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1

Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2010. Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Program of the 2010 Astrobiology Science Conference: Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond, included sessions on: 50 Years of Exobiology and Astrobiology: Greatest Hits; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System I; Human Exploration, Astronaut Health; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Titan: Past, Present, and Future; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Prebiological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System II; Astrobiology in Orbit; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Science from Rio Tinto: An Acidic Environment; Can We Rule Out Spontaneous Generation of RNA as the Key Step in the Origin of Life?; How Hellish Was the Hadean Earth?; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns I; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life I; Adaptation of Life in Hostile Space Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets I: Formation and Composition; Collaborative Tools and Technology for Astrobiology; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns II; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life II; Survival, Growth, and Evolution of Microrganisms in Model Extraterrestrial Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets II: Habitability and Life; Planetary Science Decadal Survey Update; Astrobiology Research Funding; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time I; State of the Art in Life Detection; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Geochronology and Astrobiology On and Off the Earth; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time II; Origins and Evolution of Genetic Systems; Evolution of Advanced Life; Water-rich Asteroids and Moons: Composition and Astrobiological Potential; Impact Events and Evolution; A Warm, Wet Mars?; Titan Versus Europa - Potential for Astrobiology; Habitability Potential of Mars; Biosignatures: Tools and Development I; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite Systems; Ancient Life and Synthetic Biology: Crossroad of the Past and Future; Biosignatures: Tools and Development II; Free Oxygen: Proxies, Causes, and Consequences; Life in Modern Microbialite Systems - Function and Adaptation; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Where Should We Go on Mars to Seek Signs of Life?; Search for Intelligent Life I. Innovative SETI Observing Programs and Future Directions; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Search for Intelligent Life II. Global Engagement and Interstellar Message Construction; Poster sessions included: Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life; RNA World; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Hydrothermal Systems and Organosynthesis Processes: Origin and Evolution of Life; Virology and Astrobiology; Horizontal Genetic Transfer and Properties of Ancestral Organisms; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Impact Events and Evolution; Evolution of Advanced Life; Evolution of Intelligent Life; Education in Astrobiology in K-12; Origins of Molecular Asymmetry, Homochirality, and Life Detection; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Integrating Astrobiology Research Across and Beyond the Community; Policy and Societal Issues: Dealing with Potential Bumps in the Astrobiology Road Ahead; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Deserts and Evaporite Basins and Associated Microbialite stems; Life in Modern Microbialite Systems - Function and Adaptation; Free Oxygen: Proxies, Cause

2010-01-01

2

Planetary Science as Presented in Astrobiology Textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the relationship between astrobiology and planetary science? Astrobiology is defined as the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. From this definition alone, one might not expect a large overlap with planetary science. In practice, however, much of current research in astrobiology deals with both our planetary system and exoplanets. Many astrobiologists

D. Morrison

2005-01-01

3

Astrobiology: A pathway to adult science literacy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adult science illiteracy is widespread. This is concerning for astrobiology, or indeed any other area of science in the communication of science to public audiences. Where and how does this scientific illiteracy arise in the journey to adulthood? Two astrobiology education projects have hinted that science illiteracy may begin in high school. This relationship between high school science education and the public understanding of science is poorly understood. Do adults forget their science education, or did they never grasp it in the first place? A 2003 science education project raised these questions when 24 16-year-olds from 10 Sydney high schools were brought into contact with real science. The unexpected results suggested that even good high school science students have a poor understanding of how science is really undertaken in the field and in the laboratory. This concept is being further tested in a new high school science education project, aimed at the same age group, using authentic astrobiology cutting-edge data, NASA Learning Technologies tools, a purpose-built research Information and Communication Technology-aided learning facility and a collaboration that spans three continents. In addition, a first year university class will be tested for evidence of science illiteracy immediately after high school among non-science oriented but well-educated students.

Oliver, C. A.; Fergusson, J.

2007-10-01

4

Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrobiology is the study of the origins, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It provides a biological perspective to many areas of NASA research, linking such endeavors as the search for habitable planets beyond our solar system, exploration missions to Mars and Europa, and efforts to understand the origin and early evolution of life. Astrobiology addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and develop? Does life exist elsewhere in the universe What is the future of life on Earth and beyond? This talk will address our concepts about the definition of life, how life might have begun, and how our blaspheme and planet have co-evolved for billions of years. The talk will explore how the perspectives gained from interdisciplinary research in the biological, geological and space sciences will prepare us to search for habitable environments and blasphemes elsewhere in the Universe.

DesMarais, David

2002-01-01

5

Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrobiology is the study of the origins, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It provides a biological perspective to many areas of NASA research, linking such endeavors as the search for habitable planets beyond our solar system, exploration missions to Mars and Europa, and efforts to understand the origin and early evolution of life. Astrobiology addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and develop? Does life exist elsewhere in the universe? What is the future of life on Earth and beyond? This talk will address our concepts about the definition of life, how life might have begun, and how our blaspheme and planet have co-evolved for billions of years. The talk will explore how the perspectives gained from interdisciplinary research in the biological, geological and space sciences will prepare us to search for habitable environments and biospheres elsewhere in the Universe.

DesMarais, David; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

6

Second Annual NASA Ames Space Science and Astrobiology Jamboree  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Science and Astrobiology Division's researchers are pursuing investigations in a variety of fields, including exoplanets, planetary science, astrobiology, and astrophysics. In addition division personnel support a wide variety of NASA missions. With a wide variety of interesting research going on, distributed among the three branches in at least 5 buildings, it can be difficult to stay abreast of what one's fellow researchers are doing. Our goal in organizing this symposium is to facilitate communication and collaboration among the scientist within the division and to give center management and other ARC researchers and Engineers an opportunity to see what scientific missions work is being done in the division.

Dotson, Jessie

2014-01-01

7

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The session "Astrobiology" included the following reports:The Role of Cometary and Meteoritic Delivery in the Origin and Evolution of Life: Biogeological Evidences Revisited; Hopane Biomarkers Traced from Bedrock to Recent Sediments and Ice at the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island: Implications for the Search for Biomarkers on Mars; and Survival of Organic Matter After High Temperature Events (Meteorite Impacts, Igneous Intrusions).

2004-01-01

8

Astrobiology in culture: the search for extraterrestrial life as "science".  

PubMed

This analysis examines the social construction of authority, credibility, and legitimacy for exobiology/astrobiology and, in comparison, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), considering English-language conceptions of these endeavors in scientific culture and popular culture primarily in the United States. The questions that define astrobiology as a scientific endeavor are multidisciplinary in nature, and this endeavor is broadly appealing to public audiences as well as to the scientific community. Thus, it is useful to examine astrobiology in culture-in scientific culture, official culture, and popular culture. A researcher may explore science in culture, science as culture, by analyzing its rhetoric, the primary means that people use to construct their social realities-their cultural environment, as it were. This analysis follows this path, considering scientific and public interest in astrobiology and SETI and focusing on scientific and official constructions of the two endeavors. This analysis will also consider whether and how scientific and public conceptions of astrobiology and SETI, which are related but at the same time separate endeavors, converge or diverge and whether and how these convergences or divergences affect the scientific authority, credibility, and legitimacy of these endeavors. PMID:23078644

Billings, Linda

2012-10-01

9

Astrobiology Courses--A Useful Framework for Teaching Interdisciplinary Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains astrobiology and indicates the possibility of life on other planets and the interest of humankind in this possibility. Defines topics open to public misconception and their primary reinforcements by television shows. Expresses the need for students to learn the connections between different science majors. (YDS)

Sauterer, Roger

2000-01-01

10

Astrobiology Science and Technology: A Path to Future Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astrobiology Program is described. However, science-driven robotic exploration of extreme environments is needed for a new era of planetary exploration requiring biologically relevant instrumentation and extensive, autonomous operations on planetary surfaces. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Meyer, M. A.; Lavaery, D. B.

2001-01-01

11

Remote Chemical Analysis at Enceladus: An Astrobiology Science Instrument Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrument concept is being developed for the future exploration of Enceladus where remote chemical analysis would be performed onboard a spacecraft while in flight. The instrument will look for evidence for the presence of life in a subsurface ocean habitat by examining nascent ice grains collected by flying the spacecraft directly through the plume or jets of Enceladus. This astrobiology science instrument concept is compatible with an Enceladus sample return mission or a Saturn system orbiter mission. Described are 5 science tiers supported by the instrument system with a mass spectrometer at its core. Results for automation of sample pre-concentration and optical detection of free amino acids will also be presented and discussed as a pathway for assessing the inventory of organic molecules in a potentially inhabited ice covered Enceladus ocean. Concept for the Enceladus Amino Acid Sampler, an astrobiology science instrument system with 5 distinct science tiers for exploring the Enceladus subsurface composition.

Kirby, J. P.; Price, K.; Willis, P.; Jones, S.

2013-12-01

12

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentations in this session are: 1. A Prototype Life Detection Chip 2. The Geology of Atlantis Basin, Mars, and Its Astrobiological Interest 3. Collecting Bacteria Together with Aerosols in the Martian Atmosphere by the FOELDIX Experimental Instrument Developed with a Nutrient Detector Pattern: Model Measurements of Effectivity 4. 2D and 3D X-ray Imaging of Microorganisms in Meteorites Using Complexity Analysis to Distinguish Field Images of Stromatoloids from Surrounding Rock Matrix in 3.45 Ga Strelley Pool Chert, Western Australia 4. Characterization of Two Isolates from Andean Lakes in Bolivia Short Time Scale Evolution of Microbiolites in Rapidly Receding Altiplanic Lakes: Learning How to Recognize Changing Signatures of Life 5. The Effect of Salts on Electrospray Ionization of Amino Acids in the Negative Mode 6. Determination of Aromatic Ring Number Using Multi-Channel Deep UV Native Fluorescence 7. Microbial D/H Fractionation in Extraterrestrial Materials: Application to Micrometeorites and Mars 8. Carbon Isotope Characteristics of Spring-fed Iron-precipitating Microbial Mats 9. Amino Acid Survival Under Ambient Martian Surface UV Lighting Extraction of Organic Molecules from Terrestrial Material: Quantitative Yields from Heat and Water Extractions 10. Laboratory Detection and Analysis of Organic Compounds in Rocks Using HPLC and XRD Methods 11. Thermal Decomposition of Siderite-Pyrite Assemblages: Implications for Sulfide Mineralogy in Martian Meteorite ALH84001 Carbonate Globules 12. Determination of the Three-Dimensional Morphology of ALH84001 and Biogenic MV-1 Magnetite: Comparison of Results from Electron Tomography and Classical Transmission Electron Microscopy 13. On the Possibility of a Crypto-Biotic Crust on Mars Based on Northern and Southern Ringed Polar Dune Spots 14. Comparative Planetology of the Terrestrial Inner Planets: Implications for Astrobiology 15. A Possible Europa Exobiology 16. A Possible Biogeochemical Model for Titan

2004-01-01

13

NASA Astrobiology Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site, hosted by NASA Ames Research Center, provides a portal to NASA's astrobiology program. It features astrobiology announcements, events, societal issues, forums, education, and the latest news stories. Links are provided to Astrobiology Magazine, Astrobiology Institute, the astrobiology roadmap, science goals, technologies, missions, workshops, web awards, the media center, public policy, contacts, and more.

2009-08-13

14

Life Elsewhere? Astrobiology, Science, and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The search for extraterrestrial life is quixotic--or at least less immediately purposeful than the quest for a cure for cancer. Nonetheless, it falls squarely within the human purpose for science: to explore nature so that we can understand ourselves better.The means by which scientists search for life elsewhere, and the meaning of this enterprise, was the theme of a March 27 lecture sponsored by the Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER), a program of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The featured speaker was Dr. Bruce Jakosky, an astrobiologist involved in the Mars Global Surveyor mission as an Interdisciplinary Scientist for Surface-Atmosphere Interactions.

Catherine Baker (;)

2007-06-28

15

The Astronomical, Astrobiological and Planetary Science Case for Interstellar Spaceflight  

E-print Network

A review is presented of the scientific benefits of rapid (v >= 0.1c) interstellar spaceflight. Significant benefits are identified in the fields of interstellar medium studies, stellar astrophysics, planetary science and astrobiology. In the latter three areas the benefits would be considerably enhanced if the interstellar vehicle is able to decelerate from its interstellar cruise velocity to rest relative to the target system. Although this will greatly complicate the mission architecture, and extend the overall travel time, the scientific benefits are such that this option should be considered seriously in future studies.

Crawford, Ian A

2010-01-01

16

Emphasizing Astrobiology: Highlighting Communication in an Elective Course for Science Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project described here involved the design, implementation, and evaluation of an upper level, undergraduate elective course for science majors. Specific course goals were to help students gain an appreciation of the interdisciplinary nature of astrobiology, understand key ideas in astrobiology, and develop the skills necessary to communicate…

Offerdahl, Erika G.; Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Timothy F.

2004-01-01

17

Astrobiology Roadmap  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides some goals for research and technology development in the field of astrobiology. It is divided up into seven Science Goals that outline the domains of the investigations such as; habitable planets, life in our Solar System, origins of life, the limits of life and more.

2005-04-25

18

Emphasizing Astrobiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The project described here involved the design, implementation, and evaluation of an upper-level, undergraduate elective course for science majors. Specific course goals were to help students gain an appreciation of the interdisciplinary nature of astrobiology, understand key ideas in astrobiology, and develop the skills necessary to communicate successfully with scientists across disciplines.

Prather, Edward E.; Offerdahl, Erika G.; Slater, Timothy F.

2004-11-01

19

Vanguard: A New Science Mission For Experimental Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an alternative to technically and financially problemat ic sample return missions, a rover-mounted laser Raman spectrometer sensitive to biomolecules and their mineral substrata is a promising alternative in the search for evidence of former life on Mars. We presented a new remote in situ analysis package being designed for experimental astrobiology on terrestrial-type planetary surfaces. The science is based on the hypothesis that if life arose on Mars, the selective pressure of solar radiation would have led to the evolution of pigmented systems to harness the energy of sunlight and to protect cells from concurrent UV stress. Microbial communities would have therefore become stratified by the light gradient, and our remote system would penetrate the near-subsurface profile in a vertical transect of horizontal strata in ancient sediments (such as palaeolake beds). The system will include an extensive array of robotic support to translocate and deploy a Raman spectrometer detectors beneath the surface of Mars ­ it will comprise of a base station lander to support communications, a robotic micro-rover to permit well- separated triplicate profiles made by three ground-penetrating moles mounted in a vertical configuration. Each mole will deploy a tether carrying fibre optic cables coupling the Raman spectrometer onboard the rover and the side-scanning sensor head on the mole. The complete system has been named Vanguard, and it represents a close collaboration between a space robotics engineer (Ellery), an astrobiologist (Wynn-Williams), a molecular spectroscopist (Edwards), an opto-electronic technologist (Dickensheets), a spacecraft engineer (Welch) and a robotic vision specialist (Curley). The autonomy requirement for the Vanguard instrument requires that significant scientific competence is imparted to the instrument through an expert system to ensure that quick-look analysis is performed onboard in real-time as the mole penetrates beneath the surface. Onboard decision-making must be implemented to assess the need for further integrations on the basis of prior sensory data ­ Vanguard is essentially conceived to be a robotic field astrobiologist. In targetting the Martian sub-surface, Vanguard represents the obvious next step in the astrobiological investigation of Mars for Europe, with field trials in Antarctica. A more challenging application of a modified Vanguard instrument might be the astrobiological investigation of the near surface of Europa (with trials in Lake Vostok, Antarctica) if recent allegations concerning the significance of salts in the Europan ice are correct.

Ellery, A.; Wynn-Williams, D.; Edwards, H.; Dickensheets, D.; Welch, C.; Curley, A.

20

Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

1982-01-01

21

The NASA Astrobiology Institute - Minority Institution Research Support Program: Strengthening the Astrobiology Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the history, purpose and successes of the NASA Astrobiology Institute Minority Institution Research Support Program (NAI-MIRS). This program is designed to provide support and training in astrobiology to a new generation of researchers from Minority Serving Institutions. The NAI-MIRS program provides sabbaticals, follow-up support, and travel opportunities for faculty and students from minority institutions. The purpose of this initiative is to increase the attendance and participation of underrepresented scientists in astrobiology research laboratories, at professional conferences, and as NAI Team members. As Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) graduate a higher percentage of students of color entering graduate schools in science and engineering than their majority counterparts, support to MSIs from the NAI-MIRS program will encourage the growth of astrobiology-related programs at these institutions identifying talented researchers and providing an avenue to foster astrobiology research, increases awareness of astrobiology within minority communities. Achievements in astrobiology by the Minority Serving Institutions include the first direct detection of an extrasolar planet and a MSI graduate, LaTasha Taylor, featured in the journal Science as one of the first minority students to enter the NSF funded Astrobiology IGERT program. To date, the NAI-MIRS program has involved faculty members from the three major MSIs: Tribal Colleges and Universities, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Hispanic Serving Institutions and partnered with the Minority Institute Astrobiology Collaborative (MIAC).

Gary, T.; Butler, J.; Arino de La Rubia, L.; Myles, E. L.; Bradford, K.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Ceballos, M.; Taylor, L.; Bell, B.; Coulter, G.

2009-12-01

22

Astrobiology as an Interdisciplinary Starting Point to Natural Sciences for High-potential Children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the corner stones of the Research Platform on ExoLife, University of Vienna, Austria is public outreach and education with respect to astrobiology, exoplanets, and planetary sciences. Since 2009 several initiatives have been started by the Research Platform to concentrate the interest of students in and outside the University onto natural sciences. Astrobiology as a very interdisciplinary scientific discipline with questions like "Are we alone in the Universe?," "How unique is Earth as a planet?" or "How did life originate?" will fascinate youngsters and junior scientists (see [1]).

Leitner, J. J.; Firneis, M. G.; Hitzenberger, R.

2013-09-01

23

Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. The Astrobiology Program in the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Public interest in astrobiology is great, and advances in the field are rapid. Hence, the Astrobiology Program supports the widest possible dissemination of timely and useful information about scientific discoveries, technology development, new knowledge, and greater understanding produced by its investigators, employing an approach described as strategic communication planning. That is, the Astrobiology Program aims to integrate communication, education, and outreach into all aspects of program planning and execution. The Program encourages all of its investigators to contribute to the ongoing endeavor of informing public audiences about Astrobiology. The ASTEP element of the Astrobiology Program sponsors terrestrial field campaigns to further scientific research and technology development relevant to future solar system exploration missions. ASTEP science investigations are designed to further biological research in terrestrial environments analogous to those found on other planets, past or present. ASTEP sponsors the development of technologies to enable remote searches for, and identification of, life in extreme environments. ASTEP supports systems-level field campaigns designed to demonstrate and validate the science and technology in extreme environments on Earth. This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with ASTEP field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. SUMMARY The Astrobiology Program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Astrobiology research addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and evolve? Is there life beyond Earth and how can we detect it? What is the future of life on Earth and in the universe? Goals of the Astrobiology Program range from determining the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond to understanding the emergence of life from cosmic and planetary precursors, the interaction of past life on Earth with its changing environment, the formation and evolution of planets, links between planetary and biological evolution, the effects of climate and geology on habitability, and life's precursors and habitats in the outer solar system. Research dedicated to fulfilling these goals is conducted on Earth and in space, with a growing number of astrobiology investigations flying on planetary exploration missions. The field of astrobiology is an endeavor that brings together researchers in a broad range of disciplines including Earth and planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, microbiology and evolutionary biology, and cosmochemistry. Since 1995, the field of astrobiology has grown rapidly, and the pace of discovery has been brisk. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is now a serious scientific question. Research findings over the past decade that are relevant to this question include the controversial 1996 claim of fossil evidence for microbial life in a martian meteorite, evidence of past and perhaps even present liquid water on Mars, the likeliho

Billings, Linda

24

Astrobiology Outreach and the Nature of Science: The Role of Creativity  

PubMed Central

Abstract There is concern in many developed countries that school students are turning away from science. However, students may be choosing not to study science and dismissing the possibility of a scientific career because, in the junior secondary years, they gain a false view of science and the work of scientists. There is a disparity between science as it is portrayed at school and science as it is practiced. This paper describes a study to explore whether engaging in science through astrobiology outreach activities may improve students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and how this may influence their interest in a career in science. The results suggest that the students attending these Mars research–related outreach activities are more interested in science than the average student but are lacking in understanding of aspects of the nature of science. A significant difference was detected between pre- and posttest understandings of some concepts of the nature of science. Key Words: Science education—School science—Creativity—Nature and processes of science—Attitudes—Astrobiology. Astrobiology 12, 1143–1153. PMID:23134090

Oliver, Carol; Walter, Malcolm R.

2012-01-01

25

World Conference on Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first global conference on science and society in nearly 20 years, the World Conference on Science (WCS) will take place in Budapest from June 26 to July 1, 1999. Organized jointly by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Council for Science (ICSU), the World Conference on Science will address a broad range of topics within a global context, from the role of fundamental research, to the sharing of scientific information and knowledge, to science and technology, among other topics. This straightforward Website has been set up by Nature "as a source of news about preparatory events leading up to the conference and issues related to its agenda, as a forum for comment from individuals in both industrialized and developing nations about such issues, and as an access point for information about related meetings (including statements to be presented at Budapest)." The Website currently contains several interesting articles and reports, with links to useful resources.

26

Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION This paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs

Linda Billings

2008-01-01

27

The Astronomical, Astrobiological and Planetary Science Case for Interstellar Spaceflight 1. INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

1 The Astronomical, Astrobiological and Planetary Science Case for Interstellar Spaceflight 1) interstellar spaceflight, as envisaged by the Daedalus [1] and Icarus [2] projects. In its long history spaceflight [3], a sense of the scientific potential may be glimpsed by considering the "advantages of taking

Crawford, Ian

28

Bringing Astrobiology to Middle School Students: ExxonMobil Bernard Harris Summer Science Camp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ExxonMobil Bernard Harris Summer Science Camp (BHSSC) is a free, academic program of The Harris Foundation, which takes an active role in shaping education in students entering grade 6,7, or 8 in the fall. Science, technology, engineering and mathematics are critical to society’s infrastructure for the 21st century and preserving that future requires an investment, such as the BHSSC, in our youth today. At Rensselaer Polytechnic the topic of study in Summer 2009 was "The Search for Life" and 50 stu-dents learned about Astrobiology and also what was necessary for life outside of Earth. The object was to teach New York state education standards while using Astrobiology. Further, we wanted to show the students how the fields of science are connected. This is a great opportunity for Astrobiologist to teach the future gen-erations about their field while at the same time peak their interest in the subject.

Mayeur, Paul A.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Delano, J.

2010-01-01

29

Astrobiology outreach and the nature of science: the role of creativity.  

PubMed

There is concern in many developed countries that school students are turning away from science. However, students may be choosing not to study science and dismissing the possibility of a scientific career because, in the junior secondary years, they gain a false view of science and the work of scientists. There is a disparity between science as it is portrayed at school and science as it is practiced. This paper describes a study to explore whether engaging in science through astrobiology outreach activities may improve students' understanding of the nature and processes of science, and how this may influence their interest in a career in science. The results suggest that the students attending these Mars research-related outreach activities are more interested in science than the average student but are lacking in understanding of aspects of the nature of science. A significant difference was detected between pre- and posttest understandings of some concepts of the nature of science. PMID:23134090

Fergusson, Jennifer; Oliver, Carol; Walter, Malcolm R

2012-12-01

30

Astrobiology Workshop: Leadership in Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrobiology is defined in the 1996 NASA Strategic Plan as 'The study of the living universe.' At NASA's Ames Research Center, this endeavor encompasses the use of space to understand life's origin, evolution, and destiny in the universe. Life's origin refers to understanding the origin of life in the context of the origin and diversity of planetary systems. Life's evolution refers to understanding how living systems have adapted to Earth's changing environment, to the all-pervasive force of gravity, and how they may adapt to environments beyond Earth. Life's destiny refers to making long-term human presence in space a reality, and laying the foundation for understanding and managing changes in Earth's environment. The first Astrobiology Workshop brought together a diverse group of researchers to discuss the following general questions: Where and how are other habitable worlds formed? How does life originate? How have the Earth and its biosphere influenced each other over time? Can terrestrial life be sustained beyond our planet? How can we expand the human presence to Mars? The objectives of the Workshop included: discussing the scope of astrobiology, strengthening existing efforts for the study of life in the universe, identifying new cross-disciplinary programs with the greatest potential for scientific return, and suggesting steps needed to bring this program to reality. Ames has been assigned the lead role for astrobiology by NASA in recognition of its strong history of leadership in multidisciplinary research in the space, Earth, and life sciences and its pioneering work in studies of the living universe. This initial science workshop was established to lay the foundation for what is to become a national effort in astrobiology, with anticipated participation by the university community, other NASA centers, and other agencies. This workshop (the first meeting of its kind ever held) involved life, Earth, and space scientists in a truly interdisciplinary sharing of ideas related to life in the universe, and by all accounts was a resounding success.

DeVincenzi, D. (Editor); Briggs, G.; Cohen, M.; Cuzzi, J.; DesMarais, D.; Harper, L.; Morrison, D.; Pohorille, A.

1996-01-01

31

Make Astrobiology Yours  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this talk, I will give the AbGradCon attendees an overview of astrobiology activities ongoing at NASA as well as a brief description of the various funding programs and careers that they can pursue. After this, I will present to them the case that the future of the field is theirs to determine, and give input on how to effectively make astrobiology and NASA responsive to the needs of the community. This presentation will leverage my experiences leading various efforts in the early career astrobiology community, where I have served as a conference organizer, primer lead editor, community blogger, and unofficial liaison to NASA headquarters.

Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

2012-01-01

32

An Evolving Astrobiology Glossary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the resources that evolved from the Bioastronomy 2007 meeting was an online interdisciplinary glossary of terms that might not be universally familiar to researchers in all sub-disciplines feeding into astrobiology. In order to facilitate comprehension of the presentations during the meeting, a database driven web tool for online glossary definitions was developed and participants were invited to contribute prior to the meeting. The glossary was downloaded and included in the conference registration materials for use at the meeting. The glossary web tool is has now been delivered to the NASA Astrobiology Institute so that it can continue to grow as an evolving resource for the astrobiology community.

Meech, K. J.; Dolci, W. W.

2009-12-01

33

Essays in the Non-Science Major Astrobiology Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The non-science major "Life in the Universe" class offers students many opportunities to explore topics such as whether or not to send manned missions to Mars, which jovian moon is a suitable candidate for harboring life, etc. Some of these topics are suited to being offered as projects. At Joliet Junior College, Joliet, IL, we offer this general education class every semester to around 40 students. We expect our students to complete three short essays in a semester, instead of doing one or two large projects. The essays enable students to be engaged more deeply with some aspects of the course than is usually possible in the classroom. Some of our essay topics are based on suggestions in the textbook, others have been developed by us. In this poster, we will report on the essay topics and the attitudes of our Fall 2013 and Spring 2014 students to such essays.

D'Cruz, Noella L.

2014-06-01

34

Astrobiology in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astrobiology is a relatively new field of study in science, one that has found a home in the curriculum of many universities. At the middle level, this multidisciplinary field is an exciting mix of topics and questions that can help students see how different fields of science can be integrated. The goal of this article is to define astrobiology and its aims, and to provide some ideas and inspiration for bringing it into a wide range of science classes.

Brennan, Tim

2004-09-01

35

NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 10-11, 1996 at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the second NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 80 investigations and 69 principal investigators in FY96, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) scheduled for release in late 1996 by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the MSFC microgravity research facilities was held on June 12, 1996. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference and presentations made by various NASA microgravity science managers.

Szofran, Frank R. (Compiler); McCauley, D. (Compiler); Walker, C. (Compiler)

1996-01-01

36

2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 25-26, 2002, at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. Organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Physical Sciences Research Division, NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and member institutions under the Cooperative Research in Biology and Materials Science (CORBAMS) agreement, the conference provided a forum to review the current research and activities in materials science, discuss the envisioned long-term goals, highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to the Physical Sciences Research Division, and inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity. An abstracts book was published and distributed at the conference to the approximately 240 people attending, who represented industry, academia, and other NASA Centers. This CD-ROM proceedings is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators in the Microgravity Materials Science program.

Gillies, Donald (Editor); Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor)

2003-01-01

37

What Is Astrobiology?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from the Science and Technology Chat series, learn about astrobiology, an interdisciplinary field that uses biology, astronomy, and geology to study the origins of life on Earth and to search for possible life on other planets.

Vegaspbs

2008-10-31

38

NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held July 14-16, 1998 at the Von Braun Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications. It was the third NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 125 investigations and 100 principal investigators in FY98, almost all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement scheduled for release in late 1998 by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the Marshall Space Flight Center microgravity research facilities was held on July 16, 1998. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference.

Gillies, D. C. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

39

Tumbleweed: Wind-propelled Surficial Measurements for Astrobiology and Planetary Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tumbleweed is a wind-propelled long-range vehicle based on well-developed and tested technology, instrumented to perform surveys Mars analog environments for habitability and suitable for a variety of missions on Mars. Tumbleweeds are light-weight and relatively inexpensive, making it very attractive for multiple deployments or piggy-backing on a larger mission. Tumbleweeds with rigid structures are also being developed for similar applications. Modeling and testing have shown that a 6 meter diameter Tumbleweed is capable of climbing 25 hills, traveling over 1 meter diameter boulders, and ranging over a thousand kilometers. Tumbleweeds have a potential payload capability of about 10 kilograms with approximately 10-20 Watts of power. Stopping for science investigations can also be accomplished using partial deflation or other braking mechanisms. Surveys for Astrobiology and other applications of tumbleweeds are shown.

Kuhlman, K. R.; Behar, A. E.; Jones, J. A.; Carsey, F.; Coleman, M.; Bearman, G.; Buehler, M.; Boston, P. J.; McKay, C. P.; Rothschild, L.

2004-01-01

40

Astrobiological Stoichiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical composition affects virtually all aspects of astrobiology, from stellar astrophysics to molecular biology. We present a synopsis of the research results presented at the "Stellar Stoichiometry" Workshop Without Walls hosted at Arizona State University April 11-12, 2013, under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. The results focus on the measurement of chemical abundances and the effects of composition on processes from stellar to planetary scales. Of particular interest were the scientific connections between processes in these normally disparate fields. Measuring the abundances of elements in stars and giant and terrestrial planets poses substantial difficulties in technique and interpretation. One of the motivations for this conference was the fact that determinations of the abundance of a given element in a single star by different groups can differ by more than their quoted errors. The problems affecting the reliability of abundance estimations and their inherent limitations are discussed. When these problems are taken into consideration, self-consistent surveys of stellar abundances show that there is still substantial variation (factors of ~2) in the ratios of common elements (e.g., C, O, Na, Al, Mg, Si, Ca) important in rock-forming minerals, atmospheres, and biology. We consider how abundance variations arise through injection of supernova nucleosynthesis products into star-forming material and through photoevaporation of protoplanetary disks. The effects of composition on stellar evolution are substantial, and coupled with planetary atmosphere models can result in predicted habitable zone extents that vary by many tens of percent. Variations in the bulk composition of planets can affect rates of radiogenic heating and substantially change the mineralogy of planetary interiors, affecting properties such as convection and energy transport.

Young, Patrick A.; Desch, Steven J.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Barnes, Rory; Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Monga, Nikhil; Pagano, Michael D.; Riner, Miriam A.; Scannapieco, Evan; Shim, Sang-Heon; Truitt, Amanda

2014-07-01

41

Astrobiological stoichiometry.  

PubMed

Chemical composition affects virtually all aspects of astrobiology, from stellar astrophysics to molecular biology. We present a synopsis of the research results presented at the "Stellar Stoichiometry" Workshop Without Walls hosted at Arizona State University April 11-12, 2013, under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. The results focus on the measurement of chemical abundances and the effects of composition on processes from stellar to planetary scales. Of particular interest were the scientific connections between processes in these normally disparate fields. Measuring the abundances of elements in stars and giant and terrestrial planets poses substantial difficulties in technique and interpretation. One of the motivations for this conference was the fact that determinations of the abundance of a given element in a single star by different groups can differ by more than their quoted errors. The problems affecting the reliability of abundance estimations and their inherent limitations are discussed. When these problems are taken into consideration, self-consistent surveys of stellar abundances show that there is still substantial variation (factors of ? 2) in the ratios of common elements (e.g., C, O, Na, Al, Mg, Si, Ca) important in rock-forming minerals, atmospheres, and biology. We consider how abundance variations arise through injection of supernova nucleosynthesis products into star-forming material and through photoevaporation of protoplanetary disks. The effects of composition on stellar evolution are substantial, and coupled with planetary atmosphere models can result in predicted habitable zone extents that vary by many tens of percent. Variations in the bulk composition of planets can affect rates of radiogenic heating and substantially change the mineralogy of planetary interiors, affecting properties such as convection and energy transport. PMID:25014611

Young, Patrick A; Desch, Steven J; Anbar, Ariel D; Barnes, Rory; Hinkel, Natalie R; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Monga, Nikhil; Pagano, Michael D; Riner, Miriam A; Scannapieco, Evan; Shim, Sang-Heon; Truitt, Amanda

2014-07-01

42

Science and Engineering Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about how to measure the interplanetary magnetic field, or IMF. Learners will act as scientists and engineers at a conference to explain their discoveries from earlier activities of the larger resource where they designed their own ways to measure the IMF. This activity should be used to illustrate how scientists and engineers working with the NASA STEREO-IMPACT mission have solved the same puzzle. This is Activity 3 in Session 3 of a larger resource, Exploring Magnetism in the Solar Wind.

43

Astrobiology Connects Earth and Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrobiology is the discipline connecting Earth and space science. The study of life beyond Earth requires core research on the origin and evolution of life as we know it with Earth being the only example. From extremophiles to the oldest known fossil life and microbial life around the planet, Astrobiology brings excitement to these areas of basic research because it

K. L. Wilmoth

2005-01-01

44

Astrobiology in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Astrobiology is a relatively new field of study in science, one that has found a home in the curriculum of many major universities. It is a multidisciplinary field that draws participants from a range of scientific specialties: geology, physics, chemistry, engineering, computer science, and of course biology and astronomy. At the middle level, it…

Brennan, Tim

2004-01-01

45

Watershed Management & Science Conference  

E-print Network

on the fluxes of nitrogen from large watersheds. 1:50-2:40 pm Ann Swanson-Chesapeake Bay Commission Chesapeake Bay Watershed Restoration: Where Science Meets Policy. 2:40-3:30 pm Peter Murdoch-U.S. Geological Session; Room G19 Non-Point Source Pollution Session, Room G21 Environmental Education, Room G23 10

Suzuki, Masatsugu

46

Summer Research Experiences for Science and Art Teachers to Explore Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosomal Origins and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational program titled, "Life on the Edge: Astrobiology." The purpose of the program was to provide high school educators with the exposure, materials, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with undergraduate students interested in becoming a teacher through the NSF Pre-Teaching REU program. The GIFT and Pre-Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles, which became the focus of a week-long, "Life on the Edge: Astrobiology " summer program developed by three high school educators, two undergraduate students and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. Twenty high school students were introduced to hands-on activities, such as astrobiology inspired art and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact of the Astrobiology program on the GIFT researchers, Pre-Teaching REU students, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

Cola, J.; Gaucher, E.; Snell, T.; Greenwood, J.; Angra, A.; Zimmerman, C.; Williams, L. D.

2012-12-01

47

The Living Universe: NASA and the Development of Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the opening weeks of 1998 a news article in the British journal Nature reported that NASA was about to enter biology in a big way. A "virtual" Astrobiology Institute was gearing up for business, and NASA administrator Dan Goldin told his external advisory council that he would like to see spending on the new institute eventually reach $100 million per year. "You just wait for the screaming from the physical scientists (when that happens)," Goldin was quoted as saying. Nevertheless, by the time of the second Astrobiology Science Conference in 2002, attended by seven hundred scientists from many disciplines, NASA spending on astrobiology had reached nearly half that amount and was growing at a steady pace. Under NASA leadership numerous institutions around the world applied the latest scientific techniques in the service of astrobiology's ambitious goal: the study of what NASA's 1996 Strategic Plan termed the "living universe." This goal embraced nothing less than an understanding of the origin, history, and distribution of life in the universe, including Earth. Astrobiology, conceived as a broad interdisciplinary research program, held the prospect of being the science for the twenty-first century which would unlock the secrets to some of the great questions of humanity. It is no surprise that these age-old questions should continue into the twenty-first century. But that the effort should be spearheaded by NASA was not at all obvious to those - inside and outside the agency - who thought NASA's mission was human spaceflight, rather than science, especially biological science. NASA had, in fact, been involved for four decades in "exobiology," a field that embraced many of the same questions but which had stagnated after the 1976 Viking missions to Mars. In this volume we tell the colorful story of the rise of the discipline of exobiology, how and why it morphed into astrobiology at the end of the twentieth century, and why NASA was the engine for both the discipline's founding and for its transformation.

Dick, Steven J.; Strick, James E.

2004-01-01

48

Astrobiology Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a sponsor such as NASA and a tagline that reads, "Search for Life in the Universe", the bar is set fairly high for the online Astrobiology magazine, and the results are quite nice. Produced by Helen Matsos, the magazine has been in existence since 2001, and contains thousands of short pieces about a compelling variety of topics, including life on Mars, extrasolar life, stellar evolution, and climate. From the site's homepage, visitors can peruse articles, view a list of "hot topics", and sign up to receive new editions of the magazine as they are published electronically. The site also has several thematic areas, including the compelling one dedicated to art of astrobiology. Here, visitors can look at visualizations of terrestrial climate, representations of Mars in pop culture, and other such items. The site is rounded out by a very well-designed search engine and an "On this day in..." feature that provides information about important dates in astrobiology.

49

MBL Astrobiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This MBL Astrobiology portal includes information about the MBL Astrobiology team, its personnel, prior work, and publications. The MBL Astrobiology team works toward understanding the patterns and mechanisms of genome evolution and metabolic variation that allowed diverse microorganisms to adapt to new environments, generate novel phenotypes, and effect global-scale changes detectable by remote sensing. Their general strategy emphasizes the integration of molecular approaches to evolutionary biology with studies of metabolic activities in environments that most likely reflect conditions on early Earth. Physiological and microbial diversity studies focus on the hydrothermally altered sediments of Guaymas basin in the Gulf of California, the acidic, heavy metal laden Rio Tinto of southwestern Spain and isolates from the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

Laboratory, Marine B.

50

Astrobiology Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TERC, in conjunction with NASA's Astrobiology Institute, has developed a set of educational materials for grades 5-12 (but written with 9th graders in mind). Using the field of astrobiology as a springboard, the lesson plans are designed to help students learn "that scientific knowledge is not a set of accumulated facts, but is a dynamic and, at times, confusing and amorphous set of current speculations." And if you're going to introduce confusion and amorphous speculation into the classroom, you're probably safest with astrobiology, an inherently fascinating field that should keep students interested and engaged. A series of downloadable resource guides are currently available, which "enable students to examine the nature of life, what it requires, its limits, and where it might be found."

51

Conferences, Workshops, and Special Meetings in the Mathematical Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

Conferences, Workshops, and Special Meetings in the Mathematical Sciences Program Solicitation ... conference proposals that are submitted to them. Ordinarily, proposals for conferences, workshops ...

52

An Overview of Astrobiology and Computational Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will provide an introduction to the goals of the Astrobiology program and outline some areas of interest to theoreticians and computer modelers. The contents of the talk will be I taken from the Astrobiology Roadmap, reports to the Astrobiology Institute and information, available from the Center for Computational Astrobiology web site (http://cca.arc.nasa.gov).

Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

53

Euro3D Science Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly completed 3D instruments - CIRPASS, GMOS, PMAS and SPIFFI. Work on 3D software, being developed as part of the Euro3D RTN, was also described and demonstrated. This proceedings volume, consisting of carefully refereed and edited manuscripts, represents the bulk of the talks at the conference and amply demonstrates that 3D spectroscopy is a lively and burgeoning field of optical observation.

Walsh, J. R.

2004-02-01

54

Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains the proceedings from the Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences (IPLS) conference, held in March 2014. Materials available include presentations and posters from the conference and a database of syllabi for physics courses for a life science audience.

2014-07-28

55

Conferences and Sessions: NSTA Area Conference on Science Education: Sound Science: Southern Style, Nashville, 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Join us in Music City for NSTA's December conference on science education. Conference strands include: Building Capacity to Lead Professional Learning The Brain-considerate Classroom Understanding a Designed World

1900-01-01

56

The Astrobiology Matrix and the "Drake Matrix" in Education  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We organized astrobiology lectures in the Eotvos Lorand University of Sciences and the Polaris Observatory in 2002. We present here the "Drake matrix" for the comparison of the astrobiological potential of different bodies [1], and astrobiology matrix for the visualization of the interdisciplinary connections between different fields of astrobiology. Conclusion: In Hungary it is difficult to integrate astrobiology in the education system but the great advantage is that it can connect different scientific fields and improve the view of students. We would like to get in contact with persons and organizations who already have experience in the education of astrobiology.

Mizser, A.; Kereszturi, A.

2003-01-01

57

Astrobiological Polarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chirality is an excellent indicator of life, but naturally occurring astrobiological (as well as terrestrial) samples nearly always exhibit massive depolarizing light scattering, which renders conventional polarimeters useless. For astrobiological applications, we instead consider a novel polarimeter originally developed for non-invasive human-glucose measurement. It involves deliberately rotating in time the plane of polarization of a linearly polarized beam and detecting:biological applications, we instead consider a novel polarimeter originally developed for non-invasive human-glucose measurement. It involves deliberately rotating in time the plane of polarization of a linearly polarized beam and detecting the shift in the plane of the rotating linearly polarized component of the transmitted light from a chiral sample relative to the input polarization plane. We find that this polarimeter can operate in 3 orders of magnitude more depolarizing scattering than conventional polarimeters. Furthermore, it can also be designed to be lightweight, compact, and energy efficient.

Kothari, Neeraj; Jafarpour, Aliakbar; Trebino, Rick; Thaler, Tracey L.; Bommarius, Andreas S.

2008-12-01

58

The Astrobiology Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a preview version of the Astrobiology Curriculum, an interdisciplinary year-long course for middle and high school students developed by TERC and NASA. Through a series of investigations based on the search for life on other planets, students explore diverse concepts in chemistry, biology, Earth and space science, and engineering. Topics include the geologic history of planets, the chemical foundations of life, biological diversity, extremophiles, and the use of remote-sensing instrumentation. Students develop research skills through modeling, lab experiments, field observations, and image and data analysis, and are linked to data from NASA's planetary space missions. The site includes links to the overview, course description, sample activities with teacher guide, student guide and worksheets, and other astrobiology links.

2010-02-17

59

Astrobiology, Evolution, and Society: Public Engagement Insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unavoidable that the science of astrobiology will intersect with, and inevitably challenge, many deeply held beliefs. Exploration possibilities, particularly those that may include the discovery of extraterrestrial life, will continue to challenge us to reconsider our views of nature and our connection to the rest of the universe. As a scientific discipline, astrobiology works from the assumption that

C. M. Bertka

2009-01-01

60

The narrative power of astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The narrative power of astrobiology: Telling the story of the quest to understand life's origins and the search for evidence of extraterrestrial life INTRODUCTION The story of the origins and evolution of life is a narrative with nearuniversal appeal. The story of life on Earth is meaningful to all people, and the search for life elsewhere is appealing across cultural boundaries. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funds an Astrobiology Program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate that is dedicated to the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Because public interest in astrobiology is great and advances in the field are rapid, the NASA Astrobiology Program aims to integrate communication, education, and outreach into all aspects of program planning and execution. This strategic approach to communication is intended to promote the widest possible dissemination of timely and useful information about scientific discoveries, technology development, new knowledge, and greater understanding produced by the Astrobiology Program. This paper will address how scientists in the field of astrobiology can participate in the telling of an ongoing story of interest to multicultural audiences and why it is important to tell this story. SUMMARY Astrobiology research addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and evolve? Is there life beyond Earth and how can we detect it? What is the future of life on Earth and in the universe? The field of astrobiology is an endeavor that brings together researchers in a broad range of disciplines including Earth and planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, microbiology and evolutionary biology, and cosmochemistry. Goals of the NASA Astrobiology Program range from determining the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond to understanding the emergence of life from cosmic and planetary precursors, the interaction of past life on Earth with its changing environment, the formation and evolution of planets, links between planetary and biological evolution, the effects of climate and geology on habitability, and life's precursors and habitats in the outer solar system. Research dedicated to fulfilling these goals is conducted on Earth and in space, with a growing number of astrobiology investigations flying on planetary exploration missions. Since 1995, the field of astrobiology has grown rapidly, and the pace of discovery has been brisk. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is now a serious scientific question. Research findings over the past decade that are relevant to this question include the controversial 1996 claim of fossil evidence for microbial life in a martian meteorite, evidence of past and perhaps even present liquid water on Mars, the likelihood of a liquid water ocean on Europa, the possibility of liquid water beneath the surface of Titan, observations of a growing number of extrasolar planets, and identification of new forms of microbial life in an ever-widening range of extreme Earth environments. In the 21st century, the tempo of robotic planetary exploration is speeding up, and scientific and public attention is increasingly focusing on astrobiology research, especially the search for signs of life on Mars and other planetary bodies in our solar system. Mars is currently considered the best site in the solar system to search for evidence of past or present extraterrestrial life. And as Mars exploration proceeds, astrobiological interest in Enceladus, Europa, and Titan - outer solar system bodies that might have liquid water, prebiotic chemistry, or even life - is growing as new data are collected and analyzed. With an expanding array of solar system exploration endeavors involving and advancing astrobiology research, the NASA Astrobiology Program employs a communication strategy designed to establish that communication is an integral element of program planning and activities and an activity of fundamental importance to this scientific enterprise. This str

Billings, Linda

61

Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is Volume 3 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close to 350 people, Posters were available for viewing during the conference and a dedicated poster session was held on the second day. Nanotechnology, radiation shielding materials, Space Station science opportunities, biomaterials research, and outreach and educational aspects of the program were featured in the plenary talks. This volume, the first to be released on CD-ROM for materials science, is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators at the conference.

Ramachandran, Narayanan; Bennett, Nancy; McCauley, Dannah; Murphy, Karen; Poindexter, Samantha

2001-01-01

62

Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is Volume 2 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference %%,its to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close to 350 people, Posters were available for viewing during the conference and a dedicated poster session was held on the second day. Nanotechnology, radiation shielding materials, Space Station science opportunities, biomaterials research, and outreach and educational aspects of the program were featured in the plenary talks. This volume, the first to be released on CD-ROM for materials science, is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators at the conference.

Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

2001-01-01

63

Proceedings of the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sessions in the conference include: Titan, Mars Volcanism, Mars Polar Layered Deposits, Early Solar System Isotopes, SPECIAL SESSION: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: New Ways of Studying the Red Planet, Achondrites: Exploring Oxygen Isotopes and Parent-Body Processes, Solar System Formation and Evolution, SPECIAL SESSION: SMART-1, . Impact Cratering: Observations and Experiments, SPECIAL SESSION: Volcanism and Tectonism on Saturnian Satellites, Solar Nebula Composition, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Asteroid Observations: Spectra, Mostly, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: View from the Surface, Mars Tectonics and Crustal Dichotomy, Stardust: Wild-2 Revealed, Impact Cratering from Observations and Interpretations, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: The Map View, Chondrules and Their Formation, Enceladus, Asteroids and Deep Impact: Structure, Dynamics, and Experiments, Mars Surface Process and Evolution, Martian Meteorites: Nakhlites, Experiments, and the Great Shergottite Age Debate, Stardust: Mainly Mineralogy, Astrobiology, Wind-Surface Interactions on Mars and Earth, Icy Satellite Surfaces, Venus, Lunar Remote Sensing, Space Weathering, and Impact Effects, Interplanetary Dust/Genesis, Mars Cratering: Counts and Catastrophes?, Chondrites: Secondary Processes, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Atmosphere, Soils, Brines, and Minerals, Lunar Interior and Differentiation, Mars Magnetics and Atmosphere: Core to Ionosphere, Metal-rich Chondrites, Organics in Chondrites, Lunar Impacts and Meteorites, Presolar/Solar Grains, Topics for Print Only papers are: Outer Planets/Satellites, Early Solar System, Interplanetary Dust, Comets and Kuiper Belt Objects, Asteroids and Meteoroids, Chondrites, Achondrites, Meteorite Related, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars, Astrobiology, Planetary Differentiation, Impacts, Mercury, Lunar Samples and Modeling, Venus, Missions and Instruments, Global Warming, Education and Public Outreach, Poster sessions are: Asteroids/Kuiper Belt Objects, Galilean Satellites: Geology and Mapping, Titan, Volcanism and Tectonism on Saturnian Satellites, Early Solar System, Achondrite Hodgepodge, Ordinary Chondrites, Carbonaceous Chondrites, Impact Cratering from Observations and Interpretations, Impact Cratering from Experiments and Modeling, SMART-1, Planetary Differentiation, Mars Geology, Mars Volcanism, Mars Tectonics, Mars: Polar, Glacial, and Near-Surface Ice, Mars Valley Networks, Mars Gullies, Mars Outflow Channels, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Spirit and Opportunity, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: New Ways of Studying the Red Planet, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Geology, Layers, and Landforms, Oh, My!, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Viewing Mars Through Multicolored Glasses; Mars Science Laboratory, Phoenix, and ExoMars: Science, Instruments, and Landing Sites; Planetary Analogs: Chemical and Mineral, Planetary Analogs: Physical, Planetary Analogs: Operations, Future Mission Concepts, Planetary Data, Imaging, and Cartography, Outer Solar System, Presolar/Solar Grains, Stardust Mission; Interplanetary Dust, Genesis, Asteroids and Comets: Models, Dynamics, and Experiments, Venus, Mercury, Laboratory Instruments, Methods, and Techniques to Support Planetary Exploration; Instruments, Techniques, and Enabling Techologies for Planetary Exploration; Lunar Missions and Instruments, Living and Working on the Moon, Meteoroid Impacts on the Moon, Lunar Remote Sensing, Lunar Samples and Experiments, Lunar Atmosphere, Moon: Soils, Poles, and Volatiles, Lunar Topography and Geophysics, Lunar Meteorites, Chondrites: Secondary Processes, Chondrites, Martian Meteorites, Mars Cratering, Mars Surface Processes and Evolution, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Regolith, Spectroscopy, and Imaging, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Analogs and Mineralogy, Mars: Magnetics and Atmosphere, Mars Aeolian Geomorphology, Mars Data Processing and Analyses, Astrobiology, Engaging Student Educators and the Public in Planetary Science,

2007-01-01

64

Bridging Science and Policy: The AGU Science Policy Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, science has become inextricably linked to the political process. As such, it is more important now than ever for science to forge a better relationship with politics, for the health of both science and society. To help meet this need, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to engage its members, shape policy, and inform society about the excitement of Earth and space science and its role in developing solutions for the sustainability of the planet. In June 2013, AGU held its second annual Science Policy Conference in Washington, D.C. The goal of the conference is to provide a new forum for diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of science policy, with a focus on applications of Earth and space science that serve local, national, and international communities. The meeting brought together more than 300 scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, members of the press, and other stakeholders to discuss the topics concerning the Arctic, climate change, oceans, energy, technology and infrastructure, and natural hazards science as they relate to challenges impacting society. Sessions such as 'The Water-Energy Nexus,' 'Potential for Megadisasters,' 'The Changing Ocean and Impacts on Human Health,' and 'Drowning and Drought: Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change' are examples of some of the intriguing and timely science policy issues addressed at the conference. The findings from the conference were used to develop a summary report. The report highlights key facts and figures to be used as a resource in discussions with policy makers and other stakeholders regarding the conference topics. This presentation will discuss the goals and outcomes of the conference and how the event represents one of the many ways AGU is approaching its 'Science and Society' priority objective as part of the Union's strategic plan; namely by increasing the effectiveness and recognition of AGU among policy makers as an authoritative source of integrated, interdisciplinary Earth and space science information.

Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K.; Landau, E. A.

2013-12-01

65

Australian Centre for Astrobiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Centre for Astrobiology performs research in physics, astronomy, and cosmology, as well as investigates the possibility of life beyond Earth. After learning about the Centre's latest news and events, users can find summaries of the many current research projects including studies of ancient hydrothermal systems, remote sensing of the atmosphere of Venus, and varying constants. The website features the research, papers, and achievements of Professor Paul Davies and the Centre's other members. Students and educators can discover research and scholarship opportunities. This site is also reviewed in the June 25, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

66

Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Report of a conference called to discuss the findings of 142 scientists from their investigations of samples of lunar rock and soil brought back by the Apollo 11 mission. Significant findings reported include the age and composition of the lunar samples, and the absence of water and organic matter. Much discussed was the origin and structure of…

Cochran, Wendell

1970-01-01

67

International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013) took place in Wuhan, P R China from 26-27 October 2013 at the Military Economics Academy. The conference is regularly organized, alternately in Romania and in P R China, by ''Politehnica'' University of Timi?oara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P R China, with the aim to serve as a platform for the exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences, and to promote the communication between the scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The conference has been organized for the first time in 15-16 June 2012 at the Engineering Faculty of Hunedoara, Romania. The topics of the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues: Economical sciences Engineering sciences Fundamental sciences Medical sciences The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has applicability potential in economics, defense, medicine, etc. The number of registered participants was nearly 90 from 5 countries. During the two days of the conference 4 invited and 36 oral talks were delivered. A few of the speakers deserve a special mention: Mircea Octavian Popoviciu, Academy of Romanian Scientist — Timi?oara Branch, Correlations between mechanical properties and cavitation erosion resistance for stainless steels with 12% chromium and variable contents of nickel; Carmen Eleonora H?r?u, ''Politehnica'' University of Timi?oara, SWOT analysis of Romania's integration in EU; Ding Hui, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, Design and engineering analysis of material procurement mobile operation platform; Serban Rosu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ''Victor Babe?'' Timi?oara, Cervical and facial infections — a real life threat, among others. Based on the work presented at the conference, 14 selected papers are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. These papers present new researches in the various fields of materials engineering, mechanical engineering, computers engineering, mathematical engineering and clinical engineering. It's our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering to the scientific community to promote further researches in these areas. We sincerely hope that the papers published in this volume will contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the respective fields. All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the ICAS2013 proceedings, Ludovic Dan Lemle and Yiwen Jiang. Special thanks should be directed to the organizing committee for their tremendous efforts in organizing the conference: General Chair Zhou Laixin, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan Co-chairs Du Qifa, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan Serban Viorel-Aurel, ''Politehnica'' University of Timi?oara Fen Youmei, Wuhan University Lin Pinghua, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Members Lin Darong, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan Guo Zhonghou, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan Sun Honghong, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan Liu Dong, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan We thank the authors for their contributions and we would also like to express our gratitude everyone who contributed to this conference, especially for the generous support of the sponsor: micromega S C Micro-Mega HD S A Ludovic Dan Lemle and Yiwen Jiang Coordinators of the Scientific Committee of ICAS2013 Deatails of organizers and members of the scientific commmittee are available in the PDF

Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Jiang, Yiwen

2014-03-01

68

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.  

PubMed

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: how does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own Solar System, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority efforts for the next three to five years. These eighteen objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning. PMID:18793098

Des Marais, David J; Nuth, Joseph A; Allamandola, Louis J; Boss, Alan P; Farmer, Jack D; Hoehler, Tori M; Jakosky, Bruce M; Meadows, Victoria S; Pohorille, Andrew; Runnegar, Bruce; Spormann, Alfred M

2008-08-01

69

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.  

PubMed

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning. PMID:14577870

Des Marais, David J; Allamandola, Louis J; Benner, Steven A; Boss, Alan P; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G; Farmer, Jack D; Hedges, S Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M; Knoll, Andrew H; Liskowsky, David R; Meadows, Victoria S; Meyer, Michael A; Pilcher, Carl B; Nealson, Kenneth H; Spormann, Alfred M; Trent, Jonathan D; Turner, William W; Woolf, Neville J; Yorke, Harold W

2003-01-01

70

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

Des Marais, David J.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Benner, Steven A.; Boss, Alan P.; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G.; Farmer, Jack D.; Hedges, S. Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Liskowsky, David R.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Meyer, Michael A.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Trent, Jonathan D.; Turner, William W.; Woolf, Neville J.; Yorke, Harold W.

2003-01-01

71

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

Des Marais, David J.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Benner, Steven A.; Boss, Alan P.; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G.; Farmer, Jack D.; Hedges, S. Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Liskowsky, David R.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Meyer, Michael A.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Trent, Jonathan D.; Turner, William W.; Woolf, Neville J.; Yorke, Harold W.

2003-06-01

72

Astrobiology and Society: Building an Interdisciplinary Research Community  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper reports recent efforts to gather experts from the humanities and social sciences along with astrobiologists to consider the cultural, societal, and psychological implications of astrobiology research and exploration. We began by convening a workshop to draft a research roadmap on astrobiology's societal implications and later formed a Focus Group on Astrobiology and Society under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI). Just as the Astrobiology Science Roadmap and various astrobiology science focus groups have helped researchers orient and understand their work across disciplinary contexts, our intent was to apply the same approach to examine areas beyond the physical and life sciences and expand interdisciplinary interaction and scholarly understanding. These efforts continue as an experiment in progress, with an open invitation to interested researchers—astrobiologists as well as scholars in the humanities and social sciences—to become involved in research, analysis, and proactive discussions concerning the potential impacts of astrobiology on society as well as the possible impacts of society on progress in astrobiology. Key Words: Astrobiology—Extraterrestrial life—Life detection. Astrobiology 12, 958–965. PMID:23046203

Denning, Kathryn; Bertka, Constance M.; Dick, Steven J.; Harrison, Albert A.; Impey, Christopher; Mancinelli, Rocco

2012-01-01

73

Science Conference Presenters' Images of Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inquiry-focused professional development and conceptions of inquiry held by eight professional development leaders were investigated within the context of a state science teacher conference. The prominent session format involved session leaders modeling classroom experiences. In all sessions, classroom inquiry was portrayed as a teacher-guided…

Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.; Dias, Michael J.; Atkinson, Jennifer Lance

2009-01-01

74

-1first wageningen conference on applied soil science scientific program  

E-print Network

- 1first wageningen conference on applied soil science scientific program With this conference we want to emphasize the importance of soil science for combating and mitigating the challenges of our- annual Wageningen Conference on Applied Soil Science; informally: Wageningen Soil Meeting), we have

Wall, Diana

75

Capturing Student Interest in Astrobiology through Dilemmas and Paradoxes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Astrobiology is an interdisciplinary science course that combines essential questions from life, physical, and Earth sciences. An effective astrobiology course also capitalizes on students' natural curiosity about social science implications of studying the origin of life and the impact of finding life elsewhere in the universe. (Contains 2…

Slater, Timothy F.

2006-01-01

76

Archive: From Astrobiology to Zoology: Igniting Students' Interests in Science Careers , April 30, 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web Seminar, sponsored by Sally Ride Science, took place on April 30, 2008, from 6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. Presenting were Dr. Karen Flammer, Research Physicist at University of California in San Diego and Senior Vice-President at Sally Ride Science and Julie Miller from Olathe District Schools in Kansas. This web seminar focused on strategies that teachers can use to ignite students' interests in science careers. For more information about this web seminar, its presenter(s), read what participants said about it, and to see and download its PowerPoint slides go here.

1900-01-01

77

Archive: From Astrobiology to Zoology: Igniting Students' Interests in Science Careers , May 20, 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web Seminar, sponsored by Sally Ride Science, took place on May 20, 2008, from 6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. Presenting were Brenda Wilson, Vice-President for Content and Out-of-School Programs at Sally Ride Science and Julie Miller from Olathe District Schools in Kansas. This web seminar focused on four science fields and a number of strategies that teachers can use to ignite students' interests in them. For more information about this web seminar, its presenter(s), read what participants said about it, and to see and download its PowerPoint slides go here .

1900-01-01

78

Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology; Seek Out and Explore: Upcoming and Future Missions; Mars: Early History and Impact Processes; Mars Analogs II: Chemical and Spectral; Achondrites and their Parent Bodies; and Planning for Future Exploration of the Moon The poster sessions were: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1; LRO and LCROSS; Geophysical Analysis of the Lunar Surface and Interior; Remote Observation and Geologic Mapping of the Lunar Surface; Lunar Spectroscopy; Venus Geology, Geophysics, Mapping, and Sampling; Planetary Differentiation; Bunburra and Buzzard Coulee: Recent Meteorite Falls; Meteorites: Terrestrial History; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Volatile and Organic Compounds in Chondrites; Crashing Chondrites: Impact, Shock, and Melting; Ureilite Studies; Petrology and Mineralogy of the SNC Meteorites; Martian Meteorites; Phoenix Landing Site: Perchlorate and Other Tasty Treats; Mars Polar Atmospheres and Climate Modeling; Mars Polar Investigations; Mars Near-Surface Ice; Mars: A Volatile-Rich Planet; Mars: Geochemistry and Alteration Processes; Martian Phyllosilicates: Identification, Formation, and Alteration; Astrobiology; Instrument Concepts, Systems, and Probes for Investigating Rocks and Regolith; Seeing is Believing: UV, VIS, IR, X- and Gamma-Ray Camera and Spectrometer Instruments; Up Close and Personal: In Situ Analysis with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry; Jupiter and Inscrutable Io; Tantalizing Titan; Enigmatic Enceladus and Intriguing Iapetus; Icy Satellites: Cryptic Craters; Icy Satellites: Gelid Geology/Geophysics; Icy Satellites: Cool Chemistry and Spectacular Spectroscopy; Asteroids and Comets; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Hypervelocity Impacts: Stardust Models, LDEF, and ISPE; Presolar Grains; Early Nebular Processes: Models and Isotopes; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Education and Public Outreach; Mercury; Pursuing Lunar Exploration; Sources and Eruptionf Lunar Basalts; Chemical and Physical Properties of the Lunar Regolith; Lunar Dust and Transient

2009-01-01

79

Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrobiology is a scientific discipline devoted to the study of life in the universe--its origins, evolution, distribution, and future. It brings together the physical and biological sciences to address some of the most fundamental questions of the natural world: How do living systems emerge? How do habitable worlds form and how do they evolve? Does life exist on worlds other than Earth? As an endeavor of tremendous breadth and depth, astrobiology requires interdisciplinary investigation in order to be fully appreciated and examined. As part of a concerted effort to undertake such a challenge, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established in 1998 as an innovative way to develop the field of astrobiology and provide a scientific framework for flight missions. Now that the NAI has been in existence for almost a decade, the time is ripe to assess its achievements. At the request of NASA's Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), the Committee on the Review of the NASA Astrobiology Institute undertook the assignment to determine the progress made by the NAI in developing the field of astrobiology. It must be emphasized that the purpose of this study was not to undertake a review of the scientific accomplishments of NASA's Astrobiology program, in general, or of the NAI, in particular. Rather, the objective of the study is to evaluate the success of the NAI in achieving its stated goals of: 1. Conducting, supporting, and catalyzing collaborative interdisciplinary research; 2. Training the next generation of astrobiology researchers; 3. Providing scientific and technical leadership on astrobiology investigations for current and future space missions; 4. Exploring new approaches, using modern information technology, to conduct interdisciplinary and collaborative research among widely distributed investigators; and 5. Supporting outreach by providing scientific content for use in K-12 education programs, teaching undergraduate classes, and communicating directly with the public. The committee s assessment of the NAI's progress in these five areas is presented in Chapters 2 to 6, respectively.

2008-01-01

80

Astrobiology in Brazil: early history and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review reports the Brazilian history in astrobiology, as well as the first delineation of a vision of the future development of the field in the country, exploring its abundant biodiversity, highly capable human resources and state-of-the-art facilities, reflecting the last few years of stable governmental investments in science, technology and education, all conditions providing good perspectives on continued and steadily growing funding for astrobiology-related research. Brazil is growing steadily and fast in terms of its worldwide economic power, an effect being reflected in different areas of the Brazilian society, including industry, technology, education, social care and scientific production. In the field of astrobiology, the country has had some important landmarks, more intensely after the First Brazilian Workshop on Astrobiology in 2006. The history of astrobiology in Brazil, however, is not so recent and had its first occurrence in 1958. Since then, researchers carried out many individual initiatives across the country in astrobiology-related fields, resulting in an ever growing and expressive scientific production. The number of publications, including articles and theses, has particularly increased in the last decade, but still counting with the effort of researchers working individually. That scenario started to change in 2009, when a formal group of Brazilian researchers working with astrobiology was organized, aiming at congregating the scientific community interested in the subject and to promote the necessary interactions to achieve a multidisciplinary work, receiving facilities and funding from the University de Sao Paulo and other funding agencies.

Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Friaça, Amancio C. S.; Lage, Claudia; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Horvath, Jorge E.

2012-10-01

81

National Workshop on Astrobiology: the life science involvement of AAS-I Laben.  

PubMed

The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or for automated biosensor based on cell culture Experiment Container for organic systems Experiment Container for small animals Instrumentation based on fluorescent Biosensors Sensors for Life science experiments for Biopan capsule and Space Vehicle Ray Shielding Materials Random Positioning Machine specialisation (Support ground equipment) The biological features of this heritage is at disposal for the exobiology multi science. The involvement of industries, from the beginning of the exobiology projects, allows a cost effective technologies closed loop development between Research Centres, Principal Investigators and industry. PMID:17171428

Adami, Giorgio

2006-12-01

82

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This CD-ROM presents papers presented to the Thirty-first Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 13-17, 2000, Houston, Texas. Eighty-one conference sessions, and over one thousand extended abstracts are included. Abstracts cover topics such as Martian surface properties and geology, meteoritic composition, Martian landing sites and roving vehicles, planned Mars Sample Return Missions, and general astrobiology.

2000-01-01

83

National Workshop on Astrobiology: The Life Science Involvement of AAS I Laben  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or for automated biosensor based on cell culture Experiment Container for organic systems Experiment Container for small animals Instrumentation based on fluorescent Biosensors Sensors for Life science experiments for Biopan capsule and Space Vehicle Ray Shielding Materials Random Positioning Machine specialisation (Support ground equipment) The biological features of this heritage is at disposal for the exobiology multi science. The involvement of industries, from the beginning of the exobiology projects, allows a cost effective technologies closed loop development between Research Centres, Principal Investigators and industry.

Adami, Giorgio

2006-12-01

84

The NASA astrobiology program.  

PubMed

The new discipline of astrobiology addresses fundamental questions about life in the universe: "Where did we come from?" "Are we alone in the universe?" "What is our future beyond the Earth?" Developing capabilities in biotechnology, informatics, and space exploration provide new tools to address these old questions. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has encouraged this new discipline by organizing workshops and technical meetings, establishing a NASA Astrobiology Institute, providing research funds to individual investigators, ensuring that astrobiology goals are incorporated in NASA flight missions, and initiating a program of public outreach and education. Much of the initial effort by NASA and the research community was focused on determining the technical content of astrobiology. This paper discusses the initial answer to the question "What is astrobiology?" as described in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. PMID:12448992

Morrison, D

2001-01-01

85

Astrobiology - The New Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background In connection with the complex planetology-education in Hungary [1] we have compiled an Astrobiology coursebook - as a base of its teaching in universities and perhaps in secondary schools as well. We tried to collect and assemble in a logical and thematical order the scientific breakthroughs of the last years, that made possible the fast improvement of astrobiology. The followings are a kind of summary of these. Introduction - The ultimate science Astrobiology is a young science, that search for the possibility, forms and places of extraterrestrial life. But it is not SETI, because do not search for intelligent life, just for living organisms, so SETI is a part of astrobiology. and an extremely important statement: we can search for life-forms that similar to terrestrial life in physiology so we can recognize it as life. Astrobiology is one of the most dynamical-developing sciences of the 21st century. To determine its boundaries is difficult because the complex nature of it: astrobiology melt into itself lot of other sciences, like a kind of ultimate science. The fundamental questions are very simple [2]: When, where and how converted the organic matter into life?; How does life evolve in the Universe?; Has it appeared on other planets?; How does it spread in time and space?; and What is the future of terrestrial life? However, trying to find the answers is quite difficult. So an astrobiologist has to be aware of the basics of astronomy, space research, earth and planetary sciences, and life sciences (mainly ecology, genetics, molecular and evolution biology). But it is not enough - the newest results of these at least as important as the basic knowledge. Part I. - Astro 1. Exoplanets 1995 was a particular year in astronomy: we have found the first planet out of the Solar System. Since that time the discovery of exoplanets progress fast: nowdays more than 80 examples are known and just 6 years passed [3]. The detailed analysis of these distant objects has verified and solidified our theo- ries of planet-formation. The places of this process are contacting clouds of gas and dust, like the Orion Nebula. In these star-birth clouds we can observe clusters of mat- ter in which the temperature and pressure reach a limit and a new-born star begin to "function", or rather radiate. Around the star, the remnant matter settle into a plane, 1 forming a protoplanetary disk. It has different zones: heavy elements nearer to the star, light elements farther from it. The planets are taking shape from these zones - perhaps rocky types and gas giants as well. To see so much example we can state that planetary system-formation is an absolutely normal, everyday process in the Universe. As a consequence there are a lot of planetary system near to our Earth, with planets orbiting around stars. Though, the known exoplanets are not too Earth-like objects. Most of them seems to be lonely gas giants (with mass bigger than our Jupiter) nearer to their star then rocky planets to our Sun (the only known multiple exoplanet sys- tem is around Upsilon Andromedae [4]). Probable the reason of this difference is the weak capability of our instrument and not the speciality of our system. By using ad- vanced methods and instruments (like Next Generation Space Telescope or Terrestrial Planet Finder spacecraft, planned to launch in 5 years [5]) rocky-like planets will be found as well. 2. Water in the Solar System Looking closer, the knowledge of our Solar System has increased intensively during the last years of the 20th century - due to the planetary spacecraft missions, like Lunar Prospector, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor, Galileo and NEAR-Shoemaker. The most important discovery, that liquid water is quite general in our local cosmic environment. and as we know this is the most important condition of life. First and foremost, the most important is Planet Mars. By reconstructing the surface evolution of our outer neighbor it seems that in the past, more billion years ago it had global ocean, the depressions were filled with sea

Sik, A.; Simon, T.

86

Astrobiology and society: building an interdisciplinary research community.  

PubMed

This paper reports recent efforts to gather experts from the humanities and social sciences along with astrobiologists to consider the cultural, societal, and psychological implications of astrobiology research and exploration. We began by convening a workshop to draft a research roadmap on astrobiology's societal implications and later formed a Focus Group on Astrobiology and Society under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI). Just as the Astrobiology Science Roadmap and various astrobiology science focus groups have helped researchers orient and understand their work across disciplinary contexts, our intent was to apply the same approach to examine areas beyond the physical and life sciences and expand interdisciplinary interaction and scholarly understanding. These efforts continue as an experiment in progress, with an open invitation to interested researchers-astrobiologists as well as scholars in the humanities and social sciences-to become involved in research, analysis, and proactive discussions concerning the potential impacts of astrobiology on society as well as the possible impacts of society on progress in astrobiology. PMID:23046203

Race, Margaret; Denning, Kathryn; Bertka, Constance M; Dick, Steven J; Harrison, Albert A; Impey, Christopher; Mancinelli, Rocco

2012-10-01

87

Titan's astrobiology: some new data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini-Huygens observations of Titan have strongly strengthened its astrobiological impor-tance, clearly showing that Titan is one of the key planetary bodies for astrobiological studies. Indeed the Cassini-Huygens data show that there are many similarities which can be found when comparing Titan and the early Earth, in spite of much lower temperatures for Titan. One of these similarities is the presence of an active and complex organic chemistry in Titan's environment, which occurs from the high atmosphere to the surface and very likely in the sub-surface. This organic chemistry involves several of the key compounds of terrestrial prebiotic chemistry, and it represents, by itself, a major astrobiological aspect of Titan. Moreover, the potential presence of an internal water-ocean makes Titan a potential habitable environment, of obvious astrobiological importance. In fact, after five years of close observation by remote sensing and in situ instrumentations from the Cassini-Huygens mission, Titan does not look any more like a frozen primitive Earth, but it looks like an evolving planet, geologically active, with cryo-volcanism, eolian erosion, clouds and precipitations, and a methane cycle analogous to the water cycle on Earth. But the new data also show that a complex organic chemistry is taking place in the very high atmospheric layers of the satellite, with the formation in the ionosphere of high molecular weight (up about 10 000 Daltons) ions. Are these ions abundant enough in the lower atmosphere zones to act as organic monomers which then grow by aggregation, sedimentation and condensation down to the surface? This is one of the key questions that chemical models have now to answer. Cassini-Huygens observations have shown that there is no large surface ocean on Titan, but large regional lakes which behave like evolving liquid media. Those lakes are probably accumulating complex organics of astrobiological interest, including organic aerosols, and could be a prime astrobiologically oriented target for future exploration of Saturn's largest satellite. Cassini-Huygens has shown that the chemical composition of Titan's aerosols is similar to that of laboratory Titan's tholins. The behavior of those tholins when sub-mitted to high solar UV radiation has recently been studied in Earth orbit. The results show a slight but complex photodegradation in some cases. Moreover, recent laboratory studies of the interaction between Titan's tholins and simulated Titan's surface strongly suggests that many compounds of biological interest, including amino-acids, could be produced on Titan's surface. These new data will be presented together with a general description of Titan's astrobiological aspects as seen from Cassini-Huygens data. References F. Raulin. Astrobiology and habitability of Titan. Space Science Reviews 135, 37-48 (2008) F. Raulin , C. P. McKay , J. I. Lunine and T. Owen. Titan's Astrobiology. In "Titan from Cassini-Huygens" R. Brown, J-P Lebreton H.Waite Eds, Springer, pp. 215-233 (2009) F. Raulin, K. P. Hand, C. P. McKay and M. Viso. Exobiology and planetary protection. In "Moons of the outer solar system: exchange processes involving the interiors", O. Grasset et al. Eds, Space Science Review, in press (Feb. 2010).

Raulin, Francois; Coll, Patrice; Buch, Arnaud; Cloix, Megane; Guan, Yuan Yong; Jerome, Murielle; Poch, Olivier; Ramirez, Sandra I.; Szopa, Cyril; Cottin, Hervé

88

NAC-Science Committee Meeting July 23, 2012  

E-print Network

that will achieve the National Research Council's Planetary Science Decadal Survey goal of sample return ­ Prepare ­ NRC's Committee on Astrobiology & Planetary Science LPSC ­ Lunar & Planetary Science Conference PSS ­ Planetary Science Subcommittee of NAC MEPAG ­ Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group NRC ­ National

Waliser, Duane E.

89

The Native American Astrobiology in the Secondary Classroom Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology as a platform to engage Native American K-12 Students into the sciences and mathematics with the intent of helping them change any negative views of science and mathematics into possible future educational goals and career paths.

Berthelson, M.; Morales, C.; Ceballos, M.

2010-04-01

90

Astrobiology - The New Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background In connection with the complex planetology-education in Hungary [1] we have compiled an Astrobiology coursebook - as a base of its teaching in universities and perhaps in secondary schools as well. We tried to collect and assemble in a logical and thematical order the scientific breakthroughs of the last years, that made possible the fast improvement of astrobiology. The

A. Sik; T. Simon

2002-01-01

91

The Astrobiology Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains astrobiology news and links about: astrochemistry, bioinformatics, biosatellites, gravitational biology, hydrothermal vent communities, genomics, astropaleobiology, radiation physiology, the search for exterrestrial intelligence (SETI), extremophiles, exopaleontology, cell biology, evolution, planetary protection, and space medicine. There are also links to NASA TV and video feeds, astrobiology press releases, and an introduction to what an astrobiologist is.

2008-09-16

92

NASA Astrobiology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other leading academic or research organizations have joined together to create the NASA Astrobiology Institute. The institute's objectives are to promote, conduct, and lead integrated astrobiology (study of life in the universe) research and to train young researchers. Sections included at the Website are News & Views, Operations, and Learning Center.

93

The Astrobiology Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains astrobiology news and links about: astrochemistry, bioinformatics, biosatellites, gravitational biology, hydrothermal vent communities, genomics, astropaleobiology, radiation physiology, the search for exterrestrial intelligence (SETI), extremophiles, exopaleontology, cell biology, evolution, planetary protection, and space medicine. There are also links to NASA TV and video feeds, astrobiology press releases, and an introduction to what an astrobiologist is.

94

The astrobiology of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Largest satellite of Saturn and the only satellite in the solar system having a dense atmosphere, Titan is one of the key planetary bodies for astrobiological studies, due to several aspects: Its analogies with planet Earth, in spite of much lower temperatures, The Cassini-Huygens data have largely confirmed the many analogies between Titan and our own planet. Both have similar vertical temperature profiles, (although much colder, of course, on Titan). Both have condensable and non condensable greenhouse gases in their atmosphere. Both are geologically very active. Furthermore, the data also suggest strongly the presence of a methane cycle on Titan analogous to the water cycle on Earth. The presence of an active organic chemistry, involving several of the key compounds of prebiotic chemistry. The recent data obtained from the Huygens instruments show that the organic matter in Titan low atmosphere (stratosphere and troposphere) is mainly concentrated in the aerosol particles. Because of the vertical temperature profile in this part of the atmosphere, most of the volatile organics are probably mainly condensed on the aerosol particles. The nucleus of these particles seems to be made of complex macromolecular organic matter, well mimicked in the laboratory by the "Titan's tholins". Now, laboratory tholins are known to release many organic compounds of biological interest, such as amino acids and purine and pyrimidine bases, when they are in contact with liquid water. Such hydrolysis may have occurred on the surface of Titan, in the bodies of liquid water which episodically may form on Titan's surface from meteoritic and cometary impacts. The formation of biologically interesting compounds may also occur in the deep water ocean, from the hydrolysis of complex organic material included in the chrondritic matter accreted during the formation of Titan. The possible emergence and persistence of Life on Titan 1 All ingredients which seems necessary for Life are present on Titan : • liquid water : permanently as a deep sub-surface ocean, and even episodically on the surface, • organic matter : in the internal structure, from chondritic materials, and in the atmosphere and on the surface, from the atmospheric organic chemistry • and energy : in the atmosphere (solar UV photons, energetic electrons from Saturn magnetosphere and cosmic rays) and, probably, in the environment of the sub-surface ocean (radioactive nuclei in the deep interior and tidal energy dissipation) as also supported by the likely presence of cryovolcanism on the surface Thus, it cannot be excluded that life may have emerged on or in Titan. In spite of the extreme conditions in this environment life may have been able to adapt and to persist. Many data are still expected from the Cassini-Huygens mission and future astrobiological exploration mission of Titan are now under consideration. Nevertheless, Titan already looks like another word, with an active prebiotic-like chemistry, but in the absence of permanent liquid water, on the surface: a natural laboratory for prebiotic-like chemistry. References. Fortes, A.D. (2000), `Exobiological implications of a possible ammonia-water ocean inside Titan', Icarus 146, 444-452 Raulin, F. (2005), `Exo-Astrobiological Aspects of Europa and Titan: From Observations to Speculations', Space Science Review 116 (1-2), 471-496. Nature, (2005), `The Huygens probe on Titan', 8 News & Views, Articles and Letters 438, 756-802 Schulze-Makuch, D., and Grinspoon D.H. (2005), `Biologically enhanced energy and carbon cycling on Titan?',Astrobiology 5, 560-567. 2

Raulin, F.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Hebrard, E.; Israel, G.; Nguyen, M.-J.; Szopa, C.; Gpcos Team

95

Proceedings of the Plutonium Futures—The Science 2006 Conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium Futures--The Science 2006 provided opportunities to examine present knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of plutonium and other actinides in complex media and materials; to discuss the current and emerging science (chemistry, physics, materials science, nuclear science, and environmental effects) of plutonium and actinides relevant to enhancing global nuclear security; and to exchange ideas. This international conference also

Michael J. Fluss; David E. Hobart; Patrick G. Allen; Gordon D. Jarvinen

2007-01-01

96

Science and Policy to Meet at 2013 AGU Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 24-26 June, hundreds of leading scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, and other interested stakeholders will join together at AGU's second annual Science Policy Conference in Washington, D. C. The theme for the 2013 conference, "Preparing for Our Future," serves as a discussion point on how the Earth and space sciences can better prepare communities for a changing climate, support the national economy through innovative science, and protect the health and safety of humans and the environment around the globe.

Uhlenbrock, Kristan

2013-04-01

97

Editorial: Special Issue (SI): International Conference on Science Education (ICSE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of science education globalization, the International Conference on Science Education was held in Nanjing, China, in October 2012. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for science education researchers from China and from the rest of the world to exchange research ideas and best practices in science education. A call for papers for a special issue of the Journal of Science Education and Technology was made to all conference participants, and a set of six articles was resulted from a standard peer review process. This set of six articles provides a snapshot of research in China and in some other countries, and represents a dialogue between Chinese science education researchers and science education researchers from other countries. We call for more exchange and collaboration in science education between China and the rest of the world.

Liu, Xiufeng; Zhang, BaoHui

2014-04-01

98

The Astrobiology of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan is a target of astrobiological interest because of its thick atmosphere, ample organics inventory, large size and presence of water ice and rock. Multiple habitable environments, or prebiotically interesting environments, may exist.

Lunine, J. I.

2014-02-01

99

Galactic Habitable Zone and Astrobiological Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a short thesis description and for the sake of brevity most things are left out. For more details, those interested are further directed to the thesis related papers in this article reference list. Thesis itself is available at the University of Belgrade library "Svetozar Markovic" (Serbian version only). In this thesis we study the astrobiological history of the Galactic habitable zone through the means of numerical modeling. First group of simulations are unidimensional (time-axis) toy models examine the influence of global regulation mechanisms (gamma-ray bursts and supernovae) on temporal evolution of Galactic astrobiological complexity. It is shown that under the assumption of global regulation classical anti SETI arguments can be undermined. Second group of simulations are more complex bidimensional probabilistic cellular automata models of the Galactic thin disk. They confirm the findings of the toy models and give some insights into the spatial clustering of astrobiological complexity. As a new emerging multidisciplinary science the basic concepts of astrobiology are poorly understood and although all the simulations present here do not include some basic physics (such as Galactic kinematics and dynamics), the input parameters are somewhat arbitrary and could use a future refinement (such as the boundaries of the Galactic habitable zone). This is the cause for low weight and high uncertainty in the output results of the simulations. However, the probabilistic cellular automata has shown as a highly adaptable modeling platform that can simulate various class of astrobiological models with great ease.

Vukotic, B.

2012-12-01

100

Astrobiology: Discovering New Worlds of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes discoveries at the frontiers of science. Includes an instructional poster illustrating the hydrothermal vent communities on the deep ocean floor. Describes research activities related to the new discipline of astrobiology, a multidisciplinary approach to studying the emergence of life in the universe. Research activities include the…

James, Charles C.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

2001-01-01

101

Astrobiology and the Human Exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MEPAG Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG) developed a series of scientific goals and objectives in astrobiology for the human exploration of Mars that have been incorporated in the Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0.

J. S. Levine; J. B. Garvin; B. G. Drake; D. W. Beaty

2010-01-01

102

Relative status of journal and conference publications in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though computer scientists agree that conference publications enjoy greater status in computer science than in other disciplines, there is little quantitative evidence to support this view. The importance of journal publication in academic promotion makes it a highly personal issue, since focusing exclusively on journal papers misses many significant papers published by CS conferences. Here, we aim to quantify the

Jill Freyne; Lorcan Coyle; Barry Smyth; Padraig Cunningham

2010-01-01

103

European Space Agency European Mars Science and Exploration Conference: Mars Express & ExoMars  

E-print Network

trek around the Sun. Those meteoroids' mass and kinetic energy are incorporated into the Martian" mission resources such as inflight software and provide maximum science for the effort. Meteor activity with that of the early Earth, the astrobiological relevance of meteor showers as exogenous sources of organics and water

Withers, Paul

104

A unifying concept for astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution, broadly construed, has become a powerful unifying concept in much of science - not only in the biological evolution of plants and animals, but also in the physical evolution of stars and planets, and the cultural evolution of society and its many varied products. This paper (1) explores the bulk structure and functioning of open, non-equilibrium, thermodynamic systems relevant to the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology, (2) places the astrobiological landscape into an even larger, cosmological context, (3) defines life, complexity and evolution writ large, (4) claims that life depends ultimately on the expansion of the Universe and the flow of energy derived therefrom and (5) proposes a quantitative metric to characterize the rise of complexity throughout all of natural history. That metric is neither information nor negentropy, for these inveterate yet qualitative terms cannot be quantified, nor even defined, to everyone's satisfaction in today's scientific community. Rather, the newly proposed metric is normalized energy flow, a revision of a long-cherished term - energy - that is physically intuitive, well defined and readily measurable. All ordered systems = from rocky planets and shining stars, to buzzing bees and redwood trees - can be best judged empirically and uniformly by gauging the amount of energy acquired, stored and expressed by those systems. Appeals to anthropism are unnecessary to appreciate the impressive hierarchy of the cosmic evolutionary narrative, including a technological civilization that now embraces an energetics agenda designed to better understand, and perhaps to unify, all the natural sciences.

Chaisson, E. J.

2003-04-01

105

Proceedings of the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sessions with oral presentations include: A SPECIAL SESSION: MESSENGER at Mercury, Mars: Pingos, Polygons, and Other Puzzles, Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Mars: Ice On the Ground and In the Ground, SPECIAL SESSION: Results from Kaguya (SELENE) Mission to the Moon, Outer Planet Satellites: Not Titan, Not Enceladus, SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Science: Past, Present, and Future, Mars: North Pole, South Pole - Structure and Evolution, Refractory Inclusions, Impact Events: Modeling, Experiments, and Observations, Mars Sedimentary Processes from Victoria Crater to the Columbia Hills, Formation and Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites, New Achondrite GRA 06128/GRA 06129 - Origins Unknown, The Science Behind Lunar Missions, Mars Volcanics and Tectonics, From Dust to Planets (Planetary Formation and Planetesimals):When, Where, and Kaboom! Astrobiology: Biosignatures, Impacts, Habitability, Excavating a Comet, Mars Interior Dynamics to Exterior Impacts, Achondrites, Lunar Remote Sensing, Mars Aeolian Processes and Gully Formation Mechanisms, Solar Nebula Shake and Bake: Mixing and Isotopes, Lunar Geophysics, Meteorites from Mars: Shergottite and Nakhlite Invasion, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Chondrules and Chondrule Formation, Lunar Samples: Chronology, Geochemistry, and Petrology, Enceladus, Venus: Resurfacing and Topography (with Pancakes!), Overview of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission, Mars Sulfates, Phyllosilicates, and Their Aqueous Sources, Ordinary and Enstatite Chondrites, Impact Calibration and Effects, Comparative Planetology, Analogs: Environments and Materials, Mars: The Orbital View of Sediments and Aqueous Mineralogy, Planetary Differentiation, Titan, Presolar Grains: Still More Isotopes Out of This World, Poster sessions include: Education and Public Outreach Programs, Early Solar System and Planet Formation, Solar Wind and Genesis, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Carbonaceous Chondrites, Chondrules and Chondrule Formation, Chondrites, Refractory Inclusions, Organics in Chondrites, Meteorites: Techniques, Experiments, and Physical Properties, MESSENGER and Mercury, Lunar Science Present: Kaguya (SELENE) Results, Lunar Remote Sensing: Basins and Mapping of Geology and Geochemistry, Lunar Science: Dust and Ice, Lunar Science: Missions and Planning, Mars: Layered, Icy, and Polygonal, Mars Stratigraphy and Sedimentology, Mars (Peri)Glacial, Mars Polar (and Vast), Mars, You are Here: Landing Sites and Imagery, Mars Volcanics and Magmas, Mars Atmosphere, Impact Events: Modeling, Experiments, and Observation, Ice is Nice: Mostly Outer Planet Satellites, Galilean Satellites, The Big Giant Planets, Astrobiology, In Situ Instrumentation, Rocket Scientist's Toolbox: Mission Science and Operations, Spacecraft Missions, Presolar Grains, Micrometeorites, Condensation-Evaporation: Stardust Ties, Comet Dust, Comparative Planetology, Planetary Differentiation, Lunar Meteorites, Nonchondritic Meteorites, Martian Meteorites, Apollo Samples and Lunar Interior, Lunar Geophysics, Lunar Science: Geophysics, Surface Science, and Extralunar Components, Mars, Remotely, Mars Orbital Data - Methods and Interpretation, Mars Tectonics and Dynamics, Mars Craters: Tiny to Humongous, Mars Sedimentary Mineralogy, Martian Gullies and Slope Streaks, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Mars Aeolian Processes, Mars Data and Mission,s Venus Mapping, Modeling, and Data Analysis, Titan, Icy Dwarf Satellites, Rocket Scientist's Toolbox: In Situ Analysis, Remote Sensing Approaches, Advances, and Applications, Analogs: Sulfates - Earth and Lab to Mars, Analogs: Remote Sensing and Spectroscopy, Analogs: Methods and Instruments, Analogs: Weird Places!. Print Only Early Solar System, Solar Wind, IDPs, Presolar/Solar Grains, Stardust, Comets, Asteroids, and Phobos, Venus, Mercury, Moon, Meteorites, Mars, Astrobiology, Impacts, Outer Planets, Satellites, and Rings, Support for Mission Operations, Analog Education and Public Outreach.

2008-01-01

106

AGU Science Policy Conference: 2012 Recap and 2013 Preview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, science has become inextricably linked to the political process. As such, it is more important now than ever for science to forge a better relationship with politics, for the health of both science and society. To help meet this need, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to engage its members, shape policy, and inform society about the excitement of Earth and space science and its role in developing solutions for the sustainability of the planet. In the spring of 2012, AGU held its inaugural Science Policy Conference in Washington, D.C. The goal of this new conference is to ensure diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of Earth and space science policy. The meeting brought together more than 300 scientists, policymakers, industry professionals, members of the press, and other stakeholders to discuss Arctic, oceans, natural resources, and natural hazards science as they relate to challenges impacting society. Sessions such as Hydraulic Fracturing, Mitigation and Resiliency to Severe Weather, Governance and Security in the Arctic, and Ocean Acidification are examples of some of the intriguing science policy issues addressed at the conference. The AGU Science Policy Conference will be an annual spring event in Washington, D.C.

Hankin, E. R.; Landau, E. A.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.

2012-12-01

107

Plutonium Futures -- The Science. Topical Conference on Plutonium and Actinides. AIP Conference Proceedings, No. 532 [APCPCS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presentations at this conference covered the topics of materials science\\/nuclear fuels, condensed matter physics, actinides in the environment\\/separation and analysis, actinides\\/processing, actinides\\/TRU wastes, materials science, TRU waste forms, nuclear fuels\\/isotopes, separations and process chemistry, actinides in the environment, detection and analysis, Pu and Pu compounds, actinide compounds and complexes.

K. K. S. Pillay; K. C. Kim

2000-01-01

108

Astrobiological Complexity with Probabilistic Cellular Automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling the astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous space of the input parameters. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories with "Copernican" choice of input parameters and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches.

Vukoti?, Branislav; ?irkovi?, Milan M.

2012-08-01

109

Report on the Conference ''The First Year of ALMA Science''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conference reviewed the scientific results of the first year of ALMA Early Science operations and a summary of the highlights is presented. All areas of ALMA Cycle 0 science were covered, with emphasis on new results for astrochemistry, the Solar System, star and planet formation, the life cycle of stars, nearby galaxies, active galactic nuclei and the high redshift Universe. The priorities and prospects for ALMA Full Science and ALMA upgrades were also discussed.

Testi, L.; Andreani, P.

2013-03-01

110

of the SpringS: Astrobiology in Yellowstone National Park --Powerpoint  

E-print Network

Science of the SpringS: Astrobiology in Yellowstone National Park -- Powerpoint Astrobiology with this Powerpoint, but the direct reading questions would need to be modified for use with this presentation (since the presentation does not go into as much detail as the Science of the Springs booklet). exteNsiONs This Powerpoint

Maxwell, Bruce D.

111

FOREWORD: Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present issue of Physica Scripta contains the Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science. This meeting was held in Tampere, Finland 18-20 August, 1982. The original motivation for the conference was to bring together the various Nordic research groups engaged in surface science and related activities. However, soon after the initial announcement the conference attracted considerable interest also beyond the Nordic area, and it eventually obtained a truly international character: more than half of the 150 participants came from non-Nordic countries. At least to some extent this reflects the high international esteem of surface physics and chemistry in the Nordic area, which hosts some of the strongest research centers in this exciting and important branch of science. The conference provided an opportunity to exchange information in this rapidly moving field, to establish new contacts and strengthen old ones. It showed that there certainly is scope for increased collaboration between various groups, both within the Nordic countries and also more internationally. The opinion was expressed by several participants that this conference was a particularly successful one, both in scientific content and in format. It is the hope of the organizers of the Nordic Conference on Surface Science that this would serve as an incentive to consider having this kind of meetings on a more or less regular basis, as an established event in the Nordic surface science community. The cross-disciplinary nature of surface science is clearly reflected in these proceedings. The topics discussed range from those close to more traditional condensed matter spectroscopy through physical chemistry to biology. The formidable array of sophisticated techniques developed for surface investigations is given ample attention, but nevertheless the proceedings also show the trend towards more problem-oriented instead of technique-oriented emphasis. The proceedings are organized in accordance with the presentation at the Conference. There were 20 invited talks, 54 contributed poster papers, and 8 orally presented contributed papers. Of the 82 papers presented at the Conference 48 are included in these proceedings as full papers. The papers are written in the format usual for publication in Physica Scripta. In view of the wide selection and good quality of the papers presented, we believe that these proceedings will be useful not only to the participants but to a wide audience among those interested in surface science and its applications. The Conference was sponsored by the Finnish Physical Society, Academy of Finland, the Finnish Ministry of Education, the Finnish Vacuum Society, the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Atomic Physics (NORDITA), the U.S. Air Force (European Office of Aerospace Research and Development), and Neste Corporation (Finland). We are also grateful to Tampere University of Technology for providing excellent facilities.

Pessa, V. M.; Nieminen, R. M.

1983-01-01

112

Visions for a sustainable world: A conference on science, technology and social responsibility. Conference report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the organization, activities, and outcomes of Student Pugwash USA`s 1992 International Conference, Visions for a Sustainable World: A Conference on Science, Technology and Social Responsibility. The conference was held June 14--20, 1992 at Emory University, and brought together 94 students and over 65 experts from industry, academe, and government. The conference addressed issues ranging from global environmental cooperation to the social impacts of the Human Genome Project to minority concerns in the sciences. It provided a valuable forum for talented students and professionals to engage in critical dialogue on many interdisciplinary issues at the juncture of science, technology and society. The conference challenged students -- the world`s future scientists, engineers, and political leaders -- to think broadly about global problems and to devise policy options that are viable and innovative. The success of the conference in stimulating interest, understanding, and enthusiasm about interdisciplinary global issues is clearly evident from both the participants` feedback and their continued involvement in Student Pugwash USA programs. Six working groups met each morning. The working group themes included: environmental challenges for developing countries; energy options: their social and environmental impact; health care in developing countries; changing dynamics of peace and global security; educating for the socially responsible use of technology; ethics and the use of genetic information. The conference was specifically designed to include mechanisms for ensuring its long-term impact. Participants were encouraged to focus on their individual role in helping resolve global issues. This was achieved through each participant`s development of a Personal Plan of Action, a plan which mapped out activities the student could undertake after the conference to continue the dialogue and work towards the resolution of global and local problems.

Not Available

1992-12-31

113

Astronomy Behind the Headlines: Astrobiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is a podcast audio presentation about the field of astrobiology and the search for life in the universe. It features an interview with Chris McKay, planetary scientist with the NASA Ames Research Center. Also included is a comprehensive set of links to editor-approved resources on the search for life on Mars and NASA's Kepler Mission to find terrestrial planets (i.e., those one half to twice the size of the Earth), especially those in the habitable zone of their stars where liquid water and possibly life might exist. This resource is one episode of Astronomy Behind the Headlines a web-based monthly periodical that features short interviews about the latest discoveries in astronomy and space science. It is published and maintained by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

Collins-Petersen, Carolyn

2010-03-08

114

The Stanford Astrobiology Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Where do we come from? Where are we going? Are we alone in the universe? According to The Stanford Astrobiology Course, these are the three basic questions the field of astrobiology attempts to answer. Amazingly, the entire course is offered online. Click on Where Do We Come From? for a romp through the history of life, from the Big Bang through Darwin. The Where Are We Going? link will take readers to eight lectures about the future of life, while the link Are We Alone? navigates to seven lectures about the search for life on other planets. Anyone curious about their place in the cosmos should find much to ponder in these hours of lectures from some of the most popular professors on the Stanford campus.

115

NASA Astrobiology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information on NAI research, a library of publications, sections for teachers and students, and an Ask An Expert section. The student section features Astro-Venture, where students can search for and build a habitable planet; Habitable Worlds, to search the solar system for planets that might support life; and Mysteries of Microbes, containing videos and biographies of astrobiologists. The teacher section contains an astrobiology-related resource catalog of NASA sites.

NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC)

116

Women in Science and Engineering Initiative International Women's Day Conference 2008  

E-print Network

Women in Science and Engineering Initiative International Women's Day Conference 2008 "Celebrating Women in Science and Engineering Initiative _____________ - 2 - The International Women's Day Conference ____________________ - 6 - Afternoon Oral Presentation Schedule __________________ - 7 - WISE International Women's Day

Haykin, Simon

117

Exo-astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: Exo/astrobiology activities NASA and ESA; From organic molecules in space via planetary evolution to the earliest organisms on Earth; Organic chemistry in interstellar medium; Space exposure experiments ISS/EXPOSE and BIOPAN; Planetary exploration: laboratory experiments; Chemistry of the origin of life; Organics in comets, meteoroids and cosmic dust; Early traces of life and life in extreme terrestrial environments: analogues for extraterrestrial habitats; Europe goes to Mars: ESA's search for life on the red planet; UV radiation, water content and toxicology of the Martian surface; Early traces and evolution of life; Potential Martian habitats - Earth analogues; Astrobiology relevant instrumentation for Solar System exploration; Subsurface and atmospheres of icy worlds; Preparation for a manned mission to Mars; Permafrost astrobiology; Exploration of planetary surfaces; Search for life on Europa and prebiotic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere; Search for extra-solar terrestrial planets; Scientific objectives for future Mars and planetary exploration; Life detection methods on Mars; The search for extra-solar planets, biosignatures and habitable zones.

Lacoste, Huguette

2002-11-01

118

PREFACE: 6th European Thermal Sciences Conference (Eurotherm 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About EUROTHERM The aim of the EUROTHERM Committee (www.eurothermcommittee.eu) is to promote and foster European cooperation in Thermal Sciences and Heat Transfer by gathering together scientists and engineers working in specialized areas. The Committee consists of members representing and appointed by national bodies in the EU countries. The current President of EUROTHERM is Professor Anton van Steenhoven from the University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). The Committee organizes and coordinates European scientific events such as the EUROTHERM Seminars (about 4 per year) and the European Thermal Sciences Conference (every 4 years). About the conference This sixth in the series of European Thermal Sciences Conferences (www.eurotherm2012.com) took place in France, in the Conference Centre of Poitiers, Futuroscope. We address special thanks to the 225 reviewers, coming from different European countries, who have evaluated these papers. We also thank the scientific committee, consisting of some EUROTHERM Committee members together with other internationally recognized experts. Their role has been to manage the evaluation of abstracts and the papers selection process as co-coordinators for specific topics. This conference is the joint effort of two laboratories: the PPRIME Institute in Poitiers and the IUSTI laboratory in Marseille. It could not be organized without the efficient help of our secretaries and our technician for the IT support. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 180 articles presented at the conference. Professor Daniel PETIT Chairman, PPRIME Poitiers, France Institut P'(UPR CNRS 3346) ENSMA 1 av. Clément Ader - BP40109 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil France daniel.petit@ensma.fr Professor Christophe LE NILIOT Co-chairman, IUSTI Marseille, France Laboratoire IUSTI UMR CNRS 6595 Technopôle de Chateau-Gombert 5, rue Enrico Fermi 13 453 MARSEILLE CEDEX 13 France christophe.leniliot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr

Petit, Daniel; Le Niliot, Christophe

2012-11-01

119

Sea Changes in Social Science Education: Woods Hole 2000. The Social Science Education Consortium Conference Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The agenda for the Social Science Education Consortium conference at Woods Hole (Massachusetts) was designed to continue a tradition of examining scholarship relative to the social sciences in K-12 education. The content focus for this volume, is political science, economics, and sociology. Following a "Foreword" (Matthew T. Downey; Joseph P.…

White, Charles S., Ed.

120

Report on the ESA-ESO Conference ''Science Operations 2013: Working Together in Support of Science''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This first conference aimed at establishing closer communication and synergy of ground- and space-based operations for astronomy and Solar System science is summarised by the two chairs. The main topics covered the organisation and management of science operations, science and instrument planning, instrument handling and calibration, data processing and archiving, and support services.

Primas, F.; Hanowski, N.

2013-12-01

121

Astrobiology: The Case for Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific discipline of astrobiology addresses one of the most fundamental unanswered questions of science: are we alone? Is there life elsewhere in the universe, or is life unique to Earth? The field of astrobiology includes the study of the chemical precursors for life in the solar system; it also includes the search for both presently existing life and fossil signs of previously existing life elsewhere in our own solar system, as well as the search for life outside the solar system. Two of the promising environments within the solar system being currently considered are the surface of the planet Mars, and the hypothesized oceans underneath the ice covering the moon Europa. Both of these environments differ in several key ways from the environments where life is found on Earth; the Mars environment in most places too cold and at too low pressure for liquid water to be stable, and the sub-ice environment of Europa lacking an abundance of free energy in the form of sunlight. The only place in the solar system where we know that life exists today is the Earth. To look for life elsewhere in the solar system, one promising search strategy would be to find and study the environment in the solar system with conditions that are most similar to the environmental conditions where life thrives on the Earth. Specifically, we would like to study a location in the solar system with atmospheric pressure near one bar; temperature in the range where water is liquid, 0 to 100 C; abundant solar energy; and with the primary materials required for life, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, present. Other than the surface of the Earth, the only other place where these conditions exist is the atmosphere of Venus, at an altitude of about fifty kilometers above the surface.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

2003-01-01

122

The Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms (ASC) curriculum: focusing upon diverse students and teachers.  

PubMed

The Minority Institution Astrobiology Collaborative (MIAC) began working with the NASA Goddard Center for Astrobiology in 2003 to develop curriculum materials for high school chemistry and Earth science classes based on astrobiology concepts. The Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms (ASC) modules emphasize interdisciplinary connections in astronomy, biology, chemistry, geoscience, physics, mathematics, and ethics through hands-on activities that address national educational standards. Field-testing of the Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms materials occurred over three years in eight U.S. locations, each with populations that are underrepresented in the career fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Analysis of the educational research upon the high school students participating in the ASC project showed statistically significant increases in students' perceived knowledge and science reasoning. The curriculum is in its final stages, preparing for review to become a NASA educational product. PMID:22984874

Arino de la Rubia, Leigh S

2012-09-01

123

Research in Computational Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on several projects in the field of computational astrobiology, which is devoted to advancing our understanding of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Universe using theoretical and computational tools. Research projects included modifying existing computer simulation codes to use efficient, multiple time step algorithms, statistical methods for analysis of astrophysical data via optimal partitioning methods, electronic structure calculations on water-nuclei acid complexes, incorporation of structural information into genomic sequence analysis methods and calculations of shock-induced formation of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds.

Chaban, Galina; Colombano, Silvano; Scargle, Jeff; New, Michael H.; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

2003-01-01

124

Amphibious modular robotic astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design of a robot that can traverse land, water, as well as quicksand-like mud. The robot is low cost and modular allowing the replacement of a variety of arms suitable for many of the tasks associated with astrobiological exploration. An astrobiologist on a field study will spend most of the time walking around and exploring the site looking for areas of interest which will be tested in situ or sampled for testing offsite. For a robot replicating these tasks, it must be able to locomote in that terrain, sense the interesting features (or provide sensing for teleoperation), and do a variety of manipulation tasks once an area of interest is reached. The configurations for this robot include 10's of modules that can achieve astrobiological tasks such as amphibious locomotion, digging, core sampling, probing, liquid sampling and exploration. This paper also presents results from the first experiments of this platform at Lake Tyrrell, a salt lake in Australia.

Yim, Mark; Shirmohammadi, Babak; Benelli, David

2007-04-01

125

Lunar astrobiology: a review and suggested laboratory equipment.  

PubMed

In October of 2005, the European Space Agency (ESA) and Alcatel Alenia Spazio released a "call to academia for innovative concepts and technologies for lunar exploration." In recent years, interest in lunar exploration has increased in numerous space programs around the globe, and the purpose of our study, in response to the ESA call, was to draw on the expertise of researchers and university students to examine science questions and technologies that could support human astrobiology activity on the Moon. In this mini review, we discuss astrobiology science questions of importance for a human presence on the surface of the Moon and we provide a summary of key instrumentation requirements to support a lunar astrobiology laboratory. PMID:17963476

Gronstal, Aaron; Cockell, Charles S; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Bittner, Tobias; Clacey, Erik; Clark, Olathe; Ingold, Olivier; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Wathiong, Steven

2007-10-01

126

Lunar Astrobiology: A Review and Suggested Laboratory Equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October of 2005, the European Space Agency (ESA) and Alcatel Alenia Spazio released a ``call to academia for innovative concepts and technologies for lunar exploration.'' In recent years, interest in lunar exploration has increased in numerous space programs around the globe, and the purpose of our study, in response to the ESA call, was to draw on the expertise of researchers and university students to examine science questions and technologies that could support human astrobiology activity on the Moon. In this mini review, we discuss astrobiology science questions of importance for a human presence on the surface of the Moon and we provide a summary of key instrumentation requirements to support a lunar astrobiology laboratory.

Gronstal, Aaron; Cockell, Charles S.; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Bittner, Tobias; Clacey, Erik; Clark, Olathe; Ingold, Olivier; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Wathiong, Steven

2007-10-01

127

Second International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that were presented at the Second International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration, August 21-25, 2000. The abstracts of the presentations given are listed. Presentations were given on the advances in technology, data analysis of past and current missions, and new instruments destined for Mars. Particular attention was paid to the polar regions and what they reveal about Mars.

2000-01-01

128

Twenty-Third Lunar and Planetary Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here is a collection of papers from the Twenty-Third Lunar and Planetary Science Conference that were chosen for having the greatest potential interest for the general reading public. The presentations avoid jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. Topics covered include electron microscopy studies of a circumstellar rock, the fractal analysis of lava flows, volcanic activity on Venus, the isotopic signature of recent solar wind nitrogen, and the implications of impact crater distribution on Venus.

1992-01-01

129

Third National Research Conference on Climate Change Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru  

E-print Network

Third National Research Conference on Climate Change Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru of Technology Delhi (IITD), Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM) and Centre for Science and Environment Research Conference on Climate Change, to be held at IISC Bangalore on November 3-4, 2012. The conference

Srinivasan, N.

130

UK Astrobiology : Vanguard: a new development in experimental astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alex Ellery and David Wynn-Williams propose a new UK astrobiology project, in which a micro-rover would deploy ground-penetrating moles to burrow into the Martian subsurface. One of the linchpins of the UK's contribution to the burgeoning field of astrobiology is the Beagle 2 mission, due to fly to Mars in 2003 on the Mars Express bus. Given that NASA has declared its intention to focus on ``whole planet'' geological investigation in its future Mars missions, beginning with the Mars Exploration Rovers which are due to fly in 2003/2004, the UK is well placed to consider post-Beagle 2 astrobiology-focused Mars missions to ensure its leadership in the future in astrobiology. In this paper we present such a proposal - Vanguard.

Ellery, Alex; Wynn-Williams, David

2002-04-01

131

Conference peeks into the past and future of ocean science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 50 fifty years, oceanographic research in the United States has birthed many landmark discoveries and programs that have changed our perception of the seas, how they work, and how mankind interacts with them. During these decades, ocean science also drifted through the Cold War as a frequent and strategic partner with the military, and then largely was weaned away from that source of funding as the National Science Foundation (NSF) became perhaps the principle supporter for the science.Speakers at a NSF conference held in Washington, D.C. in October reviewed some of these achievements, as well as anecdotal remembrances of programs, priorities, and personalities that have shaped ocean sciences over the past five decades, since NSF was founded in 1950. Speakers also peeked into the future of oceanography and significant affects it has on climate, coastal processes, human health, and other societal concerns.

Showstack, Randy

132

Astrobiology: The Search for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the latest website from the Exploratorium's _Origins_ series -- a Web-based project that "explores the origins of matter, the universe, earth, and even life itself." In "Astrobiology: The Search for Life," visitors can read up on Earth's extreme environments that support life and serve as models for extraterrestrial environments. The site also introduces some of the scientists working in astrobiology, including Jill Tarter. Other sections explore the tools of the trade (e.g. NASA's Mars Rover) and important ideas in astrobiology (e.g. the Drake Equation). Additionally, during the month of November, the Exploratorium will air live webcasts from field sites like Chile's Licancabur volcano, and broadcast interviews with some of astrobiology's top brass.

133

From Astrochemistry to Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first part of this talk will describe how infrared spectroscopic studies of interstellar space, combined with laboratory simulations of interstellar ice chemistry, have revealed the widespread presence of interstellar PAHs and the composition of interstellar ices, the building blocks of comets. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the photochemical evolution of these materials and astrobiology. Within a molecular cloud, and especially the presolar nebula, materials frozen into the ices are photoprocessed by ultraviolet light and produce more complex molecules. As these materials are the building blocks of comets and related to carbonaceous micrometeorites, they are likely to have been important sources of complex materials delivered to the early Earth and their composition may be related to the origin of life.

Allamandola, L. J.

2005-01-01

134

Research in Computational Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results from several projects in the new field of computational astrobiology, which is devoted to advancing our understanding of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Universe using theoretical and computational tools. We have developed a procedure for calculating long-range effects in molecular dynamics using a plane wave expansion of the electrostatic potential. This method is expected to be highly efficient for simulating biological systems on massively parallel supercomputers. We have perform genomics analysis on a family of actin binding proteins. We have performed quantum mechanical calculations on carbon nanotubes and nucleic acids, which simulations will allow us to investigate possible sources of organic material on the early earth. Finally, we have developed a model of protobiological chemistry using neural networks.

Chaban, Galina; Jaffe, Richard; Liang, Shoudan; New, Michael H.; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

2002-01-01

135

Multispectral Microimager for Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A primary goal of the astrobiology program is the search for fossil records. The astrobiology exploration strategy calls for the location and return of samples indicative of environments conducive to life, and that best capture and preserve biomarkers. Successfully returning samples from environments conducive to life requires two primary capabilities: (1) in situ mapping of the mineralogy in order to determine whether the desired minerals are present; and (2) nondestructive screening of samples for additional in-situ testing and/or selection for return to laboratories for more in-depth examination. Two of the most powerful identification techniques are micro-imaging and visible/infrared spectroscopy. The design and test results are presented from a compact rugged instrument that combines micro-imaging and spectroscopic capability to provide in-situ analysis, mapping, and sample screening capabilities. Accurate reflectance spectra should be a measure of reflectance as a function of wavelength only. Other compact multispectral microimagers use separate LEDs (light-emitting diodes) for each wavelength and therefore vary the angles of illumination when changing wavelengths. When observing a specularly-reflecting sample, this produces grossly inaccurate spectra due to the variation in the angle of illumination. An advanced design and test results are presented for a multispectral microimager which demonstrates two key advances relative to previous LED-based microimagers: (i) acquisition of actual reflectance spectra in which the flux is a function of wavelength only, rather than a function of both wavelength and illumination geometry; and (ii) increase in the number of spectral bands to eight bands covering a spectral range of 468 to 975 nm.

Sellar, R. Glenn; Farmer, Jack D.; Kieta, Andrew; Huang, Julie

2006-01-01

136

ESA planetary missions and astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the course of the present decade, scientific results are expected from a number of planetary missions launched by ESA, some of which will address the issue of astrobiology. In late 2004, the Huygens probe will provide atmospheric descent and possibly surface data of Titan, the largest methane-rich satellite of Saturn. The Rosetta mission will focus on the primordial bodies of our Solar System, observing first various asteroids on its way to orbiting and landing on a comet in 2011. Before then, however, the Mars Express mission, including an orbiter spacecraft and a small Beagle-2 lander, will be launched in 2003 by a Soyuz rocket from Baikonur. In addition to a wide variety of scientific objectives concerning the global coverage of the planet for studies of the surface geology and mineralogy, subsurface structure, and atmospheric circulation, composition and escape, as well as the detailed chemical and morphological study of the Beagle-2 landing site, the Mars Express mission will address the issue of astrobiology on Mars both directly and indirectly. The majority of instruments on the orbiter will look for indications of favourable conditions to the existence of life, either at present or during the planet's past, and in particular for traces of liquid, solid or gaseous water. Therefore, the HRSC camera will take pictures of ancient riverbeds, the OMEGA spectrometer will look for minerals with OH- radicals formed in the presence of water, the MARSIS radar will look for subsurface ice and liquid water, the PFS and SPICAM spectrometers will analyse water vapour in the atmosphere, and finally the ASPERA analyser and MaRS radio science will study neutral atom escape from the atmosphere, in particular O2 coming from water and carbonates. The instruments on Beagle-2 will look for the presence of water in the soil, rocks and the atmosphere, but will also try to find traces of life with direct measurements, such as presence of methane (CH 4) indicative of extanct life, and a larger amount of the light C12 isotope compared to the heavier C1 3, which would even indicate extinct life. Also, close cooperation with the Japanese Nozomi mission, which will arrive at Mars shortly after Mars Express, will allow to monitor Mars from two complementary orbits, Nozomi being in an equatorial orbit while Mars Express is in a polar one. Since NASA's Viking mission in 1976, it is the first time that the exhaustive search for life is so central to a space mission to Mars.

Chicarro, A.

137

Memorial tribute to astrobiology pioneers Dr. David S. Mckay and academician Georgy A. Zavarzin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past two years, the world has lost two great pioneers of the field of Astrobiology-Dr. David Stewart McKay who worked at the NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, USA and Academician Georgy Alexandrovich Zavarzin of the Institute of Microbiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Professor of the Moscow State University in Moscow, Russia. The Volume of the Proceedings of the 2013 SPIE Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology XVI is dedicated to the memory of these great scientists. We remember our dear friends and review some of their many important contributions to Planetary Science, Geology, Meteoritics, Microbiology and Astrobiology.

Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Rozhnov, Sergei V.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2013-09-01

138

Hydrothermal exploration and astrobiology: oases for life in distant oceans?  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature submarine hydrothermal fields on Earth's mid-ocean ridges play host to exotic ecosystems with fauna previously unknown to science. Because these systems draw significant energy from chemosynthesis rather than photosynthesis, it has been postulated that the study of such systems could have relevance to the origins of life and, hence, astrobiology. A major flaw to that argument, however, is that

Christopher R. German

2004-01-01

139

Astrobiology: The Story of NASA's Search for Life in the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a graphic novel history about NASA's search for life in the universe. It tells the story of some of the most important people and events that have shaped the NASA Exobiology and Astrobiology science.

140

South Australian Science Teachers Association Conference and Science Fair, Salisbury Teachers College, July 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major papers presented at the 1971 conference of the South Australian Science Teachers Association are included in this pamphlet. Scientists from industry, research institutions, and the police forensic laboratory, and practicing teachers presented papers which included descriptions of modern scientific techniques, discussions of the role of…

1971

141

The Social Science Teacher. 1972. Collected Conference Papers: Social Science Concepts Classroom Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers in this publication are collected from a conference on social science concepts and classroom methods which focused on the theories of Jerome Bruner. The first article, entitled "Jerome Bruner," outlines four of Bruner's themes--structure, readiness, intuition, and interest--which relate to cognitive learning. Three papers--"Socialization"…

Noble, Pat, Ed.; And Others

142

Frontiers of Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Introduction: Introduction and welcome Cardinal Ljolo; 1. Astrobiology - a new synthesis J. Baross and C. Impey; Part II. Origins of Planets and Life: 2. Towards a theory of life S. Benner and P. Davies; 3. Terran metabolism: the first billion years S. Copley and R. Summons; 4. Planet formation S. Raymond and W. Benz; Part III. History of Life on Earth: 5. The early Earth F. Westall and F. Selsis; 6. Evolution of a habitable planet J. Kasting and J. Kirschvink; 7. Our evolving planet: from dark ages to evolutionary renaissance A. Knoll and E. Gaidos; Part IV. Habitability of the Solar System: 8. Early Mars - cradle or cauldron? A. Azua-Bustos, R. Pierrehumbert and R. Vicuña; 9. Large habitable moons: Titan and Europa A. Coustenis and M. Blanc; 10. Small habitable worlds J. Castillo-Rogez and J. Lunine; Part V. Exoplanets and Life in the Galaxy: 11. Searches for habitable exoplanets S. Seager; 12. Review of known exoplanets C. Lovis and D. Minniti; 13. Characterizing exoplanet atmospheres G. Tinetti; 14. If you want to talk to ET, you must first find ET J. Tarter and C. Impey; Index.

Impey, Chris; Lunine, Jonathan; Funes, José

2012-11-01

143

Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.

Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

144

From Astrochemistry to Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty five years thanks to significant developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at, the concept of ices in dense molecular clouds ignored, and the notion of large, abundant, gas phase, carbon-rich molecules widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the composition of interstellar dust is reasonably well understood. In molecular clouds, the birthplace of stars and planets, these cold dust particles are coated with mixed molecular ices whose composition is very well constrained. Lastly, the signature of carbon-rich polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is widespread throughout the Universe. The first part of this talk will describe how infrared spectroscopic studies of interstellar space, combined with laboratory simulations of interstellar ice chemistry, have revealed the widespread presence of interstellar PAHs and the composition of interstellar ices, the building blocks of comets. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the photochemical evolution of these materials and astrobiology. Within a molecular cloud, and especially the presolar nebula, materials frozen into the ices are photoprocessed by ultraviolet light and produce more complex molecules. As these materials are the building blocks of comets and related to carbonaceous micrometeorites, they are likely to have been important sources of complex materials delivered to the early Earth and their composition may be related to the origin of life.

Allamandola, L. J.

2005-01-01

145

Conference Model: Guidelines...for Science Supervisors on How to Conduct a Successful Leadership Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines of a four-phase model for conducting leadership conferences are outlined. Phase I focuses on initial conference planning, including (1) identifying need and purpose for the conference; (2) selecting a conference chairperson; (3) forming the conference planning committee, listing suggested committees and their responsibilities (program,…

DeBlasi, Robert V.

146

Astrobiology Research in India - A Brief Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

strobiology is study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life on Earth and in the Universe. The discovery of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and complex organic molecules in interstellar clouds, comets and interplanetary dust forced biological interest into space research. The existence of different life forms in extreme environments of Earth, their ability to adapt and survive for long periods in stasis and then recover has given hope that life might exist on other planets. A lot more insight into the origin of life is gained by studying the analogous life on Earth to predict how extraterrestrial life might live. In this paper, a brief account is given on the exogenous and endogenous origin of life on Earth, biochemical basis of life, the need and approach for research in astrobiology, scientific strength of Indian institutions to launch space missions in search of life. A review of the results of the two balloon experiments carried out by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in collaboration with many research institutes in the country as well as the studies carried out elsewhere is also given. An attempt made to address the limitations of the previous experiments, improvements needed, implications of engineering design changes to meet the gaps and institutional resources needed to carry out further studies in astrobiology in the Indian context. A few priority investigations that can be carried out in collaboration with premier national laboratories in India have been identified. A brief account of the international missions that are aimed at finding out habitable Earth-like planets is given. The educational opportunities and interdisciplinary unifying nature of astrobiology research are discussed. The paper concludes with an approach that can be adopted for coordinating the research in this new space science in a programmatic mode.

Peda Nageswara Rao, Pinnamaneni

2012-07-01

147

The NASA Astrobiology Institute: early history and organization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established as a means to advance the field of astrobiology by providing a multidisciplinary, multi-institution, science-directed program, executed by universities, research institutes, and NASA and other government laboratories. The scientific community and NASA defined the science content at several workshops as summarized in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. Teams were chosen nationwide, following the recommendations of external review groups, and the research program began in 1998. There are now 16 national Teams and five international affiliated and associated astrobiology institutions. The NAI has attracted an outstanding group of scientific groups and individuals. The Institute facilitates the involvement of the scientists in its scientific and management vision. Its goal is to support basic research and allow the scientists the freedom to select their projects and alter them as indicated by new research. Additional missions include the education of the public, the involvement of students who will be the astrobiologists of future generations, and the development of a culture of collaboration in NAI, a "virtual institute," spread across many sites nationally and internationally.

Blumberg, Baruch S.

2003-01-01

148

Water Environment Federation. National TMDL Science and Policy Conference. Phoenix, AZ. November 13 16, 2002.  

E-print Network

Water Environment Federation. National TMDL Science and Policy Conference. Phoenix, AZ. November 13, speciation #12;Water Environment Federation. National TMDL Science and Policy Conference. Phoenix, AZ ­ 16, 2002. AVAILABILITY OF ATMOSPHERICALLY DEPOSITED MERCURY TO RUNOFF AND RECEIVING WATERS Mark C

Pitt, Robert E.

149

The Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C): a potential rover mission for 2018. Final report of the Mars Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) October 14, 2009.  

PubMed

This report documents the work of the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG), which was assigned to formulate a concept for a potential rover mission that could be launched to Mars in 2018. Based on programmatic and engineering considerations as of April 2009, our deliberations assumed that the potential mission would use the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sky-crane landing system and include a single solar-powered rover. The mission would also have a targeting accuracy of approximately 7 km (semimajor axis landing ellipse), a mobility range of at least 10 km, and a lifetime on the martian surface of at least 1 Earth year. An additional key consideration, given recently declining budgets and cost growth issues with MSL, is that the proposed rover must have lower cost and cost risk than those of MSL--this is an essential consideration for the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG). The MRR-SAG was asked to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps toward the potential return of samples to Earth. The proposed means of achieving these two goals while balancing the trade-offs between them are described here in detail. We propose the name Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher(MAX-C) to reflect the dual purpose of this potential 2018 rover mission. PMID:20298148

2010-03-01

150

Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oral and poster sessions of the SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MARS included; The Distribution and Context of Water-related Minerals on Mars; Poster Session: Mars Geology; Geology of the Martian Surface: Lithologic Variation, Composition, and Structure; Water Through Mars' Geologic History; Poster Session: Mars Water and the Martian Interior; Volatiles and Interior Evolution; The Martian Climate and Atmosphere: Variations in Time and Space; Poster Session: The Martian Climate and Current Processes; Modern Mars: Weather, Atmospheric Chemistry, Geologic Processes, and Water Cycle; Public Lecture: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's New View of the Red Planet; The North and South Polar Layered Deposits, Circumpolar Regions, and Changes with Time; Poster Session: Mars Polar Science, Astrobiology, Future Missions/Instruments, and Other Mars Science; Mars Astrobiology and Upcoming Missions; and Martian Stratigraphy and Sedimentology: Reading the Sedimentary Record.

2007-01-01

151

Proceedings of the Plutonium Futures ? The Science 2006 Conference  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium Futures--The Science 2006 provided opportunities to examine present knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of plutonium and other actinides in complex media and materials; to discuss the current and emerging science (chemistry, physics, materials science, nuclear science, and environmental effects) of plutonium and actinides relevant to enhancing global nuclear security; and to exchange ideas. This international conference also provided a forum for illustrating and enhancing capabilities and interests, and assessing issues in these areas. U.S. and international scientists, engineers, faculty, and students from universities, national laboratories, and DOE's nuclear complex were encouraged to participate and make technical contributions. The Conference ran from Sunday, July 9th through Thursday, July 13th. A popular aspect of the conference was the opening tutorial session on Sunday afternoon intended for students and scientists new to the area of plutonium research. The tutorial was well attended by novices and veterans alike, and featured such diverse topics as; plutonium metallurgy, plutonium in the environment, and international arms control and nonproliferation. Two plenary lectures began each morning and each afternoon session and highlighted the breakout sessions on coordination/organometallic chemistry, solid-state physics, environmental chemistry, materials science, separations and reprocessing, advanced fuels and waste forms, phase transformations, solution and gas-phase chemistry, compounds and complexes, electronic structure and physical properties, and more. Chemistry Highlights--Among the many chemistry highlights presented in this proceedings are the overview of concepts and philosophies on inert nuclear fuel matrices and concerns about the ever-increasing amounts of minor actinides and plutonium generated in the fuel cycle. The various ideas involve multiple reduction schemes for these materials, suggesting fuels for 'burning' or 'cradle-to-grave' accountability for various reactor types. Related work is presented on identification of the unique reaction mechanisms and identification of the intermediate products, including Pu(III), at the end of the PUREX process. In the important area of nuclear forensics, actual scenarios of nuclear materials confiscation and the successes of applying forensics protocols to determine attribution and possible intention are provided. In the area of reactor incidents, there is no other place on Earth like the Chernobyl Site Object Shelter and radioactive aerosol particle characterization studies reflect an important effort described herein. An additional report from another unique environmental site presents results on radionuclide monitoring, fate, and transport in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River in the Krasoyarsk region. In the area of nuclear waste disposal, a study of the ion irradiation damage to pyrochlore compounds with varying amounts of host elements and actinide dopants is presented. Papers on both the aqueous and nonaqueous chemistry of plutonium and other actinides are presented including anhydrous coordination chemistry and redox behavior in the presence of humic materials and the their sorption on common minerals in the environment. Also published herein are reports on the field of anhydrous coordination chemistry of the transuranic elements where there is scarce information. Solid-State and Materials Highlights--Plutonium solid-state and materials research is represented in these proceedings by a wealth of leading edge discovery class research. The breadth of this research is reflected in the topics covered: solid-state; materials science; superconductivity; phase changes, phonons, and entropy; electronic structure and physical properties; surface science and corrosion; and radiation effects, defects, impurities, and property changes. Indeed the scientific challenge and excitement of plutonium can best be highlighted by quoting the tutorial prospectus of Drs. Sarrao and Schwartz. 'Plutonium has long been recognized as a complex and scie

Fluss, M; Hobart, D; Allan, P; Jarvinen, G

2007-07-12

152

Astrobiology Education and Outreach: New Interdisciplinary Initiatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1998, UCLA was selected as one of the 11 initial members (5 of which are universities) of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. Concurrently, UCLA implemented a brand new General Education cluster course, GE 70ABC: ``Evolution of the Cosmos and Life,'' which is unique for several reasons. It is (a) interdisciplinary, introducing students to both the life and physical sciences, (b) team-taught by 4 distinguished professors, and 4 advanced graduate teaching fellows, (c) offered for (150) freshmen students exclusively, and (d) a year-long sequence, incorporating lectures, laboratory/discussion sections, field trips, and in the spring quarter, small satellite seminars led by the individual instructors on topics radiating from the cluster theme. Further information about GE 70ABC can be found at the course website (http://www.ess.ucla.edu/Cluster_TOC.html) and the website for UCLA's GE cluster courses (http://www.college.ucla.edu/ge/clusters.htm). This poster will outline the GE 70 content, and describe some of the course's materials, activities, assessment, and student characteristics. Additionally, focus will be placed on the GE 70C seminar course component called ``Life In the Cosmos,'' designed and offered by the poster author for the Spring 1999 quarter. This seminar features a student-centered approach - with lecturing minimized and active learning a key objective - and addresses the extraterrestrial life debate from historical and cultural perspectives as well as the current scientific approaches in astrobiology/bioastronomy.

Schultz, Greg

153

Earth and Space Science: Making Connections in Education and Public Outreach ASP Conference Series, Vol. 443  

E-print Network

Earth and Space Science: Making Connections in Education and Public Outreach ASP Conference Series 1Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA 2Center for Science Education, Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley

Fillingim, Matthew

154

Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

Kaur, Preeti

2011-01-01

155

Nonlinear aspects of astrobiological research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aspects of mathematical astrobiology are discussed. It is argued that around the time of the origin of life the handedness of biomolecules must have established itself through an instability. Possible pathways of producing a certain handedness include mechanisms involving either autocatalysis or, alternatively, epimerization as governing effects. Concepts for establishing hereditary information are discussed in terms of the theory

Axel Brandenburg

2008-01-01

156

The narrative power of astrobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The narrative power of astrobiology: Telling the story of the quest to understand life's origins and the search for evidence of extraterrestrial life INTRODUCTION The story of the origins and evolution of life is a narrative with nearuniversal appeal. The story of life on Earth is meaningful to all people, and the search for life elsewhere is appealing across cultural

Linda Billings

2008-01-01

157

News Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education

2011-07-01

158

Capturing Student Interest in Astrobiology through Dilemmas and Paradoxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, many non-science majoring undergraduates readily reveal fairly negative opinions about their introductory science survey courses that serve as general education distribution requirements. Often seen as unimportant and unrelated to helping them acquire knowledge and skills for the workplace, such general education courses carry nicknames such as "Physics for Poets" (PHYSICS101), "Bugs for Thugs" (BIOLOGY101), "Rocks for Jocks" (GEOLOGY101), and "Moons for Goons" or "Scopes for Dopes" (ASTRONOMY101). In response, many faculty are experimenting with more modern science course offerings as general education courses in an effort to improve students' attitudes, values, and interests. One might think that ASTROBIOLOGY has natural curb appeal for students. However, despite the seemingly innate appeal of a course on extraterrestrial life, when it comes right down to it, an astrobiology course is still a natural science course at its core. As such, it can suffer from the same student apathy that afflicts traditional science courses if students can not find some personal relevance or interest in the topics. One approach to more fully engaging students is to couch core course concepts in terms of what Grant Wiggin and Jay McTighe (2004, 2000) call "essential questions." Essential questions are intended create enduring understanding in students and help students find deeply meaningful personal relevance to concepts. In response, we have created a series of probing essential questions that tie central concepts in astrobiology to dilemmas, paradoxes, and moral questions with the goal of intellectually engaging our students in the human-side of the astrobiology enterprise.

Slater, T. F.

2005-12-01

159

Astrobiology: A Roadmap for Charting Life in the Universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It provides a biological perspective to many areas of NASA research. It links such endeavors as the search for habitable planets, exploration missions to Mars and the outer Solar System, efforts to understand the origins and early evolution of life, and charting the potential of life to adapt to future challenges, both on Earth and in space. Astrobiology addresses the following three basic questions, which have been asked in some form for generations. How does life begin and evolve? Does life exist elsewhere in the universe? What is future of life on Earth and beyond? The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across several NASA Enterprises: Space Science, Earth Science, and the Human Exploration and Development of Space. The Roadmap is formulated in terms of eight Science Goals that outline key domains of investigation that might require perhaps decades of effort to consolidate. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority near-term efforts for the next three to five years. These twenty objectives will be integrated with NASA strategic planning.

DesMarais, David J.; DeVincezi, D. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

160

Astrobiology: Study of the Living Universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrobiology is defined as the study of the living universe. This endeavor encompasses the use of space to understand life's origin, evolution, and destiny in the universe. Life's origin refers to understanding the origin of life in the context of the origin and diversity of planetary systems. Life's evolution refers to understanding how living systems have adapted to Earth's changing environment, to the all-pervasive force of gravity, and how they may adapt to environments beyond Earth. Life's destiny refers to making long-term human presence in space a reality, and laying the foundation for understanding and managing changes in Earth's environment. This lecture will explore the development of this field of inquiry, the science questions to be examined, and the mechanisms available for participation by the scientific community.

DeVincenzi, Donald L.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

161

NCEO/CEOI JOINT SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2012 17 20 September  

E-print Network

see the conference programme, which gives the timings of each scheduled session. The conference/ The conference venue meeting rooms each have a data projector linked to a pc. Microphones and a laser pointer onto the meeting room pc before each session begins. The Jubilee Campus has free wi-fi access

162

11th National Conference on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans  

SciTech Connect

On January 19-21, 2011, The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) successfully convened its 11th National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans in Washington, DC at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center. Over 1,247 participants attended the conference, representing federal, state and local governments, university and colleges across the US, civil society organizations, the business community, and international entities. In addition, the conference was webcast to an audience across several states. The conference provided a forum to examine the profound changes our ocean will undergo over the next 25-50 years and share various perspectives on the new research, tools, and policy initiatives to protect and sustain our ocean. Conference highlights and recommendations are available to the public on NCSE's conference website, www.OurChangingOceans.org.

Peter Saundry

2012-04-17

163

Critical issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of astrobiology.  

PubMed

Fifty years after serious scientific research began in the field of exobiology, and forty years after serious historical research began on the subject of extraterrestrial life, this paper identifies and examines some of the most important issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of what is today known as astrobiology. As in the philosophy of science in general, and in the philosophies of particular sciences, critical issues in the philosophy and sociology of astrobiology are both stimulated and illuminated by history. Among those issues are (1) epistemological issues such as the status of astrobiology as a science, the problematic nature of evidence and inference, and the limits of science; (2) metaphysical/scientific issues, including the question of defining the fundamental concepts of life, mind, intelligence, and culture in a universal context; the role of contingency and necessity in the origin of these fundamental phenomena; and whether or not the universe is in some sense fine-tuned for life and perhaps biocentric; (3) societal issues such as the theological, ethical, and worldview impacts of the discovery of microbial or intelligent life; and the question of whether the search for extraterrestrial life should be pursued at all, and with what precautions; and (4) issues related to the sociology of scientific knowledge, including the diverse attitudes and assumptions of different scientific communities and different cultures to the problem of life beyond Earth, the public "will to believe," and the formation of the discipline of astrobiology. All these overlapping issues are framed by the concept of cosmic evolution-the 13.7 billion year Master Narrative of the Universe-which may result in a physical, biological, or postbiological universe and determine the long-term destiny of humanity. PMID:23078642

Dick, Steven J

2012-10-01

164

Undergraduate Research at SETI in Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SETI Institute and San Jose State University (SJSU) have begun a partnership (URSA: Undergraduate Research at the SETI Institute in Astrobiology) in which undergraduate science and engineering majors from SJSU participate in research at the SETI Institute during the academic year. We are currently in our second year of the three-year NASA-funded grant. The goal of this program is to expose future scientists, engineers and educators to the science of astrobiology and to NASA in general, and by so doing, to prepare them for the transition to their future career in the Silicon Valley or beyond. The URSA students are mentored by a SETI Institute scientist who conducts research at the SETI Institute headquarters or nearby at NASA Ames Research Center. The SETI Institute is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to scientific research, education and public outreach. Its mission is to explore, understand and explain the origin, nature and prevalence of life in the universe. SJSU is a large urban public university that serves the greater Silicon Valley area in California. Students at SJSU come from diverse ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Many of them face financial pressures that force them to pursue part-time work. URSA students are paid to work for 10 hours/week during the academic year, and also participate in monthly group meetings where they practice their presentation skills and discuss future plans. We encourage underserved and underrepresented students, including women, minority, and those who are the first in their family to go to college, to apply to the URSA program and provide ongoing mentoring and support as needed. While preparing students for graduate school is not a primary goal, some of our students have gone on to MS or PhD programs or plan to do so. The URSA program is funded by NASA EPOESS.

Kress, Monika; Phillips, C.; DeVore, E.; Hubickyj, O.

2012-05-01

165

Proceedings of the Redesign in Science Education Conference (RISE) (Columbus, OH, October 20-21, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the papers presented at the Redesign in Science Education (RISE) Conference. Papers include: (1) "A Model Development Concept (MDC) for Education: A Framework for Change" (C. K. Barsky, K. G. Wilson, and B. Daviss); (2) "Teaching Science Everyday" (K. L. Scott); (3) "Science Teacher Licensure Requirements in Ohio" (P.…

Beeth, Michael E., Ed.; Kwon, Hyeoksoon, Ed.; Lee, Gyoungho, Ed.

166

A Comparison of the Methodological Quality of Articles in Computer Science Education Journals and Conference Proceedings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we empirically investigate the claim that articles published in computer science education journals are more methodologically sound than articles published in computer science education conference proceedings. A random sample of 352 articles was selected from those articles published in major computer science education forums between…

Randolph, Justus J.; Julnes, George; Bednarik, Roman; Sutinen, Erkki

2007-01-01

167

Astrobiological Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) sensors for astrobiology is intended to provide a new class of microlaboratory sensors compatible with other life or biomarker detection. Molecular imprinting is a process for making selective binding sites in synthetic polymers. The process may be approached by designing the recognition site or by simply choosing monomers that may have favorable interactions with the imprinting molecule. We are working to apply this methodology to astrobiology for development of a reliable, low cost, low mass, low power consumption sensor technology for quantitative in-situ analysis of biochemistry, biomarkers, and other indicators of astrobiological importance. Specific goals of the project are: 1) To develop a general methodology and specific methods for MIP-based sensor construction. The overall methodology will guide procedures for design and testing of any desired sensor. Specific methods will be applied to key families and specific species of astrobiological interest, i.e., alkanes (and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs), amino acids, steroids, and hopanes; 2) To construct and characterize the general family and specific species sensors. We will test for accuracy, precision, interferences, and limitations of the sensor against blanks, standards, and known terrestrial biological environment samples. Additional testing will determine sturdiness and longevity of sensors after exposure to transit conditions (launch and space environment), and at potential target environments (pressure, temperature, pH, etc.); and 3) To construct and demonstrate the combination of multiple sensors into a viable prototype instrument, and roadmap the expansion of potential instrument capabilities and exploration of the ultimate environmental limitations of the technology, and the necessary changes and additions to create a mission-ready instrument. Initial work has resulted successful detection of aqueous alanine (D and L) with simple MIP sensors, and we will present results for other amino acid detector methodologies.

Izenberg, N. R.; Murray, G. M.; van Houten, K. A.; Hofstra, A. A.

2005-12-01

168

The Southeastern Regional Conference on the Social Sciences and Environmental Education (Athens, Georgia, 1971).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remarks presented at the Southeastern Regional Conference on the Social Sciences and Environmental Education, held at Athens, Georgia, are compiled in this document. Two major conference addresses are reported in their entirety: "International Programs in Environmental Education" by Dr. Jan Cerovsky, Education Executive Officer, International…

Saveland, Robert N.

169

Proceedings of EuCoMeS, the first European Conference on Mechanism Science  

E-print Network

). Vienna University of Technology, upuaut@controverse.net 1 #12;EuCoMeS 1st European ConferenceProceedings of EuCoMeS, the first European Conference on Mechanism Science Obergurgl (Austria-effector, insofar as R is badly chosen. 1.2 Manipulability This concept was introduced by Yoshikawa (1985

Nawratil, Georg

170

Proceedings of Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Society Conference, Dayton, 1998, pp. 124-131.  

E-print Network

Proceedings of Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Society Conference, Dayton system, CIRCSIM- Tutor tutors first-year medical students on blood pressure regulation based students on blood pressure regulation. The students are requested to predict the qualitative change

171

6th World Conference on 21st Century Mathematics Abdus Salam School of Mathematical Sciences (ASSMS)  

E-print Network

6th World Conference on 21st Century Mathematics Abdus Salam School of Mathematical Sciences (ASSMS for the application and review process : · Call for application : June 1, 2013 · Deadline to submit all

Waldschmidt, Michel

172

Organization by Gordon Research Conferences of the 2012 Plasma Processing Science Conference 22-27 July 2012  

SciTech Connect

The 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in plasma science and technology as well as explore the applications of this nonequilibrium medium in possible approaches relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics and chemistry, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma generation and multi-phase plasmas. Application sessions will explore the impact of plasma technology in renewable energy, the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks and carbon dioxide neutral solar fuels (from carbon dioxide and water), and plasma-enabled medicine and sterilization.

Jane Chang

2012-07-27

173

Automated Aqueous Sample Concentration Methods for in situ Astrobiological Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The era of wet chemical experiments for in situ planetary science investigations is upon us, as evidenced by recent results from the surface of Mars by Phoenix’s microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer, MECA [1]. Studies suggest that traditional thermal volatilization methods for planetary science in situ investigations induce organic degradation during sample processing [2], an effect that is enhanced in the presence of oxidants [3]. Recent developments have trended towards adaptation of non-destructive aqueous extraction and analytical methods for future astrobiological instrumentation. Wet chemical extraction techniques under investigation include subcritical water extraction, SCWE [4], aqueous microwave assisted extraction, MAE, and organic solvent extraction [5]. Similarly, development of miniaturized analytical space flight instruments that require aqueous extracts include microfluidic capillary electrophoresis chips, ?CE [6], liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometrometers, LC-MS [7], and life marker chips, LMC [8]. If organics are present on the surface of Mars, they are expected to be present at extremely low concentrations (parts-per-billion), orders of magnitude below the sensitivities of most flight instrument technologies. Therefore, it becomes necessary to develop and integrate concentration mechanisms for in situ sample processing before delivery to analytical flight instrumentation. We present preliminary results of automated solid-phase-extraction (SPE) sample purification and concentration methods for the treatment of highly saline aqueous soil extracts. These methods take advantage of the affinity of low molecular weight organic compounds with natural and synthetic scavenger materials. These interactions allow for the separation of target organic analytes from unfavorable background species (i.e. salts) during inline treatment, and a clever method for selective desorption is utilized to obtain concentrated solutions on the order of 100?L from 1-10 mL of aqueous sample extract. The selective desorption process involves the derivatization of target analytes in the liquid state which acts to sequester these compounds by reducing their affinity towards the scavenger material. These processes show potential for a single step protocol for the purification of aqueous soil extracts and offer concentration factors of 10-100. These inline processing methods will help address problems of insufficient detection limits for organic detection on Mars and allow for integration as a module within future aqueous in situ flight instruments. REFERENCES: [1] Hecht, M., et al., Science 325, 64-67, 2009. [2] Navarro-González, R., et al., Geophys. Res. Abs., 11, 1549, 2009. [3] Ming, D.W., et al., 40th LPSC Conference, #2241, 2009. [4] Amashukeli, X., et al., J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S16, 2007. [5] Buch, A., et al., J. Chromatogr. A, 999, 165, 2003. [6] Skelley, A.M., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104, 1041-1046, 2005. [7] Liu, D.-L., L.W. Beegle, L.W. and I. Kanik, Astrobiology, 8, 229-241, 2008. [8] Sims, M., et al., AbSciCon, #2-16-P, 2008.

Aubrey, A. D.; Grunthaner, F. J.

2009-12-01

174

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Magnetoelectricity (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 20 January 2009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) devoted to the problem of magnetoelectricity was held on 20 January 2009 in the conference hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Gorbatsevich A A (St. Petersburg Physico-Technical Center for Research and Education, RAS,

Aleksandr A. Gorbatsevich; Oleg E. Omel'yanovskii; Viktor I. Tsebro; Anatolii K. Zvezdin; Aleksandr P. Pyatakov; Aleksandr A. Mukhin; V. Yu Ivanov; V. D. Travkin; A. S. Prokhorov; A. A. Volkov; A. V. Pimenov; A. M. Shuvaev; A. Loidl; Vladimir M. Mukhortov; Yurii I. Golovko; Yurii I. Yuzyuk

2009-01-01

175

Essays on Creativity and Science. Proceedings of the Creativity and Science Conference (Honolulu, Hawaii, March 23-24, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays focusing on creativity in the humanities and sciences are contained in this proceedings of the Creativity and Science Conference. The presentors, who represented many academic disciplines, agreed that creativity is as essential to the scientist as to the humanist and that one can prepare for it but not instruct or be instructed in achieving…

DeLuca, Diana Macintyre, Ed.

176

of planetsAstrobiology Biogeocatalysis Research Center  

E-print Network

is somewhat like Mars, but hotter. Buckets of planetsAstrobiology Biogeocatalysis Research Center MIssIon R eAstrobiology Biogeocatalysis Research Center MIssIon R e s u lt s Caulobacter is a type of bacteria that live in watery a flagellum. Caulobacter, magnified > 2,000 times. Mission results Planet Profile Caulobacter Icy planet (rice

Maxwell, Bruce D.

177

Aspicilia fruticulosa: A new model for Astrobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to avoid the technological constraints that prevent the performance of experiments in other planets, Astrobiology research implies the development of models that simulate the conditions present in outer space or in planetary bodies. Extremophile organisms, like lichens have been widely studied in Astrobiology due to their high resistance to extremely harsh envi-ronments(5). The vagrant lichen species, Aspicilia fruticulosa

Fco. Javier Sánchez Iñigo; Rosa de La Torre Noetzel; Jesus Martinez-Frias; Eva Mateo Mart; Gerda Horneck

2010-01-01

178

NCEO/CEOI JOINT SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2012 NOTTINGHAM JUBILEE CAMPUS  

E-print Network

: Jan Fillingham ­ 07872 416466. Conference Programme The latest draft programme is posted here: http will be provided. Notes for Speakers Each conference room has a data projector linked to a pc. Microphones that it can be loaded onto the meeting room pc before each session begins. A University of Nottingham

179

Astrobiological Benefits of Human Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered.

Crawford, Ian A.

2010-08-01

180

Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.  

PubMed

An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered. PMID:20735249

Crawford, Ian A

2010-01-01

181

Trends in the Disciplines: The 1979 United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The US National Paper on the UN Conference on Science and Technology for Development is grounded in the notion of "appropriate technology" and considers future courses of action. The Swedish Lund Letter on Science, Technology, and Basic Human Needs examines this position in terms of technology impact on employment. (JMF)

Trends 2000, 1979

1979-01-01

182

Science Education Is Changing - Were You At The Debate? Attending Education Conferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is very important that zoo educators keep in touch with what is happening in the education world of schools and attendance at education, particularly science education, conferences is an excellent and enjoyable (and tiring!) means of doing this. Science education in many countries now focuses on standards - in England there is a national curriculum for all subjects and

Sue Dale Tunnicliffe

183

New Dual-Title Doctoral Degree in Psychology and Language Science Degree Conferred  

E-print Network

New Dual-Title Doctoral Degree in Psychology and Language Science Degree Conferred Students electing this program through the Department of Psychology will earn a degree with a dual- title at the PhD level in Psychology and in Language Science. A graduate student obtaining this dual- degree will have

Dennis, Nancy

184

Annual Science Education Conference (9th, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, September 23, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proceedings contains the texts of 14 science education research studies which were presented at the 1983 Western Australia Science Education Conference. They include: "Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium: A Report of Research in Progress" (Patrick J. Garnett, Mark W. Hackling); "Measuring the Learning Environment in Elementary and…

Western Australia Science Education Association.

185

Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES-3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers from the Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES) are presented. The papers discuss current research in the general field of inverse, semi-inverse, and direct design and optimization in engineering sciences. The rapid growth of this relatively new field is due to the availability of faster and larger computing machines.

Dulikravich, George S. (editor)

1991-01-01

186

Astrobiology: The Search for Life in the Universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each of the 11 lead members of NASA's Astrobiology Institute has a specific mission. According to Hiroshi Ohmoto, director of Penn State s Astrobiology Research Center, Here we are mainly concerned with the origin of life and the evolution and extinction of important organisms. These include bacteria that live on methane, cyanobacteria (the inventors of photosynthesis), eukaryotes (a big category, covering anything with a nucleus, from single-celled organisms to humans), land-dwelling organisms, and early animals. Penn State astrobiologists are studying the environment before there was life on Earth, the origin of oxygen in the atmosphere, the chemical and thermal structures of oceans, and the role of metals in the evolution of life. Overall, they want to understand the connection between changes in environment and changes in life forms in the early Earth. PSARC offers research assistantships for graduate and undergraduate students, fellowships for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows, and an undergraduate minor in astrobiology. The minor covers 18 credits in earth sciences, geochemistry, geophysics, astronomy, biology, biochemistry, meteorology, and microbiology. The goal, says Ohmoto, is to teach students to critically evaluate claims related to this field that they encounter well after their college education has ended. Under a scanning electron microscope, Martian meteorite ALH84001 yields tube-like structures that look a lot like remnants of Earthly bacteria except smaller by a factor of ten.

Pacchioli, David

2003-01-01

187

Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

188

PREFACE: 1st Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science 2013 (LPBMS2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 29-31 August 2013, the 1st International Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science, LPBMS 2013, took place in the Tsukuba International Congress Center in the city of Tsukuba, Japan. The conference was a continuation of the international series Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science (SRMS), which started in 1994. The last one, SRMS-7, was held in Oxford UK 11-14 July 2010, where the International Advisory Committee (IAC) recommended the conference be enlarged to incorporate Materials Research from Neutron, Muon, and Slow Positron Sources, as well as the science emerging from Synchrotron Light Sources. The conference brought together contributions from academics and industrial researchers with a diverse background and experience from the physics, chemistry and engineering communities. The topics covered in the LPBMS2013 include strongly correlated electron systems, magnetism and magnetic materials, soft matter, interface and surface defects, catalysts, biomaterials, and ceramics. In the 3-day scientific program, the conference consisted of 9 plenary talks, 33 invited talks, 20 oral presentations, and 126 poster presentations. We are pleased to publish the proceedings of the LPBMS2013 in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. This volume contains 58 papers representing the work that was presented and discussed at the conference. We hope that this volume will promote further development of this interdisciplinary materials research emerging from synchrotron light, neutron, muon, and slow positron sciences. Finally, we would like to thank the International Advisory Committee (Chair: Professor G N Greaves), sponsors, all the participants and contributors for making possible this international meeting of researchers. Reiji Kumai & Youichi Murakami Conference photograph Details of the program and organizing committees are available in the pdf

Kumai, Reiji; Murakami, Youichi

2014-04-01

189

Women & Science: Celebrating Achievements, Charting Challenges: Conference Report  

NSF Publications Database

... embedded in the history of humankind. Their roots are in all professions, not just science and ... has its own history and innate features rooted in the social value of science. Just as our economy ...

190

Science Education and the External Perspective on Science A paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on the History and Philosophy of  

E-print Network

Science Education and the External Perspective on Science A paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science in Science Teaching, May 11-15, 1992, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada A revised version was published as: Cobern, W. W. (1995). Science

Cobern, William W.

191

78 FR 10180 - Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...at least 14 days before the meeting. II. Information for Presenters...conference should submit an abstract online at http://www...NewProjectsCSS.aspx. Suggested poster abstract topics include: Data submission...efficiency, and cost. All abstracts must be received by...

2013-02-13

192

The International Journal of Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The launch of a new journal is appropriately like a space mission. It is the result of a scientific need, the inspiration of a group of committed scientists and technologists, a series of draft proposals, an approved mission protocol, and a launch. Today is the launch day for a journal whose remit has only recently consolidated from diverse disciplines. Cambridge University Press has an international reputation for astronomy. To this we add extreme biology and its associated environmental research to integrate astrobiology as: 'the study of the origin, evolution, adaptation and distribution of past and present life in the Universe'. Astrobiology has three main themes: (1) Origin, evolution and limits of life on Earth; (2) Future of life, both on Earth and elsewhere; (3) Search for habitats, biomolecules and life in the Solar System and elsewhere. These fundamental concepts require the integration of various disciplines, including biology (especially microbiology), chemistry, geology, palaeontology, and the physics of atmospheres, planets and stars. We must also keep our minds wide open about the nature and limits of life. We can safely assume a carbon-based system within Solar Systems as we know them, but our concept of habitable zones expands yearly. We were taught that only the spores of certain bacilli could survive temperatures above the boiling point of water, and yet we now know that the deep-sea vent microbe Pyrolobus can survive an hour at 121 °C, which is the temperature used for sterilising medical instruments. We know of cyanobacteria which can not only live inside deep-frozen Antarctic rocks but also survive on roof-tops in Jerusalem at 80 °C. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans tolerates lethal doses of nuclear radiation, and cyanobacteria inside Antarctic desert sandstone receive so little moisture that their carbon turnover time (from its fixation by photosynthesis to its release as carbon dioxide during respiration) is 10,000 years. Life is tolerant, adaptable and tenacious.

Wynn-Williams, David D.

2002-01-01

193

Astrobiology and the Human Exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In March 2007, the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) chartered the Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG), co-chaired by J. B. Garvin and J. S. Levine and consisting of about 30 Mars scientists from the U.S. and Europe. HEM-SAG was one of a half dozen teams charted by NASA to consider the human exploration of Mars. Other teams included: Mars Entry, Descent and Landing, Human Health and Performance, Flight and Surface Systems, and Heliospheric/Astrophysics. The results of these Mars teams and the development of an architecture for the human exploration of Mars were summarized in two recent publications: Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 (B. G. Drake, Editor), 100 pages, July 2009 and Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 Addendum (B. G. Drake, Editor), 406 pages, July 2009. This presentation summarizes the HEM-SAG conclusions on astrobiology and the search for life on Mars by humans.

Levine, Joel S.; Garvin, James B.; Drake, B. G.; Beaty, David

2010-01-01

194

2012 Bacterial Source Tracking - State of the Science Conference Conference Proceedings  

E-print Network

Courtney Smith Texas Water Resources Institute Brian VanDelist Texas Water Resources Institute Dr. Kevin Wagner Texas Water Resources Institute Loren Warrick Texas State Soil & Water Conservation Board Aaron Wendt Texas State Soil & Water Conservation..., Aaron Wendt (TSSWCB), gave a broad-scale perspective to frame remaining conference presentations in regards to general comments and observations about BST in Texas. He briefly explained Texas water quality and the need to asses bacteria TMDLs...

Smith, C.; Wagner, K.; Warrick, L.

2012-01-01

195

Life in the Cosmic Context. An Astrobiology Course as an Experiment in Transdisciplinarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Life in the Cosmic Context" (AGA0316) is the astrobiology course offered by University of São Paulo to undergraduate students of science and humanities majors. The variety of background of the population attending AGA0316 and the broad scope of the addresssed issues makes this course a laboratory of transdisciplinarity.

Friaça, A. C. S.; Janot Pacheco, E.

2014-10-01

196

Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on "How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: "How Can the History and Philosophy of…

Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

2014-01-01

197

Aspicilia fruticulosa: A new model for Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to avoid the technological constraints that prevent the performance of experiments in other planets, Astrobiology research implies the development of models that simulate the conditions present in outer space or in planetary bodies. Extremophile organisms, like lichens have been widely studied in Astrobiology due to their high resistance to extremely harsh envi-ronments(5). The vagrant lichen species, Aspicilia fruticulosa lives detached from the substrate, and has a coralloid thalli up to 2.5 cm, which provides a very compact internal structure(6). This species typically grows in deserts and arid areas. Its resistance has been tested several times and amazing results about their vitality have been obtained. Two main experiments have been per-formed: 1. LITHOPANSPERMIA experiment(1): Integrated on board of BIOPAN (multi-user exposure facility, designed for exobiology, radiation biology, radiation dosimetry and material science investigations in space (http://www.spaceflight.esa.int/users/index.cfm?act=default.pagelevel=11p foton-next-pay-Bpan) launched on the Foton M3 satellite in September 2007); the resistance of this lichen species to the combination of the following space conditions during 10 days was tested: Ultraviolet (UV) extraterrestrial radiation, Mars UV-climate, UV-B radiation and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), microgravity, space vacuum of 1x10-6 mbar and extreme temperatures ranging from -23o C to +16o C. After the flight, the samples were revital-ized for a 72h period in a climatic chamber before taking measurements of their photosynthetic activity with a Mini-PAM fluorometer (Heinz Walz GmbH) as described by R. de la Torre et al. 2007b (2). The results showed that the samples exposed to space environment except solar UV radiation, reached a 76.5-1002. A step further on these investigations was carried out in order to study how the viability of this lichen species were affected by a combination of different sim-ulated martian conditions. For this purpose, we used an environmental simulation chamber(4) placed at the CAB (Centro de Astrobiologé to reproduce martian conditions. Three different ?a) exposures, each of them during 80 hours, were performed: a) martian atmosphere (7mbar of atmospheric pressure, with a standard concentration of martian surface gases) and tempera-ture (-93o C); b) martian UV radiation (200-400nm), temperature(-93o C) and space vacuum (1x10-7 mbar); c) combination of martian UV radiation (200-400nm), atmosphere (7mbar of atmospheric pressure) and temperature (-93o C). A set of 8 samples were located on two levels: exposure level (L-1) and dark control level (L-2). A general tendence was observed: all the samples survived. The analysis of the results compared to the pre-simulation data showed: a) photosynthetic activity decreased (74 References: 1 R. DE LA TORRE (2009): Likelihood of interplanetary transfer of rock-inhabiting microbial communities: Results from the space experiment Lithopanspermia. Icarus. Under revision 2 R. DE LA TORRE, L.G. SANCHO, A. PINTADO, P. RETTBERG, E. RABBOW, C. PANITZ, U. DEUTSCHMANN, M. REINA, G. HORNECK (2007b): BIOPAN experi-ment LICHENS on the Foton M2 mission: Pre-flight verification tests of the Rhizocarpon geographicum-granite ecosystem. Advances in Space Research. Volume 40, Issue 11, 2007, Pages 1665-1671 3 G. HORNECK (1994): Exobiology, the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life within the context of cosmic evolution: a review. Planetary and Space Science. 1995 Jan-Feb; 43(1-2):189-217 4 E. MATEO MARTé et al. (2006): A chamber for I studying planetary environments and its applications to astrobiology. Measurement science technology. 2006, vol. 17, no8, pp. 2274-2280 5 L.G. SANCHO, R. de la TORRE A. PIN-TADO (2009): Lichens, new and promising material from experiments in astrobiology. Fungal Biology Reviews. Volume 22, Issues 3-4, Aug-Nov 2008, Pages 103-109 6 L.G. SANCHO, B. SCHROETER R. DEL PRADO (2000): Ecophysiology and morphology of the globular erratic lichen Aspicilia fruticulosa (EVERSM.) FLAG. from

Sánchez Iñigo, Fco. Javier; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Mateo Mart, Eva; Horneck, Gerda

198

PREFACE: 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2013 International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences (AeroEarth 2013), was held at the Swiss Bell Mangga Besar, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 23 December 2013. The AeroEarth conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. AeroEarth 2013 promotes interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that high-level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Earth Science. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 91 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from 8 countries. There are 3 (three) Plenary Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of AeroEarth 2013. The AeroEarth 2013 Proceedings Editors Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Dr. Benfano Soewito Dr. Amit Desai Further information on the invited plenary speakers and photographs from the conference can be found in the pdf.

2014-03-01

199

IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Biological and Medical Science Libraries. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on biological and medical science libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The International Programs of the National Library of Medicine" (Lois Ann Colaianni, United States); (2) "Information Needs for International Health. A CDC (Centers for Disease…

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

200

X-rays at Sharp Focus: Chandra Science Symposium ASP Conference Series, Vol. **VOLUME**, 2002  

E-print Network

properties of stellar coronae. Beginning in the 1960s, X-ray spectroscopy of the solar corona has providedX-rays at Sharp Focus: Chandra Science Symposium ASP Conference Series, Vol. **VOLUME**, 2002 eds? Observing programs with the Einstein and ROSAT observatories, especially the ROSAT All Sky Survey

Linsky, Jeffrey L.

201

Proceedings of Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Society Conference, Dayton, 1998, pp. 124-131.  

E-print Network

Proceedings of Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Society Conference, Dayton tutoring system, CIRCSIM- Tutor tutors first-year medical students on blood pressure regulation based to tutor first-year medical students on blood pressure regulation. The students are requested to predict

202

INTERNATIONAL IEEE CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER SCIENCES -RIVF'06 1 Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Data with a  

E-print Network

INTERNATIONAL IEEE CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER SCIENCES - RIVF'06 1 Analysis of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma to recover the original structure from data. The algorithm is then applied on the Nasopharyngeal carcinoma learning method to a real world epidemiological problem, namely the Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

203

2006 National Environmental Public Health Conference Advancing Environmental Public Health Science Practice in New Frontiers  

E-print Network

their health and safety, especially those at greater risk of health disparities. These are the overarching2006 National Environmental Public Health Conference Advancing Environmental Public Health Science resources to high-priority health problems in order to achieve the maximum health impact. One of those goals

204

NASA Earth Science Technology Conference, June 24-26, 2008 Delay/Disruption-Tolerant Network  

E-print Network

Paper A4P2 NASA Earth Science Technology Conference, June 24-26, 2008 1 Delay/Disruption, Cleveland, Ohio, United States, dstewart@grc.nasa.gov Chris Jackson Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL.da-silva-curiel@sstl.co.uk Abstract- Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) "bundles" have been proposed for deep

Wood, Lloyd

205

A Joint Conference of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Canadian Society of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Controlled Release Society Canadian Chapter,  

E-print Network

A Joint Conference of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Canadian Society Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences 3126 Dentistry/Pharmacy Centre Phone: 780-492-0950 University.cspscanada.org Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences Société Canadienne des Sciences Pharmaceutiques #12;

Simons, Jack

206

Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative pH. The epoch of study of thermophilic microorganisms starts with the discovery of Thermus aquaticus, and presently the maximum temperature for growth at 113 C was found for Pyrolobus fumarii. The microorganisms capable of growth at high temperatures and in hyperacidic environments on Earth are good analogs for life that might be able to survive in hot acidic droplets in the upper regimes of the atmosphere of Venus. The study of barophiles was made possible by engineering achievements leading to the development of the submersible crafts used to study the Black Smokers of the Deep-sea Hydrothermal vents. The first described radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can survive ionizing irradiation and other DNA-damaging assaults at doses that are lethal to all other organisms. These microbes are models for life that might endure high radiation environments in the ice near the surface of comets or on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn and in the seafloor deep beneath icy crusts Europa and Enceladus. This paper presents ESEM and FESEM images showing intact microbes preserved in the deep ice cores extracted from just above Lake Vostok, Antarctica that are considered analogs for life forms that might survive on comets and icy moons.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

2007-01-01

207

2014 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2014 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics (ScieTech 2014), was held at the Media Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia, on 13-14 January 2014. The ScieTech 2014 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. ScieTech 2014 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 187 papers and after rigorous review, 50 papers were accepted. The participants come from 16 countries. There are 5 (Five) Paralell Sessions and Four Keynote Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of ScieTech 2014. The Editors of the Scietech 2014 Proceedings: Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Dr. Benfano Soewito Dr. P.N. Gajjar

2014-04-01

208

Press abstracts of the 21st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Program Committee for the Twenty-fisrt Lunar and Planetary Science Conference has chosen these contributions as having the greatest potential interest for the general public. The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. More technical abstracts will be found in Lunar and Planetary Science XXI. Representative titles are: Ancient Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions on Mars: Global Model and Geological Evidence; Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Ordinary Chondrites and Their Chondrules; Exposure Ages and Collisional History of L-Chondrite Parent Bodies; Models of Solar-Powered Geysers on Triton; and Search for Life: A Science Rationale for a Permanent Base on Mars.

1990-01-01

209

Taking the initiative: A leadership conference for women in science and engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conference sprang from discussions on the current climate that women face in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. The conference (and this document) is a beginning, not a culmination, of women's learning leadership skills. Conferees were active, articulate, energetic, and ready to learn leadership qualities, some of which seem universal, others that appear to require skills in specific fields. After the introduction, the workshops and presentations are arranged under vision and direction, barriers, alignment and communication, and motivation and inspiration. Some statistics are presented on women degrees and employment in various fields.

1994-01-01

210

Taking the initiative. A leadership conference for women in science and engineering  

SciTech Connect

The conference sprang from discussions on the current climate that women face in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. The conference (and this document) is a beginning, not a culmination, of women`s learning leadership skills. Conferees were active, articulate, energetic, and ready to learn leadership qualities, some of which seem universal, others that appear to require skills in specific fields. After the introduction, the workshops and presentations are arranged under vision and direction, barriers, alignment and communication, and motivation and inspiration. Some statistics are presented on women degrees and employment in various fields.

NONE

1994-12-31

211

Using Astrobiology as a Context for Teaching and Learning in New South Wales Schools K-12  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contextual learning has long been regarded as a powerful tool by Science educators for teaching and learning in Science, but the availability of stimulating, real-life, contemporary, contexts which allow both syllabus outcomes to be met and students to enjoy science have been at a premium. The context of astrobiology, including both the searches for primitive life in our own solar system and intelligent extra-terrestrial life within our own galaxy, fulfils all the pre-requisites for successful contextualised learning. In the New South Wales science syllabuses, which cover K-12, there are excellent opportunities for educators to use astrobiology as a context for teaching a range of investigative and communication skills, knowledge, values and attitudes. These experiences not only assist in the fulfillment of many mandatory outcomes in the NSW education system, but more importantly, make a valuable contribution to the student as a life long learner. In addition, it prepares students to deal with issues that will no doubt confront society at large in the future in one form or another. The use of astrobiology as a scientific context has been used by the author to facilitate the achievement of Science related outcomes by students in Year 4, 7, 9 and Year 11 Biology. Generally, students are excited, fascinated and eager to explore the diverse range of learning experiences, which this context can offer. Making links between Science, current research and the reality on which most entertaining science fiction is built, is a very powerful tool for the Science educator. There is clear evidence that the context of astrobiology can be used successfully in Science Education, in NSW schools K-12, to achieve student outcomes and no doubt this success could be experienced by educators in other educational systems.

Brown, Craig

212

A review of "Making Science Social: The Conferences of Theophraste Renaudot 1633-1642" by Kathleen Wellman.  

E-print Network

is an important and instructive work. Kathleen Wellman. Making Science Social: The Conferences of Th?ophraste Renaudot 1633-1642. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003. xviii + 461 pp. + 4 illus. $39.95. Review by KAROL K. WEAVER, SUSQUEHANNA UNIVERSITY.... Kathleen Wellman?s Making Science Social: The Conferences of Th?ophraste Renaudot 1633-1642 traces the history of the seven- teenth-century conferences led by Th?ophraste Renaudot to eluci- date the characteristics of early seventeenth-century science...

Karol K. Weaver

2004-01-01

213

Tanpopo: Astrobiology Exposure and Micrometeoroid Capture Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a long history of the microbe-collection experiments at high altitude (1). Microbes have been collected using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci have been isolated in these experiments (1). It is not clear how high do microbes go up. If the microbes might have been present even at higher altitudes, the fact would endorse the possibility of interplanetary migration of life. Tanpopo, dandelion, is the name of a grass whose seeds with floss are spread by the wind. We propose the analyses of interplanetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) (2). Ultra low-density aerogel will be used to capture micrometeoroid and debris. Particles captured by aerogel will be used for several analyses after the initial inspection of the gel and tracks. Careful analysis of the tracks in the aerogel will provide the size and velocity dependence of debris flux. The particles will be analyzed for mineralogical, organic and microbiological characteristics. Aerogels are ready for production in Japan. Aerogels and trays are space proven. All the analytical techniques are ready. In this presentation, we will present the recent results related to the microbiological analyses. The results suggested that the bleaching speeds and the spectra of fluorescence are different between different origins of the fluorescence: whether it is emitted from microbe or not. It is also shown that PCR analysis of the microbe can be used to determine the species. References 1)Yang, Y., Yokobori, S. and Yamagishi, A.: Assessing panspermia hypothesis by microorganisms collected from the high altitude atmosphere. Biol. Sci. Space, 23 (2009), pp. 151-163. 2) Yamagishi, A., H. Yano, K. Kobayashi, K. Kobayashi, S. Yokobori, M. Tabata, H. Kawai, M. Yamashita, H. Hashimoto, H. Naraoka, & H. Mita (2008) TANPOPO: astrobiology exposure and micrometeoroid capture experiments. International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (ISTS) Web Paper Archives. 2008-k-05.

Yamagishi, Akihiko; Yano, Hajime; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Hideyuki; Mita, Hajime; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Tabata, Makoto; Yabuta, Hikaru

2012-07-01

214

Astrobiology Sample Analysis as a Design Driver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort supports the Astrobiology Objective 8 the Search for LIFE ON MARS PAST AND PRESENT -(Astrobiology Program Office, 1998, p.7). The essential trade analysis is between returning very small samples to the Earth while protecting them versus in situ analysis on Mars. Developing these explicit parameters encompasses design, instrumentation, system integration, human factors and surface operations for both alternatives. This allocation of capability approach incorporates a "humans and machines in the loop" model that recognizes that every exploration system involves both humans and automated systems. The question is where in the loop they occur whether on Earth, in the Mars Base, in the rover or creeping over the Mars surface.

Cohen, Marc M.

2001-01-01

215

Marine science and the 1974 law of the sea conference.  

PubMed

More intensive and varied use of the oceans and their resources requires a more comprehensive legal reégime than previously. Three years of preparatory work have been completed leading toward the Law of the Sea Conference that opened on 20 June in Caracas, Venezuela. Although the details of the new reégime are still to be negotiated, it appears certain that the coastal nations will gain some form of jurisdiction over the fisheries and mineral resources off their shores. It is probable that a new "economic zone" will be established between a relatively narrow (12-mile) territorial sea and the international ocean space beyond. If, as seems likely, this economic zone is 200 miles wide, it will encompass some 37 percent of the ocean as shown in Fig. 1. Unless the scientific community can gather more support than it has to date, it seems probable that scientific research within this economic zone will only be possible with the consent of the coastal nation. The United States has proposed a compromise solution which attempts to balance the interests of the scientific community with those of the coastal state. Under the U.S. proposal, a research group abiding by certain specific obligations to the coastal state would be free to carry out its research activities without obtaining explicit consent from the coastal state. To date the U.S. proposal has received little official support from any nation, even from nations with major oceanographic interests. PMID:17810453

Knauss, J A

1974-06-28

216

PARTICIPANT SUPPORT FOR THE 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE ON PLASMA PROCESSING SCIENCE (JULY 11-16,2010)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in low temperature plasma science and will explore the applications of low temperature plasma technology relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma

Uwe Kortshagen

2011-01-01

217

Growing Opportunities for Women in Mathematics and the Sciences. Conference Proceedings (1st, New York, NY, February 28, 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the proceedings of a conference on career opportunities for women in mathematics and the sciences. In keynote remarks, Eloise Clark discusses how the recently passed National Science Foundation Authorization Bill for 1981 provides for the participation of women, minorities, and the handicapped in science, and outlines some of…

Edmundson, Lorna Duphiney, Ed.; Seaman, Eleanor Ekblade, Ed.

218

Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching? The presentations of the conference speakers and the reports of the working groups are reviewed. Multiple themes emerged for K-16 education from the perspective of the history and philosophy of science. Key ones were that: students need to understand that central to science is argumentation, criticism, and analysis; students should be educated to appreciate science as part of our culture; students should be educated to be science literate; what is meant by the nature of science as discussed in much of the science education literature must be broadened to accommodate a science literacy that includes preparation for socioscientific issues; teaching for science literacy requires the development of new assessment tools; and, it is difficult to change what science teachers do in their classrooms. The principal conclusions drawn by the editors are that: to prepare students to be citizens in a participatory democracy, science education must be embedded in a liberal arts education; science teachers alone cannot be expected to prepare students to be scientifically literate; and, to educate students for scientific literacy will require a new curriculum that is coordinated across the humanities, history/social studies, and science classrooms.

Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

2014-08-01

219

Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching? The presentations of the conference speakers and the reports of the working groups are reviewed. Multiple themes emerged for K-16 education from the perspective of the history and philosophy of science. Key ones were that: students need to understand that central to science is argumentation, criticism, and analysis; students should be educated to appreciate science as part of our culture; students should be educated to be science literate; what is meant by the nature of science as discussed in much of the science education literature must be broadened to accommodate a science literacy that includes preparation for socioscientific issues; teaching for science literacy requires the development of new assessment tools; and, it is difficult to change what science teachers do in their classrooms. The principal conclusions drawn by the editors are that: to prepare students to be citizens in a participatory democracy, science education must be embedded in a liberal arts education; science teachers alone cannot be expected to prepare students to be scientifically literate; and, to educate students for scientific literacy will require a new curriculum that is coordinated across the humanities, history/social studies, and science classrooms.

Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

2014-09-01

220

NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990s.

Kobler, Ben (editor); Hariharan, P. C. (editor); Blasso, L. G. (editor)

1992-01-01

221

Research in Science Education, Volume 1990. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (21st, Perth, Western Australia, July 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains selected refereed papers from the 21st Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association. The papers are as follows: "A Learning Model for Science Education: Developing Teaching Strategies" (Appleton); "Researching Balance between Cognition and Affect in Science Teaching" (Baird et al.); "Toward a…

Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

1990-01-01

222

The pharmaceutical sciences in 2020—Report of a conference organized by the Board of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with its missions, the Board of Pharmaceutical Sciences (BPS) of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) has developed a view on the future of pharmaceutical sciences in 2020. This followed an international conference with invited participants from various fields (scientists, academicians, regulators, industrialists, venture capitalists…) who shared their views on the forces that might determine how the pharmaceutical sciences

Vinod P. Shah; Luc J. R. Besançon; Pieter Stolk; Geoffrey Tucker; Daan J. A. Crommelin

2009-01-01

223

The NASA Astrobiology Institute - Minority Institution Research Support Program: Strengthening the Astrobiology Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the history, purpose and successes of the NASA Astrobiology Institute Minority Institution Research Support Program (NAI-MIRS). This program is designed to provide support and training in astrobiology to a new generation of researchers from Minority Serving Institutions. The NAI-MIRS program provides sabbaticals, follow-up support, and travel opportunities for faculty and students from minority institutions. The purpose of

T. Gary; J. Butler; L. Arino de La Rubia; E. L. Myles; K. Bradford; M. Kirven-Brooks; M. Ceballos; L. Taylor; B. Bell; G. Coulter

2009-01-01

224

Tourism Development in Aqaba and Human Sustainability International Conference, Science and Technology in Archaeology and Conservation, Rome  

E-print Network

Tourism Development in Aqaba and Human Sustainability 6th International Conference, Science. It is an important issue to compromise between the economic development of the region and the sustainability

225

Conference Summary: HI Science in the Next Decade  

E-print Network

The atomic hydrogen (HI) 21cm line measures the gas content within and around galaxies, traces the dark matter potential and probes volumes and objects that other surveys do not. Over the next decade, 21cm line science will exploit new technologies, especially focal plane and aperture arrays, and will see the deployment of Epoch of Reionization/Dark Age detection experiments and Square Kilometer Array (SKA) precursor instruments. Several experiments designed to detect and eventually to characterize the reionization history of the intergalactic medium should deliver first results within two-three years time. Although "precision cosmology" surveys of HI in galaxies at z ~ 1 to 3 require the full collecting area of the SKA, a coherent program of HI line science making use of the unique capabilities of both the existing facilities and the novel ones demonstrated by the SKA precursors will teach us how many gas rich galaxies there really are and where they reside and will yield fundamental insight into how galaxies accrete gas, form stars and interact with their environment.

Martha P. Haynes

2008-06-10

226

Astrobiology : is humankind ready for the next revolution ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of a first exoplanet, in 1995, did not revolutionize but knocked astronomical sciences over. At the same time, by opening new prospects of research, in particular in the search of planets similar to the Earth and in a possible extraterrestrial life, this discovery, since then abundantly repeated, gave a new breath to the public interest for this scientific field. But is humanity ready to learn the existence from extraterrestrial forms of life or to remain, in spite of its efforts, in ignorance? The question of the plurality of the worlds is one of the oldest interrogations conveyed by the human cultures, as testified by the multiple answers which were brought to it. In the same way, the concept of life is itself an inexhaustible source of philosophical and religious reflexions, with many consequences in moral domains. It is today necessary to accompany the scientific development in the field of astrobiology by attaching the greatest importance to this intellectual patrimony. It constitutes even one of the first stages of an ethical responsibility in astrobiology, as important as that concerning planetary protection.

Arnould, Jacques

2012-07-01

227

The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5-16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept currently under study by a team of partners: NASA's Ames Research Center, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding (1) The evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds and young forming stellar systems, (2) The chemical evolution of organic molecules in the ISM as they transition from AGB outflows to planetary nebulae to the general diffuse ISM to HII regions and dense clouds, (3) The distribution of organics in the diffuse ISM, (4) The nature of organics in the Solar System (in comets, asteroids, satellites), and (5) The nature and distribution of organics in local galaxies. The technical considerations of achieving these science objectives in a MIDEX-sized mission will be presented.

Sandford, Scott A.

2004-01-01

228

The Religion/Science Controversy: The Use and Abuse of Science in the Defense of Religion. Proceedings of a Conference (Westville, Indiana, October 5, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science and religion have been referred to as the two strongest general forces which influence humankind. This document contains the proceedings of a conference which was held to address some of the relationships and controversies surrounding these topics. Included are the texts of the major papers presented at the conference. These are: (1)…

Kanagy, Sherman P., II, Ed.

229

PREFACE: 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) conference series has been organized to create a new forum in Asia and Australia to discuss vacuum, surface and related sciences, techniques and applications. The conference series is officially endorsed by the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Application (IUVSTA). The International Steering Committee of VASSCAA is comprised of Vacuum Societies in seven countries: Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Pakistan. VASSCAA-1 was organized by the Vacuum Society of Japan in 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. VASSCAA-2 was held in 2002 in Hong Kong, VASSCAA-3 in Singapore in 2005. VASSCAA-4 was held in Matsue, Japan in 2008 and VASSCAA-5 in 2010 in Beijing, China. The 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6) was held from 9-13 October 2012 in the beautiful city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The venue of the conference was the Pak-China Friendship Centre, Islamabad. More than six hundred local delgates and around seventy delegates from different countries participated in this mega event. These delegates included scientists, researchers, engineers, professors, plant operators, designers, vendors, industrialists, businessmen and students from various research organizations, technical institutions, universities, industries and companies from Pakistan and abroad. The focal point of the event was to enhance cooperation between Pakistan and the international community in the fields of vacuum, surface science and other applied technologies. At VASSCAA-6 85 oral presentations were delivered by local and foreign speakers. These were divided into different sessions according to their fields. A poster session was organized at which over 70 researchers and students displayed their posters. The best three posters won prizes. In parallel to the main conference sessions four technical short courses were held. The participants showed keen interest in all these courses. The most significant part of this event was an international exhibition of science, technology, energy and industry. In this international exhibition over 60 prominent international as well as local industrialists and vendors displayed their products. For the recreation of conference participants a cultural program and dinner was arranged. This entertaining program was fully enjoyed by all the participants especially the foreign guests. Recreational trips were also arranged for the foreign delegates. This mega event provided a unique opportunity to our scientific community to benefit from the rich international experience. The conference was a major forum for the exchange of knowledge and provided numerous scientific, technical and social opportunities for meeting leading experts. Editors Dr Javaid Ahsan Bhatti, Dr Talib Hussain, Dr Suleman Qaiser and Dr Wakil Khan National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology (NINVAST) NCP Complex, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan The PDF also contains a list of delegates.

Ahsan Bhatti, Javaid; Hussain, Talib; Khan, Wakil

2013-06-01

230

On the First Anthropic Argument in Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the little-known anthropic argument of Fontenelle dealing with the nature of cometary orbits, given a year before the publication of Newton's Principia. This is particularly interesting in view of the rapid development of the recently resurgent theories of cometary catastrophism and their role in the modern astrobiological debates, for instance in the ``rare Earth'' hypothesis of Ward and Brownlee.

?irkovi?, Milan M.

2002-12-01

231

ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 2, Number 1, 2002  

E-print Network

over long periods of time, they need a steady supply of H2 (Schink, 1988). This raises the question and potentially more voluminous H2 source exists in nominally anhy- drous minerals of igneous and metamorphic of hydroxyl pairs-Peroxy in minerals. Astrobiology 2, 83-92. life (Pedersen, 1993; Grossman and Shulman, 1995

Selker, John

232

Space activities in exo-astrobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief overview is given about astronomical (NGST, GAIA, COROT, EDDINGTON, KEPLER and DARWIN) and planetary (CASSINI-HUYGENS, STARDUST, ROSETTA, MARS-EXPRESS and future Mars missions, Europa missions, Moon, Mercury missions) space missions, which will investigate astrobiological aspects during their operation phase.

Bernard H. Foing

2002-01-01

233

Proceedings of the 9th International CDIO Conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 9 13, 2013.  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 9th International CDIO Conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 9 ­ 13, 2013 International CDIO Conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University School

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Role of the observer in the scientific process in astrobiology and in defining life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of the observer in the scientific process has been studied in various contexts, including philosophical. It is notorious that the experiments are theory-loaded, that the observers pick and choose what they consider important based on their scientific and cultural backgrounds, and that the same phenomenon may be studied by different observers from different angles. In this paper we critically review various authors' views of the role of the observer in the scientific process, as they apply to astrobiology. Astrobiology is especially vulnerable to the role of the observer, since it is an interdisciplinary science. Thus, the backgrounds of the observers in the astrobiology field are even more heterogeneous than in the other sciences. The definition of life is also heavily influenced by the observer of life who injects his/her own prejudices in the process of observing and defining life. Such prejudices are often dictated by the state of science, instrumentation, and the science politics at the time, as well as the educational, scientific, cultural and other background of the observer.

Kolb, Vera M.

2010-09-01

235

AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology Space InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) Where do we come from? and (2) Are we alone? as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to: (1) Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions, and the young stellar/planetary systems that form in them; (2) Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows; (3) Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids, comets, and the planets and their satellites; (4) Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution , abundance, and change with environment; (5) Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type; and (6) Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes. The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and adds tasks that (7) Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry; and (8) Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20(40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution (R>2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution (R>25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outline above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE mission concepts and their supporting Science Teams are led by Principal Investigator Dr. Scott Sandford of NASA s Ames Research Center, with industry partner Ball Aerospace Technologies Ltd., and managed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA s Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

Sandford, Scott; Ennico, Kimberly A.

2006-01-01

236

Cosmic evolution: the context for astrobiology and its cultural implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology must be seen in the context of cosmic evolution, the 13.7 billion-year master narrative of the universe. The idea of an evolving universe dates back only to the 19th century, and became a guiding principle for astronomical research only in the second half of the 20th century. The modern synthesis in evolutionary biology hastened the acceptance of the idea in its cosmic setting, as did the confirmation of the Big Bang theory for the origin of the universe. NASA programmes such as Origins incorporated it as a guiding principle. Cosmic evolution encompasses physical, biological and cultural evolution, and may result in a physical, biological or postbiological universe, each with its own implications for long-term human destiny, and each imbuing the meaning of life with different values. It has the status of an increasingly accepted worldview that is beginning to have a profound effect not only in science but also in religion and philosophy.

Dick, Steven J.

2012-10-01

237

NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Application. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include the following: magnetic disk and tape technologies; optical disk and tape; software storage and file management systems; and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

Kobler, Ben (editor); Hariharan, P. C. (editor); Blasso, L. G. (editor)

1992-01-01

238

LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

2011-12-01

239

Dear Colleagues, We are delighted to host the 14th annual conference of the Israel Plasma Science and Technology  

E-print Network

Raveh (Ben Gurion University of the Negev) · Plasma Technology Representative: Joseph Ashkenazy (Soreq1 PREFACE Dear Colleagues, We are delighted to host the 14th annual conference of the Israel Plasma Science and Technology Association (IPSTA). This is the second time that the Weizmann Institute of Science

240

4th Annual Conference for African-American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4). Preliminary Program  

SciTech Connect

In June, The Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center, hosted the 4th Annual Conference for African-American Reserachers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4) at Rice University. The main goal of this conference was to highlight current work by African-American researchers and graduate students in mathematics. This conference strengthened the mathematical sciences by encouraging the increased participation of African-American and underrepresented groups into the field, facilitating working relationships between them and helping to cultivate their careers. In addition to the talks there was a graduate student poster session and tutorials on topics in mathematics and computer science. These talks, presentations, and discussions brought a broader perspective to the critical issues involving minority participation in mathematics.

Tapia, Richard

1998-06-01

241

PREFACE: IC-MSQUARE 2012: International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Physical Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Budapest, Hungary, from Monday 3 to Friday 7 September 2012. The conference was attended by more than 130 participants, and hosted about 290 oral, poster and virtual papers by more than 460 pre-registered authors. The first IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields in which mathematical modelling is used, such as theoretical/mathematical physics, neutrino physics, non-integrable systems, dynamical systems, computational nanoscience, biological physics, computational biomechanics, complex networks, stochastic modelling, fractional statistics, DNA dynamics, and macroeconomics. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, two parallel sessions ran every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful; thus all attendees had a creative time. The mounting question is whether this occurred accidentally, or whether IC-MSQUARE is a necessity in the field of physical and mathematical modelling. For all of us working in the field, the existing and established conferences in this particular field suffer from two distinguished and recognized drawbacks: the first is the increasing orientation, while the second refers to the extreme specialization of the meetings. Therefore, a conference which aims to promote the knowledge and development of high-quality research in mathematical fields concerned with applications of other scientific fields as well as modern technological trends in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, sociology, environmental sciences etc., appears to be a necessity. This is the key role that IC-MSQUARE will play. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to IC-MSQUARE. We would also like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. Conference Chairmen Theocharis Kosmas Department of Physics, University of Ioannina Elias Vagenas RCAAM, Academy of Athens Dimitrios Vlachos Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese The PDF also contains a list of members of the International Scientific Committes and details of the Keynote and Invited Speakers.

Kosmas, Theocharis; Vagenas, Elias; Vlachos, Dimitrios

2013-02-01

242

Science Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about sunspots and solar flares. Learners will work collaboratively to create abstracts detailing their knowledge of sunspots and solar flares and then present their work to the entire audience. A background understanding of our Sun and its features is needed prior to starting this activity. This is activity 4 in Exploring Magnetism in Solar Flares.

243

A unifying concept for astrobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution, broadly construed, has become a powerful unifying concept in much of science - not only in the biological evolution of plants and animals, but also in the physical evolution of stars and planets, and the cultural evolution of society and its many varied products. This paper (1) explores the bulk structure and functioning of open, non-equilibrium, thermodynamic systems relevant

E. J. Chaisson

2003-01-01

244

Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: state of the science and future research needs.  

PubMed

New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, particularly the use of the medication sapropterin to treat some individuals with PKU, and to develop a research agenda. Prior to the 2012 conference, five working groups of experts and public members met over a 1-year period. The working groups addressed the following: long-term outcomes and management across the lifespan; PKU and pregnancy; diet control and management; pharmacologic interventions; and molecular testing, new technologies, and epidemiologic considerations. In a parallel and independent activity, an Evidence-based Practice Center supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality conducted a systematic review of adjuvant treatments for PKU; its conclusions were presented at the conference. The conference included the findings of the working groups, panel discussions from industry and international perspectives, and presentations on topics such as emerging treatments for PKU, transitioning to adult care, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory perspective. Over 85 experts participated in the conference through information gathering and/or as presenters during the conference, and they reached several important conclusions. The most serious neurological impairments in PKU are preventable with current dietary treatment approaches. However, a variety of more subtle physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of even well-controlled PKU are now recognized. The best outcomes in maternal PKU occur when blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations are maintained between 120 and 360 ?mol/L before and during pregnancy. The dietary management treatment goal for individuals with PKU is a blood Phe concentration between 120 and 360 ?mol/L. The use of genotype information in the newborn period may yield valuable insights about the severity of the condition for infants diagnosed before maximal Phe levels are achieved. While emerging and established genotype-phenotype correlations may transform our understanding of PKU, establishing correlations with intellectual outcomes is more challenging. Regarding the use of sapropterin in PKU, there are significant gaps in predicting response to treatment; at least half of those with PKU will have either minimal or no response. A coordinated approach to PKU treatment improves long-term outcomes for those with PKU and facilitates the conduct of research to improve diagnosis and treatment. New drugs that are safe, efficacious, and impact a larger proportion of individuals with PKU are needed. However, it is imperative that treatment guidelines and the decision processes for determining access to treatments be tied to a solid evidence base with rigorous standards for robust and consistent data collection. The process that preceded the PKU State-of-the-Science Conference, the conference itself, and the identification of a research agenda have facilitated the development of clinical practice guidelines by professional organizations and serve as a model for other inborn errors of metabolism. PMID:24667081

Camp, Kathryn M; Parisi, Melissa A; Acosta, Phyllis B; Berry, Gerard T; Bilder, Deborah A; Blau, Nenad; Bodamer, Olaf A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Brown, Christine S; Burlina, Alberto B; Burton, Barbara K; Chang, Christine S; Coates, Paul M; Cunningham, Amy C; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Ferguson, John H; Franklin, Thomas D; Frazier, Dianne M; Grange, Dorothy K; Greene, Carol L; Groft, Stephen C; Harding, Cary O; Howell, R Rodney; Huntington, Kathleen L; Hyatt-Knorr, Henrietta D; Jevaji, Indira P; Levy, Harvey L; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Matalon, Kimberlee; MacDonald, Anita; McPheeters, Melissa L; Mitchell, John J; Mofidi, Shideh; Moseley, Kathryn D; Mueller, Christine M; Mulberg, Andrew E; Nerurkar, Lata S; Ogata, Beth N; Pariser, Anne R; Prasad, Suyash; Pridjian, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Reddy, Uma M; Rohr, Frances J; Singh, Rani H; Sirrs, Sandra M; Stremer, Stephanie E; Tagle, Danilo A; Thompson, Susan M; Urv, Tiina K; Utz, Jeanine R; van Spronsen, Francjan; Vockley, Jerry; Waisbren, Susan E; Weglicki, Linda S; White, Desirée A; Whitley, Chester B; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Yannicelli, Steven; Young, Justin M

2014-06-01

245

Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Cincinnati, OH, January 9-12, 1997).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proceedings of the 1997 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (AETS) includes a copy of the conference program and 43 papers and presentation summaries from the meeting, placed in order by conference session. Among the topics of the papers include are: reading-to-learn and writing-to-learn…

Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; And Others

246

Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities PSI at DLR for Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground based experiments, conducted in the controlled planetary and space environment simulation facilities PSI at DLR, are used to investigate astrobiological questions and to complement the corresponding experiments in LEO, for example on free flying satellites or on space exposure platforms on the ISS. In-orbit exposure facilities can only accommodate a limited number of experiments for exposure to space parameters like high vacuum, intense radiation of galactic and solar origin and microgravity, sometimes also technically adapted to simulate extraterrestrial planetary conditions like those on Mars. Ground based experiments in carefully equipped and monitored simulation facilities allow the investigation of the effects of simulated single environmental parameters and selected combinations on a much wider variety of samples. In PSI at DLR, international science consortia performed astrobiological investigations and space experiment preparations, exposing organic compounds and a wide range of microorganisms, reaching from bacterial spores to complex microbial communities, lichens and even animals like tardigrades to simulated planetary or space environment parameters in pursuit of exobiological questions on the resistance to extreme environments and the origin and distribution of life. The Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities PSI of the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at DLR in Köln, Germany, providing high vacuum of controlled residual composition, ionizing radiation of a X-ray tube, polychromatic UV radiation in the range of 170-400 nm, VIS and IR or individual monochromatic UV wavelengths, and temperature regulation from -20°C to +80°C at the sample size individually or in selected combinations in 9 modular facilities of varying sizes are presented with selected experiments performed within.

Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Panitz, C.; Reitz, G.

2008-09-01

247

Miniature GC: Minicell ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for astrobiology planetary missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or longer mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. We describe here the development of a miniature GC - Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) under development through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA's Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

Kojiro, Daniel R.; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeuchi, Norishige

2006-01-01

248

Commentary: Professional Development and Resources for Educators in Astrobiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to catalyzing and promoting interdisciplinary research in astrobiology, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) also seeks to train the next generation of astrobiologists. To accomplish this, NAI provides a wealth of resources and support for educators. This month's Commentary column highlights products, programs, and summer workshops that are offered through NAI's network.

Scalice, Daniella; Wilmoth, Krisstina

2005-02-01

249

Fluorescence Properties of Titan Tholins: Detection of Astrobiologically Interesting Areas  

E-print Network

Fluorescence Properties of Titan Tholins: Detection of Astrobiologically Interesting Areas on Titan. The reddish tholin film that built up on the wall of the reaction vessel was harvested anaerobically could be used to detect areas of Titan's surface that are astrobiologically interesting, where tholins

Beauchamp, Jack

250

Lower Secondary Students' Views in Astrobiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Astrobiology is, on a profound level, about whether life exists outside of the planet Earth. The question of existence of life elsewhere in the universe has been of interest to many societies throughout history. Recently, the research area of astrobiology has grown at a fast rate, mainly due to the development of observational methods, and the…

Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas

2013-01-01

251

From systems chemistry to systems astrobiology: life in the universe as an emergent phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although astrobiology is a science midway between the life and physical sciences, it has surprisingly remained largely disconnected from recent trends in certain branches of both life and physical sciences. We discuss potential applications to astrobiology of approaches that aim at integrating rather than reducing. Aiming at discovering how systems properties emerge has proved valuable in chemistry and in biology. The systems approach should also yield insights into astrobiology, especially concerning the ongoing search for alternative abodes for life. This is feasible since new data banks in the case of astrobiology - considered as a branch of biology - are of a geophysical/astronomical kind, rather than the molecular biology data that are used for questions related firstly, to genetics in a systems context and secondly, to biochemistry for solving fundamental problems, such as protein or proteome folding. By focusing on how systems properties emerge in astrobiology we consider the question: can life in the universe be interpreted as an emergent phenomenon? In the search for potential habitable worlds in our galactic sector with current space missions, extensive data banks of geophysical parameters of exoplanets are rapidly emerging. We suggest that it is timely to consider life in the universe as an emergent phenomenon that can be approached with methods beyond the science of chemical evolution - the backbone of previous research in questions related to the origin of life. The application of systems biology to incorporate the emergence of life in the universe is illustrated with a diagram for the familiar case of our own planetary system, where three Earth-like planets are within the habitable zone (HZ) of a G2 V (the complete terminology for the Sun in the Morgan-Keenan system) star. We underline the advantage of plotting the age of Earth-like planets against large atmospheric fraction of a biogenic gas, whenever such anomalous atmospheres are discovered in these worlds. A prediction is made as to the nature of the atmospheres of the planets that lie in the stellar HZs.

Chela-Flores, J.

2013-01-01

252

News Conference: Bloodhound races into history Competition: School launches weather balloon Course: Update weekends inspire teachers Conference: Finland hosts GIREP conference Astronomy: AstroSchools sets up schools network to share astronomy knowledge Teaching: Delegates praise science events in Wales Resources: ELI goes from strength to strength International: South Sudan teachers receive training Workshop: Delegates experience universality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference: Bloodhound races into history Competition: School launches weather balloon Course: Update weekends inspire teachers Conference: Finland hosts GIREP conference Astronomy: AstroSchools sets up schools network to share astronomy knowledge Teaching: Delegates praise science events in Wales Resources: ELI goes from strength to strength International: South Sudan teachers receive training Workshop: Delegates experience universality

2011-11-01

253

Classroom Assessment in Mathematics: Views from a National Science Foundation Working Conference (Greensboro, North Carolina, May 16-18, 1997).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents papers from a National Science Foundation (NSF) working conference to identify research issues and implementation strategies that support quality classroom assessment. Papers include: (1) "Understanding and Improving Classroom Assessment: Summary of Issues Raised" (George W. Bright and Jeane M. Joyner); (2) "Recommendations…

Bright, George W., Ed.; Joyner, Jeane M., Ed.

254

Education in Library and Information Science. Proceedings of the International Conference (Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, May 21-26, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An international conference attended by 59 participants from 12 countries was organized to present Yugoslavia as a case study to the international audience, to bring to the Yugoslav audience a variety of international experiences in library and information science education and training, and to acquaint participants with some of the new…

Mihel, Ivan, Ed.; Tudor-Silovic, Neva, Ed.

1984-01-01

255

2002 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, Princeton University, March 2022, 2002 Twinflows: Markov Chain Flow Decomposition for Tandem Queues  

E-print Network

2002 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, Princeton University, March 20­22, 2002 -- In this short paper it is reported that the circulatory structure of two tandem finite buffer queues using-product form network, the circulatory structure would consist of some arbitrary pattern of flows. Thus

Robertazzi, Thomas G.

256

PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON THE CHANGING IDENTITY OF GRADUATE EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION (ATLANTA, JANUARY 25-26, 1965).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DISCUSSED ARE THE CHANGING IDENTITY OF GRADUATE EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION, THE FACTORS WHICH PRECIPITATED THESE CHANGES, AND THE RESULTING PROBLEMS. THE CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS INCLUDED EARTH SCIENTISTS WITH DIVERSE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUNDS FROM A BROAD GEOGRAPHICAL AREA. SPECIFIC TOPICS COVERED INCLUDED--(1) PRESENT DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE OF EARTH…

WEAVER, CHARLES E.

257

The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5- 16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Furthermore, the presence of D-enriched organics in meteorites suggests that a portion of these materials survives incorporation into protosolar nebulae. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials in space nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are currently well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept designed to use infrared spectroscopy to address outstanding problems in Astrochemistry which are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and are amenable to astronomical observation. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE was selected for Phase A study during the last MIDEX AO round, but has yet to be selected for flight.

Sandford, S. A.

2003-01-01

258

An Explorer-Class Astrobiology Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we describe a potential new Explorer-class space mission, the AstroBiology Explorer (ABE), consisting of a relatively modest dedicated space observatory having a 50 cm aperture primary mirror which is passively cooled to T less than 65 K, resides in a low-background orbit (heliocentric orbit at 1 AU, Earth drift-away), and is equipped with a suite of three moderate order (m approx. 10) dispersive spectrographs equipped with first-order cross-dispersers in an "echellette" configuration and large format (1024xl024 pixel) near- and mid-IR detector arrays cooled by a modest amount of cryogen. Such a system would be capable of addressing outstanding problems in Astrochemistry and Astrophysics that are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and addressable via astronomical observation. The observational program of this mission would make fundamental scientific progress in each of the key areas of the cosmic history of molecular carbon, the distribution and chemistry of organic compounds in the diffuse and dense interstellar media, and the evolution of ices and organic matter in young planetary systems. ABE could make fundamental progress in all of these areas by conducting an approximately one year mission to obtain a coordinated set of infrared spectroscopic observations over the 2.5-20 micrometers spectral range at spectral resolutions of R greater than or equal to 1000 of approximately 1000 galaxies, stars, planetary nebulae, and young star planetary systems.

Sandford, Scott; Greene, Thomas; Allamandola, Louis; Arno, Roger; Bregman, Jesse; Cox, Sylvia; Davis, Paul K.; Gonzales, Andrew; Haas, Michael; Hanel, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

259

Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Minneapolis, MN, January 8-11, 1998).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 40 papers from this international conference addressed the major theme of facilitating science literacy for all teachers and students. Papers include the following: (1) "Confronting the Gender Gap in Science and Mathematics: The Sisters in Science Program" (P. Hammrich); (2) Teaching Instructional Materials for Science Educators with a CD-ROM…

Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.

260

The Astrobiology Primer: An Outline of General Knowledge - Version 1, 2006  

E-print Network

Astrobiology, the study of life as a planetary phenomenon, aims to understand the fundamental nature of life on earth and the possibility of life elsewhere. To achieve this goal, astrobiologists have initiated unprecedented communication between the disciplines of astronomy, biology, chemistry, and geology. The Astrobiology Primer has been created as a reference tool for those who are interested in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology. The field incorporates many diverse research endeavors, but it is our hope that this slim volume will present the reader with all he or she needs to know to become involved and to understand, at least at a fundamental level, the state of the art. Because of the great diversity of material, each section was written by a different author with a different expertise. The Primer was constructed collaboratively. Ninety researchers from around the world contributed information with regard to what they expected from other astrobiologists and what they would like to know themselves but still had difficulty understanding (see Contributors). Those submissions were read and considered by the Editors who produced a list of seven general categories of knowledge, represented by the seven chapters in the Primer: 1) Stellar Formation and Evolution, 2) Planetary Formation and Evolution, 3) Astrobiogeochemistry and the Origin of Life, 4) Evolution of Life through Time, 5) Planet Detection & Characterization, 6) Diversity of Life, and 7) Science in Space. No one volume, of course, can contain the vast amount of information brought to play in astrobiology, but we believe that the Primer will provide a forum and a language around which the community will have the opportunity to develop a consensus about central issues.

L. J. Mix; J. C. Armstrong; A. M. Mandell; A. C. Mosier; J. Raymond; S. N. Raymond; F. J. Stewart; K. von Braun; O. Zhaxybayeva; L. Billings; V. Cameron; M. Claire; G. J. Dick; S. D. Domagal-Goldman; E. J. Javaux; O. J. Johnson; C. Laws; M. S. Race; J. Rask; J. D. Rummel; R. T. Schelble; S. Vance; ;

2006-10-31

261

Astrobiological landscape: a platform for the neo-Copernican synthesis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We live in the epoch of explosive development of astrobiology, a novel interdisciplinary field dealing with the origin, evolution and the future of life. The relationship between cosmology and astrobiology is much deeper than it is usually assumed - besides a similarity in the historical model of development of these two disciplines, there is an increasing number of crossover problems and thematic areas which stem from considerations of Copernicanism and observation selection effects. Such a crossover area is both visualized and heuristically strengthened by introduction of the astrobiological landscape, describing complexity of life in the most general context. We argue that this abstract landscape-like structure in the space of astrobiological parameters is a concept capable of unifying different strands of thought and research, a working concept and not only a metaphor. By analogy with phase spaces of complex physical systems, we can understand the astrobiological landscape as a set of viable evolutionary histories of life in a particular region of space. It is a notion complementary to the classical concept of biological morphological space, underscoring the fact that modern astrobiology offers a prospect of both foundational support and vast extension of the domain of applicability of the Darwinian biological evolution. Such a perspective would strengthen foundations upon which various numerical models can be built; the lack of such quantitative models has often been cited as the chief weakness of the entire astrobiological enterprise.

?irkovi?, Milan M.; Vukoti?, Branislav

2013-01-01

262

Improving Science Instruction for Students with Disabilities: Proceedings. Working Conference on Science for Persons with Disabilities (Anaheim, California, March 28-29, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proceedings report includes papers presented at a conference on teaching science to students with disabilities. In the first paper, "Family Pedigrees: A Model Lesson Illustrating Strategies for Teaching Students with Disabilities in a Mainstreamed High School Biology Class" (Kathleen Ball and Edward C. Keller, Jr.), strategies are described…

Stefanich, Greg P.; Egelston-Dodd, Judy, Ed.

263

2011 X-Ray Science Gordon Research Conference (August 7-12, 2011, Colby, College. Waterville, ME)  

SciTech Connect

The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on X-ray Science will feature forefront x-ray-based science enabled by the rapid improvements in synchrotron and x-ray laser sources. Across the world, x-ray sources are playing an increasingly important role in physics, materials, chemistry, and biology, expanding into ever broadening areas of science and engineering. With the first hard x-ray free electron laser source beginning operation and with other advanced x-ray sources operational and planned, it is a very exciting and pivotal time for exchange ideas about the future of x-ray science and applications. The Conference will provide the forum for this interaction. An international cast of speakers will illuminate sessions on ultrafast science, coherence, imaging, in situ studies, extreme conditions, new developments in optics, sources, and detectors, inelastic scattering, nanoscience, life science, and energy sciences. The Conference will bring together investigators at the forefront of these areas, and will provide a venue for young scientists entering a career in x-ray research to present their research in poster format, hold discussions in a friendly setting, and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. Some poster presenters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with ample time for discussion as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, will provide an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to exchange ideas about forefront x-ray techniques and will promote cross-fertilization between the various research areas represented.

Gregory Stephenson

2011-08-12

264

The Astrobiology Primer - an Early Career Scientist Education, Outreach and Professional Development Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are early-career scientists jointly leading a project to write 'The Astrobiology Primer', a brief but comprehensive introduction to astrobiology, and we are using the process of producing the document as an innovative way of strengthening the international community of early-career astrobiologists. Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life in our universe. It includes not just study of life on Earth, but also the potential for life to exist beyond Earth, and the development of techniques to search for such life. It therefore incorporates geological and earth sciences, life sciences, chemistry, astronomy and planetary sciences. This requires astrobiologists to integrate these different disciplines in order to address questions such as 'How did Earth and its biosphere originate?', 'How do life and the physical, chemical and geological cycles on Earth interact, and affect each other?' and so 'What does life on Earth tell us about the habitability of environments outside Earth?'. The primer will provide a brief but comprehensive introduction to the field; it will be significantly more comprehensive than a normal review paper but much shorter than a textbook. This project is an initiative run entirely by early-career scientists, for the benefit of other early-career scientists and others. All the writers and editors of the primer are graduate/post-graduate students or post-doctoral fellows, and our primary target group for the primer is other early-career scientists, although we hope and expect that the primer will also be useful far more broadly in education and outreach work. An Astrobiology Primer was first published in 2006(Ref1), written and edited by a small group of early-career astrobiologists to provide an introduction to astrobiology for other early-career scientists new to the field. It has been used not only by the target group for private study, but in formal education and outreach settings at universities and high-schools. We are now producing a second edition, which is an entirely new re-write, and we are making the process of producing the primer a development opportunity in its own right, to strengthen the international community of early-career astrobiologists. We have recruited a large team of writers and editors, 45 people from 11 different countries across North and South America, Europe and Australia. By working together on this joint project we are strengthening links between early-career scientists in these countries. In addition, we have a wider group of early-career astrobiologists who we consulted on the content that the primer should include. We have also recruited early-career scientists from this group, and more widely, to act as 'accessibility reviewers' to check that the primer meets its goal of being clear to people who are not experts in the field. We expect that the primer will be published in 2012, in several different languages. It will be freely available online to all who want it. References 1. Mix LM et al (2006) The Astrobiology Primer : An Outline of General Knowledge - Version 1, 2006 Astrobiology 6(5) : 735-813

Wright, K. E.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.

2011-12-01

265

Cambridge University science magazine Michaelmas 2012  

E-print Network

University science magazine from Academic Spring . Sleep Deprivation Astrobiology . Neil deGrasse Tyson FOCUS Behind the Science Matthew Dunstan explores the life of controversial physicist Neil deGrasseTyson 30

Cambridge, University of

266

Astrobiological Research on Tardigrades: Implications for Extraterrestrial Life Forms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tardigrades have been considered as a model for astrobiological studies based on their tolerance to extreme environments. Future research on tardigrades might provide important insight into the possibilities of existence of multicellular life forms.

Horikawa, D. D.

2013-11-01

267

Jovian Magnetospheric Impacts on Determination of Europa's Astrobiological Potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiological potential of Europa for potential habitability and life is governed by availability of liquid water, organic chemistry, and energy. Jovian magnetospheric interactions impact and can even enable surveys for these resources.

Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C.

2014-02-01

268

Ideal Microhabitats on Mars: The Astrobiological Potential of Polar Dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiological potential of polar Dark Dunes: they may hold less oxidants, trap water-ice, mm layer of them shields UV radiation, allows light income for photosynthesis. Water uptake in nighttime, temperature in daytime is favorable for metabolism.

Gánti, T.; Pócs, T.; Bérczi, Sz.; Horváth, A.; Kereszturi, A.; Sik, A.; Szathmáry, E.

2009-03-01

269

Possible Role of a Medical Microbiologist in Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of microorganisms present in human body often reveal many extremophiles, silicon-utilizing microorganisms, mutation processes, coacervates etc., thus a medical microbiologist can also take a part in studies on astrobiology in this way.

Das, S.; Roy, B. K.

2010-04-01

270

Diversity in Astrobiology: Surviving Financial, Institutional and Technical Extremes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the development of an astrobiology program at an undergraduate institution, South Carolina State University, a HBCU in a rural setting. Included are successes and barriers to developing curriculum, research and outreach programs.

Walter, D. K.

2010-04-01

271

IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

2006-01-01

272

News Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

2013-03-01

273

51st Annual Early Childhood Conference Dr. Aimee Lee Govett: Center for Math and Science Education,  

E-print Network

University School #12;Introduction · The History of Organic Gardening 251st Annual Early Childhood Conference Conference #12;K-Kids Organic Garden University School Teacher: Ms. Mary Myron 551st Annual Early Childhood are spectacular! 2251st Annual Early Childhood Conference #12;Second Grade Organic Gardening University School

Karsai, Istvan

274

Website for the Space Science Division  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Science Division at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to research in astrophysics, exobiology, advanced life support technologies, and planetary science. These research programs are structured around Astrobiology (the study of life in the universe and the chemical and physical forces and adaptions that influence life's origin, evolution, and destiny), and address some of the most fundamental questions pursued by science. These questions examine the origin of life and our place in the universe. Ames is recognized as a world leader in Astrobiology. In pursuing our mission in Astrobiology, Space Science Division scientists perform pioneering basic research and technology development.

Schilling, James; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

275

Astrobiology and green chemistry: a new pedagogical connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various pedagogical approaches are needed to introduce astrobiology into the chemistry curriculum. We are developing a new approach in which we connect green chemistry with astrobiology. Green chemistry is chemistry which is environmentally friendly. One obvious way for the organic chemistry to be environmentally friendly is to use water as solvent, instead of more toxic organic solvents. Another approach is to run so-called solventless reactions. For example, as the solid materials are mixed together, the melting point of the mixture is lower than the melting points of its individual components (the principle of the mixed-melting point). In some cases the entire mixture may melt upon mixing. The reactions would then occur in a viscous semi-solid state. An additional approach is to run the reactions by utilizing enzymes or man-made protein mimics as catalysts instead of toxic catalysts, such as those based on the transition metals. These and some other known examples of green chemistry have a great potential for astrobiology. The astrobiological reactions typically occur in water (e.g. prebiotic soup), in the solid mixtures (e.g. on the meteors), and may be catalyzed by various short peptides. The connection between the green chemistry principles and astrobiology represents a new pedagogical approach for infusion of astrobiology into the organic chemistry.

Kolb, Vera M.

2009-08-01

276

Lectures notes in Computer Science 2610, Proceedings 6th European Conference, EuroGP 2003, Essex, UK, April 14-16, 2003.  

E-print Network

Lectures notes in Computer Science 2610, Proceedings 6th European Conference, EuroGP 2003, Essex, UK, April 14-16, 2003. Disease modeling using Evolved Discriminate Function. James Cunha Werner European Conference, EuroGP 2003, Essex, UK, April 14-16, 2003. While false positive is a safe condition

Fernandez, Thomas

277

In Journal Of Universal Computer Science Proc. I-Know 2007, 7th International Conference on Knowledge Management, KVD Workshop, Graz, Austria, sept 2007  

E-print Network

on Knowledge Management, KVD Workshop, Graz, Austria, sept 2007 Visual tools decipher historic artefacts in "I-Know 2007, 7th International Conference on Knowledge Management, KVD Workshop, Austria (2007)" #12 In Journal Of Universal Computer Science ­ Proc. I-Know 2007, 7th International Conference on Knowledge

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

Building the System: Making Science Education Work. Putting the Pieces Together. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (2nd, Washington, D.C., February 24-26, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Systemic reform, by definition, requires a concerted effort on the part of many toward change. In an effort to continue to promote systemic reform in science and mathematics education, a 3-day conference provided the forum necessary for many to share their insights and concerns on the issues. A brief discussion of four components of the conference

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

279

Proceedings of a Conference on a National Information System in the Mathematical Sciences (Harrison House, Glen Cove, New York, January 18-20, 1970).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this conference was to consider ways of developing a system of improved information services for the mathematical sciences and for the interfaces with related scientific fields. Conference memebrs investigated the achievements, coverage, and technology of existing information services and systems in the fields of engineering,…

Phelps, C. Russell, Ed.

280

Tenth Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Conference (MAICS 99), Bloomington, IN. (to appear) NOVICE VS. EXPERT TUTORS: A COMPARISON OF STYLE  

E-print Network

Tenth Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Conference (MAICS Ã?99), Bloomington, IN regulation in the human body. The machine tutor is designed to imitate aspects of human tutorial dialogue

281

CASANZ Conference Linking Air Pollution, Science, Policy and Management -Newcastle, NSW Australia 23-27 Nov 2003 Page 1 of 5  

E-print Network

CASANZ Conference ­ Linking Air Pollution, Science, Policy and Management - Newcastle, NSW related to ventilation rate changes. Keywords: Chicken, Ventilation, Air Quality, Poultry. 1. Introduction about the industry's impact on local and regional air quality. Quantitative estimates are also required

Kentucky, University of

282

Astrobiological and Geological Implications of Convective Transport in Icy Outer Planet Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oceans of large icy outer planet satellites are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life in our solar system. The goal of our project has been to develop models of ice convection in order to understand convection as an astrobiologically relevant transport mechanism within icy satellites, especially Europa. These models provide valuable constraints on modes of surface deformation and thus the implications of satellite surface geology for astrobiology, and for planetary protection. Over the term of this project, significant progress has been made in three areas: (1) the initiation of convection in large icy satellites, which we find probably requires tidal heating; (2) the relationship of surface features on Europa to internal ice convection, including the likely role of low-melting-temperature impurities; and (3) the effectiveness of convection as an agent of icy satellite surface-ocean material exchange, which seems most plausible if tidal heating, compositional buoyancy, and solid-state convection work in combination. Descriptions of associated publications include: 3 published papers (including contributions to 1 review chapter), 1 manuscript in revision, 1 manuscript in preparation (currently being completed under separate funding), and 1 published popular article. A myriad of conference abstracts have also been published, and only those from the past year are listed.

Pappalardo, Robert T.; Zhong, Shi-Jie; Barr, Amy

2005-01-01

283

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 21st, Houston, TX, Mar. 12-16, 1990, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present conference on lunar and planetary science discusses the geology and geophysics of Venus; the lunar highlands and regolith; magmatic processes of the moon and meteorites; remote sensing of the moon and Mars; chondrites, cosmic dust, and comets; ammonia-water mixtures; and the evolution of volcanism, tectonics, and volatiles on Mars. Attention is given to volcanism on Venus, pristine moon rocks, the search for Crisium Basin ejecta, Apollo 14 glasses, lunar anorthosites, the sources of mineral fragments in impact melts 15445 and 15455, and argon adsorption in the lunar atmosphere. Also discussed are high-pressure experiments on magnesian eucrite compositions, the early results of thermal diffusion in metal-sulfide liquids, preliminary results of imaging spectroscopy of the Humorum Basin region of the moon, high-resolution UV-visible spectroscopy of lunar red spots, and a radar-echo model for Mars. Other topics addressed include nitrogen isotopic signatures in the Acapulco Meteorite, tridymite and maghemite formation in an Fe-SiO smoke, and the enigma of mottled terrain on Mars.

Ryder, Graham (editor); Sharpton, Virgil L. (editor)

1991-01-01

284

Building on Family Strengths: Research and Services in Support of Children and Their Families. Proceedings of the Building on Family Strengths Annual Conference (14th, Portland, Oregon, May 31-June 2, 2007) and State of the Science Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The State of the Science conference was held in May, 2007 as part of the ongoing series of national conferences, "Building on Family Strengths," conducted by the Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health at Portland State University. The theme of this State-of-the Science conference was "Effective services for all…

Swart, Sandra, Ed.; Friesen, Barbara, Ed.; Holman, Ariel, Ed.; Aue, Nicole, Ed.

2009-01-01

285

Contribution to a symbiogenic approach in astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article intends to continue our previous work on the symbiogenic approach to chemical and biological evolution. We believe that cooperative and synergistic processes were responsible, using terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials, for the creation of a large prebiotic pool, closely related to geochemical contexts, and intense interactions within. Probably, a series of synergistic and cooperative effects produced a wide source of creativity, and functional advantages that pushed the emergence of complex and functionally integrated biological systems, through the evolution of self-organization and auto-catalysis. It was only after this biochemical evolution of structures, which produced the informational capabilities necessary for self-replication, that the Darwinian mechanisms could arise. This way of perceiving the emergence of life follows the proposals regarding life's initial evolution in which the progenote proposed consisted in an open community of very diverse primitive cellular entities with intense symbiotic associations, antagonisms, and competition, and with a rapid and reticulate pattern of evolution. We believe this symbiogenic approach should be considered in the understanding of chemical and biological evolution. This discussion contributes to the development of astrobiological knowledge, since it gives other perspectives about life's appearance and development on Earth and elsewhere.

Carrapiço, Francisco; Pereira, Luísa; Rodrigues, Telma

2007-09-01

286

Volcanic Rocks As Targets For Astrobiology Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost two decades of study highlight the importance of terrestrial subaqueous volcanic rocks as microbial habitats, particularly in glass produced by the quenching of basaltic lava upon contact with water. On Earth, microbes rapidly begin colonizing glassy surfaces along fractures and cracks exposed to water. Microbial colonization of basaltic glass leads to enhanced alteration through production of characteristic granular and/or tubular bioalteration textures. Infilling of formerly hollow alteration textures by minerals enable their preservation through geologic time. Basaltic rocks are a major component of the Martian crust and are widespread on other solar system bodies. A variety of lines of evidence strongly suggest the long-term existence of abundant liquid water on ancient Mars. Recent orbiter, lander and rover missions have found evidence for the presence of transient liquid water on Mars, perhaps persisting to the present day. Many other solar system bodies, notably Europa, Enceladus and other icy satellites, may contain (or have once hosted) subaqueous basaltic glasses. The record of terrestrial glass bioalteration has been interpreted to extend back ~3.5 billion years and is widespread in modern oceanic crust and its ancient metamorphic equivalents. The terrestrial record of glass bioalteration strongly suggests that glassy or formerly glassy basaltic rocks on extraterrestrial bodies that have interacted with liquid water are high-value targets for astrobiological exploration.

Banerjee, N.

2010-12-01

287

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences dedicated to the centenary of L D Landau's birth (22-23 January 2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences dedicated to the centenary of L D Landau's birth was held in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, on 22 and 23 January 2008. An Opening Address by A F Andreev and the following reports were presented at the session:

A. F. Andreev; Yu M. Kagan; L. P. Pitaevskii; I. M. Khalatnikov; A. Yu Kamenshchik; B. L. Ioffe; L. B. Okun; L. N. Lipatov

2008-01-01

288

Conference Cash Handling, 1/27/10, Penny Ayers PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

" organization number from the unit manager and an "agency" fund number from Extramural Funds Accounting. The new fund and is responsible for account reconciliation and financial reporting to the conference host. 6: Registration fees for a conference may be received in five ways: a. Credit card (on-line via University

California at Santa Cruz, University of

289

The Conference on Corporate Interference with Science and Health: fracking, food and wireless: genesis, rationale, and results.  

PubMed

A number of serious environmental health hazards created by under-regulated/unregulated industries have morphed into public health crises around the world. The Conference on Corporate Interference with Science and Health (the Conference) was held to examine this trend in three economically significant industries: fracking, food, and wireless. The Conference provided an overview of the structures of these three industries and the history of standard-setting therein, identified the sources of environmental exposures created by these industries, and surveyed the health consequences of these exposures and the policies that have resulted in them. It then examined corporate influence on the setting of these policies and the production of scientific studies and interpretation of their results. The Conference also analyzed the general influence of corporations on the political system and the relationship of this conflict of interest to the aforementioned topics. The concluding discussion focused on what solutions could be implemented to improve public health, including what institutional changes are necessary to promote public awareness and change policy. PMID:24413210

Kopald, Deborah E

2013-01-01

290

Report on the 10th anniversary of international drug discovery science and technology conference, 8 - 10 november 2012, nanjing, china.  

PubMed

The 10th Anniversary of International Drug Discovery Science and Technology (IDDST) Conference was held in Nanjing, China from 8 to 10 November 2012. The conference ran in parallel with the 2nd Annual Symposium of Drug Delivery Systems. Over 400 delegates from both conferences came together for the Opening Ceremony and Keynote Addresses but otherwise pursued separate paths in the huge facilities of the Nanjing International Expo Centre. The IDDST was arranged into 19 separate Chapters covering drug discovery biology, target validation, chemistry, rational drug design, pharmacology and toxicology, drug screening technology, 'omics' technologies, analytical, automation and enabling technologies, informatics, stem cells and regenerative medicine, bioprocessing, generics, biosimilars and biologicals and seven disease areas: cancer, CNS, respiratory and inflammation, autoimmune, emerging infectious, bone and orphan diseases. There were also two sessions of a 'Bench to Bedside to Business' Program and a Chinese Scientist programme. In each period of the IDDST conference, up to seven sessions were running in parallel. This Meeting Highlight samples just a fraction of the content of this large meeting. The talks included have as a link, the use of new approaches to drug discovery. Many other excellent talks could have been highlighted and the author has necessarily had to be selective. PMID:23339328

Everett, Jeremy R

2013-03-01

291

Conference Note:  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joint UVSG/CORM Conference on Spectrometry University of Oxford, UK, September 14 17, 1986 The UV Spectrometry Group of the United Kingdom and the US Council for Optical Radiation Measurements (CORM) have agreed to co-sponsor a joint scientific conference on new developments in optical spectrometry and spectrophotometry. The conference will be held September 14 17, 1986 at the Clarendon Laboratory of Oxford University and will feature invited lectures on: Basic Concepts of Spectrometry in Analytical Chemistry and Colour Science High-Accuracy Spectrometry at National Laboratories Standards and Calibration Methods for Spectrometry New Trends (Diode-Array, Fourier-Transform, and Tunable Dye laser Spectrometry) The conference participants will be offered accommodation in college. More complete details will be given in future notices. In the meantime, questions may be directed to the US conference chairman, Dr Klaus D Mielenz, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md 20899, USA. Telephone (301) 921-3864.

1985-01-01

292

Science, Technology and the Liberal Arts: Report on a National Conference Held at Lehigh University (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, April 1-3, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference was designed to provide information on the development and implementation of seven undergraduate science courses primarily for non-science majors at Lehigh University, to examine what ought to be the objectives of courses such as these in the liberal arts curriculum, and to describe parallel efforts with similar educational…

Cutcliffe, Stephen H.; Goldman, Steven L.

293

National Association for Research in Science Teaching Annual Conference (64th, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, April 7-10, 1991). Abstracts of Presented Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of most of the papers, symposia, discussion groups, round tables, and poster sessions presented at the 64th conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) are provided. Subject areas addressed are as follows: teacher knowledge, cognitive development, conceptual change, curriculum issues, reform in science

National Association for Research in Science Teaching.

294

New directions for understanding systemic risk: a report on a conference cosponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the National Academy of Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Reserve Bank of New York released a report -- New Directions for Understanding Systemic Risk -- that presents key findings from a cross-disciplinary conference that it cosponsored in May 2006 with the National Academy of Sciences' Board on Mathematical Sciences and Their Applications. ; The pace of financial innovation over the past decade has increased the complexity and

John Kambhu; Scott Weidman; Neel Krishnan

2007-01-01

295

Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the proceedings of the 2002 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002. Papers include: (1) "Teaching Science Methods Courses with Web-Enhanced Activities" (Alec M. Bodzin); (2) "How Is Your Lawnmower Working?…

Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

296

Astrobiology Field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments: Preface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

2011-01-01

297

Astrobiology from exobiology: Viking and the current Mars probes.  

PubMed

The development of an Astrobiology Program is an extension of current exobiology programs. Astrobiology is the scientific study of the origin, distribution, evolution, and future of life in the universe. It encompasses exobiology; formation of elements, stars, planets, and organic molecules; initiation of replicating organisms; biological evolution; gravitational biology; and human exploration. Current interest in life on Mars provides the scientific community with an example of scientific inquiry that has mass appeal. Technology is mature enough to search for life in the universe. PMID:11541152

Soffen, G A

1997-01-01

298

Astrobiological Implications of Rock Varnish in Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of terrestrial geomicrobiology and its relationship to rock weathering processes is an essential tool in developing analogues for similar processes that may have occurred on Mars. Most studies of manganese-enhanced rock varnish have focused on samples taken from warm arid desert regions. Here, we examine samples obtained from eolian-abraded lava flows of the 4700-4800 m high Ashikule Basin in Tibet. Because it receives approximately 300 mm of precipitation annually, this site is nowhere near as dry as Atacama Desert locales. However, the dusty, sulfate-rich, high-altitude and high-UV flux environment of the Tibetan locale offers new insight into rock varnish formation processes in a terrestrial environment that displays some attributes similar to those expected on early Mars. Microprobe measurements reveal that Mn enhancements in varnish are two orders of magnitude above the dust source, but Fe is only enhanced by a factor of three. Manganese-enhancing bacterial forms are not abundant but are still approximately 3 times more common than in Mojave and Sonoran Desert varnishes. In addition to its occurrence in subaerial positions, Tibetan varnish also occurs in micron-scale "pods" enveloped by silica glaze and as remobilized constituents that have migrated into the underlying weathering rind. A lack of surficial Mn-rich varnish, therefore, might not imply the absence of varnish. In contrast to suggestions that silica glaze might be a good source of microbial fossils and a key to varnish formation, we did not observe any clear microfossil forms entombed in silica glaze; further, there is no gradation between varnish and silica glaze but only distinct contacts. %K Analogue, Astrobiology, Bacteria, Biomineralization, Desert varnish, Geomicrobiology, Life on Mars, Manganese enhancement, Rock coating, Rock varnish, Microstromatolite, Tibet, Weathering

Krinsley, David; Dorn, Ronald I.; DiGregorio, Barry

2009-08-01

299

PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) was held in Kyoto, Japan on 2-5 October 2012 with the 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25). SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. APCPST and SPSM are jointly held biennially to survey the current status of low temperature and thermal plasma physics and chemistry for industrial applications. The whole area of plasma processing was covered from fundamentals to applications. Previous meetings were held in China, Japan, Korea, and Australia, attended by scientists from the Asia-Pacific and other countries. The joint conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 386 participants from 10 countries and 398 presentations, including 26 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that covered green innovation, life innovation, and technical reports from industry. This conference seeks to bring the plasma community together and to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues, the challenges ahead in the field of plasma research and applications among engineers and scientists in Asia, the Pacific Rim, as well as Europe. This volume presents 44 papers that were selected via a strict peer-review process from full papers submitted for the proceedings of the conference. The topics range from the basic physics and chemistry of plasma processing to a broad variety of materials processing and environmental applications. This volume offers an overview of recent advances in thermal and non-equilibrium plasmas as well as on more new and innovative developments in the field of life innovation, green innovation and a technical report session. The editors hope that this volume will be useful and helpful for deepening our understanding of science and technology of plasma materials processing and also for stimulating further development of the plasma technology. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the organizing committee, the advisory committee, the executive committee, the program committee, the publication committee, organizing secretariat and financial support from The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, JSPS. Sponsors and Supporting Organization: The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Organizing Committee Chairperson: Osamu Tsuji, SAMCO Corporation, Japan Advisory Committee Chairperson: Akihisa Matsuda, Osaka University, Japan Executive Committee Chairperson: Masaru Hori, Nagoya University, Japan Program Committee Chairperson: Takamasa Ishigaki, Hosei University, Japan Publication Committee Chairperson: Takayuki Watanabe, Kyushu University Editors of APCPST-11 and SPMS-25 Professor Takayuki Watanabe, Kyushu University, Japan Professor Toshio Kaneko, Tohoku University, Japan Professor Makoto Sekine, Nagoya University, Japan Professor Yasunori Tanaka, Kanazawa University, Japan

Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori

2013-06-01

300

Fifth International Conference on Japanese Information in Science, Technology and Commerce.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This conference is the fifth biennial program examining the practices and politics of access to Japanese scientific, technical, and business information. The themes explored focused on the various aspects involving the diffusion of Japanese information an...

1997-01-01

301

Investigation of Life in the Atacama Desert by Astrobiology Rover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Desert is the most arid region on Earth and in several ways analogous to Mars. It has been suggested that the interior of the desert is the most lifeless place on Earth, yet it is known that microorganisms exist on rocks and in soils where the desert meets the coastal range. The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project is investigating the distribution and diversity of life and habitats in the desert using an rover guided by a remote science team. The Atacama Desert presents an excellent analogue to Mars because it is extremely dry, but also, like Mars it experiences high levels of ultraviolet radiation due to its altitude and atmospheric transparency. The soils in the Atacama have been found to be particularly high in oxidants, which lead to the rapid breakdown of organic material. The result is that in some regions of desert almost no biogenic material can be found on the surface. To the benefit of analogue studies for Mars exploration, the desert visually resembles Mars as seen through rover cameras. For these reasons: aridity, ultraviolet radiation and soil composition we believe the Atacama is analogous to Mars and an excellent location for rover field experiments. To support our astrobiologic investigation, we have created a mobile robot, Zo, that makes the measurement of the distribution and diversity of microorganisms possible. Mobility is crucial as habitats are hypothesized to depend on locally variable conditions including moisture, solar flux, and rock/soil composition. The ability to traverse tens to hundreds of kilometers while deploying sensors is a fundamental requirement because only by visiting many sites will the few in which organisms exist be found. Many observations provide the basis for statistically valid analysis of distribution. Zo's instrument payload combines complementary elements, some directed towards remote sensing of the environment (geology, morphology, mineralogy, climate) for the detection of conditions favorable to terrestrial life and some directed toward the in situ detection of life's signatures (biological and physical, such as biological constructs and patterns). The payload is designed to both detect organic biomarkers, including DNA, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, and to characterize habitats. The existence of endoliths in extreme environments similar to early Mars makes the testing of detection methods for chlorophyll-based life a valid working hypothesis. Whether or not life on Mars (if any) used-or uses-photosynthesis, detecting its signature will likely involve accessing isolated oases scattered over large distances. LITA is demonstrating this capability in a relevant terrestrial analogue. In our first field season (2003) we found that microhabitats, on the scale of a few meters or tens of meters, were sparsely distributed in coastal regions and were detectable by fluorescent and spectral signatures. In our second season (2004) Zo revisited the coastal region and also investigated the existence and character of habitats in the desert core. In the third field season (2005), with our astrobiology payload fully functional and operational procedures established, the rover is collecting measurements that provide the basis for a map of life in local areas. Our goal is to make genuine discoveries about the limits of life on Earth and to generate knowledge about life in extreme environments that can be applied to future planetary missions. Through these experiments we also hope to develop and practice the methods by which a rover might best be employed to survey desert terrain and seek evidence of life.

Wettergreen, D.; Cabrol, N.

2005-12-01

302

The Aouda.X space suit simulator and its applications to astrobiology.  

PubMed

We have developed the space suit simulator Aouda.X, which is capable of reproducing the physical and sensory limitations a flight-worthy suit would have on Mars. Based upon a Hard-Upper-Torso design, it has an advanced human-machine interface and a sensory network connected to an On-Board Data Handling system to increase the situational awareness in the field. Although the suit simulator is not pressurized, the physical forces that lead to a reduced working envelope and physical performance are reproduced with a calibrated exoskeleton. This allows us to simulate various pressure regimes from 0.3-1 bar. Aouda.X has been tested in several laboratory and field settings, including sterile sampling at 2800 m altitude inside a glacial ice cave and a cryochamber at -110°C, and subsurface tests in connection with geophysical instrumentation relevant to astrobiology, including ground-penetrating radar, geoacoustics, and drilling. The communication subsystem allows for a direct interaction with remote science teams via telemetry from a mission control center. Aouda.X as such is a versatile experimental platform for studying Mars exploration activities in a high-fidelity Mars analog environment with a focus on astrobiology and operations research that has been optimized to reduce the amount of biological cross contamination. We report on the performance envelope of the Aouda.X system and its operational limitations. PMID:22300413

Groemer, Gernot E; Hauth, Stefan; Luger, Ulrich; Bickert, Klaus; Sattler, Birgit; Hauth, Eva; Föger, Daniel; Schildhammer, Daniel; Agerer, Christian; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Kaineder, Felix; Knoflach, Martin

2012-02-01

303

Identifying Organic Molecules in Space: The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5-16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds are detected and identified in space. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding (1) the evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds and young forming stellar systems, (2) the chemical evolution of organic molecules in the ISM as they transition from AGB outflows to planetary nebulae to the general diffuse ISM to H II regions and dense clouds, (3) the distribution of organics in the diffuse ISM, (4) the nature of organics in the Solar System (in comets, asteroids, satellites), and (5) the nature and distribution of organics in local galaxies. The technical considerations of achieving these science objectives in a MIDEX-sized mission will be described.

Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse; Ennico, Kimberly; Greene, Thomas; Hudgins, Douglas; Strecker, Donald; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

304

News Astronomy: Science and beauty combined Africa: Physics technicians offer valuable skills Conference: ESERA2013 brings researchers together in Cyprus Physics Olympiad: UK team bring home more medals from the Physics Olympics in Copenhagen Physics Tournament: IOC backs Shrewsbury to host IYPT 2014 Conference: MPTL18 looks at the latest multimedia developments Workshop: The selective absorption of light Science on Stage: Illuminating Science Education in London in 2015  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy: Science and beauty combined Africa: Physics technicians offer valuable skills Conference: ESERA2013 brings researchers together in Cyprus Physics Olympiad: UK team bring home more medals from the Physics Olympics in Copenhagen Physics Tournament: IOC backs Shrewsbury to host IYPT 2014 Conference: MPTL18 looks at the latest multimedia developments Workshop: The selective absorption of light Science on Stage: Illuminating Science Education in London in 2015

2013-11-01

305

ASTROBIOLOGY Habitability of Enceladus: Planetary Conditions for Life  

E-print Network

ASTROBIOLOGY Habitability of Enceladus: Planetary Conditions for Life Christopher D. Parkinson of an icy satellite, and to look for interesting chemistry and possible signs of life. Based on studies of the potential habitability of Jupiter's moon Europa, icy satellite oceans can be habitable

306

Is there intelligent life out there? Astrobiology Biogeocatalysis  

E-print Network

ERSITY ASTROBIOLOGY BIOGEOCATALYSIS RESEARCH CENTER | 3 how likely are we to contact aliens? The Drake Equation to use the Drake Equation to make a prediction. Predict How many alien civilizations do you think we have of scientists. The nearby natural laboratory of Yellowstone National Park provides ABRC with unique field

Maxwell, Bruce D.

307

Research Article Astrobiological Implications of Rock Varnish in Tibet  

E-print Network

from warm arid desert regions. Here, we examine samples obtained from eolian-abraded lava flows coating--Rock varnish--Microstromatolite--Tibet--Weathering. Astrobiology 9, 551­562. Introduction Ever since shiny dark coatings were first imaged by cameras on board the 1976 Viking landers (Moore et al

Dorn, Ron

308

Astrobiologically Interesting Stars Within 10 Parsecs of the Sun  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of life based on carbon chemistry and water oceans relies upon planetary properties, chiefly climate stability, and stellar properties, such as mass, age, metallicity, and galactic orbits. The latter can be well constrained with present knowledge. We present a detailed, up-to-date compilation of the atmospheric parameters, chemical composition, multiplicity, and degree of chromospheric activity for the astrobiologically interesting

Gustavo Porto de Mello; Eduardo F. del Peloso; Luan Ghezzi

2006-01-01

309

Life in Ice: Implications to Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 2008 Tawani International Expedition Schirmacher Oasis/Lake Untersee Antarctica Expedition, living and instantly motile bacteria were found in freshly thawed meltwater from ice of the Schirmacher Oasis Lakes, the Anuchin Glacier ice and samples of the that perennial ice sheet above Lake Untersee. This phenomenon of living bacteria encased in ice had previously been observed in the 32,000 year old ice of the Fox Tunnel. The bacteria found in this ice included the strain FTR1T which was isolated and published as valid new species (Carnobacterium pleistocenium) the first validly published living Pleistocene organism still alive today. Living bacteria were also extracted from ancient ice cores from Vostok, Antarctica. The discovery that many strains of bacteria are able to survive and remain alive while frozen in ice sheets for long periods of time may have direct relevance to Astrobiology. The abundance of viable bacteria in the ice sheets of Antarctica suggests that the presence of live bacteria in ice is common, rather than an isolated phenomenon. This paper will discuss the results of recent studies at NSSTC of bacteria cryopreserved in ice. This paper advances the hypothesis that cryopreserved cells, and perhaps even viable bacterial cells, may exist today--frozen in the water-ice of lunar craters, the Polar Caps or craters of Mars; or in the permafrost of Mars; ice and rocks of comets or water bearing asteroids; or in the frozen crusts of the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The existence of bacterial life in ice suggests that it may not be necessary to drill through a thick ice crust to reach liquid water seas deep beneath the icy crusts of Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus. The presence of viable bacteria in the ice of the Earth s Polar Caps suggests that the possibility that cryo-panspermia (i.e., the trans-planetary transfer of microbial life by impact ejection/spallation of bacteria-rich polar ice masses) deserves serious consideration and study as a possible natural phenomenon of the solar system that may have played a profoundly important role in the Origin of Life on Earth and the Distribution of Life in the Cosmos. The paper concludes with a consideration of the protective properties of ice by absorption of UV-B, UV-C, h-rays, gamma-rays and the high energy proton environment of the Jupiter Radiation Belt. A proposed instrument that may provide additional data on the potential survivability of microbial extremophiles encased in ice and subjected to the simulated space environment will be briefly described.

Hoover, Richard B.

2009-01-01

310

PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China

Yu-Gang Ma; En-Ke Wang; Xu Cai; Huan-Zhong Huang; Xin-Nian Wang; Zhi-Yuan Zhu

2007-01-01

311

Proceedings of the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of the National Space Science Data Center Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications held July 23 through 25, 1991 at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The program includes a keynote address, invited technical papers, and selected technical presentations to provide a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

Blackwell, Kim; Blasso, Len (editor); Lipscomb, Ann (editor)

1991-01-01

312

Conference Highlights Converging Technologies  

NSF Publications Database

... 21, 2003 Conference HighlightsConverging Technologies Experts from industry, academia and government ... and Technology Council's Subcommittee on Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology, and Carlo ...

313

Exploring Astrobiology: Future and In-Service Teacher Research Experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational Astrobiology program titled, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.” The purpose of the program was to provide educators with the materials, exposure, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. A one-week, non-residential summer enrichment program for high school students was conducted and tested by two high school educators, an undergraduate student, and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired in-service teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with an undergraduate student interested in becoming a teacher through the Tech to Teaching program. The GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles which have adapted to life under extreme environmental conditions. As a result, extremophiles became the focus of a week-long, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology” curriculum aligned with the Georgia Performance Standards in Biology. Twenty-five high school students explored the adaptation and survival rates for various types of extremophiles exposed to UV radiation and desiccation; students were also introduced to hands-on activities and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact on everyone invested and involved in the Astrobiology program including the GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Snell, T.; Gaucher, E.; Harris, B.; Usselman, M. C.; Millman, R. S.

2009-12-01

314

PREFACE: International Conference on Advancement in Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST): Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 4th International Conference on the Advancement of Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST 2012), with theme 'Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications', took place in Kuantan, Malaysia, from Wednesday 7 to Friday 9 November 2012. The conference was attended by more than 100 participants, and hosted about 160 oral and poster papers by more than 140 pre-registered authors. The key topics of the 4th iCAST 2012 include Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Dynamical Systems, Statistics and Financial Mathematics. The scientific program was rather full since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, four parallel sessions ran every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful; thus all attendees had a creative time. The conference aimed to promote the knowledge and development of high-quality research in mathematical fields concerned with the application of other scientific fields as well as modern technological trends in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, sociology and environmental sciences. We would like to thank the Keynote and the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to 4th iCAST 2012. We would also like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. We cannot end without expressing our many thanks to International Islamic University Malaysia and our sponsors for their financial support . This volume presents selected papers which have been peer-reviewed. The editors hope that it may be useful and fruitful for scholars, researchers, and advanced technical members of the industrial laboratory facilities for developing new tools and products. Guest Editors Nasir Ganikhodjaev, Farrukh Mukhamedov and Pah Chin Hee The PDF contains the committee lists, board list and biographies of the plenary speakers.

Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Hee, Pah Chin

2013-04-01

315

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Collective electron phenomena and electron transport in graphene Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy Of Sciences (27 February 2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held on February 27, 2008 in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Lozovik Yu E, Merkulova S P, Sokolik A A (RAS Institute for Spectroscopy, Troitsk, Moscow Region) "Collective electron phenomena in graphene"; (2) Morozov S V (RAS Institute for Problems in Micro-electronics Technology, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region), Novoselov K S, Geim A K (University of Manchester, Manchester, UK) "Electron transport in graphene." An abridged version of these reports is given below. • Collective electron phenomena in graphene, Yu E Lozovik, S P Merkulova, A A Sokolik Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 7, Pages 727-744 • Electron transport in graphene, S V Morozov, K S Novoselov, A K Geim Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 7, Pages 744-748

Lozovik, Yu E.; Merkulova, S. P.; Sokolik, A. A.; Morozov, S. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.

2008-08-01

316

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Commemoration of the centenary of the birth of S.M. Rytov (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 November 2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the Conference Hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on November 26, 2008. The session was dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Sergei Mikhailovich Rytov. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Gulyaev Yu V

Yurii V. Gulyaev; Yurii N. Barabanenkov; Alexander E. Kaplan; S. N. Volkov; Valery I. Klyatskin; Lev S. Dolin

2009-01-01

317

Research in Science Education, Volume 5. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (6th, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, May 19-21, 1975).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains papers presented at the sixth Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (ASERA) held at Flinders University in May, 1975. Paper topics include: pupil learning and classroom climate, teacher structuring behavior, the Australian Science Education Project (ASEP), cognitive preference and…

Lucas, A. M., Ed.; Power, Colin, N., Ed.

318

Field astrobiology research in Moon-Mars analogue environments: instruments and methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the field demonstration of astrobiology instruments and research methods conducted in and from the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah during the EuroGeoMars campaign 2009 coordinated by ILEWG, ESA/ESTEC and NASA Ames, with the contribution of academic partners. We discuss the entire experimental approach from determining the geological context using remote sensing, in situ measurements, sorties with sample collection and characterization, analysis in the field laboratory, to the post sample analysis using advanced laboratory facilities. We present the rationale for terrestrial field campaigns to strengthen astrobiology research and the link between in situ and orbital remote sensing data. These campaigns are supporting the preparation for future missions such as Mars Science Laboratory, ExoMars or Mars Sample Return. We describe the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign conducted by MDRS crew 76 and 77, focused on the investigation of surface processes in their geological context. Special emphasis was placed on sample collection and pre-screening using in-situ portable instruments. Science investigations included geological and geochemical measurements as well as detection and diagnostic of water, oxidants, organic matter, minerals, volatiles and biota. EuroGeoMars 2009 was an example of a Moon-Mars field research campaign dedicated to the demonstration of astrobiology instruments and a specific methodology of comprehensive measurements from selected sampling sites. We discuss in sequence: the campaign objectives and trade-off based on science, technical or operational constraints. This includes remote sensing data and maps, and geological context; the monitoring of environmental parameters; the geophysical context and mineralogy studies; geology and geomorphology investigations; geochemistry characterization and subsurface studies. We describe sample handling (extraction and collection) methods, and the sample analysis of soils and rocks performed in the MDRS laboratory using close inspection, initial petrological characterization, microscopy, Visible-NIR spectrometry, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, soil analysis, electrochemical and biological measurements. The results from post-mission analysis of returned samples using advanced facilities in collaborator institutes are described in companion papers in this issue. We present examples of in-situ analysis, and describe an example investigation on the exploration and analysis of endolithic microbial mats (from reconnaissance, in-situ imaging, sampling, local analysis to post-mission sample analysis).

Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Zavaleta, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Thiel, C.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D.; Page, J.; Pletser, V.; Hendrikse, J.; Direito, S.; Kotler, J. M.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G.; Gross, C.; Wendt, L.; Clarke, J.; Borst, A. M.; Peters, S. T. M.; Wilhelm, M.-B.; Davies, G. R.; Davies

2011-07-01

319

ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 3, Number 2, 2003  

E-print Network

, Florida. 3Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. 4SIRTF Science Center and 12Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

Hedges, Blair

320

Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation  

EPA Science Inventory

1. Introduction The 3rd International Conference on Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT3), organized by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, was held from May 10 -13, 20...

321

2010 ORBS Conference Program Opportunities for Research in the Behavioral Sciences  

E-print Network

, and Evolution Climate change impacts for California plant communities and ecosystems 1:35-1:55 pm James Nieh College Ensuring success for all students 3:30-3:50 pm Open forum discussion All conference participants goals Research opportunities for students (20 min talk, 5 min Q&A) 12:35-12:55 pm David Holway (Ecology

Nieh, James

322

The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-G  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, and planetary mantles.

1994-01-01

323

Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research I. Morphological and anatomical characteristics.  

PubMed

Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species-Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum-used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research. PMID:23868319

Meeßen, J; Sánchez, F J; Brandt, A; Balzer, E-M; de la Torre, R; Sancho, L G; de Vera, J-P; Ott, S

2013-06-01

324

Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research I. Morphological and Anatomical Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species— Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum—used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research.

Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Brandt, A.; Balzer, E.-M.; de la Torre, R.; Sancho, L. G.; de Vera, J.-P.; Ott, S.

2013-06-01

325

Astrobiological aspects of Mars and human presence: pros and cons.  

PubMed

After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with regard to planetary protection issues. Therefore, before planning any human exploratory mission, the critical issues concerning human health and wellbeing as well as protection of Mars in its pristine condition need to be investigated. PMID:19048093

Horneck, G

2008-08-01

326

Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, K-T Boundary Layer, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, planetary mantles, and space exploration.

1993-01-01

327

Commerce Secretary, President's Science Advisor to Keynote Conference on Economic and Social Implications of Information Technology  

NSF Publications Database

... Technology Despite the bursting of the dot-com bubble, information technology continues to enable ... and important changes in business, commerce, technology, science and knowledge production, community ...

328

Proceedings of the precollege-university partnerships for science and mathematics education conference  

SciTech Connect

In April of 1992 in Atlanta, Georgia, nearly 50 elementary and secondary educators and about 100 postsecondary educators convened to explore their common interests in the conference on precollege-university partnerships. This report summarizes the remarks and conclusions of speakers, panelists, and of attendees gathered in regional work groups. During the course of the conference, attendees heard from federal agencies and foundations which fund education-related projects and learned of their enthusiastic support of partnerships. In our national need to manage education and training resources wisely, these funding agents see partnership benefits such as renewed excitement for teaching at all levels, effective and technologically up-to-date in-service training, more and better-prepared high school graduates entering colleges, and a general enhancement of understanding among educators at all levels of teaching. As an added benefit, the partnership concept promotes discussion and understanding in an atmosphere of respect, appreciation, and self-esteem. Several hours of the conference were devoted to panels addressing five questions important to education coalitions. The panelists represented a wide variety of teaching levels, geographic locations, educational experiences, and ethnic groups.

Not Available

1992-08-01

329

PREFACE: Selected papers from the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Nanotechnology contains research papers contributed by the participants of the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), which was held in Austin, Texas, USA, 7-12 November, 2004. This conference saw 284 oral presentations from institutions around the world, which is the highest number for this topical conference series to date. These presentations were organized into 64 sessions, covering the range of nanotechnology subject areas in which chemical engineers are currently engaged. These sessions included the following areas. ? Fundamentals: thermodynamics at the nanoscale; applications of nanostructured fluids; transport properties in nanophase and nanoscale systems; molecular modelling methods; self and directed assembly at the nanoscale; nanofabrication and nanoscale processing; manipulation of nanophases by external fields; nanoscale systems; adsorption and transport in carbon nanotubes; nanotribology; making the transition from materials and phenomena to new technologies; operation of micro-and nano-systems. ? Materials: nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization; nanoscale structure in polymers; nanotemplating of polymers; synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; nanowires; nanoparticle assemblies and superlattices; nanoelectronic materials; self-assembly of templated inorganic materials; nanostructured hybrid organic/inorganic materials; gas phase synthesis of nanoparticles; multicomponent structured particles; nano energetic materials; liquid-phase synthesis of nanoparticles. ? Energy: synthesis and characterization of nanostructured catalytic materials; nanomaterials and devices for energy applications. ? Biotechnology: nanobiotechnology; nanotechnology for the biotechnology and pharmaceuticals industries; nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology for sensors; advances in biomaterials, bionanotechnology, biomimetic systems and tissue engineering; nanotechnology for drug delivery and imaging; bionanotechnology in cancer and cardiovascular disease; nanostructured biomaterials; nanotechnology in bioengineering; nanofabrication of biosensing devices. We are pleased to present a selection of research papers in this special issue of Nanotechnology on behalf of the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Forum (NSEF). NSEF was established in 2001 as a new division of AIChE to promote nanotechnology efforts in chemical engineering. The chemical engineering discipline deals with the production and processing of chemicals and materials, and does so through a fundamental understanding of the core issues of transport, thermodynamics, and kinetics that exist at multiple length scales. Thus, it should come as no surprise that chemical engineers have been pursuing nanotechnology research for the last fifty years. For example, fuel production has benefited immensely from improved catalysts in which their pore structure is controlled with nanoscale precision, and polymer properties have been improved by controlling the polymer supramolecular structure at the nanometre scale. Chemical engineering will continue to make important contributions to nanotechnology, and will play a critical role in the transition from basic science and engineering research to commercial applications. We would like to thank all of the authors who contributed to this special issue; the three NSEF poster presentation award winners for their papers (Sureshkumar, Sunkara, and Rinaldi groups); Dr Nina Couzin, Publisher of Nanotechnology, for her support and enthusiasm for this project; Drs Sharon Glotzer and Dan Coy who chaired the topical conference; and Drs Meyya Meyyappan and Brett Cruden (NASA Ames Research Center) for their assistance in the initial planning stages. We also take this opportunity to thank the many people and organizations who have supported the 2004 topical conference along the way, which include all the session chairs, Hyperion Catalysis International, Inc., Nanophase Technologies, Inc., and

Wong, Michael S.; Lee, Gil U.

2005-07-01

330

Harvesting meteorites in the Omani desert: implications for astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorites will remain the most accessible, most diverse and most abundant source of extraterrestrial materials for many years to come. New sources of large numbers of meteorites allow the recovery of rare types particularly relevant for astrobiology, including Martian and Lunar samples. Oman has become an important source of meteorites only since 1999. Conditions for search and recovery are particularly favourable in many areas here because of an abundance of flat, light-colored, sand- and vegetation-free surfaces. During search expeditions carried out in the central deserts of Oman in 2001-2003 large numbers of meteorites, including a Martian and a Lunar sample, were recovered. The mass of recovered meteorites is 1334 kg, corresponding to approximately 150 to 200 fall events. We aim to classify all recovered specimens and study pairing and weathering effects. Our expeditions demonstrate the possibility to recover meteorite samples with astrobiological relevance with modest investments of finances and manpower.

Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Al-Kathriri, Ali

2004-03-01

331

The NASA Astrobiology Institute: A Decade of Education and Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission statement of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) charts a course to establishing astrobiology as a new and influential field of scientific inquiry. It integrates world class, interdisciplinary research with training for the next generation of astrobiologists. It enables collaboration between distributed research teams by prioritizing the use of modern information technologies, and empowers astrobiologists to provide leadership for space missions. But this unique vision would not have been complete without the inclusion of an Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. Over the past ten years, NAI's E/PO program has taken shape - from bootstrapping in the early days, to partnering with the likes of Disney and PBS - in pursuit of inspiring young people onto the scientific path. The E/PO program's highly collaborative group of education specialists has worked with museums, national parks, filmmakers, radio broadcasters, families, teachers, and students to ensure that the bright young faces of today find themselves in the labs of tomorrow's astrobiologists.

Scalice, Daniella

332

Report on the Conference of Latin American Women in Exact and Life Sciences  

E-print Network

to the various areas of science in the face of stereotypes fostered in the media and education; · Career stereotypes, which can contribute to a lack of family and societal support for females to follow a scientific gender policies in science and technology, such as extending the scholarship period to acknowledge

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

333

Promoting Better Conditions for Women and Science in Mexico with Regional Conferences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on two main activities of the Working Group Women in Physics of the Mexican Physical Society: "Latin American Women in Exact and Life Sciences," held in Mexico City in May 2006; and the annual "Participation of Women in Science" event. We also update information on the status of female researchers.

Martínez, Amalia; Meza-Montes, Lilia

2009-04-01

334

Life, the universe, and everything: an education outreach proposal to build a traveling astrobiology exhibit.  

PubMed

Astrobiology is a transdisciplinary field with extraordinary potential for the scientific community. As such, it is important to educate the community at large about the growing importance of this field to increase awareness and scientific content learning and expose potential future scientists. To this end, we propose the creation of a traveling museum exhibit that focuses exclusively on astrobiology and utilizes modern museum exhibit technology and design. This exhibit (the "Astrobiology Road Show"), organized and evaluated by an international group of astrobiology students and postdocs, is planned to tour throughout the Americas. PMID:23469863

Barge, Laura M; Pulschen, André A; Emygdio, Ana Paula Mendes; Congreve, Curtis; Kishimoto, Darío E; Bendia, Amanda G; de Morais M Teles, Antonio; DeMarines, Julia; Stoupin, Daniel

2013-03-01

335

In Search of Gender Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education. [Proceedings of a Preconference Research Workshop at the National Educational Computing Conference (Nashville, Tennessee, June 24, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph includes nine papers delivered at a National Educational Computing Conference (NECC) preconference workshop, and a previously unpublished paper on gender and attitudes. The papers, which are presented in four categories, are: (1) "Report on the Workshop: In Search of Gender Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education" (C. Dianne…

Martin, C. Dianne, Ed.; Murchie-Beyma, Eric, Ed.

336

Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Costa Mesa, California, January 18-21, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the proceedings of the 2001 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Costa Mesa, California, January 18-21, 2001. Papers include: (1) "An Elementary Preservice Teacher's Search for Solutions about the Evolution-Divine Creation Question: The Story of Tracy"…

Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

337

Online Proceedings, Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Society Conference (MAICS96), Bloomington, IN, April 1996. http://www.cs.indiana.edu/event/maics96/Proceedings/old.  

E-print Network

Online Proceedings, Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Society Conference (MAICS) A-bomb and atomic bomb; H-bomb and hydrogen bomb Strict abbreviation: (very common) F.B.I and Federal Bureau of Investigation; I.Q. and Intelligence quotient Foreign equivalent: North Star and l

Old, L. John

338

MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (2nd, May 16, 1998, Columbus, OH).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERS-OSU) is a newly formed student organization. Papers from the conference include: (1) "Was the Geometry Course, The Nature of Proof, Taught by Harold Pascoe Fawcett the Best Course Ever Taught in Secondary School?" (Frederick Flener); (2) "A…

Reed, Michelle K., Ed.; Costner, Kelly M., Ed.

339

AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science" 29 April-1May 2004, Heraklion, Greece Parallel Session 7.3-"Decision Support Systems / Risk Management II" 623  

E-print Network

"7th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science" 29 April-1May 2004, Heraklion, Greece three methods have been developed to locate and characterise landslide-prone areas (ie. recognition between each factor and the past and present landslide distribution (Carrara et al., 1995). The underlying

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

340

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICED'07 28 -31 AUGUST 2007, CITE DES SCIENCES ET DE L'INDUSTRIE, PARIS, FRANCE  

E-print Network

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICED'07 28 - 31 AUGUST 2007, CITE DES SCIENCES ET range of potential users, including those who are older or have disabilities, can have significant commercial benefits, tapping into a large and growing number of older and disabled consumers [1], as well

Goodman, Joy

341

Science and Technology Education for Civic and Professional Life: The Undergraduate Years. A Report of the Wingspread Conference (Racine, Wisconsin, June 1-3, 1982).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The failure of colleges and universities to ensure that all undergraduates become scientifically and technologically educated was addressed at the 1982 Wingspread Conference. Representatives of education, business, government, and other professions considered the place of science and technology education within liberal education and formulated a…

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

342

1996 International Conference on Circuits and System Sciences, Shanghai, China, June 20-25, 1996. * This research is partially supported by Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California  

E-print Network

1996 International Conference on Circuits and System Sciences, Shanghai, China, June 20-25, 1996 from experience. Over the past one and half decade the theory has evolve into a new technology. It has area of fuzzy logic control. A ship- mounted satellite tracking antenna is used to illustrate

Lin, Tsau Young

343

In Proceedings of the fourteenth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA. 1992. Some Epistemic Benefits of Action  

E-print Network

that in Tetris---a real­time interactive video game--- certain cognitive and perceptual problems are more quickly­0515 Abstract We present data and argument to show that in Tetris---a real­time interactive video gameIn Proceedings of the fourteenth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ

Kirsh, David

344

Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM5), Hanover, Germany, Sept 2003 TOWARDS AUTOMATIC ANALYSIS OF EXPRESSIVE PERFORMANCE  

E-print Network

5 th Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM5 results of testing the signal processing algorithm on a performance of a Mozart piano sonata interpretative choices which distinguish the great masters of performance. 1. BACKGROUND Automatic analysis

Dixon, Simon

345

2012 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science 978-1-4673-4510-1/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE  

E-print Network

2012 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science 978Reduce applications that couples cloud computing with distributed embedded computing. Specifically, our system as Cloud services. These large- scale centers provide all sorts of computational services to a multiplicity

Hone, James

346

2003 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, The Johns Hopkins University, March 1214, 2003 Markov Chain Flow Decomposition for a Two Class Priority Queue  

E-print Network

2003 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, The Johns Hopkins University, March 12-mail: tom@ece.sunysb.edu Abstract -- A simple circulatory structure of probability flux for a two class Markovian priority queueing system is found. This is the second instance of such a finding for a non

Robertazzi, Thomas G.

347

Appears in the Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society Crisis Response Planning: A Task Analysis \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Appears in the Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society Crisis to respond effectively and efficiently to crisis is essential in many problem­solving domains such as disas be at risk. An analysis of the crisis response task can be used to understand the limita­ tions

Gervasio, Melinda T.

348

MSaTERs: Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators & Researchers of The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Annual Spring Conference (4th, Columbus, Ohio, May 6, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mathematics, Science, and Technology Educators and Researchers of The Ohio State University (MSaTERs-OSU) is a student organization that grew out of the former Ohio State University Council of Teachers of Mathematics (OSU-CTM). Papers from the fourth annual conference include: (1) "Technology Education Curriculum Models in Michigan Secondary…

Costner, Kelly M., Ed.; Herman, Marlena F., Ed.

349

Schunn, C. D., & Klahr, D. (1995). A 4-space model of scientific discovery. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.  

E-print Network

Schunn, C. D., & Klahr, D. (1995). A 4-space model of scientific discovery. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. A 4-Space Model of Scientific Discovery Christian D. Schunn David Klahr Department of Psychology Department of Psychology Carnegie Mellon University

Klahr, David

350

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA Spintronics(Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 February 2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held on 3 February 2010 at the Conference Hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Ustinov V V (Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, RAS, Ekaterinburg) "Metallic nanospintronics"; (2) Kusrayev Yu G (Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Spin-related phenomena in semiconductors; physics and applications"; (3) Tarasenko S A (Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Spin photocurrents in semiconductors"; (4) Averkiev N S, Golub L E (Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Spin relaxation in quantum semiconductor heterostructures". Papers written on the basis of reports 2-4 are given below. • Spin phenomena in semiconductors: physics and applications, Yu G Kusrayev Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 7, Pages 725-738 • Spin photocurrents in semiconductors, S A Tarasenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 7, Pages 739-742 • Spin relaxation anisotropy in two-dimensional semiconductors, N S Averkiev Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 7, Pages 742-745

2010-10-01

351

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Nanoplasmonics and metamaterials(Scientific session of the Division of Physical Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, 27 April 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 27 April 2009, in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, a scientific session of the Division of Physical Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences devoted to the problem of nanoplasmonics and metamaterials took place. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Tikhodeev S G, Gippius N A (Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "Plasmon-polariton effects in nanostructured metal-dielectric photonic crystals and metamaterials"; (2) Shubina T V, Ivanov S V, Toropov A A, Kop'ev P S (Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg) "Plasmon effects in In(Ga)N-based nanostructures"; (3) Kurin V V (Institute of Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod) "Resonance scattering of light in nanostructured metallic and ferromagnetic films"; (4) Lagarkov A N , Sarychev A K (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Joint Institute of High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "Active optical metamaterials"; (5) Gippius N A, Tikhodeev S G (Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "Application of the scattering matrix method for calculating the optical properties of metamaterials." Summaries of reports 1-3 and 5 and of an article written on the basis of report 4 are given below. • Plasmon-polariton effects in nanostructured metal-dielectric photonic crystals and metamaterials, S G Tikhodeev, N A Gippius Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 9, Pages 945-949 • Plasmon effects in In(Ga)N-based nanostructures, T V Shubina, S V Ivanov, A A Toropov, P S Kop'ev Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 9, Pages 949-953 • Resonance scattering of light in nanostructured metallic and ferromagnetic films, V V Kurin Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 9, Pages 953-959 • Superresolution and enhancement in metamaterials, A N Lagarkov, A K Sarychev, V N Kissel, G Tartakovsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 9, Pages 959-967 • Application of the scattering matrix method for calculating the optical properties of metamaterials, N A Gippius, S G Tikhodeev Physics-Uspekhi, 2009, Volume 52, Number 9, Pages 967-971

Tikhodeev, Sergei G.; Shubina, Tat'yana V.; Ivanov, Sergei V.; Toropov, Aleksei A.; Kop'ev, Petr S.; Kurin, Vladislav V.; Lagarkov, Andrei N.; Sarychev, Andrei K.; Gippius, Nikolai A.

2009-09-01

352

Astrobiology: Identifying Bacteria from Extreme Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

COSMOS is a four-week summer residential academic and enrichment program for high school students interested in science and mathematics, sponsored by the University of California. Since 2001, participants in the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program (PDP) have developed and instructed a general astronomy and biology COSMOS course cluster. This cluster provides an optimal venue for piloting newly

Tiffany K. Quan; Kristel M. Dorighi; Kathy L. Cooksey

2010-01-01

353

02/02 NASA JSC Astrobiology: Fingerprints of Life Searching for Life: Mars Critters 1 Mars Critters  

E-print Network

02/02 NASA JSC Astrobiology: Fingerprints of Life Searching for Life: Mars Critters 1 Activity 3/02 NASA JSC Astrobiology: Fingerprints of Life Procedure Advanced Preparation 1. Gather materials. 2. Set

Waliser, Duane E.

354

Building Community: A 2005 Conference for Education and Public Outreach Professionals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In support of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's (ASP) mission to increase the understanding and appreciation of astronomy, the ASP will host an international meeting in September 14-16, 2005 in Tucson focused on building and supporting a vibrant and connected community of individuals and groups engaged in educational and public outreach (EPO) in the disciplines of astronomy, astrobiology, space, and earth science. This conference is specially designed for individuals who are bringing the excitement of astronomy to non-astronomers. This community of science communicators includes: NASA and NSF-funded EPO program managers, developers, evaluators, PIOs, and others who support outreach efforts by government agencies and commercial industries; Scientists working with or assigned to EPO programs or efforts; Individuals working in formal science education: K-14 schools/colleges and minority-serving institutions as faculty or curriculum developers; Informal educators working in widely diverse settings including science centers, planetariums, museums, parks, and youth programs; Amateur astronomers involved in or interested in engaging children and adults in the excitement of astronomy; Public outreach specialists working in observatories, visitor centers, public information offices, and in multimedia broadcasting and journalism. The conference goals are to improve the quality and increase the effective dissemination of EPO materials, products, and programs through a multi-tiered professional development conference utilizing: Visionary plenary talks; Highly interactive panel discussions; Small group workshops and clinics focused on a wide range of EPO topics including evaluation and dissemination, with separate sessions for varying experience levels; Poster and project exhibition segments; Opportunities to increase program leveraging through structured and unstructured networking sessions; and Individual program action planning sessions. There will both separate and combined sessions for individuals working in formal, informal, public outreach, and scientific communications settings; and specific professional development sessions.

Slater, T. F.; Bennett, M.; Garmany, K.

2004-12-01

355

USL NASA/RECON project presentations at the 1985 ACM Computer Science Conference: Abstracts and visuals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Working Paper Series entry represents the abstracts and visuals associated with presentations delivered by six USL NASA/RECON research team members at the above named conference. The presentations highlight various aspects of NASA contract activities pursued by the participants as they relate to individual research projects. The titles of the six presentations are as follows: (1) The Specification and Design of a Distributed Workstation; (2) An Innovative, Multidisciplinary Educational Program in Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval; (3) Critical Comparative Analysis of the Major Commercial IS and R Systems; (4) Design Criteria for a PC-Based Common User Interface to Remote Information Systems; (5) The Design of an Object-Oriented Graphics Interface; and (6) Knowledge-Based Information Retrieval: Techniques and Applications.

Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Chum, Frank Y.; Gallagher, Suzy; Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Moreau, Dennis R.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

1985-01-01

356

The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Organic Molecules in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the principal means by which organic compounds are detected and identified in space is by infrared spectroscopy. Past IR telescopic and laboratory studies have shown that much of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) is in complex organic species but the distribution, abundance and evolutionary relationships of these materials are not well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept designed to conduct IR spectroscopic observations to detect and identify these materials and address outstanding problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. ABE's core science program includes observations of planetary nebulae and stellar outflows, protostellar objects, Solar System objects, and galaxies, and lines of sight through dense molecular clouds and the diffuse ISM. ABE is a cryogenically-cooled 60 cm diameter space telescope equipped with 3 cross-dispersed R-2000 spectrometers that share a single common slit. Each spectrometer measures one spectral octave and together cover the entire 2.5-20 micron region simultaneously. The spectrometers use state-of-the-art InSb and Si:As 1024x1024 pixel detectors. ABE would operate in a heliocentric, Earth drift-away orbit and have a core science mission lasting approximately 1.5 years. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp.

Sandford, Scott A.; Ennico, Kimberly; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse; Greene, Thomas; Hudgins, Douglas

2002-01-01

357

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Plasma phenomena in nanostructures and neutron stars Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (26 March 2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held on 26 March 2008 at the conference hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Klimov V V (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Nanoplasmonics"; (2) Istomin Ya N (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Electron-positron plasma generation in the magnetospheres of neutron stars"; (3) Kosevich Yu A (N N Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS, Moscow) "Multichannel propagation and scattering of phonons and photons in low-dimension nanostructures". An abridged version of these reports is given below. • Nanoplasmonics, V V Klimov Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 8, Pages 839-844 • Electron-positron plasma generation in the magnetospheres of neutron stars, Ya N Istomin Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 8, Pages 844-848 • Multichannel propagation and scattering of phonons and photons in low-dimension nanostructures, Yu A Kosevich Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 8, Pages 848-859

Klimov, V. V.; Istomin, Ya N.; Kosevich, Yu A.

2008-08-01

358

Astrobiologists Seed The Future: Education and Public Outreach in the NASA Astrobiology Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the diversity of life in the universe, its relative abundance or rarity, and its origins is the work of astrobiology. The answers to astrobiological questions require the expertise of scientists from different fields as well as different generations to answer. It may take several lifetimes before we understand the potential for life beyond Earth. The multi-generational nature of the

K. L. Wilmoth

2003-01-01

359

The Cyborg Astrobiologist: Porting from a wearable computer to the Astrobiology Phone-cam  

E-print Network

We have used a simple camera phone to significantly improve an `exploration system' for astrobiology and geology. This camera phone will make it much easier to develop and test computer-vision algorithms for future planetary exploration. We envision that the `Astrobiology Phone-cam' exploration system can be fruitfully used in other problem domains as well.

Alexandra Bartolo; Patrick C. McGuire; Kenneth P. Camilleri; Christopher Spiteri; Jonathan C. Borg; Philip J. Farrugia; Jens Ormo; Javier Gomez-Elvira; Jose Antonio Rodriguez-Manfredi; Enrique Diaz-Martinez; Helge Ritter; Robert Haschke; Markus Oesker; Joerg Ontrup

2007-07-05

360

IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Special Libraries. Science and Technology Libraries Section. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The six papers in this collection focus on science and technology libraries: (1) "Human Aspects of Electronically-Stored Information: The Library User" (A. J. Meadows, United Kingdom); (2) "Untersuchung Menschlicher Aspekte bei den Elektronisch Gespeicherten Informationen: Ansichten des Leiters eines Bibliothekskollektives = Human Aspects of…

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

361

The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: H-O  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: planetary geology, lunar geology, meteorites, shock loads, cometary collisions, planetary mapping, planetary atmospheres, chondrites, chondrules, planetary surfaces, impact craters, lava flow, achondrites, geochemistry, stratigraphy, micrometeorites, tectonics, mineralogy, petrology, geomorphology, and volcanology.

1994-01-01

362

To Appear: 1997 Cognitive Science Conference Comprehensible Knowledge-Discovery in Databases  

E-print Network

and Computer Science W. Rodman Shankle (rshankle@uci.edu) Department of Neurology The University of California). The particular problem of interest is to identify patients with early signs of dementia. Most demented patients stages when patients are seeing them for other reasons. (O'Connor, et al., 1989). A simple, unobtrusive

Pazzani, Michael J.

363

The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition.

1994-01-01

364

2006 National Environmental Public Health Conference Advancing Environmental Public Health Science Practice in New Frontiers  

E-print Network

. Because I believe this is the coldest morning in Atlanta. So from CDC, welcome to Atlanta. Welcome to CDC into Atlanta; walk into CDC sort as though you are in absentia. Visit our campus, and congratulations on what I Services here in Region 4 in Atlanta. Chris has a background in political science. He is representing

365

Astrobiology as an Integrating Theme in Solar System Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discipline of astrobiology examines (i) the origin and evolution of life on Earth and the detailed interplay between biological and planetary evolution, (ii) the evolution of our solar system and the potential and actual distribution of life within it, (iii) the occurrence of planets around other stars and their potential for life, and (iv) the interplay between each of these areas. In our own solar system, astrobiology encompasses much more than just the search for life on Mars or Europa. Our goal is to understand the nature of planetary habitability--which planets have evolved to have environments that are habitable by microorganisms, and which have not. By understanding the processes that control the architecture of our solar system, we can extrapolate how these same processes might have played out in other planetary systems and what the distribution of habitability might be beyond our own system. In this context, Mars and Europa appear as potentially habitable worlds either today or in the past, Ganymede and Callisto might have deep subsurface oceans and be habitable, Venus might have been habitable early on but does not appear to be today, and Titan probably has had intermittent liquid water as well as ongoing chemical evolution involving organic molecules. Looking more broadly, the origin and the evolution of the gas-giant planets and their dynamical effects have had a major influence on the terrestrial planets; the characteristics of the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud influence our understanding of early chemical and volatile processes that affect habitability; and asteroids have had a tremendous impact on the terrestrial planets throughout their history. In order to understand planetary habitability in general, and the implications of a discovery of the presence or absence of life on any given object, we need to understand the detailed origin and evolution of our solar system as a whole and of the individual bodies within it. A broad program of planetary exploration is the best way to investigate the astrobiology of our solar system.

Jakosky, B. M.

2003-12-01

366

Brazilian research on extremophiles in the context of astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremophiles are organisms adapted to grow at extreme ranges of environmental variables, such as high or low temperatures, acid or alkaline medium, high salt concentration, high pressures and so forth. Most extremophiles are micro-organisms that belong to the Archaea and Bacteria domains, and are widely spread across the world, which include the polar regions, volcanoes, deserts, deep oceanic sediments, hydrothermal vents, hypersaline lakes, acid and alkaline water bodies, and other extreme environments considered hostile to human life. Despite the tropical climate, Brazil has a wide range of ecosystems which include some permanent or seasonally extreme environments. For example, the Cerrado is a biome with very low soil pH with high Al+3 concentration, the mangroves in the Brazilian coast are anaerobic and saline, Pantanal has thousands of alkaline-saline lakes, the Caatinga arid and hot soils and the deep sea sediments in the Brazilian ocean shelf. These environments harbour extremophilic organisms that, coupled with the high natural biodiversity in Brazil, could be explored for different purposes. However, only a few projects in Brazil intended to study the extremophiles. In the frame of astrobiology, for example, these organisms could provide important models for defining the limits of life and hypothesize about life outside Earth. Brazilian microbiologists have, however, studied the extremophilic micro-organisms inhabiting non-Brazilian environments, such as the Antarctic continent. The experience and previous results obtained from the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR) provide important results that are directly related to astrobiology. This article is a brief synopsis of the Brazilian experience in researching extremophiles, indicating the most important results related to astrobiology and some future perspectives in this area.

Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Nóbrega, Felipe; Nakayama, Cristina R.; Pellizari, Vivian H.

2012-10-01

367

The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission concept currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center. ABE will conduct infrared (IR) spectroscopic observations with much better sensitivity than Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) or the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy program (SOFIA) in order to address outstanding astrobiologically important problems in astrochemistry as well as important astrophysical investigations. The core observational astrobiology program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the cosmic history of molecular carbon, the distribution of organic matter in the diffuse interstellar medium, tracing the chemical history of complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium, and the evolution of organic ices in young planetary systems. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.5 m aperture Cassegrain telescope and a suite of three moderate resolution (R = 1000 - 4000) spectrographs which cover the entire lambda = 2.5-20 micron spectral region. Use of large format (1024 x 1024 pixel or larger) IR detector arrays will allow each spectrograph to cover an entire octave of spectral range per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope is passively cooled by a sun shade to below 65 K, and the detectors are cooled with solid H2 cryogen to approximately 8 K. ABE will be placed in an Earth-trailing one AU solar orbit by a Delta II launch vehicle. This energetically favorable orbit provides a low thermal background, affords good access to the entire sky over the one year mission lifetime, and allows adequate communications bandwidth. The spacecraft will be stabilized in three axes and will be pointed to an accuracy of approximately one arcsecond at ABE's several thousand individual scientific targets.

Greene, Thomas; Sandford, Scott; Allamandola, Louis; Arno, Roger; Bregman, Jesse; Cox, Sylvia; Davis, Paul; Gonzales, Andrew; Hanel, Robert; Hines, Michael; Hudgins, Douglas; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

368

Astrobiology at Arizona State University: An Overview of Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During our five years as an NAI charter member, Arizona State University sponsored a broadly-based program of research and training in Astrobiology to address the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Solar System. With such a large, diverse and active team, it is not possible in a reasonable space, to cover all details of progress made over the entire five years. The following paragraphs provide an overview update of the specific research areas pursued by the Arizona State University (ASU) Astrobiology team at the end of Year 5 and at the end of the 4 month and subsequent no cost month extensions. for a more detailed review, the reader is referred to the individual annual reports (and Executive Summaries) submitted to the NAI at the end of each of our five years of membership. Appended in electronic form is our complete publication record for all five years, plus a tabulation of undergraduates, graduate students and post-docs supported by our program during this time. The overarching theme of ASU s Astrobiology program was "Exploring the Living Universe: Studies of the Origin, Evolution and Distribution of Life in the Solar System". The NAi-funded research effort was organized under three basic sub- themes: 1. Origins of the Basic Building Blocks of Life. 2. Early Biosphere Evolution. and 3. Exploring for Life in the Solar System. These sub-theme areas were in turn, subdivided into Co-lead research modules. In the paragraphs that follow, accomplishments for individual research modules are briefly outlined, and the key participants presented in tabular form. As noted, publications for each module are appended in hard copy and digital formats, under the name(s) of lead co-Is.

Farmer, Jack

2005-01-01

369

News Outreach: Polish physics club reaches out with practical demonstrations Networking: Online workspace helps teachers to share ideas Mauritius: Telescope inspires science specification Fusion: EFDA sparks resources Olympiad: British team enjoys success at the International Physics Olympiad 2009 Nanoscience: 'Quietest' building in the world opens in Bristol, UK Conference: University of Leicester hosts the GIREP EPEC 2009 international conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outreach: Polish physics club reaches out with practical demonstrations Networking: Online workspace helps teachers to share ideas Mauritius: Telescope inspires science specification Fusion: EFDA sparks resources Olympiad: British team enjoys success at the International Physics Olympiad 2009 Nanoscience: 'Quietest' building in the world opens in Bristol, UK Conference: University of Leicester hosts the GIREP EPEC 2009 international conference

2009-11-01

370

(Networking + Integrating) * (Systems + Society). Proceedings of the Annual Canadian Conference of Information Science (12th, Toronto, Ontario, May 14-16, 1984) = (Reseaux + Integration) * (Systemes + Societe). Comptes rendus de la conference annuelle Canadienne des sciences de l'information (12th, Toronto, Ontario, 14-16 mai, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventeen papers from the 1984 annual conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science (CAIS) are presented in four broad topic areas. The first group, which focuses on changing roles in information access, includes the keynote address by Charles Meadow, "Integrating Access to Information Utilities: Promises, Problems, and Profiles…

Canadian Association for Information Science, Ottawa (Ontario).

371

Astrobiology Results from ILEWG EuroMoonMars Analogue Field Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give an update on the astrobiology results from a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme environment of the Utah desert. These are relevant to prepare future lunar landers and polar sample return missions, interpret Moon-Mars data (eg SMART1, LRO, Mars Express, MRO, MER, MSL), study habitability and astrobiology in Moon-Mars environments, or to test human-robotic surface EVA or base operations. In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [0, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from re-mote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geo-chemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Results: Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [0-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. We acknowledge team members and supporting institutes: B.H. Foing (1, 2, 6), C. Stoker (3), P. Ehrenfreund (4, 5), I. Rammos (2), L. Rodrigues (2), A. Svendsen (2), D. Oltheten (2), I. Schlacht (2), K. Nebergall (6), M. Battler (6, 7), H. v’t Houd (8), A. Bruneau (6,9), M. Cross (6,7), V. Maivald (10), C. Orgel (6), A. Elsaesser (4), S.O.L. Direito (2,4), W.F.M. Röling (2), G.R. Davies (2); EuroGeoMars2009 Team, DOMMEX-ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2010-2013 Teams (1) ESA/ ESTEC, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwik, NL; (2) Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth & Life Sciences, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, NL; (3) NASA Ames Research Centre; US; (4) Leiden Institute of Chemistry, NL; (5) Space Policy Institute, GWU, Washington D.C., USA; (6) ILEWG; (7) CPSX; (8) Cerberus Blackshore, ESIC Noordwijk, NL; (9) ENSC Bordeaux; (10) DLR, Bremen References: Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) “Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments”, Special Issue of International Journal of Astrobiology , IJA 2011, 10, vol.3. 137-305; [1] Foing B. et al. (2011) Field astrobiology research at Moon-Mars analogue site: Instruments and methods, IJA 2011, 10 (3), 141; [2] Clarke, J., Stoker, C. Concretions in exhumed & inverte channels near Hanksville Utah: implications for Mars, (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 162; [3] Thiel et al., (2011) PCR-based analysis of microbial communities during the EuroGeoMars campaign at Mars Desert Research Station, Utah. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 177; [4] Direito et al. (2011). A wide variety of putative extremophiles and large beta-diversity at the Mars Desert Research Station (Utah). (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 191; [5] Orzechowska, G. et al (20110 analysis of Mars Analog soils using solid Phase Microextraction, Organics solvent extraction and GCMS, (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 209; [6] Kotler et al. (2011). Analysis of mineral matrices of planetary soils analogs from the Utah Desert. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 221; [7] Martins et al. (2011). Extraction of amino acids from soils close to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), Utah. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 231; [8] Ehrenfreund et al. (2011) Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota. (IJA 2011, 10 (3), 239; [9] Stoker C. et al (2011) Mineralogical

Foing, Bernard H.

372

The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Corp. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the distribution, identity, and evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds, young forming stellar systems, stellar outflows, the general diffuse ISM, HII regions, Solar System bodies, and external galaxies. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.6 m aperture Cassegrain telescope and two moderate resolution (R = 2000-3000) spectrographs covering the 2.5-16 micron spectral region. Large format (1024x 1024 pixel or larger) IR detector arrays and bandpass filters will allow each spectrograph to cover an entire octave of spectral range or more per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope will be cooled below 50K by a cryogenic dewar shielded by a sunshade. The detectors will be cooled to approximately 8K. The optimum orbital configuration for achieving the scientific objectives of the ABE mission is a low background, 1 AU Earth driftaway orbit requiring a Delta II launch vehicle. This configuration provides a low thermal background and allows adequate communications bandwidth and good access to the entire sky over the approximate 1-2 year mission lifetime.

Ennico, Kimberly; Sandford, Scott; Cox, Sylvia; Ellis, Benton; Gallagher, Dennis; Gautier, Nick; Greene, Thomas; McCreight, Craig; Mills, Gary; Purcell, William; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

373

ASE Annual Conference 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the ASE Annual Conference 2010 which was held at Nottingham after a gap of 22 years. As always, the main conference was preceded by International Day, an important event for science educators from across the world. There were two strands to the programme: (1) "What works for me?"--sharing new ideas and tried…

McCune, Roger

2010-01-01

374

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 18th, Houston, TX, Mar. 16-20, 1987, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, including petrogenesis and chemistry of lunar samples, geology and petrogenesis of the Apollo 15 landing site, lunar geology and applications, cratering records and cratering effects, differentiated meteorites, chondritic meteorites and asteroids, extraterrestrial grains, Venus, Mars, and icy satellites. The importance of lunar granite and KREEP in very high potassium basalt petrogenesis, indentifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments, glasses in ancient and young Apollo 16 regolith breccias, the formation of the Imbrium basin, the chemistry and petrology of the Apennine Front, lunar mare ridges, studies of Rima Mozart, electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction, detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record, and a search for water on the moon, are among the topics discussed. Other topics include the bidirectional reflectance properties of Fe-Ni meteorites, the nature and origin of C-rich ordinary chondrites and chondritic clasts, the dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine, characteristics of Greenland Fe/Ni cosmic grains, electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle, trapping Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in Si2O3 smokes, gossans on Mars, and a model of the porous structure of icy satellites.

Ryder, Graham (editor)

1988-01-01

375

The Combined Detection of Morphological and Molecular Biomarkers: Implications for Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated known bacterial fossils using a combination of morphological and spectral techniques for the detection of biomarkers. This approach is considered crucial to unambiguous life detection strategies within Astrobiology. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Toporski, J.; Steele, A.; Westall, F.; Avci, R.; McKay, D. S.

2001-01-01

376

The NASA Astrobiology Institute — Minority Institution Research Support Program: Supporting the Next Generation of Astrobiologists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation discusses ways in which astrobiology research programs can participate in the NAI-MIRS program as well as the successes and challenges in identifying talented researchers who inspire the next generation of astrobiologists.

Gary, T.; Butler, J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Bell, B.; Bradford, K.; Kuner, S.; Arino de La Rubia, L.

2010-04-01

377

Question 2: Relation of Panspermia-Hypothesis to Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the answer to major questions of astrobiology and chirality, the panspermia-hypothesis is often discussed as the only proposal of transportation of life to the Earth. On the basis of the known presence of ionizing radiation in the space, assumed on the level calculated by Clark (Orig Life Evol Biosph 31:185 197, 2001), the hypothesis is rejected as the explanation of origins of life on Earth. In fact, comparatively low doses of radiation sterilize irreversibly all biological material. Sufficiently long sojourn in space of objects containing prebiotic chemical blocks also does not contribute to the origins of life on Earth, because of elimination of homochirality, if any, and of radiation induced reactions of dehydrogenation, decarboxylation and deamination of chemical compounds closing with complete decomposition of organics, leaving elementary nano-carbon and/or minerals like calcium carbonate.

Zagorski, Zbigniew Pawel

2007-10-01

378

Astrobiological Phase Transition: Towards Resolution of Fermi's Paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can astrophysics explain Fermi’s paradox or the “Great Silence” problem? If available, such explanation would be advantageous over most of those suggested in literature which rely on unverifiable cultural and/or sociological assumptions. We suggest, instead, a general astrobiological paradigm which might offer a physical and empirically testable paradox resolution. Based on the idea of James Annis, we develop a model of an astrobiological phase transition of the Milky Way, based on the concept of the global regulation mechanism(s). The dominant regulation mechanisms, arguably, are ?-ray bursts, whose properties and cosmological evolution are becoming well-understood. Secular evolution of regulation mechanisms leads to the brief epoch of phase transition: from an essentially dead place, with pockets of low-complexity life restricted to planetary surfaces, it will, on a short (Fermi-Hart) timescale, become filled with high-complexity life. An observation selection effect explains why we are not, in spite of the very small prior probability, to be surprised at being located in that brief phase of disequilibrium. In addition, we show that, although the phase-transition model may explain the “Great Silence”, it is not supportive of the “contact pessimist” position. To the contrary, the phase-transition model offers a rational motivation for continuation and extension of our present-day Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) endeavours. Some of the unequivocal and testable predictions of our model include the decrease of extinction risk in the history of terrestrial life, the absence of any traces of Galactic societies significantly older than human society, complete lack of any extragalactic intelligent signals or phenomena, and the presence of ubiquitous low-complexity life in the Milky Way.

?irkovi?, Milan M.; Vukoti?, Branislav

2008-12-01

379

Curriculum Framework (CF) Implementation Conference. Report of the Regional Educational Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia (Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, January 26-27, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia, operating as the Curriculum Frameworks Task Force, jointly convened a group of educators involved in implementing state-level mathematics or science curriculum frameworks (CF). The Hilton Head (South Carolina) conference had a dual…

Palmer, Jackie; Powell, Mary Jo

380

Circinaria gyrosa, a new astrobiological model system for studying the effects of heavy ion irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to date, most astrobiological experiments performed on space have been carried out on board of Earth-orbiting spacecrafts (e.g., Foton satellites), or on board of human-tended spacecrafts, (space shuttles and space stations). Organisms included in these experiments have been exposed to harsh space conditions: vacuum, doses of UV and ionizing radiation as well as extreme temperature fluctuations. Space radiation that arrived on these organisms is related with different sources: (e.g. solar particle events, galactic cosmic rays and electromagnetic radiation) [1]. More information on biological effects of cosmic radiation is needed to understand the possible risks for biological systems exposed to space conditions and to broaden our knowledge on the limits of terrestrial life. This study is focused on Circinaria gyrosa (from Aspicilia fruticulosa, ren. see Sohrabi, M., 2012), a vagrant lichen species collected at the steppic highlands of Central Spain. C. gyrosa. has been previously used in various space experiments, e.g., LITHOPANSPERMIA experiment, BIOPAN-6, FOTON M3, 2007, and in ground-based laboratory studies [2]. For example, after intensive UV-C exposure (7.2 x 107J/m2), C. gyrosa showed the highest PS-II activity of all lichens species tested [3]. Based on this high resistance to UV radiation C. gyrosa has been included in the next EXPOSE-R2 ISS experiment called “BIOMEX” (Biology and Mars-Experiment), in which different biological systems will be exposed to space and Martian conditions for nearly one and a half year. Here, we will present our first results of C.gyrosa, which have been obtained in frame of the STARLIFE project, an intercomparison project testing the effects of space-relevant ionizing radiation, i.e., heavy ions and X-rays, on different astrobiological model systems. For C. gyrosa we tested the organism metabolism through pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorescence analysis prior and after the each irradiation experiment. This new data provide further evidence that lichens are suitable organisms to experimentally verify the potential of lichens in a Lithopanspermia scenario, as indicated by Horneck et al. (2008) [4] References [1] L. R. Dartnell. Ionizing radiation and life Astrobiology 11(6): 551-582 (2011) [2] R. de la Torre, L. G. Sancho, G. Horneck, A. de los Rios, J. Wierzchos, K. Olsson-Francis, C. S. Cockell, P. Rettberg, T. Berger, J. P. de Vera, S. Ott, J. Martinez Frias. P. González Melendi, M. M. Lucas, M. Reina, A. Pintado and R. Demets. Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions. Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments. Icarus 208: 735-748 (2010) [3] F. J. Sánchez, E. Mateo-Martí, J. Raggio, J. Meeßen, J. Martínez-Frías, L. G .Sancho, S. Ott and R. de la Torre. The resistance of the lichen Circinaria gyrosa (nom. provis.) towards simulated Mars conditions - a model test for the survival capacity of an eukaryotic extremophile. Planetary and Space Science. 72 (1): 102-110 (2012) [4] Horneck, G., Klaus, D.M., and R. L. Mancinelli. Space microbiology. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: 74(1):121-156 (2010)

Martín, María Luisa; Moeller, Ralf; De la Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Raguse, M. Marina

381

Students' Socio-Scientific Reasoning in an Astrobiological Context During Work with a Digital Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a European project—CoReflect—researchers in seven countries are developing, implementing and evaluating teaching sequences using a web-based platform (STOCHASMOS). The interactive web-based inquiry materials support collaborative and reflective work. The learning environments will be iteratively tested and refined, during different phases of the project. All learning environments are focusing "socio-scientific issues". In this article we report from the pilot implementation of the Swedish learning environment which has an Astrobiology context. The socio-scientific driving questions are "Should we look for, and try to contact, extraterrestrial life?", and "Should we transform Mars into a planet where humans can live in the future?" The students were in their last year of compulsory school (16 years old), and worked together in triads. We report from the groups' decisions and the support used for their claims. On a group level a majority of the student groups in their final statements express reluctance towards both the search of extraterrestrial life and the terraforming of Mars. The support used by the students are reported and discussed. We also look more closely into the argumentation of one of the student groups. The results presented in this article, differ from earlier studies on students' argumentation and decision making on socio-scientific issues (Aikenhead in Science education for everyday life. Evidence-based practice. Teachers College Press, New York, (2006) for an overview), in that they suggest that students do use science related arguments—both from "core" and "frontier" science—in their argumentation and decision making.

Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas; Rosberg, Maria

2011-08-01

382

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Extragalactic astronomy (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 October 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), "Extragalactic astronomy", was held in the Conference Hall of the Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, RAS, on 28 October 2009. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Varshalovich D A, Ivanchik A V, Balashev S A (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS) "Big Bang nucleosynthesis of deuterium and HD/H2 molecular abundances in interstellar clouds of 12 Gyr ago"; (2) Aptekar R L, Golenetskii S V, Mazets E P (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS). "Studies of cosmic gamma-ray bursts and gamma repeaters with the Ioffe Institute Konus experiments"; (3) Beskin G M, Karpov S V (Special Astrophysical Observatory, RAS), Bondar S V (Scientific Research Institute of Precision Instrument Making) "Discovery of the fast optical variability of the GRB 080319B gamma burst and the prospects for wide-angle high time resolution optical monitoring"; (4) Starobinskii A A (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS) "Experimental and theoretical investigation of dark matter in the Universe"; (5) Zasov A V, Sil'chenko O K (Shternberg State Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University) "Galactic disks and their evolution"; (6) Burdyuzha V V (Astro-Space Center of the Lebedev Physics Institute) "Dark components of the Universe". Papers based of reports 1-3, 5, and 6 are published below. A A Starobinskii's extended report will be presented in the form of a review, which is planned for publication in one of the forthcoming issues of Physics-Uspekhi. • Big Bang nucleosynthesis of deuterium and HD/H2 molecular abundances in interstellar clouds of 12 Gyr ago, D A Varshalovich, A V Ivanchik, S A Balashev, P Petitjean Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 397-401 • Cosmic gamma-ray bursts and gamma repeaters studies with Ioffe Institute Konus experiments, R L Aptekar, S V Golenetskii, E P Mazets, V D Pal'shin, D D Frederiks Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 401-406 • Discovery of the fast optical variability of GRB 080319B and the prospects for wide-field optical monitoring with high time resolution, G M Beskin, S V Karpov, S F Bondar, V L Plokhotnichenko, A Guarnieri, C Bartolini, G Greco, A Piccioni Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 406-414 • Galactic disks and their evolution, A V Zasov, O K Sil'chenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 415-419 • Dark components of the Universe, V V Burdyuzha Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 419-424

2010-07-01

383

The Internet Encyclopedia of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can learn astonishing facts in historical astronomy, astrobiology, astrophysics, space missions, and many more space science topics at this comprehensive website. David Darling, a British astronomer and science writer, provides straightforward explanations of seemingly difficult concepts. In addition to an easily navigable alphabetical list and a keyword search, the encyclopedia is interlinked so that users can easily progress through the materials. The website also features the latest space science news stories as well as archives of exciting events.

2005-12-30

384

Acquisition and Utilization of Japanese Information in Science, Technology and Commerce in Europe and USA : Report on the International Conference on Japanese Information at the University of Warwick  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Report on the International Conference on Japanese Information in Science, Technology and Commerce which was organized by the British Library, being supported by NTIS and JICST, at the University of Warwick on 1-4 September 1987. Topics discussed include, US policy on Japanese information, EEC/Japan-Info Project, various private initiatives, language barrier and translation, education of Japanese language and personnel exchange programme, quality and usage of Japanese secondary materials, original document delivery, Japanese produced databases and foreign access to them, requests upon JICST and other Japanese information services.

Miyakawa, Takayasu; Miwa, Makiko; Kanda, Toshihiko

385

NAKFI Ecosystem Services Conference Application Now Open! The National Academies Keck Futures Initiative (NAKFI), a project of the National Academy of Sciences,  

E-print Network

NAKFI Ecosystem Services Conference Application Now Open! The National Academies Keck Futures for this year's conference on Ecosystem Services. NAKFI conferences bring together some of the nation's best about the conference, including the online application, is available at: http://www.keckfutures.org/conferences/ecosystem

Logan, David

386

The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Organic Molecules in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the principal means by which organic compounds are detected and identified in space is by infrared spectroscopy. Past IR studies (telescopic and laboratory) have demonstrated that much of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) is in complex organic species of a variety of types, but the distribution, abundance, and evolutionary relationships of these materials are not well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEAST mission concept designed to conduct IR spectroscopic observations to detect and identify these materials to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. Systematic studies include the observation of planetary nebulae and stellar outflows, protostellar objects, Solar System Objects, and galaxies, and multiple lines of sight through dense molecular clouds and the diffuse ISM. ABE will also search for evidence of D enrichment in complex molecules in all these environments. The mission is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. ABE is a cryogenically-cooled 60 cm diameter space telescope equipped with 3 cryogenic cross-dispersed spectrographs that share a single common slit. The 3 spectrometers each measure single spectral octaves (2.5-5, 5-10, 10-20 microns) and together cover the entire 2.5 - 20 micron region simultaneously. The spectrometers use state-of-the-art 1024x1024 pixel detectors, with a single InSb array for the 2.5-5 micron region and two Si:As arrays for the 5-10 and 10-20 micron regions. The spectral resolution is wavelength dependent but is greater than 2000 across the entire spectral range. ABE would operate in a heliocentric, Earth drift-away orbit and is designed to take maximum advantage of this environment for cooling, thermal stability, and mission lifetime. ABE would have a core science mission lasting approximately 1.5 years.

Sandford, Scott A.; Vincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

387

Astrobiologically Interesting Stars Within 10 Parsecs of the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of life based on carbon chemistry and water oceans relies upon planetary properties, chiefly climate stability, and stellar properties, such as mass, age, metallicity, and galactic orbits. The latter can be well constrained with present knowledge. We present a detailed, up-to-date compilation of the atmospheric parameters, chemical composition, multiplicity, and degree of chromospheric activity for the astrobiologically interesting solar-type stars within 10 parsecs of the Sun. We determined their state of evolution, masses, ages, and space velocities, and produced an optimized list of candidates that merit serious scientific consideration by the future space-based interferometry probes aimed at directly detecting Earthsized extrasolar planets and seeking spectroscopic infrared biomarkers as evidence of photosynthetic life. The initially selected stars number 33 solar-type within the total population (excluding some incompleteness for late M-dwarfs) of 182 stars closer than 10 parsecs. A comprehensive and detailed data compilation for these objects is still lacking; a considerable amount of recent data has so far gone unexplored in this context. We present 13 objects as the nearest "biostars," after eliminating multiple stars, young, chromospherically active, hard xray- emitting stars, and low metallicity objects. Three of these "biostars"-Zeta Tucanae, Beta Canum Venaticorum, and 61 Virginis-closely reproduce most of the solar properties and are considered as premier targets. We show that approximately 7% of the nearby stars are optimally interesting targets for exobiology.

Porto de Mello, Gustavo; del Peloso, Eduardo F.; Ghezzi, Luan

2006-04-01

388

A Micro Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter for Astrobiology Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A micro-scale Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (microFACS) for astrobiology applications is under development. This device is designed to have a footprint of 7 cm x 7 cm x 4 cm and allow live-dead counts and sorting of cells that have fluorescent characteristics from staining. The FACS system takes advantage of microfluidics to create a cell sorter that can fit in the palm of the hand. A micron-scale channel allows cells to pass by a blue diode which causes emission of marker-expressed cells which are detected by a filtered photodetector. A small microcontroller then counts cells and operates high speed valves to select which chamber the cell is collected in (a collection chamber or a waste chamber). Cells with the expressed characteristic will be collected in the collection chamber. This system has been built and is currently being tested. We are also designing a system with integrated MEMS-based pumps and valves for a small and compact unit to fly on small satellite-based biology experiments.

Platt, Donald W.; Hoover, Richard B.

2009-01-01

389

First Light from Extrasolar Planets and Implications for Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first light from an extrasolar planet was recently detected. These results, obtained for two transiting extrasolar planets at different infrared wavelengths, open a new era in the field of extrasolar planet detection and characterization because for the first time we can now detect planets beyond the solar system directly. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope at 24 microns, we observed the modulation of combined light (star plus planet) from the HD 209458 system as the planet disappeared behind the star during secondary eclipse and later re-emerged, thereby isolating the light from the planet. We obtained a planet-to-star ratio of 0.26% at 24 microns, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 1130 + / - 150 K. We will describe this result in detail, explain what it can tell us about the atmosphere of HD 209458 b, and discuss implications for the field of astrobiology. These results represent a significant step on the path to detecting terrestrial planets around other stars and in understanding their atmospheres in terms of composition and temperature.

Richardson, L. Jeremy; Seager, Sara; Harrington, Joseph; Deming, Drake

2005-01-01

390

Life and the Universe: From Astrochemistry to Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Great strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material thanks to advances in infrared astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by earlier astrochemical standards, are widespread and very abundant throughout much of the cosmos. In cold molecular clouds, the birthplace of planets and stars, interstellar atoms and molecules freeze onto extremely cold dust and ice particles forming mixed molecular ices dominated by simple species such as water, methanol, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. Within these clouds, and especially in the vicinity of star and planet forming regions, these ices and PAHs are processed by ultraviolet light and cosmic rays forming hundreds of far more complex species, some of biogenic interest. Eventually, these are delivered to primordial planets by comets and meteorites. As these materials are the building blocks of comets and related to carbonaceous micrometeorites, they are likely to be important sources of complex organic materials delivered to habitable planets (including the primordial Earth) and their composition may be related to the origin of life. This talk will focus on the chemical evolution of these cosmic materials and their relevance to astrobiology.

Allamandola, Louis J.

2013-01-01

391

Astrobiologically interesting stars within 10 parsecs of the sun.  

PubMed

The existence of life based on carbon chemistry and water oceans relies upon planetary properties, chiefly climate stability, and stellar properties, such as mass, age, metallicity, and galactic orbits. The latter can be well constrained with present knowledge. We present a detailed, up-to-date compilation of the atmospheric parameters, chemical composition, multiplicity, and degree of chromospheric activity for the astrobiologically interesting solar-type stars within 10 parsecs of the Sun. We determined their state of evolution, masses, ages, and space velocities, and produced an optimized list of candidates that merit serious scientific consideration by the future space-based interferometry probes aimed at directly detecting Earthsized extrasolar planets and seeking spectroscopic infrared biomarkers as evidence of photosynthetic life. The initially selected stars number 33 solar-type within the total population (excluding some incompleteness for late M-dwarfs) of 182 stars closer than 10 parsecs. A comprehensive and detailed data compilation for these objects is still lacking; a considerable amount of recent data has so far gone unexplored in this context. We present 13 objects as the nearest "biostars," after eliminating multiple stars, young, chromospherically active, hard x-ray- emitting stars, and low metallicity objects. Three of these "biostars"-- Zeta Tucanae, Beta Canum Venaticorum, and 61 Virginis -- closely reproduce most of the solar properties and are considered as premier targets. We show that approximately 7% of the nearby stars are optimally interesting targets for exobiology. PMID:16689649

Porto de Mello, Gustavo; Fernandez Del Peloso, Eduardo; Ghezzi, Luan

2006-04-01

392

From the 2006 Conference Proceedings of the Association for Science Teacher Education OUR PHYSTEC PROJECT: COLLABORATING WITH A RESIDENT  

E-print Network

PROJECT: COLLABORATING WITH A RESIDENT TEACHER TO IMPROVE AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE FIELD EXPERIENCE Cody interns' science lessons. The project team, including a full-time teacher-in-residence, engaged to learning science. At Towson, the PhysTEC project team consists of Dr. Cody Sandifer and Dr. Laura Lising

Sandifer, Cody

393

Proceedings (CD) of the 3rd International Conference on Porous Media and its Applications in Science and  

E-print Network

volume averaged velocity through porous media, DU , and the pressure drop is linear [7]: DU Kdx dP =- (11 Proceedings (CD) of the 3rd International Conference on Porous Media and its Applications in the space, fibrous media are divided into three categories: 1D, 2D, and 3D structures. Parallel

Bahrami, Majid

394

Advances in heat pipe science and technology. Proceedings of the 9. international heat pipe conference: Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Conference Proceedings incorporate 150 papers, including the invited lectures, regional surveys and papers selected from the presented contributions based on evaluation. In this publication these papers are grouped in 12 sections, as follows: (1) fundamental research and basic processes; (2) theoretical and experimental studies of heat pipes and thermosyphons; (3) development and application of heat pipe heat exchangers; (4)

Merrigan

1997-01-01

395

Advances in heat pipe science and technology. Proceedings of the 9. international heat pipe conference: Volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Conference Proceedings incorporate 150 papers, including the invited lectures, regional surveys and papers selected from the presented contributions based on evaluation. In this publication these papers are grouped in 12 sections, as follows: (1) fundamental research and basic processes; (2) theoretical and experimental studies of heat pipes and thermosyphons; (3) development and application of heat pipe heat exchangers; (4)

Merrigan

1997-01-01

396

University of South Dakota Mathematics/Science Symposium: First Eisenhower Focused Initiative K-12 Mathematics and Science Symposium Conference Proceedings (Vermillion, South Dakota, January 13-14, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains papers presented at a mathematics and science symposium. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for the interchange of the state-of-the-art mathematics and science education activities taking place within a South Dakota National Science Foundation State Systemic Initiative project within Southeast Area…

Otto, Paul B., Ed.

397

Conference reception - Conference reception  

Microsoft Academic Search

SC06 will host a conference reception for all technical program attendees at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay. Get set to explore wildlife, wild rides, and live shows in the Timbuktu and Congo areas. Take the SheiKra challenge, America's only dive coaster, which takes you 200 feet up then hurtles you 90 degrees straight down. Or ride a raft through the white

2006-01-01

398

Backward Planetary Protection Issues and Possible Solutions for Icy Plume Sample Return Missions from Astrobiological Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent report of possible water vapor plumes at Europa and Ceres, together with the well-known Enceladus plume containing water vapor, salt, ammonia, and organic molecules, suggests that sample return missions could evolve into a generic approach for outer Solar System exploration in the near future, especially for the benefit of astrobiology research. Sampling such plumes can be accomplished via fly-through mission designs, modeled after the successful Stardust mission to capture and return material from Comet Wild-2 and multiple, precise trajectory controls of the Cassini mission to fly through Enceladus’ plume. The proposed LIFE (Life Investigation For Enceladus) mission to Enceladus, which would sample organic molecules from the plume of that apparently habitable world, provides one example of the appealing scientific return of such missions. Beyond plumes, the upper atmosphere of Titan could also be sampled in this manner. The SCIM mission to Mars, also inspired by Stardust, would sample and return aerosol dust in the upper atmosphere of Mars and thus extends this concept even to other planetary bodies. Such missions share common design needs. In particular, they require large exposed sampler areas (or sampler arrays) that can be contained to the standards called for by international planetary protection protocols that COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy (PPP) recommends. Containment is also needed because these missions are driven by astrobiologically relevant science - including interest in organic molecules - which argues against heat sterilization that could destroy scientific value of samples. Sample containment is a daunting engineering challenge. Containment systems must be carefully designed to appropriate levels to satisfy the two top requirements: planetary protection policy and the preserving the scientific value of samples. Planning for Mars sample return tends to center on a hermetic seal specification (i.e., gas-tight against helium escape). While this is an ideal specification, it far exceeds the current PPP requirements for Category-V “restricted Earth return”, which typically center on a probability of escape of a biologically active particle (e.g., < 1 in 10 (6) chance of escape of particles > 50 nm diameter). Particles of this size (orders of magnitude larger than a helium atom) are not volatile and generally “sticky” toward surfaces; the mobility of viruses and biomolecules requires aerosolization. Thus, meeting the planetary protection challenge does not require hermetic seal. So far, only a handful of robotic missions accomplished deep space sample returns, i.e., Genesis, Stardust and Hayabusa. This year, Hayabusa-2 will be launched and OSIRIS-REx will follow in a few years. All of these missions are classified as “unrestricted Earth return” by the COSPAR PPP recommendation. Nevertheless, scientific requirements of organic contamination control have been implemented to all WBS regarding sampling mechanism and Earth return capsule of Hayabusa-2. While Genesis, Stardust and OSIRIS-REx capsules “breathe” terrestrial air as they re-enter Earth’s atmosphere, temporal “air-tight” design was already achieved by the Hayabusa-1 sample container using a double O-ring seal, and that for the Hayabusa-2 will retain noble gas and other released gas from returned solid samples using metal seal technology. After return, these gases can be collected through a filtered needle interface without opening the entire container lid. This expertise can be extended to meeting planetary protection requirements from “restricted return” targets. There are still some areas requiring new innovations, especially to assure contingency robustness in every phase of a return mission. These must be achieved by meeting both PPP and scientific requirements during initial design and WBS of the integrated sampling system including the Earth return capsule. It is also important to note that international communities in planetary protection, sample return science, and deep space engineering must me

Yano, Hajime; McKay, Christopher P.; Anbar, Ariel; Tsou, Peter

399

Walk Through Solar System Times: An Exhibit with an Astrobiology Emphasis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this astrobiology outreach project, we attempt to present the research of the Goddard Center for Astrobiology (GCA) in the context of the history of the Solar System. GCA research emphasizes the origin and formation of complex pre-biotic organic materials in extraterrestrial environments and explores whether the delivery of these primordial materials and water to the early Earth enabled the emergence and evolution of life. The content expounds on areas that are usually not touched upon in a timeline of the Earth's formation. The exhibit addresses the questions: How did our solar system form? How is the formation of our solar systems similar or different from others? How did the organic molecules we observe in space get to the Earth? What conditions are most suitable for life? We will address the issues and challenges of designing the exhibit and of explaining advanced astrobiology research topics to the public.

Cheung, C. Y.

2012-01-01

400

Carbon molecules in space: from astrochemistry to astrobiology.  

PubMed

How complex carbonaceous molecules in space are, what their abundance is and on what timescales they form are crucial questions within cosmochemistry. Despite the large heterogeneity of galactic and interstellar regions the organic chemistry in the universe seems to follow common pathways. The largest fraction of carbon in the universe is incorporated into aromatic molecules (gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as well as solid macromolecular aromatic structures). Macromolecular carbon constitutes more than half of the interstellar carbon, approximately 80% of the carbon in meteorites, and is likely to be present in comets. Molecules of high astrobiological relevance such as N-heterocycles, amino acids and pre-sugars have all been identified in trace quantities (ppb) in extracts of carbonaceous meteorites. Their presence in inter- and circumstellar regions is either unknown or contentious. In any event such fragile species are easily destroyed by UV radiation, shocks and thermal processing and are unlikely to survive incorporation into Solar System material without some degradation. The more refractory material, in particular macromolecular carbon may retain an interstellar heritage more faithfully. We present laboratory measurements on the photostability of organic compounds and discuss their survival in regions with elevated UV radiation. We also show recent observations of diffuse interstellar bands indicating the presence of fullerenes. We investigate the link between the carbon chemistry in interstellar space and in the Solar System by analyzing the carbonaceous fraction of meteorites and by reviewing stable isotopic data. It also seems evident that both volatile and refractory material from carbonaceous meteoritic has been substantially altered owing to thermal and aqueous processing within the Solar System. PMID:17191452

Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Sephton, Mark A

2006-01-01

401

Supporting Mars exploration: BIOMEX in Low Earth Orbit and further astrobiological studies on the Moon using Raman and PanCam technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) experiment Biology and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX) is an interdisciplinary and international space research project selected by ESA. The experiment will be accommodated on the space exposure facility EXPOSE-R2 on the International Space Station (ISS) and is foreseen to be launched in 2013. The prime objective of BIOMEX is to measure to what extent biomolecules, such as pigments and cellular components, are resistant to and able to maintain their stability under space and Mars-like conditions. The results of BIOMEX will be relevant for space proven biosignature definition and for building a biosignature data base (e.g. the proposed creation of an international Raman library). The library will be highly relevant for future space missions such as the search for life on Mars. The secondary scientific objective is to analyze to what extent terrestrial extremophiles are able to survive in space and to determine which interactions between biological samples and selected minerals (including terrestrial, Moon- and Mars analogs) can be observed under space and Mars-like conditions. In this context, the Moon will be an additional platform for performing similar experiments with negligible magnetic shielding and higher solar and galactic irradiation compared to LEO. Using the Moon as an additional astrobiological exposure platform to complement ongoing astrobiological LEO investigations could thus enhance the chances of detecting organic traces of life on Mars. We present a lunar lander mission with two related objectives: a lunar lander equipped with Raman and PanCam instruments which can analyze the lunar surface and survey an astrobiological exposure platform. This dual use of testing mission technology together with geo- and astrobiological analyses will significantly increase the science return, and support the human preparation objectives. It will provide knowledge about the Moon's surface itself and, in addition, monitor the stability of life-markers, such as cells, cell components and pigments, in an extraterrestrial environment with much closer radiation properties to the surface of Mars. The combination of a Raman data base of these data together with data from LEO and space simulation experiments, will lead to further progress on the analysis and interpretation of data that we will obtain from future Moon and Mars exploration missions.

de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Boettger, Ute; Noetzel, Rosa de la Torre; Sánchez, Francisco J.; Grunow, Dana; Schmitz, Nicole; Lange, Caroline; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm; Billi, Daniela; Baqué, Mickael; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Reitz, Günther; Berger, Thomas; Möller, Ralf; Bohmeier, Maria; Horneck, Gerda; Westall, Frances; Jänchen, Jochen; Fritz, Jörg; Meyer, Cornelia; Onofri, Silvano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Leya, Thomas; Foing, Bernard; Demets, René; Cockell, Charles S.; Bryce, Casey; Wagner, Dirk; Serrano, Paloma; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Joshi, Jasmin; Huwe, Björn; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ott, Sieglinde; Meessen, Joachim; Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Jaumann, Ralf; Spohn, Tilman

2012-12-01

402

Perspectives on U.S. Competitiveness in Science and Technology. Conference Proceedings (Washington, DC, November 8, 2006)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern has grown that the United States is losing its competitive edge in science and technology (S&T). The factors driving this concern include globalization, the rise of science centers in developing countries such as China and India, the increasing number of foreign-born Ph.D. students in the United States, and claims of a shortage of S&T…

Galama, Titus, Ed.; Hosek, James, Ed.

2007-01-01

403

Umist, the solid state physics conference. Conference report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digest of selected papers read at the Solid State Physics Conference held at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, 4-6 January 1972 is given. A complete list of papers presented is included.

Condell

1972-01-01

404

Teacher Shortage in Science and Mathematics: Myths, Realities, and Research. Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the National Institute of Education (Washington, District of Columbia, February 10-11, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference was designed to identify salient elements of the national science/mathematics teacher shortage, add corollary data to the existing body of knowledge, and to influence and guide future NIE research in the area. The proceedings include: welcoming and keynote addresses by, respectively, Manuel J. Justiz and T. H. Bell; five…

Taylor, John L., Ed.

405

Research in Science Education. Volume 12. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (13th, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, May 1982).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains a selection of science education research papers, beginning with an overview of trends in science education cognitive developmental research and theory in the United Kingdom. Papers that follow focus on developments in studies of thinking and reasoning, including work on concept mapping and conceptual change. Closely…

Rattray-Wood, Laurie, Ed.; Ferguson, Peter, Ed.

1982-01-01

406

PREFACE: International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - Eco-Materials and Eco-Innovation for Global Sustainability - The 21st Iketani Conference 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference logo The 21st century has been called the century of environmental revolution. Green innovations and environmentally friendly production systems based on physics, chemistry, materials science, and electronic engineering will be indispensable for ensuring renewable energy and establishing a sustainable society. In particular, production design, materials processing, and fabrication technologies such as welding and joining will be very important components of such green innovations. For these reasons, the International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - eco-materials and eco-innovation for global sustainability - (ECO-MATES 2011) was organized by the Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI) and the Center of Environmental Innovation Design for Sustainability (CEIDS), Osaka University. ECO-MATES 2011 was held at Hotel Hankyu Expo Park, Osaka, Japan from 28-30 November 2011. 435 participants from 20 countries around the world attended the symposium. 149 oral presentations including 60 invited talks and 160 posters were presented at the symposium to discuss the latest research and developments in green innovations in relation to environmental issues. The topics of the symposium covered all environmentally related fields including renewable energy, energy-materials, environment and resources, waste and biomass, power electronics, semiconductor, rare-earth metals, functional materials, organic electronics materials, electronics packaging, smart processing, joining and welding, eco-efficient processes, and green applied physics and chemistry. Therefore, 55 full papers concerning green innovations and environmentally benign production were selected and approved by the editorial board and the program committee of ECO-MATES 2011. All papers were accepted through peer review processes. I believe that all the papers have many informative contents. On behalf of the steering committee of the symposium, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to all the committees and secretariats, authors, participants of ECO-MATES 2011, and everybody involved in the publication of this special issue. It is a great honor for me that the special issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series will contribute to establishing green innovations and a sustainable society. Chairman's signature Yasuo Takahashi Chairman of ECO-MATES 2011 Conference photograph ECO-MATES 2011 November 28-30, 2011 Venue: Hotel Hankyu Expo Park, Osaka, Japan The PDF also contains a list of the organizing committees.

Takahashi, Yasuo

2012-08-01

407

Take Me Out to the Ball Game: Science Outreach to Nontraditional Audiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science outreach often targets audiences that are already interested in science and are looking for related educational experiences for themselves or their families. The University of Wisconsin Geology Museum (UWGM) with funding from the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) is targeting unique venues and thereby new audiences who may not typically seek out science outreach events. With this goal in mind,

B. A. Norsted

2010-01-01

408

Recognition of Fossil Prokaryotes in Cretaceous Methane Seep Carbonates: Relevance to Astrobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Recovery of prokaryotic body fossils from methane seep carbonates such as those of the Cre- taceous Tepee Buttes of Colorado serves as a model for sampling in future astrobiological missions. The fossils, found primarily at the interface between paragenetic fabrics, suggest a sharp physicochemical gradient. Evidence of these microbial fossils occurs at a variety of scales. In the field,

Russell Scott Shapiro

2004-01-01

409

of the SpringS: Astrobiology in Yellowstone National Park --Booklet  

E-print Network

Yellowstone and astrobiology. Students will understand the importance of extremophiles to the search for life students learn more about extremophiles. Age rANge Grades 5-12 time required 45 min to 1 hour #12 booklet. The activity that follows "learn more about extremophiles" relates directly to that reading. exte

Maxwell, Bruce D.

410

Europa Surface-Subsurface Material Interchange: Astrobiology Implications of the Session  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will seek to identify key parameters, and critical measurements needed to determine exchange rates of surface-subsurface materials of Europa and to anticipate their implications for the astrobiological studies NASA will plan. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Meyer, M. A.

2001-01-01

411

The astrobiological case for renewed robotic and human exploration of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ambitious programme of lunar exploration will reveal much of astrobiological interest. Examples include: (i) better characterization of the impact cratering rate in the Earth-Moon system, with implications for understanding the possible ' impact frustration ' of the origin of life; (ii) preservation of ancient meteorites blasted off Earth, Mars and Venus, which may preserve evidence of the early surface

I. A. Crawford

2006-01-01

412

Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 16th, Houston, TX, March 11-15, 1985, Proceedings. Part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present conference presents papers on the criteria, data and implications of pristine lunar glasses, lunar granulities and their precursor anorthositic norites of the early lunar crust, characterization and evidence for early formation in the megaregolith of Apollo 16 regolith breccias, and anorthosite assimilation and the origin of the Mg/Fe-related bimodality of pristine moon rocks in support of the magmasphere hypothesis. Other topics include the mineralogy of Yamato 791073 with reference to crystal fractionation of the howardite parent body, the geology and geomorphology of the Venus surface as revealed by the radar images obtained by Veneras 15 and 16, tidal dissipation in a viscoelastic planet, and cosmogenic neutron-capture-produced nuclides in stony meteorites. Also considered are the first results of hydrous alteration of amorphous silicate smokes, elemental analysis of a comet nucleus by passive gamma ray spectrometry from a penetrator, and uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice.

Ryder, G. (editor)

1986-01-01

413

The future of science, technology and innovation policy: linking research and practice. SPRU 40th Anniversary Conference,  

E-print Network

and application of these technologies for prohibited purposes can have unintended impacts on their socially' first entered the technology policy literature, its conventional employment relayed positiveThe future of science, technology and innovation policy: linking research and practice. SPRU 40th

Sussex, University of

414

For the Love of Science -USGS Emeritus Scientists Receive Prestigious Awards at Geological Society of America Conference  

E-print Network

that have significantly advanced the science of hydrogeology or some closely related fiek:l. Baedecker about geochemistry and hydrogeology. USGS scientist emeritus Peter Lipman accepted GSA's first to tectonics, economic geology, and volcano hazards. He was early to recognize the importance of plate

Torgersen, Christian

415

Getting the Dose Right: Report From the Tenth European Federation of Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) Conference on Optimizing Drug Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report highlights the main points emerging from a meeting sponsored on “Getting the Dose Right” in clinical development,\\u000a jointly sponsored by the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the European Center of Pharmaceutical Medicine,\\u000a as part of the Workshop Series on Frontiers in Drug Development, in Basel, Switzerland on December 9–12, 2002.

Donald R. Stanski; Malcolm Rowland; Lewis B. Sheiner

2005-01-01

416

First International Conference between West and East-Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science.  

PubMed

The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti D'Oriente(Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi 'Tao and Science' will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com. PMID:18317548

Daniele, Flavio

2008-03-01

417

First International Conference between West and East--Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science  

PubMed Central

The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese