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1

Did Edwin Hubble plagiarize?  

E-print Network

Recently Block published an astro-ph [arXiv:1106.3928 (2011)] insinuating that Hubble censored a prior publication of his famous and seminal discovery of the expansion of the universe. This issue was investigated by us in detail as part of the book: The Quest for Chemical Element Genesis and What the Chemical Elements Tell about the Universe (Accepted for publication, Springer Pub. Heidelberg, 2011.) Since the book is due in few months, we extract here the relevant parts. Our summary: We exonerate Hubble from the charge that he censored or ignored or plagiarized Lemaitre's earlier theoretical discovery.

Shaviv, Giora

2011-01-01

2

Edwin Hubble. Mariner of the nebulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biography of Edwin Hubble has been acclaimed by professionals and laymen alike. It is both the biography of an extraordinary human being and the story of the greatest quest in the history of astronomy since the Copernican revolution. Born in 1889 and reared in the village of Marshfield, Missouri, Edwin Powell Hubble became one of the towering figures in

G. E. Christianson

1997-01-01

3

Edwin Hubble. Mariner of the nebulae.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This biography of Edwin Hubble has been acclaimed by professionals and laymen alike. It is both the biography of an extraordinary human being and the story of the greatest quest in the history of astronomy since the Copernican revolution. Born in 1889 and reared in the village of Marshfield, Missouri, Edwin Powell Hubble became one of the towering figures in 20th century science. Hubble worked with the great 100 inch Hooker telescope at California's Mount Wilson Observatory and made a series of discoveries that revolutionized humanity's vision of the cosmos. In 1923 he was able to confirm the existence of other nebulae beyond our own Milky Way. By the end of the decade, he had proven that the universe is expanding, thus laying the very cornerstone of the "Big Bang" theory of creation. It was Hubble who developed the elegant scheme by which the galaxies are classified as ellipticals and spirals, and it was Hubble who first provided reliable evidence that the universe is homogeneous, the same in all directions as far as the telescope can see.

Christianson, G. E.

4

Hubble, Edwin Powell (1889-1953)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronomer, born in Marshfield, MO, trained as a lawyer, with a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford University. Switched to astronomy at the University of Chicago, and became a staff astronomer at Mount Wilson Observatory where he had access to the best telescope in the world at that time---the 100 in telescope. Hubble was regarded as an aloof scientist, and, by contrast

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

5

Hubble, Edwin Powell (1889-1953)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer, born in Marshfield, MO, trained as a lawyer, with a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford University. Switched to astronomy at the University of Chicago, and became a staff astronomer at Mount Wilson Observatory where he had access to the best telescope in the world at that time—the 100 in telescope. Hubble was regarded as an aloof scientist, and, by contrast say to FRED HOYLE, did not spe...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

6

The man who discovered the expansion of the universe: the life and work of Edwin Hubble  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is written to the centenary of Edwin Hubble (1889 - 1953). It gives a detailed description of the life and activities of this famous astronomer. The authors have used not only published - surprisingly few - materials, but a lot of documents that never have been published before.

A. S. Sharov; I. D. Novikov

1989-01-01

7

Edwin Hubble's Famous Plate of 1923, and a Hubble-Hubble Connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 6, 1923 Edwin Hubble used the Mount Wilson 100-inch telescope to take a 45 minute exposure of a field in the Andromeda galaxy. This is the now-famous plate marked with his "VAR!" notation. I will discuss this plate and that notation. I will also tell the story of flying copies of that plate on the deployment mission for HST in 1990 as a Hubble memento and then locating those copies afterwards, and how copies were flown on Servicing Mission 4 on 2009 as well. This has led to an effort in which AAVSO members joined to identify and reobserve that noted star, arguably the most important object in the history of cosmology, but largely ignored since Hubble's time.

Soderblom, David R.

2011-05-01

8

The Animated Story of Edwin Hubble and the Discovery of the Structure of the Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The turning point in our understanding of the Universe was when Edwin Hubble determined the distances to nearby galaxies and showed conclusively that they are islands of stars separate from our own. Our computer animation explains the key moments of that story: the puzzle about the nature of galaxies, the decisive role and the power of the Hooker telescope at

Tony Longson; P. Armitage; Y. Chu; G. Dzhambazyan; H. Bayindir; J. Yefimenko; V. Simonian; S. Levitin; A. Sullivan; J. Shitanishi; D. Wells; F. Wong; E. Y. E. Kang; M. Mijic; Cal State LA SciVi Project

2009-01-01

9

The Edwin Hubble papers - Previously unpublished manuscripts on the extragalactic nature of spiral nebulae  

SciTech Connect

Edwin Hubble's previously unpublished manuscripts on the extragalactic nature of spiral nebulae are presented. Manuscripts include the Cepheid criterion and spiral nebulae, Van Maanen's corrobarative evidence, the build up of a star image on a photographic plate, measures of M81 for internal motion, and angular rotations of spiral nebulae.

Hetherington, N.S.

1990-01-01

10

"HUBBLE, the astronomer, the telescope, the results"  

E-print Network

The fundamental discoveries made by Edwin Hubble in the first quarter of the last century will be presented. The space telescope bearing his name will be introduced, as well as the strategy put in place by NASA and the European Space Agency for its operation and its maintenance on-orbit. The personal experience of the speaker having participated in two of five servicing mission will be exposed and illustrated by pictures taken on-orbit. Finally, the main results obtained by the orbital observatory will be presented, in particular the ones related to the large scale structure of the Universe and its early history

CERN. Geneva

2011-01-01

11

Astronomers Track Down Asteroids in Hubble Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information related to the recently discovered asteroid 1997XF11. The Space Science Telescope Institute site has begun to document how astronomers are using photos from the Hubble Space Telescope to find asteroids; over 100 small asteroids have so far been found, of which captioned examples of four (in various formats) are now available.

1998-01-01

12

Multiple Galaxy Collisions Surprise Hubble Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recent surprising discoveries have led Hubble space telescope astronomers to rethink theories on a class of galaxies called ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRG). It was previously believed that only pairs of galaxies were interacting in ULIRGs, but recent photos from Hubble show multiple collisions of four or even five galaxies smashing together. The images, provided at this site, offer a glimpse of what conditions were like in the early universe when galaxy collisions were commonplace. Users can read the official press release and view a number of images in different sizes and formats at the above URL. Additional resources include two QuickTime movies of astronomer Dr. Kirk Borne discussing his new finding and describing one of the images, and links to related discoveries at the Hubble site.

1999-01-01

13

Spectroscopy with Copernicus and the Edwin P. Hubble Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of operation of the Rowland spectrometer aboard the Copernicus satellite and the High-Resolution and the Faint-Object spectrometers of the Hubble Space Telescope (ST) are described. The results obtained with these spectrometers are presented. For the Rowland spectrometer, these include a highly accurate scan of Zeta Oph spectrum over 1047-1055 A, a profile of Lyman-gamma in Beta Cen, and

L. Spitzer Jr.

1986-01-01

14

The Animated Story of Edwin Hubble and the Discovery of the Structure of the Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turning point in our understanding of the Universe was when Edwin Hubble determined the distances to nearby galaxies and showed conclusively that they are islands of stars separate from our own. Our computer animation explains the key moments of that story: the puzzle about the nature of galaxies, the decisive role and the power of the Hooker telescope at the Mt. Wilson Observatory, the discovery and use of Cepheids in the Andromeda galaxy, and the subsequent interpretation of results as this new paradigm of the universe filled with islands of stars was established. The animation can be used as educational material in classroom or in any public education setting

Longson, Tony; Armitage, P.; Chu, Y.; Dzhambazyan, G.; Bayindir, H.; Park, D.; Yefimenko, J.; Simonian, V.; Levitin, S.; Sullivan, A.; Shitanishi, J.; Wells, D.; Wong, F.; Kang, E. Y. E.; Mijic, M.; State LA SciVi Project, Cal

2009-05-01

15

Hubble Astronomers Unveil: Crab Nebula The Movie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amazing photos have been added to the Space Telescope Electronic Information Service Site in May 1996. Hubble Space Telescope images released include Dynamics of the Crab Nebula and Doomed Star Eta Carinae. Included are several black & white and color resolutions, as well as well as explanatory captions.

1996-01-01

16

Hubble Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship that states that the recessional velocities of distant galaxies are directly proportional to their distances. It is named after the American astronomer Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953) who, in 1929, published his discovery that the redshifts in the spectra of galaxies are proportional to their distances. This was one of the key discoveries in cosmology for it showed that the galaxies a...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

17

In Edwin Hubble's shadow: Early investigations on the expansion of the Universe.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview on the progress on theoretical and observational cosmology in the first half of the 20th century is given. We outline the Einstein, de Sitter and Friedmann-Lemaître models, and describe the quest for the observational confirmation of the de Sitter universe, as well as the first theoretical and observational work on the Friedmann-Lemaître universe. We analyze the attempts to determine the expansion parameter from the databases of Lundmark, Strömberg, Lemaître, Hubble, Hubble und Humason und de Sitter, and we trace early research on the deceleration parameter by Silberstein.

Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Seitter, Waltraut C.

18

Astronomers celebrate a year of new Hubble results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"We are beginning to understand that because of these observations we are going to have to change the way we look at the Universe," said ESA's Dr Duccio Macchetto, Associate Director for Science Programs at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The European Space Agency plays a major role in the Hubble Space Telescope programme. The Agency provided one of the telescope's four major instruments, called the Faint Object Camera, and two sets of electricity-generating solar arrays. In addition, 15 ESA scientific and technical staff work at the STScI. In return for this contribution, European astronomers are entitled to 15 percent of the telescope's observing time, although currently they account for 20 percent of all observations. "This is a testimony to the quality of the European science community", said Dr Roger Bonnet, Director of Science at ESA. "We are only guaranteed 15 percent of the telescope's use, but consistently receive much more than that." Astronomers from universities, observatories and research institutes across Europe lead more than 60 investigations planned for the telescope's fifth observing cycle, which begins this summer. Many more Europeans contribute to teams led by other astronomers. Looking back to the very start of time European astronomer Dr Peter Jakobsen used ESA's Faint Object Camera to confirm that helium was present in the early Universe. Astronomers had long predicted that 90 percent of the newly born Universe consisted of hydrogen, with helium making up the remainder. Before the refurbished Hubble came along, it was easy to detect the hydrogen, but the primordial helium remained elusive. The ultraviolet capabilities of the telescope, combined with the improvement in spatial resolution following the repair, made it possible for Dr Jakobsen to obtain an image of a quasar close to the edge of the known Universe. A spectral analysis of this picture revealed the quasar's light, which took 13 billion years to reach the telescope, had indeed passed through helium, and not only that, the helium was of just the right variety to match the established theory. Dr Jakobsen has spent more than 20 years working on this subject. His recent efforts concentrated on seeking out a quasar unobscured by clouds of hydrogen, which block the tell-tale signature of helium. His search drew him to the Space Telescope project and during the telescope's early years in orbit he studied 25 likely quasars and found one promising candidate. Dr Jacobsen then had to wait for the telescope's new optics before he could get the quality of data he needed to prove the existence of helium. "We were looking for a break in the cloud cover, so to speak," the astronomer said. "We had a tantalising glimpse of the quasar with the aberrated telescope but it was only after we fixed it that we could really get a clear answer. One of the first things that we did once we had the corrective optics in place was look at this object and it was exactly as we'd hoped." Getting the Universe to measure up When it comes to studying the expansion of the Universe, however, the telescope has raised morn; questions than answers. By determining how fast the Universe is expanding astronomers will be able to calculate its age and size. It may then become possible to discover what is the ultimate fate of the Universe; will it simply continue to expand until it evaporates? Will the expansion come to a complete stop? Or will the Universe stop expanding, start contracting and end in a "big crunch"? The rate at which the Universe expands is known as the Hubble Constant or H0. To measure this value, astronomers need to calculate how far away a galaxy is and how fast it is moving away from us. The former is difficult to determine because reliable distance indicators, sometimes known as "cosmic yardsticks ", such as variable stars and supernovae, must be found in the galaxies. An international team of astronomers recently used the Hubble Space Telescope to make a

1995-02-01

19

Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?  

E-print Network

Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and the general public. The origins of these discoveries are examined and it is demonstrated that, in each case, a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place. In some cases the discoveries had either already been made, or competing versions were not adopted for complex scientific and sociological reasons.

Way, Michael J

2013-01-01

20

Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and the general public. The origins of these discoveries are examined and it is demonstrated that, in each case, a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place. In some cases the discoveries had either already been made, or competing versions were not adopted for complex scientific and sociological reasons.

Way, M. J.

2013-04-01

21

European astronomers' successes with the Hubble Space Telescope*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[Figure: Laguna Nebula] Their work spans all aspects of astronomy, from the planets to the most distant galaxies and quasars, and the following examples are just a few European highlights from Hubble's second phase, 1994-96. A scarcity of midget stars Stars less massive and fainter than the Sun are much numerous in the Milky Way Galaxy than the big bright stars that catch the eye. Guido De Marchi and Francesco Paresce of the European Southern Observatory as Garching, Germany, have counted them. With the wide-field WFPC2 camera, they have taken sample censuses within six globular clusters, which are large gatherings of stars orbiting independently in the Galaxy. In every case they find that the commonest stars have an output of light that is only one-hundredth of the Sun's. They are ten times more numerous than stars like the Sun. More significant for theories of the Universe is a scarcity of very faint stars. Some astronomers have suggested that vast numbers of such stars could account for the mysterious dark matter, which makes stars and galaxies move about more rapidly than expected from the mass of visible matter. But that would require an ever-growing count of objects at low brightnesses, and De Marchi and Paresce find the opposite to be the case -- the numbers diminish. There may be a minimum size below which Nature finds starmaking difficult. The few examples of very small stars seen so far by astronomers may be, not the heralds of a multitude of dark-matter stars, but rareties. Unchanging habits in starmaking Confirmation that very small stars are scarce comes from Gerry Gilmore of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge (UK). He leads a European team that analyses long-exposure images in the WFPC2 camera, obtained as a by-product when another instrument is examining a selected object. The result is an almost random sample of well-observed stars and galaxies. The most remarkable general conclusion is that the make-up of stellar populations never seems to vary. In dense or diffuse regions, in very young or very old agglomerations, in the Milky Way Galaxy or elsewhere, the relative numbers of stars of different masses are always roughly the same. Evidently Nature mass-produces quotas of large and small stars irrespective of circumstances. This discovery will assist astronomers in making sense of very distant and early galaxies. They can assume that the stars are of the most familiar kinds. Another surprise was spotted by Rebecca Elson in Gilmore's team, in long-exposure images of the giant galaxy M87, in the nearby Virgo cluster. It possesses globular clusters of very different ages. In the Milky Way and its similar spiral neighbour, the Andromeda galaxy, globular clusters contain the oldest stars. While M87 has ancient globular clusters too, some are different in colour and much younger. The theory is that they were manufactured during collisions of the galaxies that merged into M87, making it the egg-shaped giant seen today. If so, the absence of young globular clusters in the Milky Way may mean that our Galaxy has never suffered a major collision. Accidents in the galactic traffic Brighter than a million million suns, a quasar is the most powerful lamp in the Universe. Astronomers understand it to be powered by matter falling into a massive black hole in the heart of a galaxy. Mike Disney of the University of Wales, Cardiff, leads a European team that asks why some thousands of galaxies harbour quasars, in contrast to the billions that do not. In almost every case that he and his colleagues have investigated, using Hubble's WFPC2 camera at its highest resolution, they see the quasar's home galaxy involved in a collision with another galaxy. "It's my opinion that almost any galaxy can be a quasar," Disney says, "if only its central black hole gets enough to eat. In the galactic traffic accidents that Hubble reveals, we can visualize fresh supplies of stars and gas being driven into the black hole's clutches. My American opposite number, John Bahcall, prefers to stress those quasar hosts that look li

1997-02-01

22

AS102 -Day Laboratory Exercise: Hubble Law Page 1 Introduction -In the first quarter of the last century, astronomy was becoming a vigorous science  

E-print Network

developed. Due to advances in engineering, astronomers began to build large telescopes, capable of detecting extremely faint objects. Photography allowed recording their images for analysis. With the invention with new knowledge and new tools, astronomers Edwin Hubble and Milton Humason began observing galaxies

Opher, Merav

23

New ephemeris for the first Cepheid variable observed by Edwin P. Hubble in M31. (Italian Title: Nuova effemeride della prima Cefeide osservata da Edwin P. Hubble in M31)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first Cepheid discovered in M31 by E. P. Hubble around the end of 1923, has been re-observed with the 0.8 m Akiuz Mattei Telescope of Celado Observatory in order to update its photometric elements. They resulted: Max = JD 2455461.3 + 31.4d E, R max = 18.1, R min = 19.6, (B-V) = 0.7 (mean), (V-R) = 0.4 (mean).

M. Campestrin; S. Ceriani; M. Colombo; L. Ercole; G. Favero

2011-01-01

24

New ephemeris for the first Cepheid variable observed by Edwin P. Hubble in M31. (Italian Title: Nuova effemeride della prima Cefeide osservata da Edwin P. Hubble in M31)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Cepheid discovered in M31 by E. P. Hubble around the end of 1923, has been re-observed with the 0.8 m Akiuz Mattei Telescope of Celado Observatory in order to update its photometric elements. They resulted: Max = JD 2455461.3 + 31.4d E, R max = 18.1, R min = 19.6, (B-V) = 0.7 (mean), (V-R) = 0.4 (mean). Based on a small sample of galactic Cepheids having known R magnitudes and parallaxes, the distance of M31 was estimated 780 kpc, or 2.5 Mly, accounting for the reddening.

Campestrin, M.; Ceriani, S.; Colombo, M.; Ercole, L.; Favero, G.

2011-08-01

25

Expansion of the Universe -- Mistake of Edwin Hubble? Cosmological Redshift and Related Electromagnetic Phenomena in Static Lobachevskian (Hyperbolic) Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an alternative to the Big Bang (the standard model), we present a mathematical theory of cosmological redshift. We show that a fundamental formula of Lobachevskian (hyperbolic) geometry describes cosmological redshift and the Doppler effect as well. As presented here, the cosmological redshift preserves wavelength ratios (it shifts uniformly the whole electromagnetic spectrum), it is scale invariant, it is a monotonically increasing function of distance, and it is source independent. It agrees with all experimental data. The distortion introduced by imaging from hyperbolic into Euclidean space and the limitations of Special Relativity are discussed. Physical observations in Lobachevskian space are discussed and the new formula relating redshift and/or Doppler shift to aberration is given. An analysis is presented of an erroneous origin of Hubble's so called velocity distance law.

von Brzeski, J. G.

2008-06-01

26

Hubble Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classification scheme for galaxies, devised in its original form in 1925 by Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953), and still widely used today. The Hubble classification recognizes four principal types of galaxy---elliptical, spiral, barred spiral and irregular---and arranges these in a sequence that is called the tuning-fork diagram....

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

27

Hubble Classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classification scheme for galaxies, devised in its original form in 1925 by Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953), and still widely used today. The Hubble classification recognizes four principal types of galaxy—elliptical, spiral, barred spiral and irregular—and arranges these in a sequence that is called the tuning-fork diagram....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

28

NASA and ESA astronauts visit ESO. Hubble repair team meets European astronomers in Garching.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Wednesday, February 16, 1994, seven NASA and ESA astronauts and their spouses will spend a day at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. They are the members of the STS-61 crew that successfully repaired the Hubble Space Telescope during a Space Shuttle mission in December 1993. This will be the only stop in Germany during their current tour of various European countries. ESO houses the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST/ECF), a joint venture by the European Space Agency and ESO. This group of astronomers and computer specialists provide all services needed by European astronomers for observations with the Space Telescope. Currently, the European share is about 20 of the total time available at this telescope. During this visit, a Press Conference will be held on Wednesday, February 16, 11:45 - 12:30 at the ESO Headquarters Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748 Garching bei Munchen. Please note that participation in this Press Conference is by invitation only. Media representatives may obtain invitations from Mrs. E. Volk, ESO Information Service at this address (Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax.: +49-89-3202362), until Friday, February 11, 1994. After the Press Conference, between 12:30 - 14:00, a light refreshment will be served at the ESO Headquarters to all participants. >From 14:00 - 15:30, the astronauts will meet with students and teachers from the many scientific institutes in Garching in the course of an open presentation at the large lecture hall of the Physics Department of the Technical University. It is a 10 minute walk from ESO to the hall. Later the same day, the astronauts will be back at ESO for a private discussion of various space astronomy issues with their astronomer colleagues, many of whom are users of the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as ground-based telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and elsewhere. The astronauts continue to Switzerland in the evening.

1994-02-01

29

HUBBLE HERITAGE PROJECT'S FIRST ANNIVERSARY HUBBLE'S VARIABLE NEBULA (NGC 2261)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble's variable nebula is named (like the Hubble telescope itself) after the American astronomer Edwin P. Hubble, who carried out some of the early studies of this object. It is a fan-shaped cloud of gas and dust which is illuminated by R Monocerotis (R Mon), the bright star at the bottom end of the nebula. Dense condensations of dust near the star cast shadows out into the nebula, and as they move the illumination changes, giving rise to the variations first noted by Hubble. The star itself, lying about 2,500 light-years from Earth, cannot be seen directly, but only through light scattered off of dust particles in the surrounding nebula. R Mon is believed to have a mass of about 10 times that of the Sun, and to have an age of only 300,000 years. There is probably a symmetrical counterpart of the fan-shaped nebula on the southern side of the star, but it is heavily obscured from view by dust lying between this lobe and our line of sight. The Hubble Heritage team made this image from observations of R Mon acquired by William Sparks (STScI), Sylvia Baggett (STScI) and collaborators. Image Credit: NASA/The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI).

2002-01-01

30

Edwin Amenta January 2011  

E-print Network

Movements." Annual Review of Sociology (2010): chapter 14. Edwin Amenta and Kelly M. Ramsey, "Institutional T. Leicht and J. Craig Jenkins. New York: Springer, 2010. Edwin Amenta, Neal Caren, Sheera Joy

Loudon, Catherine

31

Hubble Space Telescope satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

Mitchell, R. E.

1985-01-01

32

Hubble Space Telescope Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image illustrates the overall Hubble Space Telescope (HST) configuration. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1985-01-01

33

Sloan Digital Sky Survey - Hubble Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, containing information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, provides projects and activities for advanced astronomy students. In this particular one, the user retraces Edwin Hubble's steps to discover that the Universe is expanding, by making a Hubble Diagram.

34

Hubble's galaxy nomenclature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely written and believed that Edwin Hubble introduced the terms ``early'' and ``late types'' to suggest an evolutionary sequence for galaxies. This is incorrect. Hubble took these terms from spectral classification of stars to signify a sequence related to complexity of appearance, albeit based on images, not spectra. The temporal connotations had been abandoned before his 1926 paper on classification of galaxies.

Baldry, Ivan K.

2008-10-01

35

Live from the Hubble Space Telescope: a possibility of astronomical education using Internet.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have joined in "Live from the Hubble Space Telescope" which was operated by a Passport to Knowledge Project team. The authors are sure that collaboration between scientists and teachers using Internet have an effect on science education.

Agata, H.; Miura, H.; Ito, S.; Koyama, H.; Turuoka, N.; Ebisuzaki, T.

1996-12-01

36

From Failure to Symbol of Astronomical Discovery: The Inspiring Story of the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hubble was launched in 1990, with great expectations of scientific breakthroughs: determining the distance scale of the universe, detecting planets around stars other than the Sun. The enthusiasm that accompanied a very successful launch was quickly dampened by the realization that something was seriously wrong with the telescope. While the pictures were clearer than those of ground-based telescopes, they were not the pristine images promised. Hubble's mirror had a flaw. It was affected by "spherical aberration". Hubble's images were permanently out of focus. This is where the inspiring part of the story starts: scientists and engineers, in a coordinated effort across continents, pulled together to design the solution. The Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) was installed three years later by a brave crew of astronauts who showed to the world that performing complex tasks in space is possible, and paved the way to the construction of the International Space Station. The first images from Hubble with the new optics were superb. The telescope was all that had been promised and more, and changed the way we think of the universe. Designed to be repaired in space, Hubble has been refurbished four additional times. Every time, critical subsystems such as gyros and batteries are replaced, and its scientific instrument complement is upgraded. The last mission to Hubble (SM4) has been successfully completed in May 2009. Two new instruments have been installed, two existing instruments have been repaired in space, and new scientific results are pouring in. Hubble will continue pushing the boundaries of our knowledge of the universe for years to come. But, more importantly, Hubble has showed that partnership, ingenuity and determination can transform the most devastating failure in a long lasting success.

Nota, A.

2011-06-01

37

Hubble Energy  

E-print Network

Light received from a cosmological source is redshifted with an apparent loss of energy, a problem first pointed out by Edwin Hubble in 1936. A new type of energy called Hubble Energy is introduced to restore the principle of energy conservation. The energy has no inertial or gravitational effect but retards radial motion in a manner consistent with the anomalous acceleration experienced by the Pioneer probes leaving the solar system. The energy is predicted to have important effects on the scale of galaxies, and some of these effects are qualitatively examined: for example, with Hubble Energy, flat rotation curves are found to be an inevitable consequence of spiral galaxy formation. The Hubble Energy is incorporated into the Friedmann Equation and shown to add a term similar to the cosmological term, with a magnitude of order 10^-35 s^-2.

Alasdair Macleod

2004-03-25

38

Hubble Space Telescope-Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an artist's concept of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1986-01-01

39

Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1989-01-01

40

Hubble Space Telescope Scale Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a photograph of a 1/15 scale model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13- meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1983-01-01

41

Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a cutaway illustration of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with callouts. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1986-01-01

42

The Director's Choice: Mellish, Hubble and the discovery of the variable nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 1915, amateur astronomer John Edward Mellish joined the staff of Yerkes Observatory as an unpaid observer. Soon after arriving, Mellish discovered what he thought was a comet in the dawn twilight. Yerkes director Edwin Brant Frost promptly notified Harvard Observatory of the discovery only to learn later in the day, too late to prevent distribution of an international telegram, that the object Mellish observed was actually the diffuse nebula NGC 2261. Edwin Powell Hubble, a graduate student in his first year at Yerkes, was assigned the task of determining whether, as Mellish insisted, the nebula had changed. This led to Hubble's first professional papers and his initial fame as the discoverer of `Hubble's Variable Nebula.' Frost's choice, assigning the investigation to Hubble rather than Mellish, reflected his irritation with Mellish over matters that went well beyond the mistaken comet discovery. When Mellish discovered another comet a few weeks later, Frost delayed his notification to Harvard for several days to allow photographic confirmation of the discovery by George Van Biesbroeck, another newcomer at Yerkes. These events highlight staffing problems at Yerkes in 1915, problems that were common to other American observatories. Mellish and Van Biesbroeck were likely the last two amateur astronomers to have an opportunity to `try out' as professionals at Yerkes. By 1915 a stronger requirement for educational credentials was emerging in the astronomical community. On the other hand, like other observatory directors, Frost was experiencing considerable difficulty employing graduate astronomers. With S. W. Burnham already retired, Frost adopted stopgap measures for staffing as E. E. Barnard and others from an earlier generation prepared for retirement. The assignment of the nebula investigation to Hubble indicates that Frost had likely already concluded that Mellish would not be an acceptable substitute for a degreed professional.

Williams, T. R.

2000-12-01

43

The Hubble Constant and the Expanding Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1929 Edwin Hubble proved that our universe is expanding by showing that the farther a galaxy is from us, the faster it is speeding away into space. This velocity-distance relation came to be called Hubble's law, and the value that describes the rate of expansion is known as the Hubble constant, or H0 . Like the speed of light, H0 is a fundamental constant, and it is a key parameter needed to estimate both the age and size of the universe. Since the late 1950s astronomers have been arguing for an H0 value between 50 to 100 kilometers per second per megaparsec, a lack of precision that produced an unacceptably wide range of ages for the universe—anywhere from 10 to 20 billion years. Using the Hubble Space Telescope, Freedman and her colleagues measured H0 to an unprecedented level of accuracy, deriving a value of 72, with an uncertainty of 10 percent—a milestone achievement in cosmology. The new result suggests that our universe is about 13 billion years old, give or take a billion years, and it's a value that sits comfortably alongside the 12 billion years estimated for the age of the oldest stars.

Freedman, Wendy

2003-01-01

44

Lemaître's Hubble relationship  

E-print Network

Edwin Hubble is often credited with discovering the expanding Universe based on spectra taken by him. This statement is incorrect and we feel that it is the responsibility of those who are aware of the historical facts to set the record straight.

M. J. Way; Harry Nussbaumer

2011-08-26

45

Werkcollege III Opgave 1: De Hubble Expansie  

E-print Network

Werkcollege III Het Heelal Opgave 1: De Hubble Expansie Sinds 1929 weten we dat we ons in een expanderend Heelal bevinden. Het was Edwin Hubble die in 1929 de recessie snelheid van sterrenstelsels in ons ontdekkingen van de 20e eeuw, en deze relatie duiden we nu aan als Hubble wet. We zullen eerst nagaan wat dit

Weijgaert, Rien van de

46

Werkcollege III Opgave 1: De Hubble Expansie  

E-print Network

expanderend Heelal bevinden. Het was Edwin Hubble die in 1929 de recessie snelheid van sterrenstelsels in onsWerkcollege III Het Heelal Opgave 1: De Hubble Expansie Sinds 1929 weten we dat we ons in een ontdekkingen van de 20e eeuw, en deze relatie duiden we nu aan als Hubble wet. We zullen eerst nagaan wat dit

Weijgaert, Rien van de

47

Astronomers in the Chemist's War  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

Trimble, Virginia L.

2012-01-01

48

How old is the Universe? Measuring the expansion rate with the Hubble Space Telescope.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary motivations for building the Hubble Space Telescope was to allow an accurate measurement of the age of the Universe. The author describes the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wide Field and Planetary Camera used for this effort. A brief historical summary is given. Early in this century, astronomer Edwin Hubble provided evidence that the Universe was expanding. However, an accurate value for this expansion rate has eluded astronomers for almost seven decades. Unfortunately, the measurement of the expansion rate has turned out to be much more difficult than anticipated by Hubble. The reasons for this difficulty, and the need for an increased resolution over what can be achieved using ground-based telescopes, are outlined. Finally, results from the Hubble Space Telescope are presented. The preliminary results from the Hubble Space Telescope yield an age for the Universe of 8 billion years. This age is younger than the ages measured for the oldest objects in the Galaxy. This paradox and the implications of these results are discussed.

Freedman, W. L.

49

Edwin Burrows interview, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

While researching his Pulitzer-Prize-winning Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (with Mike Wallace; Oxford UP 1999), Edwin Burrows uncovered the story of thousands of American soldiers who had been held prisoner by the British during the Revolutionary War in and around New York. Now he's back to tell the tale in a full-length book: Forgotten Patriots: The

Marshall Poe; Edwin Burrows

2008-01-01

50

Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope after being released into orbit, with the high gain anternas and solar arrays deployed and the aperture doors opened. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1980-01-01

51

Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) being positioned for release from the Space Shuttle orbiter by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13- meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1980-01-01

52

Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) being raised to a vertical position in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle orbiter. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1980-01-01

53

Blind Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phrase "blind astronomer” is used as an allegorical oxymoron. However, there were and are blind astronomers. What of famous blind astronomers? First, it must be stated that these astronomers were not martyrs to their craft. It is a myth that astronomers blind themselves by observing the Sun. As early as France's William of Saint-Cloud (circa 1290) astronomers knew that staring at the Sun was ill-advised and avoided it. Galileo Galilei did not invent the astronomical telescope and then proceed to blind himself with one. Galileo observed the Sun near sunrise and sunset or through projection. More than two decades later he became blind, as many septuagenarians do, unrelated to their profession. Even Isaac Newton temporarily blinded himself, staring at the reflection of the Sun when he was a twentysomething. But permanent Sun-induced blindness? No, it did not happen. For instance, it was a stroke that left Scotland's James Gregory (1638-1675) blind. (You will remember the Gregorian telescope.) However, he died days later. Thus, blindness little interfered with his occupation. English Abbot Richard of Wallingford (circa 1291 - circa 1335) wrote astronomical works and designed astronomical instruments. He was also blind in one eye. Yet as he further suffered from leprosy, his blindness seems the lesser of Richard's maladies. Perhaps the most famous professionally active, blind astronomer (or almost blind astronomer) is Dominique-Francois Arago (1786-1853), director until his death of the powerful nineteenth-century Paris Observatory. I will share other _ some poignant _ examples such as: William Campbell, whose blindness drove him to suicide; Leonhard Euler, astronomy's Beethoven, who did nearly half of his life's work while almost totally blind; and Edwin Frost, who "observed” a total solar eclipse while completely sightless.

Hockey, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

54

Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology.

Kirshner, Robert P.

2004-01-01

55

Hubble's Variable Nebula (NGC 2261)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reflection nebula in the constellation Monoceros, position RA 06 h 39.2 m, dec. +08° 44'. It is small (2' by 1') but of quite high surface brightness. The nebula's average magnitude is 10, but, as Edwin Hubble discovered in 1916, it varies in brightness, mirroring the variability of its illuminating star, R Monocerotis....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

56

Scott Edwin Dubowsky School Address  

E-print Network

Scott Edwin Dubowsky School Address School of Chemical Sciences, Department of Chemistry University.edu Permanent Address 95 High St. Terryville, CT 06786 (860) 690-8968 EDUCATION Doctorate of Philosophy-Champign Advisor: Dr. Benjamin J. McCall Bachelor of Science, Chemistry and Biology August 2008­May 2012 University

McCall, Benjamin J.

57

A Conversation with Edwin Shneidman  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a transcript of a conversation that took place with Edwin Shneidman, PhD, on August 19, 2008. Recent advances in machine learning, particularly neurocognitive computing, have provided a fresh approach to the idea of using computers to analyze the language of the suicidal person. Here this notion and many others are discussed.

Pestian, John

2010-01-01

58

Hubble and Shapley - Two Early Giants of Observational Cosmology  

E-print Network

Observational cosmology of the first decades of the Twentieth Century was dominated by two giants: Edwin Hubble and Harlow Shapley. Hubble's major contributions were to the study and classification of individual galaxies with large telescopes, whereas Shapley is best remembered for his work on groups and clusters of galaxies using telescopes of more modest aperture.

Bergh, Sidney van den

2011-01-01

59

External Resource: Hubble Deep Space Field Academy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Space Telescope Science Institute web page contains resources for students to 'walk' in the footsteps of astronomers as they explore the farthest regions of the known universe. Using astronomers' methods, students will observe the Hubble Deep Field

1900-01-01

60

Hubble: A View to the Edge of Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers four categories of material about the Hubble Space Telescope: place, ideas, tools, and people. Diagrams, collections of images, readings, and interactive features fill the site, offering insight into the Hubble project and the scientific work that led up to it. Two of the ideas features--an annotated gallery of Hubble images and an article--explore what scientists are learning through Hubble about the universe and its origins. The tools section includes an interactive illustration of Hubble and an article about redshifts and the expanding universe. An article about Edwin Hubble, the telescope's namesake, is part of the people section, as are vignettes about a handful of Hubble's crew members. Archived webcasts about Hubble are also available.

Exploratorium

2001-01-01

61

Hubble: 20 Years of Discovery - Duration: 15:54.  

NASA Video Gallery

Hubble's discoveries have revolutionized nearly all areas of current astronomical research from planetary science to cosmology. Actor and writer Brent Spiner narrates a visual journey back in time ...

62

Hubble's cosmology. A guided study of selected texts.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pioneering publications by the cosmologist Edwin Hubble are presented with a comprehensive historical background and extensive annotations. Included are Hubble's initial investigation of faint nebulae, his discovery of Cepheids in the nebulae, the use of these stars to determine distances for the first time to objects outside our Galaxy, his demonstration of the expansion of the universe, and his mature reflections on cosmology and the nature of scientific investigation.

Hetherington, N. S.

63

THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. I. SURVEY OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN1  

E-print Network

THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. I. SURVEY OBJECTIVES Neil Trentham,28 R. Brent Tully,29 Edwin Valentijn,26 and Gijs Verdoes Kleijn26 Received 2007 September content -- galaxies: structure 1 Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope ob- tained

Puzia, Thomas H.

64

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin on Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Meanwhile, astronaut Michael Collins piloted the command module in a parking orbit around the moon. This photo is of Edwin Aldrin walking on the lunar surface. Neil Armstrong, who took the photograph, can be seen reflected in Aldrin's helmet visor. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle, and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

65

Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 110:727731, 1998 June 1998. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.  

E-print Network

to Improve Faint-Source Flux and Color Estimates David W. Hogg1,2 and Edwin L. Turner2,3 Received 1997, the ultradeep images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) (Williams et al. 1996) represent so much Hubble Space

Masci, Frank

66

Der Wert dedr Hubble-Konstante. Wie schnell expandiert das Universum? Teil 1: Entfernungsindikatoren für die extragalaktische Distanzskala.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin Hubble discovered in 1929 the redshift-distance relation (Hubble relation) of extragalactic objects, which is interpreted as the expansion of the Universe. Today the value of the expansion rate, the so-called Hubble parameter H0, is still a matter of debate, because no universal extragalactic distance scale exists. In this article an overview is given about methods to determine extragalactic distance and the influence of the results on H0.

Federspiel, M.; Labhardt, L.; Tammann, G. A.

1998-04-01

67

Hubble's Cosmology: From a Finite Expanding Universe to a Static Endless Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the views of Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) as regards the large scale structure of the universe. In 1929 he initially accepted a finite expanding universe in order to explain the redshifts of distant galaxies. Later on he turned to an infinite stationary universe and a new principle of nature in order to explain the same phenomena. Initially, he was impressed by the agreement of his redshift-distance relation with one of the predictions of de Sitter's cosmological model, namely, the so-called "de Sitter effect'', the phenomenon of the scattering of material particles, leading to an expanding universe. A number of observational evidences, though, made him highly skeptical with such a scenario. They were better accounted for by an infinite static universe. The evidences he found were: (i) the huge values he was getting for the "recession'' velocities of the nebulae (1,800 km s-1 in 1929 up to 42,000 km s-1 in 1942, leading to v/c = 1/7), with the redshifts interpreted as velocity-shifts. All other known real velocities of large astronomical bodies are much smaller than these. (ii) The "number effect'' test, which is the running of nebulae luminosity with redshift. Hubble found that a static universe is, within the observational uncertainties, slightly favored. The test is equivalent to the modern "Tolman effect,'' for galaxy surface brightnesses, whose results are still a matter of dispute. (iii) The smallness of the size and the age of the curved expanding universe, implied by the expansion rate that he had determined, and, (iv) the fact that a uniform distribution of galaxies on large scales is more easily obtained from galaxy counts, when a static and flat model is considered. In an expanding and closed universe, Hubble found that homogeneity was only obtained at the cost of a large curvature. We show, by quoting his works, that Hubble remained cautiously against the big bang until the end of his life, contrary to the statements of many modern authors. In order to account for redshifts, in a non-expanding universe, Hubble called for a new principle of nature, like the "tired-light'' mechanism proposed by Fritz Zwicky in 1929. On the other hand, he was aware of the theoretical difficulties of such a radical assumption. Hubble's approach to cosmology strongly suggests that he would not agree with the present status of the modern cosmological paradigm, since he was, above all, driven by observations and by the consequences derived from them.

Assis, A. K. T.; Neves, M. C. D.; Soares, D. S. L.

2009-12-01

68

The Astrophysical Journal, 734:31 (11pp), 2011 June 10 doi:10.1088/0004-637X/734/1/31 C 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.  

E-print Network

, Jeffrey L. Linsky4 , Hao Yang4 , Herv´e Abgrall5 , David R. Ardila6 , Edwin Bergin7 , Thomas Bethell7 exploit the high sensitivity and moderate spectral resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins

Adolphs, Ralph

69

HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

Petersen, Carolyn Collins

1995-05-01

70

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Egresses From Lunar Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Shown here is Aldrin Jr. making his exit from the LM to the lunar surface. Armstrong, who was already on the surface, took this photograph. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. During a 2½ hour surface exploration the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

71

HUBBLE REVEALS 'BACKWARDS' SPIRAL GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomers have found a spiral galaxy that may be spinning to the beat of a different cosmic drummer. To the surprise of astronomers, the galaxy, called NGC 4622, appears to be rotating in the opposite direction to what they expected. Pictures by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise by showing which side of the galaxy is closer to Earth. A Hubble telescope photo of the oddball galaxy is this month's Hubble Heritage offering. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars [shown in blue]. Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. To add to the conundrum, NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction it is rotating. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise. NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. What caused this galaxy to behave differently from most galaxies? Astronomers suspect that NGC 4622 interacted with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a small companion galaxy. The galaxy's core provides new evidence for a merger between NGC 4622 and a smaller galaxy. This information could be the key to understanding the unusual leading arms. Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 resides 111 million light-years away in the constellation Centaurus. The pictures were taken in May 2001 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The science team, consisting of Ron Buta and Gene Byrd from the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, and Tarsh Freeman of Bevill State Community College in Alabama, observed NGC 4622 in ultraviolet, infrared, and blue and green filters. Their composite image and science findings were presented at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society in January of 2002. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: Dr. Ron Buta (U. Alabama), Dr. Gene Byrd (U. Alabama) and Tarsh Freeman (Bevill State Community College)

2002-01-01

72

Hubble vision : further adventures with the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first edition of Hubble Vision became an international bestseller and won world-wide, critical acclaim. This eagerly awaited second edition is the most comprehensive, most authoritative and best illustrated popular book available on the Hubble Space Telescope. It provides a magnificent portfolio of the latest and greatest images from the HST, woven together with a lucid text explaining the most exciting discoveries and setting them in the context of our current understanding in astronomy. This second edition has been completely revised, updated and expanded to include all the latest astronomical discoveries - from supernovae and protostars to gravitational lensing, black holes and the early universe. It is now even better illustrated, with nearly 25% more figures, and more than 100 entirely new. The unique combination of authors - an award-winning science writer and a key scientist involved in the development of the mission - ensure that the text is both engaging and authoritative. Hubble Vision offers a view of the Universe as never seen before. It will capture the imagination of all those interested in the astronomical quest of understanding our Universe - from high-school students to general readers and amateur astronomers. * Stellar fireworks within Colliding galaxies * The sharpest views of Mars yet * Newborn stars in M16 * A gallery of the latest images of planetary nebulae as never seen before * The deepest, most penetrating view into space ever : the Hubble Deep Field * Views into the heart of a comet (Hale-Bopp) * New views of Jupiter and Io

Petersen, Carolyn Collins; Brandt, John C.

73

Hubble Space Telescope Image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have identified what may be the most luminous star known; a celestial mammoth that releases up to 10-million times the power of the Sun and is big enough to fill the diameter of Earth's orbit. The star unleashes as much energy in six seconds as our Sun does in one year. The image, taken by a UCLA-led team with the recently installed Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) aboard the HST, also reveals a bright nebula, created by extremely massive stellar eruptions. The UCLA astronomers estimate that the star, called the Pistol Star, (for the pistol shaped nebula surrounding it), is approximately 25,000 light-years from Earth, near the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The Pistol Star is not visible to the eye, but is located in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, hidden behind the great dust clouds along the Milky Way

1997-01-01

74

Astronomers measure the brightness of a star in the sky using a  

E-print Network

to the left taken by the Hubble Space Telescope shows hundreds f faint galaxies beyond the Milky Way by astronomers with the Hubble Space Telescope are about +30.0. How much fainter are these stars than the Sun? 4 ­ The faintest stars seen by astronomers with the Hubble Space Telescope is +30.0. How much fainter

75

Hubble's Cosmology: From a Finite Expanding Universe to a Static Endless Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the views of Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) as regards the large scale structure of the universe. In 1929 he initially accepted a finite expanding universe in order to explain the redshifts of distant galaxies. Later on he turned to an infinite stationary universe and a new principle of nature in order to explain the same phenomena. Initially, he was

A. K. T. Assis; M. C. D. Neves; D. S. L. Soares

2009-01-01

76

The linear redshift-distance relationship: Lema\\^{i}tre beats Hubble by two years  

E-print Network

Edwin Hubble is often credited with discovering the expanding Universe based on spectra taken by him. There are several errors in this statement and we feel that it is the responsibility of those who are aware of the historical facts to set the record straight.

Way, M J

2011-01-01

77

What Hubble really meant by late and early type: simply more or less complex in appearance  

E-print Network

It is widely written and believed that Edwin Hubble introduced the terms `early' and `late types' to suggest an evolutionary sequence for galaxies. This is incorrect. Hubble took these terms from spectral classification of stars to signify a sequence related to complexity of appearance, albeit based on images rather than spectra. The temporal connotations of the terms had been abandoned prior to his 1926 paper on classification of galaxies.

I. K. Baldry

2008-08-31

78

What Hubble really meant by late and early type: simply more or less complex in appearance  

E-print Network

It is widely written and believed that Edwin Hubble introduced the terms `early' and `late types' to suggest an evolutionary sequence for galaxies. This is incorrect. Hubble took these terms from spectral classification of stars to signify a sequence related to complexity of appearance, albeit based on images rather than spectra. The temporal connotations of the terms had been abandoned prior to his 1926 paper on classification of galaxies.

Baldry, I K

2008-01-01

79

Obituary: Edwin E. Salpeter (1924-2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin E. Salpeter, who died 26 November 2008 at his home in Ithaca, NY, belonged to the "second wave" of Jewish scientific refugees from Nazi-dominated Europe, those who left as children just before the onset of WWII and so completed their educations elsewhere. Salpeter was born in Vienna on 3 December 1924, and arrived with his family in Australia in 1939, his father was a physicist and a close friend of Erwin Schrodinger. In Australia, he finished high school, and he entered the University of Sydney at the early age of 16. He received his BS and MSc degrees in physics and mathematics from the University of Sydney, before moving on to a PhD from the University of Birmingham in 1948, for work with Rudolf Peierls on the electrodynamic self-energy of the electron, the first of more than 380 inventoried publications. He had chosen Birmingham over Cambridge or Oxford because of Peierls, and then chose Cornell over Princeton because of Hans Bethe's presence there. His autobiography describes those as two of his very best decisions ever. Marrying psychobiology student Miriam (Mika) Mark less than a year after arriving at Cornell was surely the third, and they remained in Ithaca the rest of their lives, eventually collaborating on some projects in neurobiology before her death in 2000. Their household was a secular one, but (Ed told a colleague) their two daughters received a basic Jewish education "just in case." Daughter Shelley Salpeter and her son Nicholas Buckley were also collaborators with Salpeter on 21st century projects in meta-analysis, epidemiology, and other statistics-heavy problems in biomedicine. Ed Salpeter is survived by his second wife, Antonia (Lhamo) Shouse. Astronomers may be interested to learn that the Cornell press release announcing his death was prepared by Lauren Gold, daughter of Thomas Gold (and Carrie Gold) the co-author of the steady state theory. Apparently, Ed's father Jakob Salpeter late in life considered the anisotropy reported in the Cosmic Microwave Background and wrote in 1968 to Ron Bracewell and Edward Conklin, who had measured it, expressing puzzlement and doubt that there could be preferred frame effects within special relativity. Ed Salpeter described himself as a generalist, always ready to look at new problems in new fields, and a young colleague quoted him as saying there were problems to be solved on backs of envelopes of various sizes. The result was that he made significant contributions in quantum electro- dynamics (the Bethe-Salpeter equation), nuclear physics (electron screening corrections) and astrophysics (helium burning and beyond), stellar populations (the Salpeter initial mass function and galactic chemical evolution), ionospheric physics (his most-cited paper, because of a Raman-like backscatter effect that is useful for measuring electron densities in laboratory plasmas), equations of state for dense matter (e.g. Jovian planet cores), neutrino emission processes, black hole accretion as an AGN energy source (contemporary with a similar idea from Zeldovich, and before the black hole name had even been coined), interstellar atomic and molecular gas, HI rotation curves, and other aspects of astrophysical dark matter. This is not a complete list! In 2004 a special symposium was organized by his students and colleagues near Siena, Italy, to celebrate the 50 years since his publication of the Initial Mass Function that coincided with his 80th birthday. The symposium proceedings 'The Initial Mass Function: 50 Years Later' was dedicated to Ed 'from whom we have learned so much, to his insight and friendship'. Ed Salpeter received a security clearance in the mid-1950's and kept it up, so that, in addition to evaluating various anti-ballistic-missile defense schemes as a member of the JASONS, he was one of 17 participants in the 1985-87 APS study of directed energy weapons, also known as Star Wars. The panel was unanimous in technical disapproval of the project, and many undoubtedly shared Ed's moral disapproval. His 21 year term as the astrophysics member

Trimble, Virginia; Terzian, Yervant

2009-12-01

80

The Astrophysical Journal, 492:L151L155, 1998 January 10 1998. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.  

E-print Network

. Stolovy,1 Michael G. Burton,2 Edwin F. Erickson,3 Michael J. Kaufman,3,4 Antonio Chrysostomou,5,6 Erick T been imaged with the Near-Infrared Camera and Multiobject Spectrometer (NICMOS) on board the Hubble than ever before. 2. OBSERVATIONS These data were obtained during five consecutive orbits of the Hubble

Schneider, Glenn

81

Hubble's Famous Plate of 1923: A Story of Pink Polyethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 6, 1923 Edwin Hubble used the Mount Wilson 100-inch telescope to take a 45-minute exposure of a field in the Andromeda galaxy. This is the now-famous plate marked with his “VAR!” notation. I will discuss this plate and that notation. I will also tell the story of flying copies of that plate on the deployment mission for HST in 1990 as a Hubble memento and then locating those copies afterwards, and how copies were flown on Servicing Mission 4 on 2009 as well. This has led to an effort in which AAVSO members joined to identify and reobserve that noted star, arguably the most important object in the history of cosmology, but largely ignored since Hubble’s time.

Soderblom, D. R.

2012-06-01

82

The Era of Hubble – From Disaster to Deep Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The telescope is often credited with revolutionizing how we look at the universe. Surely, then, the Hubble Space Telescope,\\u000a one of the finest instruments of its kind ever made, is one of the best demonstrations of this claim. The Hubble story began\\u000a long before it was launched and ultimately resulted in astronomical breakthroughs that astronomers could have only dreamed\\u000a of

Will Gater

83

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Edwin H. Blake William D. Tucker  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Edwin H. Blake Ã? William D. Tucker User interfaces for communication bridges technology (IT) can be used in a developing country to extend the distribution of E. H. Blake (&) Department

Blake, Edwin

84

La prima variabile in M31 scoperta da Hubble. Campagna osservativa.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Heritage Team, with Dr. Keith Noll, Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), as Principal Investigator, plans to observe M31_V1 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and needs to know the phase of this Cepheid variable, the first one discovered by Edwin Hubble in M31. Although basic parameters are known for this star, no recent photometry exists, so observations are required to generate current phase information. Using telescope with mirror greater than 20 cm, the amateur can help to give useful data.

Bianciardi, G.

2011-02-01

85

The Advanced Camera for Surveys Coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

The Advanced Camera for Surveys Coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope John Krist1 , George, Santa Cruz, CA ABSTRACT The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) was installed in the Hubble Space: Hubble Space Telescope, coronagraph, high contrast imaging 1. INTRODUCTION There are certain astronomical

Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astonomy, Advanced Camera for Surveys Team

86

Hubble vision. Further adventures with the Hubble Space Telescope.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This second edition of Hubble vision (for the first one see Abstr. 64.003.030) is a comprehensive, most authoritative, and best illustrated popular book on the Hubble Space Telescope. It provides a magnificent portfolio of the latest and greatest images from the HST, woven together with a lucid text explaining the most exciting discoveries and setting them in the context of our current understanding in astronomy. This second edition has been completely revised, updated, and expanded to include all the latest astronomical discoveries - from supernovae and protostars to gravitational lensing, black holes, and the early universe. It is now even better illustrated, with more than 100 new figures. Throughout, the text provides sufficient scientific background for any reader to understand and appreciate the remarkable discoveries being made by this, the foremost observatory of our age.

Collins Petersen, C.; Brandt, J. C.

87

Hubble's View of Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These NASA Hubble Space Telescope views of the blue-green planet Neptune provide three snapshots of changing weather conditions. The images were taken in 1994 on October 10 (upper left), October 18 (upper right), and November 2 (lower center), when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth.

Hubble is allowing astronomers to study Neptune's dynamic atmosphere with a level of detail not possible since the 1989 flyby of the Voyager 2 space probe. Building on Voyager's initial discoveries, Hubble is revealing that Neptune has a remarkably dynamic atmosphere that changes over just a few days.

The temperature difference between Neptune's strong internal heat source and its frigid cloud tops (-260 degrees Fahrenheit) might trigger instabilities in the atmosphere that drive these large-scale weather changes. In addition to hydrogen and helium, the main constituents, Neptune's atmosphere is composed of methane and hydrocarbons, like ethane and acetylene.

The picture was reconstructed from a series of Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images taken through different colored filters at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Absorption of red light by methane in Neptune's atmosphere contributes to the planet's distinctive aqua color; the clouds themselves are also somewhat blue. The pink features are high-altitude methane ice crystal clouds. Though the clouds appear white in visible light, they are tinted pink here because they were imaged at near infrared wavelengths.

The farthest of the gas giant planets, Neptune is four times Earth's diameter. Though Neptune was discovered in 1846, very little has been known about it until the advent of space travel and advanced telescopes.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

88

Astronomical masers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present treatment of astronomical masers discusses their thermodynamic equilibrium and matter-line radiation interaction, the OH, H2O, and SiO maser molecules, general properties of saturated masers, spherical and filamentary masers, and fully resolved Zeeman patterns and overlapping Zeeman components. Also considered are pumping effects, the stellar environment of astronomical masers, the relationship of astronomical masers to the stellar wing and

Moshe Elitzur

1992-01-01

89

Astronomical masers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research related to astronomical masers is reviewed. First, attention is given to phenomenology, including observations and modeling of galactic and extragalactic maser sources. The discussion then focuses on the developments concerning the physical properties of maser radiation. Finally, the use of masers as general tools for the study of astronomical environments where the radiation is produced and where it propagates, is discussed.

Elitzur, Moshe

1992-01-01

90

Astronomical observatories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The layout and equipment of astronomical observatories, the oldest scientific institutions of human society are discussed. The example of leading observatories of the USSR allows the reader to familiarize himself with both their modern counterparts, as well as the goals and problems on which astronomers are presently working.

Ponomarev, D. N.

1983-01-01

91

Hubble Space Telescope Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This illustration shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) major configuration elements. The spacecraft has three interacting systems: The Support System Module (SSM), an outer structure that houses the other systems and provides services such as power, communication, and control; The Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), which collects and concentrates the incoming light in the focal plane for use by the Scientific Instruments (SI); and five SIs. The SI Control and Data Handling (CDH) unit controls the five SI's, four that are housed in an aft section focal plane structure and one that is placed along the circumference of the spacecraft. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1980-01-01

92

"Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1  

ScienceCinema

Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

Edwin Campos

2013-06-10

93

"Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

Edwin Campos

2013-05-08

94

Spatially Disaggregated Real Estate Indices Edwin S. Iversen, Jr.  

E-print Network

Spatially Disaggregated Real Estate Indices Edwin S. Iversen, Jr. A spatial--temporal Markov random field model is used to produce indices for residential real estate from repeat home sale data. A set residential real estate market. Results are compared to those obtained using competing spatial models. KEY

West, Mike

95

On Digital Money and Card Technologies Edwin M. Knorr \\Lambda  

E-print Network

On Digital Money and Card Technologies Edwin M. Knorr \\Lambda Department of Computer Science fields: digital money and card technologies (especially smart cards), for possible PhD research topics. We believe that digital money and card technologies will revolutionize life in the 21st century

Knorr, Edwin M.

96

Pathos in Criticism: Edwin Black's Communism-as-Cancer Metaphor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edwin Black's essay on "The Second Persona," introduced to rhetorical critics a rationale and model for a type of ideological criticism. Because it ignored the role of pathos in both the rhetoric Black purported to critique and in the construction of his own audience, Black's essay mis-described key features of Robert Welch's "Blue Book", which…

Condit, Celeste M.

2013-01-01

97

Bridging Communications Across the Digital Divide Edwin H. Blake  

E-print Network

Computer Science, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa edwin@cs.uct.ac.za William D. Tucker University of the Western Cape Dept Computer Science, UWC, Bellville, 7535, South Africa btucker@uwc.ac.za Abstract are underway with two communities in South Africa, disadvantaged deaf users and an isolated rural community

Blake, Edwin

98

On Jesus' Eschatological Ignorance Edwin K. P. Chong  

E-print Network

On Jesus' Eschatological Ignorance Edwin K. P. Chong Version: July 25, 2003 1 Jesus' ignorance the difficulty of this chapter is verse 32, which explicitly teaches that Jesus does not know when He will return that Jesus is God and hence is omniscient? Over the centuries, groups like the Ebionites, Arians

Chong, Edwin K. P.

99

Finding the Right Formula: Edwin H. Walker Jr  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edwin H. Walker Jr earned his doctorate in chemistry at age 27 and has barely looked back. With 13 publications under his belt before coming out of graduate school, he has also given more than 20 poster presentations in national venues, most recently at the American Chemical Society. He can also include securing a half-million-dollar National…

Keels, Crystal L.

2005-01-01

100

GORDON EDWIN DICKERSON, 1912 - 2000: A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gordon Edwin Dickerson was an international leader for most of the 20th Century in the field of quantitative animal breeding and genetics. This short biography sketches Gordon's personal, academic and scientific paths which are naturally intertwined. The sketch begins with his birth in Lagrande, Ore...

101

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin on Lunar Surface With Core Sampler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle, and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. This photo is of Edwin Aldrin on the lunar surface using the core sampler, one of the many tools used by the astronauts to collect samples. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

102

Hubble's new view of the cosmos  

PubMed

Since the December 1993 repair of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) optics by the crew of the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the rapid-fire scientific achievements have brought a new era of discovery to the field of astronomy. Hubble has confirmed some astronomical theories, challenged others, and often come up with complete surprises. Some images are so unexpected that astronomers have to develop new theories to explain what they are seeing. The HST has detected galaxies out to the visible horizon of the cosmos, and has made an attempt at pinning down the universe's expansion rate. Both of these key research areas should ultimately yield answers to age-old questions: What has happened since the beginning of time, and will the universe go on forever? PMID:11538725

Villard, R

1996-05-01

103

Hubble Space Telescope Image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This deepest-ever view of the universe unveils myriad galaxies back to the begirning of time. Several hundred, never-before-seen, galaxies are visible in this view of the universe, called Hubble Deep Field (HDF). Besides the classical spiral and elliptical shaped galaxies, there is a bewildering variety of other galaxy shapes and colors that are important clues to understanding the evolution of the universe. Some of the galaxies may have formed less than one-billion years after the Big Bang. The image was assembled from many separate exposures with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC2), for ten consecutive days between December 18, 1995 and December 28, 1995. This true-color view was assembled from separate images taken with blue, red, and infrared light. By combining these separate images into a single color picture, astronomers will be able to infer, at least statistically, the distance, age, and composition of galaxies in the field. Blue objects contain young stars and/or are relatively close, while redder objects contain older stellar populations and/or are farther away.

1995-01-01

104

Hubble Deep Field Lesson Package: Classifying and Identifying  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners classify selected objects from the Hubble Deep Field based on their color and shape. They then compare their classification with a chart made by astronomers. This is activity two of four in the Hubble Deep Field Lesson Package which includes color lithographs, student worksheets, background information, a glossary, as well as national science education standards. Request a paper copy of the HDF package through the "contact us" page of Amazing Space - be sure to include your mailing address.

2012-08-03

105

A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a Rood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2011-01-01

106

HUBBLE'S INFRARED GALAXY GALLERY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomers have used the NASA Hubble Space Telescope to produce an infrared 'photo essay' of spiral galaxies. By penetrating the dust clouds swirling around the centers of these galaxies, the telescope's infrared vision is offering fresh views of star birth. These six images, taken with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, showcase different views of spiral galaxies, from a face-on image of an entire galaxy to a close-up of a core. The top row shows spirals at diverse angles, from face-on, (left); to slightly tilted, (center); to edge-on, (right). The bottom row shows close-ups of the hubs of three galaxies. In these images, red corresponds to glowing hydrogen, the raw material for star birth. The red knots outlining the curving spiral arms in NGC 5653 and NGC 3593, for example, pinpoint rich star-forming regions where the surrounding hydrogen gas is heated by intense ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars. In visible light, many of these regions can be hidden from view by the clouds of gas and dust in which they were born. The glowing hydrogen found inside the cores of these galaxies, as in NGC 6946, may be due to star birth; radiation from active galactic nuclei (AGN), which are powered by massive black holes; or a combination of both. White is light from middle-age stars. Clusters of stars appear as white dots, as in NGC 2903. The galaxy cores are mostly white because of their dense concentration of stars. The dark material seen in these images is dust. These galaxies are part of a Hubble census of about 100 spiral galaxies. Astronomers at Space Telescope Science Institute took these images to fill gaps in the scheduling of a campaign using the NICMOS-3 camera. The data were non-proprietary, and were made available to the entire astronomical community. Filters: Three filters were used: red, blue, and green. Red represents emission at the Paschen Alpha line (light from glowing hydrogen) at a wavelength of 1.87 microns. Blue shows the galaxies in near-infrared light, measured between 1.4 and 1.8 microns (H-band emission). Green is a mixture of the two. Distance of galaxies from Earth: NGC 5653 - 161 million light-years; NGC 3593 - 28 million light-years; NGC 891 - 24 million light-years; NGC 4826 - 19 million light-years; NGC 2903 - 25 million light-years; and NGC 6946 - 20 million light-years. Credits: Torsten Boeker, Space Telescope Science Institute, and NASA NOTE TO EDITORS: Image files and photo caption are available on the Internet at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/1999/10 or via links in http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/latest.html and http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pictures.html Higher resolution digital versions of (300 dpi JPEG and TIFF) of the release photo are available at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/1999/10/extra-photos.html STScI press releases and other information are available automatically by sending an Internet electronic mail message to pio-request@stsci.edu. In the body of the message (not the subject line) users should type the word 'subscribe' (don't use quotes). The system will respond with a confirmation of the subscription, and users will receive new press releases as they are issued. To unsubscribe, send mail to pio-request@stsci.edu. Leave the subject line blank, and type 'unsubscribe' (don't use quotes) in the body of the message.

2002-01-01

107

Galaxy Group Stephan's Quintet Video File HubbleMinute: Battle Royale in Stephan's Quintet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope's closeup view of Stephan's Quintet, a group of five galaxies, reveals a string of brighter star clusters that separate like a diamond necklace. Astronomers studying the compact galaxy group Stephan's Quintet have seen creative destruction in the many collisions taking place among its galaxies. This HubbleMinute discusses what astronomers are learning and hope to learn from exploring the quintet.

2001-01-01

108

In Edwin Hubble's shadow: Early investigations on the expansion of the Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview on the progress on theoretical and observational cosmology in the first half of the 20th century is given. We outline the Einstein, de Sitter and Friedmann-Lemaître models, and describe the quest for the observational confirmation of the de Sitter universe, as well as the first theoretical and observational work on the Friedmann-Lemaître universe. We analyze the attempts to

Hilmar W. Duerbeck; Waltraut C. Seitter

2000-01-01

109

A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

Gardner, Jonathan

2011-01-01

110

A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2011-01-01

111

A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2012-01-01

112

A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss the top 10 astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2009-01-01

113

Hubble the Rotation of Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These three NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the planet Uranus reveal the motion of a pair of bright clouds in the planet's southern hemisphere, and a high altitude haze that forms a 'cap' above the planet's south pole.

Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These atmospheric details were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, detailed observations of Uranus's atmospheric features have not been possible because the planet is at the resolution limit of ground-based telescopes.

Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observed Uranus through a filter that is sensitive to light reflected by a pair of high altitude clouds. This makes a high altitude haze over Uranus' south polar region clearly visible, along with a pair of high altitude clouds or plume-type features that are 2500 and 1800 miles (4300 and 3100 kilometers) across, respectively. This sequence of images shows how the clouds (labeled A and B) rotate with the planet during the three hours that elapsed between the first two observations (left and center picture) and the five hours that elapsed between the second pair of observations (center and right picture). Some cloud motion might be due to high altitude winds on the planet. (Observations are indicated in Universal Time.)

By tracking the motion of high-altitude clouds, the new Hubble observations will allow astronomers to make new measurements of Uranus' rotation period. Based on the previous Voyager observations, Uranus spins on its axis at a faster rate than Earth does, completing one rotation every 7 hours, 14 minutes.

One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus's atmosphere, which should be unusual given the planet's large tilt.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1994-01-01

114

Astronomer's Proposal Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) is a computer program that assists astronomers in preparing their Phase 1 and Phase 2 Hubble Space Telescope science programs. APT is a successor to the Remote Proposal Submission System 2 (RPS2) program, which has been rendered obsolete by more recent advances in computer software and hardware. APT exploits advances associated with widespread use of the Internet, multiplatform visual development software tools, and overall increases in the power of desktop computer hardware, all in such a way as to make the preparation and submission of proposals more intuitive and make observatory operations less cumbersome. APT provides documentation and help that are friendly, up to date, and easily accessible to users of varying levels of expertise, while defining an extensible framework that is responsive to changes in both technology and observatory operations. APT consists of two major components: (1) a set of software tools that are intuitive, visual, and responsive and (2) an integrated software environment that unifies all the tools and makes them interoperable. The APT tools include the Visual Target Tuner, Proposal Editor, Exposure Planner, Bright Object Checker, and Visit Planner.

Krueger, Tony

2005-01-01

115

Astronomical kaleidoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two nice clocks in Prague, as well as a map of the Sanctuary in Orheiul -Vechi (Bessarabia) with an supposed ancient calendar.

Gaina, Alex

2005-10-01

116

HUBBLE PINPOINTS WHITE DWARFS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, dying stars - called white dwarfs - are giving astronomers a fresh reading on one of the biggest questions in astronomy: How old is the universe? The ancient white dwarfs in M4 are about 12 to 13 billion years old. After accounting for the time it took the cluster to form after the big bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates for the universe's age. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles pinpoint the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within arm's reach of the universe's age. M4 is 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Scorpius. Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 made the observations from January through April 2001. These optical observations were combined to create the above images. Spectral data were also taken. Credit for Hubble telescope photos: NASA and H. Richer (University of British Columbia) Credit for ground-based photo: NOAO/AURA/NSF

2002-01-01

117

Hubble Space Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes the Hubble Space Telescope, shows visualizations of how optical and reflecting telescopes work, and shows original footage of the Hubble in Space. You hear why a telescope in space is valuable as well as see some of the amazing photographs the different cameras on the Hubble have taken.

2011-08-12

118

Hubble 2006: Science Year in Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 10 science articles selected for this years annual science report exemplify the range of Hubble research from the Solar System, across our Milky Way, and on to distant galaxies. The objects of study include a new feature on Jupiter, binaries in the Kuiper Belt, Cepheid variable stars, the Orion Nebula, distant transiting planets, lensing galaxies, active galactic nuclei, red-and-dead galaxies, and galactic outflows and jets. Each narrative strives to construct the readers understanding of the topics and issues, and to place the latest research in historical, as well as scientific, context. These essays reveal trends in the practice of astronomy. More powerful computers are permitting astronomers to study ever larger data sets, enabling the discovery of subtle effects and rare objects. (Two investigations created mosaic images that are among the largest produced to date.) Multiwavelength data sets from ground-based telescopes, as well as other great observatories Spitzer and Chandraare increasingly important for holistic interpretations of Hubble results. This yearbook also presents profiles of 12 individuals who work with Hubble, or Hubble data, on a daily basis. They are representative of the many students, scientists, engineers, and other professions who are proudly associated with Hubble. Their stories collectively communicate the excitement and reward of careers related to space science and technology.

Brown, R.

2007-01-01

119

HUBBLE FINDS NEW DARK SPOT ON NEPTUNE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet. The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared. Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere. Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere. The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops. Credit: H. Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and NASA

2002-01-01

120

Determination of the Hubble constant.  

PubMed

Establishing accurate extragalactic distances has provided an immense challenge to astronomers since the 1920s. The situation has improved dramatically as better detectors have become available, and as several new, promising techniques have been developed. For the first time in the history of this difficult field, relative distances to galaxies are being compared on a case-by-case basis, and their quantitative agreement is being established. New instrumentation, the development of new techniques for measuring distances, and recent measurements with the Hubble Space telescope all have resulted in new distances to galaxies with precision at the +/-5-20% level. The current statistical uncertainty in some methods for measuring H(0) is now only a few percent; with systematic errors, the total uncertainty is approaching +/-10%. Hence, the historical factor-of-two uncertainty in the value of the H(0) is now behind us. PMID:10500124

Freedman, W L; Feng, L L

1999-09-28

121

Determination of the Hubble constant  

PubMed Central

Establishing accurate extragalactic distances has provided an immense challenge to astronomers since the 1920s. The situation has improved dramatically as better detectors have become available, and as several new, promising techniques have been developed. For the first time in the history of this difficult field, relative distances to galaxies are being compared on a case-by-case basis, and their quantitative agreement is being established. New instrumentation, the development of new techniques for measuring distances, and recent measurements with the Hubble Space telescope all have resulted in new distances to galaxies with precision at the ±5–20% level. The current statistical uncertainty in some methods for measuring H0 is now only a few percent; with systematic errors, the total uncertainty is approaching ±10%. Hence, the historical factor-of-two uncertainty in the value of the H0 is now behind us. PMID:10500124

Freedman, Wendy L.; Feng, Long Long

1999-01-01

122

Spike: AI scheduling for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spike scheduling system, developed for scheduling astronomical observations for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is described. Spike is an activity-based AI scheduler which incorporates innovative approaches to constraint representation and reasoning and scheduling search. Although developed for space telescope scheduling, the Spike system was designed around a general scheduling-constraint framework that can be applied to other domains. Techniques for

Mark D. Johnston

1990-01-01

123

Astronomical Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

2004-05-01

124

How I Became an Astronomer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life as an astronomer has taken me to view eclipses of the Sun from the Gaspe' Peninsula to the Pacific Ocean and the China and Coral Seas, and to observe the stars at observatories across the USA and as far south as Chile. I've also enjoyed working with NASA's telescopes in space, including the Hubble Space Telescope and the International Ultraviolet Explorer. It seems funny to reflect that it all began in the Sixth Grade by a fluke - the consequence of a hoax letter whose author I never identified.

Maran, Stephen P.

2001-01-01

125

Subaru Telescope: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Built and operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, the Subaru Telescope sits atop Mauna Kea on Hawaii's Big Island. With a 24-ton mirror, the largest single-piece glass mirror ever used in a telescope, Subaru has produced infrared images as clear and striking as astronomers have been receiving from the Hubble Space Telescope. On January 28, 1999, the director and staff at Subaru Telescope presented "first-light" results for their new telescope. The Subaru homepage contains background information on the project, a description of the telescope and its construction, and overviews of the instrumentation and anticipated scientific activities involving the telescope.

126

HUBBLE CAPTURES DETAILED IMAGE OF URANUS' ATMOSPHERE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere. Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail. The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere. Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal. This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. CREDIT: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Lab) and NASA

2002-01-01

127

**Volume Title** ASP Conference Series, Vol. **Volume Number**  

E-print Network

** Astronomical Society of the Pacific Dismantling Hubble's Legacy? Michael J. Waya,b aNASA/Goddard Institute and professional astronomers, students and the general public. The origins of these discoveries are examined would associate them solely with Edwin Hubble; yet this is a gross over- simplification. Astronomers

128

"Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Argonne's Edwin Campos has for the last two decades studied weather, and in particular, clouds. His research can help make solar power a more viable option for the U.S. and the world. In this video, Dr. Campos answers questions that were submitted by the public in response to his introductory video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfdoHz.... We will be posting a new "Ask Argonne" video every other month, on various topics. Keep an eye out for your next opportunity to submit a question and see if it gets answered - and if you get a shout-out on camera.

Edwin Campos

2013-05-23

129

"Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 2  

ScienceCinema

Argonne's Edwin Campos has for the last two decades studied weather, and in particular, clouds. His research can help make solar power a more viable option for the U.S. and the world. In this video, Dr. Campos answers questions that were submitted by the public in response to his introductory video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfdoHz.... We will be posting a new "Ask Argonne" video every other month, on various topics. Keep an eye out for your next opportunity to submit a question and see if it gets answered - and if you get a shout-out on camera.

Edwin Campos

2013-06-10

130

Edwin E. Moise Bibliography of the Vietnam War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Edwin E. Moise of Clemson University has provided a vast bibliography of the Vietnam war. Containing mostly books, it is divided into three major sections: microfilmed document collections, general publications, and U.S. government publications. It is this organization, especially the latter two sections, that is the power of the site. General publications is divided into 45 sections (mostly chronological) and government publications is divided into 20 sections. Many entries are briefly annotated. Unfortunately, the site is not searchable, but the hundreds of citations and their categorization make this one of the more impressive bibliographies of its kind on the Internet.

Moise, Edwin E.

131

Hubble assists Rosetta comet mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have played a major role in preparing ESA’s ambitious Rosetta mission for its new target, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Hubble has been used to make precise measurements of the size, shape and rotational period of the comet. Information that is essential if Rosetta is to rendezvous with the comet and then drop down a probe, something never before attempted and yet a major step towards elucidating the origins of the solar system. Observations made by Hubble in March this year revealed that comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) is approximately five by three kilometres in size and shaped like a rugby ball. ESA mission scientists were concerned about the exact size of the solid nucleus, which is needed to adapt the mission to the comet’s gravity. "Although 67P/C-G is roughly three times larger than the original Rosetta target, its highly elongated shape should make landing on its nucleus feasible, now that measures are in place to adapt the lander package to the new scenario," says Dr Philippe Lamy of the Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale in France, who is presenting the Hubble results on comet 67P/C-G today at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society in California, USA. Mission scientists began looking for an alternative target when the Rosetta mission's launch date was postponed. The delay meant that the original target comet, 46P/Wirtanen, was no longer easily reachable. But scientists did not have enough information on the back-up comet, 67P/C-G, and sought data from the largest telescopes. Using a technique developed over the past decade by Philippe Lamy, Imre Toth (Konkoly Observatory, Hungary), and Harold Weaver (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, USA), the team snapped 61 Hubble images of comet 67P/C-G over a period of 21 hours on 11 and 12 March. Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 isolated the comet's nucleus from the coma, the diffuse gas surrounding the nucleus, quickly providing the figures required. The telescope showed that the nucleus is ellipsoidal and measured its rotation rate at approximately 12 hours. Rosetta's launch is currently planned for February 2004, with a rendezvous with the comet about 10 years later. # # # Notes for editors The team is made up of P. L. Lamy and L. Jorda (Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale, France), I. Toth (Konkoly Observatory, Hungary), and H.A. Weaver (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory). The movie simulation of the Hubble results is provided by Mikko Kaasalainen (University of Helsinki, Finland) and Pedro Gutierrez (Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale, France). The observations were made possible through a special programme approved by the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute, S. Beckwith.

2003-09-01

132

Hubble Finds New Dark Spot on Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet.

The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared.

Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere.

Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere.

The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

133

Hubble Legacy Archive And The Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) hosts the Image of the Month (IOTM) Series. The HLA is a joint project of STScI, the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC). The HLA is designed optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing online enhanced Hubble products and advanced browsing capabilities. The IOTM's are created for astronomers and the public to highlight various features within HLA, such as the "Interactive Display", "Footprint” and "Inventory” features to name a few. We have been working with the Office of Public Outreach (OPO) to create a standards based educational module for middle school to high school students of the IOTM: Rings and the Moons of Uranus. The set of Uranus activities are highlighted by a movie that displays the orbit of five of Uranus’ largest satellites. We made the movie based on eight visits of Uranus from 2000-06-16 to 2000-06-18, using the PC chip on the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and filter F850LP (proposal ID: 8680). Students will be engaged in activities that will allow them to "discover” the rings and satellites around Uranus, calculate the orbit of the satellites, and introduces students to analyze real data from Hubble.

Harris, Jessica; Whitmore, B.; Eisenhamer, B.; Bishop, M.; Knisely, L.

2012-01-01

134

Hubble Captures Detailed Image of Uranus' Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere.

Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail.

The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere.

Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal.

This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1996-01-01

135

Modern Observations of Hubble''s First-discovered Cepheid in M31  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a modern ephemeris and modern light curve of the first-discovered Cepheid variable in M31, Edwin Hubble''s M31-V1. Observers of the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) undertook these observations during the latter half of 2010. The observations were in support of an outreach program by the Space Telescope Science Institute''s Hubble Heritage project, but the resulting data are the first concentrated observations of M31-V1 made in modern times. AAVSO observers obtained 214 V-band, Rc-band, and unfiltered observations from which a current ephemeris was derived. The ephemeris derived from these observations is JDMax=2,455,430.5(± 0.5) + 31.4( ± 0.1)E. The period derived from the 2010 data is in agreement with the historic values of the period, but the single season of data precludes a more precise determination of the period or measurement of the period change using these data alone. However, using an ephemeris based upon the period derived by Baade and Swope, we are able to fit all of the observed data acceptably well. Continued observations in the modern era will be very valuable in linking these modern data with data from the 1920s--1930s and 1950s and will enable us to measure period change in this historic Cepheid. In particular, we strongly encourage intensive observations of this star around predicted times of maximum to constrain the date of maximum to better than 0.5 days.

Templeton, M.; Henden, A.; Goff, W.; Smith, S.; Sabo, R.; Walker, G.; Buchheim, R.; Belcheva, G.; Crawford, T.; Cook, M.; Dvorak, S.; Harris, B.

2011-12-01

136

RESCUING HUBBLE November 13, 2013  

E-print Network

RESCUING HUBBLE November 13, 2013 MIT Bartos Theater Agenda and Speakers:15 MIT Greetings, Hubble video, Introduction Jaime Peraire, Jeff Hoffman, David 10:30- 10:45 Hubble's development, planning through launch Frank

Williams, Brian C.

137

Das Universum P. Ulmschneider, Vom Urknall zum modernen Menschen, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-29926-1_1,  

E-print Network

Stern. Im Jahr1923 zeigte der amerikanische Astronom Edwin Hubble, dass unser Sonnensystem zu einer.2 Langzeitaufnahme (Hubble Deep Field) mit dem Hubble Space Teleskop (STScI und NASA) Abbildung 1.2 zeigt eine mit dem Hubble Space Teleskop gewonnene Langzeitaufnahme ei- nes winzigen Gebietes im Sternbild Ursa Major

Ulmschneider, Peter

138

BEAUTY IN THE EYE OF HUBBLE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dying star, IC 4406, dubbed the 'Retina Nebula' is revealed in this month's Hubble Heritage image. Like many other so-called planetary nebulae, IC 4406 exhibits a high degree of symmetry; the left and right halves of the Hubble image are nearly mirror images of the other. If we could fly around IC4406 in a starship, we would see that the gas and dust form a vast donut of material streaming outward from the dying star. From Earth, we are viewing the donut from the side. This side view allows us to see the intricate tendrils of dust that have been compared to the eye's retina. In other planetary nebulae, like the Ring Nebula (NGC 6720), we view the donut from the top. The donut of material confines the intense radiation coming from the remnant of the dying star. Gas on the inside of the donut is ionized by light from the central star and glows. Light from oxygen atoms is rendered blue in this image; hydrogen is shown as green, and nitrogen as red. The range of color in the final image shows the differences in concentration of these three gases in the nebula. Unseen in the Hubble image is a larger zone of neutral gas that is not emitting visible light, but which can be seen by radio telescopes. One of the most interesting features of IC 4406 is the irregular lattice of dark lanes that criss-cross the center of the nebula. These lanes are about 160 astronomical units wide (1 astronomical unit is the distance between the Earth and Sun). They are located right at the boundary between the hot glowing gas that produces the visual light imaged here and the neutral gas seen with radio telescopes. We see the lanes in silhouette because they have a density of dust and gas that is a thousand times higher than the rest of the nebula. The dust lanes are like a rather open mesh veil that has been wrapped around the bright donut. The fate of these dense knots of material is unknown. Will they survive the nebula's expansion and become dark denizens of the space between the stars or simply dissipate? This image is a composite of data taken by Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in June 2001 by Bob O'Dell (Vanderbilt University) and collaborators and in January 2002 by The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI). Filters used to create this color image show oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen gas glowing in this object. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: C.R. O'Dell (Vanderbilt University)

2002-01-01

139

DOI: 10.1126/science.1166609 , 1345 (2008);322Science  

E-print Network

Eugene Chiang,1,2 Michael P. Fitzgerald,3 Mark Clampin,4 Edwin S. Kite,2 Karl Stapelfeldt,5 Christian astronomical units (AU) from the star and 18 AU of the dust belt, matching predictions of its location. Hubble

Jalali. Bahram

2008-01-01

140

The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Doradus) in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the most famous objects in astronomy, with first astronomical references being more than 150 years old. Today the Tarantula Nebula and its ionizing cluster R136 are considered one of the few known starburst regions in the Local Group and an ideal test bed to investigate the temporal and spatial evolution of a prototypical starburst on a sub-cluster scale. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is a panchromatic imaging survey of the stellar populations and ionized gas in the Tarantula Nebula that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M?). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H? images. The program was awarded 60 orbits of HST time and is built on the existing 30 orbits monochromatic proper motion program GO-12499 (PI Lennon). The combination of all these bands provides a unique view of the region: the resulting maps of the Tarantula’s stellar content provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. At the same time access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. We will deliver high-level data products (i.e. star and cluster catalogs, co-registered stacked images). HTTP will become the definitive catalog of the field, and have lasting value for future. HTTP also has an educational and public outreach component aimed to stimulate interest in STEM disciplines among people with visual impairments. “Reach for the Stars: Touch, Look, Listen, Learn” is a free eBook that explains how stars form and evolve using images from HTTP. The eBook utilizes emerging technology that works in conjunction with the built-in accessibility features in the Apple iPad to allow totally blind users to interactively explore complex astronomical images.

Sabbi, Elena; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Van Der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S.; Gordon, K. D.; Gouliermis, D.; Grebel, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D. F.

2014-01-01

141

HUBBLE SEES A VAST 'CITY' OF STARS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In these pictures, a 'city' of a million stars glitters like a New York City skyline. The images capture the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years from Earth in the southern constellation Tucana. Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers went hunting in this large city for planetary companions: bloated gaseous planets that snuggle close to their parent stars, completing an orbit in a quick three to five days. To their surprise, they found none. This finding suggests that the cluster's environment is too hostile for breeding planets or that it lacks the necessary elements for making them. The picture at left, taken by a terrestrial telescope, shows most of the cluster, a tightly packed group of middle-aged stars held together by mutual gravitational attraction. The box near the center represents the Hubble telescope's view. The image at right shows the Hubble telescope's close-up look at a swarm of 35,000 stars near the cluster's central region. The stars are tightly packed together: They're much closer together than our Sun and its closest stars. The picture, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, depicts the stars' natural colors and tells scientists about their composition and age. For example, the red stars denote bright red giants nearing the end of their lives; the more common yellow stars are similar to our middle-aged Sun. Most of the stars in the cluster are believed to have formed about 10 billion years ago. The bright, blue stars -- thought to be remnants of stellar collisions and mergers -- provide a few rejuvenated, energetic stars in an otherwise old system. The Hubble picture was taken in July 1999. Credits for Hubble image: NASA and Ron Gilliland (Space Telescope Science Institute) Credits for ground-based image: David Malin, c Anglo-Australian Observatory

2002-01-01

142

52Hubble Detects More Dark Matter This NASA Hubble Space  

E-print Network

52Hubble Detects More Dark Matter This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the distribution is an invisible form of matter that accounts for most of the universe's mass. Hubble cannot see the dark matter, tinted blue, on an image of the cluster taken by Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys. If the cluster

143

Hubble Telescope: Looking Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its launch in 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope has provided scientists with a vast amount of quality data and has contributed to a number of important discoveries. The Hubble Deep Field Image, one of its best known, shows some of the most distant, earliest, and faintest galaxies ever seen. This video segment shows how scientists aimed the Hubble Space Telescope into a dark, apparently featureless portion of the sky to create this amazing picture of the early universe. The segment is two minutes twenty-one seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

144

Hubble Telescope: Looking Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its launch is 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope has provided scientists with a vast amount of quality data and has contributed to a number of important discoveries. The Hubble Deep Field Image, one of its best known, shows some of the most distant, earliest, and faintest galaxies ever seen. This video segment shows how scientists aimed the Hubble Space Telescope into a dark, apparently featureless portion of the sky to create this amazing picture of the early universe. The segment is two minutes twenty-one seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

145

Correcting Hubble Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the theory behind the workings of the Hubble Space Telescope, the spherical aberration in the primary mirror that caused a reduction in image quality, and the corrective device that compensated for the error. (JRH)

Shaw, John M.; Sheahen, Thomas P.

1994-01-01

146

The Hubble effective potential  

SciTech Connect

We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)] [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

2009-05-15

147

Hubble Discovers Bright New Spot on Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope pair of images of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io shows the surprising emergence of a 200-mile diameter large yellowish-white feature near the center of the moon's disk (photo on the right). This is a more dramatic change in 16 months than any seen over the previous 15 years, say researchers. They suggest the spot may be a new class of transient feature on the moon. For comparison the photo on the left was taken in March 1994 -- before the spot emerged - - and shows that Io's surface had undergone only subtle changes since it was last seen close-up by the Voyager 2 probe in 1979. The new spot seen in the July 1995 Hubble image replaces a smaller whitish spot seen in about the same place in the March 1994 image. Note the much more subtle changes seen elsewhere on this face of Io over the 16 months between the images. Each image is a composite of frames taken at near-ultraviolet, violet, and yellow wavelengths, with Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. 'The new spot surrounds the volcano Ra Patera, which was photographed by Voyager, and is probably composed of material, probably frozen gas, ejected from Ra Patera by a large volcanic explosion or fresh lava flows...,' according to John Spencer of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. The new bright spot is also unusual because it is much yellower than other bright regions of Io, which are whitish in color. The unusual color may result from the freshness of the deposit and will probably provide clues as to the composition of new volcanic materials on Io. The temperature on Io's surface is about -150 degrees Celsius (-238 degrees Fahrenheit); however, 'hot spots' associated with volcanic activity may be as warm as 1,000 degrees Celsius (1,800 degrees Fahrenheit). Follow-up observations by Hubble, in coordination with the Galileo spacecraft, scheduled to arrive at Jupiter and fly by Io in December 1995, will reveal the evolution and lifetime of the new feature. Galileo will be able to see much greater detail on Io in visible light, but will still rely on information gleaned from Hubble UV observations and Hubble observations taken at times when Galileo cannot observe Io. These further observations should also tell whether astronomers have witnessed, for the first time, one of the processes which creates the bright regions on Io.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

148

European astronauts set for Hubble challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swiss-born Claude Nicollier will become the first European to make a "spacewalk" from the Space Shuttle. Frenchman Jean-François Clervoy, chief operator of the Shuttle's robotic arm, will capture the telescope and release it once work has been completed. The mission's main objective is to replace Hubble's failed pointing system, which allows astronomers to aim the telescope very precisely at stars, planets and other distant astronomical objects. During 10 days in orbit, astronauts will undertake four "spacewalks" to update and renew equipment. Nicollier will achieve the ambition of a lifetime when he exits the airlock at the beginning of the mission's second major spacewalk in the early hours of 16 December on his first six-hour stint carrying out repairs on the two-storey high Hubble telescope. The opportunity for one of its astronaut to make two spacewalks during the mission is important for ESA. "It is a question of building up experience. We have had EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) from Mir but this will be the first time a European has had the opportunity to go from the Shuttle," said Nicollier. Nicollier is on his fourth flight into space. Among them he took part in the first Hubble servicing mission in 1993, controlling the Shuttle's robotic arm while astronauts outside performed repairs to the telescope. This time Clervoy, on his third flight, will have that lead role in the operation of the robotic arm. About 48 hours after launch, Clervoy will take the controls, extend the Shuttle's arm and gently attach it to a fixture on Hubble as the two hurtle round the Earth in tandem at speeds of 27,000 km an hour. There is no room for mistakes as he performs a task in real time that he has practised for many hours in simulations on the ground. After attaching the arm, he will slowly guide the 12-ton telescope to its repair berth at the rear of the Shuttle's payload bay. Clervoy flew in space for the first time on the Space Shuttle Atlantis in November 1994 and the experience gained on that flight - when he controlled the robotic arm to deploy an atmospheric research satellite for the German space agency DLR - will be invaluable. Notes on the Hubble Space Telescope: The Hubble Space Telescope was launched in 1990 with an expected orbital lifetime of 20 years. ESA contributed a 15 percent share to its development and in return European astronomers receive a guaranteed 15 percent share of observing time. In reality this has averaged 20 percent because of the high quality of proposals from scientists in Europe. A servicing mission had been scheduled for June 2000 but after three of the telescope's six gyroscopes failed NASA officials decided not to risk waiting. Hubble requires three of its six gyroscopes to operate properly for accurate stabilisation but a fourth failed in November - posing no long term threat to the telescope but meaning observations had to be suspended until the replacements are fitted. As well as replacing all the telescope's gyros, the crew will install other equipment that has either degraded in the harsh space environment or can now be replaced with more up-to-date technology. Media opportunities during the mission: An inflight press conference will be held with the STS-103 crew including Claude Nicollier and Jean-François Clervoy. If you wish to attend, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it by fax to ESA Public Relations.

1999-12-01

149

S PIKE : Intelligent Scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the S PIKE system, a general framework for scheduling which has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute for NASA's Hubble Space Tele-scope (HST). Efficient use of astronomical observatories is very important to the scientific community: the demand for research-grade telescopes far exceeds the supply. The need for efficient scheduling is especially keen for space-based facilities

Mark D. Johnston; Glenn E. Miller

1994-01-01

150

HUBBLE SPIES GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN NEIGHBORING GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble Space Telescope has captured a view of a globular cluster called G1, a large, bright ball of light in the center of the photograph consisting of at least 300,000 old stars. G1, also known as Mayall II, orbits the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the nearest major spiral galaxy to our Milky Way. Located 130,000 light-years from Andromeda's nucleus, G1 is the brightest globular cluster in the Local Group of galaxies. The Local Group consists of about 20 nearby galaxies, including the Milky Way. The crisp image is comparable to ground-based telescope views of similar clusters orbiting the Milky Way. The Andromeda cluster, however, is nearly 100 times farther away. A glimpse into the cluster's finer details allow astronomers to see its fainter helium-burning stars whose temperatures and brightnesses show that this cluster in Andromeda and the oldest Milky Way clusters have approximately the same age. These clusters probably were formed shortly after the beginning of the universe, providing astronomers with a record of the earliest era of galaxy formation. During the next two years, astronomers will use Hubble to study about 20 more globular clusters in Andromeda. The color picture was assembled from separate images taken in visible and near-infrared wavelengths taken in July of 1994. CREDIT: Michael Rich, Kenneth Mighell, and James D. Neill (Columbia University), and Wendy Freedman (Carnegie Observatories), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

2002-01-01

151

HST's 10th anniversary, ESA and Hubble : changing our vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the astronauts who took part in the most recent Servicing Mission (SM3A) in attendance, ESA is taking the opportunity to give a - first - complete overview of Europe's major contribution to the HST mission. It will also review the first ten years of operations and the outstanding results that have "changed our vision" of the cosmos. A new fully European outreach initiative - the "European Space Agency Hubble Information Centre" - will be presented and officially launched; it has been set up by ESA to provide information on Hubble from a European perspective. A public conference will take place in the afternoon to celebrate Hubble's achievements midway through its life. Ten years of outstanding performance Launched on 24 April 1990, Hubble is now midway through its operating life and it is considered one of the most successful space science missions ever. So far more than 10,000 scientific papers based on Hubble results have been published and European scientists have contributed to more than 25% of these. Not only has Hubble produced a rich harvest of scientific results, it has impressed the man in the street with its beautiful images of the sky. Thousands of headlines all over the world have given direct proof of the public's great interest in the mission - 'The deepest images ever', 'The sharpest view of the Universe', 'Measurements of the earliest galaxies' and many others, all reflecting Hubble's performance as a top-class observatory. The Servicing Missions that keep the observatory and its instruments in prime condition are one of the innovative ideas behind Hubble. Astronauts have serviced Hubble three times, and ESA astronauts have taken part in two of these missions. Claude Nicollier (CH) worked with American colleagues on the First Servicing Mission, when Hubble's initial optical problems were repaired. On the latest, Servicing Mission 3A, both Claude Nicollier and Jean-François Clervoy (F) were members of the crew. Over the next 10 years European scientists still plan to use Hubble as one of their prime research tools, but they also expect to benefit from synergy between Hubble and the ground-based 8-metre class telescopes that are becoming available to scientists in Europe. Notes for editors The Hubble Space Telescope is an international cooperation project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The partnership agreement between ESA and NASA was signed on 7 October 1977. ESA has provided, among other items, two pairs of solar panels and one of Hubble's scientific instruments (the Faint Object Camera). 15 European scientists are contributing to the science operation of the Hubble Observatory and are currently working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (STScI). In return for this contribution, European astronomers have guaranteed access to 15% of Hubble's observing time. Scientific operation of the Hubble Observatory is the responsibility of the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is run for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). The Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), hosted by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Garching near Munich, Germany, provides support to European Hubble users. ESA and ESO jointly operate ST-ECF. From 27 April 2000 the "European Space Agency Hubble Information Centre" will be available with its services on the World Wide Web at http://hubble.esa.int as part of the recently upgraded ESA Science website http://sci.esa.int For more information, please contact : ESA - Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Press conference Thursday 27 April at 10:30h Location Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) (c/o European Southern Observatory (ESO), K. Schwarzschild-Str. 2, Garching bei München, Germany), Auditorium.

2000-04-01

152

HUBBLE UNVEILS A GALAXY IN LIVING COLOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this view of the center of the magnificent barred spiral galaxy NGC 1512, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's broad spectral vision reveals the galaxy at all wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared. The colors (which indicate differences in light intensity) map where newly born star clusters exist in both 'dusty' and 'clean' regions of the galaxy. This color-composite image was created from seven images taken with three different Hubble cameras: the Faint Object Camera (FOC), the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). NGC 1512 is a barred spiral galaxy in the southern constellation of Horologium. Located 30 million light-years away, relatively 'nearby' as galaxies go, it is bright enough to be seen with amateur telescopes. The galaxy spans 70,000 light-years, nearly as much as our own Milky Way galaxy. The galaxy's core is unique for its stunning 2,400 light-year-wide circle of infant star clusters, called a 'circumnuclear' starburst ring. Starbursts are episodes of vigorous formation of new stars and are found in a variety of galaxy environments. Taking advantage of Hubble's sharp vision, as well as its unique wavelength coverage, a team of Israeli and American astronomers performed one of the broadest and most detailed studies ever of such star-forming regions. The results, which will be published in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal, show that in NGC 1512 newly born star clusters exist in both dusty and clean environments. The clean clusters are readily seen in ultraviolet and visible light, appearing as bright, blue clumps in the image. However, the dusty clusters are revealed only by the glow of the gas clouds in which they are hidden, as detected in red and infrared wavelengths by the Hubble cameras. This glow can be seen as red light permeating the dark, dusty lanes in the ring. 'The dust obscuration of clusters appears to be an on-off phenomenon,' says Dan Maoz, who headed the collaboration. 'The clusters are either completely hidden, enshrouded in their birth clouds, or almost completely exposed.' The scientists believe that stellar winds and powerful radiation from the bright, newly born stars have cleared away the original natal dust cloud in a fast and efficient 'cleansing' process. Aaron Barth, a co-investigator on the team, adds: 'It is remarkable how similar the properties of this starburst are to those of other nearby starbursts that have been studied in detail with Hubble.' This similarity gives the astronomers the hope that, by understanding the processes occurring in nearby galaxies, they can better interpret observations of very distant and faint starburst galaxies. Such distant galaxies formed the first generations of stars, when the universe was a fraction of its current age. Circumstellar star-forming rings are common in the universe. Such rings within barred spiral galaxies may in fact comprise the most numerous class of nearby starburst regions. Astronomers generally believe that the giant bar funnels the gas to the inner ring, where stars are formed within numerous star clusters. Studies like this one emphasize the need to observe at many different wavelengths to get the full picture of the processes taking place.

2002-01-01

153

The shrinking Hubble constant  

E-print Network

Hubble plots of the distance of stellar objects vs. recession velocity normally assume the red shift is wholly Doppler and ignore any gravitational contribution. This is unwarranted: gravity and Doppler velocity red shifts are found to be separable and contribute about equally. A recent data set, to Z=1.2, by Riess (1), was analyzed. Upon plotting distance vs. Doppler velocity, the slope of the Hubble plot increases. The Hubble plot is also curved, upwards, and this can be understood in terms of the relativistic metric changes of the space through which the light travels. On fitting the data to a simple model of a big bang of constant density, this finds the total mass of the big bang is M=21.1x10^52 kg. When present actual distance is plotted vs. Doppler velocity, the plot is linear and agrees with Hubble's concept, without acceleration. Time since the big bang is longer than the 14 billion years that had been thought, 23.5 billion years. The Hubble constant hence shrinks from Ho=71 to Ho=41.6. This is an independent affirmation of a recent CMB finding of a low Ho=35.

R. L. Collins

2006-01-10

154

Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology.  

PubMed

Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists. PMID:25194751

Stewart, Alan E

2014-09-01

155

Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

Stewart, Alan E.

2014-09-01

156

HUBBLE SPIES A REALLY COOL STAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a Hubble Space Telescope picture of one of the least massive and coolest stars even seen (upper right). It is a diminutive companion to the K dwarf star called GL 105A (also known as HD 16160) seen at lower left. The binary pair is located 27 light-years away in the constellation Cetus. Based on the Hubble observation, astronomers calculate that the companion, called GL 105C, is 25,000 times fainter than GL 105A in visible light. If the dim companion were at the distance of our Sun, it would be only four times brighter than the full moon. The Hubble observations confirm the detection of GL 105C last year by David Golimowski and his collaborators at Palomar Observatory in California. Although GL 105C was identified before, the Hubble view allows a more precise measurement of the separation between the binary components. Future Hubble observations of the binary orbit will allow the masses of both stars to be determined accurately. The Palomar group estimates that the companion's mass is 8-9 percent of the Sun's mass, which places it near the theoretical lower limit for stable hydrogen burning. Objects below this limit, called brown dwarfs, still 'shine' -- not by thermonuclear energy, but by the energy released through gravitational contraction. Two pictures, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (in PC mode) through different filters (in visible and near-infrared light) show that GL 105C is redder, hence cooler than GL 105A. The surface temperature of GL 105C is not precisely known, but may be as low as 2,600 degrees Kelvin (4,200 degrees Fahrenheit). This image was taken in near-infrared light, on January 5, 1995. GL 105C is located 3.4 arc seconds to the west-northwest of the larger GL 105A. (One arc second equals 1/3600 of a degree.) The bright spikes are caused by diffraction of light within the telescope's optical system, and the brighter white bar is an artifact of the CCD camera, which bleeds along a CCD column when a relatively bright object is in the field of view. These observations are part of a Guaranteed Time Observing Program for which William Fastie (the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD) and Dan Schroeder (Beloit College, Beloit, WI) were co-principal investigators. Credit: D. Golimowski (Johns Hopkins University), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo:

2002-01-01

157

HubbleSite: Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The HubbleSite is produced by the Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach. The Gallery page of the site lets visitors explore the incredible pictures taken by the Hubble telescope in several ways. The showcase link provides an interactive environment to view photographs taken of the solar system, stars, galaxies, nebulae, exotic features, and the telescope itself. The newest pictures can be seen on the latest image link, while the entire collection can be browsed using the collection link, which organizes the photos by year and by category. One interesting side note, some objects cannot be observed by Hubble and are therefore not included in the archive, including the planet Mercury, which is too close to the Sun.

158

Astronomical Institute of Athens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomical Institute of Athens is the oldest research institute of modern Greece (it faces the Parthenon). The Astronomical Institute (AI) of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) started its observational projects in 1847. The modern computer and research center are housed at the Penteli Astronomical Station with major projects and international collaborations focused on extragalactic ...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

159

The hubble constant.  

PubMed

The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and distance in the expanding universe. It is a fundamental property of cosmology that sets both the scale and the expansion age of the universe. It is determined by measurement of galaxy The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and development of new techniques for the measurements of galaxy distances, both calibration uncertainties and debates over systematic errors remain. Current determinations still range over nearly a factor of 2; the higher values favored by most local measurements are not consistent with many theories of the origin of large-scale structure and stellar evolution. PMID:17743107

Huchra, J P

1992-04-17

160

Hubble News Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hubble site this is a collection of all publicly released pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope. Accompanying each photograph is the official news release, an introduction to the object, fast facts, and related frequently asked questions. The news releases are sorted by category, year, and type. Some of these categories consist of: cosmology, exotic, galaxy, miscellaneous, nebula, solar system, star, star cluster, and survey. Image files in different sizes and formats are available for download. This is a nice resource for those interested in the more visual aspects of astronomy and space sciences.

161

Hubble's Nobel Prize  

E-print Network

Astronomy is not in the list of natural sciences aimed at by the Nobel awards. In spite of that, there were, throughout the 1930s until the early 1950s, effective moves by important scientists to distinguish Hubble with the Prize. A short report on these attempts is made as well as speculation on what would be the citation for the prize in view of the broad range of Hubble's scientific achievements. Within this context, the opportunity is also taken for publicizing the Crafoord Prize which does consider astronomy.

Domingos Soares

2011-07-04

162

Hubble Heritage Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) offers a "celestial photo album" to offer users some of the best photos taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently, visual and textual descriptions are available for four objects: Galaxy NGC 7742; NGC 7635, The Bubble Nebula; Sagittarius Star Cloud (SGR-I); and Saturn. Users may choose to explore the site from the more easily navigated Subject Index, which also offers technical information about the images and the Hubble Project and a few links. The site will be updated the first Thursday of each month with a composition created from recent image data.

163

75 FR 69137 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant (HNP), Unit 2, located in...but contains slightly higher iron content than specified in American...for zircaloy or ZIRLO TM , a plant-specific exemption is...

2010-11-10

164

75 FR 3761 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NPF-5, issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc...operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (HNP...No changes to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System...Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Edwin I. Hatch...

2010-01-22

165

MATH 1131Q -Calculus 1. lvaro Lozano-Robledo  

E-print Network

Surprising Rate of Change Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 - September 28, 1953) American Astronomer Surprising Rate of Change The Hubble Deep Field (HDF) is an image of a small region in the constellation Ursa Major, constructed from a series of observations by the Hubble Space Telescope. #12;An Example: A Very

Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

166

10 The Messenger 122 --December 2005 CODEX: Measuring the Expansion of the Universe  

E-print Network

in the late 1920s by Edwin Hubble was a major milestone in cosmol­ ogy. It brought to an end the belief held. Hubble's discovery of the expansion of the Universe has been confirmed by a vast range of astronomical in a simple man­ ner to the evolution of the Hubble param­ eter H(t e ) between the epoch of emission

167

CosmiCarcha eologyDr Ignacio Ferreras, Lecturer in Astrophysics in  

E-print Network

. It was the giant strides of astronomers such as Edwin Hubble and Allan Sandage that put galaxies in their proper, ponders the question of how galaxies are formed. NASA,ESA,SBEckwith/StSci,thEhUDFtEAm The Hubble Ultra. However, when the Hubble Space Telescope exposed its Advanced Camera for Surveys for over 11 days a swarm

Thompson, Samantha

168

Mrk energi Anja C. Andersen, Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institutet, Kbenhavns  

E-print Network

den amerikanske astronom Edwin Hubble, der i 1920'erne fandt, at fjerne galakser bevæger sig væk fra fra hinanden, må de en gang have været meget tættere på hinanden. Figure 1: : Udsnit af Hubble på flere tidspunkter i Universets historie. På trods af at dette har været klart siden Hubbles dage

Andersen, Anja C.

169

HUBBLE SNAPS PICTURE OF REMARKABLE DOUBLE CLUSTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The double cluster NGC 1850, found in one of our neighboring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, is an eye-catching object. It is a young, 'globular-like' star cluster -- a type of object unknown in our own Milky Way Galaxy. Moreover, NGC 1850 is surrounded by a filigree pattern of diffuse gas, which scientists believe was created by the explosion of massive stars. NGC 1850, imaged here with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope, is an unusual double cluster that lies in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our own Milky Way. After the 30 Doradus complex, NGC 1850 is the brightest star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It is representative of a special class of objects -- young, globular-like star clusters -- that have no counterpart in our galaxy. The two components of the cluster are both relatively young and consist of a main, globular-like cluster in the center and an even younger, smaller cluster, seen below and to the right, composed of extremely hot, blue stars and, fainter red T-Tauri stars. The main cluster is about 50 million years old; the smaller cluster is only 4 million years old. One of Hubble's main contributions to the study of NGC 1850 is in the investigation of star formation at both ends of the stellar mass scale -- the low-mass T-Tauri stars and the high-mass OB stars. T-Tauri stars are young, solar-class stars that are still forming, so young that they may have not started converting hydrogen to helium, which is how our Sun produces its energy. Instead they radiate energy released by their own gravitational contraction. By investigating these stars astronomers learn about the births and lives of low-mass stars. T-Tauri stars tend to occur in crowded environments, but are themselves faint, making them difficult to distinguish with ground-based telescopes. However, Hubble's fine angular resolution can pick out these stars, even in galaxies other than our own. Hubble also has advantages when studying very massive stars. These stars emit large amounts of energetic ultraviolet radiation, which is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. From its position above the atmosphere, Hubble can detect ultraviolet light from these massive stars. The Hubble data can then be analyzed and used to characterize the stars' properties. This Hubble image is a good example of the interaction between gas, dust, and stars. Millions of years ago massive stars in the main cluster exploded as supernovas, forming the spectacular filigree pattern of diffuse gas visible in the image. It is believed that the birth of new stars can be triggered by the enormous forces in the shock fronts where the supernova blast waves hit and compress the gas. The nebulous gas is part of the N103 super bubble and looks similar to the well-known supernova remnant Cygnus Loop in our own Milky Way. NGC 1850 lies in the southern constellation of Dorado, the Goldfish, sometimes known as the Swordfish. This image was created from five archival exposures obtained with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 between April 3, 1994 and February 6, 1996. Image credits: NASA, ESA, and Martino Romaniello (European Southern Observatory, Germany) Acknowledgements: The image processing for this image was done by Martino Romaniello, Richard Hook, Bob Fosbury and the Hubble European Space Agency Information Center.

2002-01-01

170

Determining the Hubble Constant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will graph distance/velocity data of real galaxies to arrive at their own value of the Hubble constant (H). Once they have calculated their own value of H, they will use it to determine distances to real galaxies with known recessional velocities.

Cush Copeland

2012-07-11

171

Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory  

E-print Network

Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory HST-COS FUV PER 11/8/00 FUV Detector System Environmental Qualification Overview Dr. Barry Welsh FUV Project Manager #12;Space Telescope Programs Hubble · Brief flat field #12;Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory HST-COS FUV PER 11/8/00 FUV SYSTEM

Colorado at Boulder, University of

172

Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory  

E-print Network

Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory HST-COS FUV PER 11/8/00 HST COS FUV DETECTOR SYSTEM P.E.R. HST-COS FUV Detector Pre-Environmental Review November 8th 2000 #12;Space Telescope Programs Hubble Matrix FUV System Shipping Plan #12;Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory HST-COS FUV PER 11

Colorado at Boulder, University of

173

Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory  

E-print Network

Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory HST-COS FUV PER 11/8/00 FUV Detector System Materials;Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory HST-COS FUV PER 11/8/00 Materials and Processes · Materials based on Heritage of FUSE/ORFEUS Flight Systems #12;Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory HST

Colorado at Boulder, University of

174

European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not only observed relatively near celestial objects, like the planets in our solar system, but also looked thousands of millions of light years into space, taking images of the most distant galaxies ever seen. "The observations and spectral measurements taken with Hubble have improved our understanding of the origin and age of the universe. In some cases, the Hubble Space Telescope has already changed our thinking about the evolution of planetary systems, stars and galaxies," points out Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. Astronomers throughout the world are using the telescope. European astronomers have a significant share in the scientific utilisation of Hubble. The Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, USA, coordinates and schedules the various observations. Europe's centre for coordinating observations from Hubble, the Space Telescope European Coordination Facility, is located at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) at Garching, near Munich, Germany. The Hubble Space Telescope is the first spacecraft ever built that has been designed for extensive in-orbit maintenance and refurbishment by astronauts. Unlike other satellites launched on unmanned rockets, Hubble is accessible by astronauts in orbit. It has numerous grapple fixtures and handholds for ease of access and the safety of astronauts. Hence the telescope's planned 15-year continuous operating time, despite the harsh environmental conditions, and the ability to upgrade it with more powerful instruments as technology progresses. At regular intervals of 3 to 4 years, the US Space Shuttle visits the telescope in orbit to replace components which have failed or reached the nominal end of their operational lifetime and to replace and upgrade instruments with newer, better ones. STS-104 will be the third Hubble servicing mission, after STS-61 in December 1993 and STS-82 in February 1997. To increase Hubble's scientific capability, Nicollier and his fellow crew members from NASA will remove the European-built Faint Object Camera, which has been wo

1998-08-01

175

Hubble's Sharpest View Of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sharpest view of Mars ever taken from Earth was obtained by the recently refurbished NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This stunning portrait was taken with the HST Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 (WFPC2) on March 10, 1997, just before Mars opposition, when the red planet made one of its closest passes to the Earth (about 60 million miles or 100 million km).

At this distance, a single picture element (pixel) in WFPC2's Planetary Camera spans 13 miles (22 km) on the Martian surface.

The Martian north pole is at the top (near the center of the bright polar cap) and East is to the right. The center of the disk is at about 23 degrees north latitude, and the central longitude is near 305 degrees.

This view of Mars was taken on the last day of Martian spring in the northern hemisphere (just before summer solstice). It clearly shows familiar bright and dark markings known to astronomers for more than a century. The annual north polar carbon dioxide frost (dry ice) cap is rapidly sublimating (evaporating from solid to gas), revealing the much smaller permanent water ice cap, along with a few nearby detached regions of surface frost. The receding polar cap also reveals the dark, circular sea of sand dunes that surrounds the north pole (Olympia Planitia).

Other prominent features in this hemisphere include Syrtis Major Planitia, the large dark feature seen just below the center of the disk. The giant impact basin Hellas (near the bottom of the disk) is shrouded in bright water ice clouds. Water ice clouds also cover several great volcanos in the Elysium region near the eastern edge of the planet (right). A diffuse water ice haze covers much of the Martian equatorial region as well.

The WFPC2 was used to monitor dust storm activity to support the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Missions, which are currently en route to Mars. Airborne dust is most easily seen in WFPC2's red and near-infrared images. Hubble's 'weather report' from these images in invaluable for Mars Pathfinder, which is scheduled for a July 4 landing. Fortunately, these images show no evidence for large-scale dust storm activity, which plagued a previous Mars mission in the early 1970s.

The WFPC2 was used to observe Mars in nine different colors spanning the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The specific colors were chosen to clearly discriminate between airborne dust, ice clouds, and prominent Martian surface features. This picture was created by combining images taken in blue (433 nm), green (554 nm), and red (763 nm) colored filters.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1997-01-01

176

Fluctuation of the Hubble parameter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the Hubble parameter H (z ) in perturbed Friedmann universe and obtain an expression of the perturbed Hubble parameter H (z ,n ) . We derive the Hubble parameter power spectrum by using the initial spectrum during inflation and the Bardeen transfer function. We obtain a semianalytical expression in the case of cold dark matter universe. Similar with luminosity distance, the Hubble parameter spectrum is suggested to be a useful observational tool to determine some cosmological parameters. In addition, we show that the Hubble parameter power spectrum could be used to check whether the expansion is accelerated by the second order small scale fluctuation.

Li, Xi-Bin; Qin, Hao-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Song; Zhang, Tong-Jie

2015-02-01

177

HUBBLE SEES MINI-COMET FRAGMENTS FROM COMET LINEAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[lower right] In one stunning Hubble picture the fate of the mysteriously vanished solid nucleus of Comet LINEAR has been settled. The Hubble picture shows that the comet nucleus has been reduced to a shower of glowing 'mini-comets' resembling the fiery fragments from an exploding aerial firework. This is the first time astronomers have ever gotten a close-up look at what may be the smallest building blocks of cometary nuclei, the icy solid pieces called 'cometesimals', which are thought to be less than 100 feet across. The farthest fragment to the left, which is now very faint, may be the remains of the parent nucleus that fragmented into the cluster of smaller pieces to the right. The comet broke apart around July 26, when it made its closest approach to the Sun. The picture was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on August 5, 2000, when the comet was at a distance of 64 million miles (102 million kilometers) from Earth. Credit: NASA, Harold Weaver (the Johns Hopkins University), and the HST Comet LINEAR Investigation Team [upper left] A ground-based telescopic view (2.2-meter telescope) of Comet LINEAR taken on August 5, at nearly the same time as the Hubble observations. The comet appears as a diffuse elongated cloud of debris without any visible nucleus. Based on these images, some astronomers had concluded that the ices in the nucleus had completely vaporized, leaving behind a loose swarm of dust. Hubble's resolution was needed to pinpoint the remaining nuclei (inset box shows HST field of view as shown in lower right). Credit: University of Hawaii

2002-01-01

178

HUBBLE CAPTURES VIEW OF SUPERNOVA BLAST IN REMOTE GALAXY CLUSTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In March 1996, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 just happened to be pointed at the faraway galaxy cluster MS1054-0321 when it captured the light from an exploding star, called supernova 1996CL. The cluster is 8 billion light-years from Earth. The Hubble telescope can clearly distinguish the supernova light from the glow of its parent galaxy. The larger image on the left shows the entire cluster of galaxies. The galaxy where the supernova was discovered is located in the boxed area. The bright knot of light from the supernova and the fainter glow from the parent galaxy are shown in the inset image on the right. The arrow points to the light from the supernova explosion. The supernova was discovered by members of the Supernova Cosmology Project, led by Saul Perlmutter of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in California. Perlmutter and his team made this discovery using images from the Hubble telescope and ground-based observatories. The Hubble data were furnished by Megan Donahue of the Space Telescope Science Institute. Donahue was using the Hubble telescope to study galaxy cluster MS1054-0321. Members of the Supernova Project use ground-based telescopes to search for distant supernovae, such as 1996CL, by comparing multiple, wide-field images of galaxies and clusters of galaxies taken at different times. Supernovae are named for the year and the order in which they are found. Supernova 1996CL is a Type Ia supernova. Exploding stars of this type are particularly useful for cosmology because they share a standard maximum brightness. By measuring this brightness, astronomers can determine a Type Ia's distance from Earth. Astronomers use this information to measure the expansion rate of the universe.

2002-01-01

179

EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE — MISTAKE OF EDWIN HUBBLE? COSMOLOGICAL REDSHIFT AND RELATED ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA IN STATIC LOBACHEVSKIAN (HYPERBOLIC) UNIVERSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an alternative to the Big Bang (the standard model), we present a mathematical theory of cosmological redshift. We show that a funda- mental formula of Lobachevskian (hyperbolic) geometry describes cosmo- logical redshift and the Doppler effect as well. As presented here, the cosmological redshift preserves wavelength ratios (it shifts uniformly the whole electromagnetic spectrum), it is scale invariant, it

J. Georg von Brzeski

2008-01-01

180

Zero CTE Glass in the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbiting high above the turbulence of the earth's atmosphere, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has provided breathtaking views of astronomical objects never before seen in such detail. The steady diffraction-limited images allow this medium-size telescope to reach faint galaxies fainter than 30th stellar magnitude. Some of these galaxies are seen as early as 2 billion years after the Big Bang in a 13.7 billion year old universe. Up until recently, astronomers assumed that all of the laws of physics and astronomy applied back then as they do today. Now, using the discovery that certain supernovae are ``standard candles,'' astronomers have found that the universe is expanding faster today than it was back then: the universe is accelerating in its expansion. The Hubble Space Telescope is a two-mirror Ritchey-Chr'etien telescope of 2.4m aperture in low earth orbit. The mirrors are made of Ultra Low Expansion (ULE) glass by Corning Glass Works. This material allows rapid figuring and outstanding performance in space astronomy applications. The paper describes how the primary mirror was mis-figured in manufacturing and later corrected in orbit. Outstanding astronomical images taken over the last 17 years show how the application of this new technology has advanced our knowledge of the universe. Not only has the acceleration of the expansion been discovered, the excellent imaging capability of HST has allowed gravitational lensing to become a tool to study the distribution of dark matter and dark energy in distant clusters of galaxies. The HST has touched practically every field of astronomy enabling astronomers to solve many long-standing puzzles. It will be a long time until the end of the universe when the density is near zero and all of the stars have long since evaporated. It is remarkable that humankind has found the technology and developed the ability to interpret the measurements in order to understand this dramatic age we live in.

Wood, John

2008-03-01

181

Zero CTE Glass in the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiting high above the turbulence of the Earth's atmosphere, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has provided breathtaking views of astronomical objects never before seen in such detail. The steady diffraction-limited images allow this medium-size telescope to reach faint galaxies fainter than 30th stellar magnitude. Some of these galaxies are seen as early as 2 billion years after the Big Bang in a 13.7 billion year old universe. Up until recently, astronomers assumed that all of the laws of physics and astronomy applied back then as they do today. Now, using the discovery that certain supernovae are "standard candles," astronomers have found that the universe is expanding faster today than it was back then: the universe is accelerating in its expansion. The Hubble Space Telescope is a two-mirror Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 2.4m aperture in low earth orbit. The mirrors are made of Ultra Low Expansion (ULE) glass by Corning Glass Works. This material allows rapid figuring and outstanding performance in space astronomy applications. The paper describes how the primary mirror was mis-figured in manufacturing and later corrected in orbit. Outstanding astronomical images taken over the last 17 years show how the application of this new technology has advanced our knowledge of the universe. Not only has the acceleration of the expansion been discovered, the excellent imaging capability of HST has allowed gravitational lensing to become a tool to study the distribution of dark matter and dark energy in distant clusters of galaxies. The HST has touched practically every field of astronomy enabling astronomers to solve many long-standing puzzles. It will be a long time until the end of the universe when the density is near zero and all of the stars have long since evaporated. It is remarkable that humankind has found the technology and developed the ability to interpret the measurements in order to understand this dramatic age we live in.

Wood, H. John

2008-01-01

182

HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into a neighboring galaxy to reveal details of the formation of new stars. Hubble's target was a newborn star cluster within the Small Magellanic Cloud, a small galaxy that is a satellite of our own Milky Way. The new images show young, brilliant stars cradled within a nebula, or glowing cloud of gas, cataloged as N 81. These massive, recently formed stars inside N 81 are losing material at a high rate, sending out strong stellar winds and shock waves and hollowing out a cocoon within the surrounding nebula. The two most luminous stars, seen in the Hubble image as a very close pair near the center of N 81, emit copious ultraviolet radiation, causing the nebula to glow through fluorescence. Outside the hot, glowing gas is cooler material consisting of hydrogen molecules and dust. Normally this material is invisible, but some of it can be seen in silhouette against the nebular background, as long dust lanes and a small, dark, elliptical-shaped knot. It is believed that the young stars have formed from this cold matter through gravitational contraction. Few features can be seen in N 81 from ground-based telescopes, earning it the informal nick-name 'The Blob.' Astronomers were not sure if just one or a few hot stars were embedded in the cloud, or if it was a stellar nursery containing a large number of less massive stars. Hubble's high-resolution imaging shows the latter to be the case, revealing that numerous young, white-hot stars---easily visible in the color picture---are contained within N 81. This crucial information bears strongly on theories of star formation, and N 81 offers a singular opportunity for a close-up look at the turbulent conditions accompanying the birth of massive stars. The brightest stars in the cluster have a luminosity equal to 300,000 stars like our own Sun. Astronomers are especially keen to study star formation in the Small Magellanic Cloud, because its chemical composition is different from that of the Milky Way. All of the chemical elements, other than hydrogen and helium, have only about one-tenth the abundances seen in our own galaxy. The study of N81 thus provides an excellent template for studying the star formation that occurred long ago in very distant galaxies, before nuclear reactions inside stars had synthesized the elements heavier than helium. The Small Magellanic Cloud, named after the explorer Ferdinand Magellan, lies 200,000 light-years away, and is visible only from the Earth's southern hemisphere. N 81 is the 81st nebula cataloged in a survey of the SMC carried out in the 1950's by astronomer Karl Henize, who later became an astronomer-astronaut who flew into space aboard NASA's space shuttle. The Hubble Heritage image of N 81 is a color representation of data taken in September, 1997, with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Color filters were used to sample light emitted by oxygen ([O III]) and hydrogen (H-alpha, H-beta). N 81 is the target of investigations by European astronomers Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri from the Paris Observatory in France; Michael Rosa from the Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility in Munich, Germany; Hans Zinnecker of the Astrophysical Institute in Potsdam, Germany; Lise Deharveng of Marseille Observatory, France; and Vassilis Charmadaris of Cornell University, USA (formerly at Paris Observatory). Members of this team are interested in understanding the formation of hot, massive stars, especially under conditions different from those in the Milky Way. Image Credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgement: Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France) EDITOR'S

2002-01-01

183

Armenian Astronomical Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is given on the Armenian Astronomical Heritage from ancient times to nowadays. Armenian ancient astronomy includes the division of the skies into constellations, rock art, ancient Armenian calendar, ancient observatories (such as Metsamor and Karahunge), records of astronomical events (such as Halley's Comet recorded on Tigranes the Great's coin), ancient names of celestial bodies (planets, stars, constellations), etc. The Medieval Armenian astronomy includes two more calendars, Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage, the record of 1054 Supernova, sky maps by Luca Vanandetsi and Mkhitar Sebastatsi, etc. Modern Armenian astronomical heritage first of all consists of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory founded in 1946 by Viktor Ambartsumian, as well as Yerevan Astronomical Observatory, Armenian Astronomical Society, Armenian Virtual Observatory, Yerevan State University Department of Astrophysics, Astrofizika journal, and brilliant young students who systematically win high positions at International Astronomical Olympiads.

Mickaelian, A. M.

2014-10-01

184

Hubble Space Telescope Spies on 'Black Eye'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Residing roughly 17 million light years from Earth, in the northern constellation Coma Berenices, is a merged star system known as Messier 64 (M64). First cataloged in the 18th century by the French astronomer Messier, M64 is a result of two colliding galaxies and has an unusual appearance as well as bizarre internal motions. It has a spectacular dark band of absorbing dust in front of its bright nucleus, lending to it the nickname of the 'Black Eye' or 'Evil Eye' galaxy. Fine details of the dark band can be seen in this image of the central portion of M64 obtained by the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Appearing to be a fairly normal pinwheel-shaped galaxy, the M64 stars are rotating in the same direction, clockwise, as in the majority of galaxies. However, detailed studies in the 1990's led to the remarkable discovery that the interstellar gas in the outer regions of M64 rotates in the opposite direction from the gas and stars in the irner region. Astronomers believe that the oppositely rotating gas arose when M64 absorbed a satellite galaxy that collided with it, perhaps more than one billion years ago. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

2004-01-01

185

American Astronomical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The major organization of professional astronomers in North America, the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) main goal "is to promote the advancement of astronomy and closely related branches of science." The website presents the Society's three scholarly journals and its numerous publications. The Education link offers an abundance of educational resources for users of all levels, answers to many astronomical questions, and fascinating news articles. Researchers can find out about grants, prizes, employment, and membership opportunities.

186

Picture an Astronomer Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, which serves as an introduction to an astronomy unit or to a classroom visit by an astronomer or space scientist, students are asked to imagine an astronomer and then draw a picture. In the instructions, no clues are given about the astronomer's race, sex, or age. Students discuss why they drew the pictures they drew and why they have the mental images of scientists that they have.

Andrew Fraknoi

1995-09-03

187

Virtual Amateur Astronomer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Amateur Astronomer is an archive of high-quality images of all varieties of astronomical objects. The images, hosted on the Virtual Amateur Astronomer web site and linked from other web pages, include high- and low-resolution versions (where available), brief descriptions, and links to additional information. They are organized by subject: the solar system, Messier objects, the Milky Way and universe, and a selection of miscellaneous images. There is also a "best of" category, links to other web sites with astronomical imagery, and a selection of images capturing the amateur experience, captured through small telescopes.

188

Landscapes of Removal and Resistance: Edwin James's Nineteenth-Century Cross-Cultural Collaborations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The life of Edwin James (1797-1861) is bookended by the Lewis and Clark expedition (1803-6) and the Civil War (1861-65). James's work engaged key national concerns of western exploration, natural history, Native American relocation, and slavery. His principled stands for preservation of lands and animals in the Trans-Mississippi West and his…

Lyndgaard, Kyhl

2010-01-01

189

Cellular studies of auditory hair cell regeneration Jennifer S. Stone and Edwin W Rubel*  

E-print Network

are composed of regions of complete hair cell loss as well as regions in which hair cells survive but appearColloquium Cellular studies of auditory hair cell regeneration in birds Jennifer S. Stone and Edwin that mature birds are able to regenerate hair cells, the receptors for auditory perception. This surprising

Rubel, Edwin

190

Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award: Joseph H. Hammer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joseph H. Hammer, recipient of the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award, is cited for an outstanding research paper whose findings provide important evidence regarding the promise of a male-sensitive approach to mental health marketing and empirically support the inclusion of theory-driven enhancements in group-targeted mental…

American Psychologist, 2009

2009-01-01

191

Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through…

American Psychologist, 2012

2012-01-01

192

Permission Regions for Race-Free Parallelism Edwin Westbrook Jisheng Zhao Zoran Budimlic Vivek Sarkar  

E-print Network

Permission Regions for Race-Free Parallelism Edwin Westbrook Jisheng Zhao Zoran Budimli´c Vivek parallel programs that are correct. This is because of the potential for data races, where parallel tasks is dynamic race detection, which has the benefits over other approaches that it works transparently

Budimliæ, Zoran

193

Chapter 6: Stratosphere-Troposphere Coupling Lead Authors: Edwin Gerber and Yulia Zyulaeva  

E-print Network

Chapter 6: Stratosphere-Troposphere Coupling Lead Authors: Edwin Gerber and Yulia Zyulaeva, given the current level of interest · as lead authors, Yulia and I will coordinate analysis do our best paint analysis (for both hemispheres) #12;Diagnostics: Low frequency modulation of Intraseasonal

Gerber, Edwin

194

For Sale in London, Paris and Babylon: Edwin Long's The Babylonian Marriage Market  

E-print Network

1 For Sale in London, Paris and Babylon: Edwin Long's The Babylonian Marriage Market Sophie and scandal. The St. James' Gazette reported that,'the sensation of a London season was the appearance in the season of the British `marriage market': the London 'season' was a period of social gathering in which

Sheldon, Nathan D.

195

Teaching Design for Development in Computer Science Edwin Blake Meryl Glaser Adinda Freudenthal  

E-print Network

Science Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering South Africa South Africa Netherlands edwin of a cultural, linguistic group who uses South African Sign Language (SASL) -- deaf with a small d refers people from mainstream sources. Most Deaf adults are semi-literate due to poor educational practices

Blake, Edwin

196

Lidar-Radar Measurements of Snowfall Edwin W. Eloranta--Univ. Of Wisconsin  

E-print Network

Lidar-Radar Measurements of Snowfall Edwin W. Eloranta--Univ. Of Wisconsin Aerodynamic flow around a lidar-radar based technique to measure the downward flux of snow at an altitude of ~100m. When particles the square of the mass of the average snowflake. For particles large compared to the wavelength, the lidar

Eloranta, Edwin W.

197

Atypical Facial "Neuralgia" Edwin D. Dunteman, MD, MS, and Robert A. Swarm, MD  

E-print Network

Atypical Facial "Neuralgia" Edwin D. Dunteman, MD, MS, and Robert A. Swarm, MD Pain Management T here are many causesof head and facial pain (1). As with pain in other regions, myofascial origin history of severe left-sided facial pain and headache. She de- scribed a prolonged and complicated course

Steinbach, Joe Henry

198

Astronomical Software Directory Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report on the development of the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS), a distributable, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URL's indexed for full-text searching.

Hanisch, R. J.; Payne, H.; Hayes, J.

1998-01-01

199

Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center is the largest astronomical institution in Poland, located in Warsaw and founded in 1956. At present it is a government-funded research institute supervised by the Polish Academy of Sciences and licensed by the government of Poland to award PhD and doctor habilitatus degrees in astronomy and astrophysics. In September 1999 staff included 21 senior scientist...

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

200

Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center is the largest astronomical institution in Poland, located in Warsaw and founded in 1956. At present it is a government-funded research institute supervised by the Polish Academy of Sciences and licensed by the government of Poland to award PhD and doctor habilitatus degrees in astronomy and astrophysics. In September 1999 staff included 21 senior scientist...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

201

Calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope polarimetric modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stellar and galactic polarimetry from space is an unexplored observational regime and one which holds exciting promise for answering many fundamental astrophysical questions. The Hubble Space Telescope will be the first space observatory to provide a variety of polarimetric modes to astronomers including spectral, imaging, and single-aperture UV polarimetry. As part of the calibration program for these modes, the Space Telescope Science Institute has initiated a ground-based program to define faint standard fields and solicited community support to establish a temporal baseline for these potential standard targets. In this paper, the polarimetric capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope, the philosophy and complications of in-flight calibration, and the status and direction of the standard targets program are discussed.

Lupie, O. L.; Stockman, H. S.

1988-01-01

202

Observing Campaign on Hubble's First Variable in M31: M31_V1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An observing campaign is being carried out on M31_V1, the first variable star discovered in M31 by Edwin Hubble. The Hubble Heritage Team, with Dr. Keith Noll (STScI) as P.I., plans to observe M31_V1 with HST, and needs to know the phase of this Cepheid variable. Although basic parameters are known for this star, no recent photometry exists, so observations are required to generate current phase information. In 1925 Edwin Hubble published a note in The Observatory (vol. 48, 139) on "Cepheids in Spiral Nebulae." In 1929, he published a seminal paper in the Astrophysical Journal (vol. 69, 103), "A Spiral Nebula as a Stellar System, Messier 31." This paper discussed in detail the galaxy and the 50 variable stars he found in its outer regions. Hubble remarked that the 40 Cepheids found showed the period-luminosity relationship in a conspicuous manner, enabling distance to the galaxy to be calculated. Furthermore, he said that the results of his calculations supported the value determined by Harlow Shapley of the zero point of the period-luminosity relation. This confirmation of the zero point had significant implications for future extragalactic distance determinations. As the first of the variables on Hubble's list, V1, a Cepheid, is a historical curiosity. M31_V1 is magnitude 19.4V. B-V = +1.28, period is 30.41 days, and amplitude ~ 1.2 magnitudes in B, likely smaller in V. Five nights of data obtained by Arne Henden, AAVSO, show that the variable appears to have peaked on 2010 June 19 at about R=18 and as of July 2 was on its way down. It is recommended that observers use either an Rc filter or observe unfiltered. About an hour or more of exposure per integration will be required to reach S/N = 20, depending on your equipment and sky brightness; multiple exposures and stacking might be necessary to avoid saturating the background. The field is not crowded, and the variable itself is not blended. Contamination from the M31 background should n! ot be prohibitive. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp); Rc magnitudes of comparison stars are in the chart-associated photometry table. An R-band finder chart from the Isaac Newton 2.5-m telescope provided by Arne Henden is available. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and links to images and charts.

Waagen, Elizabeth O.

2010-07-01

203

The Hubble constant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and distance in the expanding universe. It is a fundamental property of cosmology that sets both the scale and the expansion age of the universe. It is determined by measurement of galaxy radial velocities and distances. Although there has been considerable progress in the development of new techniques for the measurements of galaxy distances, both calibration uncertainties and debates over systematic errors remain. Current determinations still range over nearly a factor of 2; the higher values favored by most local measurements are not consistent with many theories of the origin of large-scale structure and stellar evolution.

Huchra, John P.

1992-01-01

204

Hubble Space Telescope Image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) shows a region in NGC 1365, a barred spiral galaxy located in a cluster of galaxies called Fornax. A barred spiral galaxy is characterized by a bar of stars, dust, and gas across its center. The black and white photograph from a ground-based telescope shows the entire galaxy, which is visible from the Southern Hemisphere. The galaxy is estimated to be 60-million light-years from Earth. This image was taken by the HST Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC-2).

1996-01-01

205

Hubble Hunts Black Holes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive, online module provides students the opportunity to explore actual Hubble images and the tools used to hunt for black holes. By completing this activity, students learn about the technology required to confirm the existence of black holes. Students may complete this activity independently or in small groups. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title page, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. This activity is a subsection of "Is a Black Hole Really A Hole?" It is within the online exploration No Escape: The Truth about Black Holes, available on the Amazing Space website.

2012-08-03

206

HUBBLE FINDS A BARE BLACK HOLE POURING OUT LIGHT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has provided a never-before-seen view of a warped disk flooded with a torrent of ultraviolet light from hot gas trapped around a suspected massive black hole. [Right] This composite image of the core of the galaxy was constructed by combining a visible light image taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), with a separate image taken in ultraviolet light with the Faint Object Camera (FOC). While the visible light image shows a dark dust disk, the ultraviolet image (color-coded blue) shows a bright feature along one side of the disk. Because Hubble sees ultraviolet light reflected from only one side of the disk, astronomers conclude the disk must be warped like the brim of a hat. The bright white spot at the image's center is light from the vicinity of the black hole which is illuminating the disk. [Left] A ground-based telescopic view of the core of the elliptical galaxy NGC 6251. The inset box shows Hubble Space Telescope's field of view. The galaxy is 300 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Minor. Photo Credit: Philippe Crane (European Southern Observatory), and NASA

2002-01-01

207

Hubble's deepest view ever of the Universe unveils earliest galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hubble sees galaxies galore hi-res Size hi-res: 446 kb Credits: NASA, ESA, and S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team Hubble sees galaxies galore Galaxies, galaxies everywhere - as far as the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope can see. This view of nearly 10,000 galaxies is the deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. Called the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, this galaxy-studded view represents a ‘deep’ core sample of the universe, cutting across billions of light-years. Hubble reveals galactic drama hi-res Size hi-res: 879 kb Credits: NASA, ESA, and S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team Hubble reveals galactic drama A galactic brawl. A close encounter with a spiral galaxy. Blue wisps of galaxies. These close-up snapshots of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field reveal the drama of galactic life. Here three galaxies just below centre are enmeshed in battle, their shapes distorted by the brutal encounter. Hubble reveals galactic drama hi-res Size hi-res: 886 kb Credits: NASA, ESA, and S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team Hubble reveals galactic drama A galactic brawl. A close encounter with a spiral galaxy. Blue wisps of galaxies. These close-up snapshots of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field reveal the drama of galactic life. Here three galaxies just below centre are enmeshed in battle, their shapes distorted by the brutal encounter. Hubble reveals galactic drama hi-res Size hi-res: 892 kb Credits: NASA, ESA, and S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team Hubble reveals galactic drama A galactic brawl. A close encounter with a spiral galaxy. Blue wisps of galaxies. These close-up snapshots of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field reveal the drama of galactic life. The galaxies in this panel were plucked from a harvest of nearly 10,000 galaxies in the Ultra Deep Field, the deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. This historic new view is actually made up by two separate images taken by Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Both images reveal some galaxies that are too faint to be seen by ground-based telescopes, or even in Hubble's previous faraway looks, called the Hubble Deep Fields (HDFs), taken in 1995 and 1998. The HUDF field contains an estimated 10,000 galaxies in a patch of sky just one-tenth the diameter of the full Moon. Besides the rich harvest of classic spiral and elliptical galaxies, there is a zoo of oddball galaxies littering the field. Some look like toothpicks; others like links on a bracelet. A few appear to be interacting. Their strange shapes are a far cry from the majestic spiral and elliptical galaxies we see today. These oddball galaxies chronicle a period when the Universe was more chaotic. Order and structure were just beginning to emerge. The combination of ACS and NICMOS images will be used to search for galaxies that existed between 400 and 800 million years after the Big Bang (in cosmological terms this corresponds to a 'redshift' range of 7 to 12). Astronomers around the world will use these data to understand whether in this very early stages the Universe appears to be the same as it did when the cosmos was between 1000 and 2000 million years old. Hubble's ACS allows astronomers to see galaxies two to four times fainter than Hubble could view previously, but the NICMOS sees even farther than the ACS. The NICMOS reveals the farthest galaxies ever seen because the expanding Universe has stretched their light into the near-infrared portion of the spectrum. The ACS uncovered galaxies that existed 800 million years after the Big Bang (at a redshift of 7). But the NICMOS might have spotted galaxies that lived just 400 million years after the birth of the cosmos (at a redshift of 12). Just like the previous HDFs, the new data are expected to galvanise the astronomical community and lead to dozens of research papers that will offer new insights into the birth and evolution of galaxies. This will hold the record as the deepest-ever view of the Universe until ESA together with NASA launches the James Webb Space Telescope in

2004-03-01

208

18 years of science with the Hubble Space Telescope.  

PubMed

After several decades of planning, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched in 1990 as the first of NASA's Great Observatories. After a rocky start arising from an error in the fabrication of its main mirror, it went on to change forever many fields of astronomy, and to capture the public's imagination with its images. An ongoing programme of servicing missions has kept the telescope on the cutting edge of astronomical research. Here I review the advances made possible by the HST over the past 18 years. PMID:19122634

Dalcanton, Julianne J

2009-01-01

209

Hubble illuminates the universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Latest observations by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are described, including the first 'parallel' observations (on January 6, 1992) by the two of the Hubble's instruments of two different targets at the same time. On this date, the faint-object camera made images of the quasar 3C 273 in Virgo, while the wide-field and planetary camera recorded an adjacent field. The new HST images include those of the nucleus and the jet of M85, the giant elliptical galaxy at the heart of the Virgo cluster, and what appears to be a black hole of mass 2.6 billion solar masses in M87, and an image of N66, a planetary nebula in the LMC. Other images yield evidence of 'blue stragglers' in the core of 47 Tucanae, a globular cluster about 16,000 light-years from earth. The Goddard spectrograph recorded the spectrum of the star Capella at very high wavelength resolution, which made it possible to measure deuterium from the Big Bang.

Maran, Stephen P.

1992-01-01

210

The Carnegie Hubble Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present an overview of and preliminary results from an ongoing comprehensive program that has a goal of determining the Hubble constant to a systematic accuracy of 2%. As part of this program, we are currently obtaining 3.6 micron data using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer, and the program is designed to include JWST in the future. We demonstrate that the mid-infrared period-luminosity relation for Cepheids at 3.6 microns is the most accurate means of measuring Cepheid distances to date. At 3.6 microns, it is possible to minimize the known remaining systematic uncertainties in the Cepheid extragalactic distance scale. We discuss the advantages of 3.6 micron observations in minimizing systematic effects in the Cepheid calibration of the Hubble constant including the absolute zero point, extinction corrections, and the effects of metallicity on the colors and magnitudes of Cepheids. We are undertaking three independent tests of the sensitivity of the mid-IR Cepheid Leavitt Law to metallicity, which when combined will allow a robust constraint on the effect. Finally, we are providing a new mid-IR Tully-Fisher relation for spiral galaxies.

Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Vicky; Mnso, Andy; Persson, S. E.; Rigby, Jane; Sturch, Laura; Stetson, Peter

2011-01-01

211

Cosmology: From Hubble to HST  

SciTech Connect

The Hubble constant sets the size and age of the Universe, and, together with independent determinations of the age, provides a consistency check of the standard cosmology. The Hubble constant also provides an important test of our most attractive paradigm for extending the standard cosmology, inflation and cold dark matter.

Turner, Michael S.

1997-03-01

212

Calibration of Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

Calibration of Hubble Space Telescope Guidance Sensors: Application of Seminal Ideas of Eichhorn William H. Je#erys 11, Abstract calibration Space Telescope Guidance Sensors (FGS) a challenges. no su's on solving important astrometric problem. Introduction Hubble Telescope Guidance Sensors (FGS) designed

Jefferys, William

213

Perturbations to the Hubble diagram  

E-print Network

We compute the linear responses of the Hubble diagram to small scalar perturbations in the Robertson-Walker metric and to small peculiar velocities of emitter and receiver. We discuss the monotonicity constraint of the Hubble diagram in the light of these responses.

Thomas Schucker; Ilhem ZouZou

2005-11-17

214

Cosmology: From Hubble to HST  

E-print Network

The Hubble constant sets the size and age of the Universe, and, together with independent determinations of the age, provides a consistency check of the standard cosmology. The Hubble constant also provides an important test of our most attractive paradigm for extending the standard cosmology, inflation and cold dark matter.

Michael S. Turner

1997-03-26

215

Phase Retrieval: Hubble and the  

E-print Network

JRF 2/03-1 Phase Retrieval: Hubble and the James Webb Space Telescope James R. Fienup Robert E transform ­ Gradient-search parameter fitting James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) ! Background ! Phase 2003 #12;JRF 2/03-2 Outline Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ! Phase retrieval algorithms ­ Iterative

Masci, Frank

216

Saving Astronomical Treasures  

E-print Network

The time domain is under-exploited in an astrophysical context, because the large photographic plate collections are almost never consulted by young astronomers. This is a result of lack of education of the more recent generations of astronomers, and of the deluge of terabyte-size datasets produced by new observations. Yet astronomical plates represent a unique set of resources and their quality does NOT improve with time. We point out valuable scientific projects that can be conducted with archival images and describe a first step to realize this at the Uccle Observatory, in Belgium.

Noah Brosch; Rene Hudec; Peter Kroll; Milcho Tsvetkov

2000-10-02

217

HUBBLE VIEWS ANCIENT STORM IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF JUPITER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When 17th-century astronomers first turned their telescopes to Jupiter, they noted a conspicuous reddish spot on the giant planet. This Great Red Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. It is now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low-pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of about 270 mph. The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself. The long lifetime of the Red Spot may be due to the fact that Jupiter is mainly a gaseous planet. It possibly has liquid layers, but lacks a solid surface, which would dissipate the storm's energy, much as happens when a hurricane makes landfall on the Earth. However, the Red Spot does change its shape, size, and color, sometimes dramatically. Such changes are demonstrated in high-resolution Wide Field and Planetary Cameras 1 and 2 images of Jupiter obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and presented here by the Hubble Heritage Project team. The mosaic presents a series of pictures of the Red Spot obtained by Hubble between 1992 and 1999. Astronomers study weather phenomena on other planets in order to gain a greater understanding of our own Earth's climate. Lacking a solid surface, Jupiter provides us with a laboratory experiment for observing weather phenomena under very different conditions than those prevailing on Earth. This knowledge can also be applied to places in the Earth's atmosphere that are over deep oceans, making them more similar to Jupiter's deep atmosphere. The Hubble images were originally collected by Amy Simon (Cornell U.), Reta Beebe (NMSU), Heidi Hammel (Space Science Institute, MIT), and their collaborators, and have been prepared for presentation by the Hubble Heritage Team. Image Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA/NASA) and Amy Simon (Cornell U.).

2002-01-01

218

The Hubble constant.  

PubMed

Five methods of estimating distances have demonstrated internal reproducibility at the level of 5-20% rms accuracy. The best of these are the cepheid (and RR Lyrae), planetary nebulae, and surface-brightness fluctuation techniques. Luminosity-line width and Dn-sigma methods are less accurate for an individual case but can be applied to large numbers of galaxies. The agreement is excellent between these five procedures. It is determined that Hubble constant H0 = 90 +/- 10 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16) m]. It is difficult to reconcile this value with the preferred world model even in the low-density case. The standard model with Omega = 1 may be excluded unless there is something totally misunderstood about the foundation of the distance scale or the ages of stars. PMID:11607391

Tully, R B

1993-06-01

219

The Hubble constant.  

PubMed Central

Five methods of estimating distances have demonstrated internal reproducibility at the level of 5-20% rms accuracy. The best of these are the cepheid (and RR Lyrae), planetary nebulae, and surface-brightness fluctuation techniques. Luminosity-line width and Dn-sigma methods are less accurate for an individual case but can be applied to large numbers of galaxies. The agreement is excellent between these five procedures. It is determined that Hubble constant H0 = 90 +/- 10 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16) m]. It is difficult to reconcile this value with the preferred world model even in the low-density case. The standard model with Omega = 1 may be excluded unless there is something totally misunderstood about the foundation of the distance scale or the ages of stars. PMID:11607391

Tully, R B

1993-01-01

220

Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.  

PubMed

Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through the use of a mock trial experiment, the research revealed that jurors discounted a juvenile's coerced confession and sometimes used intellectual disability as a mitigating factor. Attribution theory and the discounting principle were used to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying this effect. The paper, titled 'Understanding Jurors' Judgments in Cases Involving Juvenile Defendants,' was published in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law in October 2011 and was the basis for Najdowski's selection as the recipient of the 2012 Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. Bette L. Bottoms, PhD, served as faculty supervisor. Najdowski's Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented. PMID:23163461

2012-11-01

221

Hubble Source Catalog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have created an initial catalog of objects observed by the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The catalog is based on observations taken on more than 6000 visits (telescope pointings) of ACS/WFC and more than 25000 visits of WFPC2. The catalog is obtained by cross matching by position in the sky all Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) Source Extractor source lists for these instruments. The source lists describe properties of source detections within a visit. The calculations are performed on a SQL Server database system. First we collect overlapping images into groups, e.g., Eta Car, and determine nearby (approximately matching) pairs of sources from different images within each group. We then apply a novel algorithm for improving the cross matching of pairs of sources by adjusting the astrometry of the images. Next, we combine pairwise matches into maximal sets of possible multi-source matches. We apply a greedy Bayesian method to split the maximal matches into more reliable matches. We test the accuracy of the matches by comparing the fluxes of the matched sources. The result is a set of information that ties together multiple observations of the same object. A byproduct of the catalog is greatly improved relative astrometry for many of the HST images. We also provide information on nondetections that can be used to determine dropouts. With the catalog, for the first time, one can carry out time domain, multi-wavelength studies across a large set of HST data. The catalog is publicly available. Much more can be done to expand the catalog capabilities.

Lubow, S.; Budavári, T.

2013-10-01

222

Astronomical photography, part T  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photographic observations of astronomical interest conducted during the Apollo 15 mission are discussed. Procedures used in photographing the solar corona are described together with calibration and reduction methods. In addition, selected preliminary results obtained from the photography are presented.

Dunkelman, L.; Mercer, R. D.; Ross, C. L.; Worden, A. M.

1972-01-01

223

Korean Astronomical Calendar, Chiljeongsan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fifteenth century Korea, there was a grand project for the astronomical calendar and instrument making by the order of King Sejong ?? (1418-1450). During this period, many astronomical and calendrical books including Islamic sources in Chinese versions were imported from Ming ? China, and corrected and researched by the court astronomers of Joseon ?? (1392-1910). Moreover, the astronomers and technicians of Korea frequently visited China to study astronomy and instrument making, and they brought back useful information in the form of new published books or specifications of instruments. As a result, a royal observatory equipped with 15 types of instrument was completed in 1438. Two types of calendar, Chiljeongsan Naepyeon ????? and Chiljeongsan Oepyeon ?????, based on the Chinese and Islamic calendar systems, respectively, were published in 1444 with a number of calendrical editions such as corrections and example supplements (??) including calculation methods and results for solar and lunar eclipses.

Lee, Eun Hee

224

Astronomical Observatories in Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short description of three astronomical observatories of Kazakhstan situated in the northern Tien-Shan mountains is given, including instrumentation, scientific research directions and climate conditions. The observatories may be considered as convenient sites for WET observations.

Mironov, A. V.; Tereshchenko, V. M.

1998-03-01

225

The astronomical Club "Antares"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The web site of the Astronomical Club "Antares" from Timisoara (Romania) concerns wide areas of astronomy: from popularisation to original research. The Club is publishing its own journal "Aquila" which could be discarded from the wabpage of the Club.

Alimpie, Laurentiu; Blajan, Dorin; Bodea, Diana; Frincu, Marc; Juravle, Andrei; Nutu, Claudiu

2008-10-01

226

HUBBLE SEES SUPERSONIC EXHAUST FROM NEBULA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. Ground-based studies have shown that the nebula's size increases with time, suggesting that the stellar outburst that formed the lobes occurred just 1,200 years ago. The central star in M2-9 is known to be one of a very close pair which orbit one another at perilously close distances. It is even possible that one star is being engulfed by the other. Astronomers suspect the gravity of one star pulls weakly bound gas from the surface of the other and flings it into a thin, dense disk which surrounds both stars and extends well into space. The disk can actually be seen in shorter exposure images obtained with the Hubble telescope. It measures approximately 10 times the diameter of Pluto's orbit. Models of the type that are used to design jet engines ('hydrodynamics') show that such a disk can successfully account for the jet-exhaust-like appearance of M2-9. The high-speed wind from one of the stars rams into the surrounding disk, which serves as a nozzle. The wind is deflected in a perpendicular direction and forms the pair of jets that we see in the nebula's image. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in blue. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Vincent Icke (Leiden University, The Netherlands), Garrelt Mellema (Stockholm University), and NASA

2002-01-01

227

Brooks Astronomical Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brooks Astronomical Observatory, located at Central Michigan University, was built for research and public use. The website presents the history of the Observatory and its technological capabilities. Users can find a long list of scientific publications based on research performed at the observatory. The numerous astronomical topics researched include asteroids, stellar clusters, occultations, and light pollution. Individuals can view fantastic images of comets, planets, and other space phenomena collected at the Observatory.

228

Astronomical Data Management  

E-print Network

We present a summary of the major contributions to the Special Session on Data Management held at the IAU General Assembly in Prague in 2006. While recent years have seen enormous improvements in access to astronomical data, and the Virtual Observatory aims to provide astronomers with seamless access to on-line resources, more attention needs to be paid to ensuring the quality and completeness of those resources. For example, data produced by telescopes are not always made available to the astronomical community, and new instruments are sometimes designed and built with insufficient planning for data management, while older but valuable legacy data often remain undigitised. Data and results published in journals do not always appear in the data centres, and astronomers in developing countries sometimes have inadequate access to on-line resources. To address these issues, an 'Astronomers Data Manifesto' has been formulated with the aim of initiating a discussion that will lead to the development of a 'code of best practice' in astronomical data management.

Ray Norris; Heinz Andernach; Guenther Eichhorn; Francoise Genova; Elizabeth Griffin; Robert Hanisch; Ajit Kembhavi; Robert Kennicutt; Anita Richards

2006-11-01

229

Hubble Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image illustrates the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA). One of the three major elements of the HST, the OTA consists of two mirrors (a primary mirror and a secondary mirror), support trusses, and the focal plane structure. The mirrors collect and focus light from selected celestial objects and are housed near the center of the telescope. The primary mirror captures light from objects in space and focuses it toward the secondary mirror. The secondary mirror redirects the light to a focal plane where the Scientific Instruments are located. The primary mirror is 94.5 inches (2.4 meters) in diameter and the secondary mirror is 12.2 inches (0.3 meters) in diameter. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth Orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from the Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The spacecraft is 42.5 feet (13 meters) long and weighs 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1986-01-01

230

Obituary: Raymond Edwin White Jr., 1933-2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raymond E. White, Jr., died unexpectedly at his home, in the early morning hours of October 12, 2004. Death appears to have been caused by severe diabetic shock. He retired from the Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory in July 1999 with the title of University Distinguished Professor, after serving on the faculty of this institution for over 35 years. He was born in Freeport, Illinois, on 6 May 1933, to Beatrice and Raymond E, Sr. -the latter being a career soldier in the US Army. Ray's early schooling took place in Illinois, New Jersey, Germany and Switzerland, following his father's assignments. He obtained a bachelors degree from the University of Illinois in 1955. Next Ray enlisted in the US Army, but quickly was enrolled in Officer Candidate School. He then served as lst Lt. in the US Army Corps of Engineers. Although military affairs remained a lifelong interest, and he was a member of the Company of Military Historians, Ray decided after three years to return to academia. He entered the astronomy PhD program at the University of Illinois in 1958. His PhD dissertation was supervised by Ivan R. King. Ray accepted a faculty position at the University of Arizona in 1964. First and foremost, Ray White was known at Arizona as an excellent teacher, revered by a large number of former students. When the astronomy major program was begun in 1967, Ray was one of three, original, major advisors. Over the next three decades, he was a leader at the University level in reforming the undergraduate program and courses. He was selected Outstanding University Faculty Member in April 1989 and he served as one of a handful of professors who are Faculty Fellows. These Fellows devote untold hundreds of hours as part-time residents at student dormitories, to give students a friendly face to address their problems. In 1995, Ray was among the first group of faculty to be recognized as University Distinguished Professors. In the year of his retirement, 1999, University President Manuel Pachecho recognized Ray's extensive contributions by asking him to serve as Master of Ceremonies at the University commencement. Ray White's research career was not as extensive as his teaching activities, but it was creative. His original specialty was globular star clusters and classes of variable stars within them. He made several catalogs of star clusters and associations, measured the exact centers, the axial ratios and the orientations of around 100 Galactic globular clusters. Certainly, Ray's greatest love in research, especially in later years, was archaeoastronomy. He studied the evidence for astronomical observations of the Sun, Moon and stars from the mound sites of the prehistoric Hohokam inhabitants of the Salt River Valley of Arizona. He was best known for his studies of the Inkaic people of the pre-Columbian, Peruvian Andes. Most of this research involved the grand Machu Picchu site, where he showed (with David Dearborn) that the central tower (the "Torreon") certainly had been used as an Observatory. They also discovered a separate, solstice observatory and named it Intimachay. Characteristically, Ray combined much of his archaeoastronomy research interests with the involvement of undergraduate students and adults through the Earthwatch program in field trips to Machu Picchu. With a Professor in the humanities who was also well known at the University of Arizona, Donna Swaim, Ray introduced a group of undergraduates in summer classes to several archaeoastronomy sites in such countries as Ireland and the British isles. Of course they also gave on-site lectures at art museums, and sites of historical and cultural interest. Like many astronomers, Ray was well traveled. He had sabbaticals at the University of Cambridge in 1980, and at the Dublin Institute of Advanced Study (Dunsink Observatory), Ireland, in 1996-97. The latter was funded by his winning a Fulbright Fellowship, which enabled him to further his studies of the Celtic astronomical traditions. Earlier in 1971-72, Ray served as Program Officer for Stars and Stellar Evol

Liebert, James William

2004-12-01

231

HUBBLE'S PLANETARY NEBULA GALLERY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[Top left] - IC 3568 lies in the constellation Camelopardalis at a distance of about 9,000 light-years, and has a diameter of about 0.4 light-years (or about 800 times the diameter of our solar system). It is an example of a round planetary nebula. Note the bright inner shell and fainter, smooth, circular outer envelope. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Top center] - NGC 6826's eye-like appearance is marred by two sets of blood-red 'fliers' that lie horizontally across the image. The surrounding faint green 'white' of the eye is believed to be gas that made up almost half of the star's mass for most of its life. The hot remnant star (in the center of the green oval) drives a fast wind into older material, forming a hot interior bubble which pushes the older gas ahead of it to form a bright rim. (The star is one of the brightest stars in any planetary.) NGC 6826 is 2,200 light- years away in the constellation Cygnus. The Hubble telescope observation was taken Jan. 27, 1996 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy) and NASA [Top right ] - NGC 3918 is in the constellation Centaurus and is about 3,000 light-years from us. Its diameter is about 0.3 light-year. It shows a roughly spherical outer envelope but an elongated inner balloon inflated by a fast wind from the hot central star, which is starting to break out of the spherical envelope at the top and bottom of the image. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Bottom left] - Hubble 5 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or bipolar (two-lobed) nebula. The heat generated by fast winds causes each of the lobes to expand, much like a pair of balloons with internal heaters. This observation was taken Sept. 9, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Hubble 5 is 2,200 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Vincent Icke (Leiden University, The Netherlands), Garrelt Mellema (Stockholm University), and NASA [Bottom center ] - Like NGC 6826, NGC 7009 has a bright central star at the center of a dark cavity bounded by a football-shaped rim of dense, blue and red gas. The cavity and its rim are trapped inside smoothly-distributed greenish material in the shape of a barrel and comprised of the star's former outer layers. At larger distances, and lying along the long axis of the nebula, a pair of red 'ansae', or 'handles' appears. Each ansa is joined to the tips of the cavity by a long greenish jet of material. The handles are clouds of low-density gas. NGC 7009 is 1,400 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. The Hubble telescope observation was taken April 28, 1996 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy), NASA [Bottom right ] - NGC 5307 also lies in Centaurus but is about 10,000 light-years away and has a diameter of approximately 0.6 light-year. It is an example of a planetary nebula with a pinwheel or spiral structure; each blob of gas ejected from the central star has a counterpart on the opposite side of the star. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA

2002-01-01

232

HUBBLE HUNTS DOWN BINARY OBJECTS AT FRINGE OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope snapped pictures of a double system of icy bodies in the Kuiper Belt. This composite picture shows the apparent orbit of one member of the pair. In reality, the objects, called 1998 WW31, revolve around a common center of gravity, like a pair of waltzing skaters. This picture shows the motion of one member of the duo [the six faint blobs] relative to the other [the large white blob]. The blue oval represents the orbital path. Astronomers assembled this picture from six separate exposures, taken from July to September 2001, December 2001, and January to February 2002. Astronomers used the Hubble telescope to study the orbit of this binary system. They then used that information to determine other characteristics of the duo, such as their total mass, and their orbital period (the time it takes them to orbit each other). Credit: NASA and C. Veillet (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope)

2002-01-01

233

Microlensing with Hubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microlensing can be used to study dark matter, galactic structure, and to search for extra-solar planets. However, a significant problem with microlensing is the mass determination of the lens. Typically, microlensing events provides only a single measured quantity that depends on the lens mass, the Einstein angle crossing time, ?, which also depends on the distances to the lens and source as well as the relative transverse velocity. Thus, it is difficult to derive unique mass estimates for the lens. Non-degenerate solutions are possible, as was shown by Alcock et al. for MACHO LMC-5, when the source and lens can be resolved. It may be possible to distinguish between the lens and source by re-observing a microlensing candidate years after the first observation. As it turns out, a substantial number of fields containing microlensing events have been observed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We currently have identified over 180 possible matches to lensing events. In many of these cases, there was a time difference of years between the HST observation (or observations) and the ground-based detection. We present initial results from our archival program and discuss the implications for future studies.

Ginsburg, Idan; Di Stefano, Rosanne; Lepine, Sebastien; Primini, Francis A.; Oprescu, Antonia; Tunbridge, Ben

2014-06-01

234

THE CARNEGIE HUBBLE PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of and preliminary results from an ongoing comprehensive program that has a goal of determining the Hubble constant to a systematic accuracy of {+-}2%. As part of this program, we are currently obtaining 3.6 {mu}m data using the Infrared Array Camera on Spitzer, and the program is designed to include James Webb Space Telescope in the future. We demonstrate that the mid-infrared period-luminosity relation for Cepheids at 3.6 {mu}m is the most accurate means of measuring Cepheid distances to date. At 3.6 {mu}m, it is possible to minimize the known remaining systematic uncertainties in the Cepheid extragalactic distance scale. We discuss the advantages of 3.6 {mu}m observations in minimizing systematic effects in the Cepheid calibration of H{sub 0} including the absolute zero point, extinction corrections, and the effects of metallicity on the colors and magnitudes of Cepheids. We undertake three independent tests of the sensitivity of the mid-IR Cepheid Leavitt Law to metallicity, which when combined will allow a robust constraint on the effect. Finally, we provide a new mid-IR Tully-Fisher relation for spiral galaxies.

Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Victoria; Monson, Andy; Persson, S. E.; Seibert, Mark [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Observational Cosmology Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sturch, Laura [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Stetson, Peter, E-mail: wendy@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: barry@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: vs@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: amonson@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: persson@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: mseibert@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: Jane.R.Rigby@nasa.gov, E-mail: lsturch@bu.edu, E-mail: Peter.Stetson@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2011-12-15

235

Hubble Views Ancient Storm in the Atmosphere of Jupiter - Montage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When 17th-century astronomers first turned their telescopes to Jupiter, they noted a conspicuous reddish spot on the giant planet. This Great Red Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. It is now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low-pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of about 270 mph.

The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself.

The long lifetime of the Red Spot may be due to the fact that Jupiter is mainly a gaseous planet. It possibly has liquid layers, but lacks a solid surface, which would dissipate the storm's energy, much as happens when a hurricane makes landfall on the Earth. However, the Red Spot does change its shape, size, and color, sometimes dramatically. Such changes are demonstrated in high-resolution Wide Field and Planetary Cameras 1 & 2 images of Jupiter obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and presented here by the Hubble Heritage Project team. The mosaic presents a series of pictures of the Red Spot obtained by Hubble between 1992 and 1999 (see PIA01594 thru PIA01599 and PIA02400 thru PIA02402 for individual images).

Astronomers study weather phenomena on other planets in order to gain a greater understanding of our own Earth's climate. Lacking a solid surface, Jupiter provides us with a laboratory experiment for observing weather phenomena under very different conditions than those prevailing on Earth. This knowledge can also be applied to places in the Earth's atmosphere that are over deep oceans, making them more similar to Jupiter's deep atmosphere.

1999-01-01

236

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CAPTURES FIRST DIRECT IMAGE OF A STAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the first direct image of a star other than the Sun, made with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Called Alpha Orionis, or Betelgeuse, it is a red supergiant star marking the shoulder of the winter constellation Orion the Hunter (diagram at right). The Hubble image reveals a huge ultraviolet atmosphere with a mysterious hot spot on the stellar behemoth's surface. The enormous bright spot, more than ten times the diameter of Earth, is at least 2,000 Kelvin degrees hotter than the surface of the star. The image suggests that a totally new physical phenomenon may be affecting the atmospheres of some stars. Follow-up observations will be needed to help astronomers understand whether the spot is linked to oscillations previously detected in the giant star, or whether it moves systematically across the star's surface under the grip of powerful magnetic fields. The observations were made by Andrea Dupree of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, and Ronald Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, MD, who announced their discovery today at the 187th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Antonio, Texas. The image was taken in ultraviolet light with the Faint Object Camera on March 3, 1995. Hubble can resolve the star even though the apparent size is 20,000 times smaller than the width of the full Moon -- roughly equivalent to being able to resolve a car's headlights at a distance of 6,000 miles. Betelgeuse is so huge that, if it replaced the Sun at the center of our Solar System, its outer atmosphere would extend past the orbit of Jupiter (scale at lower left). Credit: Andrea Dupree (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), Ronald Gilliland (STScI), NASA and ESA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

2002-01-01

237

The Hubble Deep Field South Flanking Fields  

E-print Network

As part of the Hubble Deep Field South program, a set of shorter 2-orbit observations were obtained of the area adjacent to the deep fields. The WFPC2 flanking fields cover a contiguous solid angle of 48 square arcminutes. Parallel observations with the STIS and NICMOS instruments produce a patchwork of additional fields with optical and near-infrared (1.6 micron) response. Deeper parallel exposures with WFPC2 and NICMOS were obtained when STIS observed the NICMOS deep field. These deeper fields are offset from the rest, and an extended low surface brightness object is visible in the deeper WFPC2 flanking field. In this data paper, which serves as an archival record of the project, we discuss the observations and data reduction, and present SExtractor source catalogs and number counts derived from the data. Number counts are broadly consistent with previous surveys from both ground and space. Among other things, these flanking field observations are useful for defining slit masks for spectroscopic follow-up over a wider area around the deep fields, for studying large-scale structure that extends beyond the deep fields, for future supernova searches, and for number counts and morphological studies, but their ultimate utility will be defined by the astronomical community.

Ray A. Lucas; Stefi A. Baum; Thomas M. Brown; Stefano Casertano; Chris Conselice; Duilia de Mello; Mark E. Dickinson; Henry C. Ferguson; Andrew S. Fruchter; Jonathan P. Gardner; Diane Gilmore; Rosa A. Gonzalez-Lopezlira; Inge Heyer; Richard N. Hook; Mary Elizabeth Kaiser; Jennifer Mack; Russell Makidon; Crystal L. Martin; Max Mutchler; T. Ed Smith; Massimo Stiavelli; Harry I. Teplitz; Michael S. Wiggs; Robert E. Williams; David R. Zurek

2002-12-18

238

HUBBLE SEES A NEUTRON STAR ALONE IN SPACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

his is the first direct look, in visible light, at a lone neutron star, as seen by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The Hubble results show the star is very hot (1.2 million degrees Fahrenheit at the surface), and can be no larger than 16.8 miles (28 kilometers) across. These results prove that the object must be a neutron star, because no other known type of object can be this hot, small, and dim (below 25th magnitude). The first clue that there was a neutron star at this location came in 1992, when the ROSAT (the Roentgen Satellite) found a bright X-ray source without any optical counterpart in optical sky surveys. Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 was used in October 1996 to undertake a sensitive search for the optical object, and found a stellar pinpoint of light within only 2 arc seconds (1/900th the diameter of the Moon) of the X-ray position. Astronomers haven't directly measured the neutron star's distance, but fortunately the neutron star lies in front of a molecular cloud known to be about 400 light-years away in the southern constellation Corona Australis. Credit: Fred Walter (State University of New York at Stony Brook), and NASA

2002-01-01

239

Women Astronomers: Australia: Women astronomers in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ragbir Bhathal summarizes the role played by women astronomers in Australia's astronomy, now and in the past. Australia has a great tradition in astronomy, from the early observations of Aboriginal people through the colonial drive to explore and understand, culminating in the established excellence of research there today. Women have contributed to this achievement in no small way, yet their contribution has been unremarked, if not ignored. Here I summarize the historical and present state of affairs and look forward to a brighter and more equitable future.

Bhathal, Ragbir

2001-08-01

240

Thomas Kuhn's Influence on Astronomers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the astronomical community on their familiarity with the work of Thomas Kuhn. Finds that for some astronomers, Kuhn's thought resonated well with their picture of how science is done and provided perspectives on their scientific careers. (Author/CCM)

Shipman, Harry L.

2000-01-01

241

High School Teachers as Astronomers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a joint research program between several high school teachers and solar system astronomers in which data were collected on photoelectric observations of asteroids and minor planets via astronomical telescopes. (MLH)

Sather, Robert

1977-01-01

242

He2-90'S APPEARANCE DECEIVES ASTRONOMERS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have stumbled upon a mysterious object that is grudgingly yielding clues to its identity. A quick glance at the Hubble picture at top shows that this celestial body, called He2-90, looks like a young, dust-enshrouded star with narrow jets of material streaming from each side. But it's not. The object is classified as a planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a dying, lightweight star. But the Hubble observations suggest that it may not fit that classification, either. The Hubble astronomers now suspect that this enigmatic object may actually be a pair of aging stars masquerading as a single youngster. One member of the duo is a bloated red giant star shedding matter from its outer layers. This matter is then gravitationally captured in a rotating, pancake-shaped accretion disk around a compact partner, which is most likely a young white dwarf (the collapsed remnant of a sun-like star). The stars cannot be seen in the Hubble images because a lane of dust obscures them. The Hubble picture at top shows a centrally bright object with jets, appearing like strings of beads, emanating from both sides of center. (The other streaks of light running diagonally from He2-90 are artificial effects of the telescope's optical system.) Each jet possesses at least six bright clumps of gas, which are speeding along at rates estimated to be at least 375,000 miles an hour (600,000 kilometers an hour). These gaseous salvos are being ejected into space about every 100 years, and may be caused by periodic instabilities in He2-90's accretion disk. The jets from very young stars behave in a similar way. Deep images taken from terrestrial observatories show each jet extending at least 100,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit equals the Earth-Sun distance, 93 million miles). The jets' relatively modest speed implies that one member of the duo is a white dwarf. Observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, however, discovered a gamma-ray source in the vicinity of He2-90, suggesting that the companion may be a neutron star or a black hole (the compact corpses of dying, massive stars). But the jets from accretion disks around neutron stars or black holes travel at a few tenths the speed of light, much faster than the plodding pace of He2-90's jets. The Hubble astronomers are planning more observations to pinpoint the gamma-ray source to determine whether it is associated with He2-90. An accretion disk needs gravity to form. For gravity to create He2-90's disk, the pair of stars must reside at a cozy distance from each other: within about 10 astronomical units. Although the astronomers are uncertain about the details, they believe that magnetic fields associated with the accretion disk produce and constrict the pencil-thin jets seen in the Hubble image. The close-up Hubble photo at bottom shows a dark, flaring, disk-like structure [off-center] bisecting the bright light from the object. The disk is seen edge-on. Although too large to be an accretion disk, this dark, flaring disk may provide indirect proof of the other's existence. Most theories for producing jets require the presence of an accretion disk. The jets are seen streaming from both sides of the central object. The round, white objects at the lower left and upper right corners are two bright clumps of gas in the jets. The astronomers traced the jets to within 1,000 astronomical units of the central obscured star. The star ejected this jet material about 30 years ago. Scientists discovered this puzzling object while taking a census of planetary nebulae. They knew it had been classified as a dying, sun-like star. He2-90 is enshrouded in very hot (17,500 degrees Fahrenheit or 10,000 degrees Kelvin), glowing gas, a typical feature of planetary nebulae. And yet the disk and jets indicated the presence of an embryonic star. The mystified astronomers needed more information. Since embryonic stars are usually associated with cool, dense clouds of gas and dust, they used a ground-based radio telescope in Chile to look for evidence of such

2002-01-01

243

HUBBLE'S ULTRAVIOLET VIEWS OF NEARBY GALAXIES YIELD CLUES TO EARLY UNIVERSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomers are using these three NASA Hubble Space Telescope images to help tackle the question of why distant galaxies have such odd shapes, appearing markedly different from the typical elliptical and spiral galaxies seen in the nearby universe. Do faraway galaxies look weird because they are truly weird? Or, are they actually normal galaxies that look like oddballs, because astronomers are getting an incomplete picture of them, seeing only the brightest pieces? Light from these galaxies travels great distances (billions of light-years) to reach Earth. During its journey, the light is 'stretched' due to the expansion of space. As a result, the light is no longer visible, but has been shifted to the infrared where present instruments are less sensitive. About the only light astronomers can see comes from regions where hot, young stars reside. These stars emit mostly ultraviolet light. But this light is stretched, appearing as visible light by the time it reaches Earth. Studying these distant galaxies is like trying to put together a puzzle with some of the pieces missing. What, then, do distant galaxies really look like? Astronomers studied 37 nearby galaxies to find out. By viewing these galaxies in ultraviolet light, astronomers can compare their shapes with those of their distant relatives. These three Hubble telescope pictures, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, represent a sampling from that survey. Astronomers observed the galaxies in ultraviolet and visible light to study all the stars that make up these 'cities of stars.' The results of their survey support the idea that astronomers are detecting the 'tip of the iceberg' of very distant galaxies. Based on these Hubble ultraviolet images, not all the faraway galaxies necessarily possess intrinsically odd shapes. The results are being presented today at the 197th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, CA. The central region of the 'star-burst' spiral galaxy at far left, NGC 3310, shows young and old stars evenly distributed. If this were the case with most galaxies, astronomers would be able to recognize faraway galaxies fairly easily. In most galaxies, however, the stars are segregated by age, making classifying the distant ones more difficult. NGC 3310 is 46 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The image was taken Sept. 12-13, 2000. The middle image is an example of a tiny, youthful spiral galaxy. ESO 418-008 is representative of the myriad of dwarf galaxies astronomers have seen in deep surveys. These galaxies are much smaller than typical ones like our Milky Way. In this galaxy, the population of stars is more strongly segregated by age. The older stars [red] reside in the center; the younger [blue], in the developing spiral arms. These small, young galaxies may be the building blocks of galaxy formation. ESO 418-008 is 56 million light-years from Earth in the southern constellation Fornax. The image was taken Oct. 10, 2000. The picture at right shows a cosmic collision between two galaxies, UGC 06471 and UGC 06472. These collisions occurred frequently in the early universe, producing galaxies of unusual shapes. The Hubble telescope has spied many such galaxies in the deep field surveys. The ultraviolet images of this galaxy merger suggest the presence of large amounts of dust, which were produced by massive stars that formed before or during this dramatic collision. This dust reddens the starlight in many places, just like a dusty atmosphere reddens the sunset. Studying the effects of this nearby collision could help astronomers explain the peculiar shapes seen in some of the distant galaxies. UGC 06471 and UGC 06472 are 145 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The image was taken July 11, 2000. Photo credits: NASA, Rogier Windhorst (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ), and the Hubble mid-UV team

2002-01-01

244

HUBBLE SNAPS 'FAMILY PORTRAIT'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has peered into the Cone Nebula, revealing a stunning image of six baby sun-like stars surrounding their mother, a bright, massive star. Known as NGC 2264 IRS, the massive star triggered the creation of these baby stars by releasing high-speed particles of dust and gas during its formative years. The image on the left, taken in visible light by a ground-based telescope, shows the Cone Nebula, located 2,500 light-years away in the constellation Monoceros. The white box pinpoints the location of the star nursery. The nursery cannot be seen in this image because dust and gas obscure it. The large cone of cold molecular hydrogen and dust rising from the lefthand edge of the image was created by the outflow from NGC 2264 IRS. The NICMOS image on the right shows this massive star - the brightest source in the region - and the stars formed by its outflow. The baby stars are only .04 to .08 light-years away from their brilliant mother. The rings surrounding the massive star and the spikes emanating from it are not part of the image. This pattern demonstrates the near-perfect optical performance of NICMOS. A near-perfect optical system should bend light from point-like sources, such as NGC 2264 IRS, forming these diffraction patterns of rings and spikes. This false color image was taken with 1.1-, 1.6-, and 2.2-micron filters. The image was taken on April 28, 1997. Credits: Rodger Thompson, Marcia Rieke and Glenn Schneider (University of Arizona), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

2002-01-01

245

SIMBAD Astronomical Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The SIMBAD astronomical database provides basic data, cross-identifications, and bibliography for astronomical objects outside the solar system." Created by the Centre de Donn'es astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) in France, the website contains over three million objects, eight and a half million identifiers, one hundred thousand bibliographical references, and four million citations of objects in papers. The data can be searched by object name, coordinates, filters, and by a list of objects. Researchers can find help by visiting the user's guide and the regularly updated Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects.

246

Astronomical hosting in Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Networked projects such as gamma-ray burst follow-up optical observations with ground-based telescopes require worldwide coverage. In choosing places for new astronomical observatories one of the most important criteria is the number of clear-sky night hours. We are investigating potentially interesting sites in Mongolia and present results about the numbers of clear sky night hours (as well as some other parameters) at different sites in Mongolia, collected with weather stations and our own observations over several years. We also discuss the possibility of astronomical hosting at the sites and the future development of networked projects.

Volnova, Alina; Pozanenko, Alexei; Tungalag, N.; Davaakhuu, G.; Guziy, Sergey; Klunko, Evgeniy; Molotov, Igor

2014-09-01

247

Hubble Takes First Image of a Possible Planet Around Another Star and Finds a Runaway World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hubble Space Telescope has returned an image of what is possibly the first planet outside our solar system. TMR-1C, about 450 light years away in the constellation Taurus, appears to have been "flung away from the vicinity of a newly forming pair of binary stars," as evidenced by a luminescent filament leading from the "planet" back to the stars. "Susan Terebey of the Extrasolar Research Corporation in Pasadena, California, and her team using Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS)," made the discovery. Hubble experts estimate the chance of the object being a background star instead of a planet at one to two percent. This Space Science Telescope Institute site contains the press release, captioned images in several formats and resolutions, and a space science update, a one hour RealPlayer press conference with Dr. Terebey and other astronomers.

1998-01-01

248

Amateur Astronomers' Excellent Adventures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last May, the Space Telescope Science Institute canceled the Hubble amateur program for lack of interest. It was a sad end to a program that gave citizen-scientists, brimming with fresh approaches, the means to study the universe. The benefits -- to them, to their communities, to science -- live on.

Cox, Nancy

1996-07-01

249

The 1% Concordance Hubble Constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the Hubble constant has been a central goal in observational astrophysics for nearly a hundred years. Extraordinary progress has occurred in recent years on two fronts: the cosmic distance ladder measurements at low redshift and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements at high redshift. The CMB is used to predict the current expansion rate through a best-fit cosmological model. Complementary progress has been made with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at relatively low redshifts. While BAO data do not independently determine a Hubble constant, they are important for constraints on possible solutions and checks on cosmic consistency. A precise determination of the Hubble constant is of great value, but it is more important to compare the high and low redshift measurements to test our cosmological model. Significant tension would suggest either uncertainties not accounted for in the experimental estimates or the discovery of new physics beyond the standard model of cosmology. In this paper we examine in detail the tension between the CMB, BAO, and cosmic distance ladder data sets. We find that these measurements are consistent within reasonable statistical expectations and we combine them to determine a best-fit Hubble constant of 69.6 ± 0.7 km s-1 Mpc-1. This value is based upon WMAP9+SPT+ACT+6dFGS+BOSS/DR11+H 0/Riess; we explore alternate data combinations in the text. The combined data constrain the Hubble constant to 1%, with no compelling evidence for new physics.

Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Hinshaw, G.

2014-10-01

250

Hubble info circuit : follow the path to and from Hubble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This diagram illustrates and describes the steps involved in sending directions to the Hubble Space Telescope, collecting and processing the data collected by Hubble, and delivering the requested data and images back to a scientist on Earth. When users roll over each of the six entities depicted in this sequence, they can read about that entity's involvement in this two-way process. Arrows document the flow of information between entities such as the Space Telescope Sky Institute, the Goddard Space Flight Center, and an array of antennas in New Mexico. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2001-01-01

251

Astronomical Microdensitometry Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the current microdensitometers used for digitizing astronomical imagery is discussed. The tests and improvements that have and can be made to the Photometric Data System PDS microdensitometer are examined. The various types of microdensitometers that currently exist in the world are investigated. Papers are presented on the future needs and the data processing problems associated with digitizing large images.

Klinglesmith, D. A. (editor)

1984-01-01

252

Astronomical education in Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history, current situation, education and future directions of modern Mongolian space science and astronomy is reviewed. This paper discusses recent efforts to develop astronomy education and research capacity in Mongolia with cooperation of the International Astronomical Union. Various capacity-building initiatives in space science including remote sensing in Mongolia are discussed.

Dulmaa, A.; Tsolmon, R.; Lkhagvajav, Ch.; Jargalsuren, Sh.; Bayartungalag, B.; Zaya, M.

2011-06-01

253

Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes information about the Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year, a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to their required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

Smolentsev, Sergey; Rahimov, Ismail

2013-01-01

254

Memphis Astronomical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Web site for amateur astronomers offering free "Getting Started with Your New Telescope" article (PDF), monthly newsletter, weblog ("MemphisAstro"), and information for ordering inexpensive out-of-print amateur's guides to finding Messier objects. The Society is a public-service organization promoting interest and education in astronomy and holding monthly meetings and offering lectures and demonstrations to local (Memphis, Tennessee) members.

2007-03-18

255

The Knorre astronomers' dynasty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We attempt to throw light upon the poorly known astronomical dynasty of Knorre and describe its contribution to astronomy. The founder of the dynasty, Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (1759-1810), was born in Germany in 1759, and since 1802 he was a Professor of Mathematics at the Tartu University, and observer at its temporary observatory. He determined the first coordinates of Tartu by stellar observations. Karl Friedrich Knorre (1801-1883) was the first director of the Naval Observatory in Nikolaev since the age of 20, provided the Black Sea navy with accurate time and charts, trained mariners in astronomical navigation, and certified navigation equipment. He compiled star maps and catalogues, and determined positions of comets and planets. He also participated in Bessel's project of the Academic Star Charts, and was responsible for Hora 4, published by the Berlin Academy of Sciences. This sheet permitted to discover two minor planets, Astraea and Flora. Viktor Knorre (1840-1919) was born in Nikolaev. In 1862 he left for Berlin to study astronomy. After defending his thesis for a doctor's degree, he went to Pulkovo as an astronomical calculator in 1867. Since 1873 Viktor worked as an observer of the Berlin Observatory Fraunhofer refractor. His main research focussed on minor planets, comets and binary stars. He discovered the minor planets Koronis, Oenone, Hypatia and Penthesilea. Viktor Knorre also worked on improving astronomical instrumentation, e.g. the Knorre / Heele equatorial telescope mounting.

Pinigin, G.

2009-06-01

256

ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

2014-06-01

257

Misconceptions of Astronomical Distances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…

Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.

2010-01-01

258

Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

Walsh, Jennifer Robin

2004-05-01

259

Johannes Kepler's astronomical instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life and activity of Kepler coincided with an important period in the history of astronomy, when every decade new instruments were being invented, bringing about many great discoveries. At this time many scientists and artisans participated in the construction of astronomical instruments. The contribution made by them is fairly well known, but Kepler's work in this field has been

V. L. Chenakal

1975-01-01

260

Modern observations of Hubble's first-discovered Cepheid in M31  

E-print Network

We present a modern ephemeris and modern light curve of the first-discovered Cepheid variable in M31, Edwin Hubble's M31-V1. Observers of the American Association of Variable Star Observers undertook these observations during the latter half of 2010. The observations were in support of an outreach program by the Space Telescope Science Institute's Hubble Heritage project, but the resulting data are the first concentrated observations of M31-V1 made in modern times. AAVSO observers obtained 214 V-band, Rc-band, and unfiltered observations from which a current ephemeris was derived. The ephemeris derived from these observations is JD(Max) = 2455430.5(+/-0.5) + 31.4 (+/-0.1) E. The period derived from the 2010 data are in agreement with the historic values of the period, but the single season of data precludes a more precise determination of the period or measurement of the period change using these data alone. However, using an ephemeris based upon the period derived by Baade and Swope we are able to fit all of...

Templeton, M; Goff, W; Smith, S; Sabo, R; Walker, G; Buchheim, R; Belcheva, G; Crawford, T; Cook, M; Dvorak, S; Harris, B

2011-01-01

261

NRAO Astronomer Honored by American Astronomical Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dr. Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), received the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) Helen B. Warner Prize on January 11, at the society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. The prize is awarded annually for "a significant contribution to observational or theoretical astronomy during the five years preceding the award." Presented by AAS President Debra Elmegreen, the prize recognized Ransom "for his astrophysical insight and innovative technical leadership enabling the discovery of exotic, millisecond and young pulsars and their application for tests of fundamental physics." "Scott has made landmark contributions to our understanding of pulsars and to using them as elegant tools for investigating important areas of fundamental physics. We are very proud that his scientific colleagues have recognized his efforts with this prize," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. A staff astronomer at the NRAO since 2004, Ransom has led efforts using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope and other facilities to study pulsars and use them to make advances in areas of frontier astrophysics such as gravitational waves and particle physics. In 2010, he was on a team that discovered the most massive pulsar yet known, a finding that had implications for the composition of pulsars and details of nuclear physics, gravitational waves, and gamma-ray bursts. Ransom also is a leader in efforts to find and analyze rapidly-rotating millisecond pulsars to make the first direct detection of the gravitational waves predicted by Albert Einstein. In other work, he has advanced observational capabilities for finding millisecond pulsars in globular clusters of stars and investigated how millisecond pulsars are formed. A graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY, Ransom served as an artillery officer in the U.S. Army. After leaving the Army, he earned a Ph.D. at Harvard University in 2001, and was a postdoctoral fellow at McGill University before joining the NRAO in 2004. Ransom will deliver his Warner Prize Lecture, entitled "Millisecond Pulsars: The Gifts that Keep on Giving," at the AAS meeting on Tuesday, January 11, 2011, at 3:40 p.m., Pacific Time.

2011-01-01

262

Hubble Observes the Moons and Rings of Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings, at least five of the inner moons, and bright clouds in the planet's southern hemisphere. Hubble now allows astronomers to revisit the planet at a level of detail not possible since the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by the planet briefly, nearly a decade ago.

Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. Similar details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft that flew by Uranus in 1986 (the rings were discovered by stellar occultation experiments in 1977, but not seen directly until Voyager flew to Uranus). Since the flyby, none of these inner satellites has been observed further, and detailed observations of the rings and Uranus' atmosphere have not been possible, because the rings are lost in the planet's glare as seen through ground-based optical telescopes.

Each of the inner moons appears as a string of three dots in this picture because it is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart. When these images are combined, they show the motion of the moons compared with the sky background. Because the moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon, they change position noticeably over only a few minutes. (These multiple images also help to distinguish the moons from stars and imaging detector artifacts, i.e., cosmic rays and electronic noise).

Thanks to Hubble's capabilities, astronomers will now be able to determine the orbits more precisely. With this increase in accuracy, astronomers can better probe the unusual dynamics of Uranus' complicated satellite system. Measuring the moons' brightness in several colors might offer clues to the satellites' origin by providing new information on their mineralogical composition. Similar measurements of the rings should yield new insights into their composition and origin.

One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does reveal a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84- year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus' atmosphere, which should be unusual given the planet's large tilt.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1994-01-01

263

The League of Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The League of Astronomers is committed to engaging the University of Washington (UW) and the greater Seattle communities through outreach, research, and events. Since its re-founding two years ago, the LOA has provided a clear connection between the UW Astronomy Department, undergraduate students, and members of the public. Weekly outreach activities such as public star parties and planetarium talks in both the UW Planetarium and the Mobile Planetarium have connected enthusiastic LOA volunteers with hundreds of public observers. In addition, collaboration with organizations like the Seattle Astronomical Society and the UW Society of Physics Students has allowed the LOA to reach an even greater audience. The club also provides opportunities for undergraduate students to participate in research projects. The UW Student Radio Telescope (SRT) and the Manastash Ridge Observatory (MRO) both allow students to practice collecting their own data and turning it into a completed project. Students have presented many of these research projects at venues like the UW Undergraduate Research Symposium and meetings of the American Astronomical Society. For example, the LOA will be observing newly discovered globular clusters at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, B.C. and constructing color-magnitude diagrams. The LOA also helps engage students with the Astronomy major through a variety of events. Bimonthly seminars led by graduate students on their research and personal experiences in the field showcase the variety of options available for students in astronomy. Social events hosted by the club encourage peer mentoring and a sense of community among the Astronomy Department’s undergraduate and graduate students. As a part of one of the nation’s largest undergraduate astronomy programs, members of the League of Astronomers have a unique opportunity to connect and interact with not only the Seattle public but also the greater astronomical community.

Thomas, Nancy H.; Brandel, A.; Paat, A. M.; Schmitz, D.; Sharma, R.; Trujillo, J.; Laws, C. S.

2014-01-01

264

HUBBLE REVEALS THE HEART OF THE WHIRLPOOL GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope are helping researchers view in unprecedented detail the spiral arms and dust clouds of a nearby galaxy, which are the birth sites of massive and luminous stars. The Whirlpool galaxy, M51, has been one of the most photogenic galaxies in amateur and professional astronomy. Easily photographed and viewed by smaller telescopes, this celestial beauty is studied extensively in a range of wavelengths by large ground- and space-based observatories. This Hubble composite image shows visible starlight as well as light from the emission of glowing hydrogen, which is associated with the most luminous young stars in the spiral arms. M51, also known as NGC 5194, is having a close encounter with a nearby companion galaxy, NGC 5195, just off the upper edge of this image. The companion's gravitational pull is triggering star formation in the main galaxy, as seen in brilliant detail by numerous, luminous clusters of young and energetic stars. The bright clusters are highlighted in red by their associated emission from glowing hydrogen gas. This Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image enables a research group, led by Nick Scoville (Caltech), to clearly define the structure of both the cold dust clouds and the hot hydrogen and link individual clusters to their parent dust clouds. Team members include M. Polletta (U. Geneva); S. Ewald and S. Stolovy (Caltech); R. Thompson and M. Rieke (U. of Arizona). Intricate structure is also seen for the first time in the dust clouds. Along the spiral arms, dust 'spurs' are seen branching out almost perpendicular to the main spiral arms. The regularity and large number of these features suggests to astronomers that previous models of 'two-arm' spiral galaxies may need to be revisited. The new images also reveal a dust disk in the nucleus, which may provide fuel for a nuclear black hole. The team is also studying this galaxy at near-infrared wavelengths with the NICMOS instrument onboard Hubble. At these wavelengths, the dusty clouds are more transparent and the true distribution of stars is more easily seen. In addition, regions of star formation that are obscured in the optical images are newly revealed in the near-infrared images. This image was composed by the Hubble Heritage Team from Hubble archival data of M51 and is superimposed onto ground-based data taken by Travis Rector (NOAO) at the 0.9-meter telescope at the National Science Foundation's Kitt Peak National Observatory (NOAO/AURA) in Tucson, AZ. Image Credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: N. Scoville (Caltech) and T. Rector (NOAO)

2002-01-01

265

Astropix: Everyone's New Portal to the Universe of Astronomical Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astropix is a new online repository for astronomical imagery that is now available for everyone to use. Currently in a beta development state, Astropix provides powerful ways to browse, search, and download images, diagrams, artwork, and photographs from many astronomical missions. The site is built around the Astronomical Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard developed by the Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP) that captures all the key descriptive information for a public image, including color representations and astronomical and sky coordinates. Existing image galleries containing AVM-tagged images can easily supply them to Astropix, which downloads them, extracts the metadata into its database, and generates versions of the images at a variety of common sizes. Visitors to Astropix can search the database using simple free-text queries, or use a structured search (similar to "Smart Playlists" found in iTunes, for example). The Astropix archive also features an Xquery-based method for posting http queries and retrieving XML lists of matching imagery, allowing for scripted access to the site. Current assets include imagery from Spitzer, Chandra, ESO, Galex, Herschel, Hubble, Spitzer, and WISE, with more on the way. Website: astropix.ipac.caltech.edu

Hurt, Robert L.; Squires, G. K.; Llamas, J.; Rosenthal, C.; Brinkworth, C. S.

2012-01-01

266

Beyond the Hubble Constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International Astronomer Team Witnesses Very Ancient Stellar Explosion A few months ago, a violent stellar explosion -- a supernova -- was discovered in an extremely distant galaxy by an international team of astronomers [1]. This is the very promising first result of a recently initiated, dedicated search for such objects. Subsequent spectral observations have shown this to be the most distant supernova ever observed. Although it is very faint, it has been possible to classify it as a supernova of Type Ia, a kind that is particularly well suited for cosmological distance determinations. A Very Efficient Supernova Search Programme The present discovery was made during the team's first observations with the 4-metre telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. This telescope is equipped with a wide-field camera at its prime focus that enables the simultaneous recording of the images of even very faint objects in a 15-arcminute field. Hundreds of distant galaxies are located in a field of this size and this observational method is therefore very well suited for a search of faint and transient supernovae in such galaxies. With a carefully planned observing sequence, it is possible to image up to 55 sky fields per night. A comparison with earlier exposures makes it possible to detect suddenly appearing supernovae as faint points of light near the galaxy in which the exploding star is located (the parent galaxy). A crucial feature of the new programme is the possibility to perform follow-up spectroscopic observations, whenever a new supernova is discovered. For this, the team has obtained access to several other large telescopes, including the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and the Multi-Mirror Telescope (MMT) in Arizona, U.S.A.. The Spectrum of the Supernova The present supernova was first detected at Tololo on March 30, 1995. It was given the official designation SN 1995K, and its spectrum was observed a few nights later with the EMMI instrument at the ESO NTT at La Silla. Further direct images were taken with EMMI and also with the high-resolution NTT SUSI camera, three of which are shown on the photo with text accompanying this Press Release. The supernova is located only 1 arcsecond from the centre of the parent galaxy. As the supernova was very faint (its magnitude was about 22.7, or about 5 million times fainter than what can be seen with the unaided eye), an exposure of 2.5 hours was necessary to collect enough photons to allow a classification of its spectrum. Because of the very small angular distance, the light from the supernova was heavily contaminated with that of the parent galaxy, but the excellent angular resolution of the NTT optics made it possible to overcome this problem. It was also possible to measure the redshift [2] of the galaxy (and thereby of the supernova) as 0.478. This demonstrates that SN 1995K is the most distant supernova (indeed, the most distant star!) ever observed [3]. The spectrum clearly showed SN 1995K to be of Type Ia. This is evident by a comparison with that of a ``standard'' Type Ia supernova (SN 1989B), cf. the graph with explanatory text attached to this Press Release. When the redshift of SN 1995K is taken into account, the two spectra are very similar. The current belief is that supernovae of this type are due to the explosions of white dwarf stars in compact binary systems which are triggered by the successive accretion of stellar material from the other component. As the sequence of NTT images shows, SN 1995K quickly faded and in late May 1995, it could no longer be observed. The rate of change (the ``light-curve'') also closely matched that of a normal Type Ia supernova. Why Are Type Ia Supernovae So Important? While supernovae are important astrophysical objects by themselves, Type Ia supernovae are also of great interest to cosmologists. The main reason is that they provide independent information about the distances to galaxies and thereby about the expansion rate of the Universe. A simple

1995-08-01

267

Hubble peers inside a celestial geode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

celestial geode hi-res Size hi-res: 148 Kb Credits: ESA/NASA, Yäel Nazé (University of Liège, Belgium) and You-Hua Chu (University of Illinois, Urbana, USA) Hubble peers inside a celestial geode In this unusual image, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures a rare view of the celestial equivalent of a geode - a gas cavity carved by the stellar wind and intense ultraviolet radiation from a young hot star. Real geodes are handball-sized, hollow rocks that start out as bubbles in volcanic or sedimentary rock. Only when these inconspicuous round rocks are split in half by a geologist, do we get a chance to appreciate the inside of the rock cavity that is lined with crystals. In the case of Hubble's 35 light-year diameter ‘celestial geode’ the transparency of its bubble-like cavity of interstellar gas and dust reveals the treasures of its interior. Low resolution version (JPG format) 148 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 1929 Kb Acknowledgment: This image was created with the help of the ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator. Real geodes are handball-sized, hollow rocks that start out as bubbles in volcanic or sedimentary rock. Only when these inconspicuous round rocks are split in half by a geologist, do we get a chance to appreciate the inside of the rock cavity that is lined with crystals. In the case of Hubble's 35 light-year diameter ‘celestial geode’ the transparency of its bubble-like cavity of interstellar gas and dust reveals the treasures of its interior. The object, called N44F, is being inflated by a torrent of fast-moving particles (what astronomers call a 'stellar wind') from an exceptionally hot star (the bright star just below the centre of the bubble) once buried inside a cold dense cloud. Compared with our Sun (which is losing mass through the so-called 'solar wind'), the central star in N44F is ejecting more than a 100 million times more mass per second and the hurricane of particles moves much faster at 7 million km per hour (as opposed to less than 1.5 million km per hour for our Sun). Because the bright central star does not exist in empty space but is surrounded by an envelope of gas, the stellar wind collides with this gas, pushing it out, like a snow plough. This forms a bubble, whose striking structure is clearly visible in the crisp Hubble image. The nebula N44F is one of a handful of known interstellar bubbles. Bubbles like these have been seen around evolved massive stars (called 'Wolf-Rayet stars'), and also around clusters of stars (where they are called 'super-bubbles'). But they have rarely been viewed around isolated stars, as is the case here. On closer inspection N44F harbours additional surprises. The interior wall of its gaseous cavity is lined with several four to eight light-year high finger-like columns of cool dust and gas. (The structure of these 'columns' is similar to the Eagle Nebula’s iconic 'Pillars of Creation' photographed by Hubble a decade ago, and is seen in a few other nebulae as well). The fingers are created by a blistering ultraviolet radiation from the central star. Like wind socks caught in a gale, they point in the direction of the energy flow. These pillars look small in this image only because they are much farther away from us then the Eagle Nebula’s pillars. N44F is located about 160 000 light-years in the neighbouring dwarf galaxy the Large Magellanic Cloud, in the direction of the southern constellation Dorado. N44F is part of the larger N44 complex, which contains a large super-bubble, blown out by the combined action of stellar winds and multiple supernova explosions. N44 itself is roughly 1000 light-years across. Several compact star-forming regions, including N44F, are found along the rim of the central super-bubble. This image was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, using filters that isolate light emitted by sulphur (shown in blue, a 1200-second exposure) and hydrogen gas (shown in red, a 1000-second exposure).

2004-08-01

268

Planck Scale to Hubble Scale  

E-print Network

Within the context of the usual semi classical investigation of Planck scale Schwarzchild Black Holes, as in Quantum Gravity, and later attempts at a full Quantum Mechanical description in terms of a Kerr-Newman metric including the spinorial behaviour, we attempt to present a formulation that extends from the Planck scale to the Hubble scale. In the process the so called large number coincidences as also the hitherto inexplicable relations between the pion mass and the Hubble Constant, pointed out by Weinberg, turn out to be natural consequences in a consistent description.

B. G. Sidharth

1998-09-11

269

Hubble Sees Material Ejected From Comet Hale-Bopp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These NASA Hubble Space Telescope pictures of comet Hale-Bopp show a remarkable 'pinwheel' pattern and a blob of free-flying debris near the nucleus. The bright clump of light along the spiral (above the nucleus, which is near the center of the frame) may be a piece of the comet's icy crust that was ejected into space by a combination of ice evaporation and the comet's rotation, and which then disintegrated into a bright cloud of particles.

Although the 'blob' is about 3.5 times fainter than the brightest portion at the nucleus, the lump appears brighter because it covers a larger area. The debris follows a spiral pattern outward because the solid nucleus is rotating like a lawn sprinkler, completing a single rotation about once per week.

Ground-based observations conducted over the past two months have documented at least two separate episodes of jet and pinwheel formation and fading. By coincidence, the first Hubble images of Hale-Bopp, taken on September 26, 1995, immediately followed one of these outbursts and allow researchers to examine it at unprecedented detail. For the first time they see a clear separation between the nucleus and some of the debris being shed. By putting together information from the Hubble images and those taken during the recent outburst using the 82 cm telescope of the Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain), astronomers find that the debris is moving away from the nucleus at a speed (projected on the sky) of about 68 miles per hour (109 kilometers per hour).

The Hubble observations will be used to determine if Hale-Bopp is really a giant comet or rather a more moderate-sized object whose current activity is driven by outgassing from a very volatile ice which will 'burn out' over the next year. Comet Hale-Bopp was discovered on July 23, 1995 by amateur astronomers Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp. Though this comet is still well outside the orbit of Jupiter (almost 600 million miles, or one billion kilometers from Earth) it looks surprisingly bright, fueling predictions that it could become the brightest comet of the century in early 1997.

The full-field picture on the left, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (in WF mode), shows the comet against a stellar backdrop in the constellation Sagittarius. The stars are streaked due to a combination of Hubble's orbital motion and its tracking of the nucleus, which is now falling toward the Sun at 33,800 miles per hour (54,000 km/hr). In the close-up picture on the right, the stars have been subtracted through image processing. Each picture element is nearly 300 miles (480 km) across at the comet's distance. In this false color scale the faintest regions are black, the brightest regions are white, and intermediate intensities are represented by different levels of red.

Even more detailed Hubble images will be taken with the Planetary Camera in late October to follow the further evolution of the spiral, look for more outbursts, place limits on the size of the nucleus, and use spectroscopy to study the enigmatic comet's chemical composition.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

270

Hubble Space Telescope prescription retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prescription retrieval is a technique for directly estimating optical prescription parameters from images. We apply it to estimate the value of the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror conic constant. Our results agree with other studies that examined primary-mirror test fixtures and results. In addition they show that small aberrations exist on the planetary-camera repeater optics.

Redding, David; Dumont, Phil; Yu, Jeff

1993-01-01

271

Hubble Space Telescope prescription retrieval.  

PubMed

Prescription retrieval is a technique for directly estimating optical prescription parameters from images. We apply it to estimate the value of the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror conic constant. Our results agree with other studies that examined primary-mirror test fixtures and results. In addition they show that small aberrations exist on the planetary-camera repeater optics. PMID:20820306

Redding, D; Dumont, P; Yu, J

1993-04-01

272

Hubble Space Telescope Science Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its launch in 1990 April, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has produced an increasing flow of scientific results. The large number of refereed publications based on HST data permits a detailed evaluation of the effectiveness of this observatory and its scientific programs. This paper presents the results of selected science metrics related to paper counts, citation counts, citation history,

Georges Meylan; Juan P. Madrid; Duccio Macchetto

2004-01-01

273

Astronomical Kalendar-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The webpage give the Astronomical Kalendars for the Months of 2010, 2011 as well as a General Kalendar of astronomical events for schoolars and beginners for 2011 to be downloaded in pdf or word formats. The Kalendar for schoolars and beginners include on 149 pp. the following sections: 1) recommendations for Schoolars 2) the general review of events for 2011 3) The Moon in 2011 4) Moon and Sun Ephemerides with comments 5) Planets visibility for the latituide 56 Deg N. 6) Planets conjunctions for 2011 7) Eclipses in 2011 8) Stars and planets occultations by the Moon 9) Phenomena for Jupiter satellites 10) Phenomena for Saturn satellites 11) Small Planets (Iris, Thalia, Nisa, Junona, Gigeia, Ariadna, Vesta, Cerera and other) 12) Comets (C/2009 P1 ( Garradd ), 103P/Hartley 2, P/2006 T1 ( Levy ) 13) variable Stars 14) Meteor showers. Both Calendars include maps and tables

Kozlovskii, Alexander Nikolaevich; Kuznetsov, Alexander

274

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope COS January Monthly Status Review February 1, 2000 GSFC #12;COS Monthly Status Review Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope John Andrews Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope John Andrews February 1, 2000 Progress Summary Since Last

Colorado at Boulder, University of

275

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope COS November/December Monthly Status Review December 5, 1999 KSC #12;COS Monthly Status Review Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope John Review Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope John Andrews December 5, 1999 Progress Summary

Colorado at Boulder, University of

276

Tutorial II Newtonian Cosmology; Hubble Expansion; Observational  

E-print Network

Tutorial II Newtonian Cosmology; Hubble Expansion; Observational Cosmology Exercise 1: Newtonian for a matter- dominated FRW Universe. 1 #12;Exercise 2: Hubble Expansion and Bounded Objects We have seen that galaxies are participating in the uniform Hubble ex- pansion. Question is why we ourselves do not expand

Weijgaert, Rien van de

277

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope Early Science Results from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Cynthia S. Froning University of Colorado October 12, 2010 #12;Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble of Colorado October 12, 2010 #12;Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope COS Science Themes What

Colorado at Boulder, University of

278

Goddard Engineers and Divers Multitask for Hubble  

E-print Network

Goddard Engineers and Divers Multitask for Hubble Pg 4 Custom-Made Blankets for a World Class www.nasa.gov Volume 3 Issue 17 December 2007 #12;The Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 4 as clothes are to people," says Mike Weiss, Hubble's Technical Deputy Program Manager. "Just as clothes cover

Christian, Eric

279

Star Witness News: Birthday Wishes for Hubble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story celebrates the 17th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. The anniversary image of the Carina Nebula is described and Hubble’s most significant scientific discoveries are identified. The article is from the Amazing Space science newspaper, The Star Witness, which can be used as a science content reading.

280

The Astronomical Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Chicago Press has announced unrestricted access to an online journal until mid-1998. Full text articles, announcements, and editorials are all available. Available electronic issues of The Astronomical Journal (AJ) begin with Volume 115, number 1 (January, 1998). AJ covers "The expanded coverage of quasars, supernova remnants, and studies of the interstellar medium [as well as] traditional areas of astronomy." The publication is available in various formats.

281

Astrobiology: An astronomer's perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review we explore aspects of the field of astrobiology from an astronomical viewpoint. We therefore focus on the origin of life in the context of planetary formation, with additional emphasis on tracing the most abundant volatile elements, C, H, O, and N that are used by life on Earth. We first explore the history of life on our planet and outline the current state of our knowledge regarding the delivery of the C, H, O, N elements to the Earth. We then discuss how astronomers track the gaseous and solid molecular carriers of these volatiles throughout the process of star and planet formation. It is now clear that the early stages of star formation fosters the creation of water and simple organic molecules with enrichments of heavy isotopes. These molecules are found as ice coatings on the solid materials that represent microscopic beginnings of terrestrial worlds. Based on the meteoritic and cometary record, the process of planet formation, and the local environment, lead to additional increases in organic complexity. The astronomical connections towards this stage are only now being directly made. Although the exact details are uncertain, it is likely that the birth process of star and planets likely leads to terrestrial worlds being born with abundant water and organics on the surface.

Bergin, Edwin A.

2014-12-01

282

Mean-field approach to antiferromagnetic domains in the doped Hubbard model Edwin Langmann and Mats Wallin  

E-print Network

Mean-field approach to antiferromagnetic domains in the doped Hubbard model Edwin Langmann and Mats been found, including magnetic domain walls,6 magnetic polarons, magnetic vortices,7 spiral states,8 states with local antiferromagnetic AF order. If in the states considered the AF order changes

Wallin, Mats

283

Hubble Reveals Sombrero Galaxy (M104)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 19th century, astronomer V. M. Slipher first discovered a hat-like object that appeared to be rushing away from us at 700 miles per second. This enormous velocity offered some of the earliest clues that it was really another galaxy, and that the universe was expanding in all directions. The trained razor sharp eye of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) easily resolves this Sombrero galaxy, Messier 104 (M104). The galaxy is 50,000 light-years across and is located 28 million light-years from Earth at the southern edge of the rich Virgo cluster of galaxies. Equivalent to 800 billion suns, Sombrero is one of the most massive objects in that group. The hallmark of Sombrero is a brilliant white, bulbous core encircled by the thick dust lanes comprising the spiral structure of the galaxy. As seen from Earth, the galaxy is tilted nearly edge-on. We view it from just six degrees north of its equatorial plane. At a relatively bright magnitude of +8, M104 is just beyond the limit of naked-eye visibility and is easily seen through small telescopes. This rich system of globular clusters are estimated to be nearly 2,000 in number which is 10 times as many as in our Milky Way galaxy. The ages of the clusters are similar to the clusters in the Milky Way, ranging from 10-13 billion years old. Embedded in the bright core of M104 is a smaller disk, which is tilted relative to the large disk. X-ray emission suggests that there is material falling into the compact core, where a 1-billion-solar-mass black hole resides. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

2006-01-01

284

VENUS CLOUD TOPS VIEWED BY HUBBLE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet-light image of the planet Venus, taken on January 24 1995, when Venus was at a distance of 70.6 million miles (113.6 million kilometers) from Earth. Venus is covered with clouds made of sulfuric acid, rather than the water-vapor clouds found on Earth. These clouds permanently shroud Venus' volcanic surface, which has been radar mapped by spacecraft and from Earth-based telescope. At ultraviolet wavelengths cloud patterns become distinctive. In particular, a horizontal 'Y'-shaped cloud feature is visible near the equator. Similar features were seen from Mariner 10, Pioneer Venus, and Galileo spacecrafts. This global feature might indicate atmospheric waves, analogous to high and low pressure cells on Earth. Bright clouds toward Venus' poles appear to follow latitude lines. The polar regions are bright, possibly showing a haze of small particles overlying the main clouds. The dark regions show the location of enhanced sulfur dioxide near the cloud tops. From previous missions, astronomers know that such features travel east to west along with the Venus' prevailing winds, to make a complete circuit around the planet in four days. Because Venus is closer to the Sun than Earth, the planet appears to go through phases, like the Moon. When Venus swings close to Earth the planet's disk appears to grow in size, but changes from a full disk to a crescent. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, in PC mode. False color has been used enhance cloud features. Credit: L. Esposito (University of Colorado, Boulder), and NASA

2002-01-01

285

Star Witness News: Hubble Reveals Orion in Picture Perfect Glory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The article explains how an area in the constellation, Orion, called the Orion Nebula is a stellar nursery, where more than 3,000 stars are being born. Students read about why astronomers are interested in this region of space and how they go about studying the nebula. This science content reading identifies and defines scientific words and phrases that might be new to the student. The discussion questions with answers are available to help focus the student's attention on important information and to challenge the student to delve deeper into the subject of star formation. Star Witness is a series of articles that mirror the content of recent Hubble Space Telescope press releases.

286

HUBBLE WATCHES STAR TEAR APART ITS NEIGHBORHOOD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a view of a stellar demolition zone in our Milky Way Galaxy: a massive star, nearing the end of its life, tearing apart the shell of surrounding material it blew off 250,000 years ago with its strong stellar wind. The shell of material, dubbed the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888), surrounds the 'hefty,' aging star WR 136, an extremely rare and short-lived class of super-hot star called a Wolf-Rayet. Hubble's multicolored picture reveals with unprecedented clarity that the shell of matter is a network of filaments and dense knots, all enshrouded in a thin 'skin' of gas [seen in blue]. The whole structure looks like oatmeal trapped inside a balloon. The skin is glowing because it is being blasted by ultraviolet light from WR 136. Hubble's view covers a small region at the northeast tip of the structure, which is roughly three light-years across. A picture taken by a ground-based telescope [lower right] shows almost the entire nebula. The whole structure is about 16 light-years wide and 25 light-years long. The bright dot near the center of NGC 6888 is WR 136. The white outline in the upper left-hand corner represents Hubble's view. Hubble's sharp vision is allowing scientists to probe the intricate details of this complex system, which is crucial to understanding the life cycle of stars and their impact on the evolution of our galaxy. The results of this study appear in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal. WR 136 created this web of luminous material during the late stages of its life. As a bloated, red super-giant, WR 136 gently puffed away some of its bulk, which settled around it. When the star passed from a super-giant to a Wolf-Rayet, it developed a fierce stellar wind - a stream of charged particles released from its surface - and began expelling mass at a furious rate. The star began ejecting material at a speed of 3.8 million mph (6.1 million kilometers per hour), losing matter equal to that of our Sun's every 10,000 years. Then the stellar wind collided with the material around the star and swept it up into a thin shell. That shell broke apart into the network of bright clumps seen in the image. The present-day strong wind of the Wolf-Rayet star has only now caught up with the outer edge of the shell, and is stripping away matter as it flows past [the tongue-shaped material in the upper right of the Hubble image]. The stellar wind continues moving outside the shell, slamming into more material and creating a shock wave. This powerful force produces an extremely hot, glowing skin [seen in blue], which envelops the bright nebula. A shock wave is analogous to the sonic boom produced by a jet plane that exceeds the speed of sound; in a cosmic setting, this boom is seen rather than heard. The outer material is too thin to see in the image until the shock wave hits it. The cosmic collision and subsequent shock wave implies that a large amount of matter resides outside the visible shell. The discovery of this material may explain the discrepancy between the mass of the entire shell (four solar masses) and the amount of matter the star lost when it was a red super-giant (15 solar masses). The nebula's short-term fate is less spectacular. As the stellar wind muscles past the clumps of material, the pressure around them drops. A decrease in pressure means that the clumps expand, leading to a steady decline in brightness and fading perhaps to invisibility. Later, the shell may be compressed and begin glowing again, this time as the powerful blast wave of the Wolf-Rayet star completely destroys itself in a powerful supernova explosion. The nebula resides in the constellation Cygnus, 4,700 light-years from Earth. If the nebula were visible to the naked eye, it would appear in the sky as an ellipse one-quarter the size of the full moon. The observations were taken in June 1995 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Scientists selected the colors in this composite image to correspond with the ionization (the process of stripping electrons from atoms) state of the gases, with blue r

2002-01-01

287

HUBBLE OBSERVES THE MOONS AND RINGS OF THE PLANET URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings, at least five of the inner moons, and bright clouds in the planet's southern hemisphere. Hubble now allows astronomers to revisit the planet at a level of detail not possible since the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by the planet briefly, nearly a decade ago. Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. Similar details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft that flew by Uranus in 1986 (the rings were discovered by stellar occultation experiments in 1977, but not seen directly until Voyager flew to Uranus). Since the flyby, none of these inner satellites has been observed further, and detailed observations of the rings and Uranus' atmosphere have not been possible, because the rings are lost in the planet's glare as seen through ground-based optical telescopes. Each of the inner moons appears as a string of three dots in this picture because it is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart. When these images are combined, they show the motion of the moons compared with the sky background. Because the moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon, they change position noticeably over only a few minutes. (These multiple images also help to distinguish the moons from stars and imaging detector artifacts, i.e., cosmic rays and electronic noise). Thanks to Hubble's capabilities, astronomers will now be able to determine the orbits more precisely. With this increase in accuracy, astronomers can better probe the unusual dynamics of Uranus' complicated satellite system. Measuring the moons' brightness in several colors might offer clues to the satellites' origin by providing new information on their mineralogical composition. Similar measurements of the rings should yield new insights into their composition and origin. One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does reveal a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus' atmosphere, which should be unusual given the planet's large tilt. Credit: Kenneth Seidelmann, U.S. Naval Observatory, and NASA These observations were conducted by a team led by Dr. Ken Seidelmann of the U.S. Naval Observatory as Principal Investigator. These images have been processed by Professor Douglas Currie and Mr. Dan Dowling in the Department of Physics at the University of Maryland. Other team members are Dr. Ben Zellner at Georgia Southern University, Dr. Dan Pascu and Mr. Jim Rhode at the U.S. Naval Observatory, and Dr. Ed Wells, Mr. Charles Kowal (Computer Science Corporation) and Dr. Alex Storrs of the Space Telescope Science Institute.

2002-01-01

288

Astronomical Software Directory Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the support of NASA's Astrophysics Data Program (NRA 92-OSSA-15), we have developed the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS): a distributed, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URLs indexed for full-text searching. Users are performing about 400 searches per month. A new aspect of our service is the inclusion of telescope and instrumentation manuals, which prompted us to change the name to the Astronomical Software and Documentation Service. ASDS was originally conceived to serve two purposes: to provide a useful Internet service in an area of expertise of the investigators (astronomical software), and as a research project to investigate various architectures for searching through a set of documents distributed across the Internet. Two of the co-investigators were then installing and maintaining astronomical software as their primary job responsibility. We felt that a service which incorporated our experience in this area would be more useful than a straightforward listing of software packages. The original concept was for a service based on the client/server model, which would function as a directory/referral service rather than as an archive. For performing the searches, we began our investigation with a decision to evaluate the Isite software from the Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (CNIDR). This software was intended as a replacement for Wide-Area Information Service (WAIS), a client/server technology for performing full-text searches through a set of documents. Isite had some additional features that we considered attractive, and we enjoyed the cooperation of the Isite developers, who were happy to have ASDS as a demonstration project. We ended up staying with the software throughout the project, making modifications to take advantage of new features as they came along, as well as influencing the software development. The Web interface to the search engine is provided by a gateway program written in C++ by a consultant to the project (A. Warnock).

Hanisch, Robert J.; Payne, Harry; Hayes, Jeffrey

1997-01-01

289

HUBBLE CAPTURES THE HEART OF STAR BIRTH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) has captured a flurry of star birth near the heart of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1808. On the left are two images, one superimposed over the other. The black-and-white picture is a ground-based view of the entire galaxy. The color inset image, taken with the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), provides a close-up view of the galaxy's center, the hotbed of vigorous star formation. The ground-based image shows that the galaxy has an unusual, warped shape. Most spiral galaxies are flat disks, but this one has curls of dust and gas at its outer spiral arms (upper right-hand corner and lower left-hand corner). This peculiar shape is evidence that NGC 1808 may have had a close interaction with another nearby galaxy, NGC 1792, which is not in the picture Such an interaction could have hurled gas towards the nucleus of NGC 1808, triggering the exceptionally high rate of star birth seen in the WFPC2 inset image. The WFPC2 inset picture is a composite of images using colored filters that isolate red and infrared light as well as light from glowing hydrogen. The red and infrared light (seen as yellow) highlight older stars, while hydrogen (seen as blue) reveals areas of star birth. Colors were assigned to this false-color image to emphasize the vigorous star formation taking place around the galaxy's center. NGC 1808 is called a barred spiral galaxy because of the straight lines of star formation on both sides of the bright nucleus. This star formation may have been triggered by the rotation of the bar, or by matter which is streaming along the bar towards the central region (and feeding the star burst). Filaments of dust are being ejected from the core into a faint halo of stars surrounding the galaxy's disk (towards the upper left corner) by massive stars that have exploded as supernovae in the star burst region. The portion of the galaxy seen in this 'wide-field' image is about 35,000 light-years across. The right-hand image, taken by WFPC2, provides a closer look at the flurry of star birth at the galaxy's core. The star clusters (blue) can be seen (and many more are likely obscured) amid thick lanes of gas and dust. This image shows that stars are often born in compact clusters within star bursts, and that dense gas and dust heavily obscures the star burst region. The brightest knot of star birth seen here is probably a giant cluster of stars, about 100 light-years in diameter, at the very center of the galaxy. The other star clusters are about 10 to 50 light-years in diameter. The entire star burst region shown here is about 3,000 light-years across. This galaxy is about 40 million light-years away in the southern constellation Columba. The observation was taken Aug. 14, 1997, and was the last of 13 Hubble Space Telescope amateur programs. Credits: Jim Flood, an amateur astronomer affiliated with Sperry Observatory at Union College in New Jersey, and Max Mutchler, a member of the Space Telescope Science Institute staff who volunteered to work with Jim.

2002-01-01

290

XXXVI Polish Astronomical Society Meeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XXXVI meeting of Polish Astronomical Society was held in Warsaw on Sept. 11-14, 2013. The conference brought together 150 astronomers working in different institutes in Poland and abroad. The highlight of the Congress was the first awarding of the Paczynski's Medal. The first laureate of the Medal is Professor Martin Rees from University of Cambridge. Medal was given by the President of the Polish Astronomical Society prof. Bozena Czerny.

Ró?a?ska, Agata; Bejger, Micha?

2014-12-01

291

The Hubble rate in averaged cosmology  

SciTech Connect

The calculation of the averaged Hubble expansion rate in an averaged perturbed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology leads to small corrections to the background value of the expansion rate, which could be important for measuring the Hubble constant from local observations. It also predicts an intrinsic variance associated with the finite scale of any measurement of H{sub 0}, the Hubble rate today. Both the mean Hubble rate and its variance depend on both the definition of the Hubble rate and the spatial surface on which the average is performed. We quantitatively study different definitions of the averaged Hubble rate encountered in the literature by consistently calculating the backreaction effect at second order in perturbation theory, and compare the results. We employ for the first time a recently developed gauge-invariant definition of an averaged scalar. We also discuss the variance of the Hubble rate for the different definitions.

Umeh, Obinna; Larena, Julien; Clarkson, Chris, E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com, E-mail: julien.larena@gmail.com, E-mail: chris.clarkson@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

2011-03-01

292

Two ESA astronauts named to early Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nicollier and three NASA astronauts, who had already been training for a Hubble servicing mission planned for June 2000, have been reassigned to this earlier mission (STS-103). Jean-Francois Clervoy and two other NASA astronauts will complete the STS-103 crew. The repairs and maintenance of the telescope will require many hours spent working outside the Shuttle and will make extensive use of the Shuttle's robotic arm Nicollier, of Swiss nationality and making his fourth flight, will be part of the team that will perform the "spacewalks". An astronomer by education, he took part in the first Hubble servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993, controlling the Shuttle's robotic arm while astronauts on the other end of the arm performed the delicate repairs to the telescope. He also served on STS-46 in 1992 using the robotic arm to deploy ESA's Eureca retrievable spacecraft from the Shuttle, and on STS-75 with the Italian Tethered Satellite System in 1996. Nicollier is currently the chief of the robotics branch in NASA's astronaut office and ESA's lead astronaut in Houston. Jean-Francois Clervoy, of French nationality and making his third flight, will have the lead role in the operation of the robotic arm for this mission. He previously served on STS-66 in 1994 using the robotic arm to deploy and later retrieve the German CRISTA-SPAS atmospheric research satellite, and on STS-84 in 1997, a Shuttle mission to the Russian Mir space station. The other STS-103 crewmembers are: Commander Curtis Brown, pilot Scott Kelly, and mission specialists Steven Smith, Michael Foale and John Grunsfeld. During the flight, the astronauts will replace Hubble's failing pointing system, which allows the telescope to aim at stars, planets and other targets, and install other equipment that will be ready for launch at that time. A second mission to complete the previously-scheduled Hubble refurbishment work is foreseen at a later date. The crew for that mission has not yet been assigned. The Hubble Space Telescope, launched in 1990, is one of the most powerful optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. ESA contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble and European astronomers receive in return a guaranteed 15 share of observing time (and 20 on average in practice).

1999-03-01

293

Astronomical Instruments in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

294

Hubble Views Saturn Ring-Plane Crossing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This sequence of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope documents a rare astronomical alignment -- Saturn's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This occurs when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane, as it does approximately every 15 years.

These pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on 22 May 1995, when Saturn was at a distance of 919 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. At Saturn, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles (725 km) across. In each image, the dark band across Saturn is the ring shadow cast by the Sun which is still 2.7 degrees above Saturn's ring plane. The box around the western portion of the rings (to the right of Saturn) in each image indicates the area in which the faint light from the rings has been multiplied through image processing (by a factor of 25) to make the rings more visible.

[Top] -

This image was taken while the Earth was above the lit face of the rings. The moons Tethys and Dione are visible to the east (left) of Saturn; Janus is the bright spot near the center of the ring portion in the box, and Pandora is faintly visible just inside the left edge of this box. Saturn's atmosphere shows remarkable detail: multiple banding in both the northern and southern hemispheres, wispy structure at the north edge of the equatorial zone, and a bright area above the ring shadow that is caused by sunlight scattered off the rings onto the atmosphere. There is evidence of a faint polar haze over the north pole of Saturn and a fainter haze over the south.

[Center] -

This image was taken close to the time of ring-plane crossing. The rings are 75% fainter than in the top image, though they do not disappear completely because the vertical face of the rings still reflects sunlight when the rings are edge-on. Rhea is visible to the east of Saturn, Enceladus is the bright satellite in the rings to the west, and Janus is the fainter blip to its right. Pandora is just to the left of Enceladus, but is not visible because Enceladus is too bright. An oval-shaped atmospheric feature has just rotated into view (near the eastern limb, at the northern edge of the equatorial zone), and appears to be a local circulation pattern that is not penetrated by the bright clouds that are deflected around it.

[Bottom] -

This image was taken approximately 96 minutes (one Hubble orbit) after the center image. The rings are 10% brighter than they were in that image. Rhea is visible just off the eastern limb of Saturn, and casts a shadow on the south face of Saturn. During this exposure, the Earth and Sun were on opposite sides of Saturn's ring plane (they remain in this configuration until 10 August 1995). The atmospheric circulation pattern has rotated to just past the center of the planet's disk, and is followed by more wispy structure in the bright band of clouds, reminiscent of the structure seen during the Saturn storm observed in 1990.

These images will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).

Technical Notes Each of these images is a 7-second exposure at 8922 Angstroms in a methane absorption band. North is up and east is to the left.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

295

HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe, only the lighter elements, such as hydrogen, filled the heavens. The heavier elements were produced later as stars died. Neon, in particular, is produced only when massive stars die in supernova explosions. Thus, a higher abundance of neon in 'bipolar' planetary nebulae indicates that the stars that sculpted these objects were born more recently (i.e., in an environment that had suffered more supernova explosions) than those that created the more symmetrically shaped clouds of gas. On the other hand, the stars that form planetary nebulae are great producers of carbon, the most important element for the origin of life, as we know it. The question of how life-forming atoms were made is at the heart of understanding how and why life evolved in our own solar system very shortly after the Sun itself had formed from clouds of carbon-enriched gas and dust 4.6 billion years ago. Scientists do not know for sure how the Milky Way behaved before the birth of the Sun. But they can look at regions in other galaxies where conditions may be very similar to the pre-solar days of the Milky Way. The Large Magellanic Cloud is an ideal laboratory for such an experiment, since its chemistry mimics a pre-solar environment. Astronomers are using the Hubble images of these planetary nebulae, together with spectroscopic information from ground-based observatories, to understand the important carbon-forming mechanisms in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The progenitor stars are expected to form some carbon and lock it deep in their interiors near the end of their lives. In the last few thousand years of their active lives, just before ejecting planetary nebulae, stars are able to dredge up the carbon locked deep in their cores. They undergo a phase as 'carbon stars,' then fling the carbon-rich gas into space as they form planetary nebulae, material for new generations of stars and planets. The Hubble images were taken between June and September 1999. Credits for the Hubble images: NASA; L. Stanghellini, R. Shaw, C. Blades, and M. Mutchler, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.; an

2002-01-01

296

Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was approximately 25,000 pounds. In principle, it is no different than the reflecting telescopes in ground-based astronomical observatories. Like ground-based telescopes, the HST was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of using a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic allows the HST to be used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs of an international user community. The telescope s planned useful operational lifetime is 15 years, during which it will make observations in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. The extended operational life of the HST is possible by using the capabilities of the Space Transportation System to periodically visit the HST on-orbit to replace failed or degraded components, install instruments with improved capabilities, re-boost the HST to higher altitudes compensating for gravitational effects, and to bring the HST back to Earth when the mission is terminated. The largest ground-based observatories, such as the 200-inch aperture Hale telescope at Palomar Mountain, California, can recognize detail in individual galaxies several billion light years away. However, like all earthbound devices, the Hale telescope is limited because of the blurring effect of the Earth s atmosphere. Further, the wavelength region observable from the Earth s surface is limited by the atmosphere to the visible part of the spectrum. The very important ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is lost. The HST uses a 2.4-meter reflective optics system designed to capture data over a wavelength region that reaches far into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.

1993-01-01

297

Jeremiah Horrocks, astronomer and poet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will consider the work of Jeremiah Horrocks, the first astronomer to observe the transit of Venus, with reference to his book on the subject (Venus in sole visa). It also explores a New Zealand connection. The paper focuses on Horrocks's interest in writing poetry, the relationship between his poetry and his astronomical work, and what this can tell

R Horrocks

2012-01-01

298

Hubble Observes the Planet Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings and bright clouds and a high altitude haze above the planet's south pole.

Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, none of these inner satellites has been further observed, and detailed observations of the rings have not been possible.

Though Uranus' rings were discovered indirectly in 1977 (through stellar occultation observations), they have never before been seen in visible light through a ground-based telescope.

Hubble resolves several of Uranus' rings, including the outermost Epsilon ring. The planet has a total of 11 concentric rings of dark dust. Uranus is tipped such that its rotation axis lies in the plane of its orbit, so the rings appear nearly face-on.

Three of Uranus' inner moons each appear as a string of three dots at the bottom of the picture. This is because the picture is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart, and then combined to show the moons' orbital motions. The satellites are, from left to right, Cressida, Juliet, and Portia. The moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon does as it moves around the Earth, so they noticeably change position over only a few minutes.

One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does resolve a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus's atmosphere, which should be unusual given the planet's large tilt.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1994-01-01

299

Really Bad Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What happens when even Percival Lowell stops believing in your Mars observations? History can be troubling. This I learned while editing the Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (Springer, 2007). There have been astronomers who do not fit our commonly held, and clung to, conceptual model: a sociological system that sifts out generally like-minded and sensible colleagues. I refer to those individuals who (for at least a time) successfully entered the mainstream profession, but now disturb our worldview that says prosperity as a scientist usually is achieved by a rational being holding certain common values. My List of Shame includes examples from each of the last four centuries. Not "crack pot” cosmologists, these were hard-working observers for whom the end justified the means. And they all got away with it. Each person I discuss was vetted by the professional establishment of the day. Yet you will learn how to be fired from a major observatory, banned from prominent journals. But only after damage to the science is done. Be afraid.

Hockey, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

300

Professional Ethics for Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

Marvel, K. B.

2005-05-01

301

Visualizing Astronomical Data with Blender  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical data take on a multitude of forms - catalogs, data cubes, images, and simulations. The availability of software for rendering high-quality three-dimensional graphics lends itself to the paradigm of exploring the incredible parameter space afforded by the astronomical sciences. The software program Blender gives astronomers a useful tool for displaying data in a manner used by three-dimensional (3D) graphics specialists and animators. The interface to this popular software package is introduced with attention to features of interest in astronomy. An overview of the steps for generating models, textures, animations, camera work, and renders is outlined. An introduction is presented on the methodology for producing animations and graphics with a variety of astronomical data. Examples from subfields of astronomy with different kinds of data are shown with resources provided to members of the astronomical community. An example video showcasing the outlined principles and features is provided along with scripts and files for sample visualizations.

Kent, Brian R.

2013-06-01

302

Thomas Kuhn's Influence on Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An e-mail survey of two samples of the world's astronomers was conducted in order to determine the familiarity of the astronomical community with the work of Thomas Kuhn. As anticipated, only a minority of a representative sample of the astronomical community had more than a vague familiarity with Kuhn and his work. An unanticipated result of this investigation was the extent and type of influence of Kuhn on the research and teaching lives of the minority of astronomers who were familiar with his work. The depth and thoughtfulness of the responses indicated that for some astronomers at least, Kuhn's thought resonated well with their picture of how science is done and provided some useful perspectives on their scientific careers. These responses may be of value in encouraging scientists to become more familiar with the history and philosophy of science.

Shipman, Harry L.

303

Light Dragging, the Origin of Hubble's Constant  

E-print Network

Recently E. Harrison has argued the Red Shift distance law proposed by Hubble and velocity-distance law developed later on theoretical grounds has no general proof demonstrating the two laws are actually equivalent. It is the purpose of this paper to account for the nebular redshift law of Hubble based on two principles: 1) Spacetime motion and light dragging. 2) An overall spacetime index of refraction based on Hubble's Constant.

Walter J. Christensen Jr

2008-10-07

304

The Meaning of Color in Hubble Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes how Hubble produces visible images. Taking color pictures with the Hubble Space Telescope is much more complex than taking color pictures with a traditional camera. For one thing, Hubble doesn't use color film in fact, it doesn't use film at all. Rather, its cameras record light from the universe with special electronic detectors. These detectors produce images of the cosmos not in color, but in shades of black and white.

2007-12-12

305

Cosmological influence of super-Hubble perturbations  

E-print Network

The existence of cosmological perturbations of wavelength larger than the Hubble radius is a generic prediction of the inflationary paradigm. We provide the derivation beyond perturbation theory of a conserved quantity which generalizes the linear comoving curvature perturbation. As a by-product, we show that super-Hubble-radius (super-Hubble) perturbations have no physical influence on local observables e.g., the local expansion rate) if cosmological perturbations are of the adiabatic type.

Edward W. Kolb; Sabino Matarrese; Alessio Notari; Antonio Riotto

2005-09-10

306

Star Witness News: Hubble’s Picture Book of the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news story celebrates the 15th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. Information about the top ten discoveries made by Hubble is included. This selection was written in conjunction with the HubbleSite press release: Hubble Celebrates 15th Anniversary with Spectacular New Images. The article is from the Amazing Space science newspaper, The Star Witness, which can be used as a science content reading.

307

Astronomy without astronomers?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy in Romania has an old tradition. After half a century of privations and isolation from the rest of the world, we believed that the changes undergone by our country in 1989 (and by the neighbour countries, as well) will be benefit for the Romanian astronomy, too. Indeed, it was, but for a very short period. The young people left the country, one by one, and others cannot accept the low salary offered by a research institute. The economy doesn't allow us to enrich the astronomical endowment. Of course, we cannot close the observatories. We have to find other ways to save the astronomy in this part of Europe, especially in the epoch of the space astronomy.

Stavinschi, Magdalena

308

Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

2009-01-01

309

Hubble Space Telescope Science Metrics  

E-print Network

Since its launch in April 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has produced an increasing flow of scientific results. The large number of refereed publications based on HST data allows a detailed evaluation of the effectiveness of this observatory and of its scientific programs. This paper presents the results of selected science metrics related to paper counts, citation counts, citation history, high-impact papers, and the most productive programs and most cited papers, through the end of 2003. All these indicators point towards the high-quality scientific impact of HST.

Georges Meylan; Juan P. Madrid; Duccio Macchetto

2004-06-29

310

Friedmann equation and Hubble condition  

E-print Network

The note presents results on the solutions of the Friedmann equation, which satisfy the Hubble condition, where the radiation term is taken into account. For these solutions the equation $\\sigma=\\sigma_{cr}$, where $\\sigma$ is the radiation invariant of the Friedmann equation and $\\sigma_{cr}$ the "critical radiation parameter", introduced in [5], is an analytic relation between the matter density and the radiation density at the present time and the cosmological constant which can be represented by two function branches, expressing the cosmological constant as unique functions of the matter and radiation density. These functions are the "frontier lines" between regions of constant type.

Hellmut Baumgaertel

2014-05-02

311

HUBBLE OBSERVES THE PLANET URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings and bright clouds and a high altitude haze above the planet's south pole. Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, none of these inner satellites has been further observed, and detailed observations of the rings have not been possible. Though Uranus' rings were discovered indirectly in 1977 (through stellar occultation observations), they have never before been seen in visible light through a ground-based telescope. Hubble resolves several of Uranus' rings, including the outermost Epsilon ring. The planet has a total of 11 concentric rings of dark dust. Uranus is tipped such that its rotation axis lies in the plane of its orbit, so the rings appear nearly face-on. Three of Uranus' inner moons each appear as a string of three dots at the bottom of the picture. This is because the picture is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart, and then combined to show the moons' orbital motions. The satellites are, from left to right, Cressida, Juliet, and Portia. The moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon does as it moves around the Earth, so they noticeably change position over only a few minutes. One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does resolve a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus's atmosphere, which should be unusual given the planet's large tilt. Credit: Kenneth Seidelmann, U.S. Naval Observatory, and NASA These observations were conducted by a team led by Dr. Ken Seidelmann of the U.S. Naval Observatory as Principal Investigator. These images have been processed by Professor Douglas Currie and Mr. Dan Dowling in the Department of Physics at the University of Maryland. Other team members are Dr. Ben Zellner at Georgia Southern University, Dr. Dan Pascu and Mr. Jim Rhode at the U.S. Naval Observatory, and Dr. Ed Wells, Mr. Charles Kowal (Computer Science Corporation) and Dr. Alex Storrs of the Space Telescope Science Institute.

2002-01-01

312

HUBBLE PROBES THE VIOLENT BIRTH OF STARS IN GALAXY NGC 253 [Left  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image of the spiral galaxy NGC 253, taken with a ground-based telescope. The galaxy is located about 8 million light-years away in the constellation Sculptor. Credit: Jay Gallagher (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Alan Watson (Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ), and NASA [Right] This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the core of the nearest starburst spiral galaxy, NGC 253, reveals violent star formation within a region 1,000 light-years across. A starburst galaxy has an exceptionally high rate of star birth, first identified by its excess of infrared radiation from warm dust. Hubble's high resolution allows astronomers to quantify complex structures in the starburst core of the galaxy for the first time, including luminous star clusters, dust lanes which trace regions of dense gas and filaments of glowing gas. Hubble identifies several regions of intense star formation, which include a bright, super-compact star cluster. These observations confirm that stars are often born in dense clusters within starbursts, and that dense gas coexists with and obscures the starburst core. This image was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (in PC mode). Credit: Carnegie Institution of Washington

2002-01-01

313

Hubble Spots Northern Hemispheric Clouds on Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time.

Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness).

Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds.

Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost edge). The 'red' image (on the right) is taken at 6,190 Angstroms, and is sensitive to absorption by methane molecules in the planet's atmosphere. The banded structure of Uranus is evident, and the small cloud near the northern limb is now visible.

Scientists are expecting that the discrete clouds and banded structure may become even more pronounced as Uranus continues in its slow pace around the Sun. 'Some parts of Uranus haven't seen the Sun in decades,' says Dr. Hammel, 'and historical records suggest that we may see the development of more banded structure and patchy clouds as the planet's year progresses.'

Some scientists have speculated that the winds of Uranus are not symmetric around the planet's equator, but no clouds were visible to test those theories. The new data will provide the opportunity to measure the northern winds. Hammel and colleagues expect to have results soon.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http:// oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1997-01-01

314

Astronomical education in Armenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First ideas on astronomy pupils in Armenia get at elementary schools. Astronomy as a distinct subject is taught at all secondary schools in the country. Teaching is conducted according to a unified program elaborated jointly by professional astronomers and astronomy teachers. Unfortunately only one hour per week is allotted for teaching astronomy which obviously is not enough workload to hire specialized astronomy teachers at every school and at many schools this subject is tutored by non-specialists. Many schools partly compensate this lack organizing visits to the Byurakan observatory (BAO) for pupils where they also attend short lectures on astronomy. In some schools facultative training is organized faced to the amateurs purposive for deeper learning astronomy. During recent years annual competitions for revealing gifted pupils in astronomy are organized. These competitions have three rounds, namely, in schools, in districts and final one as a rule holds at BAO. The country winners successfully participate and win prestigious prizes in the international astronomical Olympiads as well. At Yerevan State University (YSU) a department for astrophysics was set up in 1946 operating to date. This department trains specialists for a career in astrophysics. Only one or two students graduate from this department yearly at present while in 80s a dozen of specialists were trained every year. BAO serves as the scientific base for the students of YSU as well and a number of staff members from BAO conduct special courses for YSU students. YSU provides Master's degree in astrophysics, and BAO is granting Doctor's (PhD) degree since 70s of last century.

Harutyunian, H. A.

2006-08-01

315

Hubble Witnesses The Final Blaze Of Glory Of Sun-Like Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Telescope Science Institute has released this stunning photograph from the Hubble Space Telescope, the "supersonic exhaust from [planetary] nebula M2-9." This is an example of a "bipolar planetary nebula" and is estimated to be ten times the diameter of Pluto's orbit. This picture, along with others, contributes to astronomers' understanding of the complex processes that can result from the death throes of Sun-like stars. The site contains the M2-9 photo in several resolutions and formats, an explanatory caption, a photo gallery of other planetary nebulas, a QuickTime movie illustrating the process, and other explanatory material.

1997-01-01

316

Annotations of a Public Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angelo Adamo is an Italian astronomer and artist interested in inspiring people with scientifically-based tales. He has recently published two illustrated books exploring the relationships between mankind and cosmos through physics, art, literature, music, cartoons, and movies.

Adamo, A.

2011-06-01

317

Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

318

Astronomical databases of Nikolaev Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several astronomical databases were created at Nikolaev Observatory during the last years. The databases are built by using MySQL search engine and PHP scripts. They are available on NAO web-site http://www.mao.nikolaev.ua.

Protsyuk, Y.; Mazhaev, A.

2008-07-01

319

Hubble 2008: Science Year in Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubbles remarkable mission has now spanned 18 years. During that time, it has been at the nexus of perhaps the most exciting period of discovery in the history of astronomy. Simultaneously, Hubble has offered up some of the most daunting engineering challenges to humans working in space, and success in meeting those challenges has been among NASAs greatest triumphs.

2009-01-01

320

Interactive Astronomical Data Analysis Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the Interactive Astronomical Data Analysis Facility (IADAF) which performs interactive analysis of astronomical data for resident and visiting scientists. The facilities include a Grant measuring engine, a PDS 1010A microdensitometer, a COMTAL image display system and a PDP 11/40 computer system. Both hardware and software systems are examined, including a description of thirteen overlay programs. Some uses of the IADAF are indicated.

Klinglesmith, D. A., III

1980-01-01

321

T H E D E PART M E N T O F PH Y S I C S AT T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F I L L I N O I S AT U R B A N A -C H A M PA I G N 2 0 0 8 N U M B E R 1 On March 6, 2008, the  

E-print Network

, and family and friends of John Bardeen at a special unveiling ceremony for the 2008 U.S. postage stamp, and astronomer Edwin Hubble.) "We are absolutely delighted to see John Bardeen remembered in this way," said this remarkable intellectual achievement by its own John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and J. Robert Schrieffer (PhD '57

Gilbert, Matthew

322

InsideIllinoisMarch 6, 2008 Vol. 27, No. 15  

E-print Network

-time Nobel Prize-winner John Bardeen will be unveiled at a ceremony on campus March 6. The UI physics depart John Bardeen re- membered in this way," said Dale J. Van Harlingen, the head of the physics department and astronomer Edwin Hubble.) "John Bardeen was one of the greatest scien- tists of the 20th century," said Nick

Lewis, Jennifer

323

Slipher, Vesto Melvin (1875-1969)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer, born in Mulberry, IN, became director at the Lowell Observatory. He used spectroscopy to determine the rotation periods of several planets, and identified the constituents of their atmospheres. He recorded the first radial velocities of galaxies. The exposure times for these early photographs were as long as a week. The data were extended by EDWIN HUBBLE to discover the expansion of t...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

324

XEphem: Interactive Astronomical Ephemeris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XEphem is a scientific-grade interactive astronomical ephemeris package for UNIX-like systems. Written in C, X11 and Motif, it is easily ported to systems. Among other things, XEphem: computes heliocentric, geocentric and topocentric information for all objects; has built-in support for all planets; the moons of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Earth; central meridian longitude of Mars and Jupiter; Saturn's rings; and Jupiter's Great Red Spot; allows user-defined objects including stars, deepsky objects, asteroids, comets and Earth satellites; provides special efficient handling of large catalogs including Tycho, Hipparcos, GSC; displays data in configurable tabular formats in conjunction with several interactive graphical views; displays a night-at-a-glance 24 hour graphic showing when any selected objects are up; displays 3-D stereo Solar System views that are particularly well suited for visualizing comet trajectories; quickly finds all close pairs of objects in the sky; and sorts and prints all catalogs with very flexible criteria for creating custom observing lists. Its capabilities are listed more fully in the user manual introduction.

Downey, Elwood Charles

2011-12-01

325

Sümeyra Tosun: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.  

PubMed

The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2014 recipient is Sümeyra Tosun. Tosun was chosen for "an outstanding research paper that examines the cognitive repercussions of obligatory versus optional marking of evidentiality, the linguistic coding of the source of information. In English, evidentiality is conveyed in the lexicon through the use of adverbs. In Turkish, evidentiality is coded in the grammar. In two experiments, it was found that English speakers were equally good at remembering and monitoring the source of firsthand information and the source of non-firsthand information. Turkish speakers were worse at remembering and monitoring non-firsthand information than firsthand information and were worse than English speakers at remembering and monitoring non-firsthand information." Tosun's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486159

2014-11-01

326

Hubble Space Telescope Berthed in Columbia's Cargo Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a photo of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST),in its origianl configuration, berthed in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-109 mission silhouetted against the airglow of the Earth's horizon. The telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm, where 4 of the 7-member crew performed 5 spacewalks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. Launched March 1, 2002 the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

2002-01-01

327

ISO Results Presented at International Astronomical Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the work being presented is collected in the attached ESA Information Note N 25-97, ISO illuminates our cosmic ancestry. A set of six colour images illustrating various aspects have also been released and are available at http://www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/iso1808.htm or in hard copy from ESA Public Relations Paris (fax:+33.1.5369.7690). These pictures cover: 1. Distant but powerful infrared galaxies 2. A scan across the milky way 3. Helix nebula: the shroud of a dead star 4. Supernova remnant Cassiopeia A 5. Trifid nebula: a dusty birthplace of stars 6. Precursors of stars and planets The International Astronomical Union provides a forum where astronomers from all over the world can develop astronomy in all its aspects through international co-operation. General Assemblies are held every three years. It is expected that over 1600 astronomers will attend this year's meeting, which is being held in Kyoto, Japan from 18-30 August. Further information on the meeting can be found at: www.tenmon.or.jp/iau97/ . ISO illuminates our cosmic ancestry The European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, is unmatched in its ability to explore and analyse many of the universal processes that made our existence possible. We are children of the stars. Every atom in our bodies was created in cosmic space and delivered to the Sun's vicinity in time for the Earth's formation, during a ceaseless cycle of birth, death and rebirth among the stars. The most creative places in the sky are cool and dusty, and opaque even to the Hubble Space Telescope. Infrared rays penetrating the dust reveal to ISO hidden objects, and the atoms and molecules of cosmic chemistry. "ISO is reading Nature's recipe book," says Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "As the world's only telescope capable of observing the Universe over a wide range of infrared wavelengths, ISO plays an indispensable part in astronomical discoveries that help to explain how we came to exist." This Information Note describes several stages in our cosmic ancestry, revealed when ISO examines their counterparts still observable today. The evolving galaxies In the beginning was hydrogen, mixed with helium and minute traces of other light atoms. These were the atomic products of the Big Bang, the hypothetical cataclysm that created the Universe more than 10 billion years ago. The primeval gas was very dull. Nature could not make dust from it, never mind a living creature. But gravity gathered the hydrogen and helium into stars, and by nuclear reactions the stars glowed. As the first stars aged, the reactions made novel chemical elements like carbon, oxygen and silicon. Expelled into the stars' surroundings, these materials reacted with one another and with hydrogen to make the icy, tarry and stony grains of cosmic dust. The vast assemblies of stars called galaxies became crucibles where Nature could use physics and chemistry to make new materials and new stars. Rays from the most distant galaxies have taken so many billions of years to reach us that we see them as they were when they were young. The farthest galaxy observed so far by ISO is a quasar called BR 1202-0225, dating from a time when the Universe was less than one-tenth of its present age. Already it is dusty. ISO has also observed many galaxies at about half the age of the Universe, by staring long and hard through a window in the dust of our own Milky Way Galaxy, called the Lockman Hole. In those that glow most brightly in the infrared, astronomers suspect that frantic star-making is in progress, in episodes called starbursts. In nearer galaxies, ISO's astronomers can relate strong infrared emissions to collisions and to violent eruptions in the galactic cores, which have punctuated the evolution of the galaxies. "Having ISO in space brings special opportunities for the study of the history of the galaxies," says the Japanese astronomer Yoshiaki Taniguchi of Tohoku University. "By detecting infrared wavelengths that are hard to observe from the Earth, ISO picks out very clearly th

1997-08-01

328

Hubble Space Telescope-The Support Systems Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This illustration depicts the design features of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Support Systems Module (SSM). The SSM is one of the three major elements of the HST and encloses the other two elements, the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) and the Scientific Instruments (SI's). The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The spacecraft is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). Two communication anternas, two solar array panels that collect energy for the HST, and storage bays for electronic gear are on the outside. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

1980-01-01

329

Hubble Gallery of Jupiter's Galilean Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of the four largest moons of Jupiter, first observed by the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei nearly four centuries ago. Located approximately one-half billion miles away, the moons are so small that, in visible light, they appear as fuzzy disks in the largest ground-based telescopes. Hubble can resolve surface details seen previously only by the Voyager spacecraft in the early 1980s. While the Voyagers provided close-up snapshots of the satellites, Hubble can now follow changes on the moons and reveal other characteristics at ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths.

Over the past year Hubble has charted new volcanic activity on Io's active surface, found a faint oxygen atmosphere on the moon Europa, and identified ozone on the surface of Ganymede. Hubble ultraviolet observations of Callisto show the presence of fresh ice on the surface that may indicate impacts from micrometeorites and charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere.

Hubble observations will play a complementary role when the Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter in December of this year.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

330

HUBBLE PROBES THE COMPLEX HISTORY OF A DYING STAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The dynamical effects of two stars orbiting one another most easily explains the intricate structures, which are much more complicated than features seen in most planetary nebulae. (The two stars are too close together to be individually resolved by Hubble, and instead, appear as a single point of light at the center of the nebula.) According to this model, a fast 'stellar wind' of gas blown off the central star created the elongated shell of dense, glowing gas. This structure is embedded inside two larger lobes of gas blown off the star at an earlier phase. These lobes are 'pinched' by a ring of denser gas, presumably ejected along the orbital plane of the binary companion. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light-years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life. This material was presented at the 185th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Tucson, AZ on January 11, 1995. Credit: J.P. Harrington and K.J. Borkowski (University of Maryland), and NASA

2002-01-01

331

HUBBLE IDENTIFIES SOURCE OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT IN AN OLD GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble Space Telescope's exquisite resolution has allowed astronomers to resolve, for the first time, hot blue stars deep inside an elliptical galaxy. The swarm of nearly 8,000 blue stars resembles a blizzard of snowflakes near the core (lower right) of the neighboring galaxy M32, located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. Hubble confirms that the ultraviolet light comes from a population of extremely hot helium-burning stars at a late stage in their lives. Unlike the Sun, which burns hydrogen into helium, these old stars exhausted their central hydrogen long ago, and now burn helium into heavier elements. The observations, taken in October 1998, were made with the camera mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in ultraviolet light. The STIS field of view is only a small portion of the entire galaxy, which is 20 times wider on the sky. For reference, the full moon is 70 times wider than the STIS field-of-view. The bright center of the galaxy was placed on the right side of the image, allowing fainter stars to be seen on the left side of the image. These results are to be published in the March 1, 2000 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Thirty years ago, the first ultraviolet observations of elliptical galaxies showed that they were surprisingly bright when viewed in ultraviolet light. Before those pioneering UV observations, old groups of stars were assumed to be relatively cool and thus extremely faint in the ultraviolet. Over the years since the initial discovery of this unexpected ultraviolet light, indirect evidence has accumulated that it originates in a population of old, but hot, helium-burning stars. Now Hubble provides the first direct visual evidence. Nearby elliptical galaxies are thought to be relatively simple galaxies comprised of old stars. Because they are among the brightest objects in the Universe, this simplicity makes them useful for tracing the evolution of stars and galaxies. Credits: NASA and Thomas M. Brown, Charles W. Bowers, Randy A. Kimble, Allen V. Sweigart (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) and Henry C. Ferguson (Space Telescope Science Institute).

2002-01-01

332

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing begins.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The day's work began when astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman stepped out into the cargo bay at 9h41 pm CST, Saturday (4h41 am CET, Sunday). They immediately set to work replacing two gyroscope assemblies, known as the Rate Sensor Units, two associated electronics boxes, called Electronic Control Units, and eight electrical fuse plugs. The work was completed ahead of schedule, but the astronauts had trouble closing the doors of the compartment housing the gyros and took over an hour to get them shut. The astronauts also prepared equipment for the replacement of the solar arrays. "The feeling down here is one of great satisfaction for a tremendous job today" said spacecraft communicator Greg Harbaugh in mission control. "We are very proud of the work that you all did and we are very confident in the continued success of the mission. Everything is going great and tomorrow is going to be another great day". ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier played a vital role during the spacewalk moving the astronauts and their equipment around the cargo bay with the shuttle's robot arm. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission features more robot arm operations than any other shuttle flight. The telescope's left-hand solar array was rolled up successfully at 6h24 am CST (1h24 pm CET). The 11-tonne observatory was rotated 180 degrees on its turntable before commands were sent to retract the second array at 8h23 am CST (3h23 pm CET). The crew stopped the retraction when it appeared the system may have jammed. Mission control instructed the crew to jettison the array, a procedure that they have trained for. Tomorrow astronauts Kathy Thornton and Tom Akers will make a six-hour spacewalk to jettison the troublesome wing, store the other in the cargo bay, and install two new panels supplied by ESA. The second set of arrays feature thermal shields and a modified thermal compensation system to prevent the flexing that affected the first pair. The Hubble Space Telescope was plucked from orbit this Saturday by ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier, operating the shuttle's robot arm. The Swiss-born astronaut gripped the 11- tonne observatory with the shuttle's 15-metre long robot arm at 2h34 am CST (9h34 am CET) after a two-day chase through space as the two spacecraft flew over the South Pacific Ocean. "Endeavour has a firm handshake with Mr. Hubble's telescope" said mission commander Dick Covey. "It's quite a sight". About half an hour later Nicollier had the telescope berthed on a special turntable in the back of the Shuttle's cargo bay. Later he used the camera at the end of the arm to surveyed the telescope for any damage. As the shuttle approached the telescope the astronauts first reported that one of the twin solar arrays appeared to be bowed and twisted. ESA officials said the problem was caused by the failure in early 1992 of the tensioning system on one side of the right-hand array. The system is designed to allow the blanket-like array to expand and contract in orbit. That failure placed stress on one of the supporting bi-stem booms resulting in its bent condition. Endeavour's mission began Thursday 2 December and will end 13 December. A total of five spacewalks are planned to service the telescope.

1993-12-01

333

THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY  

SciTech Connect

The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury program to image {approx}1/3 of M31's star-forming disk in six filters, spanning from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR). We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) to resolve the galaxy into millions of individual stars with projected radii from 0 to 20 kpc. The full survey will cover a contiguous 0.5 deg{sup 2}area in 828 orbits. Imaging is being obtained in the F275W and F336W filters on the WFC3/UVIS camera, F475W and F814W on ACS/WFC, and F110W and F160W on WFC3/IR. The resulting wavelength coverage gives excellent constraints on stellar temperature, bolometric luminosity, and extinction for most spectral types. The data produce photometry with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4 at m{sub F275W} = 25.1, m{sub F336W} = 24.9, m{sub F475W} = 27.9, m{sub F814W} = 27.1, m{sub F110W} = 25.5, and m{sub F160W} = 24.6 for single pointings in the uncrowded outer disk; in the inner disk, however, the optical and NIR data are crowding limited, and the deepest reliable magnitudes are up to 5 mag brighter. Observations are carried out in two orbits per pointing, split between WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR cameras in primary mode, with ACS/WFC run in parallel. All pointings are dithered to produce Nyquist-sampled images in F475W, F814W, and F160W. We describe the observing strategy, photometry, astrometry, and data products available for the survey, along with extensive testing of photometric stability, crowding errors, spatially dependent photometric biases, and telescope pointing control. We also report on initial fits to the structure of M31's disk, derived from the density of red giant branch stars, in a way that is independent of assumed mass-to-light ratios and is robust to variations in dust extinction. These fits also show that the 10 kpc ring is not just a region of enhanced recent star formation, but is instead a dynamical structure containing a significant overdensity of stars with ages >1 Gyr.

Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosenfield, Philip; Weisz, Daniel R.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Gogarten, Stephanie M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lang, Dustin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lauer, Tod R.; Dong Hui [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Kalirai, Jason S.; Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dorman, Claire E.; Guhathakurta, Puragra [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

2012-06-01

334

THE ORIGIN OF THE HUBBLE SEQUENCE Richard B. Larson  

E-print Network

THE ORIGIN OF THE HUBBLE SEQUENCE Richard B. Larson Yale Astronomy Department Box 6666 New Haven that are relevant to understanding the origin of the Hubble sequence. The variation along the Hubble sequence, or of order and chaos, in their properties. Hubble looked for the order among their properties, and noted

Larson, Richard B.

335

Planets in a Sandbox: Hubble's Renaissance of Debris  

E-print Network

Planets in a Sandbox: Hubble's Renaissance of Debris Disk Imaging Paul Kalas Taken from: Hubble Institute. The full contents of this book include more Hubble science articles, an overview of the telescope, and more. The com- plete volume and its component sections are available for download online at: www.hubblesite.org/hubble

Kalas, Paul G.

336

The Astronomical Photographic Data Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomical Photographic Data Center (APDC) has been established at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). The mission of the Center is to help preserve astronomical photographic data, first by serving as a long-term repository for plates and films and eventually by making this material available electronically through the internet. Over 35,000 plates have been archived at the center in its three years of existence. The largest collections are CTIO 4-m plates, CTIO and Warner and Swasey direct and objective prism Schmidt plates, and University of Michigan spectra. Preliminary catalogues of the plates are available on line. The APDC will employ archiving methods compatible with the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics' plate scanning project and suitable for use by the National Virtual Observatory. These include high-resolution digitization of the photographs and the associated plate envelope and observing log information.

Cline, J. Donald; Castelaz, M. W.; Barker, T.; Griffin, R. E.; Osborn, W.

2007-12-01

337

Engaging Students through Astronomically Inspired Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a lesson outline in which astronomically inspired musical compositions are used to teach astronomical concepts via an introductory activity, close listening, and critical/creative reflection.

Whitehouse, M.

2011-09-01

338

Satellite Drag and the Hubble Space Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a figure showing four re-entry scenarios for the Hubble Space Telescope. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

339

Hubble 2007: Science Year in Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This book epitomizes Hubbles continuing years of glorious accomplishments, presenting a sample of the activities, operations and observations, and scientific findings from 2007. Here is our observatory. Here are a few of our talented people. Here is what we have done. NASA plans a final servicing mission to Hubble in 2008. Two powerful new instruments are to be installed, and repairs made. After the astronauts do their wonderful work, Hubble will be more capable than at any time since launch. The science community eagerly anticipates the new opportunities for research offered by a refurbished observatory. While we do not know exactly what new science stories will appear in future editions of this book, we are certain that the frontiers of science will continue to be pushed outward by the forces of human curiosity and cleverness, channeled by the Hubble Space Telescope.

2008-01-01

340

Hubble Finds Many Bright Clouds on Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent Hubble Space Telescope view reveals Uranus surrounded by its four major rings and by 10 of its 17 known satellites. This false-color image was generated by Erich Karkoschka using data taken on August 8, 1998, with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer. Hubble recently found about 20 clouds - nearly as many clouds on Uranus as the previous total in the history of modern observations.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1998-01-01

341

Hubble’s 25th Anniversary: A Quarter-Century of Discovery and Inspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

April 24, 2015 marks the 25th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. In its quarter-century in orbit, the Hubble Space Telescope has transformed the way we understand the Universe, helped us find our place among the stars, and paved the way to incredible advancements in science and technology. NASA and ESA, including STScI and partners, will use the 25th anniversary of Hubble's launch as a unique opportunity to communicate to the widest possible audience the significance of the past quarter-century of discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope and to highlight that Hubble will continue to produce groundbreaking science results. We will enhance public understanding of Hubble's many contributions to the scientific world, and will capitalize on Hubble's cultural popularity by emphasizing its' successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. This poster highlights many of the upcoming opportunities to join in the anniversary activities, both in-person and online. Find out more at hubble25th.org and follow #Hubble25 on social media.

Straughn, Amber; Jirdeh, Hussein

2015-01-01

342

Astronomical Archive at Tartu Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archiving astronomical data is important task not only at large observatories but also at small observatories. Here we describe the astronomical archive at Tartu Observatory. The archive consists of old photographic plate images, photographic spectrograms, CCD direct--images and CCD spectroscopic data. The photographic plate digitizing project was started in 2005. An on-line database (based on MySQL) was created. The database includes CCD data as well photographic data. A PHP-MySQL interface was written for access to all data.

Annuk, K.

2007-10-01

343

Astronomical Heritage in the National Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book contains Proceedings of the Archaeoastronomical Meeting "Astronomical Heritage in the National Culture" Dedicated to Anania Shirakatsi's 1400th Anniversary and XI Annual Meeting of the Armenian Astronomical Society. It consists of 3 main sections: "Astronomical Heritage", "Anania Shirakatsi" and "Modern Astronomy", as well as Literature about Anania Shirakatsi is included. The book may be interesting for astronomers, historians, archaeologists, linguists, students and other readers.

Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Parsamian, E. S.

2014-10-01

344

Endeavour returns from Hubble servicing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the hour-long descent from space ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier helped mission commander Dick Covey and pilot Ken Bowersox monitor the shuttle's cockpit displays. During their 11-day mission the astronauts fitted the telescope with corrective optics and a new set of European solar panels. If all goes according to plan the observatory will be restored to very nearly its original capability. The first images from the rejuvenated telescope should be released in about 6-8 weeks. ESA had a major role in this mission. In addition to providing the solar arrays, the European Space Agency helped NASA test the Costar corrective optics system. ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier operated the shuttle's robot arm throughout the complex spacewalks to service the telescope and during the crucial capture and release phases. "This was a particularly important international mission from the standpoint of our Swiss and European Space Agency crew member Claude Nicollier, who played an incredibly important part in the repair of the Hubble Space Telescope", mission commander Dick told Swiss Minister of Internal Affairs Mrs Ruth Dreifuss, during a VIP telephone call on Sunday morning. "If there was an unsung hero of this mission it would be Claude and his arm because without them we could not have worked the way we did and been as successful as we were".

1993-12-01

345

Old Star's "Rebirth" Gives Astronomers Surprises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising results have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the outburst of Sakurai's Object is the first such blast seen in modern times. Stellar outbursts observed in 1670 and 1918 may have been caused by the same phenomenon. Astronomers expect the Sun to become a white dwarf in about five billion years. A white dwarf is a dense core left after a star's normal, fusion-powered life has ended. A teaspoon of white dwarf material would weigh about 10 tons. White dwarfs can have masses up to 1.4 times that of the Sun; larger stars collapse at the end of their lives into even-denser neutron stars or black holes. Computer simulations indicated that heat-spurred convection (or "boiling") would bring hydrogen from the star's outer envelope down into the helium shell, driving a brief flash of new nuclear fusion. This would cause a sudden increase in brightness. The original computer models suggested a sequence of observable events that would occur over a few hundred years. "Sakurai's object went through the first phases of this sequence in just a few years -- 100 times faster than we expected -- so we had to revise our models," Zijlstra said. The revised models predicted that the star should rapidly reheat and begin to ionize gases in its surrounding region. "This is what we now see in our latest VLA observations," Zijlstra said. "It's important to understand this process. Sakurai's Object has ejected a large amount of the carbon from its inner core into space, both in the form of gas and dust grains. These will find their way into regions of space where new stars form, and the dust grains may become incorporated in new planets. Some carbon grains found in a meteorite show isotope ratios identical to those found in Sakurai's Object, and we think they may have come from such an event. Our results suggest this source for cosmic carbon may be far more important than we suspected before," Zijlstra added. The scientists continue to observe Sakurai's Object to take advantage of the rare opportunity to learn about the process of re-ignition. They are making new VLA observations just

2005-04-01

346

Life as an Astronomer: 1. What do Astronomers Study?  

E-print Network

Stuff" (Interstellar Medium) z Galaxies z AGN/Quasars z Clusters z Universe #12;2 Life as an Astronomer" (Interstellar Medium) yStar formation & Protostars yChemistry yStructure, Phase, and evolution #12;5 Life-expense paid travel to exotic locations no or poor health and retirement benefits Support: Teaching or Research

Groppi, Christopher

347

Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). "When we understand this system, we will have a much clearer picture of how galaxies are changed by being part of a bigger cluster of galaxies," he added. B1359+154 was discovered in 1999 by the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey, an international collaboration of astronomers who use radio telescopes to search the sky for gravitational lenses. Images made by the NSF's Very Large Array in New Mexico and by Britain's MERLIN radio telescope showed six objects suspected of being gravitational-lens images, but the results were inconclusive. Rusin and his team used the VLBA and HST in 1999 and 2000 to make more-detailed studies of B1359+154. The combination of data from the VLBA and HST convinced the astronomers that B1359+154 actually consists of six lensed images of a single background galaxy. The VLBA images were made from data collected during observations at a radio frequency of 1.7 GHz. "This is a great example of modern, multi-wavelength astronomy," said Rusin. "We need the radio telescopes to detect the gravitational lenses in the first place, then we need the visible-light information from Hubble to show us additional detail about the structure of the system." Armed with the combined VLBA and HST data about the positions and brightnesses of the six images of the background galaxy as well as the positions of the three intermediate galaxies, the astronomers did computer simulations to show how the gravitation of the three galaxies could produce the lens effect. They were able to design a computer model of the system that, in fact, produces the six images seen in B1359+154. "Our computer model certainly is not perfect, and we need to do more observations of this system to refine it, but we have clearly demonstrated that the three galaxies we see can produce a six-image lens system," said Martin Norbury, a graduate student at Jodrell Bank Observatory in Britain. "We think this work will give us an excellent tool for studying much-denser clusters of gala

2001-08-01

348

23Satellite Drag and the Hubble Space Telescope The Hubble Space Telescope was never designed to operate forever. What  

E-print Network

23Satellite Drag and the Hubble Space Telescope The Hubble Space Telescope was never designed. The answer should be about 50 weeks. "NASA's 23-year-old Hubble Space Telescope is still going strong out, potentially for another six years at least. After its final overhaul in 2009, the Hubble

349

HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost edge). The 'red' image (on the right) is taken at 6,190 Angstroms, and is sensitive to absorption by methane molecules in the planet's atmosphere. The banded structure of Uranus is evident, and the small cloud near the northern limb is now visible. Scientists are expecting that the discrete clouds and banded structure may become even more pronounced as Uranus continues in its slow pace around the Sun. 'Some parts of Uranus haven't seen the Sun in decades,' says Dr. Hammel, 'and historical records suggest that we may see the development of more banded structure and patchy clouds as the planet's year progresses.' Some scientists have speculated that the winds of Uranus are not symmetric around the planet's equator, but no clouds were visible to test those theories. The new data will provide the opportunity to measure the northern winds. Hammel and colleagues expect to have results soon. Credits: Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and NASA.

2002-01-01

350

Astronomical dating in the 19th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective.Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was

Frederik J. Hilgen

2010-01-01

351

High-Redshift Supernovae in the Hubble Deep Field  

SciTech Connect

Two supernovae detected in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) using the original 1995 December epoch and data from a shorter (63,000 s in F814W) 1997 December visit with {ital HST} are discussed. The supernovae (SNe) are both associated with distinct galaxies at redshifts of 0.95 (spectroscopic) from Cohen et al. and 1.32 (photometric) from the work of Fern{acute a}ndez-Soto, Lanzetta, & Yahil. These redshifts are near, in the case of 0.95, and well beyond, for 1.32, the greatest distance reported previously for SNe. We show that our observations are sensitive to supernovae to z{approx_lt}1.8 in either epoch for an event near peak brightness. Detailed simulations are discussed that quantify the level at which false events from our search phase would start to arise and the completeness of our search as a function of both SN brightness and host galaxy redshift. The number of Type Ia and Type II SNe expected as a function of redshift in the two HDF epochs are discussed in relation to several published predictions and our own detailed calculations. A mean detection frequency of one SN per epoch for the small HDF area is consistent with expectations from current theory. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

Gilliland, R.L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Nugent, P.E. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50-232, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50-232, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Phillips, M.M. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)] [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)

1999-08-01

352

Hubble Identifies What May Be the Most Luminous Star Known  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Telescope Science Institute and National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory contain sites of current interest related to the stars and planets this week. A UCLA-led team using cameras recently installed aboard the Hubble Space Telescope has identified a massive star approximately 25,000 light-years from Earth. Named the "Pistol Star" for the pistol-shaped nebula surrounding it, it is believed to be one of the largest ever discovered, releasing up to ten million times the energy of our sun and spanning the diameter of the Earth's orbit. Astronomers claim that the Pistol Star "unleashes as much energy in six seconds as our sun does in one year." This site offers the official press release and a caption for photos of the star, which are available in five resolutions and three formats (JPEG, GIF, .pdf). The Cassini flight system, containing a launch vehicle and the Huygens probe orbiter which will explore Saturn's moon Titan in the year 2004, is set to launch October 13, 1997. At this JPL site, interested users can follow launch activity. It features a large section explaining the mission, and includes a section on the controversial nuclear safety issues involved. Users can read both the Cassini Final and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statements issued by NASA (in 1995 and 1997 respectively). There is also an image section and a kids page, among other features.

1997-01-01

353

Stereo 3-D Presentation of Hubble Space Telescope Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3-dimensional (3-D) visualizations are a means of adding depth to otherwise 2-dimensional images. For astronomical images, depth is frequently not measured, but relative depth relationships can be inferred. We present a 3-D visualization of a portion of the Carina Nebula imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. The source image is a color composite of two datasets obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. Images in the H?+[N II] filter (F658N) were taken from a 2005 Carina Nebula survey mosaic by Smith et al. (2010, MNRAS, 405, 1153). Images in the [O III] filter (F502N) were obtained by our team in 2010 in parallel to WFC3 observations of the nearby HH 901 region (HST proposal 12050). A 3-D model was constructed from the color composite image by separating it into several planes. Stars and nebular structures were extracted from the image and placed on different planes in 3-D digital modeling software using morphology of nebular features to infer relative depth. Relief texture was added to some of the nebular structures in the model to further enhance the perception of depth. For a static image, frames rendered from the 3-D model at two different viewpoints are composited into a single image in anaglyph (red-blue) stereo that will be shown.

Levay, Zoltan G.; Bacon, G.; Bond, H. E.; Borders, T. M.; Christian, C. A.; Frattare, L. M.; Hamilton, F.; Januszewski, W.; Livio, M.; Mutchler, M.; Noll, K. S.; Summers, F.

2011-01-01

354

Hubble Space Telescope - New view of an ancient universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduled for a March 1990 Shuttle launch, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will give astronomers a tool of unprecedented accuracy to observe the universe: an optically superb instrument free of the atmospheric turbulence, distortion, and brightness that plague all earthbound telescopes. The observatory will carry into orbit two cameras, a pair of spectrographs, a photometer, and fine guidance sensors optimized for astrometry. The diffraction limit for the 2.4-m aperture of the HST corresponds to 90 percent of the radiation from a point source falling within a circle of 0.1 arcsec angular radius at a wavelength of 633 nm. The 15-year mission will make observations in the ultraviolet as well as the optical spectral region, thus, widening the wavelength window to a range extending from the Lyman alpha wavelengnth of 122 nm to just about 2 microns. The observational program that awaits the HST will include the study of planetary atmospheres, in particular the search for aerosols; the study of globular star clusters within the Galaxy; and the determination of the present rate of expansion of the universe. The HST will achieve resolutions of 0.1 arcsec consistently, regardless of observation duration. The HST engineering challenge is also discussed.

Leckrone, David S.; Longair, Malcolm S.; Stockman, Peter; Olivier, Jean R.

1989-01-01

355

HUBBLE UNCOVERS MYSTERY OBJECTS IN THE DENSE CORE OF A NEARBY STAR CLUSTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piercing the heart of a glittering swarm of stars, NASA's sharp-eyed Hubble Space Telescope unveils the central region of the globular cluster M22, a 12- to 14-billion-year-old grouping of stars in the constellation Sagittarius. The telescope's view of the cluster's core measures 3.3 light-years across. The stars near the cluster's core are 100,000 times more numerous than those in the Sun's neighborhood. Buried in the glow of starlight are about six 'mystery objects,' which astronomers estimate are no larger than one quarter the mass of the giant planet Jupiter, the solar system's heftiest planet. The mystery objects are too far and dim for Hubble to see directly. Instead, the orbiting observatory detected these unseen celestial bodies by looking for their gravitational effects on the light from far distant stars. In this case, the stars are far beyond the cluster in the galactic bulge, about 30,000 light-years from Earth at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. M22 is 8,500 light-years away. The invisible objects betrayed their presence by bending the starlight gravitationally and amplifying it, a phenomenon known as microlensing. From February 22 to June 15, 1999, Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 looked through this central region and monitored 83,000 stars. During that time the orbiting observatory recorded six unexpectedly brief microlensing events. In each case a background star jumped in brightness for less than 20 hours before dropping back to normal. These transitory spikes in brightness mean that the object passing in front of the star must have been much smaller than a normal star. Hubble also detected one clear microlensing event. In that observation a star appeared about 10 times brighter over an 18-day span before returning to normal. Astronomers traced the leap in brightness to a dwarf star in the cluster floating in front of the background star. The inset photo shows the entire globular cluster of about 10 million stars. M22 is about 60 light-years wide. The image was taken in June 1995 by the Burrell Schmidt telescope at the Case Western Reserve University's Warner and Swasey Observatory on Kitt Peak in Arizona. This release is issued jointly by NASA and ESA. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, Kailash Sahu, Stefano Casertano, Mario Livio, Ron Gilliland (Space Telescope Science Institute), Nino Panagia (European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute), Michael Albrow and Mike Potter (Space Telescope Science Institute) Credits for ground-based image: Nigel A.Sharp, REU program/AURA/NOAO/NSF

2002-01-01

356

CATALOG MATCHING WITH ASTROMETRIC CORRECTION AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE HUBBLE LEGACY ARCHIVE  

SciTech Connect

Object cross-identification in multiple observations is often complicated by the uncertainties in their astrometric calibration. Due to the lack of standard reference objects, an image with a small field of view can have significantly larger errors in its absolute positioning than the relative precision of the detected sources within. We present a new general solution for the relative astrometry that quickly refines the World Coordinate System of overlapping fields. The efficiency is obtained through the use of infinitesimal three-dimensional rotations on the celestial sphere, which do not involve trigonometric functions. They also enable an analytic solution to an important step in making the astrometric corrections. In cases with many overlapping images, the correct identification of detections that match together across different images is difficult to determine. We describe a new greedy Bayesian approach for selecting the best object matches across a large number of overlapping images. The methods are developed and demonstrated on the Hubble Legacy Archive, one of the most challenging data sets today. We describe a novel catalog compiled from many Hubble Space Telescope observations, where the detections are combined into a searchable collection of matches that link the individual detections. The matches provide descriptions of astronomical objects involving multiple wavelengths and epochs. High relative positional accuracy of objects is achieved across the Hubble images, often sub-pixel precision in the order of just a few milliarcseconds. The result is a reliable set of high-quality associations that are publicly available online.

Budavari, Tamas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lubow, Stephen H., E-mail: budavari@jhu.edu, E-mail: lubow@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-12-20

357

Catalog Matching with Astrometric Correction and its Application to the Hubble Legacy Archive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Object cross-identification in multiple observations is often complicated by the uncertainties in their astrometric calibration. Due to the lack of standard reference objects, an image with a small field of view can have significantly larger errors in its absolute positioning than the relative precision of the detected sources within. We present a new general solution for the relative astrometry that quickly refines the World Coordinate System of overlapping fields. The efficiency is obtained through the use of infinitesimal three-dimensional rotations on the celestial sphere, which do not involve trigonometric functions. They also enable an analytic solution to an important step in making the astrometric corrections. In cases with many overlapping images, the correct identification of detections that match together across different images is difficult to determine. We describe a new greedy Bayesian approach for selecting the best object matches across a large number of overlapping images. The methods are developed and demonstrated on the Hubble Legacy Archive, one of the most challenging data sets today. We describe a novel catalog compiled from many Hubble Space Telescope observations, where the detections are combined into a searchable collection of matches that link the individual detections. The matches provide descriptions of astronomical objects involving multiple wavelengths and epochs. High relative positional accuracy of objects is achieved across the Hubble images, often sub-pixel precision in the order of just a few milliarcseconds. The result is a reliable set of high-quality associations that are publicly available online.

Budavári, Tamás; Lubow, Stephen H.

2012-12-01

358

Hubble gets revitalised in new Servicing Mission for more and better science!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a unique collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA), and NASA, Hubble has had a phenomenal scientific impact. The unsurpassed sharp images from this space observatory have penetrated into the hidden depths of space and revealed breathtaking phenomena. But Hubble's important contributions to science have only been possible through a carefully planned strategy to service and upgrade Hubble every two or three years. ESA, the European Space Agency has a particular role to play in this Servicing Mission. One of the most exciting events of this mission will come when the ESA-built solar panels are replaced by newer and more powerful ones. The new panels, developed in the US, are equipped with ESA developed drive mechanisms and were tested at the facilities at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. This facility is the only place in the world where such tests can be performed. According to Ton Linssen, HST Project Manager at ESA, who supervised all ESA involvement in the new solar panels development including the test campaign at Estec - "a particularly tense moment occurs when the present solar panels have to be rolled up to fit into the Shuttle's cargo bay. The hard environment of space has taken its toll on the panels and it will be a very delicate operation to roll them up. Our team will be waiting and watching with bated breath. If the panels can't be rolled up they will possibly have to be left in space." "With this Servicing Mission Hubble is once again going to be brought back to the frontline of scientific technology", says Piero Benvenuti, Hubble Project Scientist at ESA. "New super-advanced instrumentation will revitalise the observatory. For example, Hubble's new digital camera - The new Advanced Camera for Surveys, or ACS - can take images of twice the area of the sky and with five times the sensitivity of Hubble's previous instruments, therefore increasing by ten times Hubble's discovery capability! The European astronomers look forward to use the new camera and perform new science building on the great breakthroughs they have already achieved." ACS is going to replace the Faint Object Camera, or FOC, built by ESA. The FOC, which has functioned perfectly since the beginning, has been a key instrument to get the best out of the unprecedented imaging capability of Hubble. The FOC was a "state-of-the art" instrument in the 80s, but the field of digital imaging has progressed so much in the past 20 years that, having fulfilled its scientific goals, this ESA flagship on Hubble is chivalrously giving way to newer technology. However, the story of FOC is not over yet: experts will still learn from it, as it will be brought back to Earth and inspected, to study the effects on the hardware of the long duration exposure in space. Hubble is expected to continue to explore the sky during the next decade, after which its work will be taken over by its successor, the powerful ESA/NASA/CSA(*) Next Generation Space Telescope. NGST's main focus will be observations of the faint infrared light from the first stars and galaxies in the Universe. Notes for editors The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international co-operation between ESA and NASA. It was launched in 1990. The partnership agreement between ESA and NASA was signed on 7 October 1977; as a result of this agreement European astronomers have guaranteed access to more than 20% of Hubble's observing time. Astronauts have already paid visits to Hubble in 1993, '97, '99 and now, in the spring of 2002, it is time for the fourth Servicing Mission (named Servicing Mission 3B), planned for launch on 28th February. Originally planned as one mission, the third Servicing Mission was split into two parts (Servicing Mission 3A and 3B) because of the sheer number of tasks to be carried out and the urgency with which Hubble's gyroscopes had to be replaced in late '99. In addition to the new solar panels and the ACS camera, astronauts will install a very high-tech cooling system for Hubble

2002-02-01

359

Astronomical Photography for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes class projects involving astronomical photography. Includes a description of how to make an astrocamera or convert a pocket camera into one suitable for astrophotography, film choices, and phenomena to photograph, such as star trails, meteors, the sun, and the moon. (DS)

Hulme, Kenneth S.

1981-01-01

360

LGBT Workplace Issues for Astronomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws and regulations do not provide protection from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity or gender expression. Sexual minority astronomers (including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; LGBT) can face additional challenges at school and work. Studies show that LGBT students on many campuses report experiences of harassment. Cities, counties, and states

Laura E. Kay; R. Danner; K. Sellgren; V. Dixon; GLBTQastro

2011-01-01

361

Australian sites of astronomical heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heritage of astronomy in Australia has proven an effective communication medium. By interpreting science as a social and cultural phenomenon new light is thrown on challenges, such as the dispersal of instruments and problems identifying contemporary astronomy heritage. Astronomers are asked to take note and to consider the communication of astronomy now and in the future through a tangible heritage legacy.

Stevenson, T.; Lomb, N.

2015-03-01

362

Astronomical navigation of manned spaceships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques, instrumentation, and ergonomics of astronavigation are discussed with reference to manned space vehicles. Astronomical and graphic-analytic astronavigation techniques, measurements and statistical processing of data, recognition and identification of earth and stellar reference points, and use of astrosextants and onboard computer are dealt with. Visual recognition problems referable to the daytime and nighttime sectors of the subsatellite earth, obscuring of

N. F. Romanteev; E. V. Khrunov

1976-01-01

363

114The Hubble Search for the Farthest Galaxy in the Universe Astronomers have recently discovered  

E-print Network

= (1029-121)/121 = 7.5 Problem 2 ­ According to the Big Bang theory, the redshift of a galaxy is related was the redshift of the new galaxy based on the lyman-alpha spectral line? Problem 2 ­ According to the Big Bang_GND_5296? Problem 3 ­ The Big Bang occurred 13.8 billion years ago. How soon after the Big Bang

Christian, Eric

364

Hubble Tracks Clouds on Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taking its first peek at Uranus, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has detected six distinct clouds in images taken July 28,1997.

The image on the right, taken 90 minutes after the left-hand image, shows the planet's rotation. Each image is a composite of three near-infrared images. They are called false-color images because the human eye cannot detect infrared light. Therefore, colors corresponding to visible light were assigned to the images. (The wavelengths for the 'blue,' 'green,' and 'red' exposures are 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 micrometers, respectively.)

At visible and near-infrared light, sunlight is reflected from hazes and clouds in the atmosphere of Uranus. However, at near-infrared light, absorption by gases in the Uranian atmosphere limits the view to different altitudes, causing intense contrasts and colors.

In these images, the blue exposure probes the deepest atmospheric levels. A blue color indicates clear atmospheric conditions, prevalent at mid-latitudes near the center of the disk. The green exposure is sensitive to absorption by methane gas, indicating a clear atmosphere; but in hazy atmospheric regions, the green color is seen because sunlight is reflected back before it is absorbed. The green color around the south pole (marked by '+') shows a strong local haze. The red exposure reveals absorption by hydrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Uranus. Most sunlight shows patches of haze high in the atmosphere. A red color near the limb (edge) of the disk indicates the presence of a high-altitude haze. The purple color to the right of the equator also suggests haze high in the atmosphere with a clear atmosphere below.

The five clouds visible near the right limb rotated counterclockwise during the time between both images. They reach high into the atmosphere, as indicated by their red color. Features of such high contrast have never been seen before on Uranus. The clouds are almost as large as continents on Earth, such as Europe. Another cloud (which barely can be seen) rotated along the path shown by the black arrow. It is located at lower altitudes, as indicated by its green color.

The rings of Uranus are extremely faint in visible light but quite prominent in the near infrared. The brightest ring, the epsilon ring, has a variable width around its circumference. Its widest and thus brightest part is at the top in this image. Two fainter, inner rings are visible next to the epsilon ring.

Eight of the 10 small Uranian satellites, discovered by Voyager 2, can be seen in both images. Their sizes range from about 25 miles (40 kilometers) for Bianca to 100 miles (150 kilometers) for Puck. The smallest of these satellites have not been detected since the departure of Voyager 2 from Uranus in 1986. These eight satellites revolve around Uranus in less than a day. The inner ones are faster than the outer ones. Their motion in the 90 minutes between both images is marked in the right panel. The area outside the rings was slightly enhanced in brightness to improve the visibility of these faint satellites.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1997-01-01

365

Solar motion correction in the early extragalactic astrophysics  

E-print Network

Redshift observations of galaxies outside the Local Group are fairly common in extragalactic astrophysics. If redshifts are interpreted as arising from radial velocities, these must be corrected by the contamination of the solar motion. We discuss the details of such correction in the way it was performed by the American astronomer Edwin Hubble in his 1929 seminal paper. The investigations of spiral nebulae undertaken by the Swedish astronomer Knut Lundmark, in 1924, are also considered in this context.

Soares, Domingos

2013-01-01

366

Force That Increases at Larger Distance Has Some Psychological and Astronomical Evidence Supporting its Existence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Force that Increases with distance is different than dark energy as I am arguing for existence of force based on psychological and astronomical bases. Hubble shift, doppler shift, comet return, quasar zoo and quasars and psychological evidence of interest in distant objects lends support to a force like gravity, nuclear, weak, strong, virtual, decay, biological, growth forces which increases its intensity with distance unlike gravity which decreases in intensity with distance. Jane Frances Back Struck contributed to this finding with her request that her grandparents have "perfect justice" even though her grandparents had died before she was born; interest increasing with distance from grandparents.

Struck, James

2011-09-01

367

A Redetermination of the Hubble Constant with the Hubble Space Telescope from a Differential Distance Ladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report results from a program to determine the Hubble constant to ˜ 5% precision from a refurbished distance ladder based on extensive use of differential measurements. The measurement makes use of 240 Cepheid variables observed with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Cepheids are distributed across six recent hosts of

Adam G. Riess; Lucas Macri; Stefano Casertano; Megan Sosey; Hubert Lampeitl; Henry C. Ferguson; Alexei V. Filippenko; Saurabh W. Jha; Weidong Li; Ryan Chornock; Devdeep Sarkar

2009-01-01

368

New Images from Hubble and Galileo: Hubble Finds Many Bright Clouds on Uranus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA has recently released a number of new images from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Galileo Project. Hubble has discovered about twenty orange-colored clouds near the prominent bright band of Uranus which circle the planet at more than 300 mph. The site offers a press release and images in several formats.

1998-01-01

369

Final Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project to Measure the Hubble Constant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here the final results of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Key Project to measure the Hubble constant. We summarize our method, the results, and the uncertainties, tabulate our revised distances, and give the implications of these results for cosmology. Our results are based on a Cepheid calibration of several secondary distance methods applied over the range of about

Wendy L. Freedman; Barry F. Madore; Brad K. Gibson; Laura Ferrarese; Daniel D. Kelson; Shoko Sakai; Jeremy R. Mould; Robert C. Kennicutt Jr.; Holland C. Ford; John A. Graham; John P. Huchra; Shaun M. G. Hughes; Garth D. Illingworth; Lucas M. Macri; Peter B. Stetson; P. B. Stetson

2001-01-01

370

The Astrophysical Journal, 698:19631980, 2009 June 20 doi:10.1088/0004-637X/698/2/1963 C 2009. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.  

E-print Network

. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. THE END OF NUCLEOSYNTHESIS are derived from Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, Keck/High Resolution Echelle and those predicted by our model. For stars with anomalously high Th/Eu ratios (the so-called actinide boost

Cowan, John

371

HUBBLE SENDS SEASON'S GREETINGS FROM THE COSMOS TO EARTH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Looking like a colorful holiday card, this image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth, where nature seems to have put on the traditional colors of the season. These colors, produced by the light emitted by oxygen and hydrogen, help astronomers investigate the star-forming processes in nebulas such as NGC 2080. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that have attracted special attention. These regions have been studied in detail with Hubble and have long been identified as unique star-forming sites. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the whole local group of galaxies. The light from the nebula captured in this image is emitted by two elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The red and the blue light are from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind (a stream of high-speed particles) coming from a massive star just outside the image. The white region in the center is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. The intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in the surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) - are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from a single massive star. A2 has a more complex appearance due to the presence of more dust, and it contains several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newly born stars. The research team noted that Hubble's superb resolution is essential to see the various features in the nebula and to better understand the formation of massive stars in this interesting region. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained March 28, 2000, with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The colors are red (ionized hydrogen, H-alpha, 1040 seconds), green (ionized oxygen, 1200 seconds) and blue (ionized hydrogen, H-beta, 1040 seconds). The image spans 67 x 67 arc-seconds, corresponding to 55 x 55 light-years at the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud (168,000 light-years). Credit: NASA, ESA and Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Observatoire de Paris, France)

2002-01-01

372

A brief history of hair cell regeneration research and speculations on Edwin W Rubel a,b,*, Stephanie A. Furrer a  

E-print Network

Review A brief history of hair cell regeneration research and speculations on the future Edwin W worldwide suffer from hearing and balance disorders caused by loss of the sensory hair cells that convert, the great majority of hair cells are produced during embryogenesis. Hair cells that are lost after birth

Rubel, Edwin

373

A brief history of hair cell regeneration research and speculations on Edwin W. Rubel a,b,*, Stephanie A. Furrer a  

E-print Network

Review A brief history of hair cell regeneration research and speculations on the future Edwin W from hearing and balance disorders caused by loss of the sensory hair cells that convert sound majority of hair cells are produced during embryogenesis. Hair cells that are lost after birth

Rubel, Edwin

374

Determination of the cosmological rate of change of G and the tidal accelerations of earth and moon from ancient and modern astronomical data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory and numerical analysis of ancient astronomical observations (1374 to 1715) are combined with modern data in a simultaneous solution for: the tidal acceleration of the lunar longitude; the observed apparent acceleration of the earth's rotation; the true nontidal geophysical part of this acceleration; and the rate of change in the gravitational constant. Provided are three independent determinations of a rate of change of G consistent with the Hubble Constant and a near zero nontidal rotational acceleration of the earth. The tidal accelerations are shown to have remained constant during the historical period within uncertainties. Ancient and modern solar system data, and extragalactic observations provided a completely consistent astronomical and cosmological scheme.

Muller, P. M.

1976-01-01

375

HUBBLE'S NEW IMPROVED OPTICS PROBE THE CORE OF A DISTANT GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This comparison image of the core of the galaxy M100 shows the dramatic improvement in Hubble Space Telescope's view of the universe. The new image was taken with the second generation Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC-2) which was installed during the STS-61 Hubble Servicing Mission. The picture beautifully demonstrates that the corrective optics incorporated within the WFPC-2 compensate fully for optical aberration in Hubble's primary mirror. The new camera will allow Hubble to probe the universe with unprecedented clarity and sensitivity, and to fulfill many of the most important scientific objectives for which the telescope was originally built. [ Right ] The core of the grand design spiral galaxy M100, as imaged by Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in its high resolution channel. The WFPC-2 contains modified optics that correct for Hubble's previously blurry vision, allowing the telescope for the first time to cleanly resolve faint structure as small as 30 light-years across in a galaxy which is tens of millions of light years away. The image was taken on December 31, 1993. [Left ] For comparison, a picture taken with the WFPC-1 camera in wide field mode, on November 27, 1993, just a few days prior to the STS-61 servicing mission. The effects of optical aberration in HST's 2.4-meter primary mirror blur starlight, smear out fine detail, and limit the telescope's ability to see faint structure. Both Hubble images are 'raw;' they have not been subject to computer image reconstruction techniques commonly used in aberrated images made before the servicing mission. TARGET INFORMATION: M100 The galaxy M100 (100th object in the Messier Catalog of non-stellar objects) is one of the brightest members of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. The galaxy is in the spring constellation Coma Berenices and can be seen through a moderate-sized amateur telescope. M100 is spiral shaped, like our Milky Way, and tilted nearly face-on as seen from earth. The galaxy has two prominent arms of bright stars and several fainter arms. Though the galaxy is estimated to be tens of millions of light-years away, Hubble reveals the sort of detail only seen previously (with ground based telescopes) in neighboring galaxies that are ten times closer. Before HST, astronomers could only see such a level of detail in roughly a dozen galaxies in our Local Group. Now, with Hubble's improved vision, the portion of the universe which can be studied with such clarity has grown a thousand fold. Only the future will tell what revelations await as Hubble's spectacular vision is applied to a host of fascinating and important questions about the universe and our place in it. PHOTO RELEASE NO.: STScI-PR94-01

2002-01-01

376

The Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The path of the total solar eclipse across the United States on August 21, 2017 crosses the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) located in western North Carolina. The partial eclipse begins at about 17:08 UT, followed by the nearly 2 minute total eclipse which begins at about 18:37 UT. The PARI campus includes radio and optical telescopes, as well as earth science instruments that include a seismometer, geomagnetometer, EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, time standards, and several weather stations. The instruments stream data to the PARI website and will be available for the eclipse. In anticipation of the 2017 solar eclipse, we present the instruments and infrastructure of the PARI campus. We invite astronomers to explore the use of the PARI campus as a site for their own instruments and/or the use of instruments already located at PARI.

Cline, J. Donald

2015-01-01

377

Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery and to provide a showcase for a broad range of astronomical research and celestial objects," Adams added. In addition, NRAO is developing enhanced data visualization techniques and data-processing recipes to assist radio astronomers in making quality images and in combining radio data with data collected at other wavelengths, such as visible-light or infrared, to make composite images. "We encourage all our telescope users to take advantage of these techniques to showcase their research," said Juan Uson, a member of the NRAO scientific staff and the observatory's EPO scientist. "All these efforts should demonstrate the vital and exciting roles that radio telescopes, radio observers, and the NRAO play in modern astronomy," Lo said. "While we want to encourage images that capture the imagination, we also want to emphasize that extra effort invested in enhanced imagery also will certainly pay off scientifically, by revealing subtleties and details that may have great significance for our understanding of astronomical objects," he added. Details of the NRAO Image Contest, which will become an annual event, are on the observatory's Web site. The observatory will announce winners on October 15. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2005-05-01

378

American Association of Amateur Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Association of Amateur Astronomers (AAAA) is intended to foster interest in amateur astronomy by developing and promoting programs for its membership and the amateur community at large in the areas of observational astronomy and electronic communications on the internet. The AAAA's web site features links to membership information, news releases, and announcements of astronomical events and organizational activities. Educational materials include a tutorial on the solar system, an introduction to the constellations, a history and introduction to astronomy, and a link to the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. There is also an FAQ feature, a link to the organization's newsletter, links to partner organizations, and information on products available at the AAAA online store.

379

Representations of astronomers in literature.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depiction of astronomers as characters in fiction during the last four centuries provides a useful historical indication of the changing popular perception of astronomy and its practitioners. It is apparent that lay attitudes to astronomy, even in any given period, are complex. On the one hand there is the continuing, innate attraction which the spectacle of the night sky has for people of all ages, the sense of wonder it generates and the preception of astronomy as a "pure" science, free from military and environmentally damaging spin-offs. But, on the other hand, astronomy poses particular and radical challenges to the humanist tradition and these have elicited from many writers not only expressions of anguish and confusion but, at times, a personal attack on the astronomers who were considered responsible for the unwelcome views.

Haynes, R. D.

380

Local gravitational physics of the Hubble expansion  

E-print Network

We study physical consequences of the Hubble expansion of FLRW manifold on measurement of space, time and light propagation in the local inertial frame. We analyse the solar system radar ranging and Doppler tracking experiments, and time synchronization. FLRW manifold is covered by global coordinates (t,y^i), where t is the cosmic time coinciding with the proper time of the Hubble observers. We introduce local inertial coordinates x^a=(x^0,x^i) in the vicinity of a world line of a Hubble observer with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and is materialized by the congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers being at rest with respect to the local spatial coordinates x^i. We consider geodesic motion of test particles and notice that the local coordinate time x^0=x^0(t) taken as a parameter along the world line of particle, is a function of the Hubble's observer time t. This function changes smoothly from x^0=t for a particle at rest (observer's clock), to x^0=t+1/2 Ht^2 for photons, where H is the Hubble constant. Thus, motion of a test particle is non-uniform when its world line is parametrized by time t. NASA JPL Orbit Determination Program presumes that motion of light (after the Shapiro delay is excluded) is uniform with respect to the time t but it does not comply with the non-uniform motion of light on cosmological manifold. For this reason, the motion of light in the solar system analysed with the Orbit Determination Program appears as having a systematic blue shift of frequency, of radio waves circulating in the Earth-spacecraft radio link. The magnitude of the anomalous blue shift of frequency is proportional to the Hubble constant H that may open an access to the measurement of this fundamental cosmological parameter in the solar system radiowave experiments.

Sergei Kopeikin

2015-01-21

381

Astronomical Research Institute Photometric Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomical Research Institute (ARI) conducts astrometric and photometric studies of asteroids with a concentration on near-Earth objects (NEOs). A 0.76-m autoscope was used for photometric studies of seven asteroids of which two were main-belt targets and five were NEOs, including one potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA). These objects are: 3122 Florence, 3960 Chaliubieju, 5143 Heracles, (6455) 1992 HE, (36284) 2000 DM8, (62128) 2000 SO1, and 2010 LF86.

Linder, Tyler R.; Sampson, Ryan; Holmes, Robert

2013-01-01

382

Directory of astronomical data files  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Directory of Astronomical Data Files was prepared by the Data Task Force of the Interagency Coordination Committee for Astronomy (ICCA) in cooperation with the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The purpose of the Directory is to provide a listing which will enable a user to locate stellar and extragalactic data sources keyed along with sufficient descriptive information to permit him to assess the value of the files for his use as well as the status and availability of the compilations.

1978-01-01

383

Hubble Surveys the Homes of Quasars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Telescope Electronic Information Service has recently released breathtaking Hubble Telescope photos of galaxies that "host" quasars. The quasars seem to "live in a remarkable variety of galaxies, many of which are violently colliding....Hubble researchers are intrigued by the fact that the quasars studied do not appear to have obviously damaged the galaxies in which they live." The photos are of galactic objects 1.4 and 1.5 billion light years from Earth. Photos are in black and white and color, and at various resolutions. The photos are accompanied by an explanatory caption, background material on quasars, and an MPEG model of a quasar.

Bahcall, John.

1996-01-01

384

HUBBLE TRACKS CLOUDS ON URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taking its first peek at Uranus, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has detected six distinct clouds in images taken July 28,1997. The image on the right, taken 90 minutes after the left-hand image, shows the planet's rotation. Each image is a composite of three near-infrared images. They are called false-color images because the human eye cannot detect infrared light. Therefore, colors corresponding to visible light were assigned to the images. (The wavelengths for the 'blue,' 'green,' and 'red' exposures are 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 micrometers, respectively.) At visible and near-infrared light, sunlight is reflected from hazes and clouds in the atmosphere of Uranus. However, at near-infrared light, absorption by gases in the Uranian atmosphere limits the view to different altitudes, causing intense contrasts and colors. In these images, the blue exposure probes the deepest atmospheric levels. A blue color indicates clear atmospheric conditions, prevalent at mid-latitudes near the center of the disk. The green exposure is sensitive to absorption by methane gas, indicating a clear atmosphere; but in hazy atmospheric regions, the green color is seen because sunlight is reflected back before it is absorbed. The green color around the south pole (marked by '+') shows a strong local haze. The red exposure reveals absorption by hydrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Uranus. Most sunlight shows patches of haze high in the atmosphere. A red color near the limb (edge) of the disk indicates the presence of a high-altitude haze. The purple color to the right of the equator also suggests haze high in the atmosphere with a clear atmosphere below. The five clouds visible near the right limb rotated counterclockwise during the time between both images. They reach high into the atmosphere, as indicated by their red color. Features of such high contrast have never been seen before on Uranus. The clouds are almost as large as continents on Earth, such as Europe. Another cloud (which barely can be seen) rotated along the path shown by the black arrow. It is located at lower altitudes, as indicated by its green color. The rings of Uranus are extremely faint in visible light but quite prominent in the near infrared. The brightest ring, the epsilon ring, has a variable width around its circumference. Its widest and thus brightest part is at the top in this image. Two fainter, inner rings are visible next to the epsilon ring. Eight of the 10 small Uranian satellites, discovered by Voyager 2, can be seen in both images. Their sizes range from about 25 miles (40 kilometers) for Bianca to 100 miles (150 kilometers) for Puck. The smallest of these satellites have not been detected since the departure of Voyager 2 from Uranus in 1986. These eight satellites revolve around Uranus in less than a day. The inner ones are faster than the outer ones. Their motion in the 90 minutes between both images is marked in the right panel. The area outside the rings was slightly enhanced in brightness to improve the visibility of these faint satellites. Credits: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), and NASA.

2002-01-01

385

Radio Astronomers Set New Standard for Accurate Cosmic Distance Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A team of radio astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to make the most accurate measurement ever made of the distance to a faraway galaxy. Their direct measurement calls into question the precision of distance determinations made by other techniques, including those announced last week by a team using the Hubble Space Telescope. The radio astronomers measured a distance of 23.5 million light-years to a galaxy called NGC 4258 in Ursa Major. "Ours is a direct measurement, using geometry, and is independent of all other methods of determining cosmic distances," said Jim Herrnstein, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. The team says their measurement is accurate to within less than a million light-years, or four percent. The galaxy is also known as Messier 106 and is visible with amateur telescopes. Herrnstein, along with James Moran and Lincoln Greenhill of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Phillip Diamond, of the Merlin radio telescope facility at Jodrell Bank and the University of Manchester in England; Makato Inoue and Naomasa Nakai of Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory; Mikato Miyoshi of Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; Christian Henkel of Germany's Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy; and Adam Riess of the University of California at Berkeley, announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. "This is an incredible achievement to measure the distance to another galaxy with this precision," said Miller Goss, NRAO's Director of VLA/VLBA Operations. "This is the first time such a great distance has been measured this accurately. It took painstaking work on the part of the observing team, and it took a radio telescope the size of the Earth -- the VLBA -- to make it possible," Goss said. "Astronomers have sought to determine the Hubble Constant, the rate of expansion of the universe, for decades. This will in turn lead to an estimate of the age of the universe. In order to do this, you need an unambiguous, absolute distance to another galaxy. We are pleased that the NSF's VLBA has for the first time determined such a distance, and thus provided the calibration standard astronomers have always sought in their quest for accurate distances beyond the Milky Way," said Morris Aizenman, Executive Officer of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Astronomical Sciences. "For astronomers, this measurement is the golden meter stick in the glass case," Aizenman added. The international team of astronomers used the VLBA to measure directly the motion of gas orbiting what is generally agreed to be a supermassive black hole at the heart of NGC 4258. The orbiting gas forms a warped disk, nearly two light-years in diameter, surrounding the black hole. The gas in the disk includes water vapor, which, in parts of the disk, acts as a natural amplifier of microwave radio emission. The regions that amplify radio emission are called masers, and work in a manner similar to the way a laser amplifies light emission. Determining the distance to NGC 4258 required measuring motions of extremely small shifts in position of these masers as they rotate around the black hole. This is equivalent to measuring an angle one ten-thousandth the width of a human hair held at arm's length. "The VLBA is the only instrument in the world that could do this," said Moran. "This work is the culmination of a 20-year effort at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics to measure distances to cosmic masers," said Irwin Shapiro, Director of that institution. Collection of the data for the NGC 4258 project was begun in 1994 and was part of Herrnstein's Ph.D dissertation at Harvard University. Previous observations with the VLBA allowed the scientists to measure the speed at which the gas is orbiting the black hole, some 39 million times more massive than the Sun. They did this by observing the amount of change in the wavelength of the radio wave

1999-06-01

386

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ON TRACK FOR MEASURING THE EXPANSION RATE OF THE UNIVERSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two international teams of astronomers, using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, are reporting major progress in converging on an accurate measurement of the Universe's rate of expansion -- a value which has been debated for over half a century. These new results yield ranges for the age of the Universe from 9-12 billion years, and 11-14 billion years, respectively. The goal of the project is to measure the Hubble Constant to ten percent accuracy. The Hubble Space Telescope Key Project team, an international group of over 20 astronomers, is led by Wendy Freedman of Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA, Robert Kennicutt, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, and Jeremy Mould, Mount Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatory, Australia. The group's interim results, announced at a meeting held at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, are consistent with their preliminary result, announced in 1994, of 80 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km/sec/Mpc), based on observations of a galaxy in the Virgo cluster. 'We have five different ways of measuring the Hubble Constant with HST,' said Dr. Freedman. 'The results are coming in between 68 and 78 km/sec/Mpc.' (For example, at an expansion rate of 75 km/sec/Mpc, galaxies appear to be receding from us at a rate of 162,000 miles per hour for every 3.26 million light-years farther out we look). Two months ago, a second team, led by Allan Sandage, also of the Carnegie Observatories, Abhijit Saha, STScI, Gustav Tammann and Lukas Labhardt, Astronomical Institute, University of Basel, Duccio Macchetto and Nino Panagia, STScI/European Space Agency, reported a slower expansion rate of 57 km/sec/Mpc. The value of the Hubble Constant allows astronomers to calculate the expansion age of the Universe, the time elapsed since the Big Bang. Astronomers have been arguing recently whether the time since the Big Bang is consistent with the ages of the oldest stars. The ages are calculated from combining the expansion rate with an estimate of how much matter is in space. The younger age values from each team assume the Universe is at a critical density where it contains just enough matter to expand indefinitely. The higher age estimates are calculated based on a low density of matter in space. (See 'Science Background' for more information on the expanding Universe.) 'A point of great interest is whether the age of the Universe arrived at this way is really older than the independently derived ages of the oldest stars,' said Saha, an investigator on both Hubble teams. 'The numbers lean on the side that the stellar ages are a little lower, or that the hypothesis that we live in a critical density universe needs to be questioned,' said Saha. 'As further results accumulate over the next few years, we hope to tighten the constraints on these issues.' THE OBSERVATIONS The Key Project team is midway along in their three-year program to derive the expansion rate of the Universe based on precise distance measurements to galaxies. They have now measured Cepheid distances to a dozen galaxies, and are about halfway through their overall program. The Key Project team also presented a preliminary estimate of the distance to the Fornax cluster of galaxies. The estimate was obtained through the detection and measurement with the Hubble Space Telescope of pulsating stars known as Cepheid variables found in the Fornax cluster. The Fornax cluster is measured to be approximately as far away as the Virgo cluster of galaxies -- about 60 million light-years. The Key Project team member who led this effort, Caltech astronomer Barry Madore said, 'This cluster allows us to make independent estimates of the expansion rate of the Universe using a number of different techniques. All of these methods are now in excellent agreement. With Fornax we are now at turning point in this field.' The team is measuring Cepheid distances to the Virgo and Fornax clusters of galaxies as a complementary test. Their strategy is to compare and contrast expansion numbers from a variety of distance indicators. The Key Projec

2002-01-01

387

XXIInd National Australian Convention of Amateur Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The twenty second National Australian Convention of Amateur Astronomers (NACAA) was held in Frankston, near Melbourne over Easter Weekend. This convention takes place every two years, and is hosted by a different Australian Amateur Astronomy Society. This year's conference was hosted by the Mornington Peninsula Astronomical Society and its theme was "Amateur Astronomical Science Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow". A variety of speakers and workshops were presented over the four day weekend with ample opportunity to renew old acquaintances and make new ones.

Loader, Pauline; Loader, Brian

2006-06-01

388

Hubble: A View to the Edge of Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This feature from the Exploratorium Museum (last mentioned in the May 30, 2000 Scout Report) offers a nice, compact overview of the Hubble Space telescope and what we have learned from its observations. Aimed at a general audience, the site's contents include a tour of Hubble, a gallery of images and information on how these are produced, and an introduction to the people behind Hubble, among others. Related links and Hubble factoids are offered throughout the site.

389

Local gravitational physics of the Hubble expansion  

E-print Network

We study physical consequences of the Hubble expansion of FLRW manifold on measurement of space, time and light propagation in the local inertial frame. We analyse the solar system radar ranging and Doppler tracking experiments, and time synchronization. FLRW manifold is covered by global coordinates (t,y^i), where t is the cosmic time coinciding with the proper time of the Hubble observers. We introduce local inertial coordinates x^a=(x^0,x^i) in the vicinity of a world line of a Hubble observer with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and is materialized by the congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers being at rest with respect to the local spatial coordinates x^i. We consider geodesic motion of test particles and notice that the local coordinate time x^0=x^0(t) taken as a parameter along the world line of particle, is a function of the Hubble's observer time t. This function changes smoothly from x^0=t for a particle at rest (observer's c...

Kopeikin, Sergei

2014-01-01

390

West uses Hubble to study `cannibal  

E-print Network

of them were granted time. "I'm delighted to be given access to Hubble's sharpvisionagain commencement as keynote speaker by Ken Hupp The Honorable Harry Kim, mayor of the County of Hawai (LEAA) in 1971. The LEAA was a federal and county funded agency which developed needed programs in many

Wiegner, Tracy N.

391

FGS Astrometry with the Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

This article describes astrometric science that can be done with the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors and presents some recent science results. We outline how these data are modeled, acquired, and calibrated. We next show how the astrometer, FGS 3, works as an interferometer. Finally, we present a guide to the literature that provides additional detail for each item discussed in the article.

G. Fritz Benedict

2000-07-05

392

Dark Energy and the Hubble Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Big Bang predicted by Friedmann could not be empirically discovered in the 1920th, since global cosmological distances (more than 300-1000 Mpc) were not available for observations at that time. Lemaitre and Hubble studied receding motions of galaxies at local distances of less than 20-30 Mpc and found that the motions followed the (nearly) linear velocity-distance relation, known now as Hubble's law. For decades, the real nature of this phenomenon has remained a mystery, in Sandage's words. After the discovery of dark energy, it was suggested that the dynamics of local expansion flows is dominated by omnipresent dark energy, and it is the dark energy antigravity that is able to introduce the linear velocity-distance relation to the flows. It implies that Hubble's law observed at local distances was in fact the first observational manifestation of dark energy. If this is the case, the commonly accepted criteria of scientific discovery lead to the conclusion: In 1927, Lemaitre discovered dark energy and Hubble confirmed this in 1929.

Chernin, A. D.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.

393

The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

Villard, Ray

1990-01-01

394

Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery cell wear out mechanisms and signatures are examined and compared to orbital data from the six on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) batteries, and the Flight Spare Battery (FSB) Test Bed at Marshall Space Fiight Center (MSFC), which is instrumented with individual cell voltage monitoring.

Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

2004-01-01

395

FITSManager: Management of Personal Astronomical Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase of personal storage capacity, it is easy to find hundreds to thousands of FITS files in the personal computer of an astrophysicist. Because Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is a professional data format initiated by astronomers and used mainly in the small community, data management toolkits for FITS files are very few. Astronomers need a powerful tool to help them manage their local astronomical data. Although Virtual Observatory (VO) is a network oriented astronomical research environment, its applications and related technologies provide useful solutions to enhance the management and utilization of astronomical data hosted in an astronomer's personal computer. FITSManager is such a tool to provide astronomers an efficient management and utilization of their local data, bringing VO to astronomers in a seamless and transparent way. FITSManager provides fruitful functions for FITS file management, like thumbnail, preview, type dependent icons, header keyword indexing and search, collaborated working with other tools and online services, and so on. The development of the FITSManager is an effort to fill the gap between management and analysis of astronomical data.

Cui, Chenzhou; Fan, Dongwei; Zhao, Yongheng; Kembhavi, Ajit; He, Boliang; Cao, Zihuang; Li, Jian; Nandrekar, Deoyani

2011-07-01

396

Amateur Astronomers: Secret Agents of EPO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amateur astronomers prime the public to be more interested, receptive, and excited about space science, missions, and programs. Through recent research and targeted programs, amateur astronomy outreach is being increasingly recognized by professional astronomers, educators, and other amateurs as a valued and important service. The Night Sky Network program, administered by the ASP, is the first nationwide research-based program specifically targeted to support outreach by amateur astronomers. This Network of trained and informed amateur astronomers can provide a stimulating introduction to your EPO programs as Network members share the night sky with families, students, and youth groups.

Berendsen, M.; White, V.; Devore, E.; Reynolds, M.

2008-06-01

397

PBS Online NewsHour: Hubble and Webb Telescopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In-depth coverage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the next generation of orbiting observatories. Includes interactive on orbiting telescopes, slide show of Hubble images, and reports on the debate over keeping Hubble operating and over coloring its images. The main story and some of the archived stories are available as streaming video and RealAudio as well as text.

398

Modeling the Hubble Space Telescope with Trace Marshall D. Perrin  

E-print Network

Modeling the Hubble Space Telescope with Trace Marshall D. Perrin University of California, Berkeley February 12, 2001 1 The Hubble Space Telescope The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a 2.4 m f/24 Richey-Cretien Cassegrain telescope, located in Low Earth Orbit. It was designed to carry out

Backer, Don

399

Calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors  

E-print Network

Calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors: An Application of Seminal Ideas, showing the location of the FGS The Hubble Space Telescope is a 2.4-meter, f-24 instrument of Ritchey- Chr of H.K. Eichhorn William H. Jefferys May 11, 1998 Abstract The calibration of the Hubble Space

Jefferys, William

400

NASA's Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes have teamed up  

E-print Network

NASA's Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes have teamed up to expose the chaos that baby stars be identified as the yellow smudge near the center of the image. Swirls of green in Hubble's ultraviolet are actually infant stars deeply embedded in a cocoon of dust and gas. Hubble showed the less embedded stars

401

Hubble Space Telescope characterized by using phase-retrieval algorithms  

E-print Network

Hubble Space Telescope characterized by using phase-retrieval algorithms J. R. Fienup, J. C. Marron, T. J. Schulz, and J. H. Seldin We describe several results characterizing the Hubble Space Telescope HST was - 1.0144. Key words: Hubble Space Telescope,phase retrieval, aberrations. 1. Introduction Soon

Fienup, James R.

402

Astronomers Reveal Extinct Extra-Terrestrial Fusion Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international team of astronomers, studying the left-over remnants of stars like our own Sun, have found a remarkable object where the nuclear reactor that once powered it has only just shut down. This star, the hottest known white dwarf, H1504+65, seems to have been stripped of its entire outer regions during its death throes leaving behind the core that formed its power plant. Scientists from the United Kingdom, Germany and the USA focused two of NASA's space telescopes, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), onto H1504+65 to probe its composition and measure its temperature. The data revealed that the stellar surface is extremely hot, 200,000 degrees, and is virtually free of hydrogen and helium, something never before observed in any star. Instead, the surface is composed mainly of carbon and oxygen, the 'ashes' of the fusion of helium in a nuclear reactor. An important question we must answer is why has this unique star lost the hydrogen and helium, which usually hide the stellar interior from our view? Professor Martin Barstow (University of Leicester) said. 'Studying the nature of the ashes of dead stars give us important clues as to how stars like the Sun live their lives and eventually die. The nuclear waste of carbon and oxygen produced in the process are essential elements for life and are eventually recycled into interstellar space to form new stars, planets and, possibly, living beings.' Professor Klaus Werner (University of Tübingen) said. 'We realized that this star has, on astronomical time scales, only very recently shut down nuclear fusion (about a hundred years ago). We clearly see the bare, now extinct reactor that once powered a bright giant star.' Dr Jeffrey Kruk (Johns Hopkins University) said: 'Astronomers have long predicted that many stars would have carbon-oxygen cores near the end of their lives, but I never expected we would actually be able to see one. This is a wonderful opportunity to improve our understanding of the life-cycle of stars.' The Chandra X-ray data also reveal the signatures of neon, an expected by-product of helium fusion. However, a big surprise was the presence of magnesium in similar quantities. This result may provide a key to the unique composition of H1504+65 and validate theoretical predictions that, if massive enough, some stars can extend their lives by tapping yet another energy source: the fusion of carbon into magnesium. However, as magnesium can also be produced by helium fusion, proof of the theory is not yet ironclad. The final link in the puzzle would be the detection of sodium, which will require data from yet another observatory: the Hubble Space Telescope. The team has already been awarded time on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for sodium in H1504+65 next year, and will, hopefully, discover the final answer as to the origin of this unique star. This work will be published in July in the 'Astronomy & Astrophysics' journal. The Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) were both launched into orbit by NASA in 1999. Their instruments make use of a technique called spectroscopy, which spreads the light obtained from astronomical objects into its constituent X-ray and ultraviolet 'colours', in the same way visible light is dispersed into a rainbow naturally, by water droplets in the atmosphere, or artificially, by a prism. When studied in fine detail each spectrum is a unique 'fingerprint' which tells us what elements are present and reveals the physical conditions in the object being studied. Related Internet Address http://www.ras.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=673&Itemid=2

2004-06-01

403

HUBBLE DISCOVERS POWERFUL LASER BEAMED FROM CHAOTIC STAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an artist's concept of a gas cloud (left) that acts as a natural ultraviolet laser, near the huge, unstable star Eta Carinae (right) -- one of most massive and energetic stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. The super-laser was identified by a team led by Kris Davidson of the University of Minnesota, and including nine other collaborators in the U.S. and Sweden during spectroscpic observations made with the Goddard High Resolution spectrograph aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Since it's unlikely that a single beam from the cloud would happen to be precisely aimed in earth's driection, the astronomers conclude that numerous beams must be radiating from the cloud in all directions - beams from a dance hall mirror-ball. The interstellar laser may result from Eta Carinae's violently chaotic eruptions, illustrated here as a reddish (due to light scattering by dust) outflow from the bright star. A laser, (an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) creates an intense coherent beam of light when atoms or molecules in a gas, liquid or solid medium, force an incoming mix of wavelengths (or colors) of light to work in phase, or, at the same wavelength. Though a natural infrared laser was identified in space in 1995, lasers are very rare in space and nothing like the UV laser has ever been seen before. Eta Carinae is several million times brighter than the Sun, and one hundred times as massive. The superstar, located 8,000 light-years away in the souther constellation Carina, underwent a colossal outburst 150 years ago. Illustration courtesy James Gitlin/STScI

2002-01-01

404

HUBBLE OBSERVES SPIRAL GAS DISK IN ACTIVE GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a spiral-shaped disk of hot gas in the core of active galaxy M87. HST measurements show the disk is rotating so rapidly it contains a massive black hole at its hub. A black hole is an object that is so massive yet compact nothing can escape its gravitational pull, not even light. The object at the center of M87 fits that description. It weights as much as three billion suns, but is concentrated into a space no larger than our solar system. Now that astronomers have seen the signature of the tremendous gravitational field at the center of M87, it is clear that the region contains only a fraction of the number of stars that would be necessary to create such a powerful attraction. The giant elliptical galaxy M87 is located 50 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo. Earlier observations suggested the black hole was present, but were not decisive. A brilliant jet of high- speed electrons that emits from the nucleus (diagonal line across image) is believed to be produced by the black hole 'engine.' The image was taken with HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Credit: Holland Ford, Space Telescope Science Institute/Johns Hopkins University; Richard Harms, Applied Research Corp.; Zlatan Tsvetanov, Arthur Davidsen, and Gerard Kriss at Johns Hopkins; Ralph Bohlin and George Hartig at Space Telescope Science Institute; Linda Dressel and Ajay K. Kochhar at Applied Research Corp. in Landover, Md.; and Bruce Margon from the University of Washington in Seattle. NASA PHOTO CAPTION STScI-PR94-23a

2002-01-01

405

Hubble Space Telescope Image of NGC 4676, 'The Mice'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), the newest camera on the Hubble Space Telescope, has captured a spectacular pair of galaxies. Located 300 million light-years away in the constellation Coma Berenices, the colliding galaxies have been nicknamed 'The Mice' because of the long tails of stars and gas emanating from each galaxy. Otherwise known as NGC 4676, the pair will eventually merge into a single giant galaxy. In the galaxy at left, the bright blue patch is resolved into a vigorous cascade of clusters and associations of young, hot blue stars, whose formation has been triggered by the tidal forces of the gravitational interaction. The clumps of young stars in the long, straight tidal tail (upper right) are separated by fainter regions of material. These dim regions suggest that the clumps of stars have formed from the gravitational collapse of the gas and dust that once occupied those areas. Some of the clumps have luminous masses comparable to dwarf galaxies that orbit the halo of our own Milky Way Galaxy. Computer simulations by astronomers show that we are seeing two near identical spiral galaxies approximately 160 million years after their closest encounter. The simulations also show that the pair will eventually merge, forming a large, nearly spherical galaxy (known as an elliptical galaxy). The Mice presage what may happen to our own Milky Way several billion years from now when it collides with our nearest large neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). This picture is assembled from three sets of images taken on April 7, 2002, in blue, orange, and near-infrared filters. Credit: NASA, H. Fort (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M. Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA.

2002-01-01

406

Propagating orientation constraints for the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An observing program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is described in terms of exposures that are obtained by one or more of the instruments onboard the HST. Many requested exposures might specify orientation requirements and accompanying ranges. Orientation refers to the amount of roll (in degrees) about the line of sight. The range give the permissible tolerance (also in degrees). These requirements may be (1) absolute (in relation to the celestial coordinate system), (2) relative to the nominal roll angle for HST during that exposure, or (3) relative (in relation to other exposures in the observing program). The TRANSformation expert system converts proposals for astronomical observations with HST into detailed observing plans. Part of the conversion involves grouping exposures into higher level structures based on exposure characteristics. Exposures constrained to be at different orientations cannot be grouped together. Because relative orientation requirements cause implicit constraints, orientation constraints have to be propagated. TRANS must also identify any inconsistencies that may exist so they can be corrected. We have designed and implemented an orientation constraint propagator as part of TRANS. The propagator is based on an informal algebra that facilitates the setting up and propagation of the orientation constraints. The constraint propagator generates constraints between directly related exposures, and propagates derived constraints between exposures that are related indirectly. It provides facilities for path-consistency checking, identification of unsatisfiable constraints, and querying of orientation relationships. The system has been successfully operational as part of TRANS for over seven months. The solution has particular significance to space applications in which satellite/telescope pointing and attitude are constrained and relationships exist between multiple configurations.

Bose, Ashim; Gerb, Andy

1994-01-01

407

Charge transfer inefficiency in the Hubble Space Telescope since Servicing Mission 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We update a physically motivated model of radiation damage in the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel, using data up to mid-2010. We find that charge transfer inefficiency increased dramatically before shuttle Servicing Mission 4, with ~1.3 charge traps now present per pixel. During detector readout, charge traps spuriously drag electrons behind all astronomical sources, degrading image quality in a way that affects object photometry, astrometry and morphology. Our detector readout model is robust to changes in operating temperature and background level, and can be used to iteratively remove the trailing by pushing electrons back to where they belong. The result is data taken in mid-2010 that recovers the quality of imaging obtained within the first six months of orbital operations.

Massey, Richard

2010-11-01

408

Maintaining an expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope ground support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transformation portion of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Proposal Entry Processor System converts astronomer-oriented description of a scientific observing program into a detailed description of the parameters needed for planning and scheduling. The transformation system is one of a very few rulebased expert systems that has ever entered an operational phase. The day to day operations of the system and its rulebase are no longer the responsibility of the original developer. As a result, software engineering properties of the rulebased approach become more important. Maintenance issues associated with the coupling of rules within a rulebased system are discussed and a method is offered for partitioning a rulebase so that the amount of knowledge needed to modify the rulebase is minimized. This method is also used to develop a measure of the coupling strength of the rulebase.

Lindenmayer, Kelly; Vick, Shon; Rosenthal, Don

1987-01-01

409

The application of artificial intelligence to astronomical scheduling problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient utilization of expensive space- and ground-based observatories is an important goal for the astronomical community; the cost of modern observing facilities is enormous, and the available observing time is much less than the demand from astronomers around the world. The complexity and variety of scheduling constraints and goals has led several groups to investigate how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques might help solve these kinds of problems. The earliest and most successful of these projects was started at Space Telescope Science Institute in 1987 and has led to the development of the Spike scheduling system to support the scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The aim of Spike at STScI is to allocate observations to timescales of days to a week observing all scheduling constraints and maximizing preferences that help ensure that observations are made at optimal times. Spike has been in use operationally for HST since shortly after the observatory was launched in Apr. 1990. Although developed specifically for HST scheduling, Spike was carefully designed to provide a general framework for similar (activity-based) scheduling problems. In particular, the tasks to be scheduled are defined in the system in general terms, and no assumptions about the scheduling timescale are built in. The mechanisms for describing, combining, and propagating temporal and other constraints and preferences are quite general. The success of this approach has been demonstrated by the application of Spike to the scheduling of other satellite observatories: changes to the system are required only in the specific constraints that apply, and not in the framework itself. In particular, the Spike framework is sufficiently flexible to handle both long-term and short-term scheduling, on timescales of years down to minutes or less. This talk will discuss recent progress made in scheduling search techniques, the lessons learned from early HST operations, the application of Spike to other problem domains, and plans for the future evolution of the system.

Johnston, Mark D.

1992-01-01

410

99Counting Craters On the Hubble Space Telescope! The STS-125 Atlantis astronauts retrieved the Hubble Space Telescope Wide-  

E-print Network

99Counting Craters On the Hubble Space Telescope! The STS-125 Atlantis astronauts retrieved the Hubble Space Telescope Wide- field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) during a very successful and final on the average. The images below show some close-up images of impact craters on the Hubble Space Telescope

411

Visualizing Astronomical Data with Blender  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present methods for using the 3D graphics program Blender in the visualization of astronomical data. The software's forte for animating 3D data lends itself well to use in astronomy. The Blender graphical user interface and Python scripting capabilities can be utilized in the generation of models for data cubes, catalogs, simulations, and surface maps. We review methods for data import, 2D and 3D voxel texture applications, animations, camera movement, and composite renders. Rendering times can be improved by using graphic processing units (GPUs). A number of examples are shown using the software features most applicable to various kinds of data paradigms in astronomy.

Kent, Brian R.

2014-01-01

412

Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing  

SciTech Connect

Narrow spectral features in ocean sediment records offer strong evidence that the cycles of glaciation were driven by astronomical forces. Two million years ago, the cycles match the 41,000-year period of Earth`s obliquity. This supports the Croll/Milankovitch theory, which attributes the cycles to variations in insolation. But for the past million years, the spectrum is dominated by a single 100,000-year feature and is a poor match to the predictions of insolation models. The spectrum can be accounted for by a theory that derives the cycles of glaciation from variations in the inclination of Earth`s orbital plane.

Muller, R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); MacDonald, G.J. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)] [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

1997-07-11

413

Taken from: Hubble 2006 Science Year in Review The full contents of this book include more Hubble science articles, an overview  

E-print Network

Taken from: Hubble 2006 Science Year in Review The full contents of this book include more Hubble are available for download online at: www.hubblesite.org/hubble_discoveries/science_year_in_review National #12;Hubble 2006: Science Year in Review #12;Hubble 2006: Science Year in Review 33 Jupiter's New "Red

Marcus, Philip S.

414

HUBBLE FINDS THOUSANDS OF GASEOUS FRAGMENTS SURROUNDING DYING STAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resembling a bizarre setting from a science fiction movie, dramatic images sent back by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have surprised astronomers by uncovering thousands of gigantic tadpole-shaped objects surrounding a dying star. Dubbed 'cometary knots' because their glowing heads and gossamer tails superficially resemble comets, they are probably the result of a dying star's final outbursts. Though ground-based telescopic observations have hinted at such objects, they have not previously been seen in such abundance, say researchers. The knots were detected by Hubble astronomer C. Robert O'Dell and graduate student Kerry P. Handron of Rice University in Houston, Texas, while exploring the Helix nebula, a ring of glowing gases blown off the surface of a sunlike star late in its life. O'Dell expects the gaseous knots, which are each several billion miles across, will eventually dissipate and vanish into the cold emptiness of interstellar space. However, he speculates that if the objects contract to form permanent solid bodies, they may contribute to a fraction (less than ten percent) of the missing mass of our galaxy, simply because of their sheer abundance around a typical dying star. (This so-called dark matter is a known source of gravity that affects the motions of stars in the galaxy). The mysterious 'space pods' came into view as O'Dell used Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 to survey the Helix nebula, located 450 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius and the closest planetary nebula to Earth -- so close that its angular size is almost half that of the full Moon. The most visible cometary knots all lie along the inner edge of the ring, at a distance of trillions of miles from the central star. Their comet-like tails, each stretching a hundred billion miles, form a radial pattern around the star like the spokes on a wagon wheel. Though previous ground-based observations show a spoke pattern in the Helix, and some structure, O'Dell emphasizes that the Hubble images reveal an underlying population of many more smaller objects. O'Dell made the observation because he was curious if these objects were the result of the star's final outburst which would bring comets out of 'cold storage' by boiling off the icy, solid comet nuclei. This is how comets behave as they swing near our Sun. The knots have just the right appearance and are at just the right distance from the dying star to be a long-sought comet cloud -- much like the hypothesized Oort cloud encircling our solar system. However, each gaseous cometary 'head' is at least twice the diameter of our solar system -- far too large for the gaseous shell, called a coma, that surrounds an active comet as we know it. The most likely explanation is the objects have been formed during the final years of a star's life when it ejects shells of gas into space. This 'planetary nebula' formation happens in stages where, toward the end of the process, a faster moving shell of gas ejected off the doomed star collides with slower moving gas released ten thousand years before. This collision of hot, lower density gas with cooler, higher density gas forms an unstable condition where the two gases intermix and fragment the previously smooth cloud. This process, called a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, breaks the cloud into smaller and denser finger-like droplets, like dripping paint. Standard models predict that the knots should expand and dissipate within a few hundred thousand years. However, dust particles inside each gas ball might collide and stick together, snowballing to planet- sized bodies over time. The resulting objects would be like Earth- sized copies of the frigid, icy planet Pluto. These icy worlds would escape the dead star and presumably roam interstellar space forever. If this phenomena is common among stars, then our galaxy could be littered with trillions of these objects, O'Dell concludes. 'Planetary nebulae have been formed in our galaxy for billions of years and about one new one is created every year since this is the usual ending for the billions of sunl

2002-01-01

415

Hubble Camera Resumes Science Operation With Picture Of 'Butterfly' In Space.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

he Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is back at work, capturing this black-and-white image of the 'butterfly wing'-shaped nebula, NGC 2346. The nebula is about 2,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. It represents the spectacular 'last gasp' of a binary star system at the nebula's center. The image was taken on March 6, as part of the recommissioning of the Hubble Space Telescope's previously installed scientific instruments following the successful servicing of the HST by NASA astronauts in February. WFPC2 was installed in HST during the servicing mission in 1993. At the center of the nebula lies a pair of stars that are so close together that they orbit around each other every 16 days. This is so close that, even with Hubble, the pair of stars cannot be resolved into its two components. One component of this binary is the hot core of a star that has ejected most of its outer layers, producing the surrounding nebula. Astronomers believe that this star, when it evolved and expanded to become a red giant, actually swallowed its companion star in an act of stellar cannibalism. The resulting interaction led to a spiraling together of the two stars, culminating in ejection of the outer layers of the red giant. Most of the outer layers were ejected into a dense disk, which can still be seen in the Hubble image, surrounding the central star. Later the hot star developed a fast stellar wind. This wind, blowing out into the surrounding disk, has inflated the large, wispy hourglass-shaped wings perpendicular to the disk. These wings produce the butterfly appearance when seen in projection. The total diameter of the nebula is about one-third of a light-year, or 2 trillion miles. Our own Sun will eject a nebula about 5 billion years from now. However, the Sun is not a double star, so its nebula may well be more spherical in shape. The image was taken through a filter that shows the light of glowing nitrogen atoms. Scientists are still testing and calibrating the newly installed instruments on Hubble , the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). These instruments will be ready to make observations in a few weeks. Credit: Massimo Stiavelli (STScI), and NASA other team member: Inge Heyer (STScI) Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

2002-01-01

416

HUBBLE SPIES HUGE CLUSTERS OF STARS FORMED  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BY ANCIENT ENCOUNTER This stunningly beautiful image [right] taken with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope shows the heart of the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. The ongoing violent star formation due to an ancient encounter with its large galactic neighbor, M81, gives this galaxy its disturbed appearance. The smaller picture at upper left shows the entire galaxy. The image was taken in December 1994 by the Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope. Hubble's view is represented by the white outline in the center. In the Hubble image, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the huge lanes of dust that crisscross M82's disk are another telltale sign of the flurry of star formation. Below the center and to the right, a strong galactic wind is spewing knotty filaments of hydrogen and nitrogen gas. More than 100 super star clusters -- very bright, compact groupings of about 100,000 stars -- are seen in this detailed Hubble picture as white dots sprinkled throughout M82's central region. The dark region just above the center of the picture is a huge dust cloud. A collaboration of European and American scientists used these clusters to date the ancient interaction between M82 and M81. About 600 million years ago, a region called 'M82 B' (the bright area just below and to the left of the central dust cloud) exploded with new stars. Scientists have discovered that this ancient starburst was triggered by the violent encounter with M81. M82 is a bright (eighth magnitude), nearby (12 million light-years from Earth) galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major (the Great Bear). The Hubble picture was taken Sept. 15, 1997. The natural-color composite was constructed from three Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures, which were combined in chromatic order: 4,250 seconds through a blue filter (428 nm); 2,800 seconds through a green filter (520 nm); and 2,200 seconds through a red (820 nm) filter. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, ESA, R. de Grijs (Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK) Credits for ground-based picture: N.A. Sharp (Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, National Optical Astronomy Observatories, National Science Foundation)

2002-01-01

417

ASTRONOMICAL AND PHYSICAL Mr. WILSON'S OBSERVATORY,  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;ASTRONOMICAL AND PHYSICAL RESEARCHES MADE AT Mr. WILSON'S OBSERVATORY attached a small room which could be used for photography; it contained a small transit instru- ment which, and a photographic dark room for the development of the astronomical plates. Adjoining this room is also the workshop

Dworetsky, Mike

418

Upgrading a CCD camera for astronomical use  

E-print Network

Existing charge-coupled device (CCD) video cameras have been modified to be used for astronomical imaging on telescopes in order to improve imaging times over those of photography. An astronomical CCD camera at the Texas A&M Observatory would...

Lamecker, James Frank

1993-01-01

419

Aristotle University Astronomical Station at Mt. Holomon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aristotle University Astronomical Station was established seven years ago in order to fulfill the educational needs of its students. Astronomical observations are undertaken using three fully equipped small telescopes. Some interesting results are presented below, including the study of asteroids and flare stars, the detection of optical emission from supernovae remnants and follow up observations in extra solar planets.

Avdellidou, C.; Ioannidis, P.; Kouroubatzakis, K.; Nitsos, A.; Vakoulis, J.; Seiradakis, J. H.

2012-01-01

420

Astronomical Society of Australia Annual Scientific Meeting  

E-print Network

Astronomical Society of Australia Annual Scientific Meeting University of Adelaide (4 ­ 8 July 2011 would like to welcome you to Adelaide for the 2011 ASA Annual Scientific Meeting. The meeting in the Australian astronomical community. Evidence of this is the fact that just over 200 (talk+poster) abstracts

Adelaide, University of

421

Astronomical observatory for shuttle. Phase A study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, and configuration of the astronomical observatory for shuttle are discussed. The characteristics of the one meter telescope in the spaceborne observatory are described. A variety of basic spectroscopic and image recording instruments and detectors which will permit a large variety of astronomical observations are reported. The stDC 37485elines which defined the components of the observatory are outlined.

Guthals, D. L.

1973-01-01

422

Processing Color in Astronomical Imagery  

E-print Network

Every year, hundreds of images from telescopes on the ground and in space are released to the public, making their way into popular culture through everything from computer screens to postage stamps. These images span the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to infrared light to X-rays and gamma rays, a majority of which is undetectable to the human eye without technology. Once these data are collected, one or more specialists must process the data to create an image. Therefore, the creation of astronomical imagery involves a series of choices. How do these choices affect the comprehension of the science behind the images? What is the best way to represent data to a non-expert? Should these choices be based on aesthetics, scientific veracity, or is it possible to satisfy both? This paper reviews just one choice out of the many made by astronomical image processors: color. The choice of color is one of the most fundamental when creating an image taken with modern telescopes. We briefly explore the ...

Arcand, Kimberly K; Rector, Travis; Levay, Zoltan G; DePasquale, Joseph; Smarr, Olivia

2013-01-01

423

COMPRESSION Software for Astronomical Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical images are usually very noisy and don't shrink well with the typical lossless compression algorithms. COMPFITS is a utility program which analyses and pre-processes the images before sending them to the lossless compression program of your choice. The compression is still lossless (i.e. the reverse process gives a file exactly identical to the original) but the compression ratio achieved is usually much better. This allows fast, simple compression programs to achieve almost the same performance as time consuming, more sophisticated ones. Therefore COMPFITS is very efficient whenever computing time (for compression and/or decompression) is a critical parameter. Test charts are given to show how COMPFITS compares with other programs compressing unprocessed datas. Tests were also carried out on medical images, which are noisy too, but the results are quite different. This stresses the fact that compression of astronomical images is a specific problem. Options are available to perform lossy compression as well. COMPFITS is freely available and can be retrieved via anonymous ftp.

Veran, J. P.; Wright, J.

424

LGBT Workplace Issues for Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws and regulations do not provide protection from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity or gender expression. Sexual minority astronomers (i