray sources are playing an increasingly important role in physics, materials, chemistry, and biology, expanding into ever broadening areas of science and engineering. With the first hard x-ray free electron laser source beginning operation and with other advanced x-ray sources operational and planned, it is a very exciting and pivotal time for exchange ideas about the future of x-ray science and applications. The Conference will provide the forum for this interaction. An international cast of speakers will illuminate sessions on ultrafast science, coherence, imaging, in situ studies, extreme conditions, new developments in optics, sources, and detectors, inelastic scattering, nanoscience, life science, and energy sciences. The Conference will bring together investigators at the forefront of these areas, and will provide a venue for young scientists entering a career in x-ray research to present their research in poster format, hold discussions in a friendly setting, and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. Some poster presenters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with ample time for discussion as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, will provide an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to exchange ideas about forefront x-ray techniques and will promote cross-fertilization between the various research areas represented.

    Gregory Stephenson

    2011-08-12

    200

    The Astrobiology Primer - an Early Career Scientist Education, Outreach and Professional Development Project  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We are early-career scientists jointly leading a project to write 'The Astrobiology Primer', a brief but comprehensive introduction to astrobiology, and we are using the process of producing the document as an innovative way of strengthening the international community of early-career astrobiologists. Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life in our universe. It includes not just study of life on Earth, but also the potential for life to exist beyond Earth, and the development of techniques to search for such life. It therefore incorporates geological and earth sciences, life sciences, chemistry, astronomy and planetary sciences. This requires astrobiologists to integrate these different disciplines in order to address questions such as 'How did Earth and its biosphere originate?', 'How do life and the physical, chemical and geological cycles on Earth interact, and affect each other?' and so 'What does life on Earth tell us about the habitability of environments outside Earth?'. The primer will provide a brief but comprehensive introduction to the field; it will be significantly more comprehensive than a normal review paper but much shorter than a textbook. This project is an initiative run entirely by early-career scientists, for the benefit of other early-career scientists and others. All the writers and editors of the primer are graduate/post-graduate students or post-doctoral fellows, and our primary target group for the primer is other early-career scientists, although we hope and expect that the primer will also be useful far more broadly in education and outreach work. An Astrobiology Primer was first published in 2006(Ref1), written and edited by a small group of early-career astrobiologists to provide an introduction to astrobiology for other early-career scientists new to the field. It has been used not only by the target group for private study, but in formal education and outreach settings at universities and high-schools. We are now producing a second edition, which is an entirely new re-write, and we are making the process of producing the primer a development opportunity in its own right, to strengthen the international community of early-career astrobiologists. We have recruited a large team of writers and editors, 45 people from 11 different countries across North and South America, Europe and Australia. By working together on this joint project we are strengthening links between early-career scientists in these countries. In addition, we have a wider group of early-career astrobiologists who we consulted on the content that the primer should include. We have also recruited early-career scientists from this group, and more widely, to act as 'accessibility reviewers' to check that the primer meets its goal of being clear to people who are not experts in the field. We expect that the primer will be published in 2012, in several different languages. It will be freely available online to all who want it. References 1. Mix LM et al (2006) The Astrobiology Primer : An Outline of General Knowledge - Version 1, 2006 Astrobiology 6(5) : 735-813

    Wright, K. E.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    201

    Abstracts of Presented Papers and the Proceedings of the Association for Education of Teachers in Science--North Central Region and Society for College Science Teachers Conference (Indianapolis, Indiana, October 29-30, 1986).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This document contains the abstracts of the presentations made at this conference. Topics of presentations included: (1) linking research and science teaching using community resources; (2) planning science teacher workshops; (3) school-related recycling programs; (4) improving student attitudes toward science; (5) rural science teaching; (6)…

    Foster, Gerald Wm., Ed.

    202

    News Conference: Bloodhound races into history Competition: School launches weather balloon Course: Update weekends inspire teachers Conference: Finland hosts GIREP conference Astronomy: AstroSchools sets up schools network to share astronomy knowledge Teaching: Delegates praise science events in Wales Resources: ELI goes from strength to strength International: South Sudan teachers receive training Workshop: Delegates experience universality  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conference: Bloodhound races into history Competition: School launches weather balloon Course: Update weekends inspire teachers Conference: Finland hosts GIREP conference Astronomy: AstroSchools sets up schools network to share astronomy knowledge Teaching: Delegates praise science events in Wales Resources: ELI goes from strength to strength International: South Sudan teachers receive training Workshop: Delegates experience universality

    2011-11-01

    203

    Possible Role of a Medical Microbiologist in Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studies of microorganisms present in human body often reveal many extremophiles, silicon-utilizing microorganisms, mutation processes, coacervates etc., thus a medical microbiologist can also take a part in studies on astrobiology in this way.

    Das, S.; Roy, B. K.

    2010-04-01

    204

    Astrobiology Student Intern Program at Lassen Volcanic National Park  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) Ames Team has partnered with Lassen Volcanic National Park and Red Bluff High School to engage high school students in the collection of scientific data for NASA astrobiologists and the National Park Service.

    Dueck, S. L.; Zachary, S.; Michael, D.; Parenteau, M.; Kubo, M.; Jahnke, L. L.; Scalice, D.; Des Marais, D. J.

    2010-04-01

    205

    Joining Astrobiology to Medicine, Resurrecting Ancient Alcohol Metabolism  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We apply an astrobiological approach to understand how primates responded to the emergence of ethanol in their environment by resurrecting two enzymes involved in the degradation of ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrgenase.

    Carrigan, M. A.; Uryasev, O.; Davis, R. W.; Chamberlin, S. G.; Benner, S. A.

    2010-04-01

    206

    Astrobiology and green chemistry: a new pedagogical connection  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various pedagogical approaches are needed to introduce astrobiology into the chemistry curriculum. We are developing a new approach in which we connect green chemistry with astrobiology. Green chemistry is chemistry which is environmentally friendly. One obvious way for the organic chemistry to be environmentally friendly is to use water as solvent, instead of more toxic organic solvents. Another approach is to run so-called solventless reactions. For example, as the solid materials are mixed together, the melting point of the mixture is lower than the melting points of its individual components (the principle of the mixed-melting point). In some cases the entire mixture may melt upon mixing. The reactions would then occur in a viscous semi-solid state. An additional approach is to run the reactions by utilizing enzymes or man-made protein mimics as catalysts instead of toxic catalysts, such as those based on the transition metals. These and some other known examples of green chemistry have a great potential for astrobiology. The astrobiological reactions typically occur in water (e.g. prebiotic soup), in the solid mixtures (e.g. on the meteors), and may be catalyzed by various short peptides. The connection between the green chemistry principles and astrobiology represents a new pedagogical approach for infusion of astrobiology into the organic chemistry.

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2009-08-01

    207

    National Association for Research in Science Teaching Annual Conference, Abstracts of Presented Papers (61st, Lake of the Ozarks, MO, April 10-13, 1988).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This document contains the abstracts of most of the papers, symposia and poster sessions presented at the 61st Annual Conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST). Subject areas addressed include: teacher preparation, science, technology and society; classroom research; elementary science; process skills;…

    Blosser, Patricia E., Ed.; Helgeson, Stanley L., Ed.

    208

    Girls And Science And Technology (GASAT). Contributions to the Conference (1st, Eindhaven, The Netherlands, November 9-13, 1981). Volume 2.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This document contains the full text of 21 papers presented at an international conference on Girls And Science And Technology (GASAT). They include: "Women in Science and Engineering: A Case of Awareness and Encouragement" (Mary Anderson); "A Multi-phased Program for Recruiting Southern Women into Science Based on Extensive Media Use and…

    Raat, Jan H.; And Others

    209

    A brief history of the Athens conference on organic coatings, science and technology  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    On 5–9 July 1999 the 25th conference on organic coatings took place in Vouliagmeni near Athens in Greece. To celebrate this anniversary and to honor the memory of the founder and director of the conference, Professor Angelos V. Patsis, a brief review of the history of the conference is given. Typical trends in coatings technology and applications reflected in the

    W. J Mijs

    2000-01-01

    210

    XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or

    Eric Mykhalovskiy; Glen Brown; Rodney Kort

    2009-01-01

    211

    News Teaching Support: New schools network launched Competition: Observatory throws open doors to a select few Festival: Granada to host 10th Ciencia en Acción Centenary: Science Museum celebrates 100 years Award: Queen's birthday honour for science communicator Teacher Training: Training goes where it's needed Conference: Physics gets creative in Christchurch Conference: Conference is packed with ideas Poster Campaign: Bus passengers learn about universe Forthcoming events  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaching Support: New schools network launched Competition: Observatory throws open doors to a select few Festival: Granada to host 10th Ciencia en Acción Centenary: Science Museum celebrates 100 years Award: Queen's birthday honour for science communicator Teacher Training: Training goes where it's needed Conference: Physics gets creative in Christchurch Conference: Conference is packed with ideas Poster Campaign: Bus passengers learn about universe Forthcoming events

    2009-09-01

    212

    Highlights of the Annual Conference (20th): Veterans Administration Studies in Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences, Chicago, Illinois, April 9-11, 1975.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    This document contains highlights from the Veterans Administration (VA) Studies in Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences 20th Annual Conference. Included are symposia on the following subjects: the application of behavioral principles to treatment of medi...

    1975-01-01

    213

    International Conference on the Science and Technology of Zirconia (ZrO2IV) (4th) Held in Anaheim, California on Nov 1-3, 1989.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The Fourth International Conference on the Science and Technology of Zirconia (ZrO2 IV) was held at Anaheim, California in November, 1989. One hundred twenty (120) papers were presented on topics covering fuel cells, phase transformation, processing, sens...

    I. W. Chen

    1990-01-01

    214

    Perspectives in Veterans Administration Neuropsychology and Rehabilitation: Proceedings of Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences Service Conference Held in Salt Lake City, Utah.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences Service Conference was held to present recent advances in clinical neuropsychology. Brain injury and the subsequent treatment and rehabilitation stages are assessed. Reports include a discussion of acute brain inj...

    1981-01-01

    215

    Highlights of the 19th Annual Conference: Veterans Administration Studies in Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 20-22, 1974.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The document contains highlights from the Veterans Administration (VA) Studies in Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences 19th Annual Conference. Included are symposia on the following subjects: mental health involvement in medical/surgical problems; innova...

    1974-01-01

    216

    Highlights of the Annual Conference (18th): Veterans Administration Studies in Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 28-30, 1973.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    This document contains highlights from the Veterans Administration (VA) Studies in Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences 18th Annual Conference. Included are symposia on the following subjects: therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of senility, fact or ar...

    1973-01-01

    217

    Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Australian Science Education Association (19th, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, November 18, 1994).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The Western Australian Science Education Association is an informal group which meets annually for a conference. This document contains the proceedings of the 1994 conference. Papers included were: (1) "Relationship Between Cognitive Style and Students' Proportional Reasoning Ability" (Ayo Akatugba); (2) "Alternative Modes of Instruction in…

    Rennie, Leonie J., Ed.

    218

    Life Out There: An Astrobiological Multimedia Experience for the Digital Planetarium  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planetariums have a long history of experimentation with audio and visuals to create new multimedia experiences. We report on a series of innovative experiences in the Gates Planetarium at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in 2009-2011 combining live performances of music and navigation through scientific visualizations. The Life Out There productions featured a story showcasing astrobiology concepts at scales ranging from galactic to molecular, and told using VJ-ing of immersive visualizations and musical performances from the House Band to the Universe. Funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's JPL-Titan Team, these hour-long shows were broken into four separate themed musical movements, with an improvisatory mix of music, dome visuals, and spoken science narrative which resulted in no two performances being exactly alike. Post-performance dissemination is continuing via a recorded version of the performance available as a DVD and online streaming video. Written evaluations from visitors who were present at the live shows reveal high satisfaction, while one of the Life Out There concerts was used to inaugurate a new evening program to draw in a younger audience demographic to DMNS.

    Yu, K. C.; Grinspoon, D.

    2013-04-01

    219

    Life in ice: implications to astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    During previous research expeditions to Siberia, Alaska and Antarctica, it was observed that glaciers and ice wedges contained bacterial cells that became motile as soon as the ice melted. This phenomenon of live bacteria in ice was first documented for microbes in ancient ice cores from Vostok, Antarctica. The first validly published species of Pleistocene bacteria alive on Earth today was Carnobacterium pleistocenium. This extremophile had remained for 32,000 years, encased in ice recently exposed in the Fox Tunnel of Alaska. These frozen bacteria began to swim as soon as the ice was thawed. Dark field microscopy studies revealed that large numbers of bacteria exhibited motility as soon as glacial ice was melted during our recent Expeditions to Alaska and Antarctica led to the conclusion that microbial life in ice was not a rare phenomenon. The ability of bacteria to remain alive while frozen in ice for long periods of time is of great significance to Astrobiology. In this paper, we describe the recent observations and advance the hypothesis that life in ice provides valuable clues to how we can more easily search for evidence of life on the Polar Caps of Mars, comets and other icy bodies of our Solar System. It is suggested that cryopanspermia may have played a far more important role in Origin of Life on Earth and the distribution of Life throughout the Cosmos and than previously thought possible.

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.

    2009-08-01

    220

    Volcanic Rocks As Targets For Astrobiology Missions  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almost two decades of study highlight the importance of terrestrial subaqueous volcanic rocks as microbial habitats, particularly in glass produced by the quenching of basaltic lava upon contact with water. On Earth, microbes rapidly begin colonizing glassy surfaces along fractures and cracks exposed to water. Microbial colonization of basaltic glass leads to enhanced alteration through production of characteristic granular and/or tubular bioalteration textures. Infilling of formerly hollow alteration textures by minerals enable their preservation through geologic time. Basaltic rocks are a major component of the Martian crust and are widespread on other solar system bodies. A variety of lines of evidence strongly suggest the long-term existence of abundant liquid water on ancient Mars. Recent orbiter, lander and rover missions have found evidence for the presence of transient liquid water on Mars, perhaps persisting to the present day. Many other solar system bodies, notably Europa, Enceladus and other icy satellites, may contain (or have once hosted) subaqueous basaltic glasses. The record of terrestrial glass bioalteration has been interpreted to extend back ~3.5 billion years and is widespread in modern oceanic crust and its ancient metamorphic equivalents. The terrestrial record of glass bioalteration strongly suggests that glassy or formerly glassy basaltic rocks on extraterrestrial bodies that have interacted with liquid water are high-value targets for astrobiological exploration.

    Banerjee, N.

    2010-12-01

    221

    Contribution to a symbiogenic approach in astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This article intends to continue our previous work on the symbiogenic approach to chemical and biological evolution. We believe that cooperative and synergistic processes were responsible, using terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials, for the creation of a large prebiotic pool, closely related to geochemical contexts, and intense interactions within. Probably, a series of synergistic and cooperative effects produced a wide source of creativity, and functional advantages that pushed the emergence of complex and functionally integrated biological systems, through the evolution of self-organization and auto-catalysis. It was only after this biochemical evolution of structures, which produced the informational capabilities necessary for self-replication, that the Darwinian mechanisms could arise. This way of perceiving the emergence of life follows the proposals regarding life's initial evolution in which the progenote proposed consisted in an open community of very diverse primitive cellular entities with intense symbiotic associations, antagonisms, and competition, and with a rapid and reticulate pattern of evolution. We believe this symbiogenic approach should be considered in the understanding of chemical and biological evolution. This discussion contributes to the development of astrobiological knowledge, since it gives other perspectives about life's appearance and development on Earth and elsewhere.

    Carrapiço, Francisco; Pereira, Luísa; Rodrigues, Telma

    2007-10-01

    222

    Hydrothermal exploration and astrobiology: oases for life in distant oceans?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High-temperature submarine hydrothermal fields on Earth's mid-ocean ridges play host to exotic ecosystems with fauna previously unknown to science. Because these systems draw significant energy from chemosynthesis rather than photosynthesis, it has been postulated that the study of such systems could have relevance to the origins of life and, hence, astrobiology. A major flaw to that argument, however, is that modern basalt-hosted submarine vents are too oxidizing and lack the abundant free hydrogen required to drive abiotic organic synthesis and/or the energy yielding reactions that the most primitive anaerobic thermophiles isolated from submarine vent-sites apparently require. Here, however, the progress over the past decade in which systematic search strategies have been used to identify previously overlooked venting on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the ultra-slow spreading Arctic and SW Indian Ridges is described. Preliminary identification of fault-controlled venting in a number of these sites has led to the discovery of at least two high-temperature hydrothermal fields hosted in ultramafic rocks which emit complex organic molecules in their greater than 360 °C vent-fluids. Whether these concentrations represent de novo organic synthesis within the hydrothermal cell remains open to debate but it is probable that many more such sites exist throughout the Atlantic, Arctic and SW Indian Oceans. One particularly intriguing example is the Gakkel Ridge, which crosses the floor of the Arctic Ocean. On-going collaborations between oceanographers and astrobiologists are actively seeking to develop a new class of free-swimming autonomous underwater vehicle, equipped with appropriate chemical sensors, to conduct long-range missions that will seek out, locate and investigate new sites of hydrothermal venting at the bottom of this, and other, ice-covered oceans.

    German, Christopher R.

    2004-04-01

    223

    Index covering conferences cited in Nuclear Science Abstracts and the DOE Energy Data Base: 1962 to 1983. Parts 1-4  

    SciTech Connect

    The purpose of this publication is to list energy-related conferences, meetings, symposia, and congresses within the programmatic interests of the Department of Energy. The publication includes conferences assigned a number in the CONF- report number series from 1962 through 1983. All conferences cited in Nuclear Science Abstracts and the Energy Data Base are listed. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), Technical Information Center developed a numbering system in 1962 that quickly narrows the search for a particular conference proceedings, or one of the papers presented, to the year and month to help the individual seeking the information. This publication contains two computer-produced indexes. The first is a KWIC (Key Word in Context) index of the conference location and title. The second index is arranged numerically by CONF- number and provides location, date, and title information for each conference.

    Vannoy, D.M. (ed.)

    1984-11-01

    224

    Developing cyber-infrastructure for addressing grand challenge questions in Sun-Earth system science: First results of a testbed worldwide online conference series  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Software supporting an online conference series was developed with the purpose of catalyzing interdisciplinary investigations in Sun-Earth system science among large groups of researchers worldwide in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year in 2007. Transformative science in this area lies at the edges and intersections of individual elements (the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere) whose

    J. U. Kozyra; R. Barnes; N. J. Fox; P. A. Fox; M. M. Kuznetsova; D. Morrison; D. Pallamraju; V. Papitashvili; A. Ridley; E. R. Talaat; M. Weiss; C. A. Young; L. J. Zanetti

    2006-01-01

    225

    Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This document contains the proceedings of the 2002 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002. Papers include: (1) "Teaching Science Methods Courses with Web-Enhanced Activities" (Alec M. Bodzin); (2) "How Is Your Lawnmower Working?…

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

    226

    MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators & Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (3rd, Columbus, OH, May 15, 1999).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERs-OSU) is a student organization that grew out of the former OSU Council of Teachers of Mathematics (OSU-CTM). Papers from the third annual conference include: (1) "Gender, Ethnicity, and Science" (Terry Arambula-Greenfield); (2) "Assessment:…

    Costner, Kelly M., Ed.; Reed, Michelle K., Ed.

    227

    Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on ‘Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments’ relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-07-01

    228

    Astrobiological Implications of Rock Varnish in Tibet  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The study of terrestrial geomicrobiology and its relationship to rock weathering processes is an essential tool in developing analogues for similar processes that may have occurred on Mars. Most studies of manganese-enhanced rock varnish have focused on samples taken from warm arid desert regions. Here, we examine samples obtained from eolian-abraded lava flows of the 4700-4800 m high Ashikule Basin in Tibet. Because it receives approximately 300 mm of precipitation annually, this site is nowhere near as dry as Atacama Desert locales. However, the dusty, sulfate-rich, high-altitude and high-UV flux environment of the Tibetan locale offers new insight into rock varnish formation processes in a terrestrial environment that displays some attributes similar to those expected on early Mars. Microprobe measurements reveal that Mn enhancements in varnish are two orders of magnitude above the dust source, but Fe is only enhanced by a factor of three. Manganese-enhancing bacterial forms are not abundant but are still approximately 3 times more common than in Mojave and Sonoran Desert varnishes. In addition to its occurrence in subaerial positions, Tibetan varnish also occurs in micron-scale "pods" enveloped by silica glaze and as remobilized constituents that have migrated into the underlying weathering rind. A lack of surficial Mn-rich varnish, therefore, might not imply the absence of varnish. In contrast to suggestions that silica glaze might be a good source of microbial fossils and a key to varnish formation, we did not observe any clear microfossil forms entombed in silica glaze; further, there is no gradation between varnish and silica glaze but only distinct contacts. %K Analogue, Astrobiology, Bacteria, Biomineralization, Desert varnish, Geomicrobiology, Life on Mars, Manganese enhancement, Rock coating, Rock varnish, Microstromatolite, Tibet, Weathering

    Krinsley, David; Dorn, Ronald I.; DiGregorio, Barry

    2009-08-01

    229

    Commerce Secretary, President's Science Advisor to Keynote Conference on Economic and Social Implications of Information Technology  

    NSF Publications Database

    ... Home > OLPA Home > Newsroom > NSF PA/M 03-04 Media Advisory NSF PA/M 03-04 - January 21, 2003 ... Advisor to Keynote Conference on Economic and Social Implications of Information Technology Despite ...

    230

    Identifying Organic Molecules in Space - The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5-16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding (1) the evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds and young forming stellar systems, (2) the chemical evolution of organic molecules in the ISM as they transition from AGB outflows to planetary nebulae to the general diffuse ISM to HII regions and dense clouds, (3) the distribution of organics in the diffuse ISM, (4) the nature of organics in the Solar System (in comets, asteroids, satellites), and (5) the nature and distribution of organics in local galaxies. The technical considerations of achieving these science objectives in a MIDEX-sized mission will be presented.

    Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Bregman, J.; Ennico, K.; Greene, T.; Hudgins, D.; Strecker, D.

    2001-05-01

    231

    Environmental Science Conference for State Supervisors of Science (Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, May 1-5, 1970).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Conference report reviewed the status of man's environment and drafted guidelines for state education agencies to use for developing state programs related to environmental education. The six featured speakers and topics were: Kessler Cannon--"Report of the Governor's Committee on Natural Resources;" Dr. Harry Kramer--"Environmental Problems…

    Portland State Univ., OR.

    232

    Investigation of Life in the Atacama Desert by Astrobiology Rover  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Atacama Desert is the most arid region on Earth and in several ways analogous to Mars. It has been suggested that the interior of the desert is the most lifeless place on Earth, yet it is known that microorganisms exist on rocks and in soils where the desert meets the coastal range. The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project is investigating the distribution and diversity of life and habitats in the desert using an rover guided by a remote science team. The Atacama Desert presents an excellent analogue to Mars because it is extremely dry, but also, like Mars it experiences high levels of ultraviolet radiation due to its altitude and atmospheric transparency. The soils in the Atacama have been found to be particularly high in oxidants, which lead to the rapid breakdown of organic material. The result is that in some regions of desert almost no biogenic material can be found on the surface. To the benefit of analogue studies for Mars exploration, the desert visually resembles Mars as seen through rover cameras. For these reasons: aridity, ultraviolet radiation and soil composition we believe the Atacama is analogous to Mars and an excellent location for rover field experiments. To support our astrobiologic investigation, we have created a mobile robot, Zo, that makes the measurement of the distribution and diversity of microorganisms possible. Mobility is crucial as habitats are hypothesized to depend on locally variable conditions including moisture, solar flux, and rock/soil composition. The ability to traverse tens to hundreds of kilometers while deploying sensors is a fundamental requirement because only by visiting many sites will the few in which organisms exist be found. Many observations provide the basis for statistically valid analysis of distribution. Zo's instrument payload combines complementary elements, some directed towards remote sensing of the environment (geology, morphology, mineralogy, climate) for the detection of conditions favorable to terrestrial life and some directed toward the in situ detection of life's signatures (biological and physical, such as biological constructs and patterns). The payload is designed to both detect organic biomarkers, including DNA, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, and to characterize habitats. The existence of endoliths in extreme environments similar to early Mars makes the testing of detection methods for chlorophyll-based life a valid working hypothesis. Whether or not life on Mars (if any) used-or uses-photosynthesis, detecting its signature will likely involve accessing isolated oases scattered over large distances. LITA is demonstrating this capability in a relevant terrestrial analogue. In our first field season (2003) we found that microhabitats, on the scale of a few meters or tens of meters, were sparsely distributed in coastal regions and were detectable by fluorescent and spectral signatures. In our second season (2004) Zo revisited the coastal region and also investigated the existence and character of habitats in the desert core. In the third field season (2005), with our astrobiology payload fully functional and operational procedures established, the rover is collecting measurements that provide the basis for a map of life in local areas. Our goal is to make genuine discoveries about the limits of life on Earth and to generate knowledge about life in extreme environments that can be applied to future planetary missions. Through these experiments we also hope to develop and practice the methods by which a rover might best be employed to survey desert terrain and seek evidence of life.

    Wettergreen, D.; Cabrol, N.

    2005-12-01

    233

    Science Education on the Internet: Conference for Developers of OnLine Curricula ''Learning Strategies for Science Education Websites''  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Internet-based science education programs are coming of age. Educators now look seriously to the Internet as a source of accessible classroom materials, and they are finding many high-quality online science programs. Beyond providing solid curriculum, these programs have many advantages. They provide materials that are far more current than what textbooks offer and are more accessible to disadvantaged and rural

    Raymond F. Gesteland; Dorothy S. Dart; Jennifer Logan; Louisa Stark

    2000-01-01

    234

    Stable Isotope Astrobiology at Hispanic Serving Institutions: Si Se Puede!  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A "crawl-walk-run" strategy has been used to create a strong, sustainable program in stable isotope geochemistry with an emphasis on astrobiology. The result was the creation of a vibrant program addressing the record of early life on Earth.

    Melchiorre, E. B.; Lopez, A.; Velasquez, C. M.

    2010-04-01

    235

    Progressive Metamorphic Alteration of Stromatolite Biosignatures: Taphonomic Implications for Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This study describes the progressive alteration of two biogenic stromatolite beds from the 1.88 Ga Biwabik Iron Formation of Minnesota as a result of the intrusion of a LIP at 1.1 Ga in order to better constrain future astrobiologic targets.

    Shapiro, R. S.

    2010-04-01

    236

    PRIMITIVE BODY EXPLORATION IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND ASTROBIOLOGY  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Origins of planetary systems and life are common goals among astronomers, biologists and planetary scientists. In the context of planetary exploration, astrobiology can be defined an interdisciplinary subject which answers fp, ne and fl parameters for the Drake-Sagan equation. The new concept of habitable zones also demands better understanding of primitive bodies of the solar system while \\

    Hajime YANO

    2002-01-01

    237

    Life on Earth...and Elsewhere? Astrobiology in Your Classroom  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The hands-on activities in this educators guide lay the conceptual groundwork for understanding questions fundamental to the field of astrobiology. They enable students to examine the nature of life, what it requires, its limits, and where it might be found. Through these experiences, students learn ideas related to the search for extraterrestrial life.

    2005-01-01

    238

    A Survey of Educational Activities and Resources Relevant to Mars and Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) is a suite of instruments that will be onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, which was recently named Curiosity in a student-naming contest. SAM's three instruments are devoted to studying the chemical composition of the Martian surface and atmosphere and to understanding the planet's past habitability and potential habitability today. Curiosity is scheduled to launch in 2011, however many Education and Public Outreach (EPO) activities supported by the MSL mission are well underway. The SAM EPO plan includes elements of both formal and informal education in addition to outreach, such as incorporating data into the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams program, developing a museum exhibit and associated educational materials about SAM's research, and writing articles about the MSL mission and SAM's findings for ChemMatters magazine. One of the EPO projects currently being carried out by members of the SAM team is training secondary education teachers in Mars geology, astrobiology, and SAM science goals via professional development workshops. Several of the recent Mars missions have had extensive EPO components to them. As a result, numerous educational activities and resources have already been developed relating to understanding Mars and astrobiology. We have conducted a survey of these activities and resources previously created and have compiled those relevant and useful for our SAM teacher training workshops. Resources and activities have been modified as needed. In addition, we have identified areas in which no educational activities exist and are developing new curriculum specifically to address these gaps. This work is funded by the MN Space Grant Consortium and NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Manning, Heidi L. K.; Bleacher, L.

    2009-09-01

    239

    Astrobiology from Earth-Sun L1  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exoplanet discoveries are occurring at an ever increasing rate, and ongoing work focuses on the characterization of these worlds. However, current technologies do not provide spatially-resolved observations of exoplanets, and the next generation of exoplanet characterization missions will only acquire disk-integrated photometry and/or spectra of their distant targets. While an Earth-observing mission to the Earth-Sun L1 point will likely provide spatially-resolved images and/or spectra, these observations can be integrated over the spatial dimensions to mimic a view of Earth as a pale blue dot. Such an approach would allow us to study many key characteristics of the disk-integrated Earth (with the added benefit of being able to use the spatially-resolved observations to aid our interpretations), and would represent the types of observations which future exoplanet characterization missions would hope to acquire for an Earth-like exoplanet. These characteristics include short- and long-timescale variations in brightness, seasonal variations in surface and atmospheric temperature, and variations in key trace gases in Earth's atmosphere. Measurements of these quantities, and their variability, are indicative of dynamic weather, climate, and, potentially, life on a planet, and are all properties which we would hope to measure, one day, for a terrestrial exoplanet. The NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model simulates both spatially-resolved and disk-integrated, high spectral resolution observations of the distant Earth. Our model utilizes a variety of data from a number of Earth-observing satellites, and has been validated over a wide range of viewing geometries, phases, and wavelengths. Model-generated observations can be used to understand the feasibility of measuring a variety of Earth's characteristics from the Earth-Sun L1 point, which provides an opportunity to both better plan and implement a mission to L1 and to develop, practice, and refine our abilities to remotely characterize terrestrial exoplanets. Such studies represent an important synergy between the Earth-observing community and the astronomy and exoplanets community.

    Meadows, V. S.; Robinson, T. D.

    2011-12-01

    240

    Support for GCTE-LUCC open Science Conference on global change. Final report for period September 15, 1997, - September 14, 1998  

    SciTech Connect

    The Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE) core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and the Land-Use/Cover Change (LUCC) core project of IGBP and the International Human Dimensions Program (IHDP) held a major open Science Conference in Barcelona, Spain, on 14-18 March 1998. At the Conference, scientists presented the most recent research findings from these two international projects, explored emerging cross-cutting linkages between the projects, and highlighted the importance of the regional approach to global change research. This grant from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, provided support for the Conference by contributing to the production of conference literature and by supporting the participation of U.S. scientists in the Conference.

    Pitelka, L.F.

    1999-02-01

    241

    Report on the WPI Conference: General Chemistry and Materials Science: The Interrelationships  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Of the recent accomplishments of chemistry, some of the most spectacular have been in the area of materials. New miracle materials have revolutionized our lives in almost every aspect from semiconductors to metallic eyeglass frames that return to a "memorized" shape when bent. However, materials receive surprisingly little attention as examples of chemical phenomena in fundamental chemistry classes, which are still built largely on the behavior of gases and liquids. These issues were the basis for the Ninth Annual Worcester Polytechnic Institute Conference on Chemical Education. This article addresses the conference and the issues.

    Beall, Herbert

    1996-08-01

    242

    Investigating the state of the Sun-Earth system during extreme events: First science results of a worldwide online conference series  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This presentation reports on new science results from an online conference entitled "Return to the Auroral Oval for the Anniversary of the IGY" designed to bring together researchers worldwide: (1) to investigate newly reported features in the auroral oval during substorms that occur in the main phase of superstorms and how these features map throughout geospace, (2) to explore implications for the state of the geospace system, (3) to identify signatures associated with this geospace state from equatorial to polar latitudes, (4) to investigate the unusual aspects of the solar sources, and (5) to understand how propagation from Sun to Earth modified the observed solar drivers. The main focus of the first conference is on worldwide data exchange, the construction of global data products and assimilative global views, and identifying coupled chains of events from sun-to-Earth. The collaborative conference data products and enhanced understanding of the observed features of the events will form the basis for a follow-on conference in 2007 focused primarily on theoretical studies and collaborative simulation efforts between modeling groups, observers and data analysts. This conference is the first in a series of sun-Earth connection online conferences, sponsored by CAWSES, IHY, eGY, ICESTAR, NASA/LWS, and NSF Atmospheric Science Programs, and designed to bring interdisciplinary researchers together with the vast developing cyber-infrastructure of large international data sets, high performance computing and advanced visualizations to address grand challenge science issues in a way not previously possible.

    Kozyra, J. U.; Shibata, K.; Fox, N. J.; Basu, S.; Coster, A. J.; Davila, J. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Liou, K.; Lu, G.; Mann, I. R.; Pallamraju, D.; Paxton, L. J.; Peterson, W. K.; Talaat, E. R.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Young, C. A.; Zanetti, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    243

    Landing on the Moon's farside: What are the geochemistry, astrobiology and instrumental issues?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A high research priority in astrobiology is the search and eventual identification of biomarkers in the Solar System with feasible instrumentation. In spite of numerous steps forward lunar science remains largely disjoint from the main stream of astrobiology. In recent years the Moon has begun to emerge as a novel target for astrobiologists (Crawford et al., 2010). We discuss an overlap between lunar geochemistry and terrestrial geomicrobiology arising from the analysis of lunar soils and some uncertainties in chemical evolution and the origin of life scenarios (Chela-Flores, 2011). Unexpected isotopic heterogeneity of nitrogen was found to be remarkable in samples from Apollo and the Luna programme (Kerridge, 1975). Both the stable isotope geochemical data of the biogenic elements, as well as the noble gases trapped in lunar soils have added valuable new and relevant data. These discoveries are potential sources of information on early biological evolution on Earth. The elusive ratio of nitrogen's two stable isotopes 15N/14N has played a fundamental role in this aspect of lunar geochemistry (Owen et al., 2001). The analysis of individual grains of ilmenite suggests that 90% of all the trapped nitrogen does not originate from solar wind. We discuss the significance of these stable isotopes from the point of view of astrobiology in the light of the next generation of lunar exploration. We underline the high priority of testing the origin of non-solar nitrogen source trapped in the regolith of the lunar farside. In current proposals of new lunar missions, the characterisation of the geochemistry at several lunar sites is a major objective (Smith et al., 2011). Some arguments are presented in favor of using novel space technologies in a search for biomarkers in geographical distinct lunar landing sites. We restrict our attention to one aspect of the science requirements for the forthcoming missions by focusing on a very limited objective: to take a closer look at the geochemical characterisation of the chemical element nitrogen on the soils of the lunar farside and the related payload issues.

    Chela-Flores, J.

    2012-04-01

    244

    Case--studies approach to transferring introductory STEM classes: a course on astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    There is a growing awareness to the need for moving away from lecture--mode approaches in undergraduate STEM education and to the importance of increasing innovation and diversity in STEM education programs. We adopt the case--studies approach, and have taught an introductory course on astrobiology ---the science of life in the universe--- at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. We have created teaching materials using different types of cases, and have conducted an evaluation study. We intend to refine our teaching materials based on the evaluation study, and repeat the course next year. Following this study the teaching materials will be made available free of charge to any instructor, and the approach will be applied to other disciplines, including large enrollment classes.

    Burko, Lior M.; Enger, Sandra K.

    2011-04-01

    245

    Astrobiology: Using Current Research to Invigorate Science Curricula  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Humans have long pondered the question of life's origins on Earth and sought to understand their place in the vast expanse of the Universe. Are they alone, in which case the inception of life is a phenomenon unique to planet Earth, or will they find signs of life on other terrestrial bodies? Today, technology allows space probes and rovers to…

    Nassif, Thomas Harttung; Zeller, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    246

    Perspectives of women of color in science-based education and careers. Summary of the conference on diversity in science.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Research on inequality or stratification in science and engineering tends to concentrate on black/white or male/female difference; very few studies have discussions of both race and gender. Consequently, very little is known about the exact course that wo...

    1998-01-01

    247

    Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research I. Morphological and anatomical characteristics.  

    PubMed

    Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species-Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum-used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research. PMID:23868319

    Meeßen, J; Sánchez, F J; Brandt, A; Balzer, E-M; de la Torre, R; Sancho, L G; de Vera, J-P; Ott, S

    2013-07-20

    248

    Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z  

    SciTech Connect

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, K-T Boundary Layer, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, planetary mantles, and space exploration. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    249

    XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Clinical and biomedical prevention science  

    PubMed Central

    The question of whether to initiate ART at higher CD4+ cell counts than currently recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines received much attention at the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008). If studies presented at the conference ultimately lead to a revision of WHO treatment guidance, the estimated number of people who will need ART globally will increase substantially. Task-shifting is emerging as an important strategy for dealing with the acute shortage of health care workers in many high-burden countries, and several studies presented at AIDS 2008 demonstrated the impressive health system efficiencies garnered by using nurses or other health care providers to deliver HIV care and treatment. Other key presentations and discussion at the conference focused on the optimal time to start TB treatment in HIV-infected patients, the growing risk of resistance in high-burden countries, including its impact on future treatment options, and several large cohort trials testing optimal drug regimens in resource-limited settings. Biomedical prevention research continues to confirm the long-term, protective benefits of circumcision. Several studies involving HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples have produced data suggesting a strong protective effect of ART for HIV-negative partners. Disappointing results from recent vaccine and non-ARV based microbicides trials are nevertheless providing important data to this field, and the expanding number of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials and ARV-based microbicides appear to provide the best hope for a new, efficacious biomedical prevention intervention.

    2009-01-01

    250

    Proceedings of the precollege-university partnerships for science and mathematics education conference  

    SciTech Connect

    In April of 1992 in Atlanta, Georgia, nearly 50 elementary and secondary educators and about 100 postsecondary educators convened to explore their common interests in the conference on precollege-university partnerships. This report summarizes the remarks and conclusions of speakers, panelists, and of attendees gathered in regional work groups. During the course of the conference, attendees heard from federal agencies and foundations which fund education-related projects and learned of their enthusiastic support of partnerships. In our national need to manage education and training resources wisely, these funding agents see partnership benefits such as renewed excitement for teaching at all levels, effective and technologically up-to-date in-service training, more and better-prepared high school graduates entering colleges, and a general enhancement of understanding among educators at all levels of teaching. As an added benefit, the partnership concept promotes discussion and understanding in an atmosphere of respect, appreciation, and self-esteem. Several hours of the conference were devoted to panels addressing five questions important to education coalitions. The panelists represented a wide variety of teaching levels, geographic locations, educational experiences, and ethnic groups.

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    251

    Conference Handbook. Australian Istitute of Nuclear Science and Engineering Radiation Biology Conference (11th), Held in Lucas Heights, Australia on August 24-25, 1987.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Topics covered by the conference include food irradiation, mutagenesis, mammalian radiation biology, biological and physical dosimetry and radiation responses in nuclear medicine. (Atomindex citation 20:044636)

    1987-01-01

    252

    Harvesting meteorites in the Omani desert: implications for astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meteorites will remain the most accessible, most diverse and most abundant source of extraterrestrial materials for many years to come. New sources of large numbers of meteorites allow the recovery of rare types particularly relevant for astrobiology, including Martian and Lunar samples. Oman has become an important source of meteorites only since 1999. Conditions for search and recovery are particularly favourable in many areas here because of an abundance of flat, light-colored, sand- and vegetation-free surfaces. During search expeditions carried out in the central deserts of Oman in 2001-2003 large numbers of meteorites, including a Martian and a Lunar sample, were recovered. The mass of recovered meteorites is 1334 kg, corresponding to approximately 150 to 200 fall events. We aim to classify all recovered specimens and study pairing and weathering effects. Our expeditions demonstrate the possibility to recover meteorite samples with astrobiological relevance with modest investments of finances and manpower.

    Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Al-Kathriri, Ali

    2004-03-01

    253

    Too early? on the apparent conflict of astrobiology and cosmology  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An interesting consequence of the modern cosmological paradigm is the spatial infinity of the universe. When coupled with\\u000a naturalistic understanding of the origin of life and intelligence, which follows the basic tenets of astrobiology, and with\\u000a some fairly incontroversial assumptions in the theory of observation selection effects, this infinity leads, as Ken Olum has\\u000a recently shown, to a paradoxical conclusion.

    Milan M. ?irkovi?

    2006-01-01

    254

    Astrobiological Phase Transition: Towards Resolution of Fermi’s Paradox  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Can astrophysics explain Fermi’s paradox or the “Great Silence” problem? If available, such explanation would be advantageous\\u000a over most of those suggested in literature which rely on unverifiable cultural and\\/or sociological assumptions. We suggest,\\u000a instead, a general astrobiological paradigm which might offer a physical and empirically testable paradox resolution. Based\\u000a on the idea of James Annis, we develop a model

    Milan M. ?irkovi?; Branislav Vukotic

    2008-01-01

    255

    MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (2nd, May 16, 1998, Columbus, OH).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERS-OSU) is a newly formed student organization. Papers from the conference include: (1) "Was the Geometry Course, The Nature of Proof, Taught by Harold Pascoe Fawcett the Best Course Ever Taught in Secondary School?" (Frederick Flener); (2) "A…

    Reed, Michelle K., Ed.; Costner, Kelly M., Ed.

    256

    MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (2nd, May 16, 1998, Columbus, OH).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERS-OSU) is a newly formed student organization. Papers from the conference include: (1) "Was the Geometry Course, The Nature of Proof, Taught by Harold Pascoe Fawcett the Best Course Ever Taught in Secondary School?" (Frederick Flener); (2) "A…

    Reed, Michelle K., Ed.; Costner, Kelly M., Ed.

    257

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking Social Behaviors in Adolescents--A Commentary  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Although youth in the United States remain substantially more violent than adolescents and young adults in most industrial countries, the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking Social Behaviors in Adolescents identified many reasons for optimism about our capacity to…

    Johnson, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    258

    MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators & Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (5th, Columbus, Ohio, May 5, 2001).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERs-OSU) is a student organization that grew out of the former Ohio State University Council of Teachers of Mathematics (OSU-CTM). Papers from the fifth annual conference include: (1) "Models of the Structure of Matter: Why Should We Care about…

    Herman, Marlena F., Ed.

    259

    Delivering Academic Excellence to Culturally Diverse Populations (Language Development through Math/Science Activities). Conference Proceedings (Saddle Brook, New Jersey, December 7-8, 1984).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This document includes the proceedings of a conference that made the following points about American society now and in the future: (1) racial changes in demographics require preparing urban minority students for entrance into scientific and technological fields; (2) the science/mathematics education movement of the late 1950s into the 1970s has…

    Bilotta, Cynthia, Ed.

    260

    MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators & Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (4th, Columbus, Ohio, May 6, 2000).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERs-OSU) is a student organization that grew out of the former Ohio State University Council of Teachers of Mathematics (OSU-CTM). Papers from the fourth annual conference include: (1) "Technology Education Curriculum Models in Michigan Secondary…

    Costner, Kelly M., Ed.; Herman, Marlena F., Ed.

    261

    Science and Technology Education for Civic and Professional Life: The Undergraduate Years. A Report of the Wingspread Conference (Racine, Wisconsin, June 1-3, 1982).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The failure of colleges and universities to ensure that all undergraduates become scientifically and technologically educated was addressed at the 1982 Wingspread Conference. Representatives of education, business, government, and other professions considered the place of science and technology education within liberal education and formulated a…

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    262

    Child Development and Social Science Education. Part I: The Problem, Part II: Conference Report.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Parts I and II of a four-part report on a study of the relevance of existing knowledge about child development to social science curriculum development are combined in this document. Part I explores the problem of inadequate communication between the developmental psychologists and curriculum workers and suggests some directions for cooperative…

    Sigel, Irving

    263

    Conference Report: Reviving pharmaceutical R&D with translational science, regulatory efficiency and innovative models.  

    PubMed

    The 4th Annual Shanghai Symposium on Clinical & Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis (CPSA Shanghai 2013) was held on 24-27 April 2013 in Shanghai, China. The meeting provided an educational forum for scientists from pharmaceutical industry, academia, CROs and instrument vendors to share experience and ideas, and discuss current challenges, issues and innovative solutions associated with pharmaceutical R&D. The meeting featured highly interactive events, including diversified symposia, roundtable discussions, workshops, poster sessions and conference awards. Education and specialized training are the foundation of CPSA events. The CPSA Shanghai 2013 meeting also featured an inaugural satellite workshop event in Beijing, as well as joint sessions traditionally held with local bioanalytical and drug metabolism discussion groups. PMID:24138620

    Zhang, Tianyi Tee; Weng, Naidong; Lee, Mike

    2013-10-01

    264

    Astrobiologists Seed The Future: Education and Public Outreach in the NASA Astrobiology Institute  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Understanding the diversity of life in the universe, its relative abundance or rarity, and its origins is the work of astrobiology. The answers to astrobiological questions require the expertise of scientists from different fields as well as different generations to answer. It may take several lifetimes before we understand the potential for life beyond Earth. The multi-generational nature of the

    K. L. Wilmoth

    2003-01-01

    265

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Identifying Organic Molecules in Space  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept, currently under Concept Phase A study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace &Technologies, Corp., and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct infrared spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding

    Kimberly A. Ennico; Scott Sandford; Louis Allamandola; Jesse D. Bregman; Martin Cohen; Dale Cruikshank; Thomas P. Greene; Douglas Hudgins; Sun Kwok; Steven D. Lord; Suzanne Madden; Craig R. McCreight; Thomas L. Roellig; Donald W. Strecker; A. G. G. M. Tielens; Michael W. Werner

    2003-01-01

    266

    The Cyborg Astrobiologist: porting from a wearable computer to the Astrobiology Phone-cam  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We have used a simple camera phone to significantly improve an `exploration system' for astrobiology and geology. This camera phone will make it much easier to develop and test computer-vision algorithms for future planetary exploration. We envision that the `Astrobiology Phone-cam' exploration system can be fruitfully used in other problem domains as well.

    Bartolo, Alexandra; McGuire, Patrick C.; Camilleri, Kenneth P.; Spiteri, Christopher; Borg, Jonathan C.; Farrugia, Philip J.; Ormö, Jens; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Rodriguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Díaz-Martínez, Enrique; Ritter, Helge; Haschke, Robert; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Jörg

    2007-08-01

    267

    Science and Mathematics Education in the United States: Eight Innovations: Proceedings of the OECD International Conference on Science, Mathematics and Technology Education (Paris, France, November 5-7, 1991).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This volume is the first in a series emanating from the Center for Educational Research and Innovation's project on science, mathematics, and technology education in countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). It contains eight case studies from the United States presented to an international conference. Four…

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    268

    Year of the Oceans: Science of Information Handling. [Proceedings of the] Annual Conference of the International Association of Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers (10th, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, October 2-5, 1984).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |International Association of Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers (IAMSLIC) conferences provide a format for libraries and information specialists to discuss common interests and concerns so that services and information can be made available to scientists, administrators, engineers, educators and students in the discipline of marine…

    Grundy, R. L., Ed.; Ford, R. T., Ed.

    269

    Might Astrobiological Findings Evoke a Religious Crisis?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).

    Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    270

    Brazilian research on extremophiles in the context of astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extremophiles are organisms adapted to grow at extreme ranges of environmental variables, such as high or low temperatures, acid or alkaline medium, high salt concentration, high pressures and so forth. Most extremophiles are micro-organisms that belong to the Archaea and Bacteria domains, and are widely spread across the world, which include the polar regions, volcanoes, deserts, deep oceanic sediments, hydrothermal vents, hypersaline lakes, acid and alkaline water bodies, and other extreme environments considered hostile to human life. Despite the tropical climate, Brazil has a wide range of ecosystems which include some permanent or seasonally extreme environments. For example, the Cerrado is a biome with very low soil pH with high Al+3 concentration, the mangroves in the Brazilian coast are anaerobic and saline, Pantanal has thousands of alkaline-saline lakes, the Caatinga arid and hot soils and the deep sea sediments in the Brazilian ocean shelf. These environments harbour extremophilic organisms that, coupled with the high natural biodiversity in Brazil, could be explored for different purposes. However, only a few projects in Brazil intended to study the extremophiles. In the frame of astrobiology, for example, these organisms could provide important models for defining the limits of life and hypothesize about life outside Earth. Brazilian microbiologists have, however, studied the extremophilic micro-organisms inhabiting non-Brazilian environments, such as the Antarctic continent. The experience and previous results obtained from the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR) provide important results that are directly related to astrobiology. This article is a brief synopsis of the Brazilian experience in researching extremophiles, indicating the most important results related to astrobiology and some future perspectives in this area.

    Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Nóbrega, Felipe; Nakayama, Cristina R.; Pellizari, Vivian H.

    2012-10-01

    271

    Astrobiology as an Integrating Theme in Solar System Exploration  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The discipline of astrobiology examines (i) the origin and evolution of life on Earth and the detailed interplay between biological and planetary evolution, (ii) the evolution of our solar system and the potential and actual distribution of life within it, (iii) the occurrence of planets around other stars and their potential for life, and (iv) the interplay between each of these areas. In our own solar system, astrobiology encompasses much more than just the search for life on Mars or Europa. Our goal is to understand the nature of planetary habitability--which planets have evolved to have environments that are habitable by microorganisms, and which have not. By understanding the processes that control the architecture of our solar system, we can extrapolate how these same processes might have played out in other planetary systems and what the distribution of habitability might be beyond our own system. In this context, Mars and Europa appear as potentially habitable worlds either today or in the past, Ganymede and Callisto might have deep subsurface oceans and be habitable, Venus might have been habitable early on but does not appear to be today, and Titan probably has had intermittent liquid water as well as ongoing chemical evolution involving organic molecules. Looking more broadly, the origin and the evolution of the gas-giant planets and their dynamical effects have had a major influence on the terrestrial planets; the characteristics of the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud influence our understanding of early chemical and volatile processes that affect habitability; and asteroids have had a tremendous impact on the terrestrial planets throughout their history. In order to understand planetary habitability in general, and the implications of a discovery of the presence or absence of life on any given object, we need to understand the detailed origin and evolution of our solar system as a whole and of the individual bodies within it. A broad program of planetary exploration is the best way to investigate the astrobiology of our solar system.

    Jakosky, B. M.

    2003-12-01

    272

    Final technical report: Third SIAM Conference on Mathematical Aspects of Materials Science [Program and abstracts  

    SciTech Connect

    The meeting gathered the interdisciplinary community of scientists working on mathematical and computational aspects of materials science. One goal was to examine recent methodological advances in areas such as analysis of moving interfaces, macroscopic consequences of microstructure, and defects in materials. A second goal was to highlight recent accomplishments in areas such as materials design, synthesis, and processing; simulation of phase transformation dynamics; growth and morphology of thin films; and electromagnetic materials. A third goal was to identify promising directions for new developments of a mathematical or computational nature in areas such as multiscale analysis of materials--from atomic to continuum; nanoscale structures; liquid crystals, glasses, and polymers; and soft materials and bio-materials. There were 270 registered participants. The meeting included both plenary lectures and minisymposia.

    James, Richard D.; McFadden, Geoffrey B.

    2002-09-01

    273

    Scytonemin: molecular structural studies of a key extremophilic biomarker for astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ab initio calculations for scytonemin, an important ultraviolet (UV)-radiation protective biomolecule synthesized by extremophilic cyanobacteria in stressed terrestrial environments, are reported for the first time. Vibrational spectroscopic assignments for the previously studied Raman spectra assist in the identification of the major features in the observed data. Calculations of the electronic absorption spectra confirm the capability of this molecule to absorb in all three regions of the UV, UVA, UVB and UVC, and also illustrate the need for a dimeric species in this respect. The presence of significant steric hindrance between the two halves of the dimeric molecule about the C—C bridging bond in scytonemin forces the molecule significantly out of planarity, contrary to assumptions made in the literature; however, it appears that the monomer is capable of absorbing to only a limited extent in the UVB and UVC regions only, so conferring a special emphasis upon the need for the dimerization to remove the lower-energy UV radiation whilst still affording protection for the chlorophyll with transmission of the visible radiation required for photosynthesis. The observation of vibrational band wavenumber coincidences for the first time between the infrared and Raman spectra confirm the non-planar structural prediction from the calculations. The results of this study provide information about the protective chemical strategies of terrestrial extremophilic cyanobacteria and provide a basis for the search for molecules of this type in the astrobiological exploration of Mars.

    Varnali, Tereza; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Hargreaves, Michael D.

    2009-04-01

    274

    News Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

    2013-03-01

    275

    13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications\\/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9–13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and

    Wolfgang Jacob; Christian Linsmeier; Marek Rubel

    2011-01-01

    276

    (Networking + Integrating) * (Systems + Society). Proceedings of the Annual Canadian Conference of Information Science (12th, Toronto, Ontario, May 14-16, 1984) = (Reseaux + Integration) * (Systemes + Societe). Comptes rendus de la conference annuelle Canadienne des sciences de l'information (12th, Toronto, Ontario, 14-16 mai, 1984).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Seventeen papers from the 1984 annual conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science (CAIS) are presented in four broad topic areas. The first group, which focuses on changing roles in information access, includes the keynote address by Charles Meadow, "Integrating Access to Information Utilities: Promises, Problems, and Profiles…

    Canadian Association for Information Science, Ottawa (Ontario).

    277

    (Networking + Integrating) * (Systems + Society). Proceedings of the Annual Canadian Conference of Information Science (12th, Toronto, Ontario, May 14-16, 1984) = (Reseaux + Integration) * (Systemes + Societe). Comptes rendus de la conference annuelle Canadienne des sciences de l'information (12th, Toronto, Ontario, 14-16 mai, 1984).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seventeen papers from the 1984 annual conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science (CAIS) are presented in four broad topic areas. The first group, which focuses on changing roles in information access, includes the keynote address by Charles Meadow, "Integrating Access to Information Utilities: Promises, Problems, and Profiles…

    Canadian Association for Information Science, Ottawa (Ontario).

    278

    Conference on Nuclear Energy and Science for the 21st Century: Atoms for Peace Plus Fifty - Washington, D.C., October 2003  

    SciTech Connect

    This conference's focus was the peaceful uses of the atom and their implications for nuclear science, energy security, nuclear medicine and national security. The conference also provided the setting for the presentation of the prestigious Enrico Fermi Prize, a Presidential Award which recognizes the contributions of distinguished members of the scientific community for a lifetime of exceptional achievement in the science and technology of nuclear, atomic, molecular, and particle interactions and effects. An impressive group of distinguished speakers addressed various issues that included: the impact and legacy of the Eisenhower Administrationâ??s â??Atoms for Peaceâ? concept, the current and future role of nuclear power as an energy source, the challenges of controlling and accounting for existing fissile material, and the horizons of discovery for particle or high-energy physics. The basic goal of the conference was to examine what has been accomplished over the past fifty years as well as to peer into the future to gain insights into what may occur in the fields of nuclear energy, nuclear science, nuclear medicine, and the control of nuclear materials.

    Pfaltzgraff, Robert L [Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis

    2006-10-22

    279

    A recent trend in sciences on mantle-derived materials, with special emphases on refertilization, rheology, and ophiolite problems: a report of the Fifth International Conference on Orogenic Lherzolite  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A recent trend in sciences on mantle-derived materials, with special emphases on refertilization, rheology, and ophiolite problems: a report of the Fifth International Conference on Orogenic Lherzolite

    Tomoaki Morishita; Kazuhito Ozawa; Masaki Obata

    2010-01-01

    280

    Hypervelocity Impact Experiments in the Laboratory Relating to Lunar Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The results of a set of laboratory impact experiments (speeds in the range 1-5 km s-1) are reviewed. They are discussed in the context of terrestrial impact ejecta impacting the Moon and hence lunar astrobiology through using the Moon to learn about the history of life on Earth. A review of recent results indicates that survival of quite complex organic molecules can be expected in terrestrial meteorites impacting the lunar surface, but they may have undergone selective thermal processing both during ejection from the Earth and during lunar impact. Depending on the conditions of the lunar impact (speed, angle of impact etc.) the shock pressures generated can cause significant but not complete sterilisation of any microbial load on a meteorite (e.g. at a few GPa 1-0.1% of the microbial load can survive, but at 20 GPa this falls to typically 0.01-0.001%). For more sophisticated biological products such as seeds (trapped in rocks) the lunar impact speeds generate shock pressures that disrupt the seeds (experiments show this occurs at approximately 1 GPa or semi-equivalently 1 km s-1). Overall, the delivery of terrestrial material of astrobiological interest to the Moon is supported by these experiments, although its long term survival on the Moon is a separate issue not discussed here.

    Burchell, M. J.; Parnell, J.; Bowden, S. A.; Crawford, I. A.

    2010-12-01

    281

    News Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

    2012-03-01

    282

    Dikes and recent mud-flow deposits marking potential astrobiologically interesting sites: an assessment study in the Atlantis Chaos region, Mars.  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The search for life on Mars is focused on areas where the geomorphologic features and chemical composition indicates the possible existence of water during relatively long periods of time during the ancient history of this planet. For example, Gusev crater, an ancient lake on the Martian highlands, was selected as the `Spirit' Mars Exploration Rover landing site. Its analysis was focussed in checking the existence of an ancient lake in this impact basin and to explore its ancient climatic environmental conditions. The Atlantis basin [1], located at 35°S,177°W, in Sirenum Terrae, is another place of the martian highlands where the existence of an ancient lake, at least during the middle Noachian [2], has been proposed. The analysis of the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey high resolution images of this area shows the existence of numerous lineal structures, previously described as possible dikes [3], and mud flow deposits which description and astrobiological implications are discussed in this work. The existence of dikes on the Atlantis Chaos chaotic terrain at the Atlantis basin has been described, but only from a local perspective [3]. A new analysis of the MOC (Mars Global Surveyor) and THEMIS (Mars Odyssey) images has shown the existence of such lineal structures in the chaotic area. These structures correspond to residual reliefs of a lineal pattern in the regions more eroded of the tables forming the chaotic terrain. These dikes could be related with the thermal episodes that originated the volcanic reliefs observed in the area [3] [4]. On the other hand, they could also be related with the origin of the chaotic terrain, independently of the proposed models [5] [6]. Both in MOC and THEMIS images, the existence of sedimentary deposits between the mesas constituting the chaotic terrain of Atlantis Chaos is noted. Its lobular front, hummocky surfaces, distribution confined to the valleys, and relation with the dikes, all support the interpretation of the sedimentary deposits as originated by mud flows, markedly different than the origin of those deposits located at the impact crater inner slopes [3]. Their location, extension and morphology are very different. In addition, the Atlantis Chaos mud flow deposits have few impact craters, which are locally, superimposed to each others. All these characteristics indicate their relative youth. In conclusion, the presence of dikes and sedimentary deposits originated by mass flows can be indicative of the existence of a thermal source and related liquid water, at least on early Mars. Both conditions could indicate the existence of sites where the environmental setting was once more favourable for life. Thus, the narrow relationship among dikes and mud-flow deposits could be used as a pacemaker for the location of astrobiological interesting sites. This hypothesis is proposed after the study of the Atlantis Chaos region, and it requires to be fully checked in other surfaces where the same geologic processes are observed. [1] de Pablo, M.A., Fairén, A.G., Márquez, A. 2004. XXXV Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., abstract #1485. [2] Irwin, R.P., Maxwell, T.A., Howard, A.D., Craddock, R.A., Leverington, D.W. 2002. Science, 297, 2209-2212. [3] de Pablo, M.A., Márquez, A. 2004. XXXV Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., abstract #1138. [4] Scott, D.H., Tanaka, K.L. 1986. USGS. Misc. Inv. Ser. Map I-1802-A. [5] Komatsu, G. et al. 2000 XXXI Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., abstract #1434. [6] Oyawa, Y., et al. 2003 V Mars Conference, Abstract #3095.

    de Pablo, M. A.; Fairén, A. G.; Márquez, A.

    283

    CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Extragalactic astronomy (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 October 2009)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), "Extragalactic astronomy", was held in the Conference Hall of the Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, RAS, on 28 October 2009. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Varshalovich D A, Ivanchik A V, Balashev S A (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS) "Big Bang nucleosynthesis of deuterium and HD/H2 molecular abundances in interstellar clouds of 12 Gyr ago"; (2) Aptekar R L, Golenetskii S V, Mazets E P (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS). "Studies of cosmic gamma-ray bursts and gamma repeaters with the Ioffe Institute Konus experiments"; (3) Beskin G M, Karpov S V (Special Astrophysical Observatory, RAS), Bondar S V (Scientific Research Institute of Precision Instrument Making) "Discovery of the fast optical variability of the GRB 080319B gamma burst and the prospects for wide-angle high time resolution optical monitoring"; (4) Starobinskii A A (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS) "Experimental and theoretical investigation of dark matter in the Universe"; (5) Zasov A V, Sil'chenko O K (Shternberg State Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University) "Galactic disks and their evolution"; (6) Burdyuzha V V (Astro-Space Center of the Lebedev Physics Institute) "Dark components of the Universe". Papers based of reports 1-3, 5, and 6 are published below. A A Starobinskii's extended report will be presented in the form of a review, which is planned for publication in one of the forthcoming issues of Physics-Uspekhi. • Big Bang nucleosynthesis of deuterium and HD/H2 molecular abundances in interstellar clouds of 12 Gyr ago, D A Varshalovich, A V Ivanchik, S A Balashev, P Petitjean Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 397-401 • Cosmic gamma-ray bursts and gamma repeaters studies with Ioffe Institute Konus experiments, R L Aptekar, S V Golenetskii, E P Mazets, V D Pal'shin, D D Frederiks Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 401-406 • Discovery of the fast optical variability of GRB 080319B and the prospects for wide-field optical monitoring with high time resolution, G M Beskin, S V Karpov, S F Bondar, V L Plokhotnichenko, A Guarnieri, C Bartolini, G Greco, A Piccioni Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 406-414 • Galactic disks and their evolution, A V Zasov, O K Sil'chenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 415-419 • Dark components of the Universe, V V Burdyuzha Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 419-424

    2010-07-01

    284

    Students' Socio-Scientific Reasoning in an Astrobiological Context During Work with a Digital Learning Environment  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In a European project—CoReflect—researchers in seven countries are developing, implementing and evaluating teaching sequences using a web-based platform (STOCHASMOS). The interactive web-based inquiry materials support collaborative and reflective work. The learning environments will be iteratively tested and refined, during different phases of the project. All learning environments are focusing "socio-scientific issues". In this article we report from the pilot implementation of the Swedish learning environment which has an Astrobiology context. The socio-scientific driving questions are "Should we look for, and try to contact, extraterrestrial life?", and "Should we transform Mars into a planet where humans can live in the future?" The students were in their last year of compulsory school (16 years old), and worked together in triads. We report from the groups' decisions and the support used for their claims. On a group level a majority of the student groups in their final statements express reluctance towards both the search of extraterrestrial life and the terraforming of Mars. The support used by the students are reported and discussed. We also look more closely into the argumentation of one of the student groups. The results presented in this article, differ from earlier studies on students' argumentation and decision making on socio-scientific issues (Aikenhead in Science education for everyday life. Evidence-based practice. Teachers College Press, New York, (2006) for an overview), in that they suggest that students do use science related arguments—both from "core" and "frontier" science—in their argumentation and decision making.

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas; Rosberg, Maria

    2011-08-01

    285

    Students' Socio-Scientific Reasoning in an Astrobiological Context During Work with a Digital Learning Environment  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In a European project—CoReflect—researchers in seven countries are developing, implementing and evaluating teaching sequences using a web-based platform (STOCHASMOS). The interactive web-based inquiry materials support collaborative and reflective work. The learning environments will be iteratively tested and refined, during different phases of the project. All learning environments are focusing “socio-scientific issues”. In this article we report from the pilot implementation of the Swedish learning environment which has an Astrobiology context. The socio-scientific driving questions are “Should we look for, and try to contact, extraterrestrial life?”, and “Should we transform Mars into a planet where humans can live in the future?” The students were in their last year of compulsory school (16 years old), and worked together in triads. We report from the groups’ decisions and the support used for their claims. On a group level a majority of the student groups in their final statements express reluctance towards both the search of extraterrestrial life and the terraforming of Mars. The support used by the students are reported and discussed. We also look more closely into the argumentation of one of the student groups. The results presented in this article, differ from earlier studies on students’ argumentation and decision making on socio-scientific issues (Aikenhead in Science education for everyday life. Evidence-based practice. Teachers College Press, New York, (2006) for an overview), in that they suggest that students do use science related arguments—both from “core” and “frontier” science—in their argumentation and decision making.

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas; Rosberg, Maria

    2010-11-01

    286

    Hexagonal Lattice PCA of the Milky Way Astrobiological Complexity  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We simulate the evolution of Galactic habitable zone astrobiological complexity within neocatastrophic paradigm using the probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) platform. In this short talk we compare the results of our previous square lattice 2D PCA simulations with the new results obtained from the same model on the hexagonal 2D PCA lattice. Bidimensional hexagonal lattice is more indicative of the omnidirectional real world phenomena. However, its implementation requires more computational steps at the basic level of a PCA kernel, resulting in more time-consuming computation. The resulting execution times are compared with the ones required in the rectangular lattice case. We discuss whether the hexagonal lattice can become a standard in our forthcoming code implementations.

    Vukotic, B.; Cirkovic, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    287

    Astrobiological Effects of Stellar Radiation in Circumstellar Environments  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The centerpiece of all life on Earth is carbon-based biochemistry. Previous scientific research has suggested that biochemistry based on carbon may also play a decisive role in extraterrestrial life forms, i.e., alien life outside of Earth, if existent. In the following, we explore if carbon-based macromolecules (such as DNA) in the environments of stars other than the Sun are able to survive the effects of energetic stellar radiation, such as UV-C in the wavelength band between 200 and 290 nm. We focus on main-sequence stars akin to the Sun, but of hotter (F-type stars) and cooler (K- and M-type stars) surface temperature. Emphasis is placed on investigating the radiative environment in stellar habitable zones (HZs). Stellar habitable zones have an important relevance in astrobiology because they constitute circumstellar regions in which a planet of suitable size can have surface temperatures for water to exist in liquid form.

    Cuntz, Manfred; Gurdemir, Levent; Guinan, Edward F.; Kurucz, Robert L.

    2006-10-01

    288

    Astrobiological phase transition: towards resolution of Fermi's paradox.  

    PubMed

    Can astrophysics explain Fermi's paradox or the "Great Silence" problem? If available, such explanation would be advantageous over most of those suggested in literature which rely on unverifiable cultural and/or sociological assumptions. We suggest, instead, a general astrobiological paradigm which might offer a physical and empirically testable paradox resolution. Based on the idea of James Annis, we develop a model of an astrobiological phase transition of the Milky Way, based on the concept of the global regulation mechanism(s). The dominant regulation mechanisms, arguably, are gamma-ray bursts, whose properties and cosmological evolution are becoming well-understood. Secular evolution of regulation mechanisms leads to the brief epoch of phase transition: from an essentially dead place, with pockets of low-complexity life restricted to planetary surfaces, it will, on a short (Fermi-Hart) timescale, become filled with high-complexity life. An observation selection effect explains why we are not, in spite of the very small prior probability, to be surprised at being located in that brief phase of disequilibrium. In addition, we show that, although the phase-transition model may explain the "Great Silence", it is not supportive of the "contact pessimist" position. To the contrary, the phase-transition model offers a rational motivation for continuation and extension of our present-day Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) endeavours. Some of the unequivocal and testable predictions of our model include the decrease of extinction risk in the history of terrestrial life, the absence of any traces of Galactic societies significantly older than human society, complete lack of any extragalactic intelligent signals or phenomena, and the presence of ubiquitous low-complexity life in the Milky Way. PMID:18855114

    Cirkovi?, Milan M; Vukoti?, Branislav

    2008-10-15

    289

    Acquisition and Utilization of Japanese Information in Science, Technology and Commerce in Europe and USA : Report on the International Conference on Japanese Information at the University of Warwick  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Report on the International Conference on Japanese Information in Science, Technology and Commerce which was organized by the British Library, being supported by NTIS and JICST, at the University of Warwick on 1-4 September 1987. Topics discussed include, US policy on Japanese information, EEC/Japan-Info Project, various private initiatives, language barrier and translation, education of Japanese language and personnel exchange programme, quality and usage of Japanese secondary materials, original document delivery, Japanese produced databases and foreign access to them, requests upon JICST and other Japanese information services.

    Miyakawa, Takayasu; Miwa, Makiko; Kanda, Toshihiko

    290

    Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders; Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association with the Committee on Brain Sciences, Div. of Medical Sciences, National Research Council.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This book brings together papers presented at a conference on early experience and visual information processing in perceptual and reading disorders sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences. The goal of the conference was to integrate basic knowledge of structure and mechanisms of eye and brain with their function and their behavioral roles…

    Young, Francis A., Ed.; Lindsley, Donald B., Ed.

    291

    University of South Dakota Mathematics/Science Symposium: First Eisenhower Focused Initiative K-12 Mathematics and Science Symposium Conference Proceedings (Vermillion, South Dakota, January 13-14, 1995).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This document contains papers presented at a mathematics and science symposium. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for the interchange of the state-of-the-art mathematics and science education activities taking place within a South Dakota National Science Foundation State Systemic Initiative project within Southeast Area…

    Otto, Paul B., Ed.

    292

    Proceedings of the Annual Western Australian Science Education Association Conference (21st, November 29, 1996, Perth, Western Australia, Australia).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This proceedings is comprised of the edited papers presented at the 21st meeting of the Western Australian Science Education Association (WASEA). The 26 papers included here relate to many different topics such as proportional reasoning, the state of primary science in Western Australia, faculty culture, concept formation in elementary science

    Hackling, Mark W., Ed.

    293

    Conference Calendar.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lists upcoming conferences (taking place during the months of March through July 2002): Florida Educational Technology Conference; Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference Teaching, Learning, and Technology; Georgia Educational Technology Conference; e-Learning Conference and Expo; International Conference on Software Engineering; National…

    Burmeister, Marsha L.

    2001-01-01

    294

    Astrobiological Implications of Titan Tholin in Methane Lakes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We report here on our ongoing research in the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at NASA Ames Research Center dedicated to determine the degree of solubility of Titan tholin in the methane-ethane lakes. Our work is also directed toward confirming the presence of any astrobiologically significant molecules via hydrolysis and pyrolysis of a simulated lake sample. Our previous work conducted at Cornell University and subsequently in the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at NASA Ames Research Center has established that Titan tholin produces amino acids (Khare et al. Icarus 1986) on hydrolysis, and many compounds including adenine on pyrolysis (Khare et al. Adv. Space Res. 1984). Also, our previous work by Thompson et al. (Icarus 1991) has clearly indicated that when energy is supplied to Titan's atmospheric composition (methane and nitrogen), tholin results from hundreds of contemporary compounds, including highly reactive compounds such as azides and isocyanides. Cassini showed that photolysis of methane produces benzene and many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, along with compounds with very high molecular weights (up to 10000 amu), resulting from the photolytic reactions of CH4 with nitrogen. These heavy aerosols, termed "tholins” by Sagan and Khare (Nature 1979), are also synthesized when Titan intercepts charged particles from the magnetosphere of Saturn. Tholins resulting from both of these syntheses eventually descend to the surface of Titan, where some quantity collects in the methane-ethane lakes. This research is supported by a grant from Planetary Atmospheres.

    Khare, Bishun N.; McKay, C. P.; McPherson, S.; Cruikshank, D.; Nna-Mvondo, D.; Sekine, Y.

    2010-10-01

    295

    Astrobiologically Interesting Stars Within 10 Parsecs of the Sun  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The existence of life based on carbon chemistry and water oceans relies upon planetary properties, chiefly climate stability, and stellar properties, such as mass, age, metallicity, and galactic orbits. The latter can be well constrained with present knowledge. We present a detailed, up-to-date compilation of the atmospheric parameters, chemical composition, multiplicity, and degree of chromospheric activity for the astrobiologically interesting solar-type stars within 10 parsecs of the Sun. We determined their state of evolution, masses, ages, and space velocities, and produced an optimized list of candidates that merit serious scientific consideration by the future space-based interferometry probes aimed at directly detecting Earthsized extrasolar planets and seeking spectroscopic infrared biomarkers as evidence of photosynthetic life. The initially selected stars number 33 solar-type within the total population (excluding some incompleteness for late M-dwarfs) of 182 stars closer than 10 parsecs. A comprehensive and detailed data compilation for these objects is still lacking; a considerable amount of recent data has so far gone unexplored in this context. We present 13 objects as the nearest "biostars," after eliminating multiple stars, young, chromospherically active, hard xray- emitting stars, and low metallicity objects. Three of these "biostars"-Zeta Tucanae, Beta Canum Venaticorum, and 61 Virginis-closely reproduce most of the solar properties and are considered as premier targets. We show that approximately 7% of the nearby stars are optimally interesting targets for exobiology.

    Porto de Mello, Gustavo; del Peloso, Eduardo F.; Ghezzi, Luan

    2006-04-01

    296

    Astrobiology, space and the future age of discovery.  

    PubMed

    Astrobiology is the study of the origins, evolution, distribution and future of life in the Universe, and specifically seeks to understand the origin of life and to test the hypothesis that life exists elsewhere than on Earth. There is a general mathematics, physics and chemistry; that is, scientific laws that obtain on Earth also do so elsewhere. Is there a general biology? Is the Universe life-rich or is Earth an isolated island of biology? Exploration in the Age of Enlightenment required the collection of data in unexplored regions and the use of induction and empiricism to derive models and natural laws. The current search for extra-terrestrial life has a similar goal, but with a much greater amount of data and with computers to help with management, correlations, pattern recognition and analysis. There are 60 active space missions, many of them aiding in the search for life. There is not a universally accepted definition of life, but there are a series of characteristics that can aid in the identification of life elsewhere. The study of locations on Earth with similarities to early Mars and other space objects could provide a model that can be used in the search for extra-terrestrial life. PMID:21220277

    Blumberg, Baruch S

    2011-02-13

    297

    Advances in heat pipe science and technology. Proceedings of the 9. international heat pipe conference: Volume 2  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Conference Proceedings incorporate 150 papers, including the invited lectures, regional surveys and papers selected from the presented contributions based on evaluation. In this publication these papers are grouped in 12 sections, as follows: (1) fundamental research and basic processes; (2) theoretical and experimental studies of heat pipes and thermosyphons; (3) development and application of heat pipe heat exchangers; (4)

    Merrigan

    1997-01-01

    298

    Advances in heat pipe science and technology. Proceedings of the 9. international heat pipe conference: Volume 1  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Conference Proceedings incorporate 150 papers, including the invited lectures, regional surveys and papers selected from the presented contributions based on evaluation. In this publication these papers are grouped in 12 sections, as follows: (1) fundamental research and basic processes; (2) theoretical and experimental studies of heat pipes and thermosyphons; (3) development and application of heat pipe heat exchangers; (4)

    Merrigan

    1997-01-01

    299

    A New Way to A New Life. A Conference on Criminal Rehabilitation. Social Sciences Occasional Paper, Number One.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    "Modern Methods of Criminal Rehabilitation" was the subject of a conference held in Chazy, New York. The institution dealt with was the Diagnostic and Treatment Center at Clinton Prison in New York. A movie "A New Way to Prepare for a New Life" presented an overview of the rehabilitation program for multiple offenders. A transcript of the film is…

    Fink, Ludwig; And Others

    300

    Research in Science Education. Volume 12. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (13th, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, May 1982).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This publication contains a selection of science education research papers, beginning with an overview of trends in science education cognitive developmental research and theory in the United Kingdom. Papers that follow focus on developments in studies of thinking and reasoning, including work on concept mapping and conceptual change. Closely…

    Rattray-Wood, Laurie, Ed.; Ferguson, Peter, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    301

    Perspectives on U.S. Competitiveness in Science and Technology. Conference Proceedings (Washington, DC, November 8, 2006)  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Concern has grown that the United States is losing its competitive edge in science and technology (S&T). The factors driving this concern include globalization, the rise of science centers in developing countries such as China and India, the increasing number of foreign-born Ph.D. students in the United States, and claims of a shortage of S&T…

    Galama, Titus, Ed.; Hosek, James, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    302

    Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Australian Science Education Association (23rd, Perth, Western Australia, November 13, 1998).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |These proceedings contain reviewed and edited papers from the 23rd annual meeting of the Western Australian Science Education Association (WASEA). Papers include: (1) Using Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Validate a Questionnaire to Describe Science Teacher Behavior in Taiwan and Australia (Darrell Fisher, David Henderson, and…

    Rennie, Leonie, Ed.

    303

    Supporting Mars exploration: BIOMEX in Low Earth Orbit and further astrobiological studies on the Moon using Raman and PanCam technology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) experiment Biology and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX) is an interdisciplinary and international space research project selected by ESA. The experiment will be accommodated on the space exposure facility EXPOSE-R2 on the International Space Station (ISS) and is foreseen to be launched in 2013. The prime objective of BIOMEX is to measure to what extent biomolecules, such as pigments and cellular components, are resistant to and able to maintain their stability under space and Mars-like conditions. The results of BIOMEX will be relevant for space proven biosignature definition and for building a biosignature data base (e.g. the proposed creation of an international Raman library). The library will be highly relevant for future space missions such as the search for life on Mars. The secondary scientific objective is to analyze to what extent terrestrial extremophiles are able to survive in space and to determine which interactions between biological samples and selected minerals (including terrestrial, Moon- and Mars analogs) can be observed under space and Mars-like conditions. In this context, the Moon will be an additional platform for performing similar experiments with negligible magnetic shielding and higher solar and galactic irradiation compared to LEO. Using the Moon as an additional astrobiological exposure platform to complement ongoing astrobiological LEO investigations could thus enhance the chances of detecting organic traces of life on Mars. We present a lunar lander mission with two related objectives: a lunar lander equipped with Raman and PanCam instruments which can analyze the lunar surface and survey an astrobiological exposure platform. This dual use of testing mission technology together with geo- and astrobiological analyses will significantly increase the science return, and support the human preparation objectives. It will provide knowledge about the Moon's surface itself and, in addition, monitor the stability of life-markers, such as cells, cell components and pigments, in an extraterrestrial environment with much closer radiation properties to the surface of Mars. The combination of a Raman data base of these data together with data from LEO and space simulation experiments, will lead to further progress on the analysis and interpretation of data that we will obtain from future Moon and Mars exploration missions.

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Boettger, Ute; Noetzel, Rosa de la Torre; Sánchez, Francisco J.; Grunow, Dana; Schmitz, Nicole; Lange, Caroline; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm; Billi, Daniela; Baqué, Mickael; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Reitz, Günther; Berger, Thomas; Möller, Ralf; Bohmeier, Maria; Horneck, Gerda; Westall, Frances; Jänchen, Jochen; Fritz, Jörg; Meyer, Cornelia; Onofri, Silvano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Leya, Thomas; Foing, Bernard; Demets, René; Cockell, Charles S.; Bryce, Casey; Wagner, Dirk; Serrano, Paloma; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Joshi, Jasmin; Huwe, Björn; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ott, Sieglinde; Meessen, Joachim; Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Jaumann, Ralf; Spohn, Tilman

    2012-12-01

    304

    A Perspective on the Importance of Reproductive Mode in Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reproduction is a vital characteristic of life, and sex is the most common reproductive mode in the eukaryotic world. Sex and reproduction are not necessarily linked mechanisms: Sexuality without reproduction exists, while several forms of asexual reproduction are known. The occurrence of sexuality itself is paradoxical, as it is very costly in evolutionary terms. Most of the hypotheses (more than 20) attempting to explain the prevalence of sex fall into two categories: Sex either creates good gene combinations for adaptation to environments or eliminates bad gene combinations counteracting the accumulation of mutations. In spite of this apparent wealth of beneficial effects of sex, asexuality is not rare. Most eukaryotic, asexual lineages are short-lived and can only persist through the presence of sexual roots, but at least two animal groups, bdelloid rotifers and darwinulid ostracods, seem to claim the status of ancient asexuals. Research on (a)sexuality is relevant to astrobiology in a number of ways. First, strong relationships between the origin and persistence of life in extreme environments and reproductive mode are known. Second, the "habitability" of nonterrestrial environments to life greatly depends on reproductive mode. Whereas asexuals can do equally well or better in harsh environments, they fail to adapt fast enough to changing abiotic and biotic environments. Third, it has been shown that plants reproduce mainly asexually in space, and sperm production and motility in some vertebrates are hampered. Both findings indicate that extraterrestrial life under conditions different from Earth might be dominated by asexual reproduction. Finally, for exchange of biological material between planets, the choice of reproductive mode will be important.

    Van Doninck, Karine; Schön, Isa; Martens, Koen

    2003-12-01

    305

    The Place of the Liberal Arts and Sciences in the Curriculum: A Renewed Commitment. Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (Richmond, Virginia, December 17-18, 1984).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Proceedings of a conference on Virginia's undergraduate curriculum are presented. Attention is focused on the future of the traditional arts and sciences disciplines. Contents include: (1) a keynote address on benefits of studying the humanities, along with answers to audience questions (William H. Bennett, head of the National Endowment for the…

    Potter, David L., Ed.

    306

    International and National Organizations, Proceedings: International Federation for Documentation Study Committee "Information for Industry" - FID/II. Meeting Held in the Framework of the ISLIC International Conference on Information Science, Tel Aviv, Sept. 3, 1971.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The material published here was presented at an open meeting of the International Federation for Documentation study committee, Information for Industry (FID/II) during the ISLCI International Conference on Information Science on September 3, 1971. (The full proceedings in two volumes are available as ED 065139 and ED 065140.) Contained herein…

    Israel Society of Special Libraries and Information Centres, Tel Aviv.

    307

    The Place of the Liberal Arts and Sciences in the Curriculum: A Renewed Commitment. Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (Richmond, Virginia, December 17-18, 1984).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of a conference on Virginia's undergraduate curriculum are presented. Attention is focused on the future of the traditional arts and sciences disciplines. Contents include: (1) a keynote address on benefits of studying the humanities, along with answers to audience questions (William H. Bennett, head of the National Endowment for the…

    Potter, David L., Ed.

    308

    Youth in Transition: The Challenges of Generational Change in Asia. Proceedings of the Biennial General Conference of the Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils (15th, Canberra, Australia, 2005)  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This book originates from a conference of the Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils and contains writings and research reports on Youth in Transition in the Asia and Pacific region. The definition of "youth" varies from country to country and ranges between the ages of 10 to 35. The publication summarizes issues in the region,…

    Gale, Fay, Ed.; Fahey, Stephanie, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    309

    PREFACE: International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - Eco-Materials and Eco-Innovation for Global Sustainability - The 21st Iketani Conference 2011  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conference logo The 21st century has been called the century of environmental revolution. Green innovations and environmentally friendly production systems based on physics, chemistry, materials science, and electronic engineering will be indispensable for ensuring renewable energy and establishing a sustainable society. In particular, production design, materials processing, and fabrication technologies such as welding and joining will be very important components of such green innovations. For these reasons, the International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - eco-materials and eco-innovation for global sustainability - (ECO-MATES 2011) was organized by the Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI) and the Center of Environmental Innovation Design for Sustainability (CEIDS), Osaka University. ECO-MATES 2011 was held at Hotel Hankyu Expo Park, Osaka, Japan from 28-30 November 2011. 435 participants from 20 countries around the world attended the symposium. 149 oral presentations including 60 invited talks and 160 posters were presented at the symposium to discuss the latest research and developments in green innovations in relation to environmental issues. The topics of the symposium covered all environmentally related fields including renewable energy, energy-materials, environment and resources, waste and biomass, power electronics, semiconductor, rare-earth metals, functional materials, organic electronics materials, electronics packaging, smart processing, joining and welding, eco-efficient processes, and green applied physics and chemistry. Therefore, 55 full papers concerning green innovations and environmentally benign production were selected and approved by the editorial board and the program committee of ECO-MATES 2011. All papers were accepted through peer review processes. I believe that all the papers have many informative contents. On behalf of the steering committee of the symposium, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to all the committees and secretariats, authors, participants of ECO-MATES 2011, and everybody involved in the publication of this special issue. It is a great honor for me that the special issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series will contribute to establishing green innovations and a sustainable society. Chairman's signature Yasuo Takahashi Chairman of ECO-MATES 2011 Conference photograph ECO-MATES 2011 November 28-30, 2011 Venue: Hotel Hankyu Expo Park, Osaka, Japan The PDF also contains a list of the organizing committees.

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    310

    Proceedings of the Seventeenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The Seventeenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference sponsored by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, is being held June 6--10, 1993, at Cragun's Lodge and Conference Center, Brainerd, Minnesota The meeting is hoste...

    1993-01-01

    311

    The SOLID (Signs Of LIfe Detector) instrument concept: an antibody microarray-based biosensor for life detection in astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immunosensors have been extensively used since many years for environmental monitoring. Different technological platforms allow new biosensor designs and implementations. We have reported (Rivas et al., 2008) a shotgun approach for antibody production for biomarker detection in astrobiology and environmental monitoring, the production of 150 new polyclonal antibodies against microbial strains and environmental extracts, and the construction and validation of an antibody microarray (LDCHIP200, for "Life Detector Chip") containing 200 different antibodies. We have successfully used the LDCHIP200 for the detection of biological polymers in extreme environments in different parts of the world (e.g., a deep South African mine, Antarctica's Dry valleys, Yellowstone, Iceland, and Rio Tinto). Clustering analysis associated similar immunopatterns to samples from apparently very different environments, indicating that they indeed share similar universal biomarkers. A redundancy in the number of antibodies against different target biomarkers apart of revealing the presence of certain biomolecules, it renders a sample-specific immuno-profile, an "immnuno-fingerprint", which may constitute by itself an indirect biosignature. We will present a case study of immunoprofiling different iron-sulfur as well as phylosilicates rich samples along the Rio Tinto river banks. Based on protein microarray technology, we designed and built the concept instrument called SOLID (for "Signs Of LIfe Detector"; Parro et al., 2005; 2008a, b; http://cab.inta.es/solid) for automatic in situ analysis of soil samples and molecular biomarkers detection. A field prototype, SOLID2, was successfully tested for the analysis of grinded core samples during the 2005 "MARTE" campaign of a Mars drilling simulation experiment by a sandwich microarray immunoassay (Parro et al., 2008b). We will show the new version of the instrument (SOLID3) which is able to perform both sandwich and competitive immunoassays. SOLID3 consists of two separate functional units: a Sample Preparation Unit (SPU), for ten different extractions by ultrasonication, and a Sample Analysis Unit (SAU), for fluorescent immunoassays. The SAU consists of ten different flow cells each of one allocate one antibody microarray (up to 2000 spots), and is equipped with an unique designed optical package for fluorescent detection. We demonstrate the performance of SOLID3 for the detection of a broad range of molecular size compounds, from the amino acid size, peptides, proteins, to whole cells and spores, with sensitivities at the ppb level. References Parro, V., et al., 2005. Planetary and Space Science 53: 729-737. Parro, V., et al., 2008a. Space Science Reviews 135: 293-311 Parro, V., et al., 2008b. Astrobiology 8:987-99 Rivas, L. A., et al., 2008. Analytical Chemistry 80: 7970-7979

    Parro, V.; Rivas, L. A.; Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A.; Blanco, Y.; de Diego-Castilla, G.; Cruz-Gil, P.; Moreno-Paz, M.; García-Villadangos, M.; Compostizo, C.; Herrero, P. L.

    2009-04-01

    312

    Biological stoichiometry: a theoretical framework connecting ecosystem ecology, evolution, and biochemistry for application in astrobiology  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrobiology is an extremely wide-ranging field and thus is in special need of conceptual and theoretical frameworks that can integrate its various arenas of study. In this paper I review recent work associated with a conceptual framework known as \\

    James J. Elser

    2003-01-01

    313

    Robotic astrobiology - the need for sub-surface penetration of Mars  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent interest in the astrobiological investigation of Mars has culminated in the only planned astrobiology-focussed robotic mission to Mars - the Beagle2 mission to be carried to Mars by the Mars Express spacecraft in 2003. Beagle2 will be primarily investigating the surface and near-surface environment of Mars. However, the results from the Viking Mars lander indicated that the Martian surface is saturated in peroxides and super-oxides which would rapidly degrade any organic material. Furthermore, recent models of gardening due to meteoritic impacts on the Martian surface suggest that the depth of this oxidising layer could extend to depths of 2-3m. Given that the discovery of organic fossilised residues will be the primary target for astrobiological investigation, this implies that future robotic astrobiology missions to Mars must penetrate to below these depths. The need to penetrate into the sub-surface of Mars has recently been given greater urgency with the discovery of extensive water ice-fields as little as 1m from the surface. We review the different technologies that make this penetration into the sub-surface a practical possibility on robotic missions. We further briefly present one such implementation of these technologies through the use of ground-penetrating moles - The Vanguard Mars mission proposal.

    Ellery, A.; Ball, A.; Cockell, C.; Coste, P.; Dickensheets, D.; Edwards, H.; Hu, H.; Kolb, C.; Lammer, H.; Lorenz, R.; McKee, G.; Richter, L.; Winfield, A.; Welch, C.

    2002-11-01

    314

    Microbes in the upper atmosphere and unique opportunities for astrobiology research.  

    PubMed

    Abstract Microbial taxa from every major biological lineage have been detected in Earth's upper atmosphere. The goal of this review is to communicate (1) relevant astrobiology questions that can be addressed with upper atmosphere microbiology studies and (2) available sampling methods for collecting microbes at extreme altitudes. Precipitation, mountain stations, airplanes, balloons, rockets, and satellites are all feasible routes for conducting aerobiology research. However, more efficient air samplers are needed, and contamination is also a pervasive problem in the field. Measuring microbial signatures without false positives in the upper atmosphere might contribute to sterilization and bioburden reduction methods for proposed astrobiology missions. Intriguingly, environmental conditions in the upper atmosphere resemble the surface conditions of Mars (extreme cold, hypobaria, desiccation, and irradiation). Whether terrestrial microbes are active in the upper atmosphere is an area of intense research interest. If, in fact, microbial metabolism, growth, or replication is achievable independent of Earth's surface, then the search for habitable zones on other worlds should be broadened to include atmospheres (e.g., the high-altitude clouds of Venus). Furthermore, viable cells in the heavily irradiated upper atmosphere of Earth could help identify microbial genes or enzymes that bestow radiation resistance. Compelling astrobiology questions on the origin of life (if the atmosphere synthesized organic aerosols), evolution (if airborne transport influenced microbial mutation rates and speciation), and panspermia (outbound or inbound) are also testable in Earth's upper atmosphere. Key Words: Microbe-Aerobiology-Upper atmosphere-Stratosphere-Sampling. Astrobiology 13, 981-990. PMID:24106911

    Smith, David J

    2013-10-09

    315

    The HADES mission concept - astrobiological survey of Jupiter's icy moon Europa  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The HADES Europa mission concept aims to provide a framework for an astrobiological in-depth investigation of the Jupiter moon Europa, relying on existing technologies and feasibility. This mission study proposes a system consisting of an orbiter, lander and cryobot as a platform for detailed exploration of Europa. While the orbiter will investigate the presence of a liquid ocean and characterize

    Thomas Böttcher; Liliane Huber; Lucille Le Corre; Johannes Leitner; David McCarthy; Ricky Nilsson; Carlos Teixeira; Sergi Vaquer Araujo; Rebecca C. Wilson; Fatah Adjali; Martin Altenburg; Giacomo Briani; Peter Buchas; Aurélie Le Postollec; Teresa Meier

    2009-01-01

    316

    Health services, health promotion, and health literacy: Report from the State of the Science in Aging with Developmental Disabilities Conference  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BackgroundThis article summarizes the proceedings of the Health Services, Health Promotion, and Health Literacy work group that was part of the “State of the Science in Aging with Developmental Disabilities: Charting Lifespan Trajectories and Supportive Environments for Healthy Living.” Participants aimed to identify unmet needs related to health and health care and to determine training, research, and policy needs addressing

    Beth Marks; Jasmina Sisirak; Kueifang Hsieh

    2008-01-01

    317

    14th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education Paper R-AM-SY-K-2: An Ethics Course for Science Majors  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    30 years (beginning in graduate school) and in consultation with a large number of generous people, most of whom I met through the AAAS Scientific Freedom and Responsibility office. I am glad to share this in the hope that others will also develop ethics courses or integrate ethics into their chemistry and science curriculum in other ways. I ask only

    Linda M. Sweeting

    318

    Life at the Common Denominator: Mechanistic and Quantitative Biology for the Earth and Space Sciences (Invited)  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The remarkable challenges and possibilities of the coming few decades will compel the biogeochemical and astrobiological sciences to characterize the interactions between biology and its environment in fundamental, mechanistic, and quantitative fashion. The clear need for integrative and scalable biology-environment models is exemplified in the Earth sciences by the challenge of effectively addressing anthropogenic global change, and in the space

    T. Hoehler

    2009-01-01

    319

    Limnological structure of Titan's hydrocarbon lakes and its astrobiological implication  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saturn's largest moon Titan has long been considered a natural laboratory of prebiotic chemistry given the presence of a dense nitrogen-methane atmosphere and the likelihood of liquid hydrocarbons (e.g. [1]). Several putative liquid hydrocarbon lakes have been recently detected in the polar region of Titan by the Cassini radar [2]. Such lakes may contain organic sediments deposited from the atmosphere and promote further prebiotic chemistry driven by cosmic rays, by which more complex molecules such as nitrogenbearing organic polymer or azides could be produced. Even the possibility of methanogenic life consuming acetylene and hydrogen [3, 4] or silane-based life in hydrocarbon lakes [5] has been speculated. Any consideration of the astrobiological potential of Titan's lakes requires knowledge of the environmental setting of the lakes, as is common in studies of the origin of life on Earth. `Environmental setting' comprises, among others, the temporal variability in composition and temperature or the fate of lakes as such. I investigate the physical properties of the lake and their temporal evolution under present Titan's climatic setting by means of a 1-dimensional lake thermal stratification model [6]. Basic quantities predicted by the model are the lake temperature, density, composition, lake level and thickness of ice, if there is any. The prescribed initial composition of the lake is either pure methane or a methane-ethane-nitrogen mixture and two lake depths have been assumed. Modelling shows that the evolution of the lake primarily depends on the chemical composition of the lake and atmosphere and the balance between inflow and outflow. A pure methane lake rapidly freezes and eventually dries up by sublimation. A mixed lake containing a substantial amount of ethane can evaporate a large amount of methane if the ethane humidity in the atmosphere is not in equilibrium with the ethane concentration in the lake. This will change the lake composition and meanwhile it causes vigorous mixing of the lake down to the bottom. The lake presumably does not freeze at any time. Pure methane ponds that may occasionally form when heavy methane hailstones reach the surface have no chance of surviving since they evaporate, freeze up and eventually dry up. On the other hand, lakes filled with a mixture of methane, ethane and nitrogen are more stable and freezing or drying up can be prevented in most cases. When the ethane humidity in the atmosphere has adjusted to the lake composition, methane evaporation ceases and the lake then undergoes a repeatable seasonal temperature variation and overturning in autumn. Shallow lakes get mixed down to the bottom (holomictic), while deep lakes are merometic, i.e. they have bottom liquid layers which do not intermix. The summer thermal stratification near the lake surface can be destabilized by bottom heating as a result of an enhanced geothermal heat flux, e.g. in the vicinity of cryovolcanoes. Most likely the composition of the lake and atmosphere steadily adjust to each other by a small amount of evaporation, but the lake-atmosphere system can be repeatedly brought out of equilibrium by irregular precipitation. The astrobiological potential appears desolate in a pure methane lake that may temporarily develop as a result of heavy methane hail. There would simply be no time for prebiotic chemistry to proceed in the liquid because of the rapid freezing. Shallow (but not too shallow to allow desiccation) lakes are generally better mixed and a more vigorous exchange of dissolved atmospheric gases and suspension of acetylene sediment on the lake bottom can be expected. Deep lakes may harbour stagnant bottom layers in which neither the temperature and composition changes with time. Also the acetylene sediment on the lake bottom remains undisturbed. References [1] Raulin, F., Dubouloz, N., Frère, C. (1989) Adv. Space Sci., 9 (6), 35-47. [2] Stofan, E. R., et al. (2007) Nature, 445, 61-64. [3] McKay, C. P., and Smith, H. D. (2005) Icarus, 178, 274-276. [4] Schulze-Makuch, D., and Grinspoon, D. H. (20

    Tokano, T.

    2008-09-01

    320

    Limnological structure of Titan's hydrocarbon lakes and its astrobiological implication  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abstract Saturn's largest moon Titan has long been considered a natural laboratory of prebiotic chemistry given the presence of a dense nitrogen-methane atmosphere and the likelihood of liquid hydrocarbons (e.g. [1]). Several putative liquid hydrocarbon lakes have been recently detected in the polar region of Titan by the Cassini radar [2]. Such lakes may contain organic sediments deposited from the atmosphere and promote further prebiotic chemistry driven by cosmic rays, by which more complex molecules such as nitrogenbearing organic polymer or azides could be produced. Even the possibility of methanogenic life consuming acetylene and hydrogen [3, 4] or silane-based life in hydrocarbon lakes [5] has been speculated. Any consideration of the astrobiological potential of Titan's lakes requires knowledge of the environmental setting of the lakes, as is common in studies of the origin of life on Earth. `Environmental setting' comprises, among others, the temporal variability in composition and temperature or the fate of lakes as such. I investigate the physical properties of the lake and their temporal evolution under present Titan's climatic setting by means of a 1-dimensional lake thermal stratification model [6]. Basic quantities predicted by the model are the lake temperature, density, composition, lake level and thickness of ice, if there is any. The prescribed initial composition of the lake is either pure methane or a methane-ethane-nitrogen mixture and two lake depths have been assumed. Modelling shows that the evolution of the lake primarily depends on the chemical composition of the lake and atmosphere and the balance between inflow and outflow. A pure methane lake rapidly freezes and eventually dries up by sublimation. A mixed lake containing a substantial amount of ethane can evaporate a large amount of methane if the ethane humidity in the atmosphere is not in equilibrium with the ethane concentration in the lake. This will change the lake composition and meanwhile it causes vigorous mixing of the lake down to the bottom. The lake presumably does not freeze at any time. Pure methane ponds that may occasionally form when heavy methane hailstones reach the surface have no chance of surviving since they evaporate, freeze up and eventually dry up. On the other hand, lakes filled with a mixture of methane, ethane and nitrogen are more stable and freezing or drying up can be prevented in most cases. When the ethane humidity in the atmosphere has adjusted to the lake composition, methane evaporation ceases and the lake then undergoes a repeatable seasonal temperature variation and overturning in autumn. Shallow lakes get mixed down to the bottom (holomictic), while deep lakes are merometic, i.e. they have bottom liquid layers which do not intermix. The summer thermal stratification near the lake surface can be destabilized by bottom heating as a result of an enhanced geothermal heat flux, e.g. in the vicinity of cryovolcanoes. Most likely the composition of the lake and atmosphere steadily adjust to each other by a small amount of evaporation, but the lake-atmosphere system can be repeatedly brought out of equilibrium by irregular precipitation. The astrobiological potential appears desolate in a pure methane lake that may temporarily develop as a result of heavy methane hail. There would simply be no time for prebiotic chemistry to proceed in the liquid because of the rapid freezing. Shallow (but not too shallow to allow desiccation) lakes are generally better mixed and a more vigorous exchange of dissolved atmospheric gases and suspension of acetylene sediment on the lake bottom can be expected. Deep lakes may harbour stagnant bottom layers in which neither the temperature and composition changes with time. Also the acetylene sediment on the lake bottom remains undisturbed. References [1] Raulin, F., Dubouloz, N., Frère, C. (1989) Adv. Space Sci., 9 (6), 35-47. [2] Stofan, E. R., et al. (2007) Nature, 445, 61-64. [3] McKay, C. P., and Smith, H. D. (2005) Icarus, 178, 274-276. [4] Schulze-Makuch, D., and Grinspoon,

    Tokano, T.

    2008-09-01

    321

    Umist, the solid state physics conference. Conference report  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A digest of selected papers read at the Solid State Physics Conference held at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, 4-6 January 1972 is given. A complete list of papers presented is included.

    Condell

    1972-01-01

    322

    Physical Controls on Antarctic Dry Valleys Permafrost Geomorphology and Soil Ecosystem Habitability: Cold-Desert Processes and Mars Astrobiological Implications  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We present new observations of the physical, chemical, and morphologic properties of Antarctic Dry Valleys permafrost environments as basis for analysis of permafrost terrain on Mars. Climate history and astrobiological implications are discussed.

    Levy, J. S.; Fountain, A. G.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.

    2010-03-01

    323

    Advances in heat pipe science and technology. Proceedings of the 9. international heat pipe conference: Volume 1  

    SciTech Connect

    The Conference Proceedings incorporate 150 papers, including the invited lectures, regional surveys and papers selected from the presented contributions based on evaluation. In this publication these papers are grouped in 12 sections, as follows: (1) fundamental research and basic processes; (2) theoretical and experimental studies of heat pipes and thermosyphons; (3) development and application of heat pipe heat exchangers; (4) development and application of thermosyphons; (5) industrial applications of heat pipes; (6) performance prediction and modeling; (7) regional surveys of heat pipe activity; (8) aerospace applications of heat pipes; (9) special heat pipes; (10) heat pipe related materials and processes; (11) CPLs and loop heat pipes; and (12) a reference heat pipe publication. This last chapter serves as a vehicle for first publication of one of the original heat pipe concept discussions dating to the early 1960`s. Together these papers reflect the world wide picture of the latest achievements in fundamental research on the internal processes of heat pipes and heat pipe applications in energy conservation in industry, in space technology, in cooling technology for electronic devices and in high-efficiency heat exchange. This volume contains sections 1--6.

    Merrigan, M.A. [ed.

    1997-12-31

    324

    Proceedings of the Conference on Chemical Risk Assessment in the DOD: Science, Policy, and Practice Held in Dayton, Ohio on April 8-11, 1991.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    This conference was held to promote the exchange of information between those who develop risk assessment methodologies and those who perform risk assessments for the Department of Defense (DoD). The conference featured invited presentations by noted indi...

    H. J. Clewell

    1993-01-01

    325

    Iron world and its astrobiological implications: The Tinto River case  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extreme ecosystems have recently attracted considerable interest, not only because they prove that life is robust and adaptable, but also because their existence increases the probability of finding life elsewhere in the universe. Most of the best characterized extreme habitats on Earth correspond to geophysical constraints to which opportunistic microorganisms have adapted. However, some extreme acidic environments are unique in that they are the product of biological activity (chemolithotrophy). The Tinto River (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) is an unusual acidic ecosystem (100 km long, mean pH of 2.3) containing a high concentration of heavy metals and an unexpected level of microbial diversity (1,2). In the past, the extreme conditions of the river were considered the result of intense mining activity. The geomicrobiological analysis of the Tinto ecosystem strongly suggests that these conditions are the result of the metabolic activity of chemolithotrophic prokaryotes, mainly iron-oxidizers (3). The system seems to be controlled by iron, which is not only used as an electron donor, but also as an electron acceptor, allowing a full iron cycle to operate. Furthermore, ferric iron is responsible for the maintenance of the constant pH of the ecosystem and can protect the different organisms thriving in its waters from radiation. Laminar, iron-rich stromatolitic formations are generated by the precipitation of different iron minerals on the surface of the biofilms that cover most of the rocks in the river and the riverbed. These structures are similar to ancient massive bioinduced laminated iron bioformations formed long before the first mining activities started in the area 5000 years ago. The existence of these ancient iron-rich deposits formed prior to any known mining activity, under hydrochemical conditions similar to modern deposits, is considered a strong argument in favor of a natural origin of the river (4,5). Recently, the source area of the Tinto ecosystem has been used like an environmental scenario for new technology validation for astrobiology space missions. M.A.R.T.E. (Mars Analog Research Technology Experiment) was a multidisciplinary project for technology development in the NAI framework. REFERENCES 1.- López-Archilla, A.I., Marín, I., Amils, R. (2001) Microbial Ecol., 41: 20-35. 2.- Amaral-Zettler, L.A., Gómez, F., Zettler, E., Keenan, B.G., Amils, R., Sogin, M. (2002) Nature, 417: 137. 3.- González-Toril, E., Gómez, F., Rodríguez, N., Fernández-Remolar, D., Zuluaga, J., Marín, I., Amils, R., (2002) Hydrometall., in press. 4.- Amils, R., González-Toril, E., Gómez, F., Fernández-Remolar, D., Rodríguez, N. (2000) Spring Meeting American Geophysical Society, Abstract B22B-05. 5.- Fernández-Remolar, D.C., Rodríguez, N., Gómez, F., Amils, R. (2003) J. Geophys. Res., 108, No.E7 doi. 10.1029/2002JE001918

    Gomez, F.; Amils, A.

    2007-08-01

    326

    Characterisation of sites of astrobiology interest for Mars landers and sample return missions  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Introduction: The aim of this work is to nominate and assess candidate landing sites for missions of astrobiological interest to Mars. We report in particular on science and technical criteria and our data analysis for sites suitable for an ExoMars-class mission. This includes information from previous missions (such as Mars Express, MGS, Odyssey, MRO and MER rovers) on mineralogical composition, geomorphology, evidence from past water history from imaging and spectroscopic data, and existence of in-situ prior information from landers and rovers (concerning evidences for volatiles, organics and habitability conditions). Science Goals and Objectives: Firstly, we look for morphological evidence of hydrological activity, including sedimentary deposits (deltas, valley networks), areas of ancient hydrothermal activity (spring deposits). Secondly, we look for mineralogical evidence of hydrological activity, such as phyllosilicates (formed by alteration due to water, indicate prolonged exposure to standing water), hydrated sulphates (formed by alteration due to water, not necessarily standing water), other water-containing minerals. Thirdly, we prioritise Noachian terrain (during this epoch, ~3.5 billion years ago, the Martian climate may have been warmer, and liquid water may have been stable on the surface). Finally, we look for sites where the potential for preservation of biosignatures is high (exposed bedrock, subsurface regions, spring sinters). Engineering Constraints: We consider the engineering constraints placed on the ExoMars misson. These include latitude (sufficient insolation for power), landing altitude (sufficient atmosphere for EDL), horizontal winds, shear, and wind turbulence (airbag free fall), radar altimeter reflectivity (for descent and landing control), obstacles and rock distribution (airbag landing), slopes (airbag landing), rover egress, and rover locomotion. The Priority Sites: Out of a short-list of ten proposed locations, we select two top priority sites and a safe-haven. The sites chosen are Mawrth Vallis (21.6°N, 344.0°E) and Vernal Crater (5.9°N, 355.3°E), and a safe-haven in Eastern Meridiani (0° N, 3.7°E). The entire length of Mawrth Vallis is of interest, not least because the source is unknown. It doesn't begin in chaotic terrain like the majority of outflow channels. Weathered phyllosilicates are prevalent and their variety, concentration and surface area are currently unmatched compared to anywhere on Mars. They exist in layered outcrops. Structures in Vernal Crater are strongly suggestive of spring deposits, which would have a high potential for preservation of biosignatures. Other key features of interest at this site include probable lake-shore and regional fluvial deposits, lacustrine layers and evidence of methane activity. Eastern Meridiani has been nominated as a potential safe-haven. The science interest of this site includes many diverse layers, evidence of phyllosilicates, and excavation of underlying material by cratering. General references: G. Neukum, R. Jaumann et al., HRSC: The High Resolution Stereo Camera of Mars Express, in Mars Express: The scientific payload, edited by A. Wilson, pp. 17-35, ESA, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004; R. Jaumann, G. Neukum, T. Behnke, T.C. Duxburry, K. Eichentopf, S. van Gasselt, B. Giese, K. Gwinner, E. Hauber, H. Hoffmann, A. Hoffmeister, U. Köhler, K.D; Matz, T.B. McCord, V. Mertens, J. Oberst, R. Pischel, D. Reiß, E. Ress, T. Roatsch, P. Saiger, F. Scholten, G. Schwarz, K. Stephan, M. Wählisch, and the HRSC; Co-Investigator Team: The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Experiment on Mars Express: Instrument Aspects and Experiment Conduct from Interplanetary; Cruise through Nominal Mission, Planetary and Space Science, 55, 928-952, 2007.

    Wills, D. E. S.; Monaghan, E. P.; Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    327

    Annual Fall Conference  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Our two-day fall conference focuses on training science faculty to teach with case studies and to write their own cases. It features a track for beginners and a track for more experienced case teachers as well as a third track on Saturday for high school teachers.

    2010-01-01

    328

    EXPOSE, an astrobiological exposure facility on the international space station - from proposal to flight.  

    PubMed

    Following an European Space Agency announcement of opportunity in 1996 for "Externally mounted payloads for 1st utilization phase" on the International Space Station (ISS), scientists working in the fields of astrobiology proposed experiments aiming at longterm exposure of a variety of chemical compounds and extremely resistant microorganisms to the hostile space environment. The ESA exposure facility EXPOSE was built and an operations' concept was prepared. The EXPOSE experiments were developed through an intensive pre-flight experiment verification test program. 12 years later, two sets of astrobiological experiments in two EXPOSE facilities have been successfully launched to the ISS for external exposure for up to 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E, now installed at the balcony of the European Columbus module, was launched in February 2008, while EXPOSE-R took off to the ISS in November 2008 and was installed on the external URM-D platform of the Russian Zvezda module in March 2009. PMID:19629743

    Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Rettberg, Petra; Schott, Jobst-Ulrich; Panitz, Corinna; L'Afflitto, Andrea; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Willnecker, Reiner; Baglioni, Pietro; Hatton, Jason; Dettmann, Jan; Demets, René; Reitz, Günther

    2009-12-01

    329

    The challenges of educating the public about astrobiology via the mass media  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientific information in astrobiology is being generated at a pace that traditional textbooks cannot easily match. For the most part, students, teachers and the general public will continue to learn piecemeal about the latest advances in the field through headlines and mass media coverage centered around discoveries and new interpretations as they occur. Yet journalists and reporters are themselves unschooled in this emerging interdisciplinary field. While it is important to continue developing astrobiological curricular materials for future use by students in formal settings, it is equally important to find novel ways for educating the mass media in the interim. Current planning in anticipation of a Mars sample return mission has focused on a variety of ways to enlist the mass media in an educational as well as informational role.

    Race, Margaret

    330

    Evidence of Ancient Microbial Life in an Impact Structure and Its Implications for Astrobiology  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The search for present and past life on Mars has drawn major attention from the scientific community, as well as from national\\u000a and international space agencies. A major reason for focusing the search for life on Mars is that, apart from being the closest\\u000a planetary body of major astrobiological interest, Mars may have shared a number of environmental features with

    Tomas Hode; Sherry L. Cady; Ilka Dalwigk; Per Kristiansson

    331

    Field\\/Lab Training Workshops in Planetary Geology and Astrobiology for Secondary School Teachers  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thematic field-lab-classroom workshops can be successful in training secondary teachers in planetary geology and astrobiology, from the LPI's 4 years experience. A typical workshop includes ˜4 days of field study and ˜3 days of related classroom\\/lab lectures and exercises. Up to 30 teachers have participated at once, and the staff averages 5 researchers and educators. The 2003 workshop, The Great

    A. Treiman; H. Newsom; T. Hoehler; C. Tsairides; K. Karlstrom; L. Crossey; W. Kiefer; S. Kadel; F. Garcia-Pichel; J. Aubele; L. Crumpler

    2003-01-01

    332

    Science Across Borders: 5th Annual Natural Health Product Research Conference--March 26-29, 2008, Toronto, Canada  

    PubMed Central

    Canada is experiencing a growing interest in the use of alternative therapies and products particularly natural health products (NHP). In 1997, Canadians spent around C$ 2 billion on NHP. In an attempt to catch with this popularity of NHP use, Canadian researchers and administrators from academia, industry and government jointly established the Natural Health Product Research Society of Canada (NHPRS). Since its formation, NHPRS has been organizing an annual meeting which brings together world renowned researchers and experts in the area of NHP research. For 2008, the annual NHPRS meeting took place in Toronto from the 26th to 29th of March with a focus on ‘Science Across Borders: Global Natural Health Products Research’. The scientific program was spread into three days of plenary lectures and oral presentations. The different sessions containing these talks were on: ethnobotany around the world; chemical analysis of NHP; product standards and quality control; ethnomedicine; novel analytical approaches; systemic research, nutrisciences and molecular medicine; and drug development from NHP. The meeting proved to be a great success in terms of the speakers that were invited and based on the data that was presented which highlighted recent research taking place in the field of NHP not only in Canada but from many parts of the world.

    2010-01-01

    333

    CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences dedicated to the centenary of L D Landau's birth (22-23 January 2008)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences dedicated to the centenary of L D Landau's birth was held in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, on 22 and 23 January 2008. An Opening Address by A F Andreev and the following reports were presented at the session: (1) Andreev A F (Kapitza Institute of Physical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences) "Supersolidity of quantum glasses" (2) Kagan Yu M (Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Moscow) "Formation kinetics of the Bose condensate and long-range order"; (3) Pitaevskii L P (Kapitza Institute of Physical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences; Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and BDC Center, Trento, Italy) "Superfluid Fermi liquid in a unitary regime"; (4) Lebedev V V (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region) "Kolmogorov, Landau, and the modern theory of turbulence"; (5) Khalatnikov I M (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), Kamenshchik A Yu (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna, Italy) "Lev Landau and the problem of singularities in cosmology"; (6) Ioffe B L (Russian State Scientific Center Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow) "Axial anomaly in quantum electro- and chromodynamics and the structure of the vacuum in quantum chromodynamics"; (7) Okun L B (Russian State Scientific Center Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow) "The theory of relativity and the Pythagorean theorem"; (8) Lipatov L N (St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg) "Bjorken and Regge asymptotics of scattering amplitudes in QCD and in supersymmetric gauge models." A brief presentation of the Opening Address by A F Andreev and reports 2, 3, and 5 — 8 is given below. • L D Landau: 100th anniversary (Introductory talk), A F Andreev Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Pages 601-602 • Formation kinetics of the Bose condensate and long-range order, Yu M Kagan Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Page 603 • Superfluid Fermi liquid in a unitary regime, L P Pitaevskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Pages 603-608 • Lev Landau and the problem of singularities in cosmology, I M Khalatnikov and A Yu Kamenshchik Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Pages 609-616 • Axial anomaly in quantum electro- and chromodynamics and the structure of the vacuum in quantum chromodynamics, B L Ioffe Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Pages 616-622 • The theory of relativity and the Pythagorean theorem, L B Okun Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Pages 622-631 • Bjorken and Regge asymptotics of scattering amplitudes in QCD and in supersymmetric gauge models, L N Lipatov Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 6, Pages 631-636

    Andreev, A. F.; Kagan, Yu M.; Pitaevskii, L. P.; Khalatnikov, I. M.; Kamenshchik, A. Yu; Ioffe, B. L.; Okun, L. B.; Lipatov, L. N.

    2008-06-01

    334

    Biological stoichiometry: a theoretical framework connecting ecosystem ecology, evolution, and biochemistry for application in astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrobiology is an extremely wide-ranging field and thus is in special need of conceptual and theoretical frameworks that can integrate its various arenas of study. In this paper I review recent work associated with a conceptual framework known as "ecological stoichiometry" and even more recent extensions in the development of "biological stoichiometry". Ecological stoichiometry is the study of the balance of energy and multiple chemical elements in ecological interactions and has developed rapidly in the study of nutrient cycling and energy flow in aquatic food webs. It identifies the elemental composition of interacting biota as central in understanding the nature of their interactions and dynamics, including key feedbacks via nutrient recycling. Biological stoichiometry extends this mode of thinking to all types of biological systems. It especially seeks to better understand, at the biochemical and genetic levels, the factors influencing the elemental composition of living things and the evolutionary forces that drive and constrain that elemental composition. By connecting key concepts of ecosystem ecology, evolutionary biology and biochemistry, stoichiometric theory integrates biological information into a more coherent whole that holds considerable promise for application in astrobiology. Several examples of potential astrobiological applications of stoichiometric analysis are offered, including ones related to pre-biotic evolution, the Cambrian explosion, biosignatures and biological feedbacks on planetary carbon cycling.

    Elser, James J.

    2003-07-01

    335

    The Cuatro Ci?negas Basin in Coahuila, Mexico: An Astrobiological Precambrian Park  

    PubMed Central

    Abstract The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a rare oasis in the Chihuahuan Desert in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. It has a biological endemism similar to that of the Galapagos Islands, and its spring-fed ecosystems have very low nutrient content (nitrogen or phosphorous) and are dominated by diverse microbialites. Thus, it has proven to be a distinctive opportunity for the field of astrobiology, as the CCB can be seen as a proxy for an earlier time in Earth's history, in particular the late Precambrian, the biological frontier when prokaryotic life yielded at least partial dominance to eukaryotes and multicellular life. It is a kind of ecological time machine that provides abundant opportunities for collaborative investigations by geochemists, geologists, ecologists, and population biologists in the study of the evolutionary processes that structured Earth-based life, especially in the microbial realm. The CCB is an object of investigation for the identification of biosignatures of past and present biota that can be used in our search for extraterrestrial life. In this review, we summarize CCB research efforts that began with microbial ecology and population biology projects and have since been expanded into broader efforts that involve biogeochemistry, comparative genomics, and assessments of biosignatures. We also propose that, in the future, the CCB is sanctioned as a “Precambrian Park” for astrobiology. Key Words: Microbial mats—Stromatolites—Early Earth—Extremophilic microorganisms—Microbial ecology. Astrobiology 12, 641–647.

    Siefert, Janet L.; Escalante, Ana E.; Elser, James J.; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2012-01-01

    336

    Astrobiology—What Can We Do on the Moon?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Moon does not seem to be a place for a biologist. However, it offers the possibility of unravelling a better understanding of the conditions for habitability on the Earth and the conditions for life on the early Earth. It will be a place where much of the life sciences technologies required to establish a permanent human presence in space can be tested to complete reliability. Specifically, a long-term life sciences laboratory on the Moon can be used to investigate three areas of science that are currently poorly understood: (1) the linearity or non-linearity of the effects of different magnitudes of space environmental stresses on organisms, particularly gravity; (2) the effects of cumulative environmental effects both in individual organisms and across generations, (3) the synergistic effects of different space environmental parameters on organisms. The close proximity and scientific importance of the Moon makes it a useful permanent location and staging post for the human expansion into space.

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2010-12-01

    337

    Science  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Magazine online. Access abstracts and full text articles updated weekly. Browse through the current issue or archived articles. Obtain information on magazine subscriptions and student, educator, and scientist awards. A wealth of science information is at your fingertips in all disciplines, particularly medicine. Links to other AAAS resources including extensive career information and the latest in HIV/AIDS and aging research.

    338

    Science.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    339

    A Concept for NASA's Mars 2016 Astrobiology Field Laboratory  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ABSTRACT The Mars Program Plan includes an integrated and coordinated set of future candidate mis- sions and investigations that meet fundamental science objectives of NASA and the Mars Ex- ploration Program (MEP). At the time this paper was written, these possible future missions are planned in a manner consistent with a projected budget profile for the Mars Program in the

    Luther W. Beegle; Michael G. Wilson; Fernando Abilleira; James F. Jordan; Gregory R. Wilson

    2007-01-01

    340

    A Concept for NASA's Mars 2016 Astrobiology Field Laboratory  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Mars Program Plan includes an integrated and coordinated set of future candidate missions and investigations that meet fundamental science objectives of NASA and the Mars Exploration Program (MEP). At the time this paper was written, these possible future missions are planned in a manner consistent with a projected budget profile for the Mars Program in the next decade (2007-2016).

    Luther W. Beegle; Michael G. Wilson; Fernando Abilleira; James F. Jordan; Gregory R. Wilson

    2007-01-01

    341

    NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

    2003-03-01

    342

    Towards big data science in the decade ahead from ten years of InCoB and the 1st ISCB-Asia Joint Conference  

    PubMed Central

    The 2011 International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) conference, which is the annual scientific conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), is hosted by Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, is co-organized with the first ISCB-Asia conference of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB). InCoB and the sequencing of the human genome are both celebrating their tenth anniversaries and InCoB’s goalposts for the next decade, implementing standards in bioinformatics and globally distributed computational networks, will be discussed and adopted at this conference. Of the 49 manuscripts (selected from 104 submissions) accepted to BMC Genomics and BMC Bioinformatics conference supplements, 24 are featured in this issue, covering software tools, genome/proteome analysis, systems biology (networks, pathways, bioimaging) and drug discovery and design.

    2011-01-01

    343

    Towards big data science in the decade ahead from ten years of InCoB and the 1st ISCB-Asia Joint Conference.  

    PubMed

    The 2011 International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) conference, which is the annual scientific conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), is hosted by Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, is co-organized with the first ISCB-Asia conference of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB). InCoB and the sequencing of the human genome are both celebrating their tenth anniversaries and InCoB's goalposts for the next decade, implementing standards in bioinformatics and globally distributed computational networks, will be discussed and adopted at this conference. Of the 49 manuscripts (selected from 104 submissions) accepted to BMC Genomics and BMC Bioinformatics conference supplements, 24 are featured in this issue, covering software tools, genome/proteome analysis, systems biology (networks, pathways, bioimaging) and drug discovery and design. PMID:22372736

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Schönbach, Christian; Kelso, Janet; Rost, Burkhard; Nathan, Sheila; Tan, Tin Wee

    2011-11-30

    344

    A Global Observing System for Mars: The dual satellite Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory (MACO)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We summarize a planetary decadal survey white paper describing the rationale for and key elements of a dual satellite orbiting mission (DSM) concept called the Mars Astrobiology and Climate Observatory (MACO). MACO uses mm-wavelength satellite to satellite (sat-sat) occultations in combination with solar occultations (SO) to answer and strongly constrain many key lower and middle atmosphere Mars science questions previously considered unachievable from orbit. On the climate side, MACO would focus on the hydrological, dust and energy cycles of Mars. MACO would measure the transport of water in the present Martian climate, identify sources and sinks and constrain processes in order to better understand present and past Martian climate and glacial and subsurface water reservoirs. Dust-penetrating, satellite-to-satellite mm-wave occultations would profile water vapor to 3%, temperature to 0.4K, geopotential height of pressure to 10 m, line of sight winds to < 2 m/s and balanced winds via pressure gradients, as well turbulence and certain trace constituents with 60 meter diffraction limited vertical resolution and high precision extending down to the surface. A prototype mm-wave occultation instrument will be demonstrated in 2010 via high altitude aircraft to aircraft occultations. MACO will make coincident thermal IR and shortwave measurements to characterize airborne dust to understand dust storm initiation and evolution and how atmospheric dust concentrations are maintained in general. The combination of sensitivity, accuracy and vertical resolution from the satellite to satellite occultation is simply not possible with radiometers and will provide ~30,000 globally distributed near-entry probe quality profiles each Martian year profiling the boundary layer and exchange between the atmosphere and surface. A near-IR solar occultation instrument, such as the French SOIR or a derivative of the Canadian ACE FTIR instrument, would survey chemical trace species such as methane in the Martian atmosphere to look for signatures of subsurface processes related to possible habitable zones and life. MACO’s winds will be key in tracing plumes back to their source regions. Proposed near-surface ion-related heterogeneous chemistry will be assessed by profiling near surface concentrations of H2O2, H2O and dust to look for predicted enhancements in of H2O2 and how they vary with H2O and dust concentrations. MACO’s combined capabilities are a superset of the Mars Science Orbiter (MSO) recommended by the Calvin et al. (2007) report. MACO would fit as a moderate scale mission in the 2016 launch opportunity. Alternatively, since NASA and ESA have recently announced their intent to fly a single orbiter, trace gas mission in 2016, the MACO mm occultation receiver (which can also measure thermal emission and solar occultations) could be flown on that mission and the occultation transmitter could be carried on another mission flown by an international partner such as Japan or India.

    Kursinski, E. R.; Lyons, J.; Newman, C.; Richardson, M. I.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    345

    Cognitive Science mailing list  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COGSCI is an open, unmoderated discussion list about Cognitive Science. Topics including artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, connectionism, psychology, conferences, lectures, and publications.

    1997-01-01

    346

    Building, Using, and Maximizing the Impact of Concept Inventories in the Biological Sciences: Report on a National Science Foundation-sponsored Conference on the Construction of Concept Inventories in the Biological Sciences  

    PubMed Central

    The meeting “Conceptual Assessment in the Biological Sciences” was held March 3–4, 2007, in Boulder, Colorado. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation and hosted by University of Colorado, Boulder's Biology Concept Inventory Team, the meeting drew together 21 participants from 13 institutions, all of whom had received National Science Foundation funding for biology education. Topics of interest included Introductory Biology, Genetics, Evolution, Ecology, and the Nature of Science. The goal of the meeting was to organize and leverage current efforts to develop concept inventories for each of these topics. These diagnostic tools are inspired by the success of the Force Concept Inventory, developed by the community of physics educators to identify student misconceptions about Newtonian mechanics. By working together, participants hope to lessen the risk that groups might develop competing rather than complementary inventories.

    Klymkowsky, Michael; Elrod, Susan

    2007-01-01

    347

    CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Seventy years of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Waves Propagation (IZMIRAN) (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 25 November 2009)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN) (Troitsk, Moscow region) was held in the conference hall of IZMIRAN on 25 November 2009. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Gurevich A V (Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Moscow) "The role of cosmic rays and runaway electron breakdown in atmospheric lightning discharges"; (2) Aleksandrov E B (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Advances in quantum magnetometry for geomagnetic research"; (3) Dorman L I (IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Moscow region, CR & SWC, Israel) "Cosmic ray variations and space weather"; (4) Mareev E A (Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, Nizhnii Novgorod) "Global electric circuit research: achievements and prospects"; (5) Tereshchenko E D, Safargaleev V V (Polar Geophysical Institute, Kola Research Center, RAS, Murmansk) "Geophysical research in Spitsbergen Archipelago: status and prospects"; (6) Gulyaev Yu V, Armand N A, Efimov A I, Matyugov S S, Pavelyev A G, Savich N A, Samoznaev L N, Smirnov V V, Yakovlev O I (Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics RAS, Fryazino Branch, Fryazino, Moscow region) "Results of solar wind and planetary ionosphere research using radiophysical methods"; (7) Kunitsyn V E (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "Satellite radio probing and the radio tomography of the ionosphere"; (8) Kuznetsov V D (IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Moscow region) "Space Research at the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences." Papers based on reports 2-8 are published below. The main contents of report 1 are reproduced in A V Gurevich's review, "Nonlinear effects in the ionosphere" [Phys. Usp. 50 1091 (2007)] and in the paper by A V Gurevich et al., "Nonlinear phenomena in the ionospheric plasma. Effects of cosmic rays and runaway breakdown on thunderstorm discharges" [Phys. Usp. 52 735 (2009)]. • Advances in quantum magnetometry for geomagnetic research , E B Aleksandrov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 487-496 • Cosmic ray variations and space weather, L I Dorman Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 496-503 • Global electric circuit research: achievements and prospects, E A Mareev Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 504-511 • Geophysical research in Spitsbergen Archipelago: status and prospects, V V Safargaleev, E D Tereshchenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 511-517 • Results of solar wind and planetary ionosphere research using radiophysical methods, N A Armand, Yu V Gulyaev, A L Gavrik, A I Efimov, S S Matyugov, A G Pavelyev, N A Savich, L N Samoznaev, V M Smirnov, O I Yakovlev Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 517-523 • Satellite radio probing and radio tomography of the ionosphere, V E Kunitsyn, E D Tereshchenko, E S Andreeva, I A Nesterov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 523-528 • Space research at the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences , V D Kuznetsov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 528-534

    2010-08-01

    348

    Steinbeck and the Sea. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the Marine Science Center Auditorium, Newport, Oregon on May 4, 1974.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The report is a series of articles and papers that is a record of the 'Steinbeck and the Sea' Conference. The first section, 'Steinbeck as Man and Artist,' contains Joel Hedgpeth's conference introduction and his tribute to Steinbeck as a kind of naturali...

    R. Astro J. W. Hedgpeth

    1975-01-01

    349

    Human crew-related aspects for astrobiology research  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Several space agencies and exploration stakeholders have a strong interest in obtaining information on technical and human aspects to prepare for future extra-terrestrial planetary exploration. In this context, the EuroGeoMars campaign, organized with support from the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and partner institutes, was conducted by the crews 76 and 77 in February 2009 in The Mars Society's ‘Mars Desert Research Station’ (MDRS) in Utah. The EuroGeoMars encompasses two groups of experiments: (1) a series of field science experiments that can be conducted from an extra-terrestrial planetary surface in geology, biology, astronomy/astrophysics and the necessary technology and networks to support these field investigations; (2) a series of human crew-related investigations on crew time organization in a planetary habitat, on the different functions and interfaces of this habitat, and on man-machine interfaces of science and technical equipment. This paper recalls the objective of the EuroGeoMars project and presents the MDRS and its habitat layout. Social and operational aspects during simulations are described. Technical and operational aspects of biology investigations in the field and in the habitat laboratory are discussed in detail with the focus point set on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of microbial DNA in soil samples.

    Thiel, Cora S.; Pletser, Vladimir; Foing, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    350

    The Chirality of Life:. from Phase Transitions to Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The search for life elsewhere in the universe is a pivotal question in modern science. However, to address whether life is common in the universe we must first understand the likelihood of abiogenesis by studying the origin of life on Earth. A key missing piece is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: permeating almost every life-form on Earth is the presence of exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars. In this work we discuss recent results suggesting that life's homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events in a mechanism referred to as punctuated chirality. Applying these arguments to other potentially life-bearing platforms has significant implications for the search for extraterrestrial life: we predict that a statistically representative sampling of extraterrestrial stereochemistry will be racemic on average.

    Gleiser, M.; Walker, S. I.

    2010-04-01

    351

    SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

    Almár, Iván

    2011-11-01

    352

    Raman Spectroscopic Protocol for the Molecular Recognition of Key Biomarkers in Astrobiological Exploration  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman spectroscopy is proposed as novel instrumentation for the remote, robotic exploration of planetary surfaces, especially Mars. In recent years, information about the chemicals produced by organisms at the terrestrial limits of life, such as those surviving in Antarctic habitats, has facilitated the assembly of a spectral database of key biomarkers. In addition biogeological modifications which are essential for the survival strategies of environmentally stressed organisms have been identified. In this paper, the requirements for Raman spectroscopic instrumental detection of key bio - and bio-geological markers are outlined and a preliminary protocol established for the molecular spectral recognition of biological signatures in remote astrobiological exploration.

    Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2004-02-01

    353

    CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Commemoration of the centenary of the birth of S.M. Rytov (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 November 2008)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the Conference Hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on November 26, 2008. The session was dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Sergei Mikhailovich Rytov. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Gulyaev Yu V (V A Kotel'nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, RAS, Moscow) "Sergei Mikhailovich Rytov (Opening address)"; (2) Barabanenkov Yu N (V A Kotel'nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, RAS, Moscow) "Asymptotic limit of the radiative transfer theory in problems of multiple wave scattering in randomly inhomogeneous media"; (3) Kaplan A E, Volkov S N (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA) "Local fields in nanolattices of strongly interacting atoms: nanostrata, giant resonances, 'magic numbers', and optical bistability"; (4) Klyatskin V I (A M Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS, Moscow) "Modern methods for the statistical description of dynamical stochastic systems"; (5) Dolin L S (Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, Nizhny Novgorod) "Development of the radiative transfer theory as applied to instrumental imaging in turbid media". An abridge version of the reports is given below. • Sergei Mikhailovich Rytov (Opening address), Yu V Gulyaev Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 5, Pages 499-502 • Asymptotic limit of the radiative transfer theory in problems of multiple wave scattering in randomly inhomogeneous media, Yu N Barabanenkov Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 5, Pages 502-506 • Local fields in the nanolattices of strongly interacting atoms: nanostrata, giant resonances, 'magic numbers', and optical bistability, A E Kaplan, S N Volkov Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 5, Pages 506-514 • Modern methods for the statistical description of dynamical stochastic systems, V I Klyatskin Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 5, Pages 514-519 • Development of the radiative transfer theory as applied to instrumental imaging in turbid media, L S Dolin Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 5, Pages 519-526

    Gulyaev, Yurii V.; Barabanenkov, Yurii N.; Kaplan, Alexander E.; Volkov, S. N.; Klyatskin, Valery I.; Dolin, Lev S.

    2009-05-01

    354

    Proceedings of a Conference on Undergraduate Education in the Plant and Soil Sciences Held at Washington, D.C. on 20-21 March 1967.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The conference report presents both the individual papers and the reports of working groups on education on the undergraduate level in agriculture. The report reviews the adequacy and effectiveness of courses and curricula for students; discusses instruct...

    1969-01-01

    355

    Report on the Conference on Physics Teaching Held at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, August 19-24, 1979.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This report discusses the current problems in teaching physics to teachers and new techniques for teaching vibrations and waves to students with limited mathematical ability. The author summarizes the topics covered at the Conference within the two categories. (SA)|

    Cox, Margaret

    356

    PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The scientific program of the conference began with an overview of high energy nuclear physics in China by Professor Wenqing Shen, vice president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Professor Shen highlighted many contributions made by the Chinese scientists in both theory and experiment. Dr Nick Samios, former director of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), gave a vivid account of the early years of RHIC and recent accomplishments. Highlights of the conference include new results from RHIC at BNL and SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Many experimental results reported at the conference support the notion that the quark-gluon matter at RHIC behaves like a perfect liquid with minimum viscosity to entropy ratio. There were 15 plenary sessions which covered 54 plenary talks, 12 parallel sessions and 1 poster session. A total of 320 abstracts were submitted to the conference out of which 124 were selected for oral presentation and the rest were assigned to the poster session. Talks and posters in the conference covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical progress in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, which includes new evidence of sQGP, jet quenching and heavy quark energy loss, heavy-ion collision phenomenology, quantum field theory at finite temperature and/or density, and relevant areas of astrophysics and plasma physics. The Quark Matter 2006 conference coincided with the 80th birthday of Professor T D Lee. A special reception was held in the banquet hall of the Shanghai Grand Theatre to celebrate Professor Lee's birthday and to honor his great contributions to physics, in particular, to the development of high energy nuclear physics research in China. We would like to thank the members of the International Advisory Committee for providing valuable advice on a variety of matters, from the general structure of the conference to the selection of the plenary speakers and selection of abstracts for oral presentations. Professors T Hemmick, H Satz, D T Son and N Xu gave excellent pedagogical

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    357

    Conference Resolution  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Since the first IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, March 2002) and the Second Conference (Rio de Janeiro, May 2005), progress has continued in most countries and world regions to attract girls to physics and advance women into leadership roles, and many working groups have formed. The Third Conference (Seoul, October 2008), with 283 attendees from 57 countries, was dedicated to celebrating the physics achievements of women throughout the world, networking toward new international collaborations, building each participant's capacity for career success, and aiding the formation of active regional working groups to advance women in physics. Despite the progress, women remain a small minority of the physics community in most countries.

    2009-04-01

    358

    Take Me Out to the Ball Game: Science Outreach to Non-traditional Audiences  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Science outreach often targets audiences that are already interested in science and are looking for related educational experiences for themselves or their families. The University of Wisconsin Geology Museum (UWGM) with funding from the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) is targeting unique venues and thereby new audiences who may not typically seek out science outreach events. With this goal in mind, in June, 2009 the UWGM and NAI sponsored an "Astrobiology Night at the Ballpark" at the Madison Mallards Ballpark, the local Madison, Wisconsin minor league baseball venue. At the game, 6,250 attendees were exposed to current NASA-funded astrobiology research being conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Fans were greeted at the gate by volunteers passing out a nine-card pack of extremophile trading cards, each of which featured a different extremophile group (e.g. halophiles, cryophiles, and barophiles). Next, participants could interact with project scientists, graduate students and museum staff at four exploration stations, where each station highlighted astrobiology themes (i.e. extremophiles, banded iron formation, earth's oldest rocks, earth's oldest fossils). Before the game began, the video board on the field was used to broadcast short NASA videos about recent Mars missions as well as the search for life in space. Additionally, inning breaks were used as fun opportunities to engage fans through an "Alien vs. Kids" tug-of-war as well as the distribution of Frisbees with an astrobiology timeline printed on them. Engaging the broader public at a non-science venue is a means to breaking down perceived barriers between scientists and the general public. We found Mallards fans to be receptive and ready to connect with our science themes. Tapping into a new audience also builds a larger awareness of our museum and University, expanding our impact in the community.

    Norsted, B. A.

    2010-08-01

    359

    Identifying organic molecules in space: the AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX misson concept  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In this paper we review our current state of knowledge regarding the identity of organic and related compounds in the interstellar medium (ISM). The remote detection and identification of organics is ideally suited to the technique of infrared spectroscopy since such data can be obtained telescopically and this spectral range encompasses the fundamental vibrational modes of common molecular bonds. Despite recent advances in our knowledge of the organic component of the ISM, we are still far from understanding the distribution, abundance and evolutionary inter- relationship of these materials within our galaxy and the universe as a whole. Many of these issues can be addressed by the acquisition of new infrared spectra. We briefly describe a potential new Explorer-class space mission capable of obtaining such data, the AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) which consists of a space observatory capable of obtaining spectra in the 2.5-16.0 micrometers range at a spectral resolution of (Delta) $lamda/(lambda) equals 2000-3000. ABE would be capable of addressing outstanding problems in Astrochemistry and Astrophysics that are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and addressable via astronomical observation. ABE would have approximately one year lifetime during which it would obtain a coordinated set of infrared spectroscopic observations of large numbers of galaxies, stars, planetary nebulae, interstellar clouds, young star planetary systems and objects within our own Solar System.

    Sandford, Scott; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse D.; Ennico, Kimberly A.; Greene, Thomas P.; Hudgins, Douglas; Strecker, Donald W.

    2002-02-01

    360

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Identifying Organic Molecules in Space  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept, currently under Concept Phase A study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace &Technologies, Corp., and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct infrared spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the distribution, identity, and evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds, young forming stellar systems, stellar outflows, the general diffuse ISM, HII regions, Solar System bodies, and external galaxies. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.6 m aperture Ritchey-Chretien telescope and three moderate resolution (R = 2000-3000) spectrometers together covering the 2.5-20 micron spectral region. Large format (1024 x 1024 pixel) IR detector arrays will allow each spectrometer to cover an entire octave of spectral range per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope will be cooled below 50 K by a cryogenic dewar shielded by a sunshade. The detectors will be cooled to ~7.5 K by a solid hydrogen cryostat. The optimum orbital configuration for achieving the scientific objectives of the ABE mission is a low background, 1 AU Earth driftaway orbit requiring a Delta II launch vehicle. This configuration provides a low thermal background and allows adequate communications bandwidth and good access to the entire sky over the ~1.5 year mission lifetime.

    Ennico, Kimberly A.; Sandford, Scott; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse D.; Cohen, Martin; Cruikshank, Dale; Greene, Thomas P.; Hudgins, Douglas; Kwok, Sun; Lord, Steven D.; Madden, Suzanne; McCreight, Craig R.; Roellig, Thomas L.; Strecker, Donald W.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Werner, Michael W.

    2003-03-01

    361

    Research in Science Education. Volume 21. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (22nd, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, Australia, July 11-14, 1991).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This annual publication contains 43 research papers on a variety of issues related to science education. Topics include the following: mature-age students; teacher professional development; spreadsheets and science instruction; the Learning in Science Project and putting it into practice; science discipline knowledge in primary teacher education;…

    Forgasz, Helen, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    362

    SCIENCE EDUCATION AT THE CROSSROADS  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Science education seeks to change society, but does little to produce change in itself. Our initial effort into changing ourselves and our discipline resulted in Science Education at the Crossroads. This conference brought together stakeholders in science education to present their problems, rather than research results, and discuss methods of addressing these. In this paper, we describe this conference, its

    Adam Johnston

    363

    Industrial power plant improvement (IPPI) technical conference  

    SciTech Connect

    Fourteen papers were presented at the Industrial Power Plant Improvement (IPPI) Technical Conference held on May 6-7, 1991 in Concord, Ohio. A separate abstract with indexing was prepared for each paper for the Energy Science and Technology Database.

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    364

    45 CFR 672.12 - Prehearing conference.  

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    ...Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES...time before the hearing begins, shall direct the parties and their counsel or other...may conduct a telephonic conference or direct the parties to correspond with him...

    2012-10-01

    365

    45 CFR 672.12 - Prehearing conference.  

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    ...Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES...time before the hearing begins, shall direct the parties and their counsel or other...may conduct a telephonic conference or direct the parties to correspond with him...

    2011-10-01

    366

    Reshaping Assessment Practices: Mathematics Assessment under Challenge. Proceedings from the National Conference on Assessment in the Mathematical Sciences (1st, Geelong, Victoria, Australia November 20-24, 1991).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The purpose of the Australian conference on mathematical assessment was to address the challenges to traditional methods of assessment that have resulted as part of the call for reform in the mathematics curriculum. The 28 papers presented were: "Who Assesses Whom and To What Purpose?" (Leone Burton; "Assessment of the Learned Structure in…

    Stephens, Max, Ed.; Izard, John, Ed.

    367

    IEEE conference record -- Abstracts  

    SciTech Connect

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    368

    Metabolic Engineering VII Conference  

    SciTech Connect

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    369

    Post-Bayesian strategies to optimize astrobiology instrument suites: lessons from Antarctica and the Pilbara  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artificial neural networks patterned on fundamental neurological features of the human perceptual system have been shown to produce Bayesian probabilistic classifications of galaxies1-3, identify biotic and abiotic alteration of subsurface basalts4, distinguish terrestrial fossils from their background rock matrix5, and detect areas of Archean hydrothermal alteration6. Data inputs for these classification tasks have varied from astronomical or high altitude images and spectra, to sub-micron resolution elemental abundances. However, Bayesian theory assumes an absence of statistical and interpretive ambiguity in a target signal, the antithesis of the problems facing remote and human exploration of extreme environments on Earth and extraterrestrial sites such as Mars, comets, and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Fundamental to our certainty about the classification of geobiological targets on Earth is a long scientific history of familiarization both with the geochemical evolution of our planet and the reliability and discriminating power of particular instruments. Reduction of the uncertainty associated with a putative extraterrestrial biosignature derived from a single probe is most often attempted by deploying a suite of instruments, each one interrogating distinct morphological and chemical phenomena in a target7. But understanding the relative weighting appropriate for merging disparate signals or distinct data sets is not a trivial issue8. And, as we have most recently seen in the case of ALH84001, strategies relying on the cumulative statistical power of multiple probes often crumble when subsequent review of abiotic physicochemical phenomena reveals even a single abiotic mechanism, no matter how improbable, capable of replicating the putative biotic signal. Finally, for extend extraterrestrial missions or work in remote environments on Earth, the fundamental "fewest moving parts" reliability rule must come into play. This communication highlights the minimum requirements for an astrobiological instrument suite for remote or human exploration of extreme environments both here on Earth and in our local and neighboring planetary systems. Critical items of concern include obtaining co-registered data characterizing target morphology, metabolism, and mobility; the face validity and familiarity of the instrumentation to the scientific community, and the choice of instrumentation sufficiently inexpensive and easy to use that it might find wide spread usage within the astrobiology community prior to mission deployment. Preliminary indications are that such an instrument can be implemented for a cost accessible to high school, college, and graduate students interested in geobiological and astrobiological research in extreme or hazardous environments.

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.

    2005-09-01

    370

    Conference reports  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Ultrasonic Electronics Branch Society of the China Acoustics Society, and the Electronics Countermeasure Branch Society of the China Electronics Society held and All-China Applications Conference of Ultrasonic Electronics Devices in Electronic Countermeasures, Radar and Military Communication Technology. A total of 66 papers was received by the conference with contents relating to surface acoustic wave devices, high-frequency acoustic wave devices, acousto-optical devices, applications of devices in radar, applications of devices in electronic countermeasures, and applications of devices in military communication systems.

    Dongpei, Chen; Yulong, Ma

    1994-12-01

    371

    Science and Technology for Development. Report of the United Nations Issues Conference (19th, Harriman, New York, February 26-28, 1988).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and technology are helping solve problems around the world as well as creating new problems. The concentration of scientific and technological capabilities in a few countries exacerbates these new problems. The United Nations tried to address this disparity through a program on science and technology for development adopted in Vienna in…

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    372

    Mathematics as a Barrier to the Learning of Science and Technology by Girls. Report of a Conference, (Ahmedabad, India, January 11-12, 1996).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Many Commonwealth countries are concerned about gender factors in mathematics and science education. Labor market statistics in many developing countries show greater participation rates for men in science in general and in numerically-based disciplines in particular. Available evidence indicates that gender biases account for the difficulties…

    Goel, Ved, Ed.; Burton, Leone, Ed.

    373

    The Subsurface Geology of Río Tinto: Material Examined During a Simulated Mars Drilling Mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undis closed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Bell Johnson, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    374

    The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).  

    PubMed

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions. PMID:19105757

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    375

    Scientists and Science Education: Working at the Interface  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    "Are we alone?" "Where did we come from?" "What is our future?" These questions lie at the juncture of astronomy and biology: astrobiology. It is intrinsically interdisciplinary in its study of the origin, evolution and future of life on Earth and beyond. The fundamental concepts of origin and evolution--of both living and non-living systems--are central to astrobiology, and provide powerful themes for unifying science teaching, learning, and appreciation in classrooms and laboratories, museums and science centers, and homes. Research scientists play a key role in communicating the nature of science and joy of scientific discovery with the public. Communicating the scientific discoveries with the public brings together diverse professionals: research scientists, graduate and undergraduate faculty, educators, journalists, media producers, web designers, publishers and others. Working with these science communicators, research scientists share their discoveries through teaching, popular articles, lectures, broadcast and print media, electronic publication, and developing materials for formal and informal education such as textbooks, museum exhibits and documentary television. There's lots of activity in science communication. Yet, the NSF and NASA have both identified science education as needing improvement. The quality of schools and the preparation of teachers receive national attention via "No Child Left Behind" requirements. The number of students headed toward careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is not sufficient to meet national needs. How can the research community make a difference? What role can research scientists fulfill in improving STEM education? This talk will discuss the interface between research scientists and science educators to explore effective roles for scientists in science education partnerships. Astronomy and astrobiology education and outreach projects, materials, and programs will provide the context for this discussion.

    DeVore, E. K.

    2004-05-01

    376

    Supercooled water brines within permafrost-an unknown ecological niche for microorganisms: a model for astrobiology.  

    PubMed

    This study describes brine lenses (cryopegs) found in Siberian permafrost derived from ancient marine sediment layers of the Arctic Ocean. The cryopegs were formed and isolated from sediment ~100,000-120,000 years ago. They remain liquid at the in situ temperature of -10 degrees C as a result of their high salt content (170-300 g/L). [(14)C] Glucose is taken up by the cryopeg biomass at -15 degrees C, indicating microbial metabolism at low temperatures in this habitat. Furthermore, aerobic, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfate reducers, acetogens, and methanogens were detected by most probable number analysis. Two psychrophilic microbes were isolated from the cryopegs, a Clostridium and a Psychrobacter. The closest relatives of each were previously isolated from Antarctica. The cryopeg econiche might serve as a model for extraterrestrial life, and hence is of particular interest to astrobiology. PMID:14577882

    Gilichinsky, D; Rivkina, E; Shcherbakova, V; Laurinavichuis, K; Tiedje, J

    2003-01-01

    377

    The Need Of Laboratory Experiments In Parallel To Astrobiological Space Fligth Experiments  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For laboratory studies on the responses of resistant life forms to simulated interplane- tary space conditions, test beds are available that simulate the parameters of space, such as vacuum, solar electromagnetic and cosmic ionizing radiation, temperature extremes and reduced gravity, which can be applied separately or in selected com- binations. Appropriate biological test systems are extremophiles, i.e. microorganisms that are adapted to grow or survive in extreme conditions of our biosphere. Examples are airborne microbes, endolithic or endoevaporitic microbial communities, or isolated biomolecules. The studies contribute to answer several questions of astrobiology, such as (i) the role of solar UV radiation in genetic stability, (ii) the role of gravity in basic biological functions, (iii) the chances and limits for interplanetary transfer of life, (iv) strategies of adaptation to environmental extremes, and (v) the needs for planetary protection. As an example, the ground controls that were performed in parallel with 3 BIOPAN flight experiments will be presented.

    Horneck, G.

    378

    Supercooled Water Brines Within Permafrost-An Unknown Ecological Niche for Microorganisms: A Model for Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This study describes brine lenses (cryopegs) found in Siberian permafrost derived from ancient marine sediment layers of the Arctic Ocean. The cryopegs were formed and isolated from sediment ~100,000-120,000 years ago. They remain liquid at the in situ temperature of -10°C as a result of their high salt content (170-300 g/L). [14C] Glucose is taken up by the cryopeg biomass at -15°C, indicating microbial metabolism at low temperatures in this habitat. Furthermore, aerobic, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfate reducers, acetogens, and methanogens were detected by most probable number analysis. Two psychrophilic microbes were isolated from the cryopegs, a Clostridium and a Psychrobacter. The closest relatives of each were previously isolated from Antarctica. The cryopeg econiche might serve as a model for extraterrestrial life, and hence is of particular interest to astrobiology.

    Gilichinsky, D.; Rivkina, E.; Shcherbakova, V.; Laurinavichuis, K.; Tiedje, J.

    2003-06-01

    379

    Investigation of low-energy proton effects on aptamer performance for astrobiological applications.  

    PubMed

    Biochips are promising instruments for the search for organic molecules in planetary environments. Nucleic acid aptamers are powerful affinity receptors known for their high affinity and specificity, and therefore are of great interest for space biochip development. A wide variety of aptamers have already been selected toward targets of astrobiological interest (from amino acids to microorganisms). We present a first study to test the resistance of these receptors to the constraints of the space environment. The emphasis is on the effect of cosmic rays on the molecular recognition properties of DNA aptamers. Experiments on beam-line facilities have been conducted with 2 MeV protons and fluences much higher than expected for a typical mission to Mars. Our results show that this irradiation process did not affect the performances of DNA aptamers as molecular recognition tools. PMID:21434764

    Baqué, M; Le Postollec, A; Ravelet, C; Peyrin, E; Coussot, G; Desvignes, I; Incerti, S; Moretto, P; Dobrijevic, M; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O

    2011-03-24

    380

    The 2005 National Conference of Black Physics Students  

    SciTech Connect

    This proposal funded the 19th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students. This conference provided physics students with the opportunity to interact with world-class researchers and the facilities at which they work. The conference supports the well established need for the US to foster a larger and stronger scientific workforce through the recruitment and retention of science and engineering students.

    David D. Reid

    2006-09-26

    381

    NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statement on Prevention of Fecal and Urinary Incontinence in Adults. Volume 24, Number 1.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus and state-of-the-science statements are prepared by independent panels of health professionals and public representatives on the basis of (1) the results of a systematic literature review prepared under contra...

    2007-01-01

    382

    CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Commemoration of the centenary of the birth of Academician L A Artsimovich(Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 18 February 2009; Joint session of the Research Council of the Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Rosatom State Corporation, 18 March 2009)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) devoted to the centenary of the birth of Academician L A Artsimovich was held on 18 February 2009 in the conference hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Khalatnikov I M (L D Landau Institute of Theoretical Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Nonaccidental coincidences (Lev Andreevich Artsimovich)"; (2) Pashinin P P (A M Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, RAS, Moscow) "L A Artsimovich and inertial thermonuclear fusion"; (3) Fortov V E (Institute of Thermophysics of Extreme States of the Joint Institute for High Temperatures, RAS, Moscow) "High-power shock waves and extreme states of plasma"; (4) Fridman A M (Institute of Astronomy, RAS, Moscow) "Prediction and discovery of ultrastrong hydrodynamic instabilities caused by a velocity jump: theory and experiment"; (5) Smirnov V P (Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "Retracing Artsimovich's path to the thermonuclear source of energy". On 18 March 2009, a joint session of the Learned Council of the Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' (RNTsKI in Russ. abbr.), the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Rosatom State Corporation took place at RNTsKI; the session was devoted to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Academician L A Artsimovich. The following talks were presented at the session: (1) Velikhov E P (Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "Academician L A Artsimovich—the founder of our field of science and industry"; (2) Smirnov V P (Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "Retracing Artsimovich's path to the thermonuclear source of energy"; (3) Boyarchuk A A (Division of General Physics and Astronomy, RAS, Moscow) "L A Artsimovich and astronomy"; (4) Martynenko Yu V (Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "Electromagnetic isotope separation method and its heritage"; (5) Strelkov V S (Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "Our teacher: Lev Andreevich Artsimovich"; (6) Mirnov S V (Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "L A Artsimovich through the eyes of a former postgraduate student". • Nonaccidental coincidences (Lev Andreevich Artsimovich), I M Khalatnikov Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 12, Pages 1248-1249 • Avenues for the innovative development of energetics in the world and in Russia, V E Fortov, A A Makarov Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 12, Pages 1249-1265 • Lev Andreevich Artsimovich and extremely strong hydrodynamic instabilities, A M Fridman Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 12, Pages 1265-1266 • Electromagnetic isotope separation method and its heritage, Yu V Martynenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 12, Pages 1266-1272

    Khalatnikov, Isaak M.; Fortov, Vladimir E.; Makarov, Aleksandr A.; Fridman, Aleksei M.; Martynenko, Yurii V.

    2009-12-01

    383

    International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society – Eco-Materials and Eco-Innovation for Global Sustainability – The 21st Iketani Conference 2011  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The 21st century has been called the century of environmental revolution. Green innovations and environmentally friendly production systems based on physics, chemistry, materials science, and electronic engineering will be indispensable for ensuring renewable energy and establishing a sustainable society. In particular, production design, materials processing, and fabrication technologies such as welding and joining will be very important components of such

    Yasuo Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    384

    Girls and Science and Technology. Proceedings and Contributions of the GASAT Conference (4th, Ann Arbor, Michigan, July 24-29, 1987).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In 1979, North European researchers met informally to discuss issues regarding women in science. In addition to discovering that the issues raised crossed national boundaries and cultural differences, they found that numerous efforts were underway to address their concerns. What started as an informal meeting has evolved today into an…

    Daniels, Jane Zimmer, Ed.; Kahle, Jane Butler, Ed.

    385

    Girls and Science and Technology. Proceedings and Contributions of the GASAT Conference (4th, Ann Arbor, Michigan, July 24-29, 1987).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |In 1979, North European researchers met informally to discuss issues regarding women in science. In addition to discovering that the issues raised crossed national boundaries and cultural differences, they found that numerous efforts were underway to address their concerns. What started as an informal meeting has evolved today into an…

    Daniels, Jane Zimmer, Ed.; Kahle, Jane Butler, Ed.

    386

    National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference Statement: Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking, Social Behaviors in Adolescents, October 13-15, 2004  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |NIH consensus and state-of-the-science statements are prepared by independent panels of health professionals and public representatives on the basis of (1) the results of a systematic literature review prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), (2) presentations by investigators working in areas relevant…

    Lochman, John E.

    2006-01-01

    387

    Mars 2020 Science Rover: Science Goals and Mission Concept  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT), chartered in January 2013 by NASA, formulated a spacecraft mission concept for a science-focused, highly mobile rover to explore and investigate in detail a site on Mars that likely was once habitable. The mission, based on the Mars Science Laboratory landing and rover systems, would address, within a cost- and time-constrained framework, four objectives: (A) Explore an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars to decipher its geological processes and history, including the assessment of past habitability; (B) Assess the biosignature preservation potential within the selected geological environment and search for potential biosignatures; (C) Demonstrate significant technical progress towards the future return of scientifically selected, well-documented samples to Earth; and (D) provide an opportunity for contributed instruments from Human Exploration or Space Technology Programs. The SDT addressed the four mission objectives and six additional charter-specified tasks independently while specifically looking for synergy among them. Objectives A and B are each ends unto themselves, while Objective A is also the means by which samples are selected for objective B, and together they motivate and inform Objective C. The SDT also found that Objective D goals are well aligned with A through C. Critically, Objectives A, B, and C as an ensemble brought the SDT to the conclusion that exploration oriented toward both astrobiology and the preparation of a returnable cache of scientifically selected, well documented surface samples is the only acceptable mission concept. Importantly the SDT concluded that the measurements needed to attain these objectives were essentially identical, consisting of six types of field measurements: 1) context imaging 2) context mineralogy, 3) fine-scale imaging, 4) fine-scale mineralogy, 5) fine-scale elemental chemistry, and 6) organic matter detection. The mission concept fully addresses the requirements specified by NASA in the SDT charter while also ensuring alignment with the recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey for Planetary Exploration (Visions and Voyages, 2011).

    Mustard, John F.; Beaty, D.; Bass, D.

    2013-10-01

    388

    Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)|

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    389

    Tailoring multiphase and composite ceramics; Proceedings of the Twenty-first University Conference on Ceramic Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, July 17-19, 1985  

    SciTech Connect

    The present conference considers topics in the processing and fabrication of multiphase ceramics, structure-property relations in multiphase ceramics, multiphase electroceramics, fiber- and whisker-reinforced composites, and high-temperature multiphase ceramics. Attention is given to the role of shear in composite sintering, phase relationships in Y-Si-Al-O-N ceramics, ceramic eutectic composites, CVD processing of ceramic-ceramic composites, porous and dense sol-gel composites, and displacive transformation mechanisms in zirconia. Also discussed are the microstructure and hardness of composite tool ceramics, electroceramic composites, composite thermistors, the processing of heterogeneous ceramics for dielectric applications, fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics, fiber-reinforced composites via the sol-gel route, the toughness anisotropy of an SiC/SiC laminate, ultrahigh-temperature ceramic composites, and the creep rupture of siliconized SiC.

    Tressler, R.E.; Messing, G.L.; Pantano, C.G.; Newham, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    390

    World Trends in Science Education.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papers presented at a conference of science educators from 26 countries organized to discuss world trends in science education are compiled in this publication. Section titles are: (1) Perspectives on Science Education - Some Major Trends (9 papers); (2) Science Curriculum Development for the Future - A Look at Some of the Issues (7 papers); (3)…

    McFadden, Charles P., Ed.

    391

    Conference Summary.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The Symposium on the Measurement of Cloud Elements was held 10-11 June at the Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago. Prof. Robert G. Knollenberg of the University of Chicago hosted the meeting, while Dr. William D. Scott of the Nationa...

    W. D. Scott R. M. Cunningham R. G. Knollenberg W. R. Cotton

    1971-01-01

    392

    Review komatiites: from Earth's geological settings to planetary and astrobiological contexts  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatiites are fascinating volcanic rocks. They are among the most ancient lavas of the Earth following the 3.8 Ga pillow basalts at Isua and they represent some of the oldest ultramafic magmatic rocks preserved in the Earth’s crust at 3.5 Ga. This fact, linked to their particular features (high magnesium content, high melting temperatures, low dynamic viscosities, etc.), has attracted the community of geoscientists since their discovery in the early sixties, who have tried to determine their origin and understand their meaning in the context of terrestrial mantle evolution. In addition, it has been proposed that komatiites are not restricted to our planet, but they could be found in other extraterrestrial settings in our Solar System (particularly on Mars and Io). It is important to note that komatiites may be extremely significant in the study of the origins and evolution of Life on Earth. They not only preserve essential geochemical clues of the interaction between the pristine Earth rocks and atmosphere, but also may have been potential suitable sites for biological processes to develop. Thus, besides reviewing the main geodynamic, petrological and geochemical characteristics of komatiites, this paper also aims to widen their investigation beyond the classical geological prospect, calling attention to them as attractive rocks for research in Planetology and Astrobiology.

    Nna-Mvondo, Delphine; Martinez-Frias, Jesus

    2007-06-01

    393

    Vanguard--a European robotic astrobiology-focussed Mars sub-surface mission proposal.  

    PubMed

    We present a new European Mars mission proposal to build on the UK-led Beagle2 Mars mission and continue its astrobiology-focussed investigation of Mars. The small surface element to be delivered to the Martian surface--Vanguard--is designed to be carried by a Mars Express-type spacecraft bus to Mars and adopts a similar entry, descent and landing system as Beagle2. The surface element comprises a triad of robotic devices--a lander, a micro-rover of the Sojourner class for surface mobility, and three ground-penetrating moles mounted onto the rover for sub-surface penetration to 5 m depth. The major onboard instruments on the rover include a Raman spectrometer/imager, a laser plasma spectrometer, an infrared spectrometer--these laser instruments provide the basis for in situ "remote" sensing of the sub-surface Martian environment within a powerful scientific package. The moles carry the instruments' sensor head array to the sub-surface. The moles are thus required to undergo a one-way trip down the boreholes without the need for recovery of moles or samples, eliminating much of the robotic complexity invoked by such operations. PMID:15754476

    Ellery, Alex; Ball, Andrew J; Cockell, Charles; Dickensheets, David; Edwards, Howell; Kolb, Christof; Lammer, Helmut; Patel, Manish; Richter, Lutz

    2005-02-01

    394

    Sulfate content of Europa's ocean and shell: evolutionary considerations and some geological and astrobiological implications.  

    PubMed

    Recent models for the origin of Jupiter indicate that the Galilean satellites were mostly derived from largely unprocessed solar nebula solids and planetesimals. In the jovian subnebula the solids that built Europa were first heated and then cooled, but the major effect was most likely partial or total devolatilization, and less likely to have been wholesale thermochemical reprocessing of rock + metal compositions (e.g., oxidation of Fe and hydration of silicates). Ocean formation and substantial alteration of interior rock by accreted water and ice would occur during and after accretion, but none of the formation models predicts or implies accretion of sulfates. Europa's primordial ocean was most likely sulfidic. After accretion and later radiogenic and tidal heating, the primordial ocean would have interacted hydrothermally with subjacent rock. It has been hypothesized that sulfides could be converted to sulfates if sufficient hydrogen was lost to space, but pressure effects and the impermeability of serpentinite imply that extraction of sulfate from thoroughly altered Europa-rock would have been inefficient (if indeed Mg sulfates formed at all). Permissive physical limits on the extent of alteration limit the sulfate concentration of Europa's evolved ocean to 10% by weight MgSO(4) or equivalent. Later oxidation of the deep interior of Europa may have also occurred because of water released by the breakdown of hydrated silicates, ultimately yielding S magma and/or SO(2) gas. Geological and astrobiological implications are considered. PMID:14987488

    McKinnon, William B; Zolensky, Michael E

    2003-01-01

    395

    The Material-Independent Signatures of Life.Forensic Tools of Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biological life is intimately related to the geochemical conditions on Earth and is fit for this planet's energy flux. It has often been suggested that life was also built in accordance with the particular local conditions offered by the early Earth. Common sense dictates that the constructive details of life on another planet should also be a reflection of the particular local conditions. Moreover, the collective activity of all life forms on a planet should have some measurable consequences on the global geochemistry. Comparison with the Earth-bound type of life is certainly inspirational but only up to a point. One central rule in astrobiology is: life can be made of many things and can have many forms. The search for extraterrestrial life cannot be limited to the search for Earth-like examples. Despite the common sense of this guideline, a manifest tendency exists today to judge the geochemical conditions from other planets through Earth-colored glasses. Much too often we hear expressions such as conditions too hostile to harbor life', or the search for Earth-like planets as potential hosts of life', or chemistry appropriate for life', or water as the fluid of life', or terra-formation of another planet to make it appropriate for life'. Irrespectively of how hostile another planet might appear to our Earth-based metabolism, we cannot state with certainty that life cannot be present before a comprehensive investigation is performed which includes the search for life's material-independent signatures.

    Radu, Popa

    396

    Astrobiological and Planetary Exploration Implications of Microbial Ichnofossils in Terrestrial Basaltic Glasses  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Over the past decade, studies have demonstrated that terrestrial basaltic glass in pillow rims and hyaloclastites are suitable microbial habitats. Microbes rapidly begin colonizing the glassy surfaces along fractures and cracks that have been exposed to water. Microbial colonization of basaltic glass leads to the alteration and modification of the rocks to produce characteristic granular and/or tubular bioalteration textures. The early precipitation of sub-micron titanite grains within the biologically etched alteration structures serves as an agent for preservation that may persist for geologically extended periods of time in the absence of later penetrative deformation. These microbial alteration structures have been observed in several Archean greenstone belts including the Abitibi greenstone belt (2.7 Ga), Pilbara craton (3.35 Ga), and the Barberton greenstone belt (3.5 Ga). Archean subaqueous volcanic rocks provide an excellent analogue for a potential habitat for possible early Martian life, given that basaltic rocks are a major component of the Martian crust. A wide variety of recent evidence strongly suggests the long-term existence of abundant liquid water on ancient Mars. Recent orbiter, lander, and rover missions have found evidence for the presence of transient liquid water on Mars, perhaps persisting to the present day. Beyond Mars, other solar system bodies, notably Europa, Enceladus, and other icy satellites, may well host subaqueous basaltic glasses. We will explore the implications of the newly discovered geological record of basaltic glass bioalteration and basaltic glass as a microbial habitat for planetary exploration and astrobiology.

    Bridge, N. J.; Izawa, M. M.; Banerjee, N. R.; Flemming, R. L.; Schultz, C.

    2009-05-01

    397

    Sulfate Content of Europa's Ocean and Shell: Evolutionary Considerations and Some Geological and Astrobiological Implications  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent models for the origin of Jupiter indicate that the Galilean satellites were mostly derived from largely unprocessed solar nebula solids and planetesimals. In the jovian subnebula the solids that built Europa were first heated and then cooled, but the major effect was most likely partial or total devolatilization, and less likely to have been wholesale thermochemical reprocessing of rock + metal compositions (e.g., oxidation of Fe and hydration of silicates). Ocean formation and substantial alteration of interior rock by accreted water and ice would occur during and after accretion, but none of the formation models predicts or implies accretion of sulfates. Europa's primordial ocean was most likely sulfidic. After accretion and later radiogenic and tidal heating, the primordial ocean would have interacted hydrothermally with subjacent rock. It has been hypothesized that sulfides could be converted to sulfates if sufficient hydrogen was lost to space, but pressure effects and the impermeability of serpentinite imply that extraction of sulfate from thoroughly altered Europa-rock would have been inefficient (if indeed Mg sulfates formed at all). Permissive physical limits on the extent of alteration limit the sulfate concentration of Europa's evolved ocean to 10% by weight MgSO4 or equivalent. Later oxidation of the deep interior of Europa may have also occurred because of water released by the breakdown of hydrated silicates, ultimately yielding S magma and/or SO2 gas. Geological and astrobiological implications are considered.

    McKinnon, William B.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2003-12-01

    398

    Group International Travel to VIIth World Round Table Conference on Sintering  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    An objective of the Conference and related Topical Symposia has been to bring together scientists, worldwide, who work in various fields of the science and technology of sintering and sintered materials. These conferences typically attract about 200 parti...

    R. N. Spriggs

    1990-01-01

    399

    European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2003 (CD-ROM).  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The Final Proceedings for European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software 2003, ETAPS 2003, 5 April 2003 - 13 April 2003 The conference will cover many fundamental aspects of software science and system development: specification, design, im...

    2004-01-01

    400

    Proceedings of the twenty-first DOE solar photochemistry research conference.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The Solar Photochemistry Research Conference brings together grantees and contractors of the Division of Chemical Sciences who are engaged in fundamental research on solar photochemical energy conversion. The annual conference provides a focus for the pro...

    1997-01-01

    401

    Student Support for EIPBN 2010 Conference  

    SciTech Connect

    The 54th International Conference on Electron, Ion and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication, 2010, held at the Egan Convention Center and Hilton in Anchorage, Alaska, June 1 to 4, 2010 was a great success in large part because financial support allowed robust participation from students. The conference brought together 444 engineers and scientists from industries and universities from all over the world to discuss recent progress and future trends. Among the emerging technologies that are within the scope of EIPBN is Nanofabrication for Energy Sources along with nanofabrication for the realization of low power integrated circuits. Every year, EIPBN provides financial support for students to attend the conference.The students gave oral and poster presentations of their research and many published peer reviewed articles in a special conference issue of the Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B. The Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences supported 20 students from US universities with a $15,000.

    Reginald C. Farrow

    2011-03-11

    402

    IEEE conference record--Abstracts  

    SciTech Connect

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    403

    ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Development  

    SciTech Connect

    Support was provided by DOE for the 2nd ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Development. The final conference program and abstracts book is attached. The conference presentations are organized around topics that are central to the current research areas in prokaryotic development. The program starts with topics that involve relatively simple models systems and ends with systems that are more complex. The topics are: i) the cell cycle, ii) the cytoskeleton, iii) morphogenesis, iv) developmental transcription, v) signaling, vi) multicellularity, and vii) developmental diversity and symbiosis. The best-studied prokaryotic development model systems will be highlighted at the conference through research presentations by leaders in the field. Many of these systems are also model systems of relevance to the DOE mission including carbon sequestration (Bradyrizobium, Synechococcus), energy production (Anabaena, Rhodobacter) and bioremediation (Caulobacter, Mesorhizobium). In addition, many of the highlighted organisms have important practical applications; the actinomycetes and myxobacteria produce antimicrobials that are of commercial interest. It is certain that the cutting-edge science presented at the conference will be applicable to the large group of bacteria relevant to the DOE mission.

    Kaplan, H. B.

    2005-07-13

    404

    FASEB Summer Research Conferences  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides information regarding summer research conferences hosted internationally by FASEB. The conferences spread a wide range of scientific specialties and serve academics and health professionals.

    2012-07-24

    405

    Calendar of Conferences  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    8 - 18 August 1996 International Summer School on Plasma Physics and Technology La Jolla, CA, USA Contact: Mr V Stefan, Institute for Advanced Physics Studies, PO Box 2964, La Jolla, CA 92038, USA. Tel +1-619-456-5737. 26 - 30 August 1996 Joint Varenna - Lausanne International Workshop on Theory of Fusion Plasmas Villa Monastero, Varenna, Italy Contact: Centro di Cultura Villa Monastero, 1 Piazza Venini, 22050 Varenna (Lecco), Italy. Tel +39-341-831261, Fax +39-341-831281. Application and abstract deadline: 15 June 1996. 2 - 5 September 1996 EU - US Workshop on Transport in Fusion Plasmas Villa Monastero, Varenna, Italy Further information: G Gorini, ISPP, 16 Via Celoria, I-20133 Milano, Italy. Tel +39-2-2392637, Fax +39-2-2392205, E-mail ggorini@mi.infn.it. Administrative contact: Centro di Cultura Villa Monastero, 1 Piazza Venini, 22050 Varenna (Lecco), Italy. Tel +39-341-831261, Fax +39-341-831281. Application and abstract deadline: 15 June 1996. 9 - 13 September 1996 International Conference on Plasma Physics Nagoya, Japan Contact: Conference Secretariat, c/o Prof. Hiromu Momota, National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01, Japan. Tel +81-52-789-4260, Fax +81-52-789-1037, E-mail icpp96@nifs.ac.jp. Abstract deadline: 31 March 1996. 16 - 20 September 1996 19th Symposium on Fusion Technology Lisbon, Portugal Contact: Professor Carlos Varandas, Centro de Fusão Nuclear, 1096 Lisboa Codex, Portugal. Fax +351-1-8417819, E-mail cvarandas@cfn.ist.utl.pt. General information will be available via WWW with URL http://www.cfn.ist.utl.pt. 25 - 29 September 1996 Summer University of Plasma Physics Garching, Germany Contact: Ms Ch Stahlberg, Max-Planck-Institut für PlasmaPhysik, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany. Tel +49-89-3299-2232, Fax +49-89-3299-1001. 11 - 15 November 1996 38th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics, APS Denver, CO, USA Contact: Dr Richard Hazeltine, University of Texas, Institute for Fusion Studies, RLM 11.314, Austin, TX 78712. Tel +1-512-471-1322, E-mail stewart@hagar.ph.utexas.edu. 17 - 18 February 1997 Plasma '97: 21st Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering Plasma Science and Technology Conference Sydney, Australia Contact: Margaret Lanigan, Conference Manager, PMB 1, MENAI NSW 2234, Australia. Fax +61-(0)2-439-6561, E-mail ainse@ansto.gov.au. 6 - 11 April 1997 10th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating Ameland, The Netherlands Contact: J Hamers-Smit, FOM - Instituut voor Plasmafysica 'Rijnhuizen', Postbus 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein. Tel +31-30-6096999, Fax +31-30-6031204, E-mail ec10@rijnh.nl. Application and abstract deadline: 17 January 1997. 8 - 12 September 1997 12th International Conference on Gas Discharges and their Applications Greifswald, Germany Contact: Dr G Babucke, Inst. f. Niedertemperatur-Plasmaphysik, Robert-Blum-Str. 8 - 10, 17489 Greifswald, Germany. Tel +49-3834-554411, Fax +49-3834-554301, E-mail gd97@public.inp.uni-greifswald.de.

    1996-08-01

    406

    Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference. Executive summary  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference was held on 3-6 Aug. 1992 in Huntsville, Alabama. The purpose of the conference was to bring together prospective space station researchers and the people in NASA and industry with whom they would be working to exchange information and discuss plans and opportunities for space station research. Topics covered include: research capabilities; research plans and opportunities; life sciences research; technology research; and microgravity research and biotechnology.

    1993-03-01

    407

    Aerospace century XXI: Space sciences, applications, and commercial developments; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual AAS International Conference, Boulder, CO, Oct. 26-29, 1986  

    SciTech Connect

    Papers are presented on rocket UV observations of Comet Halley, a space system for microgravity research, transitioning from Spacelab to Space Station science, and assemblers and future space hardware. Also considered are spatial and temporal scales of atmospheric disturbances, Doppler radar for prediction and warning, data management for the Columbus program, communications satellites of the future, and commercial launch vehicles. Other topics include space geodesy and earthquake predictions, inverted cellular radio satellite systems, material processing in space, and potential for earth observations from the manned Space Station.

    Morgenthaler, G.W.; Koster, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    408

    NASA's Astro-Venture Engages Exceptional Students in Earth System Science Using Inquiry  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astro-Venture is an educational, interactive, multimedia Web environment highlighting NASA careers and astrobiology research in the areas of Astronomy, Geology, Biology and Atmospheric Sciences. Students in grades 5-8 role-play NASA careers, as they search for and design a planet with the necessary characteristics for human habitation. Astro-Venture uses online multimedia activities and off-line inquiry explorations to engage students in guided

    C. Oguinn

    2003-01-01

    409

    4. International reservoir characterization technical conference  

    SciTech Connect

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    410

    Traditional and modern sciences and technologies in India: trading new paradigms for old Paper for the Compas panel in the conference: Bridging Scales and Epistemologies: Linking Local Knowledge with Global Science in Multi-Scale Assessments  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Indian sub continent contains a fascinating range and array of knowledge systems and practices that exist side by side even today. In this presentation I present the following: 1. Summarize the nature and characteristic of Traditional Indian Knowledge Systems drawing particular examples from some branches of Sciences and Technology. 2. Spell out some specific ways in which this traditional

    Alexandria March; A. V. Balasubramanian

    411

    Research in Science Education, 1994. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (25th, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, July 10-13, 1994).  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This volume contains 41 papers, 10 abstracts/research notes, and an after-dinner speech "The Book of Genesis and the Chronicles of the People of ASERA (Australasian Science Education Research Association). Paper titles include: "Improving students' understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in first-year Biochemistry at tertiary level"; "Students'…

    Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    412

    Investigating cellular stress responses--a multidisciplinary approach from basic science to therapeutics--Report on the EuroSciCon (European Scientific Conferences) meeting  

    PubMed Central

    The meeting on “Investigating cellular stress responses—a multidisciplinary approach from basic science to therapeutics” was held in London on 13 October 2006. The purpose of this 1-day meeting was to bring together European scientists investigating the immune biology of stress proteins and their potential clinical applications. The main topics included: the role of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in bacterial infections; the role of Hsps with a molecular mass of about 70 kDa in cancer therapy and in prediction of the clinical outcome following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; the quality and duration of stress as a danger signal for the initiation of a stress response; the mechanism of Hsp-protein interaction; and Hsp export from tumor cells in secretory granules.

    Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    413

    Field Testing the Mars Astrobiology Probe (MAP) Instrument Suite in the Atacama Desert  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Mars Astrobiology Probe (MAP) is an instrument suite consisting of a subcritical water extractor (SCWE) and a sublimation system together with microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) for extraction and analysis of potential biomarker compounds from soil. The CE instrument provides high resolution analysis of amino acid composition and chirality with ppb to part-per-trillion sensitivity (1). The CE instrument can also be used to analyze amines, diamines, amino sugars and several of the nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides (2). Key stages in the selection of in situ instrumentation for Mars exploration include the development of instrument suites advanced enough to operate in relevant field environments and demonstration that they have the analytical capability and sensitivity to detect low levels of biomarkers. We describe here successful field trials of MAP in the Atacama Desert in Chile, an extremely dry, oxidized environment that is an excellent Mars analog site. This work demonstrates the successful and robust operation of the MAP instrument suite in the Atacama Desert. The instruments were subjected to over 30°C temperature variations (0°C to 30°C) during a typical day of operation and the CE system performed 340 separate electrophoretic analyses on only 3 microchips in one week. We have demonstrated that the MAP instrument can detect amino acids and organic amine biomarkers in one of the driest, most Mars-like environments on Earth. In addition, based on our chirality analysis we conclude that these molecules originated from extinct living organisms. Further lab analyses of these samples are being performed to re-determine amino acid concentrations and chirality, and to analyze for culturable bacteria, fatty acids, and total organic carbon and nitrogen. This work demonstrates the successful and robust operation of the MAP instrument suite in the Atacama Desert. The instruments were subjected to over 30°C temperature variations (0°C to 30°C) during a typical day of operation and the CE microchip system performed 340 separate electrophoretic analyses on only 3 microchips over the course of one week. We have demonstrated that the MAP instrument can detect amino acids and organic amine biomarkers in one of the driest, most Mars-like environments on Earth. In addition, based on our chirality analysis we conclude that these molecules originated from extinct living organisms. Further lab analyses of these samples are being performed to re-determine amino acid concentrations and chirality, and to analyze for culturable bacteria, fatty acids, and total organic carbon and nitrogen. 1. Skelley, A. M. et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad, Sci. U.S.A. 102, 1041-1046. 2. Skelley, A. M., Cleaves, J. H., Bada, J. F. & Mathies, R. A. (2005), in preparation. 3. See http://astrobiology.berkeley.edu for additional details

    Skelley, A. M.; Aubrey, A.; Willis, P.; Amashukeli, X.; Ponce, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Bada, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Mathies, R.

    2005-12-01

    414

    Summary of 1984 conference  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The First International Conference on Injuries in the Workplace was held in New York City, 1984. That conference was sponsored, as is the present conference, by the Occupational and Industrial Orthopaedic Center of the Hospital for Joint Diseases Orthopaedic Institute and The World Rehabilitation Fund; and co-sponsored by the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. The first conference

    Margareta Nordin

    1987-01-01

    415

    Life science education in Australia and America: Linking new knowledge with new opportunities  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    If we are to reap the benefit of fundamental scientific research in the future, we must adjust our education priorities to partner the sciences more closely. There are at least four critical areas that industry; government and higher educational institutions have to adjust to maintain public interest in the sciences. Science education aims to train people to apply the principles of science to their everyday life and as such generate products or perform functions that can benefit humankind. Translating research findings to industry requires many scientific skills and an understanding of the history and application of science, through astrobiology, in high schools and undergraduate university programs can help to achieve this. The critical areas we need to address in education to achieve this are: * The skills, discoveries and concepts in astrobiology that is necessary for understanding. * To identify and eliminate barriers to partnering disciplines in science education. * To produce educational resources we can use in this process. * To facilitate science education in a community that is largely scientifically illiterate and suspicious of many aspects of science. Australian science education is somewhat backward in performance when compared to the USA and Europe. This is reflected in the dominance shown by the United States of America in biotechnology. Australia needs to translate developments in education from overseas into modern context. The pathway to achieve this goal is to develop closer partnerships between teaching the disciplines in high schools and the teaching and research in tertiary institutions.

    Linich, Michael

    416

    Citizens and Science.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Describes the focus of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Science for Citizens program on getting citizens involved in scientific issues relating to public policy or decision making, and outlines the role of community colleges in facilitating NSF public service residencies, forums, conferences, and workshops, and in planning studies. (MB)|

    Silha, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    417

    Publicising a Science Discovery: It's All in the Timing -- Two Case Studies  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Many factors are involved in deciding when a scientific result is ready to be presented to the news media and public. The most newsworthy science is often cutting-edge science and can inherently contain disagreement and controversy among scientists. Even results from peer-refereed papers are not free from criticism if scientists feel that the findings have been too widely publicised and lack caveats. How does a public information office balance these factors to ensure that newsworthy science is reported in a timely manner? This article presents two case studies from the research areas of exoplanets and astrobiology.

    Villard, R.

    2008-05-01

    418

    Rethinking Science Education: Meeting the Challenge of "Science for All"  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This article presents the author's Presidential Address delivered to the Association for Science Education Annual Conference, University of Liverpool, January 2012. "Science for all" has been an aspiration of the Association for Science Education and the organisations from which it evolved for almost a century. It has, however, proved an elusive…

    Millar, Robin

    2012-01-01

    419

    Bacterial communities in Fe/Mn films, sulphate crusts, and aluminium glazes from Swedish Lapland: implications for astrobiology on Mars  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock coatings have been observed on Mars by Mars Pathfinder, Viking and the Mars Exploration Rovers. Although rock varnish has been studied for its potential as a biosignature, other types of rock coating have been largely ignored. In Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland, sulphate crusts, aluminium glazes and Fe/Mn films occur with mineralogies mimicking those observed on the surface of Mars. Molecular analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with these rock coatings. Molecular techniques revealed differences in community structure and metabolisms associated with the production of secondary minerals between the three coating types. SEM analysis showed evidence of encrustation in mineral coatings in the Fe/Mn films and aluminium glazes, and evidence of abundant microbial communities in all three coating types. These observations provide evidence for bacterial participation in the genesis of rock coatings. For astrobiology on Mars, rock coatings are an attractive biosignature target scientifically and logistically: they are surface environments easily accessible by rovers, endoliths are afforded protection from surface conditions, and evidence of life could potentially be preserved through biomineralization and lithification. This study describes the bacterial communities from rock coatings compatible with martian mineralogy, explores the potential for biologically facilitated rock-coating formation, and supports rock coatings as targets of astrobiological interest on Mars.

    Marnocha, Cassandra L.; Dixon, John C.

    2013-10-01

    420

    Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Through the presentation of its Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics career education conferences for secondary school young women, the Math/Science Network continues its efforts to remove the educational, psychological, and cultural barrier...

    1985-01-01

    421

    Girls Lock-In Conference, Summer Solutions, 2004.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The conferences gave the students the opportunity to camp out in a residence hall, learn more about studying math, science, and engineering at the University of Missouri at Rolla (UMR), meet other perspective and current students, learn tips for financial...

    F. Harris

    2004-01-01

    422

    40 CFR 164.50 - Prehearing conference and primary discovery.  

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    ...Prehearing conference and primary discovery. (a) Purpose of the prehearing...subpoenas duces tecum for discovery and hearing purposes...proceeding. (b) Primary discovery (Exchange of witness lists...by the National Academy of Sciences. (2) Preparation of...

    2010-07-01

    423

    40 CFR 164.50 - Prehearing conference and primary discovery.  

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    ...Prehearing conference and primary discovery. (a) Purpose of the prehearing...subpoenas duces tecum for discovery and hearing purposes...proceeding. (b) Primary discovery (Exchange of witness lists...by the National Academy of Sciences. (2) Preparation of...

    2009-07-01

    424

    New Directions in Educational Computing. Proceedings/1977 Winter Conference.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    This collection of 39 conference papers is arranged by subject areas: keynote address; general topics; computer-based musical instruction; elementary, secondary, and junior college computer uses; health sciences computer uses; future for courseware sharin...

    1977-01-01

    425

    1994 Bibliography of NRL Journal Articles and Conference Papers.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    This publication is a listing of journal articles and conference papers by Naval Research Laboratory authors for 1994. The bibliographic information is taken, primarily, from the Institute of Scientific Information database, Science Citation Index Expande...

    A. B. Cox W. F. Rettenmaier

    2000-01-01

    426

    Chapman Conference on Spatial Variability in Hydrologic Modeling  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The AGU Chapman Conference on Spatial Variability in Hydrologic Modeling was held July 21-23, 1981, at the Colorado State University Pingree Park Campus, located in the mountains some 88.5 km (55 miles) west of Fort Collins, Colorado. The conference was attended by experimentalists and theoreticians from a wide range of disciplines, including geology, hydrology, civil engineering, watershed science, chemical engineering,

    D. A. Woolhiser; H. J. Morel-Seytoux

    1982-01-01

    427

    6th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The 6th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2011) was held at the European School of Materials Engineering (EEIGM) on the 7–8 November 2011 in Nancy, France. This biennial conference organized by the EEIGM is a wonderful opportunity for all scientists involved in the EEIGM programme, in the ‘Erasmus Mundus’ Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and

    David Horwat; Zoubir Ayadi; Brigitte Jamart

    2012-01-01

    428

    United Nations Diplomatic Conferences  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The United Nations has been involved with eight significant diplomatic conferences since their creation in 1945. Diplomatic conferences of this type serve as the traditional method for the negotiation of treaties, and there were a number of notable examples of such conferences decades before the United Nations, including the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907. Diplomatic conferences are less frequent occurrences these days, but they remain important when multilateral treaties need to be negotiated and adopted. On this site, visitors can look over the official records of a series of diplomatic conferences convened by the United Nations. The conferences included here include the 1963 Conference on Consular References and the 1983 Conference on Succession of States in Respect of State Property, Archives and Debts. Legal scholars and others will find this collection most useful, and they may wish to pass this link along to colleagues.

    429

    Eighth International Conference on Paleoceanography  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Every three years since 1983, the paleoceanographic community has come together at a different venue to share new data and discoveries at the International Conference on Paleoceanography (ICP). For the recent ICP-8, France was the host country for a conference focused on the theme of “An Ocean View of Global Change.” The Environnements et Paleoenvironnement Oceanique (EPOC) paleoceanography group of the University Bordeaux I acted as the local organizing committee.Scientific presentations at ICP-8 addressed the latest discoveries in paleoceanography and highlighted both emerging and as-yet-unsolved questions on global climate change. Thirty-five speakers, invited by the ICP-8 Science Committee, gave overview talks during morning sessions organized around five major scientific themes. These themes were Cenozoic-Mesozoic Oceans; Carbonate and Silica Systems of the Pleistocene Ocean; Biogeochemical Cycles of the Past; High-Frequency Climate Variability; and Interhemispheric Ocean-Continent-Climate Linkages.

    Grousset, Francis; Peterson, Larry; Delaney, Peggie; Elderfield, Harry; Emeis, Kay; Haug, Gerald; Stocker, Thomas; Wang, Pinxian

    430

    Finite-Element Modeling of Solid State Convection within Europa's Ice Shell: Implications for Astrobiology  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solid state convection within Europa's ice shell has important implications for astrobiology because it drives relatively swift, large scale vertical motion over geologically short time scales. On Europa, convection may occur within the lower portion of the floating ice shell. The strong dependence of the viscosity of ice on temperature leads to the formation of a stagnant lid at Europa's surface where convective motion ceases. Beneath the stagnant lid, convective motions facilitate cycling of nutrients through the ice shell. In upwelling areas, relatively nutrient-poor, but possibly microbe-containing and biochemically-modified ice is pushed toward the surface. Downwellings push near-surface ice modified by surface radiation down to the ocean. Dissipation of tidal heat within the ice shell is dependent on the viscosity of the ice: warm, low-viscosity ice will dissipate more energy than cold, brittle ice. This positive feedback between tidal heating and viscosity can result in isolated pockets of melting within Europa's ice shell [Wang & Stevenson, 2000]. These pockets of melt could potentially harbor isolated microbial communities for a finite amount of time. We are in the process of modifying a 3 dimensional finite-element code originally constructed to model Earth's mantle (Citcom) [Zhong, 1998] to apply to icy systems. This model will take into account tidal heating within the ice shell, and the presence of salts and partial melt within the ice. Results of our preliminary 2 dimensional modeling confirm that the convecting sub-layer of Europa's ice shell is recycled in 105 years, and confirm that isolated pockets of melt can be ge