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1

Edwin Hubble's Silence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In late 1928 Edwin Hubble was right in the middle of using V. M. Slipher's redshift data to prove that the universe is expanding, when Hubble's boss, George Hale, directed him to drop everything and rush to the Grand Canyon and test it as a possible site for Hale's planned 200-inch telescope. On his way, Hubble stopped at Lowell Observatory and met with V. M. Slipher. The letters both men wrote about this visit suggest that Hubble never said a word about his being in the middle of using Slipher's research to transform the universe. At the least, this silence is symbolic of the silence with which astronomical history has often treated Slipher's work. A survey of the historical literature suggests several reasons for this. Theorists and observers in astronomy (and other sciences) have long had different perspectives about how science works, and those who place more importance on theory have tended to credit the idea of the expanding universe to the theorists. Also, many sources indicate that Edwin Hubble was not a modest man or generous about sharing credit.

Lago, D.

2013-04-01

2

Edwin Hubble's Famous Plate of 1923, and a Hubble-Hubble Connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 6, 1923 Edwin Hubble used the Mount Wilson 100-inch telescope to take a 45 minute exposure of a field in the Andromeda galaxy. This is the now-famous plate marked with his "VAR!" notation. I will discuss this plate and that notation. I will also tell the story of flying copies of that plate on the deployment mission for HST in 1990 as a Hubble memento and then locating those copies afterwards, and how copies were flown on Servicing Mission 4 on 2009 as well. This has led to an effort in which AAVSO members joined to identify and reobserve that noted star, arguably the most important object in the history of cosmology, but largely ignored since Hubble's time.

Soderblom, David R.

2011-05-01

3

Edwin Hubble : the great synthesizer : revealing the breadth and birth of the universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This biographical article explains why Edwin Hubble is the appropriate namesake for the Hubble Space Telescope. The article recounts how Hubble made two extraordinary discoveries in the early 1900s that revolutionized science's understanding of the universe. Using a topnotch telescope, Hubble first discovered that our galaxy, the Milky Way, is not the whole of the universe. He then discerned that the universe is expanding. This expansion is now known as Hubble's law, and the discovery paved the way for the development of the Big Bang theory and modern cosmology. The article includes links to supplementary readings about red shifts, Hubble's law, and the Big Bang. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Gross, Liza

2001-01-01

4

Astronomers Track Down Asteroids in Hubble Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information related to the recently discovered asteroid 1997XF11. The Space Science Telescope Institute site has begun to document how astronomers are using photos from the Hubble Space Telescope to find asteroids; over 100 small asteroids have so far been found, of which captioned examples of four (in various formats) are now available.

1998-01-01

5

Multiple Galaxy Collisions Surprise Hubble Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recent surprising discoveries have led Hubble space telescope astronomers to rethink theories on a class of galaxies called ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRG). It was previously believed that only pairs of galaxies were interacting in ULIRGs, but recent photos from Hubble show multiple collisions of four or even five galaxies smashing together. The images, provided at this site, offer a glimpse of what conditions were like in the early universe when galaxy collisions were commonplace. Users can read the official press release and view a number of images in different sizes and formats at the above URL. Additional resources include two QuickTime movies of astronomer Dr. Kirk Borne discussing his new finding and describing one of the images, and links to related discoveries at the Hubble site.

1999-01-01

6

Hubble Astronomers Unveil: Crab Nebula The Movie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amazing photos have been added to the Space Telescope Electronic Information Service Site in May 1996. Hubble Space Telescope images released include Dynamics of the Crab Nebula and Doomed Star Eta Carinae. Included are several black & white and color resolutions, as well as well as explanatory captions.

1996-01-01

7

Astronomers celebrate a year of new Hubble results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"We are beginning to understand that because of these observations we are going to have to change the way we look at the Universe," said ESA's Dr Duccio Macchetto, Associate Director for Science Programs at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The European Space Agency plays a major role in the Hubble Space Telescope programme. The Agency provided one of the telescope's four major instruments, called the Faint Object Camera, and two sets of electricity-generating solar arrays. In addition, 15 ESA scientific and technical staff work at the STScI. In return for this contribution, European astronomers are entitled to 15 percent of the telescope's observing time, although currently they account for 20 percent of all observations. "This is a testimony to the quality of the European science community", said Dr Roger Bonnet, Director of Science at ESA. "We are only guaranteed 15 percent of the telescope's use, but consistently receive much more than that." Astronomers from universities, observatories and research institutes across Europe lead more than 60 investigations planned for the telescope's fifth observing cycle, which begins this summer. Many more Europeans contribute to teams led by other astronomers. Looking back to the very start of time European astronomer Dr Peter Jakobsen used ESA's Faint Object Camera to confirm that helium was present in the early Universe. Astronomers had long predicted that 90 percent of the newly born Universe consisted of hydrogen, with helium making up the remainder. Before the refurbished Hubble came along, it was easy to detect the hydrogen, but the primordial helium remained elusive. The ultraviolet capabilities of the telescope, combined with the improvement in spatial resolution following the repair, made it possible for Dr Jakobsen to obtain an image of a quasar close to the edge of the known Universe. A spectral analysis of this picture revealed the quasar's light, which took 13 billion years to reach the telescope, had indeed passed through helium, and not only that, the helium was of just the right variety to match the established theory. Dr Jakobsen has spent more than 20 years working on this subject. His recent efforts concentrated on seeking out a quasar unobscured by clouds of hydrogen, which block the tell-tale signature of helium. His search drew him to the Space Telescope project and during the telescope's early years in orbit he studied 25 likely quasars and found one promising candidate. Dr Jacobsen then had to wait for the telescope's new optics before he could get the quality of data he needed to prove the existence of helium. "We were looking for a break in the cloud cover, so to speak," the astronomer said. "We had a tantalising glimpse of the quasar with the aberrated telescope but it was only after we fixed it that we could really get a clear answer. One of the first things that we did once we had the corrective optics in place was look at this object and it was exactly as we'd hoped." Getting the Universe to measure up When it comes to studying the expansion of the Universe, however, the telescope has raised morn; questions than answers. By determining how fast the Universe is expanding astronomers will be able to calculate its age and size. It may then become possible to discover what is the ultimate fate of the Universe; will it simply continue to expand until it evaporates? Will the expansion come to a complete stop? Or will the Universe stop expanding, start contracting and end in a "big crunch"? The rate at which the Universe expands is known as the Hubble Constant or H0. To measure this value, astronomers need to calculate how far away a galaxy is and how fast it is moving away from us. The former is difficult to determine because reliable distance indicators, sometimes known as "cosmic yardsticks ", such as variable stars and supernovae, must be found in the galaxies. An international team of astronomers recently used the Hubble Space Telescope to make a

1995-02-01

8

Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and the general public. The origins of these discoveries are examined and it is demonstrated that, in each case, a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place. In some cases the discoveries had either already been made, or competing versions were not adopted for complex scientific and sociological reasons.

Way, M. J.

2013-04-01

9

Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and even the general public. The origins of three of the most well-known discoveries are examined: The distances to nearby spiral nebulae, the classification of extragalactic-nebulae and the Hubble constant. In the case of the first two a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place, but little credit was given. The Hubble Constant had already been estimated in 1927 by Georges Lemaitre with roughly the same value that Hubble obtained in 1929 using redshifts provided mostly by Vesto M. Slipher. These earlier estimates were not adopted or were forgotten by the astronomical community for complex scientific, sociological and psychological reasons.

Way, Michael J.

2014-01-01

10

Sloan Digital Sky Survey: The Hubble Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's website provides an excellent explanation of how Astronomers are able to use red-shift to explain the expansion of the universe. An activity is provided for a user to retrace Edwin Hubble's steps of measuring magnitudes and calculating redshifts to make a Hubble Diagram. These pages are part of a large set of projects and activities provided by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for advanced astronomy students.

2005-05-15

11

NASA and ESA astronauts visit ESO. Hubble repair team meets European astronomers in Garching.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Wednesday, February 16, 1994, seven NASA and ESA astronauts and their spouses will spend a day at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. They are the members of the STS-61 crew that successfully repaired the Hubble Space Telescope during a Space Shuttle mission in December 1993. This will be the only stop in Germany during their current tour of various European countries. ESO houses the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST/ECF), a joint venture by the European Space Agency and ESO. This group of astronomers and computer specialists provide all services needed by European astronomers for observations with the Space Telescope. Currently, the European share is about 20 of the total time available at this telescope. During this visit, a Press Conference will be held on Wednesday, February 16, 11:45 - 12:30 at the ESO Headquarters Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748 Garching bei Munchen. Please note that participation in this Press Conference is by invitation only. Media representatives may obtain invitations from Mrs. E. Volk, ESO Information Service at this address (Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax.: +49-89-3202362), until Friday, February 11, 1994. After the Press Conference, between 12:30 - 14:00, a light refreshment will be served at the ESO Headquarters to all participants. >From 14:00 - 15:30, the astronauts will meet with students and teachers from the many scientific institutes in Garching in the course of an open presentation at the large lecture hall of the Physics Department of the Technical University. It is a 10 minute walk from ESO to the hall. Later the same day, the astronauts will be back at ESO for a private discussion of various space astronomy issues with their astronomer colleagues, many of whom are users of the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as ground-based telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and elsewhere. The astronauts continue to Switzerland in the evening.

1994-02-01

12

Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the

Robert P. Kirshner

2004-01-01

13

Sloan Digital Sky Survey - Hubble Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, containing information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, provides projects and activities for advanced astronomy students. In this particular one, the user retraces Edwin Hubble's steps to discover that the Universe is expanding, by making a Hubble Diagram.

2010-01-07

14

Hubble Space Telescope satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

Mitchell, R. E.

1985-01-01

15

Live from the Hubble Space Telescope: a possibility of astronomical education using Internet.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have joined in "Live from the Hubble Space Telescope" which was operated by a Passport to Knowledge Project team. The authors are sure that collaboration between scientists and teachers using Internet have an effect on science education.

Agata, H.; Miura, H.; Ito, S.; Koyama, H.; Turuoka, N.; Ebisuzaki, T.

1996-12-01

16

Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a cutaway illustration of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with callouts. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1986-01-01

17

Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1989-01-01

18

The Director's Choice: Mellish, Hubble and the discovery of the variable nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 1915, amateur astronomer John Edward Mellish joined the staff of Yerkes Observatory as an unpaid observer. Soon after arriving, Mellish discovered what he thought was a comet in the dawn twilight. Yerkes director Edwin Brant Frost promptly notified Harvard Observatory of the discovery only to learn later in the day, too late to prevent distribution of an international telegram, that the object Mellish observed was actually the diffuse nebula NGC 2261. Edwin Powell Hubble, a graduate student in his first year at Yerkes, was assigned the task of determining whether, as Mellish insisted, the nebula had changed. This led to Hubble's first professional papers and his initial fame as the discoverer of `Hubble's Variable Nebula.' Frost's choice, assigning the investigation to Hubble rather than Mellish, reflected his irritation with Mellish over matters that went well beyond the mistaken comet discovery. When Mellish discovered another comet a few weeks later, Frost delayed his notification to Harvard for several days to allow photographic confirmation of the discovery by George Van Biesbroeck, another newcomer at Yerkes. These events highlight staffing problems at Yerkes in 1915, problems that were common to other American observatories. Mellish and Van Biesbroeck were likely the last two amateur astronomers to have an opportunity to `try out' as professionals at Yerkes. By 1915 a stronger requirement for educational credentials was emerging in the astronomical community. On the other hand, like other observatory directors, Frost was experiencing considerable difficulty employing graduate astronomers. With S. W. Burnham already retired, Frost adopted stopgap measures for staffing as E. E. Barnard and others from an earlier generation prepared for retirement. The assignment of the nebula investigation to Hubble indicates that Frost had likely already concluded that Mellish would not be an acceptable substitute for a degreed professional.

Williams, T. R.

2000-12-01

19

Blind Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phrase "blind astronomer” is used as an allegorical oxymoron. However, there were and are blind astronomers. What of famous blind astronomers? First, it must be stated that these astronomers were not martyrs to their craft. It is a myth that astronomers blind themselves by observing the Sun. As early as France's William of Saint-Cloud (circa 1290) astronomers knew that staring at the Sun was ill-advised and avoided it. Galileo Galilei did not invent the astronomical telescope and then proceed to blind himself with one. Galileo observed the Sun near sunrise and sunset or through projection. More than two decades later he became blind, as many septuagenarians do, unrelated to their profession. Even Isaac Newton temporarily blinded himself, staring at the reflection of the Sun when he was a twentysomething. But permanent Sun-induced blindness? No, it did not happen. For instance, it was a stroke that left Scotland's James Gregory (1638-1675) blind. (You will remember the Gregorian telescope.) However, he died days later. Thus, blindness little interfered with his occupation. English Abbot Richard of Wallingford (circa 1291 - circa 1335) wrote astronomical works and designed astronomical instruments. He was also blind in one eye. Yet as he further suffered from leprosy, his blindness seems the lesser of Richard's maladies. Perhaps the most famous professionally active, blind astronomer (or almost blind astronomer) is Dominique-Francois Arago (1786-1853), director until his death of the powerful nineteenth-century Paris Observatory. I will share other _ some poignant _ examples such as: William Campbell, whose blindness drove him to suicide; Leonhard Euler, astronomy's Beethoven, who did nearly half of his life's work while almost totally blind; and Edwin Frost, who "observed” a total solar eclipse while completely sightless.

Hockey, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

20

Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology.

Kirshner, Robert P.

2004-01-01

21

A Conversation with Edwin Shneidman  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a transcript of a conversation that took place with Edwin Shneidman, PhD, on August 19, 2008. Recent advances in machine learning, particularly neurocognitive computing, have provided a fresh approach to the idea of using computers to analyze the language of the suicidal person. Here this notion and many others are discussed.

Pestian, John

2010-01-01

22

Hubble: 20 Years of Discovery  

NASA Video Gallery

Hubble's discoveries have revolutionized nearly all areas of current astronomical research from planetary science to cosmology. Actor and writer Brent Spiner narrates a visual journey back in time ...

23

HubbleSite: Hubble Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site presents Hubble's fascinating discoveries through pictures, videos, and stories describing the universe's past, present, and future. This website provides two videos: "Piercing the Sky," a look at how telescope advances have changed astronomer's understanding of the universe, and "Cosmic Collision," a video discussing galaxy collisions. There is also an overview of Hubbleâs contributions in "New Views of the Universe." "Decade of Discovery" features pictures, videos, and stories. "Hubble Deep Field" provides a multimedia journey back in time. Scientists describe planet formation and other fascinating celestial phenomena in "Tour the Cosmos."

Administration, National A.

2005-06-28

24

External Resource: Hubble Deep Space Field Academy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Space Telescope Science Institute web page contains resources for students to 'walk' in the footsteps of astronomers as they explore the farthest regions of the known universe. Using astronomers' methods, students will observe the Hubble Deep Field

1900-01-01

25

Hubble: A View to the Edge of Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers four categories of material about the Hubble Space Telescope: place, ideas, tools, and people. Diagrams, collections of images, readings, and interactive features fill the site, offering insight into the Hubble project and the scientific work that led up to it. Two of the ideas features--an annotated gallery of Hubble images and an article--explore what scientists are learning through Hubble about the universe and its origins. The tools section includes an interactive illustration of Hubble and an article about redshifts and the expanding universe. An article about Edwin Hubble, the telescope's namesake, is part of the people section, as are vignettes about a handful of Hubble's crew members. Archived webcasts about Hubble are also available.

Exploratorium

2001-01-01

26

Hubble Space Telescope High Speed Photometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hubble Space Telescope will provide the opportunity to perform precise astronomical photometry above the disturbing effects of the atmosphere. The High Speed Photometer is designed to provide the observatory with a stable, precise photometer with wide...

G. W. Vancitters R. C. Bless J. F. Dolan J. L. Elliot E. L. Robinson

1988-01-01

27

Hubble Space Telescope Deep Field Lesson Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This product consists of four classroom activities, lithographs, and teachers guide. Students examine the Hubble Deep Field image and simulate the process astronomers use to count, classify, and identify objects in the image.

1997-01-01

28

Obituary: Edwin E. Salpeter (1924-2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin E. Salpeter, who died 26 November 2008 at his home in Ithaca, NY, belonged to the "second wave" of Jewish scientific refugees from Nazi-dominated Europe, those who left as children just before the onset of WWII and so completed their educations elsewhere. Salpeter was born in Vienna on 3 December 1924, and arrived with his family in Australia in 1939, his father was a physicist and a close friend of Erwin Schrodinger. In Australia, he finished high school, and he entered the University of Sydney at the early age of 16. He received his BS and MSc degrees in physics and mathematics from the University of Sydney, before moving on to a PhD from the University of Birmingham in 1948, for work with Rudolf Peierls on the electrodynamic self-energy of the electron, the first of more than 380 inventoried publications. He had chosen Birmingham over Cambridge or Oxford because of Peierls, and then chose Cornell over Princeton because of Hans Bethe's presence there. His autobiography describes those as two of his very best decisions ever. Marrying psychobiology student Miriam (Mika) Mark less than a year after arriving at Cornell was surely the third, and they remained in Ithaca the rest of their lives, eventually collaborating on some projects in neurobiology before her death in 2000. Their household was a secular one, but (Ed told a colleague) their two daughters received a basic Jewish education "just in case." Daughter Shelley Salpeter and her son Nicholas Buckley were also collaborators with Salpeter on 21st century projects in meta-analysis, epidemiology, and other statistics-heavy problems in biomedicine. Ed Salpeter is survived by his second wife, Antonia (Lhamo) Shouse. Astronomers may be interested to learn that the Cornell press release announcing his death was prepared by Lauren Gold, daughter of Thomas Gold (and Carrie Gold) the co-author of the steady state theory. Apparently, Ed's father Jakob Salpeter late in life considered the anisotropy reported in the Cosmic Microwave Background and wrote in 1968 to Ron Bracewell and Edward Conklin, who had measured it, expressing puzzlement and doubt that there could be preferred frame effects within special relativity. Ed Salpeter described himself as a generalist, always ready to look at new problems in new fields, and a young colleague quoted him as saying there were problems to be solved on backs of envelopes of various sizes. The result was that he made significant contributions in quantum electro- dynamics (the Bethe-Salpeter equation), nuclear physics (electron screening corrections) and astrophysics (helium burning and beyond), stellar populations (the Salpeter initial mass function and galactic chemical evolution), ionospheric physics (his most-cited paper, because of a Raman-like backscatter effect that is useful for measuring electron densities in laboratory plasmas), equations of state for dense matter (e.g. Jovian planet cores), neutrino emission processes, black hole accretion as an AGN energy source (contemporary with a similar idea from Zeldovich, and before the black hole name had even been coined), interstellar atomic and molecular gas, HI rotation curves, and other aspects of astrophysical dark matter. This is not a complete list! In 2004 a special symposium was organized by his students and colleagues near Siena, Italy, to celebrate the 50 years since his publication of the Initial Mass Function that coincided with his 80th birthday. The symposium proceedings 'The Initial Mass Function: 50 Years Later' was dedicated to Ed 'from whom we have learned so much, to his insight and friendship'. Ed Salpeter received a security clearance in the mid-1950's and kept it up, so that, in addition to evaluating various anti-ballistic-missile defense schemes as a member of the JASONS, he was one of 17 participants in the 1985-87 APS study of directed energy weapons, also known as Star Wars. The panel was unanimous in technical disapproval of the project, and many undoubtedly shared Ed's moral disapproval. His 21 year term as the astrophysics member

Trimble, Virginia; Terzian, Yervant

2009-12-01

29

Hubble's Cosmology: From a Finite Expanding Universe to a Static Endless Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the views of Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) as regards the large scale structure of the universe. In 1929 he initially accepted a finite expanding universe in order to explain the redshifts of distant galaxies. Later on he turned to an infinite stationary universe and a new principle of nature in order to explain the same phenomena. Initially, he was impressed by the agreement of his redshift-distance relation with one of the predictions of de Sitter's cosmological model, namely, the so-called "de Sitter effect'', the phenomenon of the scattering of material particles, leading to an expanding universe. A number of observational evidences, though, made him highly skeptical with such a scenario. They were better accounted for by an infinite static universe. The evidences he found were: (i) the huge values he was getting for the "recession'' velocities of the nebulae (1,800 km s-1 in 1929 up to 42,000 km s-1 in 1942, leading to v/c = 1/7), with the redshifts interpreted as velocity-shifts. All other known real velocities of large astronomical bodies are much smaller than these. (ii) The "number effect'' test, which is the running of nebulae luminosity with redshift. Hubble found that a static universe is, within the observational uncertainties, slightly favored. The test is equivalent to the modern "Tolman effect,'' for galaxy surface brightnesses, whose results are still a matter of dispute. (iii) The smallness of the size and the age of the curved expanding universe, implied by the expansion rate that he had determined, and, (iv) the fact that a uniform distribution of galaxies on large scales is more easily obtained from galaxy counts, when a static and flat model is considered. In an expanding and closed universe, Hubble found that homogeneity was only obtained at the cost of a large curvature. We show, by quoting his works, that Hubble remained cautiously against the big bang until the end of his life, contrary to the statements of many modern authors. In order to account for redshifts, in a non-expanding universe, Hubble called for a new principle of nature, like the "tired-light'' mechanism proposed by Fritz Zwicky in 1929. On the other hand, he was aware of the theoretical difficulties of such a radical assumption. Hubble's approach to cosmology strongly suggests that he would not agree with the present status of the modern cosmological paradigm, since he was, above all, driven by observations and by the consequences derived from them.

Assis, A. K. T.; Neves, M. C. D.; Soares, D. S. L.

2009-12-01

30

Edwin M. McMillan, A biographical sketch  

SciTech Connect

Edwin M. McMillan was one of the great scientists of the middle years of this century. He made notable contributions to nuclear, and particle physics, the chemistry of transuranic elements, and accelerator physics.

Lofgren, E.J.

1994-07-01

31

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin photographed with pilot's hatch of spacecraft open  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot of the Gemini 12 space flight, is photographed with pilot's hatch of spacecraft open. Note J.A. Maurer camera which was used to photograph some of his extravehicular activity.

1966-01-01

32

HUBBLE REVEALS 'BACKWARDS' SPIRAL GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomers have found a spiral galaxy that may be spinning to the beat of a different cosmic drummer. To the surprise of astronomers, the galaxy, called NGC 4622, appears to be rotating in the opposite direction to what they expected. Pictures by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise by showing which side of the galaxy is closer to Earth. A Hubble telescope photo of the oddball galaxy is this month's Hubble Heritage offering. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars [shown in blue]. Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. To add to the conundrum, NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction it is rotating. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise. NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. What caused this galaxy to behave differently from most galaxies? Astronomers suspect that NGC 4622 interacted with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a small companion galaxy. The galaxy's core provides new evidence for a merger between NGC 4622 and a smaller galaxy. This information could be the key to understanding the unusual leading arms. Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 resides 111 million light-years away in the constellation Centaurus. The pictures were taken in May 2001 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The science team, consisting of Ron Buta and Gene Byrd from the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, and Tarsh Freeman of Bevill State Community College in Alabama, observed NGC 4622 in ultraviolet, infrared, and blue and green filters. Their composite image and science findings were presented at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society in January of 2002. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: Dr. Ron Buta (U. Alabama), Dr. Gene Byrd (U. Alabama) and Tarsh Freeman (Bevill State Community College)

2002-01-01

33

Hubble's Famous Plate of 1923: A Story of Pink Polyethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 6, 1923 Edwin Hubble used the Mount Wilson 100-inch telescope to take a 45-minute exposure of a field in the Andromeda galaxy. This is the now-famous plate marked with his “VAR!” notation. I will discuss this plate and that notation. I will also tell the story of flying copies of that plate on the deployment mission for HST in 1990 as a Hubble memento and then locating those copies afterwards, and how copies were flown on Servicing Mission 4 on 2009 as well. This has led to an effort in which AAVSO members joined to identify and reobserve that noted star, arguably the most important object in the history of cosmology, but largely ignored since Hubble’s time.

Soderblom, D. R.

2012-06-01

34

Edwin Smith Papyrus Case 8: a reappraisal.  

PubMed

There are 3 translations of the Edwin Smith Papyrus: Breasted's (1930), Allen's (2005), and Sanchez and Meltzer's (2012). Case 8 is similarly presented in all 3 translations, although with increasing detail in the later works. The patient in Case 8 had a comminuted skull fracture under intact skin. There were palpable pulsations at the fracture site. There was deviation of the eye on the side of the injury and an ipsilateral spastic hemiparesis in an ambulant patient with bleeding from the nose and ear. Explanations of the paralysis have included a contrecoup lesion and compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorial incisura. Brainstem compression due to herniation is accompanied by loss of consciousness. Extensive contrecoup lesions consistent with the extent of the described paresis would also be associated with probable coma. The paralysis was spastic, but spasticity takes weeks to develop after trauma. Yet this patient's trauma was fresh, as there was still bleeding from the nose and the ear. It is suggested the paresis antedated the trauma, which was not its cause. The reasons for this suggestion are presented in this paper. PMID:24484229

Ganz, Jeremy C

2014-05-01

35

Hubble Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arguably the single most successful scientific instrument ever built, the Hubble Space telescope continues to dazzle. In recent months it has discovered the most distant known galaxy and the most massive known star, and has been at the front lines of all the most pressing questions in astrophysics: the age of the Universe, the nature of gamma-ray bursters, the discovery of extrasolar planets. In The Discovery Machine, the authors of the widely acclaimed Hubble: A New Window to the Universe bring you an exciting, detailed, gorgeously illustrated account of Hubble's breathtaking new discoveries. Acclaim for Hubble: A New Window to the Universe "Wonderful to behold. Buy it and feast your eyes." Scientific American "A wonderful volume...a clear and insightful explanation is included for each and every image." The Planetarian

Fischer, Daniel; Duerbeck, Hilmar; Hawley, S. A.; Jenkner, H.

36

Astronomical masers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present treatment of astronomical masers discusses their thermodynamic equilibrium and matter-line radiation interaction, the OH, H2O, and SiO maser molecules, general properties of saturated masers, spherical and filamentary masers, and fully resolved Zeeman patterns and overlapping Zeeman components. Also considered are pumping effects, the stellar environment of astronomical masers, the relationship of astronomical masers to the stellar wing and

Moshe Elitzur

1992-01-01

37

"Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1  

ScienceCinema

Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

38

"Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

Edwin Campos

2013-05-08

39

Edwin I. Hatch nuclear plant implementation of improved technical specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edwin I. Hatch nuclear plant consists of two General Electric boiling water reactor\\/4 units, with a common control room and a common refueling floor. In March 1993, Hatch began conversion of both units` technical specifications utilizing NUREG 1433. The technical specifications amendment request was submitted February 25, 1994. Issuance is scheduled for October 21, 1994, with implementation on March 15,

S. R. Mahler; D. Pendry

1994-01-01

40

4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF EDWIN CLARK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF EDWIN CLARK RESIDENCE ON EASTERN SIDE OF BRIDGE STREET. (Original in possession of the Erie County Historical Society.) 8'x10' enlargement from 4'x5' negative. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Little French Creek at Bridge Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

41

Pathos in Criticism: Edwin Black's Communism-as-Cancer Metaphor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edwin Black's essay on "The Second Persona," introduced to rhetorical critics a rationale and model for a type of ideological criticism. Because it ignored the role of pathos in both the rhetoric Black purported to critique and in the construction of his own audience, Black's essay mis-described key features of Robert Welch's "Blue Book", which…

Condit, Celeste M.

2013-01-01

42

Edwin L. Herr: Preeminent Scholar, Leader, Advocate, and Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This profile celebrates and chronicles selected themes and highlights of the ideas, scholarly accomplishments, leadership, humanity, and work ethic of Edwin L. Herr, one of the major forces in the counseling profession, for purposes of archiving elements of his history and stimulating continuity of his ideas, achievements, and dedication.

Engels, Dennis W.

2012-01-01

43

Edwin Hopkins and the Costly Labor of Composition Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a "historical case study" of Edwin M. Hopkins, this article explores what Bruce Horner calls the "material social conditions" of teaching writing early in the twentieth century. It shows how Hopkins's own attitude and response to the demands of being a writing teacher serve as a backdrop for understanding his local and national crusade to…

Popken, Randall

2004-01-01

44

"Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1  

ScienceCinema

Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

Edwin Campos

2013-06-10

45

Astronomical observatories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The layout and equipment of astronomical observatories, the oldest scientific institutions of human society are discussed. The example of leading observatories of the USSR allows the reader to familiarize himself with both their modern counterparts, as well as the goals and problems on which astronomers are presently working.

Ponomarev, D. N.

1983-01-01

46

Astronomical masers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research related to astronomical masers is reviewed. First, attention is given to phenomenology, including observations and modeling of galactic and extragalactic maser sources. The discussion then focuses on the developments concerning the physical properties of maser radiation. Finally, the use of masers as general tools for the study of astronomical environments where the radiation is produced and where it propagates, is discussed.

Elitzur, Moshe

1992-01-01

47

Women Astronomers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the role of women in the scientific community in the United States since the mid-nineteenth century. Specific concern is directed towards the education and career opportunities of female astronomers. (MA)

Warner, Deborah Jean

1979-01-01

48

Hubble's View of Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These NASA Hubble Space Telescope views of the blue-green planet Neptune provide three snapshots of changing weather conditions. The images were taken in 1994 on October 10 (upper left), October 18 (upper right), and November 2 (lower center), when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth.

Hubble is allowing astronomers to study Neptune's dynamic atmosphere with a level of detail not possible since the 1989 flyby of the Voyager 2 space probe. Building on Voyager's initial discoveries, Hubble is revealing that Neptune has a remarkably dynamic atmosphere that changes over just a few days.

The temperature difference between Neptune's strong internal heat source and its frigid cloud tops (-260 degrees Fahrenheit) might trigger instabilities in the atmosphere that drive these large-scale weather changes. In addition to hydrogen and helium, the main constituents, Neptune's atmosphere is composed of methane and hydrocarbons, like ethane and acetylene.

The picture was reconstructed from a series of Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images taken through different colored filters at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Absorption of red light by methane in Neptune's atmosphere contributes to the planet's distinctive aqua color; the clouds themselves are also somewhat blue. The pink features are high-altitude methane ice crystal clouds. Though the clouds appear white in visible light, they are tinted pink here because they were imaged at near infrared wavelengths.

The farthest of the gas giant planets, Neptune is four times Earth's diameter. Though Neptune was discovered in 1846, very little has been known about it until the advent of space travel and advanced telescopes.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

49

Astronomer proposal tool exposure time calculator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomer Proposal Tool (APT) Exposure Time Calculator (ETC) is a generic Java library for performing ETC calculations. Currently it is primarily used by the web based ETCs supporting Hubble Space Telescope (HST) proposals at Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). This paper describes the software architecutre, current and potential uses of this library.

McLean, Donald F.; Busko, Ivo

2004-09-01

50

Astronomers, Congress, and the Large Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) project was initiated near the end of the Apollo program and immediately encountered fiscal contraints. Planned as a long-term facility, the HST had to be continually justified to the public, astronomers and Congress from 1973 onward. Budgetary restraints caused design reductions which for a while threatened the practicality of the HST and changed it from

P. A. Hanle

1985-01-01

51

Astronomical Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

2004-05-01

52

Astronomer's Proposal Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) is a computer program that assists astronomers in preparing their Phase 1 and Phase 2 Hubble Space Telescope science programs. APT is a successor to the Remote Proposal Submission System 2 (RPS2) program, which has been rendered obsolete by more recent advances in computer software and hardware. APT exploits advances associated with widespread use of the Internet, multiplatform visual development software tools, and overall increases in the power of desktop computer hardware, all in such a way as to make the preparation and submission of proposals more intuitive and make observatory operations less cumbersome. APT provides documentation and help that are friendly, up to date, and easily accessible to users of varying levels of expertise, while defining an extensible framework that is responsive to changes in both technology and observatory operations. APT consists of two major components: (1) a set of software tools that are intuitive, visual, and responsive and (2) an integrated software environment that unifies all the tools and makes them interoperable. The APT tools include the Visual Target Tuner, Proposal Editor, Exposure Planner, Bright Object Checker, and Visit Planner.

Krueger, Tony

2005-01-01

53

"Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 2  

ScienceCinema

Argonne's Edwin Campos has for the last two decades studied weather, and in particular, clouds. His research can help make solar power a more viable option for the U.S. and the world. In this video, Dr. Campos answers questions that were submitted by the public in response to his introductory video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfdoHz.... We will be posting a new "Ask Argonne" video every other month, on various topics. Keep an eye out for your next opportunity to submit a question and see if it gets answered - and if you get a shout-out on camera.

54

"Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Argonne's Edwin Campos has for the last two decades studied weather, and in particular, clouds. His research can help make solar power a more viable option for the U.S. and the world. In this video, Dr. Campos answers questions that were submitted by the public in response to his introductory video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfdoHz.... We will be posting a new "Ask Argonne" video every other month, on various topics. Keep an eye out for your next opportunity to submit a question and see if it gets answered - and if you get a shout-out on camera.

Edwin Campos

2013-05-23

55

"Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 2  

ScienceCinema

Argonne's Edwin Campos has for the last two decades studied weather, and in particular, clouds. His research can help make solar power a more viable option for the U.S. and the world. In this video, Dr. Campos answers questions that were submitted by the public in response to his introductory video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfdoHz.... We will be posting a new "Ask Argonne" video every other month, on various topics. Keep an eye out for your next opportunity to submit a question and see if it gets answered - and if you get a shout-out on camera.

Edwin Campos

2013-06-10

56

How I Became an Astronomer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life as an astronomer has taken me to view eclipses of the Sun from the Gaspe' Peninsula to the Pacific Ocean and the China and Coral Seas, and to observe the stars at observatories across the USA and as far south as Chile. I've also enjoyed working with NASA's telescopes in space, including the Hubble Space Telescope and the International Ultraviolet Explorer. It seems funny to reflect that it all began in the Sixth Grade by a fluke - the consequence of a hoax letter whose author I never identified.

Maran, Stephen P.

2001-01-01

57

Hubble Space Telescope Image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This deepest-ever view of the universe unveils myriad galaxies back to the begirning of time. Several hundred, never-before-seen, galaxies are visible in this view of the universe, called Hubble Deep Field (HDF). Besides the classical spiral and elliptical shaped galaxies, there is a bewildering variety of other galaxy shapes and colors that are important clues to understanding the evolution of the universe. Some of the galaxies may have formed less than one-billion years after the Big Bang. The image was assembled from many separate exposures with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC2), for ten consecutive days between December 18, 1995 and December 28, 1995. This true-color view was assembled from separate images taken with blue, red, and infrared light. By combining these separate images into a single color picture, astronomers will be able to infer, at least statistically, the distance, age, and composition of galaxies in the field. Blue objects contain young stars and/or are relatively close, while redder objects contain older stellar populations and/or are farther away.

1995-01-01

58

Hubble's new view of the cosmos  

PubMed

Since the December 1993 repair of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) optics by the crew of the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the rapid-fire scientific achievements have brought a new era of discovery to the field of astronomy. Hubble has confirmed some astronomical theories, challenged others, and often come up with complete surprises. Some images are so unexpected that astronomers have to develop new theories to explain what they are seeing. The HST has detected galaxies out to the visible horizon of the cosmos, and has made an attempt at pinning down the universe's expansion rate. Both of these key research areas should ultimately yield answers to age-old questions: What has happened since the beginning of time, and will the universe go on forever? PMID:11538725

Villard, R

1996-05-01

59

HUBBLE'S INFRARED GALAXY GALLERY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomers have used the NASA Hubble Space Telescope to produce an infrared 'photo essay' of spiral galaxies. By penetrating the dust clouds swirling around the centers of these galaxies, the telescope's infrared vision is offering fresh views of star birth. These six images, taken with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, showcase different views of spiral galaxies, from a face-on image of an entire galaxy to a close-up of a core. The top row shows spirals at diverse angles, from face-on, (left); to slightly tilted, (center); to edge-on, (right). The bottom row shows close-ups of the hubs of three galaxies. In these images, red corresponds to glowing hydrogen, the raw material for star birth. The red knots outlining the curving spiral arms in NGC 5653 and NGC 3593, for example, pinpoint rich star-forming regions where the surrounding hydrogen gas is heated by intense ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars. In visible light, many of these regions can be hidden from view by the clouds of gas and dust in which they were born. The glowing hydrogen found inside the cores of these galaxies, as in NGC 6946, may be due to star birth; radiation from active galactic nuclei (AGN), which are powered by massive black holes; or a combination of both. White is light from middle-age stars. Clusters of stars appear as white dots, as in NGC 2903. The galaxy cores are mostly white because of their dense concentration of stars. The dark material seen in these images is dust. These galaxies are part of a Hubble census of about 100 spiral galaxies. Astronomers at Space Telescope Science Institute took these images to fill gaps in the scheduling of a campaign using the NICMOS-3 camera. The data were non-proprietary, and were made available to the entire astronomical community. Filters: Three filters were used: red, blue, and green. Red represents emission at the Paschen Alpha line (light from glowing hydrogen) at a wavelength of 1.87 microns. Blue shows the galaxies in near-infrared light, measured between 1.4 and 1.8 microns (H-band emission). Green is a mixture of the two. Distance of galaxies from Earth: NGC 5653 - 161 million light-years; NGC 3593 - 28 million light-years; NGC 891 - 24 million light-years; NGC 4826 - 19 million light-years; NGC 2903 - 25 million light-years; and NGC 6946 - 20 million light-years. Credits: Torsten Boeker, Space Telescope Science Institute, and NASA NOTE TO EDITORS: Image files and photo caption are available on the Internet at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/1999/10 or via links in http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/latest.html and http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pictures.html Higher resolution digital versions of (300 dpi JPEG and TIFF) of the release photo are available at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/1999/10/extra-photos.html STScI press releases and other information are available automatically by sending an Internet electronic mail message to pio-request@stsci.edu. In the body of the message (not the subject line) users should type the word 'subscribe' (don't use quotes). The system will respond with a confirmation of the subscription, and users will receive new press releases as they are issued. To unsubscribe, send mail to pio-request@stsci.edu. Leave the subject line blank, and type 'unsubscribe' (don't use quotes) in the body of the message.

2002-01-01

60

The Astronomical Photographic Data Archive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute is the home of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA), a national effort to preserve, archive, and digitize astronomical photographic plate collections. APDA was formed in 2007 and presently holds more than 100,000 plates and films from more than a dozen observatory collections. While the photographic data pre-dates modern observational data taken with electronic instruments, it is nevertheless of extremely high quality. When one considers 100,000 plates and films in the APDA collection, some with 100's or 1000's of objects per plate, and plates taken over 100 years the value of the data in APDA becomes apparent. In addition to the astronomical photographic data collections, APDA also possesses two high precision glass plate measuring machines, GAMMA I and GAMMA II that were built for NASA and the Space Telescope Science Institute. The measuring machines were used by a team of scientists under the leadership of the late Dr. Barry Lasker to develop the Guide Star Catalog and Digitized Sky Survey that guide and direct the Hubble Space Telescope. We will describe the current set of collections, plans for the measuring machines, and the efforts that have been made to assure preservation of plate collections.

Cline, J. Donald; Barker, T.; Castelaz, M.

2010-01-01

61

A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a Rood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2011-01-01

62

Galaxy Group Stephan's Quintet Video File HubbleMinute: Battle Royale in Stephan's Quintet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope's closeup view of Stephan's Quintet, a group of five galaxies, reveals a string of brighter star clusters that separate like a diamond necklace. Astronomers studying the compact galaxy group Stephan's Quintet have seen creative destruction in the many collisions taking place among its galaxies. This HubbleMinute discusses what astronomers are learning and hope to learn from exploring the quintet.

2001-01-01

63

A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss the top 10 astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2009-01-01

64

A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2011-01-01

65

A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

Gardner, Jonathan

2011-01-01

66

A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2012-01-01

67

Hubble Space Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes the Hubble Space Telescope, shows visualizations of how optical and reflecting telescopes work, and shows original footage of the Hubble in Space. You hear why a telescope in space is valuable as well as see some of the amazing photographs the different cameras on the Hubble have taken.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-09-21

68

Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion light years from Earth. These results do not rely on the traditional distance ladder. Bonamente and his colleagues find the Hubble constant to be 77 kilometers per second per megaparsec (a megaparsec is equal to 3.26 million light years), with an uncertainty of about 15%. This result agrees with the values determined using other techniques. The Hubble constant had previously been found to be 72, give or take 8, kilometers per second per megaparsec based on Hubble Space Telescope observations. The new Chandra result is important because it offers the independent confirmation that scientists have been seeking and fixes the age of the Universe between 12 and 14 billion years. Chandra X-ray Image of CL J1226.9+3332 Chandra X-ray Image of CL J1226.9+3332 "These new results are entirely independent of all previous methods of measuring the Hubble constant," said team member Marshall Joy also of MSFC. The astronomers used a phenomenon known as the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, where photons in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) interact with electrons in the hot gas that pervades the enormous galaxy clusters. The photons acquire energy from this interaction, which distorts the signal from the microwave background in the direction of the clusters. The magnitude of this distortion depends on the density and temperature of the hot electrons and the physical size of the cluster. Using radio telescopes to measure the distortion of the microwave background and Chandra to measure the properties of the hot gas, the physical size of the cluster can be determined. From this physical size and a simple measurement of the angle subtended by the cluster, the rules of geometry can be used to derive its distance. The Hubble constant is determined by dividing previously measured cluster speeds by these newly derived distances. Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 1689 Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 1689 This project was championed by Chandra's telescope mirror designer, Leon Van Speybroeck, who passed away in 2002. The foundation was laid when team members John Carlstrom

2006-08-01

69

Hubble 2006: Science Year in Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 10 science articles selected for this years annual science report exemplify the range of Hubble research from the Solar System, across our Milky Way, and on to distant galaxies. The objects of study include a new feature on Jupiter, binaries in the Kuiper Belt, Cepheid variable stars, the Orion Nebula, distant transiting planets, lensing galaxies, active galactic nuclei, red-and-dead galaxies, and galactic outflows and jets. Each narrative strives to construct the readers understanding of the topics and issues, and to place the latest research in historical, as well as scientific, context. These essays reveal trends in the practice of astronomy. More powerful computers are permitting astronomers to study ever larger data sets, enabling the discovery of subtle effects and rare objects. (Two investigations created mosaic images that are among the largest produced to date.) Multiwavelength data sets from ground-based telescopes, as well as other great observatories Spitzer and Chandraare increasingly important for holistic interpretations of Hubble results. This yearbook also presents profiles of 12 individuals who work with Hubble, or Hubble data, on a daily basis. They are representative of the many students, scientists, engineers, and other professions who are proudly associated with Hubble. Their stories collectively communicate the excitement and reward of careers related to space science and technology.

Brown, R.

2007-01-01

70

HUBBLE FINDS NEW DARK SPOT ON NEPTUNE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet. The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared. Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere. Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere. The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops. Credit: H. Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and NASA

2002-01-01

71

Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror being ground at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025-micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

1979-01-01

72

Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows engineers inspecting the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025- micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

1981-01-01

73

Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror being polished at the the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025-micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

1981-01-01

74

Spike: AI scheduling for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spike scheduling system, developed for scheduling astronomical observations for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is described. Spike is an activity-based AI scheduler which incorporates innovative approaches to constraint representation and reasoning and scheduling search. Although developed for space telescope scheduling, the Spike system was designed around a general scheduling-constraint framework that can be applied to other domains. Techniques for

Mark D. Johnston

1990-01-01

75

HUBBLE CAPTURES DETAILED IMAGE OF URANUS' ATMOSPHERE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere. Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail. The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere. Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal. This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. CREDIT: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Lab) and NASA

2002-01-01

76

Hubble assists Rosetta comet mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have played a major role in preparing ESA’s ambitious Rosetta mission for its new target, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Hubble has been used to make precise measurements of the size, shape and rotational period of the comet. Information that is essential if Rosetta is to rendezvous with the comet and then drop down a probe, something never before attempted and yet a major step towards elucidating the origins of the solar system. Observations made by Hubble in March this year revealed that comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) is approximately five by three kilometres in size and shaped like a rugby ball. ESA mission scientists were concerned about the exact size of the solid nucleus, which is needed to adapt the mission to the comet’s gravity. "Although 67P/C-G is roughly three times larger than the original Rosetta target, its highly elongated shape should make landing on its nucleus feasible, now that measures are in place to adapt the lander package to the new scenario," says Dr Philippe Lamy of the Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale in France, who is presenting the Hubble results on comet 67P/C-G today at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society in California, USA. Mission scientists began looking for an alternative target when the Rosetta mission's launch date was postponed. The delay meant that the original target comet, 46P/Wirtanen, was no longer easily reachable. But scientists did not have enough information on the back-up comet, 67P/C-G, and sought data from the largest telescopes. Using a technique developed over the past decade by Philippe Lamy, Imre Toth (Konkoly Observatory, Hungary), and Harold Weaver (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, USA), the team snapped 61 Hubble images of comet 67P/C-G over a period of 21 hours on 11 and 12 March. Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 isolated the comet's nucleus from the coma, the diffuse gas surrounding the nucleus, quickly providing the figures required. The telescope showed that the nucleus is ellipsoidal and measured its rotation rate at approximately 12 hours. Rosetta's launch is currently planned for February 2004, with a rendezvous with the comet about 10 years later. # # # Notes for editors The team is made up of P. L. Lamy and L. Jorda (Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale, France), I. Toth (Konkoly Observatory, Hungary), and H.A. Weaver (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory). The movie simulation of the Hubble results is provided by Mikko Kaasalainen (University of Helsinki, Finland) and Pedro Gutierrez (Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale, France). The observations were made possible through a special programme approved by the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute, S. Beckwith.

2003-09-01

77

Thermal Performance of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Array-3 During the Disturbance Verification Test (DVT).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is one of NASA's most productive astronomical observatories. Launched in 1990, the HST continues to gather scientific data to help scientists around the world discover amazing wonders of the universe. To maintain HST in th...

D. H. Nguyen L. M. Skladany B. D. Prats

2001-01-01

78

Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present additional techniques for using mainstream graphics software (Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator) to produce composite color images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used on numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope to produce photographic, print and web-based products for news, education and public presentation as well as illustrations for technical publication. We expand on a previous paper to present more detail and additional techniques, taking advantage of new or improved features available in the latest software versions. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to work with scaled images, masks, text and graphics in multiple semi-transparent layers and channels.

Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.

2002-12-01

79

75 FR 69137 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant (HNP), Unit 2, located...ZIRLO TM . Since the chemical composition of the GNF-Ziron...zircaloy or ZIRLO TM , a plant-specific exemption...significantly affect plant safety and would not have...

2010-11-10

80

Hubble Captures Detailed Image of Uranus' Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere.

Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail.

The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere.

Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal.

This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1996-01-01

81

The Hubble Space Telescope high speed photometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope will provide the opportunity to perform precise astronomical photometry above the disturbing effects of the atmosphere. The High Speed Photometer is designed to provide the observatory with a stable, precise photometer with wide dynamic range, broad wavelenth coverage, time resolution in the microsecond region, and polarimetric capability. Here, the scientific requirements for the instrument are examined, the unique design features of the photometer are explored, and the improvements to be expected over the performance of ground-based instruments are projected.

Vancitters, G. W., Jr.; Bless, R. C.; Dolan, J. F.; Elliot, J. L.; Robinson, E. L.; White, R. L.

1988-01-01

82

Astronomical Society in Zrenjanin.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomical Society "Milutin Milankovi?" was established in Zrenjanin at the beginning of 1996. The programme of the Society includes the cooperation with elementary and high schools and astronomical societies in the country and abroad.

Naumovski, K.; Braci?, M.

1997-08-01

83

Funding Opportunities for Astronomers  

NSF Publications Database

********** OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASTRONOMICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH IN OTHER NSF RESEARCH DIVISIONS Several research directorates and divisions at NSF fully or partially support research projects in the astronomical sciences. 2.Research Opportunity Awards (ROA) NSF provides opportunities for faculty at institutions with limited research opportunities to participate in astronomical sciences research projects under the aegis of supported NSF investigators at research institutions.

84

BEAUTY IN THE EYE OF HUBBLE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dying star, IC 4406, dubbed the 'Retina Nebula' is revealed in this month's Hubble Heritage image. Like many other so-called planetary nebulae, IC 4406 exhibits a high degree of symmetry; the left and right halves of the Hubble image are nearly mirror images of the other. If we could fly around IC4406 in a starship, we would see that the gas and dust form a vast donut of material streaming outward from the dying star. From Earth, we are viewing the donut from the side. This side view allows us to see the intricate tendrils of dust that have been compared to the eye's retina. In other planetary nebulae, like the Ring Nebula (NGC 6720), we view the donut from the top. The donut of material confines the intense radiation coming from the remnant of the dying star. Gas on the inside of the donut is ionized by light from the central star and glows. Light from oxygen atoms is rendered blue in this image; hydrogen is shown as green, and nitrogen as red. The range of color in the final image shows the differences in concentration of these three gases in the nebula. Unseen in the Hubble image is a larger zone of neutral gas that is not emitting visible light, but which can be seen by radio telescopes. One of the most interesting features of IC 4406 is the irregular lattice of dark lanes that criss-cross the center of the nebula. These lanes are about 160 astronomical units wide (1 astronomical unit is the distance between the Earth and Sun). They are located right at the boundary between the hot glowing gas that produces the visual light imaged here and the neutral gas seen with radio telescopes. We see the lanes in silhouette because they have a density of dust and gas that is a thousand times higher than the rest of the nebula. The dust lanes are like a rather open mesh veil that has been wrapped around the bright donut. The fate of these dense knots of material is unknown. Will they survive the nebula's expansion and become dark denizens of the space between the stars or simply dissipate? This image is a composite of data taken by Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in June 2001 by Bob O'Dell (Vanderbilt University) and collaborators and in January 2002 by The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI). Filters used to create this color image show oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen gas glowing in this object. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: C.R. O'Dell (Vanderbilt University)

2002-01-01

85

Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

1990-01-01

86

Hubble Telescope: Looking Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its launch in 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope has provided scientists with a vast amount of quality data and has contributed to a number of important discoveries. The Hubble Deep Field Image, one of its best known, shows some of the most distant, earliest, and faintest galaxies ever seen. This video segment shows how scientists aimed the Hubble Space Telescope into a dark, apparently featureless portion of the sky to create this amazing picture of the early universe. The segment is two minutes twenty-one seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

2011-05-06

87

Hubble Telescope: Looking Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its launch is 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope has provided scientists with a vast amount of quality data and has contributed to a number of important discoveries. The Hubble Deep Field Image, one of its best known, shows some of the most distant, earliest, and faintest galaxies ever seen. This video segment shows how scientists aimed the Hubble Space Telescope into a dark, apparently featureless portion of the sky to create this amazing picture of the early universe. The segment is two minutes twenty-one seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

88

Correcting Hubble Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the theory behind the workings of the Hubble Space Telescope, the spherical aberration in the primary mirror that caused a reduction in image quality, and the corrective device that compensated for the error. (JRH)

Shaw, John M.; Sheahen, Thomas P.

1994-01-01

89

The Hubble effective potential  

SciTech Connect

We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)] [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

2009-05-15

90

HUBBLE SHOOTS THE MOON  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a change of venue from peering at the distant universe, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has taken a look at Earth's closest neighbor in space, the Moon. Hubble was aimed at one of the Moon's most dramatic and photogenic targets, the 58 mile-wide (93 km) impact crater Copernicus. The image was taken while the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) was aimed at a different part of the moon to measure the colors of sunlight reflected off the Moon. Hubble cannot look at the Sun directly and so must use reflected light to make measurements of the Sun's spectrum. Once calibrated by measuring the Sun's spectrum, the STIS can be used to study how the planets both absorb and reflect sunlight. (upper left) The Moon is so close to Earth that Hubble would need to take a mosaic of 130 pictures to cover the entire disk. This ground-based picture from Lick Observatory shows the area covered in Hubble's photomosaic with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.. (center) Hubble's crisp bird's-eye view clearly shows the ray pattern of bright dust ejected out of the crater over one billion years ago, when an asteroid larger than a mile across slammed into the Moon. Hubble can resolve features as small as 600 feet across in the terraced walls of the crater, and the hummock-like blanket of material blasted out by the meteor impact. (lower right) A close-up view of Copernicus' terraced walls. Hubble can resolve features as small as 280 feet across. Credit: John Caldwell (York University, Ontario), Alex Storrs (STScI), and NASA

2002-01-01

91

Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award: Joseph H. Hammer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joseph H. Hammer, recipient of the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award, is cited for an outstanding research paper whose findings provide important evidence regarding the promise of a male-sensitive approach to mental health marketing and empirically support the inclusion of theory-driven enhancements in group-targeted mental…

American Psychologist, 2009

2009-01-01

92

Gregory Daniel Webster: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.  

PubMed

Presents a citation for Gregory Daniel Webster, who received the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award "for an outstanding research paper whose findings report that APA journal articles became shorter in length after the year 2000." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115835

2006-11-01

93

Evaluation of the vent header crack at Edwin 1. Hatch Unit No. 2 Nuclear Power Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A metallurgical failure analysis was performed on pieces of the cracked vent header pipe from the Edwin I. Hatch Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. The analysis consisted of optical microscopy, chemical analysis, mechanical Charpy impact testing and fractography. The general conclusions drawn from this analysis were: (1) the material of the vent header met the mechanical and chemical properties of

Czajkowski

1985-01-01

94

European astronauts set for Hubble challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swiss-born Claude Nicollier will become the first European to make a "spacewalk" from the Space Shuttle. Frenchman Jean-François Clervoy, chief operator of the Shuttle's robotic arm, will capture the telescope and release it once work has been completed. The mission's main objective is to replace Hubble's failed pointing system, which allows astronomers to aim the telescope very precisely at stars, planets and other distant astronomical objects. During 10 days in orbit, astronauts will undertake four "spacewalks" to update and renew equipment. Nicollier will achieve the ambition of a lifetime when he exits the airlock at the beginning of the mission's second major spacewalk in the early hours of 16 December on his first six-hour stint carrying out repairs on the two-storey high Hubble telescope. The opportunity for one of its astronaut to make two spacewalks during the mission is important for ESA. "It is a question of building up experience. We have had EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) from Mir but this will be the first time a European has had the opportunity to go from the Shuttle," said Nicollier. Nicollier is on his fourth flight into space. Among them he took part in the first Hubble servicing mission in 1993, controlling the Shuttle's robotic arm while astronauts outside performed repairs to the telescope. This time Clervoy, on his third flight, will have that lead role in the operation of the robotic arm. About 48 hours after launch, Clervoy will take the controls, extend the Shuttle's arm and gently attach it to a fixture on Hubble as the two hurtle round the Earth in tandem at speeds of 27,000 km an hour. There is no room for mistakes as he performs a task in real time that he has practised for many hours in simulations on the ground. After attaching the arm, he will slowly guide the 12-ton telescope to its repair berth at the rear of the Shuttle's payload bay. Clervoy flew in space for the first time on the Space Shuttle Atlantis in November 1994 and the experience gained on that flight - when he controlled the robotic arm to deploy an atmospheric research satellite for the German space agency DLR - will be invaluable. Notes on the Hubble Space Telescope: The Hubble Space Telescope was launched in 1990 with an expected orbital lifetime of 20 years. ESA contributed a 15 percent share to its development and in return European astronomers receive a guaranteed 15 percent share of observing time. In reality this has averaged 20 percent because of the high quality of proposals from scientists in Europe. A servicing mission had been scheduled for June 2000 but after three of the telescope's six gyroscopes failed NASA officials decided not to risk waiting. Hubble requires three of its six gyroscopes to operate properly for accurate stabilisation but a fourth failed in November - posing no long term threat to the telescope but meaning observations had to be suspended until the replacements are fitted. As well as replacing all the telescope's gyros, the crew will install other equipment that has either degraded in the harsh space environment or can now be replaced with more up-to-date technology. Media opportunities during the mission: An inflight press conference will be held with the STS-103 crew including Claude Nicollier and Jean-François Clervoy. If you wish to attend, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it by fax to ESA Public Relations.

1999-12-01

95

HUBBLE SPIES GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN NEIGHBORING GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble Space Telescope has captured a view of a globular cluster called G1, a large, bright ball of light in the center of the photograph consisting of at least 300,000 old stars. G1, also known as Mayall II, orbits the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the nearest major spiral galaxy to our Milky Way. Located 130,000 light-years from Andromeda's nucleus, G1 is the brightest globular cluster in the Local Group of galaxies. The Local Group consists of about 20 nearby galaxies, including the Milky Way. The crisp image is comparable to ground-based telescope views of similar clusters orbiting the Milky Way. The Andromeda cluster, however, is nearly 100 times farther away. A glimpse into the cluster's finer details allow astronomers to see its fainter helium-burning stars whose temperatures and brightnesses show that this cluster in Andromeda and the oldest Milky Way clusters have approximately the same age. These clusters probably were formed shortly after the beginning of the universe, providing astronomers with a record of the earliest era of galaxy formation. During the next two years, astronomers will use Hubble to study about 20 more globular clusters in Andromeda. The color picture was assembled from separate images taken in visible and near-infrared wavelengths taken in July of 1994. CREDIT: Michael Rich, Kenneth Mighell, and James D. Neill (Columbia University), and Wendy Freedman (Carnegie Observatories), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

2002-01-01

96

Picture an Astronomer Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, which serves as an introduction to an astronomy unit or to a classroom visit by an astronomer or space scientist, students are asked to imagine an astronomer and then draw a picture. In the instructions, no clues are given about the astronomer's race, sex, or age. Students discuss why they drew the pictures they drew and why they have the mental images of scientists that they have.

Fraknoi, Andrew

1995-09-03

97

S PIKE : Intelligent Scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the S PIKE system, a general framework for scheduling which has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute for NASA's Hubble Space Tele-scope (HST). Efficient use of astronomical observatories is very important to the scientific community: the demand for research-grade telescopes far exceeds the supply. The need for efficient scheduling is especially keen for space-based facilities

Mark D. Johnston; Glenn E. Miller

1994-01-01

98

Virtual Amateur Astronomer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Amateur Astronomer is an archive of high-quality images of all varieties of astronomical objects. The images, hosted on the Virtual Amateur Astronomer web site and linked from other web pages, include high- and low-resolution versions (where available), brief descriptions, and links to additional information. They are organized by subject: the solar system, Messier objects, the Milky Way and universe, and a selection of miscellaneous images. There is also a "best of" category, links to other web sites with astronomical imagery, and a selection of images capturing the amateur experience, captured through small telescopes.

99

HubbleSite: Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The HubbleSite is produced by the Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach. The Gallery page of the site lets visitors explore the incredible pictures taken by the Hubble telescope in several ways. The showcase link provides an interactive environment to view photographs taken of the solar system, stars, galaxies, nebulae, exotic features, and the telescope itself. The newest pictures can be seen on the latest image link, while the entire collection can be browsed using the collection link, which organizes the photos by year and by category. One interesting side note, some objects cannot be observed by Hubble and are therefore not included in the archive, including the planet Mercury, which is too close to the Sun.

100

HUBBLE AND KECK DISCOVER GALAXY BUILDING BLOCK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a very small, faint galaxy 'building block' newly discovered by a unique collaboration between ground- and space-based telescopes. Hubble and the 10-meter Keck Telescopes in Hawaii joined forces, using a galaxy cluster which acts as gravitational lens to detect what scientists believe is one of the smallest very distant objects ever found. The galaxy cluster Abell 2218 was used by a team of European and American astronomers led by Richard Ellis (Caltech) in their systematic search for intrinsically faint distant star-forming systems. Without help from Abell 2218's exceptional magnifying power to make objects appear about 30 times brighter, the galaxy building block would have been undetectable. In the image to the right, the object is seen distorted into two nearly identical, very red 'images' by the gravitational lens. The image pair represents the magnified result of a single background object gravitationally lensed by Abell 2218 and viewed at a distance of 13.4 billion light-years. The intriguing object contains only one million stars, far fewer than a mature galaxy, and scientists believe it is very young. Such young star-forming systems of low mass at early cosmic times are likely to be the objects from which present-day galaxies have formed. In the image to the left, the full overview of the galaxy cluster Abell 2218 is seen. This image was taken by Hubble in 1999 at the completion of Hubble Servicing Mission 3A. Credit: NASA, ESA, Richard Ellis (Caltech) and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, France) Acknowledgment: NASA, A. Fruchter and the ERO Team (STScI and ST-ECF)

2002-01-01

101

Hubble Heritage Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) offers a "celestial photo album" to offer users some of the best photos taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently, visual and textual descriptions are available for four objects: Galaxy NGC 7742; NGC 7635, The Bubble Nebula; Sagittarius Star Cloud (SGR-I); and Saturn. Users may choose to explore the site from the more easily navigated Subject Index, which also offers technical information about the images and the Hubble Project and a few links. The site will be updated the first Thursday of each month with a composition created from recent image data.

1998-01-01

102

Hubble News Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hubble site this is a collection of all publicly released pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope. Accompanying each photograph is the official news release, an introduction to the object, fast facts, and related frequently asked questions. The news releases are sorted by category, year, and type. Some of these categories consist of: cosmology, exotic, galaxy, miscellaneous, nebula, solar system, star, star cluster, and survey. Image files in different sizes and formats are available for download. This is a nice resource for those interested in the more visual aspects of astronomy and space sciences.

2009-05-14

103

Hubble Space Telescope Image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a photograph of giant twisters and star wisps in the Lagoon Nebula. This superb Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image reveals a pair of one-half light-year long interstellar twisters, eerie furnels and twisted rope structures (upper left), in the heart of the Lagoon Nebula (Messier 8) that lies 5,000 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius. This image was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC2).

1997-01-01

104

HUBBLE UNVEILS A GALAXY IN LIVING COLOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this view of the center of the magnificent barred spiral galaxy NGC 1512, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's broad spectral vision reveals the galaxy at all wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared. The colors (which indicate differences in light intensity) map where newly born star clusters exist in both 'dusty' and 'clean' regions of the galaxy. This color-composite image was created from seven images taken with three different Hubble cameras: the Faint Object Camera (FOC), the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). NGC 1512 is a barred spiral galaxy in the southern constellation of Horologium. Located 30 million light-years away, relatively 'nearby' as galaxies go, it is bright enough to be seen with amateur telescopes. The galaxy spans 70,000 light-years, nearly as much as our own Milky Way galaxy. The galaxy's core is unique for its stunning 2,400 light-year-wide circle of infant star clusters, called a 'circumnuclear' starburst ring. Starbursts are episodes of vigorous formation of new stars and are found in a variety of galaxy environments. Taking advantage of Hubble's sharp vision, as well as its unique wavelength coverage, a team of Israeli and American astronomers performed one of the broadest and most detailed studies ever of such star-forming regions. The results, which will be published in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal, show that in NGC 1512 newly born star clusters exist in both dusty and clean environments. The clean clusters are readily seen in ultraviolet and visible light, appearing as bright, blue clumps in the image. However, the dusty clusters are revealed only by the glow of the gas clouds in which they are hidden, as detected in red and infrared wavelengths by the Hubble cameras. This glow can be seen as red light permeating the dark, dusty lanes in the ring. 'The dust obscuration of clusters appears to be an on-off phenomenon,' says Dan Maoz, who headed the collaboration. 'The clusters are either completely hidden, enshrouded in their birth clouds, or almost completely exposed.' The scientists believe that stellar winds and powerful radiation from the bright, newly born stars have cleared away the original natal dust cloud in a fast and efficient 'cleansing' process. Aaron Barth, a co-investigator on the team, adds: 'It is remarkable how similar the properties of this starburst are to those of other nearby starbursts that have been studied in detail with Hubble.' This similarity gives the astronomers the hope that, by understanding the processes occurring in nearby galaxies, they can better interpret observations of very distant and faint starburst galaxies. Such distant galaxies formed the first generations of stars, when the universe was a fraction of its current age. Circumstellar star-forming rings are common in the universe. Such rings within barred spiral galaxies may in fact comprise the most numerous class of nearby starburst regions. Astronomers generally believe that the giant bar funnels the gas to the inner ring, where stars are formed within numerous star clusters. Studies like this one emphasize the need to observe at many different wavelengths to get the full picture of the processes taking place.

2002-01-01

105

HUBBLE SPIES A REALLY COOL STAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a Hubble Space Telescope picture of one of the least massive and coolest stars even seen (upper right). It is a diminutive companion to the K dwarf star called GL 105A (also known as HD 16160) seen at lower left. The binary pair is located 27 light-years away in the constellation Cetus. Based on the Hubble observation, astronomers calculate that the companion, called GL 105C, is 25,000 times fainter than GL 105A in visible light. If the dim companion were at the distance of our Sun, it would be only four times brighter than the full moon. The Hubble observations confirm the detection of GL 105C last year by David Golimowski and his collaborators at Palomar Observatory in California. Although GL 105C was identified before, the Hubble view allows a more precise measurement of the separation between the binary components. Future Hubble observations of the binary orbit will allow the masses of both stars to be determined accurately. The Palomar group estimates that the companion's mass is 8-9 percent of the Sun's mass, which places it near the theoretical lower limit for stable hydrogen burning. Objects below this limit, called brown dwarfs, still 'shine' -- not by thermonuclear energy, but by the energy released through gravitational contraction. Two pictures, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (in PC mode) through different filters (in visible and near-infrared light) show that GL 105C is redder, hence cooler than GL 105A. The surface temperature of GL 105C is not precisely known, but may be as low as 2,600 degrees Kelvin (4,200 degrees Fahrenheit). This image was taken in near-infrared light, on January 5, 1995. GL 105C is located 3.4 arc seconds to the west-northwest of the larger GL 105A. (One arc second equals 1/3600 of a degree.) The bright spikes are caused by diffraction of light within the telescope's optical system, and the brighter white bar is an artifact of the CCD camera, which bleeds along a CCD column when a relatively bright object is in the field of view. These observations are part of a Guaranteed Time Observing Program for which William Fastie (the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD) and Dan Schroeder (Beloit College, Beloit, WI) were co-principal investigators. Credit: D. Golimowski (Johns Hopkins University), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo:

2002-01-01

106

Astronomical Software Directory Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report on the development of the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS), a distributable, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URL's indexed for full-text searching.

Hanisch, R. J.; Payne, H.; Hayes, J.

1998-01-01

107

Astronomers Working in Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four scientists, trained as astronomers, describe their astronomical training and present careers in non-astronomy, industrial jobs. They recount some of the differences, positive and negative, between industrial and academic employment, and comment on some of the attitudes they perceive academic and industrial scientists hold toward each other.…

Bless, Robert C.; King, Ivan R.

1981-01-01

108

Determining the Hubble Constant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will graph distance/velocity data of real galaxies to arrive at their own value of the Hubble constant (H). Once they have calculated their own value of H, they will use it to determine distances to real galaxies with known recessional velocities.

Copeland, Cush

2012-07-11

109

Michael K. Scullin: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.  

PubMed

Presents Michael K. Scullin as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. "For an outstanding research paper that examines the relationship between prospective memory in executing a goal and various lapses of time from 20 minutes up to a 12- hour wake delay and a 12-hour sleep delay. The results suggest that consolidation processes active during sleep increase the probability of goal execution. The paper, titled 'Remembering to Execute a Goal: Sleep On It!' was published in Psychological Science in 2010 and was the basis for Michael K. Scullin's selection as the recipient of the 2011 Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. Mark A. McDaniel, PhD, served as faculty research advisor." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22082405

2011-11-01

110

John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) and endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation: A historical vignette  

PubMed Central

John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) was one of the pioneers of neuroendoscopy and the head of the Department of Neurological Surgery at Columbia University in New York from 1947 to 1949. In this article, we highlight the pioneering and longstanding efforts of John E. Scarff in support of endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation. These efforts represent an important part of the rich history of neuroendoscopy and a legacy to which the current procedure owes a great credit.

Azab, Waleed A.; Shohoud, Sherien A.; Alsheikh, Tarek M.; Nasim, Khurram

2014-01-01

111

The Edwin Smith papyrus: a clinical reappraisal of the oldest known document on spinal injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dating from the seventeenth century b.c. the Edwin Smith papyrus is a unique treatise containing the oldest known descriptions of signs and symptoms of injuries\\u000a of the spinal column and spinal cord. Based on a recent “medically based translation” of the Smith papyrus, its enclosed treasures\\u000a in diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic reasoning are revisited. Although patient demographics, diagnostic techniques and

Joost J. van MiddendorpGonzalo; Gonzalo M. Sanchez; Alwyn L. Burridge

2010-01-01

112

John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) and endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation: A historical vignette.  

PubMed

John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) was one of the pioneers of neuroendoscopy and the head of the Department of Neurological Surgery at Columbia University in New York from 1947 to 1949. In this article, we highlight the pioneering and longstanding efforts of John E. Scarff in support of endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation. These efforts represent an important part of the rich history of neuroendoscopy and a legacy to which the current procedure owes a great credit. PMID:25024890

Azab, Waleed A; Shohoud, Sherien A; Alsheikh, Tarek M; Nasim, Khurram

2014-01-01

113

Astronomical Video Suites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer and visual artist Jose Francisco Salgado has directed two astronomical video suites to accompany live performances of classical music works. The suites feature awe-inspiring images, historical illustrations, and visualizations produced by NASA, ESA, and the Adler Planetarium. By the end of 2009, his video suites Gustav Holst's The Planets and Astronomical Pictures at an Exhibition will have been presented more than 40 times in over 10 countries. Lately Salgado, an avid photographer, has been experimenting with high dynamic range imaging, time-lapse, infrared, and fisheye photography, as well as with stereoscopic photography and video to enhance his multimedia works.

Francisco Salgado, Jose

2010-01-01

114

European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not only observed relatively near celestial objects, like the planets in our solar system, but also looked thousands of millions of light years into space, taking images of the most distant galaxies ever seen. "The observations and spectral measurements taken with Hubble have improved our understanding of the origin and age of the universe. In some cases, the Hubble Space Telescope has already changed our thinking about the evolution of planetary systems, stars and galaxies," points out Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. Astronomers throughout the world are using the telescope. European astronomers have a significant share in the scientific utilisation of Hubble. The Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, USA, coordinates and schedules the various observations. Europe's centre for coordinating observations from Hubble, the Space Telescope European Coordination Facility, is located at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) at Garching, near Munich, Germany. The Hubble Space Telescope is the first spacecraft ever built that has been designed for extensive in-orbit maintenance and refurbishment by astronauts. Unlike other satellites launched on unmanned rockets, Hubble is accessible by astronauts in orbit. It has numerous grapple fixtures and handholds for ease of access and the safety of astronauts. Hence the telescope's planned 15-year continuous operating time, despite the harsh environmental conditions, and the ability to upgrade it with more powerful instruments as technology progresses. At regular intervals of 3 to 4 years, the US Space Shuttle visits the telescope in orbit to replace components which have failed or reached the nominal end of their operational lifetime and to replace and upgrade instruments with newer, better ones. STS-104 will be the third Hubble servicing mission, after STS-61 in December 1993 and STS-82 in February 1997. To increase Hubble's scientific capability, Nicollier and his fellow crew members from NASA will remove the European-built Faint Object Camera, which has been wo

1998-08-01

115

HUBBLE PINPOINTS DISTANT SUPERNOVAE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These Hubble Space Telescope images pinpoint three distant supernovae, which exploded and died billions of years ago. Scientists are using these faraway light sources to estimate if the universe was expanding at a faster rate long ago and is now slowing down. Images of SN 1997cj are in the left hand column; SN 1997ce, in the middle; and SN 1997ck, on the right. All images were taken by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The top row of images are wider views of the supernovae. The supernovae were discovered in April 1997 in a ground-based survey at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Once the supernovae were discovered, the Hubble telescope was used to distinguish the supernovae from the light of their host galaxies. A series of Hubble telescope images were taken in May and June 1997 as the supernovae faded. Six Hubble telescope observations spanning five weeks were taken for each supernova. This time series enabled scientists to measure the brightness and create a light curve. Scientists then used the light curve to make an accurate estimate of the distances to the supernovae. Scientists combined the estimated distance with the measured velocity of the supernova's host galaxy to determine the expansion rate of the universe in the past (5 to 7 billion years ago) and compare it with the current rate. These supernovae belong to a class called Type Ia, which are considered reliable distance indicators. Looking at great distances also means looking back in time because of the finite velocity of light. SN 1997ck exploded when the universe was half its present age. It is the most distant supernova ever discovered (at a redshift of 0.97), erupting 7.7 billion years ago. The two other supernovae exploded about 5 billion years ago. SN 1997ce has a redshift of 0.44; SN 1997cj, 0.50. SN 1997ck is in the constellation Hercules, SN 1997ce is in Lynx, just north of Gemini; and SN 1997cj is in Ursa Major, near the Hubble Deep Field. Credits: Peter Garnavich, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the High-z Supernova Search Team, and NASA

2002-01-01

116

The Edwin Smith Papyrus: the birth of analytical thinking in medicine and otolaryngology.  

PubMed

The Edwin Smith Papyrus, discovered in 1862 outside of Luxor, Egypt, is the oldest known surgical text in the history of civilization. The surviving scroll, a copy of an earlier text from around 3,000 B.C., gives us remarkable insight into the medical practice of ancient Egyptians in the Nile River bed during the dawn of civilization. The Papyrus is divided into 48 cases, most of which describe traumatic injuries. The text instructs the physician to examine the patient and look for revealing physical signs that may indicate the outcome of the injury. Although in modern medicine we take for granted that the use of physical examination and rational thinking lead to an accurate conclusion, 5,000 years ago, this was extraordinary. The Edwin Smith Papyrus cast aside the prevailing magic and mysticism of that time in favor of logic and deductive reasoning. As Egyptian civilization declined during the next millennium, the teachings of the Papyrus would be lost. It would not be until 300 B.C. when Hippocrates and his disciples in ancient Greece would once again revive logic in medical thinking and teaching. It is believed that the ancient Greeks had knowledge of the contents of the Edwin Smith Papyrus and its teachings and used them as the basis for their writings. As Europe entered the Dark Ages, so did medicine yet again, reverting to spells and prayers instead of judgment and reason. Although Hippocrates teachings were recognized by some scholars during the Middle Ages, they did not make up the basis for mainstream medical knowledge. With the dawn of the Renaissance, medicine would finally purge itself of its past supernatural foundation. Hippocratic teachings were used to form the basis of modern medicine, and medical pioneers in the 17 century studied the ancient Greek texts as the origin for their ideas. Many of the concepts physicians and patients today take as common knowledge originated in the Edwin Smith Papyrus. The authors attempt to uncover some of these fundamental ideas and trace them through time until their incorporation in our modern medical knowledge base. It is the rational, logical, and advanced thinking exhibited in the Edwin Smith Papyrus that mandates its respect from modern otolaryngologists and all physicians alike. PMID:16467701

Stiefel, Marc; Shaner, Arlene; Schaefer, Steven D

2006-02-01

117

Astronomical Observatories in Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short description of three astronomical observatories of Kazakhstan situated in the northern Tien-Shan mountains is given, including instrumentation, scientific research directions and climate conditions. The observatories may be considered as convenient sites for WET observations.

Mironov, A. V.; Tereshchenko, V. M.

1998-03-01

118

The Hubble Constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the completion of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale, it is interesting to form the dimensionless quantity H 0 t 0 by multiplying the Hubble Constant by the age of the Universe. In a matter dominated decelerating Universe with a density exceeding 0.26 of the critical value, H 0 t 0 < 1; in an accelerating Universe with the same ? m = 0.26, but dominated by vacuum energy with ? V ? 1 - ? m , H 0 t 0 ? 1. If the first globular clusters formed 109 years after the Big Bang, then with 95% confidence H 0 t 0 =1.0 ± 0.3. The classical Einstein-de Sitter cosmological model has H 0 t 0 = ?.

Mould, Jeremy

2000-04-01

119

Astronomical Software Directory Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the support of NASA's Astrophysics Data Program (NRA 92-OSSA-15), we have developed the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS): a distributed, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URLs indexed for full-text searching. Users are performing about 400 searches per month. A new aspect

Robert J. Hanisch; Harry Payne; Jeffrey Hayes

1997-01-01

120

History of astronomical discoveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wide diversity of routes to astronomical, astrophysical and cosmological discovery is discussed through a number of historical case studies. Prime ingredients for success include new technology, precision observation, extensive databases, capitalising upon discoveries in cognate disciplines, imagination and luck. Being in the right place at the right time is a huge advantage. The changing perspectives on the essential tools for tackling frontier problems and astronomical advance are discussed.

Longair, Malcolm

2009-08-01

121

HubbleSite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interactive and graphically stunning HubbleSite is produced by the Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach and covers all aspects of the Hubbel Telescope for the general public. The Striking Encounters multimedia activity shows how galaxies collide and how scientists study them using the telescope. Other features include a photo gallery, descriptions of discoveries that have been made using Hubbel, games, educational links, and much more.

1994-01-01

122

The Hubble Exoplanet Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a status report on the Hubble Exoplanet Classroom, an interactive website designed to engage 8-12th grade students in physical science concepts using the exciting field of exoplanet studies. Addressing national teaching standards, the webpage allows educators to enhance their physical science, physics, and astronomy curriculum with student-driven lessons. The webpage records students' performance on lessons and quizzes and compiles the results, which can be accessed by the instructor using a secure website.

Stevens, Laura; Carson, J.; Ruwadi, D.; Low, K.; Jordan, S.; Schneider, G.

2013-01-01

123

Obituary: Raymond Edwin White Jr., 1933-2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raymond E. White, Jr., died unexpectedly at his home, in the early morning hours of October 12, 2004. Death appears to have been caused by severe diabetic shock. He retired from the Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory in July 1999 with the title of University Distinguished Professor, after serving on the faculty of this institution for over 35 years. He was born in Freeport, Illinois, on 6 May 1933, to Beatrice and Raymond E, Sr. -the latter being a career soldier in the US Army. Ray's early schooling took place in Illinois, New Jersey, Germany and Switzerland, following his father's assignments. He obtained a bachelors degree from the University of Illinois in 1955. Next Ray enlisted in the US Army, but quickly was enrolled in Officer Candidate School. He then served as lst Lt. in the US Army Corps of Engineers. Although military affairs remained a lifelong interest, and he was a member of the Company of Military Historians, Ray decided after three years to return to academia. He entered the astronomy PhD program at the University of Illinois in 1958. His PhD dissertation was supervised by Ivan R. King. Ray accepted a faculty position at the University of Arizona in 1964. First and foremost, Ray White was known at Arizona as an excellent teacher, revered by a large number of former students. When the astronomy major program was begun in 1967, Ray was one of three, original, major advisors. Over the next three decades, he was a leader at the University level in reforming the undergraduate program and courses. He was selected Outstanding University Faculty Member in April 1989 and he served as one of a handful of professors who are Faculty Fellows. These Fellows devote untold hundreds of hours as part-time residents at student dormitories, to give students a friendly face to address their problems. In 1995, Ray was among the first group of faculty to be recognized as University Distinguished Professors. In the year of his retirement, 1999, University President Manuel Pachecho recognized Ray's extensive contributions by asking him to serve as Master of Ceremonies at the University commencement. Ray White's research career was not as extensive as his teaching activities, but it was creative. His original specialty was globular star clusters and classes of variable stars within them. He made several catalogs of star clusters and associations, measured the exact centers, the axial ratios and the orientations of around 100 Galactic globular clusters. Certainly, Ray's greatest love in research, especially in later years, was archaeoastronomy. He studied the evidence for astronomical observations of the Sun, Moon and stars from the mound sites of the prehistoric Hohokam inhabitants of the Salt River Valley of Arizona. He was best known for his studies of the Inkaic people of the pre-Columbian, Peruvian Andes. Most of this research involved the grand Machu Picchu site, where he showed (with David Dearborn) that the central tower (the "Torreon") certainly had been used as an Observatory. They also discovered a separate, solstice observatory and named it Intimachay. Characteristically, Ray combined much of his archaeoastronomy research interests with the involvement of undergraduate students and adults through the Earthwatch program in field trips to Machu Picchu. With a Professor in the humanities who was also well known at the University of Arizona, Donna Swaim, Ray introduced a group of undergraduates in summer classes to several archaeoastronomy sites in such countries as Ireland and the British isles. Of course they also gave on-site lectures at art museums, and sites of historical and cultural interest. Like many astronomers, Ray was well traveled. He had sabbaticals at the University of Cambridge in 1980, and at the Dublin Institute of Advanced Study (Dunsink Observatory), Ireland, in 1996-97. The latter was funded by his winning a Fulbright Fellowship, which enabled him to further his studies of the Celtic astronomical traditions. Earlier in 1971-72, Ray served as Program Officer for Stars and Stellar Evol

Liebert, James William

2004-12-01

124

The Hubble Helix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the 14 hours of peak Leonid meteoroid flux in November 2002, the Hubble Space Telescope was pointed away from incoming meteoroids, and the solar arrays were oriented to minimize their cross-section. By coincidence, one of the most prominent planetary nebulae, the Helix Nebula, a.k.a. NGC 7293, was nearly opposite the incoming Leonids and could be observed. A ``Hubble Helix Team'' of volunteers led by M. Meixner (STScI) organized a nine-orbit campaign to observe the Helix with the ACS, WFPC2, NICMOS, and STIS. A contiguous 3 by 3 grid of 4kx4k-pixel ACS images covering much but not all of the Helix was exposed in two filters, H? +[N II] (F658N) and [O III] (F502N). A few of the WFPC2 images observed in parallel also observed the nebula in [O I] (F631N) or He II 4686 (F469N) or H? (F656N). NICMOS/NIC3 observations were obtained at two locations on the nebula and two off, in H2 (F212N) and Paschen-? (F187N). A few of the STIS parallel observations in [OII] (F28X0OII) were located on the nebula. The main purpose of this presentation is to advertise to all interested parties the availability of the non-proprietary data via the HST archive. Initial data analysis by the Hubble Helix Team will be presented in this poster.

McCullough, P. R.; Hubble Helix Team

2002-12-01

125

Observing Campaign on Hubble's First Variable in M31: M31_V1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An observing campaign is being carried out on M31_V1, the first variable star discovered in M31 by Edwin Hubble. The Hubble Heritage Team, with Dr. Keith Noll (STScI) as P.I., plans to observe M31_V1 with HST, and needs to know the phase of this Cepheid variable. Although basic parameters are known for this star, no recent photometry exists, so observations are required to generate current phase information. In 1925 Edwin Hubble published a note in The Observatory (vol. 48, 139) on "Cepheids in Spiral Nebulae." In 1929, he published a seminal paper in the Astrophysical Journal (vol. 69, 103), "A Spiral Nebula as a Stellar System, Messier 31." This paper discussed in detail the galaxy and the 50 variable stars he found in its outer regions. Hubble remarked that the 40 Cepheids found showed the period-luminosity relationship in a conspicuous manner, enabling distance to the galaxy to be calculated. Furthermore, he said that the results of his calculations supported the value determined by Harlow Shapley of the zero point of the period-luminosity relation. This confirmation of the zero point had significant implications for future extragalactic distance determinations. As the first of the variables on Hubble's list, V1, a Cepheid, is a historical curiosity. M31_V1 is magnitude 19.4V. B-V = +1.28, period is 30.41 days, and amplitude ~ 1.2 magnitudes in B, likely smaller in V. Five nights of data obtained by Arne Henden, AAVSO, show that the variable appears to have peaked on 2010 June 19 at about R=18 and as of July 2 was on its way down. It is recommended that observers use either an Rc filter or observe unfiltered. About an hour or more of exposure per integration will be required to reach S/N = 20, depending on your equipment and sky brightness; multiple exposures and stacking might be necessary to avoid saturating the background. The field is not crowded, and the variable itself is not blended. Contamination from the M31 background should n! ot be prohibitive. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp); Rc magnitudes of comparison stars are in the chart-associated photometry table. An R-band finder chart from the Isaac Newton 2.5-m telescope provided by Arne Henden is available. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and links to images and charts.

Waagen, Elizabeth O.

2010-07-01

126

Hubble Space Telescope Spies on 'Black Eye'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Residing roughly 17 million light years from Earth, in the northern constellation Coma Berenices, is a merged star system known as Messier 64 (M64). First cataloged in the 18th century by the French astronomer Messier, M64 is a result of two colliding galaxies and has an unusual appearance as well as bizarre internal motions. It has a spectacular dark band of absorbing dust in front of its bright nucleus, lending to it the nickname of the 'Black Eye' or 'Evil Eye' galaxy. Fine details of the dark band can be seen in this image of the central portion of M64 obtained by the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Appearing to be a fairly normal pinwheel-shaped galaxy, the M64 stars are rotating in the same direction, clockwise, as in the majority of galaxies. However, detailed studies in the 1990's led to the remarkable discovery that the interstellar gas in the outer regions of M64 rotates in the opposite direction from the gas and stars in the irner region. Astronomers believe that the oppositely rotating gas arose when M64 absorbed a satellite galaxy that collided with it, perhaps more than one billion years ago. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

2004-01-01

127

Hubble Heritage 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality images from Hubble have been the sine qua non in sustaining public support for the mission and astronomy in general. The Hubble Heritage project has been a key source of this imagery through a combination of archival and new images obtained over a decade. The success of Hubble's outreach efforts have spawned many imitators and it is essential for Hubble to invest a small fraction of time in maintaining our leadership in this area. With this proposal we seek to continue and refresh the Hubble Heritage project. We have focused on compelling targets that show off the capabilities of our reinvigorated observatory with an eye to new methods of image display and dissemination that will keep Hubble an iconic element of our culture.

Noll, Keith

2009-07-01

128

Hubble Hunts Black Holes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive, online module provides students the opportunity to explore actual Hubble images and the tools used to hunt for black holes. By completing this activity, students learn about the technology required to confirm the existence of black holes. Students may complete this activity independently or in small groups. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title page, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. This activity is a subsection of "Is a Black Hole Really A Hole?" It is within the online exploration No Escape: The Truth about Black Holes, available on the Amazing Space website.

129

Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images and Illustrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present techniques for using mainstream graphics software, specifically Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator, for producing composite color images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used with numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope to produce printed and web-based news, education and public presentation products as well as illustrations for technical publication. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to work with scaled images, masks, text and graphics in multiple semi-transparent layers and channels. These features, along with its user-oriented, visual interface, provide convenient tools to produce high-quality, full-color images and graphics for printed and on-line publication and presentation.

Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.

2001-12-01

130

SIMBAD Astronomical Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, and bibliography for astronomical objects outside the solar system." Created by the Centre de Donn'es astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) in France, the website contains over three million objects, eight and a half million identifiers, one hundred thousand bibliographical references, and four million citations of objects in papers. The data can be searched by object name, coordinates, filters, and by a list of objects. Researchers can find help by visiting the user's guide and the regularly updated Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects.

131

The Edwin Smith papyrus: a clinical reappraisal of the oldest known document on spinal injuries  

PubMed Central

Dating from the seventeenth century b.c. the Edwin Smith papyrus is a unique treatise containing the oldest known descriptions of signs and symptoms of injuries of the spinal column and spinal cord. Based on a recent “medically based translation” of the Smith papyrus, its enclosed treasures in diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic reasoning are revisited. Although patient demographics, diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options considerably changed over time, the documented rationale on spinal injuries can still be regarded as the state-of-the-art reasoning for modern clinical practice.

Sanchez, Gonzalo M.; Burridge, Alwyn L.

2010-01-01

132

Hubble illuminates the universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Latest observations by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are described, including the first 'parallel' observations (on January 6, 1992) by the two of the Hubble's instruments of two different targets at the same time. On this date, the faint-object camera made images of the quasar 3C 273 in Virgo, while the wide-field and planetary camera recorded an adjacent field. The new HST images include those of the nucleus and the jet of M85, the giant elliptical galaxy at the heart of the Virgo cluster, and what appears to be a black hole of mass 2.6 billion solar masses in M87, and an image of N66, a planetary nebula in the LMC. Other images yield evidence of 'blue stragglers' in the core of 47 Tucanae, a globular cluster about 16,000 light-years from earth. The Goddard spectrograph recorded the spectrum of the star Capella at very high wavelength resolution, which made it possible to measure deuterium from the Big Bang.

Maran, Stephen P.

1992-01-01

133

Hubble illuminates the universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Latest observations by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are described, including the first 'parallel' observations (on January 6, 1992) by the two of the Hubble's instruments of two different targets at the same time. On this date, the faint-object camera made images of the quasar 3C 273 in Virgo, while the wide-field and planetary camera recorded an adjacent field. The new HST images include those of the nucleus and the jet of M85, the giant elliptical galaxy at the heart of the Virgo cluster, and what appears to be a black hole of mass 2.6 billion solar masses in M87, and an image of N66, a planetary nebula in the LMC. Other images yield evidence of 'blue stragglers' in the core of 47 Tucanae, a globular cluster about 16,000 light-years from earth. The Goddard spectrograph recorded the spectrum of the star Capella at very high wavelength resolution, which made it possible to measure deuterium from the Big Bang.

Maran, Stephen P.

1992-06-01

134

The Carnegie Hubble Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present an overview of and preliminary results from an ongoing comprehensive program that has a goal of determining the Hubble constant to a systematic accuracy of 2%. As part of this program, we are currently obtaining 3.6 micron data using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer, and the program is designed to include JWST in the future. We demonstrate that the mid-infrared period-luminosity relation for Cepheids at 3.6 microns is the most accurate means of measuring Cepheid distances to date. At 3.6 microns, it is possible to minimize the known remaining systematic uncertainties in the Cepheid extragalactic distance scale. We discuss the advantages of 3.6 micron observations in minimizing systematic effects in the Cepheid calibration of the Hubble constant including the absolute zero point, extinction corrections, and the effects of metallicity on the colors and magnitudes of Cepheids. We are undertaking three independent tests of the sensitivity of the mid-IR Cepheid Leavitt Law to metallicity, which when combined will allow a robust constraint on the effect. Finally, we are providing a new mid-IR Tully-Fisher relation for spiral galaxies.

Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Vicky; Mnso, Andy; Persson, S. E.; Rigby, Jane; Sturch, Laura; Stetson, Peter

2011-01-01

135

NRAO Astronomer Honored by American Astronomical Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dr. Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), received the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) Helen B. Warner Prize on January 11, at the society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. The prize is awarded annually for "a significant contribution to observational or theoretical astronomy during the five years preceding the award." Presented by AAS President Debra Elmegreen, the prize recognized Ransom "for his astrophysical insight and innovative technical leadership enabling the discovery of exotic, millisecond and young pulsars and their application for tests of fundamental physics." "Scott has made landmark contributions to our understanding of pulsars and to using them as elegant tools for investigating important areas of fundamental physics. We are very proud that his scientific colleagues have recognized his efforts with this prize," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. A staff astronomer at the NRAO since 2004, Ransom has led efforts using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope and other facilities to study pulsars and use them to make advances in areas of frontier astrophysics such as gravitational waves and particle physics. In 2010, he was on a team that discovered the most massive pulsar yet known, a finding that had implications for the composition of pulsars and details of nuclear physics, gravitational waves, and gamma-ray bursts. Ransom also is a leader in efforts to find and analyze rapidly-rotating millisecond pulsars to make the first direct detection of the gravitational waves predicted by Albert Einstein. In other work, he has advanced observational capabilities for finding millisecond pulsars in globular clusters of stars and investigated how millisecond pulsars are formed. A graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY, Ransom served as an artillery officer in the U.S. Army. After leaving the Army, he earned a Ph.D. at Harvard University in 2001, and was a postdoctoral fellow at McGill University before joining the NRAO in 2004. Ransom will deliver his Warner Prize Lecture, entitled "Millisecond Pulsars: The Gifts that Keep on Giving," at the AAS meeting on Tuesday, January 11, 2011, at 3:40 p.m., Pacific Time.

2011-01-01

136

Hubble's deepest view ever of the Universe unveils earliest galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hubble sees galaxies galore hi-res Size hi-res: 446 kb Credits: NASA, ESA, and S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team Hubble sees galaxies galore Galaxies, galaxies everywhere - as far as the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope can see. This view of nearly 10,000 galaxies is the deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. Called the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, this galaxy-studded view represents a ‘deep’ core sample of the universe, cutting across billions of light-years. Hubble reveals galactic drama hi-res Size hi-res: 879 kb Credits: NASA, ESA, and S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team Hubble reveals galactic drama A galactic brawl. A close encounter with a spiral galaxy. Blue wisps of galaxies. These close-up snapshots of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field reveal the drama of galactic life. Here three galaxies just below centre are enmeshed in battle, their shapes distorted by the brutal encounter. Hubble reveals galactic drama hi-res Size hi-res: 886 kb Credits: NASA, ESA, and S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team Hubble reveals galactic drama A galactic brawl. A close encounter with a spiral galaxy. Blue wisps of galaxies. These close-up snapshots of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field reveal the drama of galactic life. Here three galaxies just below centre are enmeshed in battle, their shapes distorted by the brutal encounter. Hubble reveals galactic drama hi-res Size hi-res: 892 kb Credits: NASA, ESA, and S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team Hubble reveals galactic drama A galactic brawl. A close encounter with a spiral galaxy. Blue wisps of galaxies. These close-up snapshots of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field reveal the drama of galactic life. The galaxies in this panel were plucked from a harvest of nearly 10,000 galaxies in the Ultra Deep Field, the deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. This historic new view is actually made up by two separate images taken by Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Both images reveal some galaxies that are too faint to be seen by ground-based telescopes, or even in Hubble's previous faraway looks, called the Hubble Deep Fields (HDFs), taken in 1995 and 1998. The HUDF field contains an estimated 10,000 galaxies in a patch of sky just one-tenth the diameter of the full Moon. Besides the rich harvest of classic spiral and elliptical galaxies, there is a zoo of oddball galaxies littering the field. Some look like toothpicks; others like links on a bracelet. A few appear to be interacting. Their strange shapes are a far cry from the majestic spiral and elliptical galaxies we see today. These oddball galaxies chronicle a period when the Universe was more chaotic. Order and structure were just beginning to emerge. The combination of ACS and NICMOS images will be used to search for galaxies that existed between 400 and 800 million years after the Big Bang (in cosmological terms this corresponds to a 'redshift' range of 7 to 12). Astronomers around the world will use these data to understand whether in this very early stages the Universe appears to be the same as it did when the cosmos was between 1000 and 2000 million years old. Hubble's ACS allows astronomers to see galaxies two to four times fainter than Hubble could view previously, but the NICMOS sees even farther than the ACS. The NICMOS reveals the farthest galaxies ever seen because the expanding Universe has stretched their light into the near-infrared portion of the spectrum. The ACS uncovered galaxies that existed 800 million years after the Big Bang (at a redshift of 7). But the NICMOS might have spotted galaxies that lived just 400 million years after the birth of the cosmos (at a redshift of 12). Just like the previous HDFs, the new data are expected to galvanise the astronomical community and lead to dozens of research papers that will offer new insights into the birth and evolution of galaxies. This will hold the record as the deepest-ever view of the Universe until ESA together with NASA launches the James Webb Space Telescope in

2004-03-01

137

Calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope polarimetric modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stellar and galactic polarimetry from space is an unexplored observational regime and one which holds exciting promise for answering many fundamental astrophysical questions. The Hubble Space Telescope will be the first space observatory to provide a variety of polarimetric modes to astronomers including spectral, imaging, and single-aperture UV polarimetry. As part of the calibration program for these modes, the Space Telescope Science Institute has initiated a ground-based program to define faint standard fields and solicited community support to establish a temporal baseline for these potential standard targets. In this paper, the polarimetric capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope, the philosophy and complications of in-flight calibration, and the status and direction of the standard targets program are discussed.

Lupie, O. L.; Stockman, H. S.

1988-01-01

138

Astronomical Archives in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview is given of the activities of nine observatories (located at Madras, Lucknow, Trivandrum, Poona, Calcutta, Dehra Dun, Kodaikanal, and Hyderabad) which were established in India in the 19th century. A bibliography of publications of these observatories, sorted according to type of astronomical data, and some notes on observational material, is also presented.

Ansari, S. M. R.

2004-12-01

139

Memphis Astronomical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Web site for amateur astronomers offering free "Getting Started with Your New Telescope" article (PDF), monthly newsletter, weblog ("MemphisAstro"), and information for ordering inexpensive out-of-print amateur's guides to finding Messier objects. The Society is a public-service organization promoting interest and education in astronomy and holding monthly meetings and offering lectures and demonstrations to local (Memphis, Tennessee) members.

2007-03-18

140

The Knorre astronomers' dynasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempt to throw light upon the poorly known astronomical dynasty of Knorre and describe its contribution to astronomy. The founder of the dynasty, Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (1759-1810), was born in Germany in 1759, and since 1802 he was a Professor of Mathematics at the Tartu University, and observer at its temporary observatory. He determined the first coordinates of

G. Pinigin

2009-01-01

141

The Knorre astronomers' dynasty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We attempt to throw light upon the poorly known astronomical dynasty of Knorre and describe its contribution to astronomy. The founder of the dynasty, Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (1759-1810), was born in Germany in 1759, and since 1802 he was a Professor of Mathematics at the Tartu University, and observer at its temporary observatory. He determined the first coordinates of Tartu by stellar observations. Karl Friedrich Knorre (1801-1883) was the first director of the Naval Observatory in Nikolaev since the age of 20, provided the Black Sea navy with accurate time and charts, trained mariners in astronomical navigation, and certified navigation equipment. He compiled star maps and catalogues, and determined positions of comets and planets. He also participated in Bessel's project of the Academic Star Charts, and was responsible for Hora 4, published by the Berlin Academy of Sciences. This sheet permitted to discover two minor planets, Astraea and Flora. Viktor Knorre (1840-1919) was born in Nikolaev. In 1862 he left for Berlin to study astronomy. After defending his thesis for a doctor's degree, he went to Pulkovo as an astronomical calculator in 1867. Since 1873 Viktor worked as an observer of the Berlin Observatory Fraunhofer refractor. His main research focussed on minor planets, comets and binary stars. He discovered the minor planets Koronis, Oenone, Hypatia and Penthesilea. Viktor Knorre also worked on improving astronomical instrumentation, e.g. the Knorre / Heele equatorial telescope mounting.

Pinigin, G.

2009-06-01

142

Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

Walsh, Jennifer Robin

2004-05-01

143

Astronomical education in Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history, current situation, education and future directions of modern Mongolian space science and astronomy is reviewed. This paper discusses recent efforts to develop astronomy education and research capacity in Mongolia with cooperation of the International Astronomical Union. Various capacity-building initiatives in space science including remote sensing in Mongolia are discussed.

Dulmaa, A.; Tsolmon, R.; Lkhagvajav, Ch.; Jargalsuren, Sh.; Bayartungalag, B.; Zaya, M.

2011-06-01

144

High School Teachers as Astronomers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a joint research program between several high school teachers and solar system astronomers in which data were collected on photoelectric observations of asteroids and minor planets via astronomical telescopes. (MLH)

Sather, Robert

1977-01-01

145

Thomas Kuhn's Influence on Astronomers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the astronomical community on their familiarity with the work of Thomas Kuhn. Finds that for some astronomers, Kuhn's thought resonated well with their picture of how science is done and provided perspectives on their scientific careers. (Author/CCM)

Shipman, Harry L.

2000-01-01

146

Stuff: Simulating ``Perfect'' Astronomical Catalogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stuff is a program that simulates “perfect” astronomical catalogues. It generate object lists in ASCII which can read by the SkyMaker program to produce realistic astronomical fields. Stuff is part of the EFIGI development project.

Bertin, Emmanuel

2010-10-01

147

BY POPULAR DEMAND: HUBBLE OBSERVES THE HORSEHEAD NEBULA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rising from a sea of dust and gas like a giant seahorse, the Horsehead nebula is one of the most photographed objects in the sky. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope took a close-up look at this heavenly icon, revealing the cloud's intricate structure. This detailed view of the horse's head is being released to celebrate the orbiting observatory's eleventh anniversary. Produced by the Hubble Heritage Project, this picture is a testament to the Horsehead's popularity. Internet voters selected this object for the orbiting telescope to view. The Horsehead, also known as Barnard 33, is a cold, dark cloud of gas and dust, silhouetted against the bright nebula, IC 434. The bright area at the top left edge is a young star still embedded in its nursery of gas and dust. But radiation from this hot star is eroding the stellar nursery. The top of the nebula also is being sculpted by radiation from a massive star located out of Hubble's field of view. Only by chance does the nebula roughly resemble the head of a horse. Its unusual shape was first discovered on a photographic plate in the late 1800s. Located in the constellation Orion, the Horsehead is a cousin of the famous pillars of dust and gas known as the Eagle nebula. Both tower-like nebulas are cocoons of young stars. The Horsehead nebula lies just south of the bright star Zeta Orionis, which is easily visible to the unaided eye as the left-hand star in the line of three that form Orion's Belt. Amateur astronomers often use the Horsehead as a test of their observing skills; it is known as one of the more difficult objects to see visually in an amateur-sized telescope. The magnificent extent of the Horsehead is best appreciated in a new wide-field image of the nebula being released today by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, taken by Travis Rector with the National Science Foundation's 0.9 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, AZ. This popular celestial target was the clear winner among more than 5,000 Internet voters, who were asked last year to select an astronomical target for the Hubble telescope to observe. The voters included students, teachers, and professional and amateur astronomers. This 11th anniversary release image was composed by the Hubble Heritage Team, which superimposed Hubble data onto ground-based data (limited to small triangular regions around the outer edge of the image). Ground-based image courtesy of Nigel A. Sharp (NOAO/AURA/NSF) taken at the 0.9-meter telescope on Kitt Peak. Image Credit: NASA, NOAO, ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: K. Noll (Hubble Heritage PI/STScI), C. Luginbuhl (USNO), F. Hamilton (Hubble Heritage/STScI)

2002-01-01

148

The Hubble constant.  

PubMed Central

Five methods of estimating distances have demonstrated internal reproducibility at the level of 5-20% rms accuracy. The best of these are the cepheid (and RR Lyrae), planetary nebulae, and surface-brightness fluctuation techniques. Luminosity-line width and Dn-sigma methods are less accurate for an individual case but can be applied to large numbers of galaxies. The agreement is excellent between these five procedures. It is determined that Hubble constant H0 = 90 +/- 10 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16) m]. It is difficult to reconcile this value with the preferred world model even in the low-density case. The standard model with Omega = 1 may be excluded unless there is something totally misunderstood about the foundation of the distance scale or the ages of stars.

Tully, R B

1993-01-01

149

The Hubble constant.  

PubMed

Five methods of estimating distances have demonstrated internal reproducibility at the level of 5-20% rms accuracy. The best of these are the cepheid (and RR Lyrae), planetary nebulae, and surface-brightness fluctuation techniques. Luminosity-line width and Dn-sigma methods are less accurate for an individual case but can be applied to large numbers of galaxies. The agreement is excellent between these five procedures. It is determined that Hubble constant H0 = 90 +/- 10 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16) m]. It is difficult to reconcile this value with the preferred world model even in the low-density case. The standard model with Omega = 1 may be excluded unless there is something totally misunderstood about the foundation of the distance scale or the ages of stars. PMID:11607391

Tully, R B

1993-06-01

150

Hubble Observes Surface of Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists for the first time have made images of the surface of Saturn's giant, haze-shrouded moon, Titan. They mapped light and dark features over the surface of the satellite during nearly a complete 16-day rotation. One prominent bright area they discovered is a surface feature 2,500 miles across, about the size of the continent of Australia.

Titan, larger than Mercury and slightly smaller than Mars, is the only body in the solar system, other than Earth, that may have oceans and rainfall on its surface, albeit oceans and rain of ethane-methane rather than water. Scientists suspect that Titan's present environment -- although colder than minus 289 degrees Fahrenheit, so cold that water ice would be as hard as granite -- might be similar to that on Earth billions of years ago, before life began pumping oxygen into the atmosphere.

Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and his team took the images with the Hubble Space Telescope during 14 observing runs between Oct. 4 - 18. Smith announced the team's first results last week at the 26th annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences in Bethesda, Md. Co-investigators on the team are Mark Lemmon, a doctoral candidate with the UA Lunar and Planetary Laboratory; John Caldwell of York University, Canada; Larry Sromovsky of the University of Wisconsin; and Michael Allison of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York City.

Titan's atmosphere, about four times as dense as Earth's atmosphere, is primarily nitrogen laced with such poisonous substances as methane and ethane. This thick, orange, hydrocarbon haze was impenetrable to cameras aboard the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft that flew by the Saturn system in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The haze is formed as methane in the atmosphere is destroyed by sunlight. The hydrocarbons produced by this methane destruction form a smog similar to that found over large cities, but is much thicker.

Smith's group used the Hubble Space Telescope's WideField/Planetary Camera 2 at near-infrared wavelengths (between .85 and 1.05 microns). Titan's haze is transparent enough in this wavelength range to allow mapping of surface features according to their reflectivity. Only Titan's polar regions could not be mapped this way, due to the telescope's viewing angle of the poles and the thick haze near the edge of the disk. Their image-resolution (that is, the smallest distance seen in detail) with the WFPC2 at the near-infrared wavelength is 360 miles. The 14 images processed and compiled into the Titan surface map were as 'noise' free, or as free of signal interference, as the space telescope allows, Smith said.

Titan makes one complete orbit around Saturn in 16 days, roughly the duration of the imaging project. Scientists have suspected that Titan's rotation also takes 16 days, so that the same hemisphere of Titan always faces Saturn, just as the same hemisphere of the Earth's moon always faces the Earth. Recent observations by Lemmon and colleagues at the University of Arizona confirm this true.

It's too soon to conclude much about what the dark and bright areas in the Hubble Space Telescope images are -- continents, oceans, impact craters or other features, Smith said. Scientists have long suspected that Titan's surface was covered with a global ehtane-methane ocean. The new images show that there is at least some solid surface.

Smith's team made a total 50 images of Titan last month in their program, a project to search for small scale features in Titan's lower atmosphere and surface. They have yet to analyze images for information about Titan's clouds and winds. That analysis could help explain if the bright areas are major impact craters in the frozen water ice-and-rock or higher-altitude features.

The images are important information for the Cassini mission, which is to launch a robotic spacecraft on a 7-year journey to Saturn in October 1997. About three weeks before Cassini's first flyby

1994-01-01

151

The Planetarium and the Astronomer (An Overview)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science of astronomy is one of the most accessible of the so-called "hard" sciences. Most people are familiar with some sky phenomena, and do not feel threatened at the prospect of learning more about the stars and planets. In the media, some of the best-known scientists are astronomers, and programs about astronomy tend to gather appreciatively large audiences. Planetarium facilities are a very special form of science media, with the fortunate task of presenting astronomy to the public. Like science writers, planetarium professionals take complex science information and make it accessible to the public with a variety of audio-visual techniques. Because many planetarium professionals have science backgrounds as well as educational training, they have an advantage over traditional media practitioners, who -- except for a few notable exceptions -- do not always have the luxury of a science background when it comes to writing about science. The unique background of the planetarian, however, builds a logical and natural link between astronomers and the public. This paper summarizes the wide variety of ways in which planetaria disseminate astronomy information -- ranging from live public lectures, to "astronomy updates", to hands-on activities for school children, and professionally-produced multi-media programs created especially for the needs of the domed theater. It ends with a few broad suggestions about possible roles for astronomers in any or all of these activities. Carolyn Collins Petersen has been a writer and producer of planetarium programs since 1980. Her programs have appeared in more than 500 facilities around the world. Her print work has appeared in the Denver Post, Sky and Telescope, Astronomy Magazine, and the Griffith Observer. She is the lead author of the upcoming book "Hubble Vision: Science With the Hubble Space Telescope" (due out from Cambridge University Press in Fall, 1995). Petersen has won several awards for her work. She is also a Graduate Research Assistant at the LASP at the University of Colorado, where she works on tasks for the GHRS team and the Ulysses Comet Watch. She has just completed work on a masters' thesis in science journalism.

Petersen, Carolyn Collins

1995-05-01

152

He2-90'S APPEARANCE DECEIVES ASTRONOMERS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have stumbled upon a mysterious object that is grudgingly yielding clues to its identity. A quick glance at the Hubble picture at top shows that this celestial body, called He2-90, looks like a young, dust-enshrouded star with narrow jets of material streaming from each side. But it's not. The object is classified as a planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a dying, lightweight star. But the Hubble observations suggest that it may not fit that classification, either. The Hubble astronomers now suspect that this enigmatic object may actually be a pair of aging stars masquerading as a single youngster. One member of the duo is a bloated red giant star shedding matter from its outer layers. This matter is then gravitationally captured in a rotating, pancake-shaped accretion disk around a compact partner, which is most likely a young white dwarf (the collapsed remnant of a sun-like star). The stars cannot be seen in the Hubble images because a lane of dust obscures them. The Hubble picture at top shows a centrally bright object with jets, appearing like strings of beads, emanating from both sides of center. (The other streaks of light running diagonally from He2-90 are artificial effects of the telescope's optical system.) Each jet possesses at least six bright clumps of gas, which are speeding along at rates estimated to be at least 375,000 miles an hour (600,000 kilometers an hour). These gaseous salvos are being ejected into space about every 100 years, and may be caused by periodic instabilities in He2-90's accretion disk. The jets from very young stars behave in a similar way. Deep images taken from terrestrial observatories show each jet extending at least 100,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit equals the Earth-Sun distance, 93 million miles). The jets' relatively modest speed implies that one member of the duo is a white dwarf. Observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, however, discovered a gamma-ray source in the vicinity of He2-90, suggesting that the companion may be a neutron star or a black hole (the compact corpses of dying, massive stars). But the jets from accretion disks around neutron stars or black holes travel at a few tenths the speed of light, much faster than the plodding pace of He2-90's jets. The Hubble astronomers are planning more observations to pinpoint the gamma-ray source to determine whether it is associated with He2-90. An accretion disk needs gravity to form. For gravity to create He2-90's disk, the pair of stars must reside at a cozy distance from each other: within about 10 astronomical units. Although the astronomers are uncertain about the details, they believe that magnetic fields associated with the accretion disk produce and constrict the pencil-thin jets seen in the Hubble image. The close-up Hubble photo at bottom shows a dark, flaring, disk-like structure [off-center] bisecting the bright light from the object. The disk is seen edge-on. Although too large to be an accretion disk, this dark, flaring disk may provide indirect proof of the other's existence. Most theories for producing jets require the presence of an accretion disk. The jets are seen streaming from both sides of the central object. The round, white objects at the lower left and upper right corners are two bright clumps of gas in the jets. The astronomers traced the jets to within 1,000 astronomical units of the central obscured star. The star ejected this jet material about 30 years ago. Scientists discovered this puzzling object while taking a census of planetary nebulae. They knew it had been classified as a dying, sun-like star. He2-90 is enshrouded in very hot (17,500 degrees Fahrenheit or 10,000 degrees Kelvin), glowing gas, a typical feature of planetary nebulae. And yet the disk and jets indicated the presence of an embryonic star. The mystified astronomers needed more information. Since embryonic stars are usually associated with cool, dense clouds of gas and dust, they used a ground-based radio telescope in Chile to look for evidence of such

2002-01-01

153

HUBBLE'S PLANETARY NEBULA GALLERY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[Top left] - IC 3568 lies in the constellation Camelopardalis at a distance of about 9,000 light-years, and has a diameter of about 0.4 light-years (or about 800 times the diameter of our solar system). It is an example of a round planetary nebula. Note the bright inner shell and fainter, smooth, circular outer envelope. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Top center] - NGC 6826's eye-like appearance is marred by two sets of blood-red 'fliers' that lie horizontally across the image. The surrounding faint green 'white' of the eye is believed to be gas that made up almost half of the star's mass for most of its life. The hot remnant star (in the center of the green oval) drives a fast wind into older material, forming a hot interior bubble which pushes the older gas ahead of it to form a bright rim. (The star is one of the brightest stars in any planetary.) NGC 6826 is 2,200 light- years away in the constellation Cygnus. The Hubble telescope observation was taken Jan. 27, 1996 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy) and NASA [Top right ] - NGC 3918 is in the constellation Centaurus and is about 3,000 light-years from us. Its diameter is about 0.3 light-year. It shows a roughly spherical outer envelope but an elongated inner balloon inflated by a fast wind from the hot central star, which is starting to break out of the spherical envelope at the top and bottom of the image. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Bottom left] - Hubble 5 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or bipolar (two-lobed) nebula. The heat generated by fast winds causes each of the lobes to expand, much like a pair of balloons with internal heaters. This observation was taken Sept. 9, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Hubble 5 is 2,200 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Vincent Icke (Leiden University, The Netherlands), Garrelt Mellema (Stockholm University), and NASA [Bottom center ] - Like NGC 6826, NGC 7009 has a bright central star at the center of a dark cavity bounded by a football-shaped rim of dense, blue and red gas. The cavity and its rim are trapped inside smoothly-distributed greenish material in the shape of a barrel and comprised of the star's former outer layers. At larger distances, and lying along the long axis of the nebula, a pair of red 'ansae', or 'handles' appears. Each ansa is joined to the tips of the cavity by a long greenish jet of material. The handles are clouds of low-density gas. NGC 7009 is 1,400 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. The Hubble telescope observation was taken April 28, 1996 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy), NASA [Bottom right ] - NGC 5307 also lies in Centaurus but is about 10,000 light-years away and has a diameter of approximately 0.6 light-year. It is an example of a planetary nebula with a pinwheel or spiral structure; each blob of gas ejected from the central star has a counterpart on the opposite side of the star. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA

2002-01-01

154

Astronomical Kalendar-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The webpage give the Astronomical Kalendars for the Months of 2010, 2011 as well as a General Kalendar of astronomical events for schoolars and beginners for 2011 to be downloaded in pdf or word formats. The Kalendar for schoolars and beginners include on 149 pp. the following sections: 1) recommendations for Schoolars 2) the general review of events for 2011 3) The Moon in 2011 4) Moon and Sun Ephemerides with comments 5) Planets visibility for the latituide 56 Deg N. 6) Planets conjunctions for 2011 7) Eclipses in 2011 8) Stars and planets occultations by the Moon 9) Phenomena for Jupiter satellites 10) Phenomena for Saturn satellites 11) Small Planets (Iris, Thalia, Nisa, Junona, Gigeia, Ariadna, Vesta, Cerera and other) 12) Comets (C/2009 P1 ( Garradd ), 103P/Hartley 2, P/2006 T1 ( Levy ) 13) variable Stars 14) Meteor showers. Both Calendars include maps and tables

Kozlovskii, Alexander Nikolaevich; Kuznetsov, Alexander

155

Astronomers without borders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Astronomers Without Borders'' is a new global organisational dedicated to furthering understanding and goodwill across national and cultural boundaries using the universal appeal of astronomy and space science. A growing network of affiliate organisations brings together clubs, magazines and other organizations involved in astronomy and space science. Forums, galleries, video conferences and other interactive technologies are used to connect participants around the world. Sharing of resources and direct connections through travel programs are also planned. One project, ``The World at Night'' (TWAN), has become an Special Project of IYA2009. TWAN creates wide-angle images of the night sky in important natural and historic settings around the world, dramatically demonstrating the universal nature and appeal of the night sky. ``Astronomers Without Borders'' is also a leader of the 100 Hours of Astronomy IYA2009 Global Cornerstone Project.

Simmons, Mike

2011-06-01

156

Hubble's View of a Dying Star  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent image of a dying star containing strange, complex structures may help explain the death throes of stars and defy our current understanding of physics. The image of protoplanetary nebula IRAS22036+5306 (in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Point Source Catalog) was taken on Dec. 15, 2001, by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, onboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. It is one of the best images yet to capture a fleeting period at the end of a Sun-like star's life, called the protoplanetary nebula phase.

This phase, which looks like a beautiful cloud of glowing gas lit up by ultraviolet light from the star's core, results when a star evolves into a bloated red giant and sheds its outer layers. 'Protoplanetary nebulas are rare objects with short lifetimes,' said JPL astrophysicist Dr. Raghvendra Sahai. 'It has generally been very difficult to obtain images of such objects in which their structure can be resolved in detail.'

This image is particularly important because it contains a series of what Sahai and his colleagues call 'knotty jets,' blob-like objects emerging along roughly straight lines from the center of the cigar-shaped, bipolar nebula (See insets). There are various theories about what may produce such jets, though it is hard to prove their existence due to their short-lived, episodic nature. Detailed multi-wavelength studies of these nebulas with NASA's Great Observatories are being carried out to understand the nature and origin of these enigmatic jets, and how they may be sculpting shrouds of dying stars into exotic shapes. The Hubble Space Telescope is one of NASA's Great Observatories.

2003-01-01

157

The Astronomical Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Chicago Press has announced unrestricted access to an online journal until mid-1998. Full text articles, announcements, and editorials are all available. Available electronic issues of The Astronomical Journal (AJ) begin with Volume 115, number 1 (January, 1998). AJ covers "The expanded coverage of quasars, supernova remnants, and studies of the interstellar medium [as well as] traditional areas of astronomy." The publication is available in various formats.

1998-01-01

158

Astronomical Society of Victoria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astronomical Society of Victoria website promotes its efforts to act as a forum for a wide variety of people interested in astronomy. Users can find learn about the monthly meetings open to the public. The website introduces the Society's many sections including Computing, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Current Phenomena, and Radio Astronomy. The Newcomers link furnishes helpful lists of astronomy books, magazines, and computer software. Everyone will enjoy the fantastic images of the Great Orion Nebula, the Trifid Nebula, and other space phenomena.

159

HUBBLE SEES SUPERSONIC EXHAUST FROM NEBULA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. Ground-based studies have shown that the nebula's size increases with time, suggesting that the stellar outburst that formed the lobes occurred just 1,200 years ago. The central star in M2-9 is known to be one of a very close pair which orbit one another at perilously close distances. It is even possible that one star is being engulfed by the other. Astronomers suspect the gravity of one star pulls weakly bound gas from the surface of the other and flings it into a thin, dense disk which surrounds both stars and extends well into space. The disk can actually be seen in shorter exposure images obtained with the Hubble telescope. It measures approximately 10 times the diameter of Pluto's orbit. Models of the type that are used to design jet engines ('hydrodynamics') show that such a disk can successfully account for the jet-exhaust-like appearance of M2-9. The high-speed wind from one of the stars rams into the surrounding disk, which serves as a nozzle. The wind is deflected in a perpendicular direction and forms the pair of jets that we see in the nebula's image. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in blue. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Vincent Icke (Leiden University, The Netherlands), Garrelt Mellema (Stockholm University), and NASA

2002-01-01

160

Astronomical Software Directory Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the support of NASA's Astrophysics Data Program (NRA 92-OSSA-15), we have developed the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS): a distributed, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URLs indexed for full-text searching. Users are performing about 400 searches per month. A new aspect of our service is the inclusion of telescope and instrumentation manuals, which prompted us to change the name to the Astronomical Software and Documentation Service. ASDS was originally conceived to serve two purposes: to provide a useful Internet service in an area of expertise of the investigators (astronomical software), and as a research project to investigate various architectures for searching through a set of documents distributed across the Internet. Two of the co-investigators were then installing and maintaining astronomical software as their primary job responsibility. We felt that a service which incorporated our experience in this area would be more useful than a straightforward listing of software packages. The original concept was for a service based on the client/server model, which would function as a directory/referral service rather than as an archive. For performing the searches, we began our investigation with a decision to evaluate the Isite software from the Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (CNIDR). This software was intended as a replacement for Wide-Area Information Service (WAIS), a client/server technology for performing full-text searches through a set of documents. Isite had some additional features that we considered attractive, and we enjoyed the cooperation of the Isite developers, who were happy to have ASDS as a demonstration project. We ended up staying with the software throughout the project, making modifications to take advantage of new features as they came along, as well as influencing the software development. The Web interface to the search engine is provided by a gateway program written in C++ by a consultant to the project (A. Warnock).

Hanisch, Robert J.; Payne, Harry; Hayes, Jeffrey

1997-01-01

161

Hubble View of Comet ISON  

NASA Video Gallery

This time-lapse sequence of images from the Hubble Space Telescope shows comet ISON as it appeared on May 8, 2013. At the time the images were taken, the comet was 403 million miles from the Earth,...

162

Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the ...

163

HubbleSite: Video Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This index, part of the Hubble Space Telescope website, helps users find archived videos and image sets on every Hubble image released to the public. It is organized by topic: Cosmology, Dark Matter, Galaxies, Nebulae, Solar System, Stars, and Star Clusters. Example topics include black holes, neutron stars, distant galaxies, and supernovae. Users can search by subject or by keywords. All images and/or videos may be downloaded or embedded in classroom presentations.

2005-06-07

164

THE CARNEGIE HUBBLE PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of and preliminary results from an ongoing comprehensive program that has a goal of determining the Hubble constant to a systematic accuracy of {+-}2%. As part of this program, we are currently obtaining 3.6 {mu}m data using the Infrared Array Camera on Spitzer, and the program is designed to include James Webb Space Telescope in the future. We demonstrate that the mid-infrared period-luminosity relation for Cepheids at 3.6 {mu}m is the most accurate means of measuring Cepheid distances to date. At 3.6 {mu}m, it is possible to minimize the known remaining systematic uncertainties in the Cepheid extragalactic distance scale. We discuss the advantages of 3.6 {mu}m observations in minimizing systematic effects in the Cepheid calibration of H{sub 0} including the absolute zero point, extinction corrections, and the effects of metallicity on the colors and magnitudes of Cepheids. We undertake three independent tests of the sensitivity of the mid-IR Cepheid Leavitt Law to metallicity, which when combined will allow a robust constraint on the effect. Finally, we provide a new mid-IR Tully-Fisher relation for spiral galaxies.

Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Victoria; Monson, Andy; Persson, S. E.; Seibert, Mark [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Observational Cosmology Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sturch, Laura [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Stetson, Peter, E-mail: wendy@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: barry@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: vs@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: amonson@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: persson@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: mseibert@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: Jane.R.Rigby@nasa.gov, E-mail: lsturch@bu.edu, E-mail: Peter.Stetson@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2011-12-15

165

Hubble Space Telescope Image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison image of the M100 Galactic Nucleus, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera-1 (WF/PC1) and Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 (WF/PC2). The HST was placed in a low-Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-31 mission, in April 1990. Two months after its deployment in space, scientists detected a 2-micron spherical aberration in the primary mirror of the HST that affected the telescope's ability to focus faint light sources into a precise point. This imperfection was very slight, one-fiftieth of the width of a human hair. During four spacewalks, the STS-61 crew replaced the solar panel with its flexing problems; the WF/PC1 with the WF/PC2, with built-in corrective optics; and the High-Speed Photometer with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), to correct the aberration for the remaining instruments. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit for 15 years or more. The HST provides fine detail imaging, produces ultraviolet images and spectra, and detects very faint objects.

1994-01-01

166

Microlensing with Hubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microlensing can be used to study dark matter, galactic structure, and to search for extra-solar planets. However, a significant problem with microlensing is the mass determination of the lens. Typically, microlensing events provides only a single measured quantity that depends on the lens mass, the Einstein angle crossing time, ?, which also depends on the distances to the lens and source as well as the relative transverse velocity. Thus, it is difficult to derive unique mass estimates for the lens. Non-degenerate solutions are possible, as was shown by Alcock et al. for MACHO LMC-5, when the source and lens can be resolved. It may be possible to distinguish between the lens and source by re-observing a microlensing candidate years after the first observation. As it turns out, a substantial number of fields containing microlensing events have been observed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We currently have identified over 180 possible matches to lensing events. In many of these cases, there was a time difference of years between the HST observation (or observations) and the ground-based detection. We present initial results from our archival program and discuss the implications for future studies.

Ginsburg, Idan; Di Stefano, Rosanne; Lepine, Sebastien; Primini, Francis A.; Oprescu, Antonia; Tunbridge, Ben

2014-06-01

167

Duty or dream? Edwin G. Conklin's critique of eugenics and support for American individualism.  

PubMed

This paper assesses ideas about moral and reproductive duty in American eugenics during the early twentieth century. While extreme eugenicists, including Charles Davenport and Paul Popenoe, argued that social leaders and biologists must work to prevent individuals who were "unfit" from reproducing, moderates, especially Edwin G. Conklin, presented a different view. Although he was sympathetic to eugenic goals and participated in eugenic organizations throughout his life, Conklin realized that eugenic ideas rarely could meet strict hereditary measures. Relying on his experience as an embryologist, Conklin instead attempted to balance more extreme eugenic claims - that emphasized the absolute limits posed by heredity - with his own view of "the possibilities of development." Through his critique he argued that most human beings never even begin to approach their hereditary potential; he moderated his own eugenic rhetoric so that it preserved individual opportunity and responsibility, or what has often been labeled the American Dream. PMID:12269346

Cooke, Kathy J

2002-01-01

168

Seeing Like an Astronomer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Digital Universe activity, students experiment with ways of looking (with the naked eye, under different circumstances and from different perspectives, and with aids such as binoculars or a digital model) to gain an understanding of how scientists use observation in their work. The nine-page printable PDF activity includes illustrated step-by-step instructions for the following hands-on and computer-assisted activities:Looking with the Naked Eye, Looking with Modified Observation Techniques, and How Astronomers Work.

169

Refracting Astronomical Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates the working of a refracting astronomical telescope. The telescope has two lenses called objective and eyepiece. The focal length of the two lensees can be changed by the user. As an example six brightest stars of the Pleiades, is viewed through the telescope and the resluting change in the image with a change in the focal lengths can be viewed. This applet part of large collection of physics applets by the author and may be accessed in a variety of languages here: http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/

Fendt, Walter

2007-07-13

170

HUBBLE PICTURES SHOW HOT GAS BUBBLE EJECTED BY YOUNG STAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 reveal the evolution of bubbles of glowing gas being blown out from the young binary star system XZ Tauri. Gas from an unseen disk around one or both of the stars is channeled through magnetic fields surrounding the binary system and then is forced out into space at nearly 300,000 miles per hour (540,000 kilometers per hour). This outflow, which is only about 30 years old, extends nearly 60 billion miles (96 billion kilometers). Hubble first discovered this unique bubble in 1995, and additional observations were made between 1998 and 2000. These images show that there was a dramatic change in its appearance between 1995 and 1998. In 1995, the bubble's edge was the same brightness as its interior. However, when Hubble took another look at XZ Tauri in 1998, the edge was suddenly brighter. This brightening is probably caused by the hot gas cooling off, which allows electrons in the gas to recombine with atoms, a process that gives off light. This is the first time that astronomers have seen such a cooling zone 'turn on.' These images provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the development of a very recent outflow from young (about 1 million years old) stars. Credits: NASA, John Krist (Space Telescope Science Institute), Karl Stapelfeldt (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Jeff Hester (Arizona State University), Chris Burrows (European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute)

2002-01-01

171

HUBBLE SEES A NEUTRON STAR ALONE IN SPACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

his is the first direct look, in visible light, at a lone neutron star, as seen by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The Hubble results show the star is very hot (1.2 million degrees Fahrenheit at the surface), and can be no larger than 16.8 miles (28 kilometers) across. These results prove that the object must be a neutron star, because no other known type of object can be this hot, small, and dim (below 25th magnitude). The first clue that there was a neutron star at this location came in 1992, when the ROSAT (the Roentgen Satellite) found a bright X-ray source without any optical counterpart in optical sky surveys. Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 was used in October 1996 to undertake a sensitive search for the optical object, and found a stellar pinpoint of light within only 2 arc seconds (1/900th the diameter of the Moon) of the X-ray position. Astronomers haven't directly measured the neutron star's distance, but fortunately the neutron star lies in front of a molecular cloud known to be about 400 light-years away in the southern constellation Corona Australis. Credit: Fred Walter (State University of New York at Stony Brook), and NASA

2002-01-01

172

Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for Hubble's success is the advantage of being in orbit, beyond the Earth's atmosphere. From there it enjoys a crystal-clear view of the universe - without clouds and atmospheric disturbances to blur its vision. European astronomer Guido De Marchi from ESO in Munich has been using Hubble since the early days of the project. He explains: "HST can see the faintest and smallest details and lets us study the stars with great accuracy, even where they are packed together - just as with those in the centre of our Galaxy". Dieter Reimers from Hamburg Observatory adds: "HST has capabilities to see ultraviolet light, which is not possible from the ground due to the blocking effect of the atmosphere. And this is really vital to our work, the main aim of which is to discover the chemical composition of the Universe." The Servicing Missions In the early plans for telescope operations, maintenance visits were to have been made every 2.5 years. And every five years HST should have been transported back to the ground for thorough overhaul. This plan has changed somewhat over time and a servicing scheme, which includes Space Shuttle Servicing Missions every three years, was decided upon. The two first Servicing Missions, in December 1993 (STS-61) and February 1997 (STS-82) respectively, were very successful. In the first three years of operations HST did not meet expectations because its primary mirror was 2 microns too flat at the edge. The first Servicing Mission in 1993 (on which the European astronaut Claude Nicollier flew) dealt with this problem by installing a new instrument with corrective optics (COSTAR - Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement). With this pair of "glasses" HST's golden age began. The images were as sharp as originally hoped and astonishing new results started to emerge on a regular basis. The first Servicing Mission also replaced the solar panels and installed a new camera (Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 - WFPC2). The High-Speed Photometer (HSP) was replaced by COSTAR. During the second Servicing Missi

1999-11-01

173

Getting Astronomers Involved in the IYA: Astronomer in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomer in the Classroom program provides professional astronomers the opportunity to engage with 3rd-12th grade students across the nation in grade appropriate discussions of their recent research, and provides students with rich STEM content in a personalized forum, bringing greater access to scientific knowledge for underserved populations. 21st Century Learning and Interstellar Studios, the producer of the 400 Years of the Telescope documentary along with their educational partners, will provide the resources necessary to facilitate the Astronomer in the Classroom program, allowing students to interact with astronomers throughout the IYA2009. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION One of hundreds of astronomers will be available to interact with students via live webcast daily during Spring/Fall 2009. The astronomer for the day will conduct three 20-minute discussions (Grades 3-5 /6-8/9-12), beginning with a five-minute PowerPoint on their research or area of interest. The discussion will be followed by a question and answer period. The students will participate in real-time from their school computer(s) with the technology provided by 21st Century Learning. They will see and hear the astronomer on their screen, and pose questions from their keyboard. Teachers will choose from three daily sessions; 11:30 a.m., 12:00 p.m., 12:30 p.m. Eastern Time. This schedule overlaps all US time zones, and marginalizes bandwidth usage, preventing technological barriers to web access. The educational partners and astronomers will post materials online, providing easy access to information that will prepare teachers and students for the chosen discussion. The astronomers, invited to participate from the AAS and IAU, will receive a web cam shipment with instructions, a brief training and conductivity test, and prepaid postage for shipment of the web cam to the next astronomer on the list. The anticipated astronomer time required is 3-hours, not including the time to develop the PowerPoint.

Koenig, Kris

2008-05-01

174

HUBBLE HUNTS DOWN BINARY OBJECTS AT FRINGE OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope snapped pictures of a double system of icy bodies in the Kuiper Belt. This composite picture shows the apparent orbit of one member of the pair. In reality, the objects, called 1998 WW31, revolve around a common center of gravity, like a pair of waltzing skaters. This picture shows the motion of one member of the duo [the six faint blobs] relative to the other [the large white blob]. The blue oval represents the orbital path. Astronomers assembled this picture from six separate exposures, taken from July to September 2001, December 2001, and January to February 2002. Astronomers used the Hubble telescope to study the orbit of this binary system. They then used that information to determine other characteristics of the duo, such as their total mass, and their orbital period (the time it takes them to orbit each other). Credit: NASA and C. Veillet (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope)

2002-01-01

175

Professional Ethics for Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

Marvel, K. B.

2005-05-01

176

Really Bad Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What happens when even Percival Lowell stops believing in your Mars observations? History can be troubling. This I learned while editing the Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (Springer, 2007). There have been astronomers who do not fit our commonly held, and clung to, conceptual model: a sociological system that sifts out generally like-minded and sensible colleagues. I refer to those individuals who (for at least a time) successfully entered the mainstream profession, but now disturb our worldview that says prosperity as a scientist usually is achieved by a rational being holding certain common values. My List of Shame includes examples from each of the last four centuries. Not "crack pot” cosmologists, these were hard-working observers for whom the end justified the means. And they all got away with it. Each person I discuss was vetted by the professional establishment of the day. Yet you will learn how to be fired from a major observatory, banned from prominent journals. But only after damage to the science is done. Be afraid.

Hockey, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

177

La Plata Astronomical Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La Plata, the current capital city of the province of Buenos Aires, was founded on 19 November 1882 by governor Dardo Rocha, and built on an innovative design giving emphasis to the quality of the public space, official and educational buildings. The Astronomical Observatory was one of the first inhabitants of the main park of the city; its construction started in 1883 including two telescopes that ranked among the largest in the southern hemisphere at that time and also several instruments devoted to positional astronomy (e.g. a meridian circle and a zenith telescope). A dedicated effort has being invested during the last 15 years in order to recover some of the original instrumentation (kept in a small museum) as well as the distinctive architectural values. In 1905, the Observatory, the School of Agriculture and the Museum of Natural Sciences (one of the most important museums in South America) became part of the backbone of La Plata National University, an institution with a strong and distinctive profile in exact and natural sciences. The First School for Astronomy and Related Sciences had been harboured by the Observatory since 1935, and became the current Faculty of Astronomical and Geophysical Sciences in 1983. This last institution carries PhD programs and also a number of teaching activities at different levels. These activities are the roots of a strong connection of the Observatory with the city.

Forte, Juan Carlos; Cora, Sofia A.

178

Hubble info circuit : follow the path to and from Hubble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This diagram illustrates and describes the steps involved in sending directions to the Hubble Space Telescope, collecting and processing the data collected by Hubble, and delivering the requested data and images back to a scientist on Earth. When users roll over each of the six entities depicted in this sequence, they can read about that entity's involvement in this two-way process. Arrows document the flow of information between entities such as the Space Telescope Sky Institute, the Goddard Space Flight Center, and an array of antennas in New Mexico. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2001-01-01

179

Hubble Takes First Image of a Possible Planet Around Another Star and Finds a Runaway World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hubble Space Telescope has returned an image of what is possibly the first planet outside our solar system. TMR-1C, about 450 light years away in the constellation Taurus, appears to have been "flung away from the vicinity of a newly forming pair of binary stars," as evidenced by a luminescent filament leading from the "planet" back to the stars. "Susan Terebey of the Extrasolar Research Corporation in Pasadena, California, and her team using Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS)," made the discovery. Hubble experts estimate the chance of the object being a background star instead of a planet at one to two percent. This Space Science Telescope Institute site contains the press release, captioned images in several formats and resolutions, and a space science update, a one hour RealPlayer press conference with Dr. Terebey and other astronomers.

1998-01-01

180

HUBBLE DETECTION OF COMET NUCLEUS AT FRINGE OF SOLAR SYSTEM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is sample data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope that illustrates the detection of comets in the Kuiper Belt, a region of space beyond the orbit of the planet Neptune. This pair of images, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), shows one of the candidate Kuiper Belt objects found with Hubble. Believed to be an icy comet nucleus several miles across, the object is so distant and faint that Hubble's search is the equivalent of finding the proverbial needle-in-haystack. Each photo is a 5-hour exposure of a piece of sky carefully selected such that it is nearly devoid of background stars and galaxies that could mask the elusive comet. The left image, taken on August 22, 1994, shows the candidate comet object (inside circle) embedded in the background. The right picture, take of the same region one hour forty-five minutes later shows the object has apparently moved in the predicted direction and rate of motion for a kuiper belt member. The dotted line on the images is a possible orbit that this Kuiper belt comet is following. A star (lower right corner) and a galaxy (upper right corner) provide a static background reference. In addition, other objects in the picture have not moved during this time, indicating they are outside our solar system. Through this search technique astronomers have identified 29 candidate comet nuclei belonging to an estimated population of 200 million particles orbiting the edge of our solar system. The Kupier Belt was theorized 40 years ago, and its larger members detected several years ago. However, Hubble has found the underlying population of normal comet-sized bodies. Credit: A. Cochran (University of Texas) and NASA

2002-01-01

181

Astronomers against Newton.  

PubMed

Francis Baily's publication of the manuscripts of John Flamsteed, the first Astronomer Royal, provoked a furious response. Flamsteed had quarrelled with Isaac Newton, and described him in terms unforgivable to those who claimed him as a paragon of all virtues, both moral and scientific. Baily was condemned for putting Flamsteed's complaints in the public sphere. However, his supporters saw his work as a critique of the excessive hero-worship accorded to Newton. Written when the word 'scientist' had been newly coined, this work and the debates it provoked gives us an insight into contemporary views of the role of the man of science and of the use of science to back political, religious and moral positions. PMID:15036924

Higgitt, Rebekah

2004-03-01

182

Immanuel Halton, the astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immanuel Halton was born in Cumberland, studied at Grays Inn, London during the later stages of the English Civil War and, during the Commonwealth, entered the service of Henry Howard, later 6th Duke of Norfolk. He pursued his mathematical and astronomical interests while auditor to the Duke of Norfolk. He met with John Flamsteed, encouraged the latter's interest in mathematics and astronomy and became his first patron, as well as contributing observations to Flamsteed's published works. Immanuel ended his days at Wingfield Manor, Derbyshire. A short biographical piece on Immanuel Halton appeared in the Journal in the early 1950s, consisting mostly of quotations from Flamsteed's 'Self Inspections' and Baily's 'Life of Flamsteed'. 1996 is the 350th anniversary of Flamsteed's birth, and it is hoped that this fuller account will flesh out the bones of his first patron.

Barber, P. M.

1996-02-01

183

Astronomical education in Armenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First ideas on astronomy pupils in Armenia get at elementary schools. Astronomy as a distinct subject is taught at all secondary schools in the country. Teaching is conducted according to a unified program elaborated jointly by professional astronomers and astronomy teachers. Unfortunately only one hour per week is allotted for teaching astronomy which obviously is not enough workload to hire specialized astronomy teachers at every school and at many schools this subject is tutored by non-specialists. Many schools partly compensate this lack organizing visits to the Byurakan observatory (BAO) for pupils where they also attend short lectures on astronomy. In some schools facultative training is organized faced to the amateurs purposive for deeper learning astronomy. During recent years annual competitions for revealing gifted pupils in astronomy are organized. These competitions have three rounds, namely, in schools, in districts and final one as a rule holds at BAO. The country winners successfully participate and win prestigious prizes in the international astronomical Olympiads as well. At Yerevan State University (YSU) a department for astrophysics was set up in 1946 operating to date. This department trains specialists for a career in astrophysics. Only one or two students graduate from this department yearly at present while in 80s a dozen of specialists were trained every year. BAO serves as the scientific base for the students of YSU as well and a number of staff members from BAO conduct special courses for YSU students. YSU provides Master's degree in astrophysics, and BAO is granting Doctor's (PhD) degree since 70s of last century.

Harutyunian, H. A.

2006-08-01

184

Hubble Vision: Astronomy with the Hubble Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of spherical aberration received a lot of attention in the summer of 1990 when NASA realized that its two billion dollar telescope did not work as expected. The small but significant spherical aberration in the main mirror of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was a big blow to NASA. However, its pride was justifiably restored with the bold

Alan Evans

1997-01-01

185

HUBBLE'S ULTRAVIOLET VIEWS OF NEARBY GALAXIES YIELD CLUES TO EARLY UNIVERSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomers are using these three NASA Hubble Space Telescope images to help tackle the question of why distant galaxies have such odd shapes, appearing markedly different from the typical elliptical and spiral galaxies seen in the nearby universe. Do faraway galaxies look weird because they are truly weird? Or, are they actually normal galaxies that look like oddballs, because astronomers are getting an incomplete picture of them, seeing only the brightest pieces? Light from these galaxies travels great distances (billions of light-years) to reach Earth. During its journey, the light is 'stretched' due to the expansion of space. As a result, the light is no longer visible, but has been shifted to the infrared where present instruments are less sensitive. About the only light astronomers can see comes from regions where hot, young stars reside. These stars emit mostly ultraviolet light. But this light is stretched, appearing as visible light by the time it reaches Earth. Studying these distant galaxies is like trying to put together a puzzle with some of the pieces missing. What, then, do distant galaxies really look like? Astronomers studied 37 nearby galaxies to find out. By viewing these galaxies in ultraviolet light, astronomers can compare their shapes with those of their distant relatives. These three Hubble telescope pictures, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, represent a sampling from that survey. Astronomers observed the galaxies in ultraviolet and visible light to study all the stars that make up these 'cities of stars.' The results of their survey support the idea that astronomers are detecting the 'tip of the iceberg' of very distant galaxies. Based on these Hubble ultraviolet images, not all the faraway galaxies necessarily possess intrinsically odd shapes. The results are being presented today at the 197th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, CA. The central region of the 'star-burst' spiral galaxy at far left, NGC 3310, shows young and old stars evenly distributed. If this were the case with most galaxies, astronomers would be able to recognize faraway galaxies fairly easily. In most galaxies, however, the stars are segregated by age, making classifying the distant ones more difficult. NGC 3310 is 46 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The image was taken Sept. 12-13, 2000. The middle image is an example of a tiny, youthful spiral galaxy. ESO 418-008 is representative of the myriad of dwarf galaxies astronomers have seen in deep surveys. These galaxies are much smaller than typical ones like our Milky Way. In this galaxy, the population of stars is more strongly segregated by age. The older stars [red] reside in the center; the younger [blue], in the developing spiral arms. These small, young galaxies may be the building blocks of galaxy formation. ESO 418-008 is 56 million light-years from Earth in the southern constellation Fornax. The image was taken Oct. 10, 2000. The picture at right shows a cosmic collision between two galaxies, UGC 06471 and UGC 06472. These collisions occurred frequently in the early universe, producing galaxies of unusual shapes. The Hubble telescope has spied many such galaxies in the deep field surveys. The ultraviolet images of this galaxy merger suggest the presence of large amounts of dust, which were produced by massive stars that formed before or during this dramatic collision. This dust reddens the starlight in many places, just like a dusty atmosphere reddens the sunset. Studying the effects of this nearby collision could help astronomers explain the peculiar shapes seen in some of the distant galaxies. UGC 06471 and UGC 06472 are 145 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The image was taken July 11, 2000. Photo credits: NASA, Rogier Windhorst (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ), and the Hubble mid-UV team

2002-01-01

186

Visualizing Astronomical Data with Blender  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical data take on a multitude of forms - catalogs, data cubes, images, and simulations. The availability of software for rendering high-quality three-dimensional graphics lends itself to the paradigm of exploring the incredible parameter space afforded by the astronomical sciences. The software program Blender gives astronomers a useful tool for displaying data in a manner used by three-dimensional (3D) graphics specialists and animators. The interface to this popular software package is introduced with attention to features of interest in astronomy. An overview of the steps for generating models, textures, animations, camera work, and renders is outlined. An introduction is presented on the methodology for producing animations and graphics with a variety of astronomical data. Examples from subfields of astronomy with different kinds of data are shown with resources provided to members of the astronomical community. An example video showcasing the outlined principles and features is provided along with scripts and files for sample visualizations.

Kent, Brian R.

2013-06-01

187

HUBBLE REVEALS THE HEART OF THE WHIRLPOOL GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope are helping researchers view in unprecedented detail the spiral arms and dust clouds of a nearby galaxy, which are the birth sites of massive and luminous stars. The Whirlpool galaxy, M51, has been one of the most photogenic galaxies in amateur and professional astronomy. Easily photographed and viewed by smaller telescopes, this celestial beauty is studied extensively in a range of wavelengths by large ground- and space-based observatories. This Hubble composite image shows visible starlight as well as light from the emission of glowing hydrogen, which is associated with the most luminous young stars in the spiral arms. M51, also known as NGC 5194, is having a close encounter with a nearby companion galaxy, NGC 5195, just off the upper edge of this image. The companion's gravitational pull is triggering star formation in the main galaxy, as seen in brilliant detail by numerous, luminous clusters of young and energetic stars. The bright clusters are highlighted in red by their associated emission from glowing hydrogen gas. This Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image enables a research group, led by Nick Scoville (Caltech), to clearly define the structure of both the cold dust clouds and the hot hydrogen and link individual clusters to their parent dust clouds. Team members include M. Polletta (U. Geneva); S. Ewald and S. Stolovy (Caltech); R. Thompson and M. Rieke (U. of Arizona). Intricate structure is also seen for the first time in the dust clouds. Along the spiral arms, dust 'spurs' are seen branching out almost perpendicular to the main spiral arms. The regularity and large number of these features suggests to astronomers that previous models of 'two-arm' spiral galaxies may need to be revisited. The new images also reveal a dust disk in the nucleus, which may provide fuel for a nuclear black hole. The team is also studying this galaxy at near-infrared wavelengths with the NICMOS instrument onboard Hubble. At these wavelengths, the dusty clouds are more transparent and the true distribution of stars is more easily seen. In addition, regions of star formation that are obscured in the optical images are newly revealed in the near-infrared images. This image was composed by the Hubble Heritage Team from Hubble archival data of M51 and is superimposed onto ground-based data taken by Travis Rector (NOAO) at the 0.9-meter telescope at the National Science Foundation's Kitt Peak National Observatory (NOAO/AURA) in Tucson, AZ. Image Credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: N. Scoville (Caltech) and T. Rector (NOAO)

2002-01-01

188

Hubble Sees Young Galaxies Bursting with Stars  

NASA Video Gallery

This video shows a zoom into the Hubble GOODS South Deep (GSD) field. Candidate extreme emission line galaxies are identified. This object was observed as part of the Hubble CANDELS Legacy Project....

189

The Hubble Deep Field: Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very deep images have been obtained with Hubble Space Telescope of a field at high galactic latitude with no galactic extinction and in the HST northern continuous viewing zone (dec = + 62.5 deg). WFPC2 images in four wavelength bands centered at 300, 450, 606, and 814 nm were acquired over an interval of 150 consecutive orbits with the aim

R. Williams; M. Dickinson; M. Giavalisco; R. Gilliland; H. Ferguson; A. Fruchter; D. McElroy; R. Lucas; L. Petro; M. Postman; H.-M. Adorf; R. N. Hook

1995-01-01

190

Hubble Space Telescope Science Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its launch in 1990 April, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has produced an increasing flow of scientific results. The large number of refereed publications based on HST data permits a detailed evaluation of the effectiveness of this observatory and its scientific programs. This paper presents the results of selected science metrics related to paper counts, citation counts, citation history,

Georges Meylan; Juan P. Madrid; Duccio Macchetto

2004-01-01

191

Hubble Sees Material Ejected From Comet Hale-Bopp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These NASA Hubble Space Telescope pictures of comet Hale-Bopp show a remarkable 'pinwheel' pattern and a blob of free-flying debris near the nucleus. The bright clump of light along the spiral (above the nucleus, which is near the center of the frame) may be a piece of the comet's icy crust that was ejected into space by a combination of ice evaporation and the comet's rotation, and which then disintegrated into a bright cloud of particles.

Although the 'blob' is about 3.5 times fainter than the brightest portion at the nucleus, the lump appears brighter because it covers a larger area. The debris follows a spiral pattern outward because the solid nucleus is rotating like a lawn sprinkler, completing a single rotation about once per week.

Ground-based observations conducted over the past two months have documented at least two separate episodes of jet and pinwheel formation and fading. By coincidence, the first Hubble images of Hale-Bopp, taken on September 26, 1995, immediately followed one of these outbursts and allow researchers to examine it at unprecedented detail. For the first time they see a clear separation between the nucleus and some of the debris being shed. By putting together information from the Hubble images and those taken during the recent outburst using the 82 cm telescope of the Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain), astronomers find that the debris is moving away from the nucleus at a speed (projected on the sky) of about 68 miles per hour (109 kilometers per hour).

The Hubble observations will be used to determine if Hale-Bopp is really a giant comet or rather a more moderate-sized object whose current activity is driven by outgassing from a very volatile ice which will 'burn out' over the next year. Comet Hale-Bopp was discovered on July 23, 1995 by amateur astronomers Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp. Though this comet is still well outside the orbit of Jupiter (almost 600 million miles, or one billion kilometers from Earth) it looks surprisingly bright, fueling predictions that it could become the brightest comet of the century in early 1997.

The full-field picture on the left, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (in WF mode), shows the comet against a stellar backdrop in the constellation Sagittarius. The stars are streaked due to a combination of Hubble's orbital motion and its tracking of the nucleus, which is now falling toward the Sun at 33,800 miles per hour (54,000 km/hr). In the close-up picture on the right, the stars have been subtracted through image processing. Each picture element is nearly 300 miles (480 km) across at the comet's distance. In this false color scale the faintest regions are black, the brightest regions are white, and intermediate intensities are represented by different levels of red.

Even more detailed Hubble images will be taken with the Planetary Camera in late October to follow the further evolution of the spiral, look for more outbursts, place limits on the size of the nucleus, and use spectroscopy to study the enigmatic comet's chemical composition.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

192

Computer version of astronomical ephemerides.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer version of astronomical ephemerides for bodies of the Solar System, stars, and astronomical phenomena was created at the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Astronomy and Cosmic Physics Department of the Taras Shevchenko National University. The ephemerides will be distributed via INTERNET or in the file form. This information is accessible via the web servers space.ups.kiev.ua and alfven.ups.kiev.ua or the address choliy@astrophys.ups.kiev.ua.

Cholij, V. Ya.

193

Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center (CDS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center (CDS), Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory, France. Includes tables from Astronomy and Astrophysics and other major journals. A&A and A&AS Abstracts from Astronomy and Astrophysics main journal, and Supplement Series. The Star*s Family of products, including two new on-line databases: StarWorlds, and StarBits. Files of URLs (addresses on the Web) and anchors, for organizations and services, as well as for individuals. The AstroWeb database of Astronomical Internet resources. The MediaTheque project. TOPbase: The database of the OPACITY project.

1997-01-01

194

Evaluation of the vent header crack at Edwin 1. Hatch Unit No. 2 Nuclear Power Station  

SciTech Connect

A metallurgical failure analysis was performed on pieces of the cracked vent header pipe from the Edwin I. Hatch Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. The analysis consisted of optical microscopy, chemical analysis, mechanical Charpy impact testing and fractography. The general conclusions drawn from this analysis were: (1) the material of the vent header met the mechanical and chemical properties of ASTM A516 Gr. 70 material and that the microstructures were consistent with this material; (2) the fracture faces of the cracked pipe were predominantly brittle in appearance with no evidence of fatigue contribution; (3) the NDTT (Nil Ductility Transition Temperature) for this material is approximately -60/sup 0/F (-51/sup 0/C); and (4) the fact that the material's NDTT is significantly out of the normal operating range of the pipe suggests that an impingement of low temperature nitrogen (caused by a faulty torus inerting system) induced a thermal shock in the pipe which, when cooled below its NDTT, cracked in a brittle manner.

Czajkowski, C.J.

1985-01-01

195

HUBBLE WATCHES STAR TEAR APART ITS NEIGHBORHOOD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a view of a stellar demolition zone in our Milky Way Galaxy: a massive star, nearing the end of its life, tearing apart the shell of surrounding material it blew off 250,000 years ago with its strong stellar wind. The shell of material, dubbed the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888), surrounds the 'hefty,' aging star WR 136, an extremely rare and short-lived class of super-hot star called a Wolf-Rayet. Hubble's multicolored picture reveals with unprecedented clarity that the shell of matter is a network of filaments and dense knots, all enshrouded in a thin 'skin' of gas [seen in blue]. The whole structure looks like oatmeal trapped inside a balloon. The skin is glowing because it is being blasted by ultraviolet light from WR 136. Hubble's view covers a small region at the northeast tip of the structure, which is roughly three light-years across. A picture taken by a ground-based telescope [lower right] shows almost the entire nebula. The whole structure is about 16 light-years wide and 25 light-years long. The bright dot near the center of NGC 6888 is WR 136. The white outline in the upper left-hand corner represents Hubble's view. Hubble's sharp vision is allowing scientists to probe the intricate details of this complex system, which is crucial to understanding the life cycle of stars and their impact on the evolution of our galaxy. The results of this study appear in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal. WR 136 created this web of luminous material during the late stages of its life. As a bloated, red super-giant, WR 136 gently puffed away some of its bulk, which settled around it. When the star passed from a super-giant to a Wolf-Rayet, it developed a fierce stellar wind - a stream of charged particles released from its surface - and began expelling mass at a furious rate. The star began ejecting material at a speed of 3.8 million mph (6.1 million kilometers per hour), losing matter equal to that of our Sun's every 10,000 years. Then the stellar wind collided with the material around the star and swept it up into a thin shell. That shell broke apart into the network of bright clumps seen in the image. The present-day strong wind of the Wolf-Rayet star has only now caught up with the outer edge of the shell, and is stripping away matter as it flows past [the tongue-shaped material in the upper right of the Hubble image]. The stellar wind continues moving outside the shell, slamming into more material and creating a shock wave. This powerful force produces an extremely hot, glowing skin [seen in blue], which envelops the bright nebula. A shock wave is analogous to the sonic boom produced by a jet plane that exceeds the speed of sound; in a cosmic setting, this boom is seen rather than heard. The outer material is too thin to see in the image until the shock wave hits it. The cosmic collision and subsequent shock wave implies that a large amount of matter resides outside the visible shell. The discovery of this material may explain the discrepancy between the mass of the entire shell (four solar masses) and the amount of matter the star lost when it was a red super-giant (15 solar masses). The nebula's short-term fate is less spectacular. As the stellar wind muscles past the clumps of material, the pressure around them drops. A decrease in pressure means that the clumps expand, leading to a steady decline in brightness and fading perhaps to invisibility. Later, the shell may be compressed and begin glowing again, this time as the powerful blast wave of the Wolf-Rayet star completely destroys itself in a powerful supernova explosion. The nebula resides in the constellation Cygnus, 4,700 light-years from Earth. If the nebula were visible to the naked eye, it would appear in the sky as an ellipse one-quarter the size of the full moon. The observations were taken in June 1995 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Scientists selected the colors in this composite image to correspond with the ionization (the process of stripping electrons from atoms) state of the gases, with blue r

2002-01-01

196

HUBBLE IMAGES REVEAL A YOUNG STAR'S DYNAMIC DISK AND JETS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images of HH 30 show changes over only a five-year period in the disk and jets of this newborn star, which is about half a million years old. The pictures were taken between 1995 and 2000 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Astronomers are interested in the disk because it is probably similar to the one from which the Sun and the planets in our solar system formed. Hubble reveals an edge-on disk (located at the bottom of the images), which appears as a flattened cloud of dust split into two halves by a dark lane. The disk blocks light from the central star. All that is visible is the reflection of the star's light by dust above and below the plane of the disk. The disk's diameter is 450 astronomical units (one astronomical unit equals the Earth-Sun distance). Shadows billions of miles in size can be seen moving across the disk. In 1995 and 2000, the left and right sides of the disk were about the same brightness, but in 1998 the right side was brighter. These patterns may be caused by bright spots on the star or variations in the disk near the star. The dust cloud near the top of these frames is illuminated by the star and reflects changes in its brightness. The star's magnetic field plays a major role in forming the jets (located above and below the disk), which look like streams of water from a fire hose. The powerful magnetic field creates the jets by channeling gas from the disk along the magnetic poles above and below the star. The gaps between the compact knots of gas seen in the jet above the disk indicate that this is a sporadic process. By tracking the motion of these knots over time, astronomers have measured the jet's speed at between 200,000 to 600,000 miles per hour (160,000 and 960,000 kilometers per hour). Oddly, the jet below the disk is moving twice as fast as the one above it. Credits: NASA, Alan Watson (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Karl Stapelfeldt (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John Krist and Chris Burrows (European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute)

2002-01-01

197

Hubble Reveals Sombrero Galaxy (M104)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 19th century, astronomer V. M. Slipher first discovered a hat-like object that appeared to be rushing away from us at 700 miles per second. This enormous velocity offered some of the earliest clues that it was really another galaxy, and that the universe was expanding in all directions. The trained razor sharp eye of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) easily resolves this Sombrero galaxy, Messier 104 (M104). The galaxy is 50,000 light-years across and is located 28 million light-years from Earth at the southern edge of the rich Virgo cluster of galaxies. Equivalent to 800 billion suns, Sombrero is one of the most massive objects in that group. The hallmark of Sombrero is a brilliant white, bulbous core encircled by the thick dust lanes comprising the spiral structure of the galaxy. As seen from Earth, the galaxy is tilted nearly edge-on. We view it from just six degrees north of its equatorial plane. At a relatively bright magnitude of +8, M104 is just beyond the limit of naked-eye visibility and is easily seen through small telescopes. This rich system of globular clusters are estimated to be nearly 2,000 in number which is 10 times as many as in our Milky Way galaxy. The ages of the clusters are similar to the clusters in the Milky Way, ranging from 10-13 billion years old. Embedded in the bright core of M104 is a smaller disk, which is tilted relative to the large disk. X-ray emission suggests that there is material falling into the compact core, where a 1-billion-solar-mass black hole resides. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

2006-01-01

198

HUBBLE'S TOP TEN GRAVITATIONAL LENSES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Hubble Space Telescope serendipitous survey of the sky has uncovered exotic patterns, rings, arcs and crosses that are all optical mirages produced by a gravitational lens, nature's equivalent of having giant magnifying glass in space. Shown are the top 10 lens candidates uncovered in the deepest 100 Hubble fields. Hubble's sensitivity and high resolution allow it to see faint and distant lenses that cannot be detected with ground-based telescopes whose images are blurred by Earth's atmosphere. [Top Left] - HST 01248+0351 is a lensed pair on either side of the edge-on disk lensing galaxy. [Top Center] - HST 01247+0352 is another pair of bluer lensed source images around the red spherical elliptical lensing galaxy. Two much fainter images can be seen near the detection limit which might make this a quadruple system. [Top Right] - HST 15433+5352 is a very good lens candidate with a bluer lensed source in the form of an extended arc about the redder elliptical lensing galaxy. [Middle Far Left] - HST 16302+8230 could be an 'Einstein ring' and the most intriguing lens candidate. It has been nicknamed the 'the London Underground' since it resembles that logo. [Middle Near Left] - HST 14176+5226 is the first, and brightest lens system discovered in 1995 with the Hubble telescope. This lens candidate has now been confirmed spectroscopically using large ground-based telescopes. The elliptical lensing galaxy is located 7 billion light-years away, and the lensed quasar is about 11 billion light-years distant. [Middle Near Right] - HST 12531-2914 is the second quadruple lens candidate discovered with Hubble. It is similar to the first, but appears smaller and fainter. [Middle Far Right] - HST 14164+5215 is a pair of bluish lensed images symmetrically placed around a brighter, redder galaxy. [Bottom Left] - HST 16309+8230 is an edge-on disk-like galaxy (blue arc) which has been significantly distorted by the redder lensing elliptical galaxy. [Bottom Center] - HST 12368+6212 is a blue arc in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). [Bottom Right] - HST 18078+4600 is a blue arc caused by the gravitational potential of a small group of 4 galaxies. Credit: Kavan Ratnatunga (Carnegie Mellon Univ.) and NASA

2002-01-01

199

Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

Simonia, I.

2011-06-01

200

Annotations of a Public Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angelo Adamo is an Italian astronomer and artist interested in inspiring people with scientifically-based tales. He has recently published two illustrated books exploring the relationships between mankind and cosmos through physics, art, literature, music, cartoons, and movies.

Adamo, A.

2011-06-01

201

Astronomical databases of Nikolaev Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several astronomical databases were created at Nikolaev Observatory during the last years. The databases are built by using MySQL search engine and PHP scripts. They are available on NAO web-site http://www.mao.nikolaev.ua.

Protsyuk, Y.; Mazhaev, A.

2008-07-01

202

HUBBLE CAPTURES THE HEART OF STAR BIRTH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) has captured a flurry of star birth near the heart of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1808. On the left are two images, one superimposed over the other. The black-and-white picture is a ground-based view of the entire galaxy. The color inset image, taken with the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), provides a close-up view of the galaxy's center, the hotbed of vigorous star formation. The ground-based image shows that the galaxy has an unusual, warped shape. Most spiral galaxies are flat disks, but this one has curls of dust and gas at its outer spiral arms (upper right-hand corner and lower left-hand corner). This peculiar shape is evidence that NGC 1808 may have had a close interaction with another nearby galaxy, NGC 1792, which is not in the picture Such an interaction could have hurled gas towards the nucleus of NGC 1808, triggering the exceptionally high rate of star birth seen in the WFPC2 inset image. The WFPC2 inset picture is a composite of images using colored filters that isolate red and infrared light as well as light from glowing hydrogen. The red and infrared light (seen as yellow) highlight older stars, while hydrogen (seen as blue) reveals areas of star birth. Colors were assigned to this false-color image to emphasize the vigorous star formation taking place around the galaxy's center. NGC 1808 is called a barred spiral galaxy because of the straight lines of star formation on both sides of the bright nucleus. This star formation may have been triggered by the rotation of the bar, or by matter which is streaming along the bar towards the central region (and feeding the star burst). Filaments of dust are being ejected from the core into a faint halo of stars surrounding the galaxy's disk (towards the upper left corner) by massive stars that have exploded as supernovae in the star burst region. The portion of the galaxy seen in this 'wide-field' image is about 35,000 light-years across. The right-hand image, taken by WFPC2, provides a closer look at the flurry of star birth at the galaxy's core. The star clusters (blue) can be seen (and many more are likely obscured) amid thick lanes of gas and dust. This image shows that stars are often born in compact clusters within star bursts, and that dense gas and dust heavily obscures the star burst region. The brightest knot of star birth seen here is probably a giant cluster of stars, about 100 light-years in diameter, at the very center of the galaxy. The other star clusters are about 10 to 50 light-years in diameter. The entire star burst region shown here is about 3,000 light-years across. This galaxy is about 40 million light-years away in the southern constellation Columba. The observation was taken Aug. 14, 1997, and was the last of 13 Hubble Space Telescope amateur programs. Credits: Jim Flood, an amateur astronomer affiliated with Sperry Observatory at Union College in New Jersey, and Max Mutchler, a member of the Space Telescope Science Institute staff who volunteered to work with Jim.

2002-01-01

203

Astronomical Archive at Tartu Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archiving astronomical data is important task not only at large observatories but also at small observatories. Here we describe the astronomical archive at Tartu Observatory. The archive consists of old photographic plate images, photographic spectrograms, CCD direct--images and CCD spectroscopic data. The photographic plate digitizing project was started in 2005. An on-line database (based on MySQL) was created. The database

K. Annuk

2007-01-01

204

Historians and Astronomers: Same Pursuits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is a truism that historians look to the past for justification of their existence, their raison d’être, and the astronomers are on the cutting edge of that which is new and exciting. But the reality is that historians provide\\u000a (admittedly very imprecise) forecasts of the future. Astronomers plan trajectories for rockets to Mars and beyond the solar\\u000a system, preparing

Joshua B. Stein

205

Coma Cluster Activity Using Hubble Space Telescope Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This product uses a collection of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of galaxies in the Coma Cluster, and engages students in an inquiry-based learning activity studying the evolution of galaxies in dense clustered environments. Students learn the basics of galaxy classification by making use of the HST images to discover a "morphology-density effect," and will then make hypotheses about the cause of this effect. Along with this product are a series of StarDate Radio programs on the Coma Cluster and its related galaxies, and a brief YouTube video about research that is being conducted by astronomers and students at the University of Texas using HST data of the Coma Cluster.

Jogee, Shardha; Hemenway, Mary K.

2008-01-01

206

Hubble expansion in static spacetime  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently proposed mechanism for light-path expansion in a static spacetime is based on the moving-lenses paradigm. Since the latter is valid independently of whether space expands or not, a static universe can be used to better see the implications. The moving-lenses paradigm is related to the paradigm of dynamical friction. If this is correct, a Hubble-like law is implicit.

Otto E. Rossler; Dieter Fröhlich; Ramis Movassagh; Anthony Moore

2007-01-01

207

COSMOS: Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) was initiated with an extensive allocation (590 orbits in Cycles 12-13) using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for high-resolution imaging. Here we review the characteristics of the HST imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and parallel observations with NICMOS and WFPC2. A square field (1.8 deg2) has been imaged with single-orbit ACS I-band

N. Scoville; R. G. Abraham; H. Aussel; J. E. Barnes; A. Benson; A. W. Blain; D. Calzetti; A. Comastri; P. Capak; C. Carilli; J. E. Carlstrom; C. M. Carollo; J. Colbert; E. Daddi; N. Scoville; M. Elvis; S. P. Ewald; M. Fall; A. Franceschini; M. Giavalisco; R. E. Griffiths; L. Guzzo; G. Hasinger; C. Impey; J.-P. Kneib; J. Koda; A. Koekemoer; O. Lefevre; S. Lilly; C. T. Liu; H. J. McCracken; R. Massey; Y. Mellier; S. Miyazaki; B. Mobasher; J. Mould; C. Norman; A. Refregier; A. Renzini; J. Rhodes; M. Rich; D. B. Sanders; D. Schiminovich; E. Schinnerer; M. Scodeggio; K. Sheth; P. L. Shopbell; Y. Taniguchi; N. D. Tyson; C. M. Urry; L. Van Waerbeke; P. Vettolani; S. D. M. White; L. Yan

2007-01-01

208

Neutral Buoyancy Test - Hubble Space Telescope Scientific Instruments (SI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the first and flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Pictured is MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator that served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown is an astronaut training on a mock-up of a modular section of the HST in the removal and replacement of scientific instruments.

1979-01-01

209

The New Amateur Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amateur astronomy has changed beyond recognition in less than two decades. The reason is, of course, technology. Affordable high-quality telescopes, computer-controlled 'go to' mountings, autoguiders, CCD cameras, video, and (as always) computers and the Internet, are just a few of the advances that have revolutionized astronomy for the twenty-first century. Martin Mobberley first looks at the basics before going into an in-depth study of what’s available commercially. He then moves on to the revolutionary possibilities that are open to amateurs, from imaging, through spectroscopy and photometry, to patrolling for near-earth objects - the search for comets and asteroids that may come close to, or even hit, the earth. The New Amateur Astronomer is a road map of the new astronomy, equally suitable for newcomers who want an introduction, or old hands who need to keep abreast of innovations. From the reviews: "This is one of several dozen books in Patrick Moore's "Practical Astronomy" series. Amid this large family, Mobberley finds his niche: the beginning high-tech amateur. The book's first half discusses equipment: computer-driven telescopes, CCD cameras, imaging processing software, etc. This market is changing every bit as rapidly as the computer world, so these details will be current for only a year or two. The rest of the book offers an overview of scientific projects that serious amateurs are carrying out these days. Throughout, basic formulas and technical terms are provided as needed, without formal derivations. An appendix with useful references and Web sites is also included. Readers will need more than this book if they are considering a plunge into high-tech amateur astronomy, but it certainly will whet their appetites. Mobberley's most valuable advice will save the book's owner many times its cover price: buy a quality telescope from a reputable dealer and install it in a simple shelter so it can be used with as little set-up time as possible. A poor purchase choice and the hassle of setting up are why most fancy telescopes gather dust in their owners' dens. Summing Up: Highly recommended. General readers; lower- and upper-division undergraduates."( T. D. Oswalt, CHOICE, March 2005)

Mobberley, Martin

210

Hubble Views Saturn Ring-Plane Crossing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This sequence of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope documents a rare astronomical alignment -- Saturn's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This occurs when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane, as it does approximately every 15 years.

These pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on 22 May 1995, when Saturn was at a distance of 919 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. At Saturn, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles (725 km) across. In each image, the dark band across Saturn is the ring shadow cast by the Sun which is still 2.7 degrees above Saturn's ring plane. The box around the western portion of the rings (to the right of Saturn) in each image indicates the area in which the faint light from the rings has been multiplied through image processing (by a factor of 25) to make the rings more visible.

[Top] -

This image was taken while the Earth was above the lit face of the rings. The moons Tethys and Dione are visible to the east (left) of Saturn; Janus is the bright spot near the center of the ring portion in the box, and Pandora is faintly visible just inside the left edge of this box. Saturn's atmosphere shows remarkable detail: multiple banding in both the northern and southern hemispheres, wispy structure at the north edge of the equatorial zone, and a bright area above the ring shadow that is caused by sunlight scattered off the rings onto the atmosphere. There is evidence of a faint polar haze over the north pole of Saturn and a fainter haze over the south.

[Center] -

This image was taken close to the time of ring-plane crossing. The rings are 75% fainter than in the top image, though they do not disappear completely because the vertical face of the rings still reflects sunlight when the rings are edge-on. Rhea is visible to the east of Saturn, Enceladus is the bright satellite in the rings to the west, and Janus is the fainter blip to its right. Pandora is just to the left of Enceladus, but is not visible because Enceladus is too bright. An oval-shaped atmospheric feature has just rotated into view (near the eastern limb, at the northern edge of the equatorial zone), and appears to be a local circulation pattern that is not penetrated by the bright clouds that are deflected around it.

[Bottom] -

This image was taken approximately 96 minutes (one Hubble orbit) after the center image. The rings are 10% brighter than they were in that image. Rhea is visible just off the eastern limb of Saturn, and casts a shadow on the south face of Saturn. During this exposure, the Earth and Sun were on opposite sides of Saturn's ring plane (they remain in this configuration until 10 August 1995). The atmospheric circulation pattern has rotated to just past the center of the planet's disk, and is followed by more wispy structure in the bright band of clouds, reminiscent of the structure seen during the Saturn storm observed in 1990.

These images will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).

Technical Notes Each of these images is a 7-second exposure at 8922 Angstroms in a methane absorption band. North is up and east is to the left.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

211

The Meaning of Color in Hubble Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes how Hubble produces visible images. Taking color pictures with the Hubble Space Telescope is much more complex than taking color pictures with a traditional camera. For one thing, Hubble doesn't use color film in fact, it doesn't use film at all. Rather, its cameras record light from the universe with special electronic detectors. These detectors produce images of the cosmos not in color, but in shades of black and white.

2007-12-12

212

ISO Results Presented at International Astronomical Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the work being presented is collected in the attached ESA Information Note N 25-97, ISO illuminates our cosmic ancestry. A set of six colour images illustrating various aspects have also been released and are available at http://www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/iso1808.htm or in hard copy from ESA Public Relations Paris (fax:+33.1.5369.7690). These pictures cover: 1. Distant but powerful infrared galaxies 2. A scan across the milky way 3. Helix nebula: the shroud of a dead star 4. Supernova remnant Cassiopeia A 5. Trifid nebula: a dusty birthplace of stars 6. Precursors of stars and planets The International Astronomical Union provides a forum where astronomers from all over the world can develop astronomy in all its aspects through international co-operation. General Assemblies are held every three years. It is expected that over 1600 astronomers will attend this year's meeting, which is being held in Kyoto, Japan from 18-30 August. Further information on the meeting can be found at: www.tenmon.or.jp/iau97/ . ISO illuminates our cosmic ancestry The European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, is unmatched in its ability to explore and analyse many of the universal processes that made our existence possible. We are children of the stars. Every atom in our bodies was created in cosmic space and delivered to the Sun's vicinity in time for the Earth's formation, during a ceaseless cycle of birth, death and rebirth among the stars. The most creative places in the sky are cool and dusty, and opaque even to the Hubble Space Telescope. Infrared rays penetrating the dust reveal to ISO hidden objects, and the atoms and molecules of cosmic chemistry. "ISO is reading Nature's recipe book," says Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "As the world's only telescope capable of observing the Universe over a wide range of infrared wavelengths, ISO plays an indispensable part in astronomical discoveries that help to explain how we came to exist." This Information Note describes several stages in our cosmic ancestry, revealed when ISO examines their counterparts still observable today. The evolving galaxies In the beginning was hydrogen, mixed with helium and minute traces of other light atoms. These were the atomic products of the Big Bang, the hypothetical cataclysm that created the Universe more than 10 billion years ago. The primeval gas was very dull. Nature could not make dust from it, never mind a living creature. But gravity gathered the hydrogen and helium into stars, and by nuclear reactions the stars glowed. As the first stars aged, the reactions made novel chemical elements like carbon, oxygen and silicon. Expelled into the stars' surroundings, these materials reacted with one another and with hydrogen to make the icy, tarry and stony grains of cosmic dust. The vast assemblies of stars called galaxies became crucibles where Nature could use physics and chemistry to make new materials and new stars. Rays from the most distant galaxies have taken so many billions of years to reach us that we see them as they were when they were young. The farthest galaxy observed so far by ISO is a quasar called BR 1202-0225, dating from a time when the Universe was less than one-tenth of its present age. Already it is dusty. ISO has also observed many galaxies at about half the age of the Universe, by staring long and hard through a window in the dust of our own Milky Way Galaxy, called the Lockman Hole. In those that glow most brightly in the infrared, astronomers suspect that frantic star-making is in progress, in episodes called starbursts. In nearer galaxies, ISO's astronomers can relate strong infrared emissions to collisions and to violent eruptions in the galactic cores, which have punctuated the evolution of the galaxies. "Having ISO in space brings special opportunities for the study of the history of the galaxies," says the Japanese astronomer Yoshiaki Taniguchi of Tohoku University. "By detecting infrared wavelengths that are hard to observe from the Earth, ISO picks out very clearly th

1997-08-01

213

The United States astronomical community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The personnel, institutions, recent history, and projects of the U.S. astronomical community are surveyed. The roles in astronomy of people with different degrees is examined. The founding of major institutions such as NSF and NASA and of major observatories such as NRAO and CTIO is recounted, and the state of the system today is summarized. The major components of U.S. astronomy include the university system, the national astronomy center system, NASA centers, the Smithsonian Institution, government agencies, university facilities, private observatories, astronomical societies, the International Astronomical Union, astronomy amateurs and private industry. The contributions of each of these categories are discussed. Important projects of the coming decade are reviewed, and the strengths and challenges of the U.S. community are assessed.

Howard, W. E., III

1982-10-01

214

Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was approximately 25,000 pounds. In principle, it is no different than the reflecting telescopes in ground-based astronomical observatories. Like ground-based telescopes, the HST was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of using a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic allows the HST to be used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs of an international user community. The telescope s planned useful operational lifetime is 15 years, during which it will make observations in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. The extended operational life of the HST is possible by using the capabilities of the Space Transportation System to periodically visit the HST on-orbit to replace failed or degraded components, install instruments with improved capabilities, re-boost the HST to higher altitudes compensating for gravitational effects, and to bring the HST back to Earth when the mission is terminated. The largest ground-based observatories, such as the 200-inch aperture Hale telescope at Palomar Mountain, California, can recognize detail in individual galaxies several billion light years away. However, like all earthbound devices, the Hale telescope is limited because of the blurring effect of the Earth s atmosphere. Further, the wavelength region observable from the Earth s surface is limited by the atmosphere to the visible part of the spectrum. The very important ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is lost. The HST uses a 2.4-meter reflective optics system designed to capture data over a wavelength region that reaches far into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.

1993-01-01

215

Hubble Space Telescope battery background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

Standlee, Dan

1991-01-01

216

Hubble Space Telescope battery background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

Standlee, Dan

1991-05-01

217

Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

2009-01-01

218

The astronomer - N. N. Donitch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a history of friendship and collaboration between the astronomers N. Donitch and A.A. Baikov. Information on other astronomers, L.V. Okulitch and E.A. Von der Pahlen, and meteorologists V.H. Dubinskii and Nina Gouma, can also be found. Details on the expeditions aimed at observing the total solar eclipses on 30 August 1905 (organized by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Sankt-Petersburg) and 19 June 1936 (organized by the Romanian Royal Cultural foundation) are given. The main part represents the first English translation of the paper by Baikov, published earlier in Russian and Romanian, with a new preface, annotations, and comments.

Baikov, A. A.; Gaina, A.

219

Interference in astronomical speckle patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomical speckle patterns are examined in an atmospheric-optics context in order to determine what kind of image quality is to be expected from several different imaging techniques. The model used to describe the instantaneous complex field distribution across the pupil of a large telescope regards the pupil as a deep phase grating with a periodicity given by the size of the cell of uniform phase or the refractive index structure function. This model is used along with an empirical formula derived purely from the physical appearance of the speckle patterns to discuss the orders of interference in astronomical speckle patterns.

Breckinridge, J. B.

1976-01-01

220

Astronomical Archive at Tartu Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archiving astronomical data is important task not only at large observatories but also at small observatories. Here we describe the astronomical archive at Tartu Observatory. The archive consists of old photographic plate images, photographic spectrograms, CCD direct--images and CCD spectroscopic data. The photographic plate digitizing project was started in 2005. An on-line database (based on MySQL) was created. The database includes CCD data as well photographic data. A PHP-MySQL interface was written for access to all data.

Annuk, K.

2007-10-01

221

Hubble Spots Northern Hemispheric Clouds on Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time.

Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness).

Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds.

Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost edge). The 'red' image (on the right) is taken at 6,190 Angstroms, and is sensitive to absorption by methane molecules in the planet's atmosphere. The banded structure of Uranus is evident, and the small cloud near the northern limb is now visible.

Scientists are expecting that the discrete clouds and banded structure may become even more pronounced as Uranus continues in its slow pace around the Sun. 'Some parts of Uranus haven't seen the Sun in decades,' says Dr. Hammel, 'and historical records suggest that we may see the development of more banded structure and patchy clouds as the planet's year progresses.'

Some scientists have speculated that the winds of Uranus are not symmetric around the planet's equator, but no clouds were visible to test those theories. The new data will provide the opportunity to measure the northern winds. Hammel and colleagues expect to have results soon.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http:// oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1997-01-01

222

New explanation of Hubble's redshift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Like mass attract, like energy repel each other.'' So the energy can make a repulsive gravity and a negative curvature. There is a balance of a flat universe between a gravity and a repulsive gravity. (1) ?m=?d=?g=?rg=0.5. Among it, ?m: the density of matter, ?d: the density of dark energy, ?g: the density of matter of gravity, ?rg: the density of matter of repulsive gravity. When the wave travel in the universe, its quantum space-time will conversion to an universal space-time. It will cause the quantum space-time to change. According to the Hubble's redshift, (2)H0 (?D)??. Among it, H0: Hubble constant, ?: the frequence, ?: the wavelength, D: the universal displacement, ?D: the rate of the translation between the quantum space-time and the universal space-time. ``An energy momentum tensor scalar field is a space-time field. The quantum time is the frequance and the quantum space is the amplitude square.'' (see Dayong Cao, ``MEST,'' BAPS.2011.DFD.LA.25, ``MEST,'' BAPS.2010.DFD.QE.2, ``MEST,'' BAPS.2012.MAR.K1.256, ``MEST,'' BAPS.2012.APR.E1.2 and ``MEST,'' BAPS.2010.MAR.S1.240) So the universe do not expanding. Supported by AEEA.

Cao, Dayong

2012-10-01

223

COSMOS: Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) was initiated with an extensive allocation (590 orbits in Cycles 12-13) using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for high-resolution imaging. Here we review the characteristics of the HST imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and parallel observations with NICMOS and WFPC2. A square field (1.8 deg2) has been imaged with single-orbit ACS I-band F814W exposures with 50% completeness for sources 0.5" in diameter at IAB=26.0 mag. The ACS is a key part of the COSMOS survey, providing very high sensitivity and high-resolution (0.09" FWHM and 0.05" pixels) imaging and detecting a million objects. These images yield resolved morphologies for several hundred thousand galaxies. The small HST PSF also provides greatly enhanced sensitivity for weak-lensing investigations of the dark matter distribution. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Scoville, N.; Abraham, R. G.; Aussel, H.; Barnes, J. E.; Benson, A.; Blain, A. W.; Calzetti, D.; Comastri, A.; Capak, P.; Carilli, C.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carollo, C. M.; Colbert, J.; Daddi, E.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Ewald, S. P.; Fall, M.; Franceschini, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Green, W.; Griffiths, R. E.; Guzzo, L.; Hasinger, G.; Impey, C.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koda, J.; Koekemoer, A.; Lefevre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, C. T.; McCracken, H. J.; Massey, R.; Mellier, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Mobasher, B.; Mould, J.; Norman, C.; Refregier, A.; Renzini, A.; Rhodes, J.; Rich, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Schiminovich, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Scodeggio, M.; Sheth, K.; Shopbell, P. L.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tyson, N. D.; Urry, C. M.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Vettolani, P.; White, S. D. M.; Yan, L.

2007-09-01

224

Slipher, Vesto Melvin (1875-1969)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer, born in Mulberry, IN, became director at the Lowell Observatory. He used spectroscopy to determine the rotation periods of several planets, and identified the constituents of their atmospheres. He recorded the first radial velocities of galaxies. The exposure times for these early photographs were as long as a week. The data were extended by EDWIN HUBBLE to discover the expansion of t...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

225

Astronomical Image Processing with Hadoop  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the coming decade astronomical surveys of the sky will generate tens of terabytes of images and detect hundreds of millions of sources every night. With a requirement that these images be analyzed in real time to identify moving sources such as potentially hazardous asteroids or transient objects such as supernovae, these data streams present many computational challenges. In the

K. Wiley; A. Connolly; S. Krughoff; J. Gardner; M. Balazinska; B. Howe; Y. Kwon; Y. Bu

2011-01-01

226

How I Became an Astronomer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Life as an astronomer has taken me to view eclipses of the Sun from the Gaspe' Peninsula to the Pacific Ocean and the China and Coral Seas, and to observe the stars at observatories across the USA and as far south as Chile. I've also enjoyed working with ...

S. P. Maran

2001-01-01

227

Simple Astronomical Theory of Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author derives, applying perturbation theory, from a simple astronomical model the approximate periods of secular variation of some of the parameters of the Earth's orbit and relates these periods to the past climate of the Earth, indicating the difficulties in predicting the climate of the future. (GA)

Benumof, Reuben

1979-01-01

228

Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) system at the fundamental station Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO). It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the previous year. The outlook lists the outstanding tasks to improve the performance of GGAO.

Redmond, Jay; Kodak, Charles

2001-01-01

229

Method of Distributing Astronomical Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

I BEG leave to observe that the very useful method of distributing astronomical predictions over a given geographical area alluded to in NATURE, vol. xiii., page 71, and ascribed there to Mr. W..S. B. Woolhouse, was already proposed by my father, J. J. von Littrow, in his treatise, ``Darstellung der Sonnenfinsterniss vom 7 September, 1820,'' Pest, 1820, as well as

Charles de Littrow

1876-01-01

230

Astronomical navigation of manned spaceships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques, instrumentation, and ergonomics of astronavigation are discussed with reference to manned space vehicles. Astronomical and graphic-analytic astronavigation techniques, measurements and statistical processing of data, recognition and identification of earth and stellar reference points, and use of astrosextants and onboard computer are dealt with. Visual recognition problems referable to the daytime and nighttime sectors of the subsatellite earth, obscuring of

N. F. Romanteev; E. V. Khrunov

1976-01-01

231

Astronomical Photography for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes class projects involving astronomical photography. Includes a description of how to make an astrocamera or convert a pocket camera into one suitable for astrophotography, film choices, and phenomena to photograph, such as star trails, meteors, the sun, and the moon. (DS)

Hulme, Kenneth S.

1981-01-01

232

HUBBLE PROBES THE VIOLENT BIRTH OF STARS IN GALAXY NGC 253 [Left  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image of the spiral galaxy NGC 253, taken with a ground-based telescope. The galaxy is located about 8 million light-years away in the constellation Sculptor. Credit: Jay Gallagher (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Alan Watson (Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ), and NASA [Right] This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the core of the nearest starburst spiral galaxy, NGC 253, reveals violent star formation within a region 1,000 light-years across. A starburst galaxy has an exceptionally high rate of star birth, first identified by its excess of infrared radiation from warm dust. Hubble's high resolution allows astronomers to quantify complex structures in the starburst core of the galaxy for the first time, including luminous star clusters, dust lanes which trace regions of dense gas and filaments of glowing gas. Hubble identifies several regions of intense star formation, which include a bright, super-compact star cluster. These observations confirm that stars are often born in dense clusters within starbursts, and that dense gas coexists with and obscures the starburst core. This image was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (in PC mode). Credit: Carnegie Institution of Washington

2002-01-01

233

Experience with the Hubble Space Telescope: 20 years of an archetype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Space Telescope's mission is summarized, with special emphasis placed on the Space Telescope Science Institute's unique experience with Hubble's behavior as an astronomical telescope in the environment of low earth orbit for over two decades. Historical context and background are given, and the project's early scientific expectations are described. A general overview of the spacecraft is followed by a more detailed look at the optical design, both as intended and as built. Basic characteristics of the complete complement of science instruments are also summarized. Experience with the telescope on-orbit is reviewed, starting with the major initial problems, solutions, human servicing missions, and the associated expansion of the observatory's capabilities over this time. Specific attention is then given to understanding Hubble's optical quality and pointing/jitter performance, two fundamental characteristics of a telescope. Experience with--and the important mitigation of--radiation damage and contamination is also related. Beyond the telescope itself, the advances in data reduction, calibration, and observing techniques are briefly discussed, as well as the subsequent emergence of highly accessible high-level archival science products. Hubble's scientific impact concludes the discussion.

Lallo, Matthew D.

2012-01-01

234

Lamps of Atlantis: An Astronomical Detective Story.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The origin of the stellar constellations familiar to western astronomers from ancient times is discussed using astronomical, literary, and archaeological evidence. The precession of the equinoxes, the zone of avoidance and the orientation of the constella...

A. E. Roy

1986-01-01

235

Engaging Students through Astronomically Inspired Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a lesson outline in which astronomically inspired musical compositions are used to teach astronomical concepts via an introductory activity, close listening, and critical/creative reflection.

Whitehouse, M.

2011-09-01

236

Leslie Peltier: The World's Greatest Amateur Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a brief account of the life of amateur astronomer Leslie C. Peltier, with reflections on how his astronomical accomplishments influenced the author's own involvement in variable star observing.

Simonsen, M.

2014-05-01

237

FROM WEDTECH AND IRAN-CONTRA TO THE RIOTS AT OAKDALE AND ATLANTA: ON THE ETHICS AND PUBLIC PERFORMANCE OF EDWIN MEESE III  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the complex relationship between ethical behavior and organizational effectiveness through a case study of former U.S. Attorney General Edwin Meese III. Meese's ethical record was studied through official documents, published research and news releases; his public performance was assessed through official and journalistic accounts of Meese's management of the Oakdale\\/Atlanta prison riots of 1987, as well as

Mark S. Hamm

1991-01-01

238

Specview: 1-D spectral visualization and analysis of astronomical spectrograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specview is a tool for 1-D spectral visualization and analysis of astronomical spectrograms. Written in Java, it is capable of reading all the Hubble Space Telescope spectral data formats as well as data from several other instruments (such as IUE, FUSE, ISO, FORS and SDSS), preview spectra from MAST, and data from generic FITS and ASCII tables. It can read data from Virtual Observatory servers, and read and write spectrogram data in Virtual Observatory SED format. It can also read files in the SPC Galactic format used in the chemistry field. Once ingested, data can be plotted and examined with a large selection of custom settings. Specview supports instrument-specific data quality handling, flexible spectral units conversions, custom plotting attributes, plot annotations, tiled plots, hardcopy to JPEG files and PostScript file or printer, etc. Specview can be used to build wide-band SEDs, overplotting or combining data from the same astronomical source taken with different instruments and/or spectral bands. Data can be further processed with averaging, splicing, detrending, and Fourier filtering tools. Specview has a spectral model fitting capability that enables the user to work with multi-component models (including user-defined models) and fit models to data.

Telescope Science Institute, Space

2012-10-01

239

An expert system for ground support of the Hubble space telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope is an orbiting optical observatory due to be launched by the Space Shuttle in late 1987. It is a complex, multi-instrument observatory whose resources will be available to the world-wide astronomical community. The 'Transformation' system is a hybrid system which utilizes a rule-based expert system to convert scientific proposals into pre-optimized linked hierarchies of spacecraft activities. These activities are generated in a format that can be directly scheduled by the planning and scheduling component of the Space Telescope ground support system. The Transformation system will be described in detail in this paper, with particular attention given to the rule base.

Rosenthal, Don; Monger, Patricia; Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark

1986-01-01

240

Hubble Space Telescope pointing control system: Designed for performance and mission operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope was designed to be an orbiting astronomical observatory which could be operated in the same manner as ground based observatories. The design drivers for the pointing control system's hardware and software were the requirements of an absolute pointing accuracy of 4.8E-8 radians and pointing stability (jitter) of 3.4E-8 radians. Of comparable importance was the objective of providing a flexible command methodology and structure to enable seven day operational planning employing stored program command and real time command capability. The pointing control system hardware, software, safemode control schemes, ground system monitoring capability, and in-orbit results are reviewed.

Bradley, A.; Ryan, J.

1991-01-01

241

Ultraviolet observations of starburst systems with Astro and the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities of the Astro observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for UV astronomical observations are discussed. The advantages of using UV for studying extragalactic problems are reviewed, including sensitivity to hot sources, the rich UV line spectra, sensitivity to interstellar dust, and dark UV sky background. The HST and Astro instrumentation and plans for launching the systems are described. Possibile uses of HST and Astro include the study of massive stars in the Galaxy and nearby galaxies, interstellar medium, the UV excess component in old stellar populations, deep UV surveys (filter imaging and slitless spectroscopy), active galactic nuclei, quasars, and starburst systems.

O'Connell, Robert W.

1987-01-01

242

Astronomical Heritages: Astronomical Archives and Historic Transits of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These Proceedings contain a selection of presentations and research papers emanating from meetings of the Astronomical Archives and Transits of Venus Working Groups of Commission 41, and from presentations at the last three IAU General Assemblies. Some additional reports related to the topic of this book have also been added. The first part of the book deals with archives, the second part with facts related to historical transits of Venus - although there is substantial overlap since some archive papers deal with Transits of Venus as well. The compilation deals with many wonderful and even rare sources of information, such as official documents and reports, private letters, astronomical instruments and telescopes, national inventories, photographic plates, etc. A lot of documentation described in this book is available only on national level, and the combination of this material in one single volume looks like a cross-cultural study dealing with art and science, and almost can serve as a travel guide in time and space.

Sterken, C.; Duerbeck, H. W.

2005-03-01

243

ALMA array element astronomical verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. The ALMA System Integration Science Team (SIST) is a group of scientists and data analysts whose primary task is to verify and characterize the astronomical performance of array elements as single dish and interferometric systems. The full set of tasks is required for the initial construction phase verification of every array element, and these can be divided roughly into fundamental antenna performance tests (verification of antenna surface accuracy, basic tracking, switching, and on-the-fly rastering) and astronomical radio verification tasks (radio pointing, focus, basic interferometry, and end-to-end spectroscopic verification). These activities occur both at the Operations Support Facility (just below 3000 m elevation) and at the Array Operations Site at 5000 m.

Asayama, S.; Knee, L. B. G.; Calisse, P. G.; Cortés, P. C.; Jager, R.; López, B.; López, C.; Nakos, T.; Phillips, N.; Radiszcz, M.; Simon, R.; Toledo, I.; Whyborn, N.; Yatagai, H.; McMullin, J. P.; Planesas, P.

2012-09-01

244

American Association of Amateur Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Association of Amateur Astronomers (AAAA) is intended to foster interest in amateur astronomy by developing and promoting programs for its membership and the amateur community at large in the areas of observational astronomy and electronic communications on the internet. The AAAA's web site features links to membership information, news releases, and announcements of astronomical events and organizational activities. Educational materials include a tutorial on the solar system, an introduction to the constellations, a history and introduction to astronomy, and a link to the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. There is also an FAQ feature, a link to the organization's newsletter, links to partner organizations, and information on products available at the AAAA online store.

245

Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery and to provide a showcase for a broad range of astronomical research and celestial objects," Adams added. In addition, NRAO is developing enhanced data visualization techniques and data-processing recipes to assist radio astronomers in making quality images and in combining radio data with data collected at other wavelengths, such as visible-light or infrared, to make composite images. "We encourage all our telescope users to take advantage of these techniques to showcase their research," said Juan Uson, a member of the NRAO scientific staff and the observatory's EPO scientist. "All these efforts should demonstrate the vital and exciting roles that radio telescopes, radio observers, and the NRAO play in modern astronomy," Lo said. "While we want to encourage images that capture the imagination, we also want to emphasize that extra effort invested in enhanced imagery also will certainly pay off scientifically, by revealing subtleties and details that may have great significance for our understanding of astronomical objects," he added. Details of the NRAO Image Contest, which will become an annual event, are on the observatory's Web site. The observatory will announce winners on October 15. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2005-05-01

246

Building Astronomical Databases with Saada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lot of astronomers would like to share datasets with the community but have no manpower to develop databases providing functionalities with high scientific level. The Saada project aims at helping them by automatically generating from data files databases (SaadaDBs) located on any local computer. SaadaDBs can simultaneously host heterogeneous sets of spectra, images, source lists or any other files. Data stored in SaadaDBs can be correlated each to others with qualified links helping for example for cross-identifications or for modeling some other scientific content. The query engine is based on a specific language (SaadaQL) fitting well the data model. In addition with classical astronomical queries, it can process constraints on correlated data. Databases created by SAADA can be accessed by a WEB interface allowing data browsing or data selection with complex queries. They also implements VO protocols and data models providing then a solution to publish local data into the VO.

Michel, L.; Motch, C.; Pineau, F.-X.; Ngoc, H. N.

2010-12-01

247

Spectacles for microscopists and astronomers.  

PubMed

A special set of spectacles with the lenses reversed (concave anteriorly) were fabricated for use with microscopic and/or telescopic eyepieces in order to reduce the vertex distance and improve the useful field of view. Although these spectacles were found to be of limited use to microscopists, they were essential to the astronomer whose astigmatism could not be corrected with contact lenses. PMID:2915105

Blue, P W; Pyle, J F

1989-01-01

248

Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrow spectral features in ocean sediment records offer strong evidence that the cycles of glaciation were driven by astronomical forces. Two million years ago, the cycles match the 41,000-year period of Earth`s obliquity. This supports the Croll\\/Milankovitch theory, which attributes the cycles to variations in insolation. But for the past million years, the spectrum is dominated by a single 100,000-year

R. A. Muller; G. J. MacDonald

1997-01-01

249

Astronomical Images in Different Wavelengths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature allows viewers to see what various astronomical objects look like in visible light and in the radio, infrared, and X-ray portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Each image is accompanied by a brief description of the object and what can be seen in the different wavelengths. There is also a page that shows the electromagnetic spectrum and some of the instruments designed to sense different portions of it.

250

Directory of astronomical data files  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Directory of Astronomical Data Files was prepared by the Data Task Force of the Interagency Coordination Committee for Astronomy (ICCA) in cooperation with the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The purpose of the Directory is to provide a listing which will enable a user to locate stellar and extragalactic data sources keyed along with sufficient descriptive information to permit him to assess the value of the files for his use as well as the status and availability of the compilations.

1978-01-01

251

Being an Astronomer: A Testimony  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this short essay, I examine how and why I became an astronomer and what finally this job has brought to my life. I believe\\u000a that an irresistible compulsion to better understand the sky has driven my observational work. After my beginnings in solar\\u000a astronomy, I bet on the rise of solid state technology and, in this way, I was

Bernard Fort

252

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing begins.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The day's work began when astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman stepped out into the cargo bay at 9h41 pm CST, Saturday (4h41 am CET, Sunday). They immediately set to work replacing two gyroscope assemblies, known as the Rate Sensor Units, two associated electronics boxes, called Electronic Control Units, and eight electrical fuse plugs. The work was completed ahead of schedule, but the astronauts had trouble closing the doors of the compartment housing the gyros and took over an hour to get them shut. The astronauts also prepared equipment for the replacement of the solar arrays. "The feeling down here is one of great satisfaction for a tremendous job today" said spacecraft communicator Greg Harbaugh in mission control. "We are very proud of the work that you all did and we are very confident in the continued success of the mission. Everything is going great and tomorrow is going to be another great day". ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier played a vital role during the spacewalk moving the astronauts and their equipment around the cargo bay with the shuttle's robot arm. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission features more robot arm operations than any other shuttle flight. The telescope's left-hand solar array was rolled up successfully at 6h24 am CST (1h24 pm CET). The 11-tonne observatory was rotated 180 degrees on its turntable before commands were sent to retract the second array at 8h23 am CST (3h23 pm CET). The crew stopped the retraction when it appeared the system may have jammed. Mission control instructed the crew to jettison the array, a procedure that they have trained for. Tomorrow astronauts Kathy Thornton and Tom Akers will make a six-hour spacewalk to jettison the troublesome wing, store the other in the cargo bay, and install two new panels supplied by ESA. The second set of arrays feature thermal shields and a modified thermal compensation system to prevent the flexing that affected the first pair. The Hubble Space Telescope was plucked from orbit this Saturday by ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier, operating the shuttle's robot arm. The Swiss-born astronaut gripped the 11- tonne observatory with the shuttle's 15-metre long robot arm at 2h34 am CST (9h34 am CET) after a two-day chase through space as the two spacecraft flew over the South Pacific Ocean. "Endeavour has a firm handshake with Mr. Hubble's telescope" said mission commander Dick Covey. "It's quite a sight". About half an hour later Nicollier had the telescope berthed on a special turntable in the back of the Shuttle's cargo bay. Later he used the camera at the end of the arm to surveyed the telescope for any damage. As the shuttle approached the telescope the astronauts first reported that one of the twin solar arrays appeared to be bowed and twisted. ESA officials said the problem was caused by the failure in early 1992 of the tensioning system on one side of the right-hand array. The system is designed to allow the blanket-like array to expand and contract in orbit. That failure placed stress on one of the supporting bi-stem booms resulting in its bent condition. Endeavour's mission began Thursday 2 December and will end 13 December. A total of five spacewalks are planned to service the telescope.

1993-12-01

253

THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY  

SciTech Connect

The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury program to image {approx}1/3 of M31's star-forming disk in six filters, spanning from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR). We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) to resolve the galaxy into millions of individual stars with projected radii from 0 to 20 kpc. The full survey will cover a contiguous 0.5 deg{sup 2}area in 828 orbits. Imaging is being obtained in the F275W and F336W filters on the WFC3/UVIS camera, F475W and F814W on ACS/WFC, and F110W and F160W on WFC3/IR. The resulting wavelength coverage gives excellent constraints on stellar temperature, bolometric luminosity, and extinction for most spectral types. The data produce photometry with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4 at m{sub F275W} = 25.1, m{sub F336W} = 24.9, m{sub F475W} = 27.9, m{sub F814W} = 27.1, m{sub F110W} = 25.5, and m{sub F160W} = 24.6 for single pointings in the uncrowded outer disk; in the inner disk, however, the optical and NIR data are crowding limited, and the deepest reliable magnitudes are up to 5 mag brighter. Observations are carried out in two orbits per pointing, split between WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR cameras in primary mode, with ACS/WFC run in parallel. All pointings are dithered to produce Nyquist-sampled images in F475W, F814W, and F160W. We describe the observing strategy, photometry, astrometry, and data products available for the survey, along with extensive testing of photometric stability, crowding errors, spatially dependent photometric biases, and telescope pointing control. We also report on initial fits to the structure of M31's disk, derived from the density of red giant branch stars, in a way that is independent of assumed mass-to-light ratios and is robust to variations in dust extinction. These fits also show that the 10 kpc ring is not just a region of enhanced recent star formation, but is instead a dynamical structure containing a significant overdensity of stars with ages >1 Gyr.

Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosenfield, Philip; Weisz, Daniel R.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Gogarten, Stephanie M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lang, Dustin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lauer, Tod R.; Dong Hui [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Kalirai, Jason S.; Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dorman, Claire E.; Guhathakurta, Puragra [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

2012-06-01

254

Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.

The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.

The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.

The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.

The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1996-01-01

255

Force That Increases at Larger Distance Has Some Psychological and Astronomical Evidence Supporting its Existence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Force that Increases with distance is different than dark energy as I am arguing for existence of force based on psychological and astronomical bases. Hubble shift, doppler shift, comet return, quasar zoo and quasars and psychological evidence of interest in distant objects lends support to a force like gravity, nuclear, weak, strong, virtual, decay, biological, growth forces which increases its intensity with distance unlike gravity which decreases in intensity with distance. Jane Frances Back Struck contributed to this finding with her request that her grandparents have "perfect justice" even though her grandparents had died before she was born; interest increasing with distance from grandparents.

Struck, James

2011-09-01

256

Applying artificial intelligence to astronomical databases - A survey of applicable technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AI technologies which are relevant to astronomical data bases are reviewed, including intelligent interfaces, internal representations, and data analysis. The natural language query system developed for the Hubble Space Telescope and the technique of goal directed queries are considered. Two technologies which might lead to the development of pictorial interfaces are presented: one based on Bayesian probabilities, the other on associative memories. The development of a data analysis system which can discover classes of data within a data base without any information other than the data itself is examined. A prototype data analysis assistant to automatically develop and implement plans for data reduction is described.

Rosenthal, Donald A.

1988-01-01

257

Satellite Drag and the Hubble Space Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a figure showing four re-entry scenarios for the Hubble Space Telescope. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

258

Hubble 2007: Science Year in Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This book epitomizes Hubbles continuing years of glorious accomplishments, presenting a sample of the activities, operations and observations, and scientific findings from 2007. Here is our observatory. Here are a few of our talented people. Here is what we have done. NASA plans a final servicing mission to Hubble in 2008. Two powerful new instruments are to be installed, and repairs made. After the astronauts do their wonderful work, Hubble will be more capable than at any time since launch. The science community eagerly anticipates the new opportunities for research offered by a refurbished observatory. While we do not know exactly what new science stories will appear in future editions of this book, we are certain that the frontiers of science will continue to be pushed outward by the forces of human curiosity and cleverness, channeled by the Hubble Space Telescope.

2008-01-01

259

Swift and Hubble Probe an Asteroid Crash  

NASA Video Gallery

In late 2010, images from the University of Arizona's Catalina Sky Survey, a project of NASA's Near Earth Object Observations Program, revealed an outburst from asteroid Scheila. Swift and Hubble t...

260

Anisotropic hubble expansion of large scale structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of understanding the cosmic velocity fields at large scale, we investigate the dynamics of a pressureless distribution\\u000a of gravitational sources moving under an anisotropic generalization of Hubble expansion and according to Euler-Poisson equations\\u000a system. As a result, it turns out that such a behavior requires the distribution to be homogenous, similarly to Hubble law.\\u000a Among several solutions,

Henri-Hugues Fliche; Jean-Marie Souriau; Roland Triay

2006-01-01

261

Parallaxes with Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on parallaxes for astrophysically interesting stars obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensor interferometer on Hubble Space Telescope. These objects include the central star of the planetary nebula NGC 6853, the cataclysmic variable TV Col, and the distance scale calibrators RR Lyr and delta Cep. We will discuss our considerable efforts to characterize the reference stars associated with each prime target, necessary to effect the correction from relative to absolute parallax. These targets were originally chosen by L. W. Fredrick in 1980. We compare these and our past results with all past, non-HST determinations, including those from HIPPARCOS for our brighter targets. The HST Astrometry Sceince Team consists of W. H. Jefferys , P.I., G. F. Benedict, deputy P.I., B. E. McArthur, P. J. Shelus, R. Duncombe (UTexas), E. Nelan (STScI), W. van Altena and J. Lee (Yale), O. Franz and L. Wasserman (Lowell Obs.), and L. Fredrick (UVirginia). We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA grant NAG5-1603 and our many supporters at STScI and Goddard Spaceflight Center. We thank R. Patterson, J. Rhee, and S. Majewski (UVirginia) and T. Montemayor (UTexas) for assistance with reference star photometry.

Benedict, G. F.; McArthur, B. E.; Harrison, T. E.; Lee, J.; Slesnick, C. L.; HST Astrometry Science Team

2001-11-01

262

HUBBLE PROBES THE COMPLEX HISTORY OF A DYING STAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The dynamical effects of two stars orbiting one another most easily explains the intricate structures, which are much more complicated than features seen in most planetary nebulae. (The two stars are too close together to be individually resolved by Hubble, and instead, appear as a single point of light at the center of the nebula.) According to this model, a fast 'stellar wind' of gas blown off the central star created the elongated shell of dense, glowing gas. This structure is embedded inside two larger lobes of gas blown off the star at an earlier phase. These lobes are 'pinched' by a ring of denser gas, presumably ejected along the orbital plane of the binary companion. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light-years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life. This material was presented at the 185th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Tucson, AZ on January 11, 1995. Credit: J.P. Harrington and K.J. Borkowski (University of Maryland), and NASA

2002-01-01

263

HUBBLE IDENTIFIES SOURCE OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT IN AN OLD GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble Space Telescope's exquisite resolution has allowed astronomers to resolve, for the first time, hot blue stars deep inside an elliptical galaxy. The swarm of nearly 8,000 blue stars resembles a blizzard of snowflakes near the core (lower right) of the neighboring galaxy M32, located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. Hubble confirms that the ultraviolet light comes from a population of extremely hot helium-burning stars at a late stage in their lives. Unlike the Sun, which burns hydrogen into helium, these old stars exhausted their central hydrogen long ago, and now burn helium into heavier elements. The observations, taken in October 1998, were made with the camera mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in ultraviolet light. The STIS field of view is only a small portion of the entire galaxy, which is 20 times wider on the sky. For reference, the full moon is 70 times wider than the STIS field-of-view. The bright center of the galaxy was placed on the right side of the image, allowing fainter stars to be seen on the left side of the image. These results are to be published in the March 1, 2000 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Thirty years ago, the first ultraviolet observations of elliptical galaxies showed that they were surprisingly bright when viewed in ultraviolet light. Before those pioneering UV observations, old groups of stars were assumed to be relatively cool and thus extremely faint in the ultraviolet. Over the years since the initial discovery of this unexpected ultraviolet light, indirect evidence has accumulated that it originates in a population of old, but hot, helium-burning stars. Now Hubble provides the first direct visual evidence. Nearby elliptical galaxies are thought to be relatively simple galaxies comprised of old stars. Because they are among the brightest objects in the Universe, this simplicity makes them useful for tracing the evolution of stars and galaxies. Credits: NASA and Thomas M. Brown, Charles W. Bowers, Randy A. Kimble, Allen V. Sweigart (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) and Henry C. Ferguson (Space Telescope Science Institute).

2002-01-01

264

The analysis of astronomical spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts to develop and improve computer analysis techniques for astronomical spectra in SERC Collaborative Computational Project 7 (CCP7) during the period 1985-1988 are reviewed. Consideration is given to the organizational structure and personnel of CCP7, advanced computers for LTE and non-LTE stellar-atmosphere models, the network systems STARLINK and JANET, the CCP7 software library, and CCP7-sponsored meetings and newsletters. The studies underway at 11 observatories and university centers in the UK and the FRG are listed and briefly characterized.

Jeffery, C. S.

1989-06-01

265

Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing  

SciTech Connect

Narrow spectral features in ocean sediment records offer strong evidence that the cycles of glaciation were driven by astronomical forces. Two million years ago, the cycles match the 41,000-year period of Earth`s obliquity. This supports the Croll/Milankovitch theory, which attributes the cycles to variations in insolation. But for the past million years, the spectrum is dominated by a single 100,000-year feature and is a poor match to the predictions of insolation models. The spectrum can be accounted for by a theory that derives the cycles of glaciation from variations in the inclination of Earth`s orbital plane.

Muller, R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); MacDonald, G.J. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)] [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

1997-07-11

266

HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost edge). The 'red' image (on the right) is taken at 6,190 Angstroms, and is sensitive to absorption by methane molecules in the planet's atmosphere. The banded structure of Uranus is evident, and the small cloud near the northern limb is now visible. Scientists are expecting that the discrete clouds and banded structure may become even more pronounced as Uranus continues in its slow pace around the Sun. 'Some parts of Uranus haven't seen the Sun in decades,' says Dr. Hammel, 'and historical records suggest that we may see the development of more banded structure and patchy clouds as the planet's year progresses.' Some scientists have speculated that the winds of Uranus are not symmetric around the planet's equator, but no clouds were visible to test those theories. The new data will provide the opportunity to measure the northern winds. Hammel and colleagues expect to have results soon. Credits: Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and NASA.

2002-01-01

267

Book review: Odessa astronomical Almanac2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reveiw of the Odessa Astronomical Almanac (Odesskii Astronomicheskii Kalendari, Astroprint, Odessa, 2006, 255 pp. ) is given for the constant part ( V.G. Karetnikov, V.V. Mihalchuk, A.A. Bazey, S.M. Andrievskii, I.L. Andronov, M.Yu. Volyanskaia, G.A. Garbuzov, N.I. Koshkin, V.A. Pozigun and M.I. Ryabov- astronomers from the Odessa Astronomical Observatory) and the papers published in the 2006 issue ( B.A.

Alex Gaina

2007-01-01

268

THE SPIRAL GALAXY M100 AS SEEN WITH THE HUBBLE'S IMPROVED VISION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image of the grand design spiral galaxy M100 obtained with the second generation Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC-2), newly installed in the Hubble Space Telescope. Though the galaxy lies several tens of millions of light-years away, modified optics incorporated within the WFPC-2 allow Hubble to view M100 with a level of clarity and sensitivity previously possible only for the very few nearby galaxies that compose our ``Local Group.'' Just as one does not learn about the diversity of mankind by conversing only with your next door neighbor, astronomers must study many galaxies in a host of different environments if they are to come to understand how our own galaxy, our star, and our earth came to be. By expanding the region of the universe that can be studied in such detail a thousand fold, the WFPC-2 will help the Hubble Space Telescope to fulfill this mission. One of the greatest gains of the high resolution provided by Hubble is the ability to resolve individual stars in other galaxies. The new camera not only allows astronomers to separate stars which would have been blurred together at the resolution available from the ground, but also allows astronomers to accurately measure the light from very faint stars. The quantitative study of compositions, ages, temperatures, and other properties of stars and gas in other galaxies will provide important clues about how galaxies form and evolve. In addition, the WFPC-2 will allow the Hubble Space Telescope to be used to attack one of the most fundamental questions in science: the age and scale of the universe. Astronomers have many ``yardsticks'' for measuring the scale of the universe, but lack a good knowledge of how long these yardsticks really are. M100 is a member of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. By allowing astronomers to resolve and measure individual stars in the Virgo Cluster -- in particular a special type of star called Cepheid variables, which have well known absolute brightnesses -- HST observations are expected to provide a crucial measurement of this much needed scale. (Only Space Telescope can make these types of observations. Cepheids are too faint and the resolution too poor, as seen from ground-based telescopes, to separate the images in such a crowded region of a distant galaxy.) The picture is chevron-shaped because it is a mosaic of the three wide field cameras and the planetary camera which make up the WFPC-2. The three wide field detectors in the camera reveal individual stars and filamentary dust lanes in the outer arms of the majestic spiral galaxy. The instrument's planetary camera image (upper right) resolves complex structure in the core of the galaxy, which is the site of vigorous star formation. The image was taken on December 31, 1993. The field of view is about two and a half arc minutes across. PHOTO RELEASE NO.: STScI-PR94-02

2002-01-01

269

Hubble Tracks Clouds on Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taking its first peek at Uranus, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has detected six distinct clouds in images taken July 28,1997.

The image on the right, taken 90 minutes after the left-hand image, shows the planet's rotation. Each image is a composite of three near-infrared images. They are called false-color images because the human eye cannot detect infrared light. Therefore, colors corresponding to visible light were assigned to the images. (The wavelengths for the 'blue,' 'green,' and 'red' exposures are 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 micrometers, respectively.)

At visible and near-infrared light, sunlight is reflected from hazes and clouds in the atmosphere of Uranus. However, at near-infrared light, absorption by gases in the Uranian atmosphere limits the view to different altitudes, causing intense contrasts and colors.

In these images, the blue exposure probes the deepest atmospheric levels. A blue color indicates clear atmospheric conditions, prevalent at mid-latitudes near the center of the disk. The green exposure is sensitive to absorption by methane gas, indicating a clear atmosphere; but in hazy atmospheric regions, the green color is seen because sunlight is reflected back before it is absorbed. The green color around the south pole (marked by '+') shows a strong local haze. The red exposure reveals absorption by hydrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Uranus. Most sunlight shows patches of haze high in the atmosphere. A red color near the limb (edge) of the disk indicates the presence of a high-altitude haze. The purple color to the right of the equator also suggests haze high in the atmosphere with a clear atmosphere below.

The five clouds visible near the right limb rotated counterclockwise during the time between both images. They reach high into the atmosphere, as indicated by their red color. Features of such high contrast have never been seen before on Uranus. The clouds are almost as large as continents on Earth, such as Europe. Another cloud (which barely can be seen) rotated along the path shown by the black arrow. It is located at lower altitudes, as indicated by its green color.

The rings of Uranus are extremely faint in visible light but quite prominent in the near infrared. The brightest ring, the epsilon ring, has a variable width around its circumference. Its widest and thus brightest part is at the top in this image. Two fainter, inner rings are visible next to the epsilon ring.

Eight of the 10 small Uranian satellites, discovered by Voyager 2, can be seen in both images. Their sizes range from about 25 miles (40 kilometers) for Bianca to 100 miles (150 kilometers) for Puck. The smallest of these satellites have not been detected since the departure of Voyager 2 from Uranus in 1986. These eight satellites revolve around Uranus in less than a day. The inner ones are faster than the outer ones. Their motion in the 90 minutes between both images is marked in the right panel. The area outside the rings was slightly enhanced in brightness to improve the visibility of these faint satellites.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1997-01-01

270

FITSManager: Management of Personal Astronomical Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase of personal storage capacity, it is easy to find hundreds to thousands of FITS files in the personal computer of an astrophysicist. Because Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is a professional data format initiated by astronomers and used mainly in the small community, data management toolkits for FITS files are very few. Astronomers need a powerful tool to help them manage their local astronomical data. Although Virtual Observatory (VO) is a network oriented astronomical research environment, its applications and related technologies provide useful solutions to enhance the management and utilization of astronomical data hosted in an astronomer's personal computer. FITSManager is such a tool to provide astronomers an efficient management and utilization of their local data, bringing VO to astronomers in a seamless and transparent way. FITSManager provides fruitful functions for FITS file management, like thumbnail, preview, type dependent icons, header keyword indexing and search, collaborated working with other tools and online services, and so on. The development of the FITSManager is an effort to fill the gap between management and analysis of astronomical data.

Cui, Chenzhou; Fan, Dongwei; Zhao, Yongheng; Kembhavi, Ajit; He, Boliang; Cao, Zihuang; Li, Jian; Nandrekar, Deoyani

2011-07-01

271

Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

2011-05-01

272

Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

Beij, K Hilding

1925-01-01

273

LGBT Workplace Issues for Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws and regulations do not provide protection from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity or gender expression. Sexual minority astronomers (including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; LGBT) can face additional challenges at school and work. Studies show that LGBT students on many campuses report experiences of harassment. Cities, counties, and states may or may not have statutes to protect against such discrimination. There is wide variation in how states and insurance plans handle legal and medical issues for transgender people. Federal law does not acknowledge same-sex partners, including those legally married in the U.S. or in other countries. Immigration rules in the U.S. (and many other, but not all) countries do not recognize same-sex partners for visas, employment, etc. State `defense of marriage act' laws have been used to remove existing domestic partner benefits at some institutions, or benefits can disappear with a change in governor. LGBT astronomers who change schools, institutions, or countries during their career may experience significant differences in their legal, medical, and marital status.

Kay, Laura E.; Danner, R.; Sellgren, K.; Dixon, V.; GLBTQastro

2011-01-01

274

The XML Astronomical Data Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a document markup language for the creation of hierarchical information structures. The document designer specifies (in a DTD) requirements on the document's content and provides choices for attributes of the contents. XML is supported by most major commercial software developers world-wide. A rich array of tools are already available to process and display XML documents. The Astronomical Data Center (ADC, http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is involved in a research project to define an XML format for the metadata of an astronomical repository and for large data tables. In the process, an XML tool box is being developed for importation, enhancement, and distribution of tabled data and their metadata documents. There is now a working draft Document Type Definition (DTD, at http://tarantella.gsfc.nasa.gov/xml/dataset.dtd) which specifies the required elements of content and their attributes. The ADC is actively creating designs for the flow of data through automated pipelines from authors and journal presses into the ADC's XML archive, as well as data retrieval through the web via the eXtensible Query Language (XQL) (see accompanying poster by B. Holmes).

Shaya, E. J.; Blackwell, J.; Gass, J.; Holmes, B.; Odegard, N.; Schneider, G. L.; Thomas, Brian; Sodroski, T.; Cheung, C. Y.

1999-12-01

275

SAADA: Astronomical Databases Made Easier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many astronomers wish to share datasets with their community but have not enough manpower to develop databases having the functionalities required for high-level scientific applications. The SAADA project aims at automatizing the creation and deployment process of such databases. A generic but scientifically relevant data model has been designed which allows one to build databases by providing only a limited number of product mapping rules. Databases created by SAADA rely on a relational database supporting JDBC and covered by a Java layer including a lot of generated code. Such databases can simultaneously host spectra, images, source lists and plots. Data are grouped in user defined collections whose content can be seen as one unique set per data type even if their formats differ. Datasets can be correlated one with each other using qualified links. These links help, for example, to handle the nature of a cross-identification (e.g., a distance or a likelihood) or to describe their scientific content (e.g., by associating a spectrum to a catalog entry). The SAADA query engine is based on a language well suited to the data model which can handle constraints on linked data, in addition to classical astronomical queries. These constraints can be applied on the linked objects (number, class and attributes) and/or on the link qualifier values. Databases created by SAADA are accessed through a rich WEB interface or a Java API. We are currently developing an inter-operability module implanting VO protocols.

Michel, L.; Nguyen, H. N.; Motch, C.

2005-12-01

276

Stereo 3-D Presentation of Hubble Space Telescope Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3-dimensional (3-D) visualizations are a means of adding depth to otherwise 2-dimensional images. For astronomical images, depth is frequently not measured, but relative depth relationships can be inferred. We present a 3-D visualization of a portion of the Carina Nebula imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. The source image is a color composite of two datasets obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. Images in the H?+[N II] filter (F658N) were taken from a 2005 Carina Nebula survey mosaic by Smith et al. (2010, MNRAS, 405, 1153). Images in the [O III] filter (F502N) were obtained by our team in 2010 in parallel to WFC3 observations of the nearby HH 901 region (HST proposal 12050). A 3-D model was constructed from the color composite image by separating it into several planes. Stars and nebular structures were extracted from the image and placed on different planes in 3-D digital modeling software using morphology of nebular features to infer relative depth. Relief texture was added to some of the nebular structures in the model to further enhance the perception of depth. For a static image, frames rendered from the 3-D model at two different viewpoints are composited into a single image in anaglyph (red-blue) stereo that will be shown.

Levay, Zoltan G.; Bacon, G.; Bond, H. E.; Borders, T. M.; Christian, C. A.; Frattare, L. M.; Hamilton, F.; Januszewski, W.; Livio, M.; Mutchler, M.; Noll, K. S.; Summers, F.

2011-01-01

277

Hubble Space Telescope - New view of an ancient universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduled for a March 1990 Shuttle launch, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will give astronomers a tool of unprecedented accuracy to observe the universe: an optically superb instrument free of the atmospheric turbulence, distortion, and brightness that plague all earthbound telescopes. The observatory will carry into orbit two cameras, a pair of spectrographs, a photometer, and fine guidance sensors optimized for astrometry. The diffraction limit for the 2.4-m aperture of the HST corresponds to 90 percent of the radiation from a point source falling within a circle of 0.1 arcsec angular radius at a wavelength of 633 nm. The 15-year mission will make observations in the ultraviolet as well as the optical spectral region, thus, widening the wavelength window to a range extending from the Lyman alpha wavelengnth of 122 nm to just about 2 microns. The observational program that awaits the HST will include the study of planetary atmospheres, in particular the search for aerosols; the study of globular star clusters within the Galaxy; and the determination of the present rate of expansion of the universe. The HST will achieve resolutions of 0.1 arcsec consistently, regardless of observation duration. The HST engineering challenge is also discussed.

Leckrone, David S.; Longair, Malcolm S.; Stockman, Peter; Olivier, Jean R.

1989-01-01

278

Final Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project to Measure the Hubble Constant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here the final results of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Key Project to measure the Hubble constant. We summarize our method, the results, and the uncertainties, tabulate our revised distances, and give the implications of these results for cosmology. Our results are based on a Cepheid calibration of several secondary distance methods applied over the range of about

Wendy L. Freedman; Barry F. Madore; Brad K. Gibson; Laura Ferrarese; Daniel D. Kelson; Shoko Sakai; Jeremy R. Mould; Robert C. Kennicutt Jr.; Holland C. Ford; John A. Graham; John P. Huchra; Shaun M. G. Hughes; Garth D. Illingworth; Lucas M. Macri; Peter B. Stetson; P. B. Stetson

2001-01-01

279

CATALOG MATCHING WITH ASTROMETRIC CORRECTION AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE HUBBLE LEGACY ARCHIVE  

SciTech Connect

Object cross-identification in multiple observations is often complicated by the uncertainties in their astrometric calibration. Due to the lack of standard reference objects, an image with a small field of view can have significantly larger errors in its absolute positioning than the relative precision of the detected sources within. We present a new general solution for the relative astrometry that quickly refines the World Coordinate System of overlapping fields. The efficiency is obtained through the use of infinitesimal three-dimensional rotations on the celestial sphere, which do not involve trigonometric functions. They also enable an analytic solution to an important step in making the astrometric corrections. In cases with many overlapping images, the correct identification of detections that match together across different images is difficult to determine. We describe a new greedy Bayesian approach for selecting the best object matches across a large number of overlapping images. The methods are developed and demonstrated on the Hubble Legacy Archive, one of the most challenging data sets today. We describe a novel catalog compiled from many Hubble Space Telescope observations, where the detections are combined into a searchable collection of matches that link the individual detections. The matches provide descriptions of astronomical objects involving multiple wavelengths and epochs. High relative positional accuracy of objects is achieved across the Hubble images, often sub-pixel precision in the order of just a few milliarcseconds. The result is a reliable set of high-quality associations that are publicly available online.

Budavari, Tamas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lubow, Stephen H., E-mail: budavari@jhu.edu, E-mail: lubow@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-12-20

280

HUBBLE UNCOVERS MYSTERY OBJECTS IN THE DENSE CORE OF A NEARBY STAR CLUSTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piercing the heart of a glittering swarm of stars, NASA's sharp-eyed Hubble Space Telescope unveils the central region of the globular cluster M22, a 12- to 14-billion-year-old grouping of stars in the constellation Sagittarius. The telescope's view of the cluster's core measures 3.3 light-years across. The stars near the cluster's core are 100,000 times more numerous than those in the Sun's neighborhood. Buried in the glow of starlight are about six 'mystery objects,' which astronomers estimate are no larger than one quarter the mass of the giant planet Jupiter, the solar system's heftiest planet. The mystery objects are too far and dim for Hubble to see directly. Instead, the orbiting observatory detected these unseen celestial bodies by looking for their gravitational effects on the light from far distant stars. In this case, the stars are far beyond the cluster in the galactic bulge, about 30,000 light-years from Earth at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. M22 is 8,500 light-years away. The invisible objects betrayed their presence by bending the starlight gravitationally and amplifying it, a phenomenon known as microlensing. From February 22 to June 15, 1999, Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 looked through this central region and monitored 83,000 stars. During that time the orbiting observatory recorded six unexpectedly brief microlensing events. In each case a background star jumped in brightness for less than 20 hours before dropping back to normal. These transitory spikes in brightness mean that the object passing in front of the star must have been much smaller than a normal star. Hubble also detected one clear microlensing event. In that observation a star appeared about 10 times brighter over an 18-day span before returning to normal. Astronomers traced the leap in brightness to a dwarf star in the cluster floating in front of the background star. The inset photo shows the entire globular cluster of about 10 million stars. M22 is about 60 light-years wide. The image was taken in June 1995 by the Burrell Schmidt telescope at the Case Western Reserve University's Warner and Swasey Observatory on Kitt Peak in Arizona. This release is issued jointly by NASA and ESA. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, Kailash Sahu, Stefano Casertano, Mario Livio, Ron Gilliland (Space Telescope Science Institute), Nino Panagia (European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute), Michael Albrow and Mike Potter (Space Telescope Science Institute) Credits for ground-based image: Nigel A.Sharp, REU program/AURA/NOAO/NSF

2002-01-01

281

HUBBLE'S CLOSE-UP VIEW OF A SHOCKWAVE FROM A STELLAR EXPLOSION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows a small portion of a nebula called the 'Cygnus Loop.' Covering a region on the sky six times the diameter of the full Moon, the Cygnus Loop is actually the expanding blastwave from a stellar cataclysm - a supernova explosion - which occurred about 15,000 years ago. In this image the supernova blast wave, which is moving from left to right across the field of view, has recently hit a cloud of denser than average interstellar gas. This collision drives shock waves into the cloud that heats interstellar gas, causing it to glow. Just as the microscope revolutionized the study of the human body by revealing the workings of cells, the Hubble Space Telescope is offering astronomers an unprecedented look at fine structure within these shock fronts. Astronomers have been performing calculations of what should go on behind shock fronts for about the last 20 years, but detailed observations have not been possible until Hubble. This image was taken with Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). The color is produced by composite of three different images. Blue shows emission from 'doubly ionized' oxygen atoms (atoms that have had two electrons stripped away) produced by the heat behind the shock front. Red shows light given off by 'singly ionized' sulfur atoms (sulfur atoms that are missing a single electron). This sulfur emission arises well behind the shock front, in gas that has had a chance to cool since the passage of the shock. Green shows light emitted by hydrogen atoms. Much of the hydrogen emission comes from an extremely thin zone (only several times the distance between the Sun and Earth) immediately behind the shock front itself. These thin regions appear as sharp, green, filaments in the image. This supernova remnant lies 2,500 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus the Swan. Credit: Jeff Hester (Arizona State University) and NASA

2002-01-01

282

Determination of the cosmological rate of change of G and the tidal accelerations of earth and moon from ancient and modern astronomical data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory and numerical analysis of ancient astronomical observations (1374 to 1715) are combined with modern data in a simultaneous solution for: the tidal acceleration of the lunar longitude; the observed apparent acceleration of the earth's rotation; the true nontidal geophysical part of this acceleration; and the rate of change in the gravitational constant. Provided are three independent determinations of a rate of change of G consistent with the Hubble Constant and a near zero nontidal rotational acceleration of the earth. The tidal accelerations are shown to have remained constant during the historical period within uncertainties. Ancient and modern solar system data, and extragalactic observations provided a completely consistent astronomical and cosmological scheme.

Muller, P. M.

1976-01-01

283

Astronomical observatory for shuttle. Phase A study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, and configuration of the astronomical observatory for shuttle are discussed. The characteristics of the one meter telescope in the spaceborne observatory are described. A variety of basic spectroscopic and image recording instruments and detectors which will permit a large variety of astronomical observations are reported. The stDC 37485elines which defined the components of the observatory are outlined.

Guthals, D. L.

1973-01-01

284

Comprehensive Astronomical Visualization for a Multimedia Encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domain of astronomy contributes a wealth of knowledge to the corpus of any general encyclopedia. Modern multimedia encyclopedias are capable of displaying complex, three-dimensional visualizations in real-time, enabling the integration of a planetarium, a virtual theater presenting astronomical facts in an educational and entertaining way. The manifold peculiarities of astronomical data sets require careful balancing of visual means to

Wolfgang Kienreich; Mario Zechner; Vedran Sabol

2007-01-01

285

Executive Committee Working Group Young Astronomers Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 2003, a questionnaire on the perception of participation of “young astronomers” at IAU meeting was distributed. Following the conclusions from the analysis of this questionnaire, the IAU EC recommended in 2004 that the “young astronomers” concept at the next GA in Prague should be worked out with specific activities.

Gerbaldi, Michèle; De Greve, Jean-Pierre; Dov?iak, Michal; Engvold, Oddbjørn; Guinan, Edward F.; Hearnshaw, John B.; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Percy, John R.; Ribas, Ignasi; White, James C.; Dov?iak, Michal; Goosmann, René; Pechá?ek, Tomáš; Stoklasová, Ivana

2007-12-01

286

Online blind deconvolution for astronomical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric turbulences blur astronomical images taken by earth-based telescopes. Taking many short-time exposures in such a situation provides noisy images of the same object, where each noisy image has a different blur. Commonly astronomers apply a technique called “Lucky Imaging” that selects a few of the recorded frames that fulfill certain criteria, such as reaching a certain peak intensity (“Strehl

S. Harmeling; Michael Hirsch; Suvrit Sra; Berhard SchOlkopf

2009-01-01

287

Python Programming for Astronomical Data Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work is about using programming skills (Python programming in particular) for analyzing astronomical data. Some points about the importance of programming skills are presented. Some advantages of Python for astronomy research are also presented. Finally, an example of a Python code which solves an astronomical data analysis task is presented.

Vardanyan, V.

2012-05-01

288

Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge among Amateur Astronomers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amateur astronomers regularly serve as informal astronomy educators for their communities. This research inquires into the level of knowledge of basic astronomy concepts among amateur astronomers and examines factors related to amateur astronomy that affect that knowledge. Using the concept questions from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2,…

Berendsen, Margaret L.

2005-01-01

289

An astronomical observatory for Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar

2011-06-01

290

William Doberck - double star astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We outline the role of astronomy in the career of William Doberck (1852-1941). After taking a PhD in astronomy at the University of Jena in 1873, he accepted a position as superintendent of Markree Observatory in the west of Ireland. There he refurbished the great 13-inch refractor and spent nine years observing mostly double star systems, paying only such attention to meteorological monitoring as was required of his position. In 1883 he became the founding Director of a new observatory in Hong Kong, a post which he held for 24 years. His frustrations in attempting to continue his purely astronomical work, not assuaged by his combative and prickly personality, and in the face of the strictly practical demands of that mercantile society for comprehensive storm forecasting, are described. Finally, his observations in retirement in England, and his overall contribution to astronomy, are summarised.

MacKeown, P. Kevin

2007-03-01

291

Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

2010-07-01

292

Astronomical Image Processing with Hadoop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the coming decade astronomical surveys of the sky will generate tens of terabytes of images and detect hundreds of millions of sources every night. With a requirement that these images be analyzed in real time to identify moving sources such as potentially hazardous asteroids or transient objects such as supernovae, these data streams present many computational challenges. In the commercial world, new techniques that utilize cloud computing have been developed to handle massive data streams. In this paper we describe how cloud computing, and in particular the map-reduce paradigm, can be used in astronomical data processing. We will focus on our experience implementing a scalable image-processing pipeline for the SDSS database using Hadoop (http://hadoop.apache.org). This multi-terabyte imaging dataset approximates future surveys such as those which will be conducted with the LSST. Our pipeline performs image coaddition in which multiple partially overlapping images are registered, integrated and stitched into a single overarching image. We will first present our initial implementation, then describe several critical optimizations that have enabled us to achieve high performance, and finally describe how we are incorporating a large in-house existing image processing library into our Hadoop system. The optimizations involve prefiltering of the input to remove irrelevant images from consideration, grouping individual FITS files into larger, more efficient indexed files, and a hybrid system in which a relational database is used to determine the input images relevant to the task. The incorporation of an existing image processing library, written in C++, presented difficult challenges since Hadoop is programmed primarily in Java. We will describe how we achieved this integration and the sophisticated image processing routines that were made feasible as a result. We will end by briefly describing the longer term goals of our work, namely detection and classification of transient objects and automated object classification.

Wiley, K.; Connolly, A.; Krughoff, S.; Gardner, J.; Balazinska, M.; Howe, B.; Kwon, Y.; Bu, Y.

2011-07-01

293

Clusters of Galaxies and the Hubble Constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion rate, at height scale, of the Universe, is given for the value of the Hubble constant (H0). Several methods have used by determinations of the Hubble constant: CMB anisotropy's, Supernovae observation and AGN at height red-shift. In this work, we used the Grainge et al (3) method by estimated of the Hubble constant thought of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and the result of the VSA interferometer (Teide Observatory) and the X-ray data by ROSAT. We obtain, h ? 0,78, in accord with other report by cluster of galaxies (Mason et al, 2001) as higher than of the standard value h =0,71 obtain by other method. We discussed the systematic fount of error and possible discrepant by assumptions of the spheroid and isothermal in cluster and the Sunyaev- Zel'dovich Kinetic effect.

Falcon, N.

2008-09-01

294

The Hubble flow from brightest cluster galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial results are presented from a reinvestigation of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BGC) distance scale, which includes richer sampling and complete all-sky observations of Abell clusters within 15,000 km/s. Virgo BCG, NGC 4472, is used to calibrate the BCG Hubble diagram directly, independent of the Virgocentric infall pattern. For the observed distance to NGC 4472 of 14.4 Mpc, H0 = 77 +/- 8 km/s Mpc. Alternatively, if NGC 4472 is at the Sandage and Tammann (1990) 21.9 Mpc distance to Virgo, then H0 = 51 +/- 5. The BCG Hubble constant on either the short or long system is consistent with Hubble constants measured on the same system within the local supercluster. Plausible high values of H0 observed within the local supercluster therefore cannot be explained as biased measures of the true H0 due to velocity anomalies induced by large-scale structure.

Lauer, Tod R.; Postman, Marc

1992-12-01

295

Astronomical Photographic Plate Collections: Treasure or Trash?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our efforts over the past three years to establish a national archive for astronomical plates will be described. This work has led to the following major conclusions regarding the preservation of astronomical photographic plates: (1) a significant number of observatories, as well as retiring astronomers, wish to dispose of the plates they hold; (2) most astronomers feel direct and spectroscopic plates of potential scientific value should be preserved; (3) there is little interest in providing support for preservation efforts on a broad scale. We offer that the astronomical community must quickly decide to preserve plate collections or they will soon be lost, either consciously discarded or through benign neglect. If a systematic effort to preserve these archival data is indeed to be made, priorities need to be established. Not only is archiving (and eventually digitizing) all existing plates impracticable, many plates have little or no potential value. We will present our ideas on priorities and seek the input of the community.

Osborn, W. H.; Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.

2005-12-01

296

Astronomical catalog desk reference, 1994 edition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference is designed to aid astronomers in locating machine readable catalogs in the Astronomical Data Center (ADC) archives. The key reference components of this document are as follows: A listing of shortened titles for all catalogs available from the ADC (includes the name of the lead author and year of publication), brief descriptions of over 300 astronomical catalogs, an index of ADC catalog numbers by subject keyword, and an index of ADC catalog numbers by author. The heart of this document is the set of brief descriptions generated by the ADC staff. The 1994 edition of the Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference contains descriptions for over one third of the catalogs in the ADC archives. Readers are encouraged to refer to this section for concise summaries of those catalogs and their contents.

1994-01-01

297

HUBBLE SENDS SEASON'S GREETINGS FROM THE COSMOS TO EARTH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Looking like a colorful holiday card, this image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth, where nature seems to have put on the traditional colors of the season. These colors, produced by the light emitted by oxygen and hydrogen, help astronomers investigate the star-forming processes in nebulas such as NGC 2080. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that have attracted special attention. These regions have been studied in detail with Hubble and have long been identified as unique star-forming sites. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the whole local group of galaxies. The light from the nebula captured in this image is emitted by two elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The red and the blue light are from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind (a stream of high-speed particles) coming from a massive star just outside the image. The white region in the center is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. The intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in the surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) - are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from a single massive star. A2 has a more complex appearance due to the presence of more dust, and it contains several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newly born stars. The research team noted that Hubble's superb resolution is essential to see the various features in the nebula and to better understand the formation of massive stars in this interesting region. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained March 28, 2000, with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The colors are red (ionized hydrogen, H-alpha, 1040 seconds), green (ionized oxygen, 1200 seconds) and blue (ionized hydrogen, H-beta, 1040 seconds). The image spans 67 x 67 arc-seconds, corresponding to 55 x 55 light-years at the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud (168,000 light-years). Credit: NASA, ESA and Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Observatoire de Paris, France)

2002-01-01

298

HUBBLE'S NEW IMPROVED OPTICS PROBE THE CORE OF A DISTANT GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This comparison image of the core of the galaxy M100 shows the dramatic improvement in Hubble Space Telescope's view of the universe. The new image was taken with the second generation Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC-2) which was installed during the STS-61 Hubble Servicing Mission. The picture beautifully demonstrates that the corrective optics incorporated within the WFPC-2 compensate fully for optical aberration in Hubble's primary mirror. The new camera will allow Hubble to probe the universe with unprecedented clarity and sensitivity, and to fulfill many of the most important scientific objectives for which the telescope was originally built. [ Right ] The core of the grand design spiral galaxy M100, as imaged by Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in its high resolution channel. The WFPC-2 contains modified optics that correct for Hubble's previously blurry vision, allowing the telescope for the first time to cleanly resolve faint structure as small as 30 light-years across in a galaxy which is tens of millions of light years away. The image was taken on December 31, 1993. [Left ] For comparison, a picture taken with the WFPC-1 camera in wide field mode, on November 27, 1993, just a few days prior to the STS-61 servicing mission. The effects of optical aberration in HST's 2.4-meter primary mirror blur starlight, smear out fine detail, and limit the telescope's ability to see faint structure. Both Hubble images are 'raw;' they have not been subject to computer image reconstruction techniques commonly used in aberrated images made before the servicing mission. TARGET INFORMATION: M100 The galaxy M100 (100th object in the Messier Catalog of non-stellar objects) is one of the brightest members of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. The galaxy is in the spring constellation Coma Berenices and can be seen through a moderate-sized amateur telescope. M100 is spiral shaped, like our Milky Way, and tilted nearly face-on as seen from earth. The galaxy has two prominent arms of bright stars and several fainter arms. Though the galaxy is estimated to be tens of millions of light-years away, Hubble reveals the sort of detail only seen previously (with ground based telescopes) in neighboring galaxies that are ten times closer. Before HST, astronomers could only see such a level of detail in roughly a dozen galaxies in our Local Group. Now, with Hubble's improved vision, the portion of the universe which can be studied with such clarity has grown a thousand fold. Only the future will tell what revelations await as Hubble's spectacular vision is applied to a host of fascinating and important questions about the universe and our place in it. PHOTO RELEASE NO.: STScI-PR94-01

2002-01-01

299

Helping the Astronomer Stay Up-to-Date.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This survey covers some of the sources of current astronomical information which both astronomers and librarians use. Subjects include preprints, electronic journals, astronomical objects, directories and printed bibliographies. Many, but not all, of the ...

B. G. Corbin

1998-01-01

300

Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21 is a companion document to the HST Call for Proposals1. It provides an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with basic information about telescope operations, instrument capabilities, and technical aspects of the proposal preparation process. A thorough understanding of the material in this document is essential for the preparation of a competitive proposal. This document is available as an online HTML document and a PDF file. The HTML version, optimized for online browsing, contains many links to additional information. The PDF version is optimized for printing, but online PDF readers have search capabilities for quick retrieval of specific information.

Gonzaga, S.; et al.

2012-12-01

301

Hubble Surveys the Homes of Quasars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Telescope Electronic Information Service has recently released breathtaking Hubble Telescope photos of galaxies that "host" quasars. The quasars seem to "live in a remarkable variety of galaxies, many of which are violently colliding....Hubble researchers are intrigued by the fact that the quasars studied do not appear to have obviously damaged the galaxies in which they live." The photos are of galactic objects 1.4 and 1.5 billion light years from Earth. Photos are in black and white and color, and at various resolutions. The photos are accompanied by an explanatory caption, background material on quasars, and an MPEG model of a quasar.

Bahcall, John.; Disney, Mike.

1996-01-01

302

Decelerating universes older than their Hubble times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations suggest that Hubble's constant is large, and hence that the Universe appears to be younger than some of its constituents. The traditional escape route, which assumes that the expansion is accelerating, appears to be blocked by observations of Type Ia supernovae, which suggest that the Universe is decelerating. These observations are reconciled in a model in which the Universe has experienced an inflationary phase in the recent past, driven by an ultralight inflaton, the Compton wavelength of which is of the same order as the Hubble radius.

Jackson, J. C.; Dodgson, Marina

1998-07-01

303

HUBBLE TRACKS CLOUDS ON URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taking its first peek at Uranus, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has detected six distinct clouds in images taken July 28,1997. The image on the right, taken 90 minutes after the left-hand image, shows the planet's rotation. Each image is a composite of three near-infrared images. They are called false-color images because the human eye cannot detect infrared light. Therefore, colors corresponding to visible light were assigned to the images. (The wavelengths for the 'blue,' 'green,' and 'red' exposures are 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 micrometers, respectively.) At visible and near-infrared light, sunlight is reflected from hazes and clouds in the atmosphere of Uranus. However, at near-infrared light, absorption by gases in the Uranian atmosphere limits the view to different altitudes, causing intense contrasts and colors. In these images, the blue exposure probes the deepest atmospheric levels. A blue color indicates clear atmospheric conditions, prevalent at mid-latitudes near the center of the disk. The green exposure is sensitive to absorption by methane gas, indicating a clear atmosphere; but in hazy atmospheric regions, the green color is seen because sunlight is reflected back before it is absorbed. The green color around the south pole (marked by '+') shows a strong local haze. The red exposure reveals absorption by hydrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Uranus. Most sunlight shows patches of haze high in the atmosphere. A red color near the limb (edge) of the disk indicates the presence of a high-altitude haze. The purple color to the right of the equator also suggests haze high in the atmosphere with a clear atmosphere below. The five clouds visible near the right limb rotated counterclockwise during the time between both images. They reach high into the atmosphere, as indicated by their red color. Features of such high contrast have never been seen before on Uranus. The clouds are almost as large as continents on Earth, such as Europe. Another cloud (which barely can be seen) rotated along the path shown by the black arrow. It is located at lower altitudes, as indicated by its green color. The rings of Uranus are extremely faint in visible light but quite prominent in the near infrared. The brightest ring, the epsilon ring, has a variable width around its circumference. Its widest and thus brightest part is at the top in this image. Two fainter, inner rings are visible next to the epsilon ring. Eight of the 10 small Uranian satellites, discovered by Voyager 2, can be seen in both images. Their sizes range from about 25 miles (40 kilometers) for Bianca to 100 miles (150 kilometers) for Puck. The smallest of these satellites have not been detected since the departure of Voyager 2 from Uranus in 1986. These eight satellites revolve around Uranus in less than a day. The inner ones are faster than the outer ones. Their motion in the 90 minutes between both images is marked in the right panel. The area outside the rings was slightly enhanced in brightness to improve the visibility of these faint satellites. Credits: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), and NASA.

2002-01-01

304

A Survey of Astronomical Research: A Baseline for Astronomical Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in "astronomical development" with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A.

2013-12-01

305

Nikolay N. Donitch - the astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article is devoted to milestones of life and scientific activity of the eminent astronomer Nikolay Nikolaevich Donitch (Nicolae N. Donici) (1874-1956), a graduate from the Odessa (Novorossiski) university. He was a wellknown expert in the field of reseacrh of objects of Solar system. A person highly cultured, which built the first in Bessarabia (actually a part of the Republic of Moldova) observatory. He was borne in Kishinev (Chisinau) in a nobles family of notable Moldavian landersmen. N.D. graduated from the Richelieu lyceym in Odessa and afterwards, in 1897, graduated from the Odessa (Novorossiysky) University. A.K. Kononovich (1850-1910)headed the chair of astronomy and the Observatory at that time - a foremost authority in the field of astrophysics and stellar astronomy. Many of his disciples became eminent scientists of their time. N. Donitch was among them. N.D. worked till 1918 at Pulkovo Observatory and became a master in the field of studying of such phenomena as solar and lunar eclipses. To observe the Sun N.D., could afford to design and manufacture a spectroheliograph, the first in Russia, with the assistance of a famous Odessa mechanic J.A. Timchenko. This instrument enabled him to obtain topquality photos of the Sun's surface and prominences. It was mounted together with coelostat in the private observatory of N.D. , built in the village Staryie Doubossary in 1908. Besides the heliograoph, the observatory was equiped with a five inch refractor-equatorial with numerous instruments for various observations. Of the other instruments should be mentioned : "a comet triplet" - an instrument consisting of guiding refractor, a photographic camera and a spectrograph with an objective prism. N.D. was lucky enough to observe rare astronomical phenomena. He observed the transit of Mercury through the disk of the Sun on November 14, 1907 and showed the athmosphere absence around this planet, observed the Halley's comet in 1910, the bright Pons-Winneke comet in 1927. In 1933 he was cartying out observations of Saturn and determined the rotational period of the planet. Eight scientific papers on the zodiacal light investigations were published by N.D.. Due to a H. Shapley's recommmendation he obtained in his observatory a number of stelar sky photos. N.N. Donitch was a brillant personality in the astronomical community of his time. He was a member of many scientific societies. Hard and sad times came to Donitch during the last years of his life. At first he leaved Bessarabia for Bucharest (1940), then Romania for Germany (1944), then Germany for France (1945), where he worked at the Meudon Observatory. At last he found himself under tryiung financial situation. According to some findings he spent the last days in an old men house near Nice and died in 1956.

Gaina, Alex B.; Volyanskaya, M. Yu.

1999-08-01

306

Astronomers Unveiling Life's Cosmic Origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processes that laid the foundation for life on Earth -- star and planet formation and the production of complex organic molecules in interstellar space -- are yielding their secrets to astronomers armed with powerful new research tools, and even better tools soon will be available. Astronomers described three important developments at a symposium on the "Cosmic Cradle of Life" at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, IL. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) In one development, a team of astrochemists released a major new resource for seeking complex interstellar molecules that are the precursors to life. The chemical data released by Anthony Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and his university colleagues is part of the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey, or PRIMOS, a project studying a star-forming region near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. PRIMOS is an effort of the National Science Foundation's Center for Chemistry of the Universe, started at the University of Virginia (UVa) in October 2008, and led by UVa Professor Brooks H. Pate. The data, produced by the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, came from more than 45 individual observations totalling more than nine GigaBytes of data and over 1.4 million individual frequency channels. Scientists can search the GBT data for specific radio frequencies, called spectral lines -- telltale "fingerprints" -- naturally emitted by molecules in interstellar space. "We've identified more than 720 spectral lines in this collection, and about 240 of those are from unknown molecules," Remijan said. He added, "We're making available to all scientists the best collection of data below 50 GHz ever produced for the study of interstellar chemistry," Remijan said. Astronomers have already identified more than 150 molecules in interstellar space in the past 40 years, including complex organic compounds such as sugars and alcohols. "This is a major change in how we search for molecules in space," Remijan explained. "Before, people decided beforehand which molecules they were looking for, then searched in a very narrow band of radio frequencies emitted by those molecules. In this GBT survey, we've observed a wide range of frequencies, collected the data and immediately made it publicly available. Scientists anywhere can 'mine' this resource to find new molecules," he said. Another key development, presented by Crystal Brogan of the NRAO, showed that highly-detailed images of "protoclusters" of massive young stars reveal a complex mix of stars in different stages of formation, complicated gas motions, and numerous chemical clues to the physical conditions in such stellar nurseries. "We saw a much more complex picture than we had expected and now have new questions to answer," she said. Using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Submillimeter Array (SMA) in Hawaii, Brogan and her colleagues studied a nebula 5,500 light-years from Earth in the constellation Scorpius where stars significantly more massive than our Sun are forming. "It's essential to understand what's going on in systems like this because most stars, Sun-like stars included, form in clusters," Brogan said. "The most massive stars in the cluster have a tremendous impact on the formation and environment of the rest of the cluster, including the less-massive stars and their planets," Brogan said, adding that "if we want to understand how solar systems that could support life form and evolve, we need to know how these giant stars affect their environment." Also, Brogan said, the massive young stars are surrounded by "hot cores" that include copious organic material that later may be spewed in

2009-02-01

307

Productivity and impact of astronomical facilities: A recent sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The papers published in 11 key astronomical journals in 2008, and a year of citations to those from the first half of the year, have been associated with the telescopes, satellites, and so forth where the data were gathered using a form of fractional counting. Some numbers are also given by journal, by subfield, and by wavelength band. The largest numbers of papers, and generally also quite highly cited ones, in their respective wavelength bands come from the Very Large Array, the Hubble Space Telescope, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Telescope. Optical astronomy is still the largest sector; and papers about cosmology and exoplanets are cited more often than papers about binary stars and planetary nebulae. The authors conclude that it is of equal importance to recognize (a) that a very large number of papers also come from less famous facilities, (b) that a very large fraction of papers (and their authors) are concerned with the less highly-cited topics, (c) that many facilities are quite slow in achieving their eventual level of influence, and (d) that one really needs at least three years of citation data, not just one or two, to provide a fair picture of what is going on.

Trimble, V.; Ceja, J. A.

2010-03-01

308

StarChild: A Learning Center for Young Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The StarChild website, a service of the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC)/NASA, offers a wealth of information on space science for young astronomers and teachers who are searching for space science activities for young learners. Each of these major topics are covered in an age appropriate manner, either for Level 1 or Level 2 learners: Solar System, Universe, Space Stuff, and a Glossary. Links are provided between Level 1 and Level 2 versions of pages so that differences in difficulty can be easily compared. The basics of the Solar System and Universe are covered, as well as human endeavors in Space Stuff, such as astronauts, space wardrobes, space travel, space probes, the Hubble Space Telescope, and Who's Who in Space. Difficult words are linked from the text to a glossary. Questions are posed after many of the textual explanations and interactive activities can be accessed within each topic. The activities can be used via the Web or with pencil and paper. Links are provided to other educational space science sites.

Dejoie, Joyce; Truelove, Elizabeth; Whitlock, Laura

309

Hubble: A View to the Edge of Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This feature from the Exploratorium Museum (last mentioned in the May 30, 2000 Scout Report) offers a nice, compact overview of the Hubble Space telescope and what we have learned from its observations. Aimed at a general audience, the site's contents include a tour of Hubble, a gallery of images and information on how these are produced, and an introduction to the people behind Hubble, among others. Related links and Hubble factoids are offered throughout the site.

2001-01-01

310

Construction of Korean Astronomical Journal DB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Korean Astronomical Data Center (KADC) in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has developed a database of astronomical journals published by the Korean Astronomical Society and the Korean Space Science Society. It consists of all bibliographic records of the Journal of the Korean Astronomical Society (JKAS), Publications of the Korean Astronomical Society (PKAS), and Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences (JASS). The KADC provides useful search functions in the search page such as search criterion of bibcode, publication date, author names, title words, or abstract words. The journal name is one of the search criterion in which more than one journal can be designated at the same time. The criterion of author name is provided bilingually: English or Korean. The abstract and full text can be downloaded as PDF files. It is also possible to search papers related to a specific research topic published in Korean astronomical journals, provided by the KADC, which often cannot be found in the worldwide Astrophysics Data System (ADS) services. The KADC will become basic infrastructure for the systematic construction of bibliographic records, and hence, make the society of Korean astronomers more interactive and collaborative.

Sung, Hyun-Il; Kim, Soon-Wook; Yim, In Sung; Sang, Jian

2006-12-01

311

The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

Villard, Ray

1990-01-01

312

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope's purpose is to spend 20 years probing the farthest and faintest reaches of the cosmos. Crucial to fulfilling this objective is a series of on-orbit servicing missions. Hubble was placed in orbit on April 25, 1990, by the shuttle Discovery and subsequent servicing followed in December 1993 and February 1997. The third in the series of planned servicing missions for the Hubble Space Telescope was scheduled for June 2000. This third Servicing Mission has been separated into two flights. The first of these flights, Servicing Mission 3A, is scheduled for December 1999, and the second, Servicing Mission 3B, is scheduled for 2001. The fourth Servicing Mission is scheduled for 2003 with a "close-out" Mission in 2010. Three instruments are currently in active scientific use on Hubble - the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, and Fine Guidance Sensor I R, which has been designated as the prime FGS for astrometric science. Other instrument bays are occupied by the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which is now dormant due to the depletion of its solid nitrogen cryogen, the Faint Object Camera, which has been decommissioned, and the corrective optical device called COSTAR, which is no longer needed.

1999-01-01

313

Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery cell wear out mechanisms and signatures are examined and compared to orbital data from the six on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) batteries, and the Flight Spare Battery (FSB) Test Bed at Marshall Space Fiight Center (MSFC), which is instrumented with individual cell voltage monitoring.

Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

2004-01-01

314

Star Witness News: Birthday Wishes for Hubble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story celebrates the 17th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. The anniversary image of the Carina Nebula is described and Hubbleâs most significant scientific discoveries are identified. The article is from the Amazing Space science newspaper, The Star Witness, which can be used as a science content reading.

2007-04-01

315

PBS Online NewsHour: Hubble and Webb Telescopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In-depth coverage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the next generation of orbiting observatories. Includes interactive on orbiting telescopes, slide show of Hubble images, and reports on the debate over keeping Hubble operating and over coloring its images. The main story and some of the archived stories are available as streaming video and RealAudio as well as text.

316

The Far-Field Hubble Constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) observations of four nearby brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) to calibrate the BCG Hubble diagram of Lauer & Postman. This BCG Hubble diagram contains 114 galaxies covering the full celestial sphere and is volume-limited to 15,000 km s-1, providing excellent sampling of the far-field Hubble flow. The SBF zero point is based on the Cepheid calibration of the ground IKC method as extended to the WFPC2 F814W filter by Ajhar and coworkers. The BCG globular cluster luminosity functions give distances essentially identical to the SBF results. Using the velocities and SBF distances of the four BCGs alone gives H0 = 82 +/- 8 km s-1 Mpc-1 in the CMB frame, valid on ~4500 km s-1 scales; the error includes both systematic and random contributions. Use of BCGs as photometric redshift estimators allows the BCG Hubble diagram to be calibrated independently of recession velocities of the four nearby BCGs, yielding a far-field H0 = 89 +/- 10 km s-1 Mpc-1 with an effective depth of ~11,000 km s-1. The larger error in this case is due to the photometric cosmic scatter in using BCGs as redshift estimators; this H0 is not significantly different from the more local value. The concordance of the present results with other recent H0 determinations and a review of theoretical treatments on perturbations in the near-field Hubble flow argue that going to the far field removes an important source of uncertainty, but that there is not a large systematic error to be corrected for to begin with. Further improvements in H0 depend more on understanding nearby calibrators than on improved sampling of the distant flow. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Lauer, Tod R.; Tonry, John L.; Postman, Marc; Ajhar, Edward A.; Holtzman, Jon A.

1998-05-01

317

America's foremost early astronomer. [David Rittenhouse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life of 18th century astronomer, craftsman, and partriot David Rittenhouse is detailed. As a craftsman, he distinguished himself as one of the foremost builders of clocks. He also built magnetic compasses and surveying instruments. The finest examples of his craftsmanship are considered two orreries, mechanical solar systems. In terms of astronomical observations, his best-known contribution was his observation of the transit of Venus in 1769. Rittenhouse constructed the first diffraction grating. Working as Treasurer of Pennsylvania throughout the Revolution, he became the first director of the Mint in 1792. Astronomical observations in later life included charting the position of Uranus after its discovery.

Rubincam, David Parry; Rubincam, Milton, II

1995-01-01

318

A Future Astronomical Software Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyzing data sets in astronomy has become more and more complex and has driven the development of specific tools, functions and tasks. In order to integrate these tools in a global environment and thereby preserving them, the OPTICON Network 9.2 in coordination with US-VAO has outlined requirements, defined an architectural concept and developed a prototype of a Future Astronomical Software Environment (FASE). Important features are support for user scripting (e.g. Python), access to legacy applications (e.g. IRAF, MIDAS), integration with the Virtual Observatory (VO) for access to remote data and computation, and scalability supporting desktops to distributed cluster systems. A first prototype has been implemented and demonstrates the feasibility by offering access to numerous applications (e.g. ds9, ESO CPL pipelines, MIDAS, topcat) from a Python or Unix shell using VO-SAMP as a software bus. A simple packaging system is also provided to allow easy definition and sharing of applications at a Web portal.

Grosböl, P.; Tody, D.; Paioro, L.; Granet, Y.; Garilli, B.; Surace, C.; Opticon Fase Network

2012-09-01

319

Generating Mosaics of Astronomical Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Montage" is the name of a service of the National Virtual Observatory (NVO), and of software being developed to implement the service via the World Wide Web. Montage generates science-grade custom mosaics of astronomical images on demand from input files that comply with the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) standard and contain image data registered on projections that comply with the World Coordinate System (WCS) standards. "Science-grade" in this context signifies that terrestrial and instrumental features are removed from images in a way that can be described quantitatively. "Custom" refers to user-specified parameters of projection, coordinates, size, rotation, and spatial sampling. The greatest value of Montage is expected to lie in its ability to analyze images at multiple wavelengths, delivering them on a common projection, coordinate system, and spatial sampling, and thereby enabling further analysis as though they were part of a single, multi-wavelength image. Montage will be deployed as a computation-intensive service through existing astronomy portals and other Web sites. It will be integrated into the emerging NVO architecture and will be executed on the TeraGrid. The Montage software will also be portable and publicly available.

Bergou, Attila; Berriman, Bruce; Good, John; Jacob, Joseph; Katz, Daniel; Laity, Anastasia; Prince, Thomas; Williams, Roy

2005-01-01

320

Chrysanthos Notaras as an Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present work is to emphasize the contribution of Chrysanthos Notaras (16??-1731) in the dispersion of Astronomy in the begining of the eighteenth century. Chysanthos Notaras, Partiarch of Jerusalem (1707-1731), is included among the most educated Greeks of his epoch. Although his first studies were suitable for ecclesiastic offices and religion, (since he studied ecclesiastic low, at Patavio, Italy), he continued at Paris for additional studies in Astronomy and Geography (1700). He became student of G.D. Cassini, who was the Director of Paris Observatory at that time, and he served as observer and astronomical instruments constructor, under Cassini's supervision. Chrysanthos Notaras included the teaching of "Astronomy" as a lesson in the schools of the Holy Sepulchre, in order to disperse the new ideas and knowledge about the earth and the universe among the young students. He published the first International Map (of the known world) in the Greek language in 1700 and in 1716 his book "Intoduction in Geography and Sphericals" was published in Paris. This book, written before 1707, was mainly an introduction to Astronomy and was used by the afterwards authors as an essential and basic manual and offered a lot to the enlightenment of the enslavement Greeks.

Rovithis, P.

321

Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

1990-01-01

322

Astronomical Studies at Infrared Wavelengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, Herschel, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths - a powerful tool for scientific discovery. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an eight-meter baseline Michelson stellar interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future balloon programs, paving the way for interferometric observations of exoplanets.

Rinehart, Stephen A.

2009-01-01

323

Hubble and ESO's VLT provide unique 3D views of remote galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have obtained exceptional 3D views of distant galaxies, seen when the Universe was half its current age, by combining the twin strengths of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope's acute eye, and the capacity of ESO's Very Large Telescope to probe the motions of gas in tiny objects. By looking at this unique "history book" of our Universe, at an epoch when the Sun and the Earth did not yet exist, scientists hope to solve the puzzle of how galaxies formed in the remote past. ESO PR Photo 10a/09 A 3D view of remote galaxies ESO PR Photo 10b/09 Measuring motions in 3 distant galaxies ESO PR Video 10a/09 Galaxies in collision For decades, distant galaxies that emitted their light six billion years ago were no more than small specks of light on the sky. With the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope in the early 1990s, astronomers were able to scrutinise the structure of distant galaxies in some detail for the first time. Under the superb skies of Paranal, the VLT's FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph (ESO 13/02) -- which obtains simultaneous spectra from small areas of extended objects -- can now also resolve the motions of the gas in these distant galaxies (ESO 10/06). "This unique combination of Hubble and the VLT allows us to model distant galaxies almost as nicely as we can close ones," says François Hammer, who led the team. "In effect, FLAMES/GIRAFFE now allows us to measure the velocity of the gas at various locations in these objects. This means that we can see how the gas is moving, which provides us with a three-dimensional view of galaxies halfway across the Universe." The team has undertaken the Herculean task of reconstituting the history of about one hundred remote galaxies that have been observed with both Hubble and GIRAFFE on the VLT. The first results are coming in and have already provided useful insights for three galaxies. In one galaxy, GIRAFFE revealed a region full of ionised gas, that is, hot gas composed of atoms that have been stripped of one or several electrons. This is normally due to the presence of very hot, young stars. However, even after staring at the region for more than 11 days, Hubble did not detect any stars! "Clearly this unusual galaxy has some hidden secrets," says Mathieu Puech, lead author of one of the papers reporting this study. Comparisons with computer simulations suggest that the explanation lies in the collision of two very gas-rich spiral galaxies. The heat produced by the collision would ionise the gas, making it too hot for stars to form. Another galaxy that the astronomers studied showed the opposite effect. There they discovered a bluish central region enshrouded in a reddish disc, almost completely hidden by dust. "The models indicate that gas and stars could be spiralling inwards rapidly," says Hammer. This might be the first example of a disc rebuilt after a major merger (ESO 01/05). Finally, in a third galaxy, the astronomers identified a very unusual, extremely blue, elongated structure -- a bar -- composed of young, massive stars, rarely observed in nearby galaxies. Comparisons with computer simulations showed the astronomers that the properties of this object are well reproduced by a collision between two galaxies of unequal mass. "The unique combination of Hubble and FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the VLT makes it possible to model distant galaxies in great detail, and reach a consensus on the crucial role of galaxy collisions for the formation of stars in a remote past," says Puech. "It is because we can now see how the gas is moving that we can trace back the mass and the orbits of the ancestral galaxies relatively accurately. Hubble and the VLT are real ‘time machines' for probing the Universe's history", adds Sébastien Peirani, lead author of another paper reporting on this study. The astronomers are now extending their analysis to the whole sample of galaxies observed. "The next step will then be to compare this with closer galaxies, and so, piece together a picture of the evolution of galax

2009-03-01

324

Morphological Filtering of Astronomical Images in Matlab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method to perform the galaxies recognition from stars in astronomical images. This is because many images show a distribution of stellar bodies as a background where deep sky galaxies are also visible.

Ibarra-Medel, E.; Gómez-González, V. M. A.

2011-10-01

325

Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the 'Future Directions for Astronomical Image Displav' project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) evolved our existing image display program into fully extensible. cross-platform ima...

E. Mandel

2000-01-01

326

Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In our 'Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display' project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) will evolve our existing image display software into a fully extensible, cross-platf...

E. Mandel

1997-01-01

327

Associate Principal Astronomer Telescope Operations Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with...

M. Drummond J. Bresina K. Swanson W. Edgington G. Henry

1994-01-01

328

Papers Submitted to Selected Astronomical Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Chicago Press Journals Division, this site gives researchers a chance to view the "titles, authors, dates of submission, and sources for preprints for manuscripts submitted to eight astronomical journals." Users can look up this information based on the most recent 10-day or 30-day period, or they can find an article by matching a key word. The journals for which this information is available include The Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, The Astrophysical Journal, Part 2, The Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, The Astronomical Journal, Icarus: International Journal of Solar System Studies, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica, and The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. Email addresses for article authors are also available.

329

Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Explanatory Supplement provides a detailed description of how to perform practical astronomy or spherical astronomy. This completely revised and rewritten edition is an authoritative source on astronomical phenomena and calendars.

P. Kenneth Seidelmann

1992-01-01

330

Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Explanatory Supplement provides a detailed description of how to perform practical astronomy or spherical astronomy. This completely revised and rewritten edition is an authoritative source on astronomical phenomena and calendars.

Seidelmann, P. Kenneth

331

Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Provides a detailed description of how to perform practical astronomy or spherical astronomy, how the computations for the "Astronomical Almanac" are performed, and underlying information required by those using the "Almanac" and wanting to perform related computations

Seidelmann, P. Kenneth

332

Astronomical education in Tajikistan. Project TAJASTRO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The centre of astronomy in Tajikistan is the Institute of Astrophysics of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan. This institute carries out scientific research and contributes to the preparation of the astronomical staff and to astronomical education. The reform of education in Tajikistan continues and now astronomy is studied in schools (together with physics) and at universities. The Tajik State Pedagogical University resumed in 2007 the training of teachers in physics and astronomy. Since 1999 the Tajik National University (TNU) offers a a specialty in astronomy. In 2006 is restored the Small Academy of Sciences (SAS) of Tajikistan. There is a planetarium in Khujand and in 2006 the Institute of Astrophysics, TNU and the Astronomical Society of Tajikistan, along with the support IBSP/UNESCO, organised the Training Methodical Center (TMC) ``TAJASTRO'' at the Hisar astronomical observatory for students, graduate students, young scientists, and teachers at secondary schools.

Ibadinov, Khursandkul I.; Rahmonov, A. A.

2011-06-01

333

Astronomical researches in Poincaré's and Romanian works  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Henri Poincaré was not only a honorary member of the Romanian Academy, but also an important collaborator of many Romanian mathematicians and astronomers. It is sufficient to mention Spiru Haret, the first doctor in mathematics at Sorbonne, or Nicolae Coculescu, the first director of the Astronomical Observatory of Bucharest. The 150th anniversary of the birth of the illustrious French personality offered us a good opportunity to study the relations he and two other Poincaré, Raymond and Lucien, had with Romania.

Stavinschi, M.; Mioc, V.

2005-09-01

334

Expansion of The Astronomical Almanac Online Website  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Astronomical Almanac (AsA) Online website (http:\\/\\/asa.usno.navy.mil\\/ and http:\\/\\/asa.hmnao.com\\/), a joint project between the Nautical Almanac Office (NAO) at the US Naval Observatory and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) at the UK Hydrographic Office, began as a supplement to the printed Astronomical Almanac. The original intent of the AsA Online was to provide data in text form for machine

Eric G. Barron; S. A. Bell; C. Y. Hohenkerk; S. G. Stewart; S. E. Urban

2010-01-01

335

New Asteroid Ephemerides for the Astronomical Almanac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 2000 edition of the Astronomical Almanac , the ephemerides for the first four asteroids, Ceres, Pallas, Juno, and Vesta, have been based on the USNO\\/AE98 (Hilton, J.L. 1999, Astron. J ., 117 , 1077-1086). Beginning with the 2003 edition, the Astronomical Almanac will replace the current bi-daily ephemerides of the first four asteroids with daily ephemerides for 60

J. L. Hilton

2001-01-01

336

Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Displav" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) evolved our existing image display program into fully extensible. cross-platform image display software. We also devised messaging software to support integration of image display into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we migrated our software from reliance on Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes the cross-platform Tcl/Tk technology.

Mandel, Eric

2000-03-01

337

Hubble Space Telescope Image of NGC 4676, 'The Mice'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), the newest camera on the Hubble Space Telescope, has captured a spectacular pair of galaxies. Located 300 million light-years away in the constellation Coma Berenices, the colliding galaxies have been nicknamed 'The Mice' because of the long tails of stars and gas emanating from each galaxy. Otherwise known as NGC 4676, the pair will eventually merge into a single giant galaxy. In the galaxy at left, the bright blue patch is resolved into a vigorous cascade of clusters and associations of young, hot blue stars, whose formation has been triggered by the tidal forces of the gravitational interaction. The clumps of young stars in the long, straight tidal tail (upper right) are separated by fainter regions of material. These dim regions suggest that the clumps of stars have formed from the gravitational collapse of the gas and dust that once occupied those areas. Some of the clumps have luminous masses comparable to dwarf galaxies that orbit the halo of our own Milky Way Galaxy. Computer simulations by astronomers show that we are seeing two near identical spiral galaxies approximately 160 million years after their closest encounter. The simulations also show that the pair will eventually merge, forming a large, nearly spherical galaxy (known as an elliptical galaxy). The Mice presage what may happen to our own Milky Way several billion years from now when it collides with our nearest large neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). This picture is assembled from three sets of images taken on April 7, 2002, in blue, orange, and near-infrared filters. Credit: NASA, H. Fort (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M. Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA.

2002-01-01

338

Propagating orientation constraints for the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An observing program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is described in terms of exposures that are obtained by one or more of the instruments onboard the HST. Many requested exposures might specify orientation requirements and accompanying ranges. Orientation refers to the amount of roll (in degrees) about the line of sight. The range give the permissible tolerance (also in degrees). These requirements may be (1) absolute (in relation to the celestial coordinate system), (2) relative to the nominal roll angle for HST during that exposure, or (3) relative (in relation to other exposures in the observing program). The TRANSformation expert system converts proposals for astronomical observations with HST into detailed observing plans. Part of the conversion involves grouping exposures into higher level structures based on exposure characteristics. Exposures constrained to be at different orientations cannot be grouped together. Because relative orientation requirements cause implicit constraints, orientation constraints have to be propagated. TRANS must also identify any inconsistencies that may exist so they can be corrected. We have designed and implemented an orientation constraint propagator as part of TRANS. The propagator is based on an informal algebra that facilitates the setting up and propagation of the orientation constraints. The constraint propagator generates constraints between directly related exposures, and propagates derived constraints between exposures that are related indirectly. It provides facilities for path-consistency checking, identification of unsatisfiable constraints, and querying of orientation relationships. The system has been successfully operational as part of TRANS for over seven months. The solution has particular significance to space applications in which satellite/telescope pointing and attitude are constrained and relationships exist between multiple configurations.

Bose, Ashim; Gerb, Andy

1994-01-01

339

HUBBLE OBSERVES SPIRAL GAS DISK IN ACTIVE GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a spiral-shaped disk of hot gas in the core of active galaxy M87. HST measurements show the disk is rotating so rapidly it contains a massive black hole at its hub. A black hole is an object that is so massive yet compact nothing can escape its gravitational pull, not even light. The object at the center of M87 fits that description. It weights as much as three billion suns, but is concentrated into a space no larger than our solar system. Now that astronomers have seen the signature of the tremendous gravitational field at the center of M87, it is clear that the region contains only a fraction of the number of stars that would be necessary to create such a powerful attraction. The giant elliptical galaxy M87 is located 50 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo. Earlier observations suggested the black hole was present, but were not decisive. A brilliant jet of high- speed electrons that emits from the nucleus (diagonal line across image) is believed to be produced by the black hole 'engine.' The image was taken with HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Credit: Holland Ford, Space Telescope Science Institute/Johns Hopkins University; Richard Harms, Applied Research Corp.; Zlatan Tsvetanov, Arthur Davidsen, and Gerard Kriss at Johns Hopkins; Ralph Bohlin and George Hartig at Space Telescope Science Institute; Linda Dressel and Ajay K. Kochhar at Applied Research Corp. in Landover, Md.; and Bruce Margon from the University of Washington in Seattle. NASA PHOTO CAPTION STScI-PR94-23a

2002-01-01

340

ASDS: The Astronomical Software and Documentation Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomical Software and Documentation Service (ASDS) is a network service that allows you to find existing astronomical resources for solving your problem. ASDS started as as site devoted entirely to astronomical software packages and their associated on-line documentation. But in 1998 its scope was expanded to include astronomical observing sites and their associated telescope and instrument manuals, taken from a listing maintained by Liz Bryson. The primary objective of the telescope manuals side of ASDS is to allow astronomers to easily locate the information required when preparing an observing proposal or planning an observing session. The telescope manual service consists of two complementary collections: (1) a page of information for each site, including a short description, a link to the home page, and a list of manuals, each with its own short description, and (2) a distributed set of telescope manuals, observer guides, instrument and calibration handbooks, proposal preparation guides, etc. Both collections are indexed for full-text searching and logically grouped both for browsing and for more highly targeted searching. We are happy to add pointers to more software packages and telescope manuals. We are especially interested in items that would otherwise be hard to find. Please stop by our poster for a chat if you have items in either category of interest to the astronomical community. Submission forms are also available on our web site, and we have a mailing list. Please note that ASDS is not an archive or distribution service.

Payne, H. E.; Hanisch, R. J.; Bryson, Liz

1998-12-01

341

ALE: Astronomical LIDAR for Extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary impediment to precision all-sky photometry is the scattering or absorption of incoming starlight by the aerosols suspended in, and the molecules of, the Earth's atmosphere. The University of New Mexico (UNM) and the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) are currently developing the Astronomical LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) for Extinction (ALE), which is undergoing final integration and initial calibration at UNM. ALE is based upon a 527nm laser operated at a pulse repetition rate of 1500 pps, and rendered eyesafe by expanding its beam through a 32cm diameter transmitter. The alt-az mounted ALE will operate in multiple modes, including mapping the sky to obtain a quantitative measurement of extinction sources, measuring a monochromatic extinction coefficient by producing Langely plots, and monitoring extinction in the direction in which a telescope is observing. A primary goal is to use the Rayleigh scattered LIDAR return from air above 20km as a quasi-constant illumination source. Air above this altitude is generally free from aerosols and the variations in density are relatively constant over intervals of a few minutes. When measured at several zenith angles, the integrated line-of-sight extinction can be obtained from a simple model fit of these returns. The 69 microjoule exit pulse power and 0.6m aperture receiver will allow ALE to collect approximately one million photons per minute from above 20km, enough to enable measurements of the monochromatic vertical extinction to better than 1% under photometric conditions. Along the way, ALE will also provide a plethora of additional information about the vertical and horizontal distributions of low-lying aerosols, dust or smoke in the free troposphere, and high cirrus, as well as detect the passage of boundary layer atmospheric gravity waves. This project is funded by NSF Grant 0421087.

Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Gimmestad, G.; Roberts, D.; Stewart, J.; Dawsey, M.; Fitch, J.; Smith, J.; Townsend, A.; Black, B.

2006-12-01

342

HUBBLE SPIES HUGE CLUSTERS OF STARS FORMED  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BY ANCIENT ENCOUNTER This stunningly beautiful image [right] taken with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope shows the heart of the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. The ongoing violent star formation due to an ancient encounter with its large galactic neighbor, M81, gives this galaxy its disturbed appearance. The smaller picture at upper left shows the entire galaxy. The image was taken in December 1994 by the Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope. Hubble's view is represented by the white outline in the center. In the Hubble image, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the huge lanes of dust that crisscross M82's disk are another telltale sign of the flurry of star formation. Below the center and to the right, a strong galactic wind is spewing knotty filaments of hydrogen and nitrogen gas. More than 100 super star clusters -- very bright, compact groupings of about 100,000 stars -- are seen in this detailed Hubble picture as white dots sprinkled throughout M82's central region. The dark region just above the center of the picture is a huge dust cloud. A collaboration of European and American scientists used these clusters to date the ancient interaction between M82 and M81. About 600 million years ago, a region called 'M82 B' (the bright area just below and to the left of the central dust cloud) exploded with new stars. Scientists have discovered that this ancient starburst was triggered by the violent encounter with M81. M82 is a bright (eighth magnitude), nearby (12 million light-years from Earth) galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major (the Great Bear). The Hubble picture was taken Sept. 15, 1997. The natural-color composite was constructed from three Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures, which were combined in chromatic order: 4,250 seconds through a blue filter (428 nm); 2,800 seconds through a green filter (520 nm); and 2,200 seconds through a red (820 nm) filter. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, ESA, R. de Grijs (Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK) Credits for ground-based picture: N.A. Sharp (Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, National Optical Astronomy Observatories, National Science Foundation)

2002-01-01

343

Relying on electronic journals: Reading patterns of astronomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of the members of the American Astronomical Society identify how astronomers use journals and what features and formats they prefer. While every work field is distinct, the patterns of use by astronomers may provide a glimpse of what to expect of journal patterns and use by other scientists. Astronomers, like other scientists, continue to invest a large amount of

Carol Tenopir; Donald W. King; Peter B. Boyce; Matt Grayson; Keri-Lynn Paulson

2005-01-01

344

Astronomical Data Center Bulletin, volume 1, no. 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information about work in progress on astronomical catalogs is presented. In addition to progress reports, an upadated status list for astronomical catalogs available at the Astronomical Data Center is included. Papers from observatories and individuals involved with astronomical data are also presented.

Warren, W. H., Jr. (editor); Nagy, T. A. (editor); Mead, J. M. (editor)

1980-01-01

345

HUBBLE CAPTURES AN EXTRAORDINARY AND POWERFUL ACTIVE GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resembling a swirling witch's cauldron of glowing vapors, the black hole-powered core of a nearby active galaxy appears in this colorful NASA Hubble Space Telescope image. The galaxy lies 13 million light-years away in the southern constellation Circinus. This galaxy is designated a type 2 Seyfert, a class of mostly spiral galaxies that have compact centers and are believed to contain massive black holes. Seyfert galaxies are themselves part of a larger class of objects called Active Galactic Nuclei or AGN. AGN have the ability to remove gas from the centers of their galaxies by blowing it out into space at phenomenal speeds. Astronomers studying the Circinus galaxy are seeing evidence of a powerful AGN at the center of this galaxy as well. Much of the gas in the disk of the Circinus spiral is concentrated in two specific rings -- a larger one of diameter 1,300 light-years, which has already been observed by ground-based telescopes, and a previously unseen ring of diameter 260 light-years. In the Hubble image, the smaller inner ring is located on the inside of the green disk. The larger outer ring extends off the image and is in the plane of the galaxy's disk. Both rings are home to large amounts of gas and dust as well as areas of major 'starburst' activity, where new stars are rapidly forming on timescales of 40 - 150 million years, much shorter than the age of the entire galaxy. At the center of the starburst rings is the Seyfert nucleus, the believed signature of a supermassive black hole that is accreting surrounding gas and dust. The black hole and its accretion disk are expelling gas out of the galaxy's disk and into its halo (the region above and below the disk). The detailed structure of this gas is seen as magenta-colored streamers extending towards the top of the image. In the center of the galaxy and within the inner starburst ring is a V-shaped structure of gas. The structure appears whitish-pink in this composite image, made up of four filters. Two filters capture the narrow lines from atomic transitions in oxygen and hydrogen; two wider filters detect green and near-infrared light. In the narrow-band filters, the V-shaped structure is very pronounced. This region, which is the projection of a three-dimensional cone extending from the nucleus to the galaxy's halo, contains gas that has been heated by radiation emitted by the accreting black hole. A 'counter-cone,' believed to be present, is obscured from view by dust in the galaxy's disk. Ultraviolet radiation emerging from the central source excites nearby gas causing it to glow. The excited gas is beamed into the oppositely directed cones like two giant searchlights. Located near the plane of our own Milky Way Galaxy, the Circinus galaxy is partially hidden by intervening dust along our line of sight. As a result, the galaxy went unnoticed until about 25 years ago. This Hubble image was taken on April 10, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The research team, led by Andrew S. Wilson of the University of Maryland, is using these visible light images along with near-infrared data to further understand the dynamics of this powerful galaxy. Credits: NASA, Andrew S. Wilson (University of Maryland); Patrick L. Shopbell (Caltech); Chris Simpson (Subaru Telescope); Thaisa Storchi-Bergmann and F. K. B. Barbosa (UFRGS, Brazil); and Martin J. Ward (University of Leicester, U.K.)

2002-01-01

346

Charge transfer inefficiency in the Hubble Space Telescope since Servicing Mission 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We update a physically motivated model of radiation damage in the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel, using data up to mid-2010. We find that charge transfer inefficiency increased dramatically before shuttle Servicing Mission 4, with ~1.3 charge traps now present per pixel. During detector readout, charge traps spuriously drag electrons behind all astronomical sources, degrading image quality in a way that affects object photometry, astrometry and morphology. Our detector readout model is robust to changes in operating temperature and background level, and can be used to iteratively remove the trailing by pushing electrons back to where they belong. The result is data taken in mid-2010 that recovers the quality of imaging obtained within the first six months of orbital operations.

Massey, Richard

2010-11-01

347

Updated Status and Performance for the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Onboard the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope in May 2009. Although COS was initially designed to perform high-sensitivity medium- and low-resolution spectroscopy of astronomical objects in the 1150-3200 Å wavelength range, new wavelength settings have recently become available that allow medium-resolution spectroscopy down to 900 Å, at effective areas comparable to those of FUSE. Here we provide an update on the implementation of the new short wavelength settings G130M/1222, 1096, and 1055. We discuss changes to the Far-Ultraviolet (FUV) and Near-Ultraviolet (NUV) dark rates, FUV pulse height filtering, new and improved flux calibrations for FUV Lifetime Positions 1 and 2, changes in sensitivity for both the NUV and FUV channels, and give a general overview of the calibration projects undertaken in Cycles 19 and 20.

Taylor, Joanna M.; Aloisi, A.; Bacinski, J.; Bostroem, K. A.; Debes, J. H.; Roman-Duval, J.; Ely, J.; DiFelice, A.; Hernandez, S.; Kriss, G. A.; Hodge, P.; Lindsay, K.; Lockwood, S. A.; Massa, D.; Oliveira, C. M.; Osten, R. A.; Penton, S. V.; Proffitt, C. R.; Sahnow, D. J.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Wheeler, T.

2013-06-01

348

HUBBLE FINDS THOUSANDS OF GASEOUS FRAGMENTS SURROUNDING DYING STAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resembling a bizarre setting from a science fiction movie, dramatic images sent back by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have surprised astronomers by uncovering thousands of gigantic tadpole-shaped objects surrounding a dying star. Dubbed 'cometary knots' because their glowing heads and gossamer tails superficially resemble comets, they are probably the result of a dying star's final outbursts. Though ground-based telescopic observations have hinted at such objects, they have not previously been seen in such abundance, say researchers. The knots were detected by Hubble astronomer C. Robert O'Dell and graduate student Kerry P. Handron of Rice University in Houston, Texas, while exploring the Helix nebula, a ring of glowing gases blown off the surface of a sunlike star late in its life. O'Dell expects the gaseous knots, which are each several billion miles across, will eventually dissipate and vanish into the cold emptiness of interstellar space. However, he speculates that if the objects contract to form permanent solid bodies, they may contribute to a fraction (less than ten percent) of the missing mass of our galaxy, simply because of their sheer abundance around a typical dying star. (This so-called dark matter is a known source of gravity that affects the motions of stars in the galaxy). The mysterious 'space pods' came into view as O'Dell used Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 to survey the Helix nebula, located 450 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius and the closest planetary nebula to Earth -- so close that its angular size is almost half that of the full Moon. The most visible cometary knots all lie along the inner edge of the ring, at a distance of trillions of miles from the central star. Their comet-like tails, each stretching a hundred billion miles, form a radial pattern around the star like the spokes on a wagon wheel. Though previous ground-based observations show a spoke pattern in the Helix, and some structure, O'Dell emphasizes that the Hubble images reveal an underlying population of many more smaller objects. O'Dell made the observation because he was curious if these objects were the result of the star's final outburst which would bring comets out of 'cold storage' by boiling off the icy, solid comet nuclei. This is how comets behave as they swing near our Sun. The knots have just the right appearance and are at just the right distance from the dying star to be a long-sought comet cloud -- much like the hypothesized Oort cloud encircling our solar system. However, each gaseous cometary 'head' is at least twice the diameter of our solar system -- far too large for the gaseous shell, called a coma, that surrounds an active comet as we know it. The most likely explanation is the objects have been formed during the final years of a star's life when it ejects shells of gas into space. This 'planetary nebula' formation happens in stages where, toward the end of the process, a faster moving shell of gas ejected off the doomed star collides with slower moving gas released ten thousand years before. This collision of hot, lower density gas with cooler, higher density gas forms an unstable condition where the two gases intermix and fragment the previously smooth cloud. This process, called a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, breaks the cloud into smaller and denser finger-like droplets, like dripping paint. Standard models predict that the knots should expand and dissipate within a few hundred thousand years. However, dust particles inside each gas ball might collide and stick together, snowballing to planet- sized bodies over time. The resulting objects would be like Earth- sized copies of the frigid, icy planet Pluto. These icy worlds would escape the dead star and presumably roam interstellar space forever. If this phenomena is common among stars, then our galaxy could be littered with trillions of these objects, O'Dell concludes. 'Planetary nebulae have been formed in our galaxy for billions of years and about one new one is created every year since this is the usual ending for the billions of sunl

2002-01-01

349

Delivering Hubble Discoveries to the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's classrooms are significantly influenced by current news events, delivered instantly into the classroom via the Internet. Educators are challenged daily to transform these events into student learning opportunities. In the case of space science, current news events may be the only chance for educators and students to explore the marvels of the Universe. Inspired by these circumstances, the education and news teams developed the Star Witness News science content reading series. These online news stories (also available in downloadable PDF format) mirror the content of Hubble press releases and are designed for upper elementary and middle school level readers to enjoy. Educators can use Star Witness News stories to reinforce students' reading skills while exposing students to the latest Hubble discoveries.

Eisenhamer, B.; Villard, R.; Weaver, D.; Cordes, K.; Knisely, L.

2013-04-01

350

Creation of the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Space Telescope has been the most successful space astronomy project to date, producing images that put the public in awe and images and spectra that have produced many scientific discoveries. It is the natural culmination of a dream envisioned when rocket flight into space was first projected and a goal set for the US space program soon after NASA was created. The design and construction period lasted almost two decades and its operations have already lasted almost as long. The capabilities of the observatory have evolved and expanded with periodic upgrading of its instrumentation, thus realizing the advantages of its unique design. The success of this long-lived observatory is closely tied to the availability of the Space Shuttle and the end of the Shuttle program means that the end of the Hubble program will follow before long.

O'Dell, C. R.

2009-08-01

351

Hubble Space Telescope: Battery Capacity Trend Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery cell wear out mechanisms and signatures are examined and compared to orbital data from the six on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) batteries, and the Flight Spare Battery (FSB) Test Bed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which is instrumented with individual cell voltage monitoring. Capacity trend data is presented which suggests HST battery replacement is required in 2005-2007 or sooner.

Rao, M. Gopalakrishna; Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon

2004-01-01

352

Astronomers debate diamonds in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is called IRAS 16594-4656. Like the others, it's a carbon-rich star now in the process of dying. It has been blasting out huge amounts of material over the last thousand years, becoming enclosed within a shell of dust hundreds of times larger than the Solar System --a structure called a "protoplanetary nebula". It was in this dust -- very cold and therefore invisible to non-infrared telescopes-- that the Spanish group using ISO's SWS and LWS spectrometers detected the signature of the carbonaceous compound, in the form of a broad emission band at the wavelength of 21 micron. "We searched for the compound in twenty candidate stars and only this one had it. It is a real textbook case, with one of the strongest emissions ever detected. It gets us closer to solving the mystery and will help us to understand how the "chemical factories" of the Universe work", says ESA astronomer Pedro Garcia-Lario at the ISO Data Centre in Villafranca, Madrid. His group published their results in the March 10 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. They favour the fullerene option. Fullerenes would get formed during decomposition of the solid carbon grains condensed out of the material emitted by the star. The Canadian group obtained high-resolution ISO spectra of seven other stars in this class, and also detected a weak emission of the carbonaceous compound in a new one. They present their data in the May 11 issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "Diamonds, graphite, coal and fullerenes are different forms of carbon. It is quite possible that the 21 micron feature arises from any one of these forms, although not exactly like they are on Earth", says main author Sun Kwok, at the University of Calgary. His group detected the carbonaceous compound a decade ago, for the first time, with the earlier infrared satellite IRAS. Meanwhile, results from the French group led by Louis d'Hendecourt, at the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, in Paris, are adding to the debate. They isolated very tiny diamonds --a million times smaller

1999-04-01

353

Hubble tracks down a galaxy cluster's dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique mass map hi-res Size hi-res: 495 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Unique mass map This is a mass map of galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 derived from an extensive Hubble Space Telescope campaign. The colour image is made from two images: a dark-matter map (the blue part of the image) and a 'luminous-matter' map determined from the galaxies in the cluster (the red part of the image). They were constructed by feeding Hubble and ground-based observations into advanced mathematical mass-mapping models. The map shows that dark matter is present where the galaxies clump together. The mass of the galaxies is shown in red, the mass of the dark matter in blue. The dark matter behaves like a 'glue', holding the cluster together. The dark-matter distribution in the cluster is not spherical. A secondary concentration of dark-matter mass is shown in blue to the upper right of the main concentration. Sky around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 hi-res Size hi-res: 3742 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Sky around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 This is a 2.5-degree field around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654. The cluster galaxies are visible in the centre of the image in yellow. The image is a colour composite constructed from three Digitized Sky Survey 2 images: Blue (shown in blue), Red (shown in green), and Infrared (shown in red). HST observes shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies hi-res Size hi-res: 5593 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Hubble observes shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies Five days of observations produced the altogether 39 Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images required to map the mass of the galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654. Each WFPC2 image has a size of about 1/150 the diameter of the full Moon. In total, the image measures 27 arc-minutes across, slightly smaller than the diameter of the Moon. The observed warped shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies have been converted into a unique map of the dark matter in the cluster. The images were taken through a red filter and have been reduced a factor of two in size. Ground-based image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 hi-res Size hi-res: 4699 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Ground-based image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 This is a colour image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 obtained with the CFHT12k camera at the Canada France Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea (Hawaii). The cluster clearly appears as a concentration of yellow galaxies in the centre of this image although cluster galaxies actually extend at least to the edge of this image. This image measures 21 x 21 arc-minutes. Clusters of galaxies are the largest stable systems in the Universe. They are like laboratories for studying the relationship between the distributions of dark and visible matter. In 1937, Fritz Zwicky realised that the visible component of a cluster (the thousands of millions of stars in each of the thousands of galaxies) represents only a tiny fraction of the total mass. About 80-85% of the matter is invisible, the so-called 'dark matter'. Although astronomers have known about the presence of dark matter for many decades, finding a technique to view its distribution is a much more recent development. Led by Drs Jean-Paul Kneib (from the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, United States), Richard Ellis and Tommaso Treu (both Caltech, United States), the team used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to reconstruct a unique 'mass map' of the galaxy cluster CL0024+1654. It enabled them to see for the first time on such large scales how mysterious dark matter is distributed with respect to galaxies. This comparison gives new clues on how such large clusters assemble and which role dark matter plays in cosmic evolution. Tracing dark ma

2003-07-01

354

Hubble Views Saturn Ring-Plane Crossing (satellites labeled)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This sequence of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope documents a rare astronomical alignment -- Saturn's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This occurs when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane, as it does approximately every 15 years.

These pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on 22 May 1995, when Saturn was at a distance of 919 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. At Saturn, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles (725 km) across. In each image, the dark band across Saturn is the ring shadow cast by the Sun which is still 2.7 degrees above Saturn's ring plane. The box around the western portion of the rings (to the right of Saturn) in each image indicates the area in which the faint light from the rings has been multiplied through image processing (by a factor of 25) to make the rings more visible.

[Top] -

This image was taken while the Earth was above the lit face of the rings. The moons Tethys and Dione are visible to the east (left) of Saturn; Janus is the bright spot near the center of the ring portion in the box, and Pandora is faintly visible just inside the left edge of this box. Saturn's atmosphere shows remarkable detail: multiple banding in both the northern and southern hemispheres, wispy structure at the north edge of the equatorial zone, and a bright area above the ring shadow that is caused by sunlight scattered off the rings onto the atmosphere. There is evidence of a faint polar haze over the north pole of Saturn and a fainter haze over the south.

[Center] -

This image was taken close to the time of ring-plane crossing. The rings are 75% fainter than in the top image, though they do not disappear completely because the vertical face of the rings still reflects sunlight when the rings are edge-on. Rhea is visible to the east of Saturn, Enceladus is the bright satellite in the rings to the west, and Janus is the fainter blip to its right. Pandora is just to the left of Enceladus, but is not visible because Enceladus is too bright. An oval-shaped atmospheric feature has just rotated into view (near the eastern limb, at the northern edge of the equatorial zone), and appears to be a local circulation pattern that is not penetrated by the bright clouds that are deflected around it.

[Bottom] -

This image was taken approximately 96 minutes (one Hubble orbit) after the center image. The rings are 10% brighter than they were in that image. Rhea is visible just off the eastern limb of Saturn, and casts a shadow on the south face of Saturn. During this exposure, the Earth and Sun were on opposite sides of Saturn's ring plane (they remain in this configuration until 10 August 1995). The atmospheric circulation pattern has rotated to just past the center of the planet's disk, and is followed by more wispy structure in the bright band of clouds, reminiscent of the structure seen during the Saturn storm observed in 1990.

These images will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).

Technical Notes Each of these images is a 7-second exposure at 8922 Angstroms in a methane absorption band. North is up and east is to the left.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

355

Airglow measurements with astronomical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly elusive airglow lines and continuum probe the atmosphere at a height of roughly 80 to several 100 km. Since the emission originates from different atoms (O, Na) as well as different molecules as line emission (OH,O2) or in continuum emission (NO+O/O3) one needs to span a broad wavelength range to cover them all (near-UV to near-IR). Most spectrographs used by the community cover only a very narrow wavelength range with medium to high resolution. The European Southern Observatory (ESO) has the necessary instruments to provide spectra from near-UV to near-IR with moderate to high spectral resolution. ESO's main site is the Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located in the Atacama desert in Chile at an altitude of 2635 m. It consists of four 8 m class telescopes and several smaller ones. The X-Shooter instrument is mounted on one of the 8 m class telescopes and covers a wavelength range of 300-2500 nm simultaneously. Thus, it is one of the most sensitive and versatile spectrographs at hand today and has a resolution of 3000-18000 depending on the observation mode. Observations started in October 2009 and continue until today. Our current dataset includes all observations taken between October 2009 and March 2013. The temporal coverage of this period is good since X-Shooter is frequently used. Due to its wide wavelength range, X-Shooter provides almost all OH bands, most of the O2 bands, and the atomic lines NI[520.0 nm], OI[557.7 nm], NaID[589.0 nm], and OI[630.0,636.4 nm]. This gives us the opportunity to do a detailed study on airglow lines and continuum depending on different parameters such as solar activity, night time, and seasonal variation. In addition, we are able to derive mesopause temperatures depending on the same parameters. All the above mentioned studies are a valuable asset to the understanding of the dynamics and chemical processes in the upper atmosphere. To illustrate the capabilities of astronomical data, we investigated intensity measurements of FeO*, which was recently discovered to contribute to the airglow continuum. Until now mainly its existence was proven but studies on its properties based on large datasets are missing. To obtain reasonable results on the FeO* emission between 500-720 nm, one has to disentangle several continuum contributions. Nevertheless, the two main peaks are clearly visible in our X-Shooter spectra. Furthermore, we will compare FeO* to NaID intensities since they are expected to be linked in two ways: they are both replenished by meteors and their intensities should vary in union as both of them have ozone as a common reactant. We present a longterm study on the intensity measurements for FeO* and NaID to probe their variations.

Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Noll, Stefan; Kausch, Wolfgang; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Jones, Amy

2014-05-01

356

Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

Simmons, M.

2011-10-01

357

The associate principal astronomer telescope operations model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with ATIS, a language for commanding remotely located automatic telescopes. This paper introduces the notion of an Associate Principal Astronomer, or APA. At the heart of the APA is automatic observation loading and scheduling software, and it is this software that is expected to help achieve efficient and productive telescope operations. The purpose of the APA system is to make it possible for astronomers to submit observation requests to and obtain resulting data from remote automatic telescopes, via the Internet, in a highly-automated way that minimizes human interaction with the system and maximizes the scientific return from observing time.

Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Edgington, Will; Henry, Greg

1994-01-01

358

Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In our "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) will evolve our existing image display software into a fully extensible, cross-platform image display server that can run stand-alone or be integrated seamlessly into astronomical analysis systems. We will build a Plug-in Image Extension (PIE) server for astronomy, consisting of a modular image display engine that can be customized using "plug-in" technology. We will create plug-ins that reproduce all the current functionality of SAOtng. We also will devise a messaging system and a set of distributed, shared data objects to support integrating the PIE server into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we will migrate our PIE server, plug-ins, and messaging software from Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes cross-platform technology such as Tcl/Tk or Java.

Mandel, Eric

1997-01-01

359

Romanian Astronomical Activity in the Middle Ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors describe the main astronomical events and personalities in Romania since th Middle Ages, which begun aproximately at the threeshold between the first and second milleniums of ours era and ends only at the beggining of the 19-th century. The contributions by Ioan Vitez, Ioan Honterus, Conrad Haas, Sevastos Kymnitis, Israel Hubner, Constantin Cantacuzino, Hrisant Notara, Nicolae Mavrocordat, Maximilian Hell, Ignatius Bathyanni, Iosif Bede are underlined. The main contacts of Romanian astronomers with foreigners in such areas as teaching and observations are mentioned. The existing today museums of astronomical instruments are also mentioned. Bibliography: 4. The authors ommit to mention in the bibliography the outstanding book by George Stefan Andonie, concerning the History of Mathematics in Romania as well as few other sources.

Stavinschi, Magdalena; Mioc, Vasile

360

Book review: Odessa astronomical Almanac-2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reveiw of the Odessa Astronomical Almanac (Odesskii Astronomicheskii Kalendari, Astroprint, Odessa, 2006, 255 pp. ) is given for the constant part ( V.G. Karetnikov, V.V. Mihalchuk, A.A. Bazey, S.M. Andrievskii, I.L. Andronov, M.Yu. Volyanskaia, G.A. Garbuzov, N.I. Koshkin, V.A. Pozigun and M.I. Ryabov- astronomers from the Odessa Astronomical Observatory) and the papers published in the 2006 issue ( B.A. Murnikov , Yu.N. Kudria, A.V. Iushchenko, T.V. Mishenina, S.M. Andrievskii, V.N. Ishkov, V.A. Pozigun, M.I Ryabov, L.S. Kudashkina. V.I. Marsakova ?i V.V. Mihalchuk).

Gaina, Alex

361

The Utrecht Astronomical Institute, 1632 to 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utrecht University was founded in 1636. In 1642 the university's astronomical observatory was founded. It was, after that of Leyden, the second university observatory in the world. The observatory was initially located at the Smeetoren, a fortification dating from 1145. In 1854 it moved to Sonnenborgh, a stronghold dating from 1554. In 1987 the personnel moved again, this time to the university campus, the Uithof. We describe the development of research and education in Utrecht over the centuries, with emphasis on the period after 1920. In 2009 the faculty formulated a very favorable advice to the university, viz. that in view of its good potentials astronomical research and education should be strengthened in Utrecht. This decision was accentuated by a likely positive advice of an international visitation committee. But briefly after that the university decided to terminate astronomical education and research in Utrecht, an incomprehensible decision.

de Jager, C.

2013-01-01

362

How Did the Universe Begin?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they learn about the work of Edwin Hubble and how his work contributed to the formation of the Big Bang Theory. The site begins by briefly explaining Hubble's discoveries. It then explains how Belgian astronomer Georges Lema used Hubble's discovery to answer the question of the universe's origin with what later became known as the Big Bang Theory. A link to "The Big Bang" explains the theory in five kid-friendly steps. The site also includes a link to a "Create Your Own Timeline of the Universe" activity.

363

Early results from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite  

SciTech Connect

For 10 months the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) provided astronomers with what might be termed their first view of the infrared sky on a clear, dark night. Without IRAS, atmospheric absorption and the thermal emission from both the atmosphere and Earthbound telescopes make the task of the infrared astronomer comparable to what an optical astronomer would face if required to work only on cloudy afternoons. IRAS observations are serving astronomers in the same manner as the photographic plates of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey; just as the optical survey has been used by all astronomers for over three decades, as a source of quantitative information about the sky and as a roadmap for future observations, the results of IRAS will be studied for years to come. IRAS has demonstrated the power of infrared astronomy from space. Already, from a brief look at a miniscule fraction of the data available, we have learned much about the solar system, about nearby stars, about the Galaxy as a whole and about distant extragalactic systems. Comets are much dustier than previously thought. Solid particles, presumably the remnants of the star-formation process, orbit around Vega and other stars and may provide the raw material for planetary systems. Emission from cool interstellar material has been traced throughout the Galaxy all the way to the galactic poles. Both the clumpiness and breadth of the distribution of this material were previously unsuspected. The far-infrared sky away from the galactic plane has been found to be dominate by spiral galaxies, some of which emit more than 50% and as much as 98% of their energy in the infrared - an exciting and surprising revelation. The IRAS mission is clearly the pathfinder for future mission that, to a large extent, will be devoted to the discoveries revealed by IRAS. 8 figures.

Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.A.; Soifer, B.T.

1984-04-06

364

The Astronomical Society of New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New York Astronomical Corporation was formed in 1968 by astronomers at New York State universities, colleges and observatories with the aim of building a large telescope for the use of astronomers in the state. Hawaii was selected as a possible site for a 150-in telescope and for a period of five years a vigorous effort was made at fund raising. A grant was received from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation to help in the organization of the group. By 1973 it was decided to stop plans for a New York Telescope since we had no success in the fund raising. However our group was already involved in holding meetings at the member institutions and staff and students would give reports on their work. In 1973 we formally set up the Astronomical Society of New York. Meetings are held twice a year. The Fall meeting is held at Union College or RPI and at this time the business meeting of NYAC is held. The Spring meeting is held at the other member institutions, from Alfred University in the west and the State University of New York at Stony Brook, in the east. The proceedings of the meetings are published in the News Letter of the Astronomical Society of New York. Prizes are awarded for the best graduate and the best undergraduate papers submitted to the Prize Committee. The winners give invited talks at a meeting following the award. Travel grants are awarded to both graduate and undergraduate students who are granted time to observe on optical or radio telescopes. ASNY has provided a good platform for students to give their first papers and by awarding the prizes and travel grants ASNY has been able to support student research. The meetings help to maintain good contacts among New York astronomers.

Philip, A. G. D.

2000-05-01

365

Star Witness News: Hubble--A Lunar Prospecting Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story explains how the Hubble Space Telescope was used to assist scientists in finding natural resources on the Moon. This information can be used to introduce the idea of using reflected light to identify different materials on the Moon's surface. This selection is an adaptation of the HubbleSite press release: NASA's Hubble Looks for Possible Moon Resources. The article is from the Amazing Space science newspaper, The Star Witness, which can be used as a science content reading.

2005-10-01

366

Coronagraph for astronomical imaging and spectrophotometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coronagraph designed to minimize scattered light in astronomical observations caused by the structure of the primary mirror, secondary mirror, and secondary support structure of a Cassegrainian telescope is described. Direct (1:1) and reducing (2.7:1) imaging of astronomical fields are possible. High-quality images are produced. The coronagraph can be used with either a two-dimensional charge-coupled device or photographic film camera. The addition of transmission dispersing optics converts the coronagraph into a low-resolution spectrograph. The instrument is modular and portable for transport to different observatories.

Vilas, Faith; Smith, Bradford A.

1987-01-01

367

Recent Activities of Astronomical Society Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent activities of the astronomical society "Magellanic Cloud" from the town of Prokuplje are presented. The Society obtained recently equipment, including an apochromatic refractor of the aperture of 12 cm, Sky-Watcher NEQ6 PRO SynScan computerized equatorial mount, guiding system and additional accessories. Many astronomical events were observed since then, including the transit of the extrasolar planet of the star HD 189733 in Vulpecula. Also, the members of the Society made a lot of good photos of various cosmic objects and events.

Simonovic, A.; Mijajlovic, Z.; Valjarevic, A.

2012-12-01

368

Johann and Elizabeth Hevelius, astronomers of Danzig.  

PubMed

Elizabeth Hevelius (1647-1693) was the second wife of Johann Hevelius, the renowned astronomer of Danzig, and assisted with his observations from the first years of her marriage. Hevelius wrote of her in his books as an able collaborator and she is portrayed in one of them observing with him. She brought out his final, posthumous work. With Johann, she received many notable visitors (including Edmond Halley) and observed with some of them at Danzig. She is the first woman astronomer of whom we have any record. PMID:10824438

Cook, A

2000-01-01

369

An outstanding astronomer - N.N. Donitch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a history of collaboration between the astronomers N. Donitch and A.A. Baikov. Information on other astronomers, L.V. Ocoulitch and E.A. Von der Pahlen, and meteorologists V.H. Dubinskii and Nina Gouma, can also be found. Details on the expeditions aimed at observing the total solar eclipses on 30 August 1905 (organized by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Sankt-Petersburg) and 19 June 1936 (organized by the Romanian Royal Cultural foundation) are given.

Baikov, A. A.; Gaina, Alexei

1995-07-01

370

Astronomical Data Compression: Algorithms and Architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital data is the lifeblood of astronomy. Data compression deals with its efficient representation and transport. As focal planes become more crowded and observing cadences more rapid, ever increasing pressure will be applied to realize near-optimum performance. A typical observational workflow comprises many network links and storage nodes, multiplying the advantage of compression dramatically. Recent work on astronomical data compression has focused on the FITS tile compression convention (http://heasarc.gsfcnasa.gov/fitsio/fpack). This birds-of-a-feather session began a broader discussion of compression-aware astronomical data handling architectures, including compression techniques and algorithms appropriate to binary and ASCII catalogs as well as to imaging data.

Seaman, R.; Pence, W.; White, R.; Gaudet, S.

2010-12-01

371

APLpy: Astronomical Plotting Library in Python  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

APLpy (the Astronomical Plotting Library in Python) is a Python module for producing publication-quality plots of astronomical imaging data in FITS format. The module uses Matplotlib, a powerful and interactive plotting package. It is capable of creating output files in several graphical formats, including EPS, PDF, PS, PNG, and SVG. Plots can be made interactively or by using scripts, and can generate co-aligned FITS cubes to make three-color RGB images. It also offers different overlay capabilities, including contour sets, markers with customizable symbols, and coordinate grids, and a range of other useful features.

Robitaille, Thomas; Bressert, Eli

2012-08-01

372

Hubble Observes a New Saturn Storm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the ringed planet Saturn shows a rare storm that appears as a white arrowhead-shaped feature near the planet's equator. The storm is generated by an upwelling of warmer air, similar to a terrestrial thunderhead. The east-west extent of this storm is equal to the diameter of the Earth (about 7,900 miles). Hubble provides new details about the effects of Saturn's prevailing winds on the storm. The new image shows that the storm's motion and size have changed little since its discovery in September, 1994.

The storm was imaged with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) in the wide field mode on December 1, 1994, when Saturn was 904 million miles from the Earth. The picture is a composite of images taken through different color filters within a 6 minute interval to create a 'true-color' rendition of the planet. The blue fringe on the right limb of the planet is an artifact of image processing used to compensate for the rotation of the planet between exposures.

The Hubble images are sharp enough to reveal that Saturn's prevailing winds shape a dark 'wedge' that eats into the western (left) side of the bright central cloud. The planet's strongest eastward winds (clocked at 1,000 miles per hour from analysis of Voyager spacecraft images taken in 1980-81) are at the latitude of the wedge.

To the north of this arrowhead-shaped feature, the winds decrease so that the storm center is moving eastward relative to the local flow. The clouds expanding north of the storm are swept westward by the winds at higher latitudes. The strong winds near the latitude of the dark wedge blow over the northern part of the storm, creating a secondary disturbance that generates the faint white clouds to the east (right) of the storm center.

The storm's white clouds are ammonia ice crystals that form when an upward flow of warmer gases shoves its way through Saturn's frigid cloud tops. This current storm is larger than the white clouds associated with minor storms that have been reported more frequently as bright cloud features.

Hubble observed a similar, though larger, storm in September 1990, which was one of three major Saturn storms seen over the past two centuries. Although these events were separated by about 57 years (approximately 2 Saturnian years) there is yet no explanation why they apparently follow a cycle -- occurring when it is summer in Saturn's northern hemisphere.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1994-01-01

373

Hubble Provides Clear Images of Saturn's Aurora  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the first image of Saturn's ultraviolet aurora taken by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope in October 1997, when Saturn was a distance of 810 million miles (1.3 billion kilometers) from Earth. The new instrument, used as a camera, provides more than ten times the sensitivity of previous Hubble instruments in the ultraviolet. STIS images reveal exquisite detail never before seen in the spectacular auroral curtains of light that encircle Saturn's north and south poles and rise more than a thousand miles above the cloud tops.

Saturn's auroral displays are caused by an energetic wind from the Sun that sweeps over the planet, much like the Earths aurora that is occasionally seen in the nighttime sky and similar to the phenomenon that causes fluorescent lamps to glow. But unlike the Earth, Saturn's aurora is only seen in ultraviolet light that is invisible from the Earths surface, hence the aurora can only be observed from space. New Hubble images reveal ripples and overall patterns that evolve slowly, appearing generally fixed in our view and independent of planet rotation. At the same time, the curtains show local brightening that often follow the rotation of the planet and exhibit rapid variations on time scales of minutes. These variations and regularities indicate that the aurora is primarily shaped and powered by a continual tug-of-war between Saturn's magnetic field and the flow of charged particles from the Sun.

Study of the aurora on Saturn had its beginnings just seventeen years ago. The Pioneer 11 spacecraft observed a far-ultraviolet brightening on Saturn's poles in 1979. The Saturn flybys of the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in the early 1980s provided a basic description of the aurora and mapped for the first time planets enormous magnetic field that guides energetic electrons into the atmosphere near the north and south poles.

The first images of Saturn's aurora were provided in 1994-5 by the Hubble Space Telescopes Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC2). Much greater ultraviolet sensitivity of the new STIS instrument allows the workings of Saturn's magnetosphere and upper atmosphere to be studied in much greater detail. These Hubble aurora investigations provide a framework that will ultimately complement the in situ measurements of Saturn's magnetic field and charged particles by NASA/ ESA's Cassini spacecraft, now en route to its rendezvous with Saturn early in the next decade.

Two STIS imaging modes have been used to discriminate between ultraviolet emissions predominantly from hydrogen atoms (shown in red) and emissions due to molecular hydrogen (shown in blue). Hence the bright red aurora features are dominated by atomic hydrogen, while the white traces within them map the more tightly confined regions of molecular hydrogen emissions. The southern aurora is seen at lower right, the northern at upper left.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1998-01-01

374

Hubble, a view to the edge of space : telescope tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eight thumbnail images of key features of the Hubble Space Telescope surround this drawing of Hubble. Users can move their mouse over the image of a feature to reveal both the location(s) of the feature and a description of its function. The solar arrays, communications antennae, aperture door, and fine gauge sensors are among the featured parts. Three of the eight feature descriptions offer users the option to link to additional information about these parts of Hubble. Links to more information and to activities about Hubble are provided at the bottom of the page. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2001-01-01

375

Hubble : a view to the edge of space, gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gallery offers 20 photographs of the Hubble Space Telescope operations at the Space Science Telescope Institute and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The images are presented as enlargeable thumbnails. When enlarged, captions appear that describe the connection between each photograph's contents and the functioning of Hubble. The behind-the-scenes images include some of the clean room where Hubble components were constructed. The opening screen offers a link to a set of interactive panoramic photographs of other Hubble-related scenes. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2001-01-01

376

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field Lithograph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field lithograph shows the deepest visible light observation of the early universe. In vibrant contrast to the image's rich harvest of classic spiral and elliptical galaxies, there is a zoo of oddball galaxies littering the field. Some look like toothpicks; others like links on a bracelet. A few appear to be interacting. In the accompanying educational activity, In Search of...Galaxy Evolution, students investigate galaxies from different eras to determine how they have evolved and changed over time through a level 1 inquiry activity using the images and text from the lithograph and other resources. A level 1 inquiry activity can help prepare students to become independent thinkers.

377

Hubble imaging excludes cosmic string lens  

SciTech Connect

The galaxy image pair Capodimonte-Sternberg-Lens Candidate no. 1 (CSL-1) has been a leading candidate for a cosmic string lens. High quality imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope presented here show that it is not a lens but a pair of galaxies. The galaxies show different orientations of their principal axes, not consistent with any lens model. We present a new direct test of the straight-string lens model, using a displaced difference of the image from itself to exclude CSL-1 at high confidence.

Agol, Eric; Hogan, Craig J.; Plotkin, Richard M. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1580 (United States)

2006-04-15

378

Hubble Captures Volcanic Eruption Plume From Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a picture of a 400-km-high (250-mile-high) plume of gas and dust from a volcanic eruption on Io, Jupiter's large innermost moon.

Io was passing in front of Jupiter when this image was taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in July 1996. The plume appears as an orange patch just off the edge of Io in the eight o'clock position, against the blue background of Jupiter's clouds. Io's volcanic eruptions blasts material hundreds of kilometers into space in giant plumes of gas and dust. In this image, material must have been blown out of the volcano at more than 2,000 mph to form a plume of this size, which is the largest yet seen on Io.

Until now, these plumes have only been seen by spacecraft near Jupiter, and their detection from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope opens up new opportunities for long-term studies of these remarkable phenomena.

The plume seen here is from Pele, one of Io's most powerful volcanos. Pele's eruptions have been seen before. In March 1979, the Voyager 1 spacecraft recorded a 300-km-high eruption cloud from Pele. But the volcano was inactive when the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Jupiter in July 1979. This Hubble observation is the first glimpse of a Pele eruption plume since the Voyager expeditions.

Io's volcanic plumes are much taller than those produced by terrestrial volcanos because of a combination of factors. The moon's thin atmosphere offers no resistance to the expanding volcanic gases; its weak gravity (one-sixth that of Earth) allows material to climb higher before falling; and its biggest volcanos are more powerful than most of Earth's volcanos.

This image is a contrast-enhanced composite of an ultraviolet image (2600 Angstrom wavelength), shown in blue, and a violet image (4100 Angstrom wavelength), shown in orange. The orange color probably occurs because of the absorption and/or scattering of ultraviolet light in the plume. This light from Jupiter passes through the plume and is absorbed by sulfur dioxide gas or is scattered by fine dust, or both, while violet light passes through unimpeded. Future HST observations may be able to distinguish between the gas and dust explanations.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1997-01-01

379

Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes one of the most comprehensive models ever developed for a spacecraft electrical power system (EPS). The model was developed for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to evaluate vehicle power system performance and to assist in scheduling maintenance and refurbishment missions by providing data needed to forecast EPS power and energy margins for the mission phases being planned. The EPS model requires a specific mission phase description as the input driver and uses a high granularity database to produce a multi-orbit power system performance report. The EPS model accurately predicts the power system response to various mission timelines over the entire operational life of the spacecraft.

Baggett, Randy; Miller, Jim; Leisgang, Tom

1988-01-01

380

Two from Hubble: Hubble's Panoramic Portrait of a Vast Star-Forming Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These latest findings from Hubble will appeal to anyone with even a passing interest in astronomy. This site gives us a glimpse into the 30 Doradus Nebula where stars are born. Th release includes an introduction, background information, stunning photos, animations, videos, related links, and more.

2001-01-01

381

Combined ultraviolet studies of astronomical sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultraviolet studies of astronomical sources are discussed. Some studies utilized IVE data. Non-radiative shock at the edge of the Cygnses Loop, stellar flares, local interestellar medium, hot galaxies, stellar mass ejection, contact binaries, double quasars, and stellar chromosphere and coronae are discussed.

Dupree, A. K.; Giampapa, M. S.; Huchra, J. P.; Noyes, R. W.; Hartmann, L. W.; Raymond, J. C.

1982-01-01

382

``Astronomical Spectroscopy & the Virtual Observatory'': Concluding remarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Euro-VO Workshop ``Astronomical Spectroscopy & the Virtual Observatory'' has been a great success. It has provided an excellent forum for discussion between the community of data providers and scientific users, and teams involved in the development of the Virtual Observatory. The paper summarises lessons learnt and key topics.

Genova, F.

2008-10-01

383

Radio astronomical imaging and phase information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some basic concepts in use for making astronomical observations at radio wavelengths are introduced. In particular the importance of phase information for imaging in radio astronomy is highlighted. Using simple examples it is demonstrated how phase information is much more essential than that even of amplitude for an image reconstruction from its Fourier components.

Ashok K. Singal

2005-01-01

384

Expedition of Pulkovo Astronomers to Chile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief account of the history of the Pulkovo astronomers' expedition to Chile is given. The progress of its work during the 5 years (1962-1968) is described. A short review covering the history of the National Observatory of Chile is given (Part 2). The ...

M. S. Zverev

1971-01-01

385

The Astronomical Code of the Rgveda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the extensively revised edition of the classic book that presented the author's discovery of an astronomical code in the organization of the Rgveda. This code has changed our understanding of the Vedic system of knowledge, rise of earliest astronomy, history of science, and the chronology of ancient India. The work was first reported in a series of journal

Subhash Kak

2000-01-01

386

Public software for the astronomer - An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sources of public software are described that are available over wide-area research networks in journals and from government sources which may be valuable to the astronomer and astrophysicist. A very large amount of high-quality public software is accessible at all times. Locations with material useful for research are emphasized with practical suggestions regarding access.

Feigelson, Eric D.; Murtagh, Fionn

1992-01-01

387

Children's understanding of familiar astronomical events  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I describe the notions used by children aged 9?16 years to account for a number of easily observed astronomical events. General features in the development of the notions are identified and historical parallels are noted.The data presented come from a wider study intended to develop materials and approaches for teaching astronomy as part of the science curriculum

John Baxter

1989-01-01

388

Early Astronomical Sequential Photography, 1873-1923  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1873 Jules Janssen conceived the first automatic sequential photographic apparatus to observe the eagerly anticipated 1874 transit of Venus. This device, the 'photographic revolver', is commonly considered today as the earliest cinema precursor. In the following years, in order to study the variability or the motion of celestial objects, several instruments, either manually or automatically actuated, were devised to obtain as many photographs as possible of astronomical events in a short time interval. In this paper we strive to identify from the available documents the attempts made between 1873 and 1923, and discuss the motivations behind them and the results obtained. During the time period studied astronomical sequential photography was employed to determine the time of the instants of contact in transits and occultations, and to study total solar eclipses. The technique was seldom used but apparently the modern film camera invention played no role on this situation. Astronomical sequential photographs were obtained both before and after 1895. We conclude that the development of astronomical sequential photography was constrained by the reduced number of subjects to which the technique could be applied.

Bonifácio, Vitor

2011-11-01

389

Space Place: How Astronomers "Detwinkle" the Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article contains a series of kinesthetic activities, explaining and demonstrating why stars twinkle and what astronomers can do to minimize it. The activities can be used to demonstrate how Earth's atmosphere distorts starlight and how advanced telescope technology (adaptive optics) is used to compensate for this distortion.

390

Simon Newcomb, America's First Great Astronomer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1854, at age 19, Simon Newcomb stood outside the gates of the US Naval Observatory in Washington, DC, longing to go inside to see the telescopes and perhaps even meet one of the astronomers. But he had no idea how he might be received; he was not a US ...

M. S. Carter W. E. Carter

2009-01-01

391

2003 Edition of The Astronomical Almanac  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Astronomical Almanac is a joint publication of the U.S. Naval Observatory (US) and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (UK). The next edition (available January 2002 for year 2003) of this publication contains several important new features and changes. For example, there is a completely revised section on Minor Planets\\/Comets that includes modern ephemerides of the 15 largest asteroids. The

S. Howard

2001-01-01

392

New asteroid Ephemerides for the Astronomical Almanac  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new set of ephemerides for 15 of the largest asteroids has been produced for use in the Astronomical Almanac. The ephemerides cover the period from 1800 through 2050. The internal uncertainty in the mean longitude at epoch, 18 Dec 1997, ranges from 0\\\\farcs05 for 7 Iris through 0\\\\farcs22 for 65 Cybele and the uncertainty in the mean motion varies

James L. Hilton

1998-01-01

393

Professional Astronomers in Service to the AAVSO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout its 100-year history, the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) has welcomed professional astronomers to its membership ranks, and has encouraged their participation as organization leaders. The AAVSO has been fortunate to have many distinguished professionals serve as officers (Directors, Presidents, Council), and as participants in its various scientific and organizational committees.

Saladyga, Michael; Waagen, E. O.

2011-05-01

394

Professional Astronomers in Service to the AAVSO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Abstract only) Throughout its 100-year history, the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) has welcomed professional astronomers to its membership ranks, and has encouraged their participation as organization leaders. The AAVSO has been fortunate to have over 60 distinguished professionals serve as officers (Directors, Presidents, Council), and as participants in its various scientific and organizational committees.

Saladyga, M.; Waagen, E. O.

2012-06-01

395

The Virtual Astronomical Observatory Users Forum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the online forum astrobabel.com, which has the goal of being a gathering place for the collective community intelligence about astronomical computing. The audience for this forum is anyone engaged in the analysis of astronomical or planetary data, whether that data be observational or theoretical. It is a free, community driven site where discussions are formulated primarily around the "question and answer" format. Current topics on the forum range from “Is there a photometry package in Python?” to “Where are the support forums for astronomy software packages?” and “Why is my SDSS SkyQuery query missing galaxies?” The poster will detail the full scope of discussions in the forum, and provide some basic guidelines for ensuring high quality forum posts. We will highlight the ways astronomers can discover and participate in discussions. Further, we view this as an excellent opportunity to gather feedback and feature requests from AAS221 attendees. Acknowledgement: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Muench, August A.; Emery Bunn, S.; Astronomical Observatory, Virtual

2013-01-01

396

Nathaniel Bowditch, Early American Amateur Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nathaniel Bowditch had very successful careers as a seaman/ship's master and as an actuary/insurance executive. In addition he managed to make very substantial contributions to mathematics and astronomy. Bowditch is therefore important as one of the earliest significant amateur astronomers in the United States.

Williams, Thomas R.

1984-10-01

397

HUBBLE CAPTURES MERGER BETWEEN QUASAR AND GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows evidence fo r a merger between a quasar and a companion galaxy. This surprising result might require theorists to rethink their explanations for the nature of quasars, the most energetic objects in the universe. The bright central object is the quasar itself, located several billion light-years away. The two wisps on the (left) of the bright central object are remnants of a bright galaxy that have been disrupted by the mutual gravitational attraction between the quasar and the companion galaxy. This provides clear evidence for a merger between the two objects. Since their discovery in 1963, quasars (quasi-stellar objects) have been enigmatic because they emit prodigious amounts of energy from a very compact source. The most widely accepted model is that a quasar is powered by a supermassive black hole in the core of a galaxy. These new observations proved a challenge for theorists as no current models predict the complex quasar interactions unveiled by Hubble. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. Credit: John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study, NASA.

2002-01-01

398

Hubble Reopens Eye on the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hubble Telescope has reopened for business following the successful December 1999 servicing mission, and the first images to come back are magnificent. The first of these sites offers images and explanatory text related to the "Eskimo" Nebula, "the glowing remains of a dying, Sun-like star." The nebula is called the "Eskimo" because, when viewed from a ground-based telescope, it resembles a face surrounded by a fur parka. This parka is actually "a disk of material embellished with a ring of comet-shaped objects, with their tails streaming away from the central, dying star." Users can read about the nebula and view some beautiful images at the above URL. The second significant new view from the Hubble is of a huge cluster of galaxies called Abell 2218. This cluster is so massive that it actually deflects light passing through it, magnifying and distorting images from distant objects. Thus, "the cluster's magnifying powers provides a powerful 'zoom lens' for viewing distant galaxies that could not normally be observed with the largest telescopes." Text and photos in several formats can be accessed from the introductory page.

2000-01-01

399

Astronomical Data Center Bulletin, volume 1, number 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work in progress on astronomical catalogs is presented in 16 papers. Topics cover astronomical data center operations; automatic astronomical data retrieval at GSFC; interactive computer reference search of astronomical literature 1950-1976; formatting, checking, and documenting machine-readable catalogs; interactive catalog of UV, optical, and HI data for 201 Virgo cluster galaxies; machine-readable version of the general catalog of variable stars, third edition; galactic latitude and magnitude distribution of two astronomical catalogs; the catalog of open star clusters; infrared astronomical data base and catalog of infrared observations; the Air Force geophysics laboratory; revised magnetic tape of the N30 catalog of 5,268 standard stars; positional correlation of the two-micron sky survey and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory catalog sources; search capabilities for the catalog of stellar identifications (CSI) 1979 version; CSI statistics: blue magnitude versus spectral type; catalogs available from the Astronomical Data Center; and status report on machine-readable astronomical catalogs.

Nagy, T. A.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Mead, J. M.

1981-01-01

400

SkyMaker: Astronomical Image Simulations Made Easy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SkyMaker is a program that simulates astronomical images. It accepts object lists in ASCII generated by the Stuff program to produce realistic astronomical fields. SkyMaker is part of the EFIGI development project.

Bertin, Emmanuel; Fouqué, Pascal

2010-10-01

401

Astronomical imaging with InSb arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten years ago, Forrest presented the first astronomical images with a Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) 32 x 32 InSb array camera at the first NASA-Ames Infrared Detector Technology Work-shop. Soon after, SBRC began development of 58 x 62 InSb arrays, both for ground-based astronomy and for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). By the time of the 1987 Hilo workshop 'Ground-based Astronomical Observations with Infrared Array Dectectors' astronomical results from cameras based on SBRC 32 x 32 and 58 x 62 InSb arrays, a CE linear InSb array, and a French 32 x 32 InSb charge injection device (CID) array were presented. And at the Tucson 1990 meeting 'Astrophysics with Infrared Arrays', it was clear that this new technology was no longer the province of 'IR pundits', but provided a tool for all astronomers. At this meeting, the first astronomical observations with SBRC's new, gateless passivation 256 x 256 InSb arrays will be presented: they perform spectacularly] In this review, I can only broadly brush on the interesting science completed with InSb array cameras. Because of the broad wavelength coverage (1-5.5 micrometer) of InSb, and the extremely high performance levels throughout the band, InSb cameras are used not only in the near IR, but also from 3-5.5 micrometer, where unique science is achieved. For example, the point-like central engines of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are delineated at L' and M', and Bra and 3.29 micrometer dust emission images of galactic and extragalactic objects yield excitation conditions. Examples of imaging spectroscopy, high spatial resolution imaging, as well as deep, broad-band imaging with InSb cameras at this meeting illustrate the power of InSb array cameras.

Pipher, Judith L.

402

Sociological profile of astronomers in Spain.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

de Ussel, J. I.; Trinidad, A.; Ruíz, D.; Battaner, E.; Delgado, A. J.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Salvador-Solé, E.; Torrelles, J. M.

403

Sociological Profile of Astronomers in Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of Astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish Astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of Astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines Astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of Astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

Iglesias de Ussel, Julio; Trinidad, Antonio; Ruiz, Diego; Battaner, Eduardo; Delgado, Antonio J.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, José M.; Salvador-Solé, Eduard; Torrelles, José M.

404

Sandage, Allan Rex (1926-)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer, born in Iowa City, IA. Worked with WALTER BAADE and EDWIN HUBBLE, and became professor at Mount Wilson and Palomar observatories. His research has focused on the biggest problems in cosmology. He determined the ages of the stars in globular clusters (the oldest objects known, apart from the chemical elements). In 1960, with JESSE GREENSTEIN, he identified the radio source 3C48 as a bl...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

405

V. M. Slipher and the Development of the Nebular Spectrograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vesto Melvin Slipher was the first astronomer to clearly define the factors that determine the “speed” of a nebular spectrograph. This brief historical summary recounts the way these ideas developed and how Slipher's early work on galaxy Doppler shifts was so quickly extended in the 1930s when Milton Humason and Edwin Hubble at Mt. Wilson Observatory began to push the velocity-distance relationship to such a depth that no one could doubt its cosmological significance.

Thompson, L. A.

2013-04-01

406

Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

1988-01-01

407

Novel optical designs for consumer astronomical telescopes and their application to professional imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope there has been widespread popular interest in astronomy. A further series of events, most notably the recent Deep Impact mission and Mars oppositions have served to fuel further interest. As a result more and more amateurs are coming into astronomy as a practical hobby. At the same time more sophisticated optical equipment is becoming available as the price to performance ratio become more favourable. As a result larger and better optical telescopes are now in use by amateurs. We also have the explosive growth in digital imaging technologies. In addition to displacing photographic film as the preferred image capture modality it has made the capture of high quality astronomical imagery more accessible to a wider segment of the astronomy community. However, this customer requirement has also had an impact on telescope design. There has become a greater imperative for wide flat image fields in these telescopes to take advantage of the ongoing advances in CCD imaging technology. As a result of these market drivers designers of consumer astronomical telescopes are now producing state of the art designs that result in wide, flat fields with optimal spatial and chromatic aberrations. Whilst some of these designs are not scalable to the larger apertures required for professional ground and airborne telescope use there are some that are eminently suited to make this transition.

Wise, Peter; Hodgson, Alan

2006-07-01

408

International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) ultraviolet spectral atlas of selected astronomical objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The IUE Ultraviolet Spectral Atlas of Selected Astronomical Objects (or 'the Atlas'), is based on the data that were available in the IUE archive in 1986, and is intended to be a quick reference for the ultraviolet spectra of many categories of astronomical objects. It shows reflected sunlight from the Moon, planets, and asteroids, and also shows emission from comets. Comprehensive compilations of UV spectra for main sequence, subgiant, giant, bright giant, and supergiant stars are published elsewhere. This Atlas contains the spectra for objects occupying other areas of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram: pre-main sequence stars, chemically peculiar stars, pulsating variables, subluminous stars, and Wolf-Rayet stars. This Atlas also presents phenomena such as the chromospheric and transition region emissions from late-type stars; composite spectra of stars, gas streams, accretion disks and gas envelopes of binary systems; the behavior of gas ejecta shortly after the outburst of novac and supernovac; and the H II regions, planetary nebulae, and supernova remnants. Population 2 stars, globular clusters, and luminous stars in the Magellanic Clouds, M31, and M33, are also included in this publication. Finally, the Atlas gives the ultraviolet spectra of galaxies of different Hubble types and of active galaxies.

Wu, Chi-Chao; Reichert, Gail A.; Ake, Thomas B.; Boggess, Albert; Holm, Albert V.; Imhoff, Catherine L.; Kondo, Yoji; Mead, Jaylee M.; Shore, Steven N.

1992-01-01

409

International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) ultraviolet spectral atlas of selected astronomical objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IUE Ultraviolet Spectral Atlas of Selected Astronomical Objects (or 'the Atlas'), is based on the data that were available in the IUE archive in 1986, and is intended to be a quick reference for the ultraviolet spectra of many categories of astronomical objects. It shows reflected sunlight from the Moon, planets, and asteroids, and also shows emission from comets. Comprehensive compilations of UV spectra for main sequence, subgiant, giant, bright giant, and supergiant stars are published elsewhere. This Atlas contains the spectra for objects occupying other areas of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram: pre-main sequence stars, chemically peculiar stars, pulsating variables, subluminous stars, and Wolf-Rayet stars. This Atlas also presents phenomena such as the chromospheric and transition region emissions from late-type stars; composite spectra of stars, gas streams, accretion disks and gas envelopes of binary systems; the behavior of gas ejecta shortly after the outburst of novac and supernovac; and the H II regions, planetary nebulae, and supernova remnants. Population 2 stars, globular clusters, and luminous stars in the Magellanic Clouds, M31, and M33, are also included in this publication. Finally, the Atlas gives the ultraviolet spectra of galaxies of different Hubble types and of active galaxies.

Wu, Chi-Chao; Reichert, Gail A.; Ake, Thomas B.; Boggess, Albert; Holm, Albert V.; Imhoff, Catherine L.; Kondo, Yoji; Mead, Jaylee M.; Shore, Steven N.

1992-11-01

410

The Hubble type of the Milky Way Galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the established relationship between the Hubble types and the absolute magnitudes of galaxies and the scale length of the radial distribution of H II regions in galaxies, it is seen that the Hubble type of the Milky Way Galaxy is Sc or SBc. Consideration is given to the uncertainties in this conclusion.

P. W. Hodge

1983-01-01

411

A generalized linear Hubble law for an inhomogeneous barotropic universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, I present a generalized linear Hubble law for a barotropic spherically symmetric inhomogeneous spacetime, which is in principle compatible with the acceleration of the cosmic expansion obtained as a result of high redshift supernovae data. The new Hubble function, defined by this law, has two additional terms besides an expansion term, similar to the usual volume expansion

J.-F. Pascual-Sánchez

2000-01-01