Science.gov

Sample records for astronomer edwin hubble

  1. Edwin Hubble's Silence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago, D.

    2013-04-01

    In late 1928 Edwin Hubble was right in the middle of using V. M. Slipher's redshift data to prove that the universe is expanding, when Hubble's boss, George Hale, directed him to drop everything and rush to the Grand Canyon and test it as a possible site for Hale's planned 200-inch telescope. On his way, Hubble stopped at Lowell Observatory and met with V. M. Slipher. The letters both men wrote about this visit suggest that Hubble never said a word about his being in the middle of using Slipher's research to transform the universe. At the least, this silence is symbolic of the silence with which astronomical history has often treated Slipher's work. A survey of the historical literature suggests several reasons for this. Theorists and observers in astronomy (and other sciences) have long had different perspectives about how science works, and those who place more importance on theory have tended to credit the idea of the expanding universe to the theorists. Also, many sources indicate that Edwin Hubble was not a modest man or generous about sharing credit.

  2. Edwin Hubble. Mariner of the nebulae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, G. E.

    This biography of Edwin Hubble has been acclaimed by professionals and laymen alike. It is both the biography of an extraordinary human being and the story of the greatest quest in the history of astronomy since the Copernican revolution. Born in 1889 and reared in the village of Marshfield, Missouri, Edwin Powell Hubble became one of the towering figures in 20th century science. Hubble worked with the great 100 inch Hooker telescope at California's Mount Wilson Observatory and made a series of discoveries that revolutionized humanity's vision of the cosmos. In 1923 he was able to confirm the existence of other nebulae beyond our own Milky Way. By the end of the decade, he had proven that the universe is expanding, thus laying the very cornerstone of the "Big Bang" theory of creation. It was Hubble who developed the elegant scheme by which the galaxies are classified as ellipticals and spirals, and it was Hubble who first provided reliable evidence that the universe is homogeneous, the same in all directions as far as the telescope can see.

  3. Hubble, Edwin Powell (1889-1953)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Marshfield, MO, trained as a lawyer, with a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford University. Switched to astronomy at the University of Chicago, and became a staff astronomer at Mount Wilson Observatory where he had access to the best telescope in the world at that time—the 100 in telescope. Hubble was regarded as an aloof scientist, and, by contrast say to FRED HOYLE, did not spe...

  4. Hubble repair and more wins astronomers' acclaim.

    PubMed

    Travis, J

    1994-01-28

    The repaired Hubble Space Telescope overshadowed everything else at the American Astronomical Society (AAS) Meeting earlier this month in Alexandria, Virginia. The nearly 2000 astronomers who turned out for the society's largest meeting yet provided plenty of "oohs" and "aahs" for every new image. But, in between, some astronomers caught word of a new proposal about how to tell whether the universe is open or closed, more data about mysterious gamma ray bursts, and the crowning of the "Galaxy of the Year." PMID:17754874

  5. European astronomers' successes with the Hubble Space Telescope*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-02-01

    can bend the light from more distant objects, so magnifying and intensifying their images. In one spectacular case, cluster Abell 2218 creates in Hubble's WFPC2 camera more than a hundred images of galaxies lying beyond it. Without the magnifying effect of the cluster, many of these remote objects would be too faint to study in detail. Compared with man-made optics, the gravitational lenses are complex. They produce multiple images (as many as seven or more views of the same object) and they also smear the images into arcs. Team-member Jean-Paul Kneib, who is now at Toulouse, uses the distortions as a guide to distance. The more distorted the image, the farther off a galaxy is. The galaxies imaged by Abell 2218 are 5 to 8 billion light-years away, and Kneib's estimates have been confirmed by Tim Ebbels of Cambridge using the William Herschel Telescope located on the Spanish island of La Palma. Seen as they were early in the history of the Universe, the objects seem surprisingly similar to nearer and more mature galaxies. The cosmic scale Gustav Tammann of Basel and his collaborators use the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the Hubble Constant. Both are named after Edwin Hubble who discovered, almost 70 years ago, that the galaxies are spreading apart. The Hubble Constant is the rate of expansion -- and the most important number in cosmology, because it fixes the size and the maximum age of the observable Universe. Since the launch of the space telescope in 1990, two independent teams have tried to fix the constant but their answers disagree. A high expansion rate, which makes the Universe relatively young, is preferred by Wendy Freedman's team consisting largely of American astronomers. A lower value for Hubble's Constant, implying an older Universe, comes from a mainly European team led by the American astronomer Allan Sandage. Tammann belongs to the latter, "old Universe" camp and he is philosophical about the delay in reaching a consensus. "I've been waiting

  6. Astronomers celebrate a year of new Hubble results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    "We are beginning to understand that because of these observations we are going to have to change the way we look at the Universe," said ESA's Dr Duccio Macchetto, Associate Director for Science Programs at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The European Space Agency plays a major role in the Hubble Space Telescope programme. The Agency provided one of the telescope's four major instruments, called the Faint Object Camera, and two sets of electricity-generating solar arrays. In addition, 15 ESA scientific and technical staff work at the STScI. In return for this contribution, European astronomers are entitled to 15 percent of the telescope's observing time, although currently they account for 20 percent of all observations. "This is a testimony to the quality of the European science community", said Dr Roger Bonnet, Director of Science at ESA. "We are only guaranteed 15 percent of the telescope's use, but consistently receive much more than that." Astronomers from universities, observatories and research institutes across Europe lead more than 60 investigations planned for the telescope's fifth observing cycle, which begins this summer. Many more Europeans contribute to teams led by other astronomers. Looking back to the very start of time European astronomer Dr Peter Jakobsen used ESA's Faint Object Camera to confirm that helium was present in the early Universe. Astronomers had long predicted that 90 percent of the newly born Universe consisted of hydrogen, with helium making up the remainder. Before the refurbished Hubble came along, it was easy to detect the hydrogen, but the primordial helium remained elusive. The ultraviolet capabilities of the telescope, combined with the improvement in spatial resolution following the repair, made it possible for Dr Jakobsen to obtain an image of a quasar close to the edge of the known Universe. A spectral analysis of this picture revealed the quasar's light, which took 13 billion years

  7. European astronomers' successes with the Hubble Space Telescope*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-02-01

    [Figure: Laguna Nebula] Their work spans all aspects of astronomy, from the planets to the most distant galaxies and quasars, and the following examples are just a few European highlights from Hubble's second phase, 1994-96. A scarcity of midget stars Stars less massive and fainter than the Sun are much numerous in the Milky Way Galaxy than the big bright stars that catch the eye. Guido De Marchi and Francesco Paresce of the European Southern Observatory as Garching, Germany, have counted them. With the wide-field WFPC2 camera, they have taken sample censuses within six globular clusters, which are large gatherings of stars orbiting independently in the Galaxy. In every case they find that the commonest stars have an output of light that is only one-hundredth of the Sun's. They are ten times more numerous than stars like the Sun. More significant for theories of the Universe is a scarcity of very faint stars. Some astronomers have suggested that vast numbers of such stars could account for the mysterious dark matter, which makes stars and galaxies move about more rapidly than expected from the mass of visible matter. But that would require an ever-growing count of objects at low brightnesses, and De Marchi and Paresce find the opposite to be the case -- the numbers diminish. There may be a minimum size below which Nature finds starmaking difficult. The few examples of very small stars seen so far by astronomers may be, not the heralds of a multitude of dark-matter stars, but rareties. Unchanging habits in starmaking Confirmation that very small stars are scarce comes from Gerry Gilmore of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge (UK). He leads a European team that analyses long-exposure images in the WFPC2 camera, obtained as a by-product when another instrument is examining a selected object. The result is an almost random sample of well-observed stars and galaxies. The most remarkable general conclusion is that the make-up of stellar populations never seems to

  8. Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Michael Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and the general public. The origins of these discoveries are examined and it is demonstrated that, in each case, a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place. In some cases the discoveries had either already been made, or competing versions were not adopted for complex scientific and sociological reasons.

  9. Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, M. J.

    2013-04-01

    Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and the general public. The origins of these discoveries are examined and it is demonstrated that, in each case, a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place. In some cases the discoveries had either already been made, or competing versions were not adopted for complex scientific and sociological reasons.

  10. Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and even the general public. The origins of three of the most well-known discoveries are examined: The distances to nearby spiral nebulae, the classification of extragalactic-nebulae and the Hubble constant. In the case of the first two a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place, but little credit was given. The Hubble Constant had already been estimated in 1927 by Georges Lemaitre with roughly the same value that Hubble obtained in 1929 using redshifts provided mostly by Vesto M. Slipher. These earlier estimates were not adopted or were forgotten by the astronomical community for complex scientific, sociological and psychological reasons.

  11. NASA and ESA astronauts visit ESO. Hubble repair team meets European astronomers in Garching.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-02-01

    On Wednesday, February 16, 1994, seven NASA and ESA astronauts and their spouses will spend a day at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. They are the members of the STS-61 crew that successfully repaired the Hubble Space Telescope during a Space Shuttle mission in December 1993. This will be the only stop in Germany during their current tour of various European countries. ESO houses the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST/ECF), a joint venture by the European Space Agency and ESO. This group of astronomers and computer specialists provide all services needed by European astronomers for observations with the Space Telescope. Currently, the European share is about 20 of the total time available at this telescope. During this visit, a Press Conference will be held on Wednesday, February 16, 11:45 - 12:30 at the ESO Headquarters Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748 Garching bei Munchen. Please note that participation in this Press Conference is by invitation only. Media representatives may obtain invitations from Mrs. E. Volk, ESO Information Service at this address (Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax.: +49-89-3202362), until Friday, February 11, 1994. After the Press Conference, between 12:30 - 14:00, a light refreshment will be served at the ESO Headquarters to all participants. >From 14:00 - 15:30, the astronauts will meet with students and teachers from the many scientific institutes in Garching in the course of an open presentation at the large lecture hall of the Physics Department of the Technical University. It is a 10 minute walk from ESO to the hall. Later the same day, the astronauts will be back at ESO for a private discussion of various space astronomy issues with their astronomer colleagues, many of whom are users of the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as ground-based telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and elsewhere. The astronauts continue to Switzerland in the evening.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image illustrates the overall Hubble Space Telescope (HST) configuration. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope-Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  15. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  16. The Director's Choice: Mellish, Hubble and the discovery of the variable nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. R.

    2000-12-01

    In the summer of 1915, amateur astronomer John Edward Mellish joined the staff of Yerkes Observatory as an unpaid observer. Soon after arriving, Mellish discovered what he thought was a comet in the dawn twilight. Yerkes director Edwin Brant Frost promptly notified Harvard Observatory of the discovery only to learn later in the day, too late to prevent distribution of an international telegram, that the object Mellish observed was actually the diffuse nebula NGC 2261. Edwin Powell Hubble, a graduate student in his first year at Yerkes, was assigned the task of determining whether, as Mellish insisted, the nebula had changed. This led to Hubble's first professional papers and his initial fame as the discoverer of `Hubble's Variable Nebula.' Frost's choice, assigning the investigation to Hubble rather than Mellish, reflected his irritation with Mellish over matters that went well beyond the mistaken comet discovery. When Mellish discovered another comet a few weeks later, Frost delayed his notification to Harvard for several days to allow photographic confirmation of the discovery by George Van Biesbroeck, another newcomer at Yerkes. These events highlight staffing problems at Yerkes in 1915, problems that were common to other American observatories. Mellish and Van Biesbroeck were likely the last two amateur astronomers to have an opportunity to `try out' as professionals at Yerkes. By 1915 a stronger requirement for educational credentials was emerging in the astronomical community. On the other hand, like other observatory directors, Frost was experiencing considerable difficulty employing graduate astronomers. With S. W. Burnham already retired, Frost adopted stopgap measures for staffing as E. E. Barnard and others from an earlier generation prepared for retirement. The assignment of the nebula investigation to Hubble indicates that Frost had likely already concluded that Mellish would not be an acceptable substitute for a degreed professional.

  17. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope after being released into orbit, with the high gain anternas and solar arrays deployed and the aperture doors opened. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) being positioned for release from the Space Shuttle orbiter by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13- meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) being raised to a vertical position in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle orbiter. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  1. Blind Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The phrase "blind astronomer” is used as an allegorical oxymoron. However, there were and are blind astronomers. What of famous blind astronomers? First, it must be stated that these astronomers were not martyrs to their craft. It is a myth that astronomers blind themselves by observing the Sun. As early as France's William of Saint-Cloud (circa 1290) astronomers knew that staring at the Sun was ill-advised and avoided it. Galileo Galilei did not invent the astronomical telescope and then proceed to blind himself with one. Galileo observed the Sun near sunrise and sunset or through projection. More than two decades later he became blind, as many septuagenarians do, unrelated to their profession. Even Isaac Newton temporarily blinded himself, staring at the reflection of the Sun when he was a twentysomething. But permanent Sun-induced blindness? No, it did not happen. For instance, it was a stroke that left Scotland's James Gregory (1638-1675) blind. (You will remember the Gregorian telescope.) However, he died days later. Thus, blindness little interfered with his occupation. English Abbot Richard of Wallingford (circa 1291 - circa 1335) wrote astronomical works and designed astronomical instruments. He was also blind in one eye. Yet as he further suffered from leprosy, his blindness seems the lesser of Richard's maladies. Perhaps the most famous professionally active, blind astronomer (or almost blind astronomer) is Dominique-Francois Arago (1786-1853), director until his death of the powerful nineteenth-century Paris Observatory. I will share other _ some poignant _ examples such as: William Campbell, whose blindness drove him to suicide; Leonhard Euler, astronomy's Beethoven, who did nearly half of his life's work while almost totally blind; and Edwin Frost, who "observed” a total solar eclipse while completely sightless.

  2. Edwin W. Lewis, Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Edwin W. Lewis Jr. is a research pilot in the Airborne Science program, Flight Crew Branch, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. He currently flies the DC-8, F/A-18, Lear Jet 24, King Air, and T-34C in support of Dryden's flight operations and is mentor pilot for the King Air and the Lear Jet. Prior to accepting this assignment Lewis was a pilot for eight years at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, flying 10 different aircraft - C-130B, DC-8-72, UH-1, SH-3, King Air, Lear 24, T-38A, T-39G and YO-3A - in support of NASA flight missions. Lewis also flew the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (a modified civilian version of the Lockheed C-141 Starlifter). He was project pilot for Ames' 747 and T-38 programs. Lewis was born in New York City on May 19, 1936, and began flight training as a Civil Air Patrol cadet in 1951, ultimately earning his commercial pilot's certificate in 1958. He received a bachelor of arts degree in biology from Hobart College, Geneva, N.Y., and entered the U.S. Air Force through the Reserve Officer Training Corps. Following pilot training he was assigned to Moody Air Force Base, Ga., as an instructor pilot, for both the T-33 and T-37 aircraft. He served in Vietnam in 1965 and 1966, where he was a forward air controller, instructor and standardization/evaluation pilot, flying more than 1,000 hours in the O-1 'Bird Dog.' Lewis separated from the regular Air Force and joined Pan American World Airways and the 129th Air Commando Group, California Air National Guard (ANG) based in Hayward, California. During his 18-year career with the California ANG he flew the U-6, U-10, C-119, HC-130 aircraft and the HH-3 helicopter. He retired as commander, 129th Air Rescue and Recovery Group, a composite combat rescue group, in the grade of colonel. During his 22 years as an airline pilot, he flew the Boeing 707, 727 and 747. He took early retirement from Pan American in 1989 to become a pilot with NASA.

  3. A Conversation with Edwin Shneidman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestian, John

    2010-01-01

    This article is a transcript of a conversation that took place with Edwin Shneidman, PhD, on August 19, 2008. Recent advances in machine learning, particularly neurocognitive computing, have provided a fresh approach to the idea of using computers to analyze the language of the suicidal person. Here this notion and many others are discussed.

  4. A Conversation with Edwin Emery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journalism History, 1980

    1980-01-01

    An interview with Edwin Emery, journalism professor and co-author of the widely used textbook "The Press and America," in which he discusses his book, historians and historical schools that influenced his work, and areas of journalism and mass communication history that need to be researched and expanded upon today. (GT)

  5. Hubble: 20 Years of Discovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hubble's discoveries have revolutionized nearly all areas of current astronomical research from planetary science to cosmology. Actor and writer Brent Spiner narrates a visual journey back in time ...

  6. Peeps at William Edwin Hamilton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayman, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    William Edwin Hamilton, 1834-1902, (WEH) was the elder son of Sir William Rowan Hamilton and Helen Hamilton and he inherited many of the characteristics of his famous father. One property that he did not inherit, however, was his father's genius. While the outline of the life of WEH was given by Hankins in his 1980 biography of Sir William, a copy of ``Peeps at My Life'' written by WEH during the last months of his life was not available until recently. A few years ago a copy was sent to me by Herman Berg of Detroit and in this article, the principal items in ``Peeps'' that are relevant to Ireland, and some other facets of the character of WEH, are included as they give an unusual viewpoint of a by-gone age.

  7. Obituary: Edwin E. Salpeter (1924-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia; Terzian, Yervant

    2009-12-01

    Edwin E. Salpeter, who died 26 November 2008 at his home in Ithaca, NY, belonged to the "second wave" of Jewish scientific refugees from Nazi-dominated Europe, those who left as children just before the onset of WWII and so completed their educations elsewhere. Salpeter was born in Vienna on 3 December 1924, and arrived with his family in Australia in 1939, his father was a physicist and a close friend of Erwin Schrodinger. In Australia, he finished high school, and he entered the University of Sydney at the early age of 16. He received his BS and MSc degrees in physics and mathematics from the University of Sydney, before moving on to a PhD from the University of Birmingham in 1948, for work with Rudolf Peierls on the electrodynamic self-energy of the electron, the first of more than 380 inventoried publications. He had chosen Birmingham over Cambridge or Oxford because of Peierls, and then chose Cornell over Princeton because of Hans Bethe's presence there. His autobiography describes those as two of his very best decisions ever. Marrying psychobiology student Miriam (Mika) Mark less than a year after arriving at Cornell was surely the third, and they remained in Ithaca the rest of their lives, eventually collaborating on some projects in neurobiology before her death in 2000. Their household was a secular one, but (Ed told a colleague) their two daughters received a basic Jewish education "just in case." Daughter Shelley Salpeter and her son Nicholas Buckley were also collaborators with Salpeter on 21st century projects in meta-analysis, epidemiology, and other statistics-heavy problems in biomedicine. Ed Salpeter is survived by his second wife, Antonia (Lhamo) Shouse. Astronomers may be interested to learn that the Cornell press release announcing his death was prepared by Lauren Gold, daughter of Thomas Gold (and Carrie Gold) the co-author of the steady state theory. Apparently, Ed's father Jakob Salpeter late in life considered the anisotropy reported in the

  8. Obituary: Edwin E. Salpeter (1924-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia; Terzian, Yervant

    2009-12-01

    Edwin E. Salpeter, who died 26 November 2008 at his home in Ithaca, NY, belonged to the "second wave" of Jewish scientific refugees from Nazi-dominated Europe, those who left as children just before the onset of WWII and so completed their educations elsewhere. Salpeter was born in Vienna on 3 December 1924, and arrived with his family in Australia in 1939, his father was a physicist and a close friend of Erwin Schrodinger. In Australia, he finished high school, and he entered the University of Sydney at the early age of 16. He received his BS and MSc degrees in physics and mathematics from the University of Sydney, before moving on to a PhD from the University of Birmingham in 1948, for work with Rudolf Peierls on the electrodynamic self-energy of the electron, the first of more than 380 inventoried publications. He had chosen Birmingham over Cambridge or Oxford because of Peierls, and then chose Cornell over Princeton because of Hans Bethe's presence there. His autobiography describes those as two of his very best decisions ever. Marrying psychobiology student Miriam (Mika) Mark less than a year after arriving at Cornell was surely the third, and they remained in Ithaca the rest of their lives, eventually collaborating on some projects in neurobiology before her death in 2000. Their household was a secular one, but (Ed told a colleague) their two daughters received a basic Jewish education "just in case." Daughter Shelley Salpeter and her son Nicholas Buckley were also collaborators with Salpeter on 21st century projects in meta-analysis, epidemiology, and other statistics-heavy problems in biomedicine. Ed Salpeter is survived by his second wife, Antonia (Lhamo) Shouse. Astronomers may be interested to learn that the Cornell press release announcing his death was prepared by Lauren Gold, daughter of Thomas Gold (and Carrie Gold) the co-author of the steady state theory. Apparently, Ed's father Jakob Salpeter late in life considered the anisotropy reported in the

  9. Edwin Austin Abbey's The Passage of the Hours: Astronomy as History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, P. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Passage of the Hours (1909-1911) in the Pennsylvania State Capitol at Harrisburg is one of the most original and least known astronomical ceilings in the United States. Designed by the American artist Edwin Austin Abbey (1852-1911) to complement the Italian Renaissance style architecture of the House of Representatives, the mural combines two classical traditions of representing the night sky: a celestial map with the constellations of the zodiac and the personifications of the Hours. Set in a shallow dome twenty-four feet in diameter, Abbey's constellation figures float in a dazzling firmament where the Milky Way streams between the Sun and the Moon. The artist placed the Horae of Greek mythology around the dome's circumference in the position of the numbers on an astronomical clock. In the tradition of Italian Renaissance architecture, the celestial ceiling in the House of Representatives was part of an iconographic program affirming the cosmological origin of a polity. The astronomical theme relates to Abbey's murals in the House Chamber of the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 from David Rittenhouse's observatory in Philadelphia, which the astronomer constructed to study the transit of Venus in 1769. The artist included a portrait of Rittenhouse holding his telescope among the worthies in the adjacent mural of The Apotheosis of Pennsylvania. Contemporary as well as historical events encouraged Abbey's use of astronomical imagery: the depiction of a comet may record the much-anticipated return of Halley's Comet in 1910.

  10. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin during zero gravity ingress and egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., prime crew pilot of the Gemini 12 space flight, undergoes zero gravity ingress and egress training aboard an Air Force KC-135 aircraft. He practices using camera equipment.

  11. Edwin M. McMillan, A Biographical Sketch

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lofgren, E. J.

    1994-07-01

    Edwin M. McMillan was one of the great scientists of the middle years of this century. He made notable contributions to nuclear and particle physics, the chemistry of transuranium elements, and accelerator physics.

  12. Edwin M. McMillan, A biographical sketch

    SciTech Connect

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1994-07-01

    Edwin M. McMillan was one of the great scientists of the middle years of this century. He made notable contributions to nuclear, and particle physics, the chemistry of transuranic elements, and accelerator physics.

  13. HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

  14. HUBBLE REVEALS 'BACKWARDS' SPIRAL GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers have found a spiral galaxy that may be spinning to the beat of a different cosmic drummer. To the surprise of astronomers, the galaxy, called NGC 4622, appears to be rotating in the opposite direction to what they expected. Pictures by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise by showing which side of the galaxy is closer to Earth. A Hubble telescope photo of the oddball galaxy is this month's Hubble Heritage offering. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars [shown in blue]. Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. To add to the conundrum, NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction it is rotating. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise. NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. What caused this galaxy to behave differently from most galaxies? Astronomers suspect that NGC 4622 interacted with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a small companion galaxy. The galaxy's core provides new evidence for a merger between NGC 4622 and a smaller galaxy. This information could be the key to understanding the unusual leading arms. Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 resides 111 million light-years away in the constellation Centaurus. The pictures were taken in May 2001 with Hubble

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have identified what may be the most luminous star known; a celestial mammoth that releases up to 10-million times the power of the Sun and is big enough to fill the diameter of Earth's orbit. The star unleashes as much energy in six seconds as our Sun does in one year. The image, taken by a UCLA-led team with the recently installed Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) aboard the HST, also reveals a bright nebula, created by extremely massive stellar eruptions. The UCLA astronomers estimate that the star, called the Pistol Star, (for the pistol shaped nebula surrounding it), is approximately 25,000 light-years from Earth, near the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The Pistol Star is not visible to the eye, but is located in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, hidden behind the great dust clouds along the Milky Way

  16. Hubble Sees a Star 'Inflating' a Giant Bubble

    NASA Video Gallery

    A zoom into the Hubble Space Telescope photograph of an enormous, balloon-like bubble being blown into space by a super-hot, massive star. Astronomers trained the iconic telescope on this colorful ...

  17. Finding the Right Formula: Edwin H. Walker Jr

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keels, Crystal L.

    2005-01-01

    Edwin H. Walker Jr earned his doctorate in chemistry at age 27 and has barely looked back. With 13 publications under his belt before coming out of graduate school, he has also given more than 20 poster presentations in national venues, most recently at the American Chemical Society. He can also include securing a half-million-dollar National…

  18. Edwin Hopkins and the Costly Labor of Composition Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popken, Randall

    2004-01-01

    Using a "historical case study" of Edwin M. Hopkins, this article explores what Bruce Horner calls the "material social conditions" of teaching writing early in the twentieth century. It shows how Hopkins's own attitude and response to the demands of being a writing teacher serve as a backdrop for understanding his local and national crusade to…

  19. GORDON EDWIN DICKERSON, 1912 - 2000: A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gordon Edwin Dickerson was an international leader for most of the 20th Century in the field of quantitative animal breeding and genetics. This short biography sketches Gordon's personal, academic and scientific paths which are naturally intertwined. The sketch begins with his birth in Lagrande, Ore...

  20. Pathos in Criticism: Edwin Black's Communism-as-Cancer Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condit, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Black's essay on "The Second Persona," introduced to rhetorical critics a rationale and model for a type of ideological criticism. Because it ignored the role of pathos in both the rhetoric Black purported to critique and in the construction of his own audience, Black's essay mis-described key features of Robert Welch's "Blue Book", which…

  1. "Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin Campos

    2013-05-08

    Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

  2. "Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1

    ScienceCinema

    Edwin Campos

    2013-06-10

    Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

  3. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin during underwater zero-gravity training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, pilot for the Gemini 12 space flight, assumes a rest position during underwater zero-gravity training. The underwater environment creates similar conditions to those found in space. He is secured to the adapter section of the spacecraft by special foot plates.

  4. Astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    The layout and equipment of astronomical observatories, the oldest scientific institutions of human society are discussed. The example of leading observatories of the USSR allows the reader to familiarize himself with both their modern counterparts, as well as the goals and problems on which astronomers are presently working.

  5. Hubble Exoplanet Pro/Am Collaboration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  7. Women Astronomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Deborah Jean

    1979-01-01

    Traces the role of women in the scientific community in the United States since the mid-nineteenth century. Specific concern is directed towards the education and career opportunities of female astronomers. (MA)

  8. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin during underwater zero-gravity training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, pilot for the Gemini 12 space flight, practices work tasks in preparation for his extravehicular activity during the Gemini 12 flight. He works with a telescoping hand rail he will use to move from the spacecraft to the Agena Target Docking Vehicle (54934); Aldrin practices extravehicular work task during underwater zero-gravity training. He works on the docking collar of the Agena Target Docking Vehicle mockup using hand holds to secure himself to the vehicle (54935).

  9. Hubble's View of Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope views of the blue-green planet Neptune provide three snapshots of changing weather conditions. The images were taken in 1994 on October 10 (upper left), October 18 (upper right), and November 2 (lower center), when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth.

    Hubble is allowing astronomers to study Neptune's dynamic atmosphere with a level of detail not possible since the 1989 flyby of the Voyager 2 space probe. Building on Voyager's initial discoveries, Hubble is revealing that Neptune has a remarkably dynamic atmosphere that changes over just a few days.

    The temperature difference between Neptune's strong internal heat source and its frigid cloud tops (-260 degrees Fahrenheit) might trigger instabilities in the atmosphere that drive these large-scale weather changes. In addition to hydrogen and helium, the main constituents, Neptune's atmosphere is composed of methane and hydrocarbons, like ethane and acetylene.

    The picture was reconstructed from a series of Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images taken through different colored filters at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Absorption of red light by methane in Neptune's atmosphere contributes to the planet's distinctive aqua color; the clouds themselves are also somewhat blue. The pink features are high-altitude methane ice crystal clouds. Though the clouds appear white in visible light, they are tinted pink here because they were imaged at near infrared wavelengths.

    The farthest of the gas giant planets, Neptune is four times Earth's diameter. Though Neptune was discovered in 1846, very little has been known about it until the advent of space travel and advanced telescopes.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World

  10. Astronomical kaleidoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2005-10-01

    The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two nice clocks in Prague, as well as a map of the Sanctuary in Orheiul -Vechi (Bessarabia) with an supposed ancient calendar.

  11. Hubble's Famous Plate of 1923: A Story of Pink Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, D. R.

    2012-06-01

    On October 6, 1923 Edwin Hubble used the Mount Wilson 100-inch telescope to take a 45-minute exposure of a field in the Andromeda galaxy. This is the now-famous plate marked with his “VAR!” notation. I will discuss this plate and that notation. I will also tell the story of flying copies of that plate on the deployment mission for HST in 1990 as a Hubble memento and then locating those copies afterwards, and how copies were flown on Servicing Mission 4 on 2009 as well. This has led to an effort in which AAVSO members joined to identify and reobserve that noted star, arguably the most important object in the history of cosmology, but largely ignored since Hubble’s time.

  12. Astronomical Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

    2004-05-01

    Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

  13. Astronomer's Proposal Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) is a computer program that assists astronomers in preparing their Phase 1 and Phase 2 Hubble Space Telescope science programs. APT is a successor to the Remote Proposal Submission System 2 (RPS2) program, which has been rendered obsolete by more recent advances in computer software and hardware. APT exploits advances associated with widespread use of the Internet, multiplatform visual development software tools, and overall increases in the power of desktop computer hardware, all in such a way as to make the preparation and submission of proposals more intuitive and make observatory operations less cumbersome. APT provides documentation and help that are friendly, up to date, and easily accessible to users of varying levels of expertise, while defining an extensible framework that is responsive to changes in both technology and observatory operations. APT consists of two major components: (1) a set of software tools that are intuitive, visual, and responsive and (2) an integrated software environment that unifies all the tools and makes them interoperable. The APT tools include the Visual Target Tuner, Proposal Editor, Exposure Planner, Bright Object Checker, and Visit Planner.

  14. "Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Edwin Campos

    2013-06-10

    Argonne's Edwin Campos has for the last two decades studied weather, and in particular, clouds. His research can help make solar power a more viable option for the U.S. and the world. In this video, Dr. Campos answers questions that were submitted by the public in response to his introductory video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfdoHz.... We will be posting a new "Ask Argonne" video every other month, on various topics. Keep an eye out for your next opportunity to submit a question and see if it gets answered - and if you get a shout-out on camera.

  15. Some Larger Significances of the Work of Edwin T. Jaynes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribus, Myron

    2004-04-01

    Edwin T. Jaynes' work touched on the lives of everyone who thought seriously about the meaning to be attached to the word "probability". He explored the uses and abuses of the concept. He described, through numerous examples in many different fields, how we should define our problems, our terms and the evidence to be used in assigning values to probasbilities. He showed us that "probabilities" do not exist "out there" but rather are assigned. In that way he gave new interpretations to Shannon's measure and created the Maximum Entropy Estimate.

  16. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin during underwater zero-gravity training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, pilot for the Gemini 12 space flight, practices egress procedures from mockup of his spacecraft during underwater zero-gravity training. He holds a telescoping hand rail in his left hand which he will use to move from the spacecraft to the Agena Target Docking vehicle (54937); Aldrin prepares to take a 'rest position' during underwater zero-gravity training. His feet are secured to a mockup of the adapter section of the spacecraft by a special foot plate (54938); Aldrin practices work tasks during underwater zero-gravity training. He is placing his feet into special foot plate in adapter section of the spacecraft (54939).

  17. "Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin Campos

    2013-05-23

    Argonne's Edwin Campos has for the last two decades studied weather, and in particular, clouds. His research can help make solar power a more viable option for the U.S. and the world. In this video, Dr. Campos answers questions that were submitted by the public in response to his introductory video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfdoHz.... We will be posting a new "Ask Argonne" video every other month, on various topics. Keep an eye out for your next opportunity to submit a question and see if it gets answered - and if you get a shout-out on camera.

  18. Astronomical instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R. N.

    Indian astronomers have devised a number of instruments and the most important of these is the armillary sphere. The earliest armillary spheres were very simple instruments. Ptolemy in his Almagest enumerates at least three. The simplest of all was the equinoctial armilla. They had also the solstitial armilla which was a double ring, erected in the plane of the meridian with a rotating inner circle. This was used to measure the solar altitude.

  19. Astronomical superhighways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, D. C.

    1995-08-01

    The expansion of data supply has been prolific over the past decade. Publishers of text are only just beginning to consider what the aim of their publications should be in the light of competition from computer databases. Increasingly sources of data are becoming linked into a global network. The modem has revolutionised the way many astronomers interact with the outside world and each other. Access to data sources world wide can now be undertaken with a simple telephone call and a desktop computer.

  20. HUBBLE'S INFRARED GALAXY GALLERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers have used the NASA Hubble Space Telescope to produce an infrared 'photo essay' of spiral galaxies. By penetrating the dust clouds swirling around the centers of these galaxies, the telescope's infrared vision is offering fresh views of star birth. These six images, taken with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, showcase different views of spiral galaxies, from a face-on image of an entire galaxy to a close-up of a core. The top row shows spirals at diverse angles, from face-on, (left); to slightly tilted, (center); to edge-on, (right). The bottom row shows close-ups of the hubs of three galaxies. In these images, red corresponds to glowing hydrogen, the raw material for star birth. The red knots outlining the curving spiral arms in NGC 5653 and NGC 3593, for example, pinpoint rich star-forming regions where the surrounding hydrogen gas is heated by intense ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars. In visible light, many of these regions can be hidden from view by the clouds of gas and dust in which they were born. The glowing hydrogen found inside the cores of these galaxies, as in NGC 6946, may be due to star birth; radiation from active galactic nuclei (AGN), which are powered by massive black holes; or a combination of both. White is light from middle-age stars. Clusters of stars appear as white dots, as in NGC 2903. The galaxy cores are mostly white because of their dense concentration of stars. The dark material seen in these images is dust. These galaxies are part of a Hubble census of about 100 spiral galaxies. Astronomers at Space Telescope Science Institute took these images to fill gaps in the scheduling of a campaign using the NICMOS-3 camera. The data were non-proprietary, and were made available to the entire astronomical community. Filters: Three filters were used: red, blue, and green. Red represents emission at the Paschen Alpha line (light from glowing hydrogen) at a wavelength of 1.87 microns. Blue shows the

  1. How I Became an Astronomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2001-01-01

    Life as an astronomer has taken me to view eclipses of the Sun from the Gaspe' Peninsula to the Pacific Ocean and the China and Coral Seas, and to observe the stars at observatories across the USA and as far south as Chile. I've also enjoyed working with NASA's telescopes in space, including the Hubble Space Telescope and the International Ultraviolet Explorer. It seems funny to reflect that it all began in the Sixth Grade by a fluke - the consequence of a hoax letter whose author I never identified.

  2. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a Rood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope.

  3. Hubble the Rotation of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These three NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the planet Uranus reveal the motion of a pair of bright clouds in the planet's southern hemisphere, and a high altitude haze that forms a 'cap' above the planet's south pole.

    Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These atmospheric details were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, detailed observations of Uranus's atmospheric features have not been possible because the planet is at the resolution limit of ground-based telescopes.

    Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observed Uranus through a filter that is sensitive to light reflected by a pair of high altitude clouds. This makes a high altitude haze over Uranus' south polar region clearly visible, along with a pair of high altitude clouds or plume-type features that are 2500 and 1800 miles (4300 and 3100 kilometers) across, respectively. This sequence of images shows how the clouds (labeled A and B) rotate with the planet during the three hours that elapsed between the first two observations (left and center picture) and the five hours that elapsed between the second pair of observations (center and right picture). Some cloud motion might be due to high altitude winds on the planet. (Observations are indicated in Universal Time.)

    By tracking the motion of high-altitude clouds, the new Hubble observations will allow astronomers to make new measurements of Uranus' rotation period. Based on the previous Voyager observations, Uranus spins on its axis at a faster rate than Earth does, completing one rotation every 7 hours, 14 minutes.

    One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal

  4. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss the top 10 astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  5. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  6. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  7. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  8. Edwin I. Hatch nuclear plant implementation of improved technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, S.R.; Pendry, D.

    1994-12-31

    Edwin I. Hatch nuclear plant consists of two General Electric boiling water reactor/4 units, with a common control room and a common refueling floor. In March 1993, Hatch began conversion of both units` technical specifications utilizing NUREG 1433. The technical specifications amendment request was submitted February 25, 1994. Issuance is scheduled for October 21, 1994, with implementation on March 15, 1994. The current unit-1 technical specifications are in the {open_quotes}custom{close_quotes} format, and the unit-2 technical specifications are in the old standard format. Hatch previously relocated the fire protection and radiological technical specifications requirements. The Hatch conversion will provide consistency between the two units, to the extent practicable.

  9. Edwin Buzz Aldrin At Lunar Landing Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, on July 20,1969, Edwin Buzz Aldrin, shown here with NASA Langley Research Centers Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) Simulator, became one of the first humans to walk on the moon after practicing with the simulator in May of 1969. Training with the simulator, part of Langleys Lunar Research Facility, allowed the Apollo astronauts to study and safely overcome problems that could have occurred during the final 150-foot descent to the surface of the moon. NASA needed such a facility in order to explore and develop techniques for landing the LEM on the moons surface, where the gravity is only one-sixth as strong as on Earth, as well as to determine the limits of human piloting capabilities in the new surroundings. This unique facility, completed in 1965 and now a National Historic Landmark, effectively canceled all but one-sixth of Earths gravitational force by using an overhead cable system.

  10. Galaxy Group Stephan's Quintet Video File HubbleMinute: Battle Royale in Stephan's Quintet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's closeup view of Stephan's Quintet, a group of five galaxies, reveals a string of brighter star clusters that separate like a diamond necklace. Astronomers studying the compact galaxy group Stephan's Quintet have seen creative destruction in the many collisions taking place among its galaxies. This HubbleMinute discusses what astronomers are learning and hope to learn from exploring the quintet.

  11. Galaxy Group Stephan's Quintet Video File HubbleMinute: Battle Royale in Stephan's Quintet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's closeup view of Stephan's Quintet, a group of five galaxies, reveals a string of brighter star clusters that separate like a diamond necklace. Astronomers studying the compact galaxy group Stephan's Quintet have seen creative destruction in the many collisions taking place among its galaxies. This HubbleMinute discusses what astronomers are learning and hope to learn from exploring the quintet.

  12. HUBBLE SPIES MOST DISTANT SUPERNOVA EVER SEEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers pinpointed a blaze of light from the farthest supernova ever seen, a dying star that exploded 10 billion years ago. The detection and analysis of this supernova, called 1997ff, is greatly bolstering the case for the existence of a mysterious form of dark energy pervading the cosmos, making galaxies hurl ever faster away from each other. The supernova also offers the first glimpse of the universe slowing down soon after the Big Bang, before it began speeding up. This panel of images, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, shows the supernova's cosmic neighborhood; its home galaxy; and the dying star itself. Astronomers found this supernova in 1997 during a second look at the northern Hubble Deep Field [top panel], a tiny region of sky first explored by the Hubble telescope in 1995. The image shows the myriad of galaxies Hubble spied when it peered across more than 10 billion years of time and space. The white box marks the area where the supernova dwells. The photo at bottom left is a close-up view of that region. The white arrow points to the exploding star's home galaxy, a faint elliptical. Its redness is due to the billions of old stars residing there. The picture at bottom right shows the supernova itself, distinguished by the white dot in the center. Although this stellar explosion is among the brightest beacons in the universe, it could not be seen directly in the Hubble images. The stellar blast is so distant from Earth that its light is buried in the glow of its host galaxy. To find the supernova, astronomers compared two pictures of the 'deep field' taken two years apart. One image was of the original Hubble Deep Field; the other, the follow-up deep-field picture taken in 1997. Using special computer software, astronomers then measured the light from the galaxies in both images. Noting any changes in light output between the two pictures, the computer identified a blob of light in the 1997 picture

  13. HUBBLE PINPOINTS WHITE DWARFS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, dying stars - called white dwarfs - are giving astronomers a fresh reading on one of the biggest questions in astronomy: How old is the universe? The ancient white dwarfs in M4 are about 12 to 13 billion years old. After accounting for the time it took the cluster to form after the big bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates for the universe's age. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles pinpoint the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within arm's reach of the universe's age. M4 is 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Scorpius. Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 made the observations from January through April 2001. These optical observations were combined to

  14. HUBBLE FINDS NEW DARK SPOT ON NEPTUNE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet. The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared. Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere. Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere. The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops. Credit: H. Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and NASA

  15. Hubble 2006: Science Year in Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R.

    2007-01-01

    The 10 science articles selected for this years annual science report exemplify the range of Hubble research from the Solar System, across our Milky Way, and on to distant galaxies. The objects of study include a new feature on Jupiter, binaries in the Kuiper Belt, Cepheid variable stars, the Orion Nebula, distant transiting planets, lensing galaxies, active galactic nuclei, red-and-dead galaxies, and galactic outflows and jets. Each narrative strives to construct the readers understanding of the topics and issues, and to place the latest research in historical, as well as scientific, context. These essays reveal trends in the practice of astronomy. More powerful computers are permitting astronomers to study ever larger data sets, enabling the discovery of subtle effects and rare objects. (Two investigations created mosaic images that are among the largest produced to date.) Multiwavelength data sets from ground-based telescopes, as well as other great observatories Spitzer and Chandraare increasingly important for holistic interpretations of Hubble results. This yearbook also presents profiles of 12 individuals who work with Hubble, or Hubble data, on a daily basis. They are representative of the many students, scientists, engineers, and other professions who are proudly associated with Hubble. Their stories collectively communicate the excitement and reward of careers related to space science and technology.

  16. Determination of the Hubble constant.

    PubMed

    Freedman, W L; Feng, L L

    1999-09-28

    Establishing accurate extragalactic distances has provided an immense challenge to astronomers since the 1920s. The situation has improved dramatically as better detectors have become available, and as several new, promising techniques have been developed. For the first time in the history of this difficult field, relative distances to galaxies are being compared on a case-by-case basis, and their quantitative agreement is being established. New instrumentation, the development of new techniques for measuring distances, and recent measurements with the Hubble Space telescope all have resulted in new distances to galaxies with precision at the +/-5-20% level. The current statistical uncertainty in some methods for measuring H(0) is now only a few percent; with systematic errors, the total uncertainty is approaching +/-10%. Hence, the historical factor-of-two uncertainty in the value of the H(0) is now behind us. PMID:10500124

  17. Determination of the Hubble constant

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Wendy L.; Feng, Long Long

    1999-01-01

    Establishing accurate extragalactic distances has provided an immense challenge to astronomers since the 1920s. The situation has improved dramatically as better detectors have become available, and as several new, promising techniques have been developed. For the first time in the history of this difficult field, relative distances to galaxies are being compared on a case-by-case basis, and their quantitative agreement is being established. New instrumentation, the development of new techniques for measuring distances, and recent measurements with the Hubble Space telescope all have resulted in new distances to galaxies with precision at the ±5–20% level. The current statistical uncertainty in some methods for measuring H0 is now only a few percent; with systematic errors, the total uncertainty is approaching ±10%. Hence, the historical factor-of-two uncertainty in the value of the H0 is now behind us. PMID:10500124

  18. HUBBLE HERITAGE PROJECT'S FIRST ANNIVERSARY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NGC 2440 is another planetary nebula ejected by a dying star, but it has a much more chaotic structure than NGC 2346. The central star of NGC 2440 is one of the hottest known, with a surface temperature near 200,000 degrees Celsius. The complex structure of the surrounding nebula suggests to some astronomers that there have been periodic oppositely directed outflows from the central star, somewhat similar to that in NGC 2346, but in the case of NGC 2440 these outflows have been episodic, and in different directions during each episode. The nebula is also rich in clouds of dust, some of which form long, dark streaks pointing away from the central star. In addition to the bright nebula, which glows because of fluorescence due to ultraviolet radiation from the hot star, NGC 2440 is surrounded by a much larger cloud of cooler gas which is invisible in ordinary light but can be detected with infrared telescopes. NGC 2440 lies about 4,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Puppis. The Hubble Heritage team made this image from observations of NGC 2440 acquired by Howard Bond (STScI) and Robin Ciardullo (Penn State). Image Credit: NASA/The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI).

  19. STS-31: Hubble HST Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of STS-31 was to deploy the Hubble Space Telescope(HST). This videotape presents a press briefing about the scientific goals of the HST program. The panel members were Dr. Weiler, HST program scientist; Dr. Boggess from NASA Goddard, the Center managing the HST Program; and Dr. Bahcall, President Elect of the American Astronomical Union. Dr. Weiler opened the panel discussion by introducing other HST scientists who were in the audience. Dr. Bahcall explained the four major areas that astronomers hope to better understand using the HST data: (1) The size and age of the universe; (2) quasars as flashlights to understanding other features of the universe; (3) planets around other stars; and (4) weather on the other planets of our Solar System. Other areas in which he hopes to have some understanding are galaxies under quasars, black holes, and missing matter. After his remarks, Dr. Bahcall presented a plaque to Charles Pellerin, who helped initiate the series of astrophysics telescopes. The HST is the first of these "Great Observatories". After the presentation, questions from the press were answered.

  20. HUBBLE CAPTURES DETAILED IMAGE OF URANUS' ATMOSPHERE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere. Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail. The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere. Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal. This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. CREDIT: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Lab) and NASA

  1. HUBBLE: ON THE ASTEROID TRAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers Karl Stapelfeldt and Robin Evans have tracked down about 100 small asteroids by hunting through more than 28,000 archival images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Here is a sample of what they have found: four archival images that show the curved trails left by asteroids. [Top left]: Hubble captured a bright asteroid, with a visual magnitude of 18.7, roaming in the constellation Centaurus. Background stars are shown in white, while the asteroid trail is depicted in blue at top center. The trail has a length of 19 arc seconds. This asteroid has a diameter of one and one-quarter miles (2 kilometers), and was located 87 million miles from Earth and 156 million miles from the sun. Numerous orange and blue specks in this image and the following two images were created by cosmic rays, energetic subatomic particles that struck the camera's detector. [Top right]: Here is an asteroid with a visual magnitude of 21.8 passing a galaxy in the constellation Leo. The trail is seen in two consecutive exposures, the first shown in blue and the second in red. This asteroid has a diameter of half a mile (0.8 kilometers), and was located 188 million miles from Earth and 233 million miles from the sun. [Lower left]: This asteroid in the constellation Taurus has a visual magnitude of 23, and is one of the faintest seen so far in the Hubble archive. It moves from upper right to lower left in two consecutive exposures; the first trail is shown in blue and the second in red. Because of the asteroid's relatively straight trail, astronomers could not accurately determine its distance. The estimated diameter is half a mile (0.8 kilometers) at an Earth distance of 205 million miles and a sun distance of 298 million miles. [Lower right]: This is a broken asteroid trail crossing the outer regions of galaxy NGC 4548 in Coma Berenices. Five trail segments (shown in white) were extracted from individual exposures and added to a cleaned color image

  2. The Hubble Space Telescope at 25: Lessons Learned for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    This year we celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Hubble Space Telescope mission. Astronomy worldwide has been transformed by the discoveries made with Hubble. At this momentous milestone it is important to reflect on the unique successes of Hubble, and the components of that success, as the astronomical community develops facilities and a vision for future major international efforts in scientific space exploration. First, Hubble was envisioned by pioneering astronomers long before its launch, galvanizing support from astronomers, NASA, and governmental leaders for such an innovative and risky endeavor. Second, the interplay of the astronaut program with scientific exploration was paramount to the success of Hubble, not only with the initial dramatic repair mission, but also for the subsequent five servicing missions that kept the observatory perpetually refreshed. Cooperative missions involving astronauts, engineers, and scientists may be critical for constructing and operating large facilities in space in the future. Third, the scientific discoveries of Hubble involve both incredible successes that were planned from the outset as well as new discoveries and innovative uses of the observatory that could not have been planned in advance. Hubble has been used not only to gauge the expansion rate and age of the universe, but has also been a major player in the recent surprise detection of acceleration in that expansion. Hubble has also been key for studying star formation and now the atmospheres of exoplanets; even water has been detected in exoplanetary systems, something never envisioned for Hubble originally. And the incredible evolutionary picture of galaxies has been unveiled through Hubble observations, now enhanced by the revolutionary uses of gravitational lensing to study both dark matter in the lensing clusters, and extremely distant magnified galaxies. Finally, Hubble’s great success in public outreach has made the discoveries of astronomy easily

  3. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  4. Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Alan E.

    2015-06-01

    Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

  5. Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Alan E.

    2014-09-01

    Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

  6. Hubble Finds New Dark Spot on Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet.

    The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared.

    Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere.

    Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere.

    The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  7. Beyond the Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    function (the Hubble relation) of the distance to the object. [3] A supernova at redshift 0.3 was found some years ago at ESO during an earlier search programme (Noergaard-Nielsen et al., Nature, Vol. 339, page 523, 1989) and before now the most distant known supernova was located in a galaxy at redshift 0.458 (Perlmutter et al., Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 440, Page L41, 1995) [4] For comparison, a Type Ia supernova at maximum brightness emits nearly 6,000 million times more light than the Sun. [5] The brighter the supernova at a given redshift is at maximum, the larger is q0. APPENDIX: Messages From the Deceleration Parameter q0 A determination of the deceleration parameter q0 by means of astronomical observations is important because it will allow us to choose between the various current theories of the evolution of the Universe, or at least to eliminate some of them as impossible. If the value turns of to be small, e.g. q0 ~ 0, then there has been only a small decrease (deceleration) of the universal expansion in the past. In this case, a galaxy's velocity does not change much with time and the actual distance is very nearly as indicated from the Hubble relation. Should, however, the value of q0 be significantly larger, then a galaxy's velocity would have been larger in the past than it is now. The velocity we now measure would therefore be ``too high'' (since it refers to the time the light was emitted from the galaxy), and the distance obtained by dividing with the Hubble constant will be too large. The value of q0 is proportional to the total amount of matter in the Universe. A measurement of q0 will establish limits for the amount of ``missing matter'', i.e. the ``invisible'' matter which cannot be directly observed with current observational techniques and which is believed to be the dominant mass component. If q0 is near 0, the expansion of the Universe will continue unabated (the Universe is ``open''). If, however, q0 is larger than 0.5, then the expansion will

  8. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This picture shows a Hubble Space Telescope image of the inner parts of the Crab. The pulsar itself is visible as the left of the pair of stars near the center of the frame. Surrounding the pulsar is a complex of sharp knots and wisp-like features. This image is one of a sequence of Hubble images taken over the course of several months. This sequence shows that the inner part of the Crab Nebula is far more dynamic than previously understood. The Crab literally 'changes it stripes' every few days as these wisps stream away from the pulsar at half the speed of light. The Hubble Space Telescope photo was taken Nov. 5, 1995 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 at a wavelength of around 550 nanometers, in the middle of the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  9. Hubble Legacy Archive And The Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Jessica; Whitmore, B.; Eisenhamer, B.; Bishop, M.; Knisely, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) hosts the Image of the Month (IOTM) Series. The HLA is a joint project of STScI, the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC). The HLA is designed optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing online enhanced Hubble products and advanced browsing capabilities. The IOTM's are created for astronomers and the public to highlight various features within HLA, such as the "Interactive Display", "Footprint” and "Inventory” features to name a few. We have been working with the Office of Public Outreach (OPO) to create a standards based educational module for middle school to high school students of the IOTM: Rings and the Moons of Uranus. The set of Uranus activities are highlighted by a movie that displays the orbit of five of Uranus’ largest satellites. We made the movie based on eight visits of Uranus from 2000-06-16 to 2000-06-18, using the PC chip on the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and filter F850LP (proposal ID: 8680). Students will be engaged in activities that will allow them to "discover” the rings and satellites around Uranus, calculate the orbit of the satellites, and introduces students to analyze real data from Hubble.

  10. Radio Astronomers Set New Standard for Accurate Cosmic Distance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    calibrating the size of the Solar System. The first accurate distance to another star was determined trigonometrically by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel in 1838. Traditional trigonometric methods of measuring celestial distances require extremely accurate measurement of an object's position in the sky. By measuring the apparent shift in an object's position, called parallax, caused by the Earth's journey around the Sun, the distance to the object can be calculated. Until recent years, such measurements were limited by the atmosphere's degrading effect on optical observations. Recently, the Hipparcos satellite has measured stellar distances accurate to within 10 percent out to about 300 light-years. Beyond the range of parallax measurements, astronomers were forced to use indirect methods of estimating distances. Many of these methods make presumptions about the intrinsic brightness of objects, then estimate the distance by measuring how much fainter they appear on Earth. The faintness is presumed to be caused by the distance, according to the inverse-square law (doubling of the distance reduces brightness by a factor of four). Thus, stars of a particular spectral class are all presumed to be of the same intrinsic brightness. Such techniques have been used to estimate distances of stars out to about 25,000 light-years, still not far enough to estimate distance beyond our own Milky Way Galaxy. Early in the 20th Century, Henrietta Leavitt, of Harvard College Observatory, discovered that variable-brightness stars known as Cepheid variables showed a useful property -- the longer their pulsation periods, the brighter they are intrinsically. Once the absolute distance to a few Cepheids was determined, these stars were used to measure distances beyond the Milky Way. In the 1920s, Edwin Hubble used Cepheid-variable distance determinations to show that, contrary to then-prevalent opinion, many "nebulae" were, in fact, other galaxies far distant from our own. Distances determined using

  11. Hubble Captures Detailed Image of Uranus' Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere.

    Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail.

    The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere.

    Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal.

    This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  12. The Hubble Space Telescope high speed photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancitters, G. W., Jr.; Bless, R. C.; Dolan, J. F.; Elliot, J. L.; Robinson, E. L.; White, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope will provide the opportunity to perform precise astronomical photometry above the disturbing effects of the atmosphere. The High Speed Photometer is designed to provide the observatory with a stable, precise photometer with wide dynamic range, broad wavelenth coverage, time resolution in the microsecond region, and polarimetric capability. Here, the scientific requirements for the instrument are examined, the unique design features of the photometer are explored, and the improvements to be expected over the performance of ground-based instruments are projected.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-02-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,0000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  15. BEAUTY IN THE EYE OF HUBBLE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A dying star, IC 4406, dubbed the 'Retina Nebula' is revealed in this month's Hubble Heritage image. Like many other so-called planetary nebulae, IC 4406 exhibits a high degree of symmetry; the left and right halves of the Hubble image are nearly mirror images of the other. If we could fly around IC4406 in a starship, we would see that the gas and dust form a vast donut of material streaming outward from the dying star. From Earth, we are viewing the donut from the side. This side view allows us to see the intricate tendrils of dust that have been compared to the eye's retina. In other planetary nebulae, like the Ring Nebula (NGC 6720), we view the donut from the top. The donut of material confines the intense radiation coming from the remnant of the dying star. Gas on the inside of the donut is ionized by light from the central star and glows. Light from oxygen atoms is rendered blue in this image; hydrogen is shown as green, and nitrogen as red. The range of color in the final image shows the differences in concentration of these three gases in the nebula. Unseen in the Hubble image is a larger zone of neutral gas that is not emitting visible light, but which can be seen by radio telescopes. One of the most interesting features of IC 4406 is the irregular lattice of dark lanes that criss-cross the center of the nebula. These lanes are about 160 astronomical units wide (1 astronomical unit is the distance between the Earth and Sun). They are located right at the boundary between the hot glowing gas that produces the visual light imaged here and the neutral gas seen with radio telescopes. We see the lanes in silhouette because they have a density of dust and gas that is a thousand times higher than the rest of the nebula. The dust lanes are like a rather open mesh veil that has been wrapped around the bright donut. The fate of these dense knots of material is unknown. Will they survive the nebula's expansion and become dark denizens of the space between the stars

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of a sky full of glittering jewels. The HST peered into the Sagittarius star cloud, a narrow dust free region, providing this spectacular glimpse of a treasure chest full of stars.

  17. Correcting Hubble Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, John M.; Sheahen, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the theory behind the workings of the Hubble Space Telescope, the spherical aberration in the primary mirror that caused a reduction in image quality, and the corrective device that compensated for the error. (JRH)

  18. HUBBLE SEES A VAST 'CITY' OF STARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In these pictures, a 'city' of a million stars glitters like a New York City skyline. The images capture the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years from Earth in the southern constellation Tucana. Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers went hunting in this large city for planetary companions: bloated gaseous planets that snuggle close to their parent stars, completing an orbit in a quick three to five days. To their surprise, they found none. This finding suggests that the cluster's environment is too hostile for breeding planets or that it lacks the necessary elements for making them. The picture at left, taken by a terrestrial telescope, shows most of the cluster, a tightly packed group of middle-aged stars held together by mutual gravitational attraction. The box near the center represents the Hubble telescope's view. The image at right shows the Hubble telescope's close-up look at a swarm of 35,000 stars near the cluster's central region. The stars are tightly packed together: They're much closer together than our Sun and its closest stars. The picture, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, depicts the stars' natural colors and tells scientists about their composition and age. For example, the red stars denote bright red giants nearing the end of their lives; the more common yellow stars are similar to our middle-aged Sun. Most of the stars in the cluster are believed to have formed about 10 billion years ago. The bright, blue stars -- thought to be remnants of stellar collisions and mergers -- provide a few rejuvenated, energetic stars in an otherwise old system. The Hubble picture was taken in July 1999. Credits for Hubble image: NASA and Ron Gilliland (Space Telescope Science Institute) Credits for ground-based image: David Malin, c Anglo-Australian Observatory

  19. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbi, Elena; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Van Der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S.; Gordon, K. D.; Gouliermis, D.; Grebel, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D. F.

    2014-01-01

    The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Doradus) in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the most famous objects in astronomy, with first astronomical references being more than 150 years old. Today the Tarantula Nebula and its ionizing cluster R136 are considered one of the few known starburst regions in the Local Group and an ideal test bed to investigate the temporal and spatial evolution of a prototypical starburst on a sub-cluster scale. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is a panchromatic imaging survey of the stellar populations and ionized gas in the Tarantula Nebula that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M⊙). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band Hα images. The program was awarded 60 orbits of HST time and is built on the existing 30 orbits monochromatic proper motion program GO-12499 (PI Lennon). The combination of all these bands provides a unique view of the region: the resulting maps of the Tarantula’s stellar content provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. At the same time access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. We will deliver high-level data products (i.e. star and cluster catalogs, co-registered stacked images). HTTP will become the definitive catalog of the field, and have lasting value for future. HTTP also has an educational and public outreach component aimed to stimulate interest in STEM disciplines among people with visual impairments. “Reach for the Stars: Touch, Look, Listen, Learn” is a free eBook that explains how stars form and

  20. HUBBLE HERITAGE PROJECT'S FIRST ANNIVERSARY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    HH 32 is an excellent example of a 'Herbig-Haro object,' which is formed when young stars eject jets of material back into interstellar space. This object, about 1,000 light-years from Earth, is somewhat older than Hubble's variable nebula, and the wind from the bright central star has already cleared much of the dust out of the central region, thus exposing the star to direct view. Many young stars, like the central object in HH 32, are surrounded by disks of gas and dust that form as additional material is attracted gravitationally from the surrounding nebula. Material in the disk gradually spirals in toward the star and eventually some of it accretes onto the star, increasing its mass. A fraction of the gas, however, is ejected perpendicularly to the disk at speeds near 200 miles per second, and forms two oppositely directed jets. These jets plow into the surrounding nebula, producing strong shock waves that heat the gas and cause it to glow in the light of hydrogen atoms (green) and sulfur ions (blue), several other atoms and ions, and sometimes radiation from the exciting star that is reflected by the surrounding gas (red). This glow is called a Herbig-Haro object, in honor of astronomers George Herbig and Guillermo Haro, who did much of the early work in this area in the 1950's. The jet on the top side, whose furthest extent is about 0.2 light-year from the star, is pointed more nearly in our direction, while the opposite jet on the bottom lies on the far side of the star and is fainter either because it is partially obscured by dust surrounding the star or because there is much less material in front of the star. The Hubble Heritage team (NASA/AURA/STScI) made this image from observations of Herbig-Haro 32 acquired by Salvador Curiel, Jorge Canto, Alejandro Raga, (UNAM), Alberto Noriega-Crespo (IPAC), and collaborators. Image Credit: NASA/The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI).

  1. Astronomical Institute of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Astronomical Institute of Athens is the oldest research institute of modern Greece (it faces the Parthenon). The Astronomical Institute (AI) of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) started its observational projects in 1847. The modern computer and research center are housed at the Penteli Astronomical Station with major projects and international collaborations focused on extragalactic ...

  2. Footprints in the Hubble Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Donaldson, T.; Gillies, K.; Greene, G.; Budavari, T.; Szalay, A.

    2010-01-01

    Footprints are geometric outlines of observations. They are displayed against a background image. The observations of the Hubble Space Telescope are defined by a set of hierarchical geometric regions of instrument coverage: exposures, combined observations, high level science products, and mosaics. In the growing global community of networked applications, the science end-user has several use cases for visualizing and accessing footprint data including scientific proposal preparation, research and analysis of generated science products, and interoperability between archives for correlation of coverage. The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at Space Telescope Science Institute, in coordination with ESO-ECF and CADC, has developed a web based science user interface built on a VO service oriented architecture system to enable varying levels of astronomical community access to science products derived from the HST archive. We describe new features and technologies for the HLA footprint component web browser visualization tool and the underyling footprint services utilized by the HST Astronomers Proposal Tool (APT) in compliance with an IVOA standard data access protocol. The service infrastructure is based on a high performance spherical geometric model developed by Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and database search algorithms co-developed by STScI and JHU.

  3. Lives and Deaths: Biographical Notes on Selections from the Works of Edwin S. Shneidman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.

    2010-01-01

    Edwin S. Shneidman (DOB: 1918-05-13; DOD: 2009-05-15) is a father of contemporary suicidology. His work reflects the intensive study of lives lived and deaths, especially suicides, and is the mirror to his mind. His contributions can be represented by five categories: psychological assessment, logic, Melville and Murray, suicide, and death. His…

  4. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology: Edwin A. Fleishman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology was awarded to Edwin A. Fleishman, for his significant contributions to the science and applications of psychology, which he has sustained over his remarkable career. He is cited for his research, which has had a profound influence on our understanding of human…

  5. Landscapes of Removal and Resistance: Edwin James's Nineteenth-Century Cross-Cultural Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyndgaard, Kyhl

    2010-01-01

    The life of Edwin James (1797-1861) is bookended by the Lewis and Clark expedition (1803-6) and the Civil War (1861-65). James's work engaged key national concerns of western exploration, natural history, Native American relocation, and slavery. His principled stands for preservation of lands and animals in the Trans-Mississippi West and his…

  6. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin in EMU verifies fit of Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), verifies fit of the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) strap length during lunar surface training at the Kennedy Space Center. Aldrin is the prime crew lunar module pilot of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Aldrin's PLSS backpack is attached to a lunar weight simulator.

  7. Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award: Joseph H. Hammer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Joseph H. Hammer, recipient of the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award, is cited for an outstanding research paper whose findings provide important evidence regarding the promise of a male-sensitive approach to mental health marketing and empirically support the inclusion of theory-driven enhancements in group-targeted mental…

  8. Gregory Daniel Webster: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Gregory Daniel Webster, who received the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award "for an outstanding research paper whose findings report that APA journal articles became shorter in length after the year 2000." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115835

  9. Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through…

  10. HST's 10th anniversary, ESA and Hubble : changing our vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    scientists still plan to use Hubble as one of their prime research tools, but they also expect to benefit from synergy between Hubble and the ground-based 8-metre class telescopes that are becoming available to scientists in Europe. Notes for editors The Hubble Space Telescope is an international cooperation project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The partnership agreement between ESA and NASA was signed on 7 October 1977. ESA has provided, among other items, two pairs of solar panels and one of Hubble's scientific instruments (the Faint Object Camera). 15 European scientists are contributing to the science operation of the Hubble Observatory and are currently working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (STScI). In return for this contribution, European astronomers have guaranteed access to 15% of Hubble's observing time. Scientific operation of the Hubble Observatory is the responsibility of the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is run for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). The Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), hosted by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Garching near Munich, Germany, provides support to European Hubble users. ESA and ESO jointly operate ST-ECF. From 27 April 2000 the "European Space Agency Hubble Information Centre" will be available with its services on the World Wide Web at http://hubble.esa.int as part of the recently upgraded ESA Science website http://sci.esa.int For more information, please contact : ESA - Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Press conference Thursday 27 April at 10:30h Location Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) (c/o European Southern Observatory (ESO), K. Schwarzschild-Str. 2, Garching bei München, Germany), Auditorium.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is a view of a solar cell blanket deployed on a water table during the Solar Array deployment test. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Arrays provide power to the spacecraft. The arrays are mounted on opposite sides of the HST, on the forward shell of the Support Systems Module. Each array stands on a 4-foot mast that supports a retractable wing of solar panels 40-feet (12.1-meters) long and 8.2-feet (2.5-meters) wide, in full extension. The arrays rotate so that the solar cells face the Sun as much as possible to harness the Sun's energy. The Space Telescope Operations Control Center at the Goddard Space Center operates the array, extending the panels and maneuvering the spacecraft to focus maximum sunlight on the arrays. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST Solar Array was designed by the European Space Agency and built by British Aerospace. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.

    1991-01-01

    A general overview of the performance and current status of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented. Most key spacecraft subsystems are operating well, equaling or exceeding specifications. Spacecraft thermal properties, power, and communications, are superb. The only spacecraft subsystem to have failed, a gyro, is briefly discussed. All science instruments are functioning extremely well and are returning valuable scientific data. The two significant problems effecting the Hubble Space Telescope science return, the pointing jitter produced by thermally induced bending of the solar array wings and the optical telescope assembly spherical aberration, are discussed and plans to repair both problems are mentioned. The possible restoration of full optical performance of the axial scientific instruments through the use of the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement, currently under study for the 1993 servicing mission, is discussed. In addition, an overview of the scientific performance of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented.

  13. HUBBLE SPIES GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN NEIGHBORING GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has captured a view of a globular cluster called G1, a large, bright ball of light in the center of the photograph consisting of at least 300,000 old stars. G1, also known as Mayall II, orbits the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the nearest major spiral galaxy to our Milky Way. Located 130,000 light-years from Andromeda's nucleus, G1 is the brightest globular cluster in the Local Group of galaxies. The Local Group consists of about 20 nearby galaxies, including the Milky Way. The crisp image is comparable to ground-based telescope views of similar clusters orbiting the Milky Way. The Andromeda cluster, however, is nearly 100 times farther away. A glimpse into the cluster's finer details allow astronomers to see its fainter helium-burning stars whose temperatures and brightnesses show that this cluster in Andromeda and the oldest Milky Way clusters have approximately the same age. These clusters probably were formed shortly after the beginning of the universe, providing astronomers with a record of the earliest era of galaxy formation. During the next two years, astronomers will use Hubble to study about 20 more globular clusters in Andromeda. The color picture was assembled from separate images taken in visible and near-infrared wavelengths taken in July of 1994. CREDIT: Michael Rich, Kenneth Mighell, and James D. Neill (Columbia University), and Wendy Freedman (Carnegie Observatories), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  14. HUBBLE AND KECK DISCOVER GALAXY BUILDING BLOCK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a very small, faint galaxy 'building block' newly discovered by a unique collaboration between ground- and space-based telescopes. Hubble and the 10-meter Keck Telescopes in Hawaii joined forces, using a galaxy cluster which acts as gravitational lens to detect what scientists believe is one of the smallest very distant objects ever found. The galaxy cluster Abell 2218 was used by a team of European and American astronomers led by Richard Ellis (Caltech) in their systematic search for intrinsically faint distant star-forming systems. Without help from Abell 2218's exceptional magnifying power to make objects appear about 30 times brighter, the galaxy building block would have been undetectable. In the image to the right, the object is seen distorted into two nearly identical, very red 'images' by the gravitational lens. The image pair represents the magnified result of a single background object gravitationally lensed by Abell 2218 and viewed at a distance of 13.4 billion light-years. The intriguing object contains only one million stars, far fewer than a mature galaxy, and scientists believe it is very young. Such young star-forming systems of low mass at early cosmic times are likely to be the objects from which present-day galaxies have formed. In the image to the left, the full overview of the galaxy cluster Abell 2218 is seen. This image was taken by Hubble in 1999 at the completion of Hubble Servicing Mission 3A. Credit: NASA, ESA, Richard Ellis (Caltech) and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, France) Acknowledgment: NASA, A. Fruchter and the ERO Team (STScI and ST-ECF)

  15. Armenian Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    A review is given on the Armenian Astronomical Heritage from ancient times to nowadays. Armenian ancient astronomy includes the division of the skies into constellations, rock art, ancient Armenian calendar, ancient observatories (such as Metsamor and Karahunge), records of astronomical events (such as Halley's Comet recorded on Tigranes the Great's coin), ancient names of celestial bodies (planets, stars, constellations), etc. The Medieval Armenian astronomy includes two more calendars, Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage, the record of 1054 Supernova, sky maps by Luca Vanandetsi and Mkhitar Sebastatsi, etc. Modern Armenian astronomical heritage first of all consists of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory founded in 1946 by Viktor Ambartsumian, as well as Yerevan Astronomical Observatory, Armenian Astronomical Society, Armenian Virtual Observatory, Yerevan State University Department of Astrophysics, Astrofizika journal, and brilliant young students who systematically win high positions at International Astronomical Olympiads.

  16. HUBBLE SPIES A REALLY COOL STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a Hubble Space Telescope picture of one of the least massive and coolest stars even seen (upper right). It is a diminutive companion to the K dwarf star called GL 105A (also known as HD 16160) seen at lower left. The binary pair is located 27 light-years away in the constellation Cetus. Based on the Hubble observation, astronomers calculate that the companion, called GL 105C, is 25,000 times fainter than GL 105A in visible light. If the dim companion were at the distance of our Sun, it would be only four times brighter than the full moon. The Hubble observations confirm the detection of GL 105C last year by David Golimowski and his collaborators at Palomar Observatory in California. Although GL 105C was identified before, the Hubble view allows a more precise measurement of the separation between the binary components. Future Hubble observations of the binary orbit will allow the masses of both stars to be determined accurately. The Palomar group estimates that the companion's mass is 8-9 percent of the Sun's mass, which places it near the theoretical lower limit for stable hydrogen burning. Objects below this limit, called brown dwarfs, still 'shine' -- not by thermonuclear energy, but by the energy released through gravitational contraction. Two pictures, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (in PC mode) through different filters (in visible and near-infrared light) show that GL 105C is redder, hence cooler than GL 105A. The surface temperature of GL 105C is not precisely known, but may be as low as 2,600 degrees Kelvin (4,200 degrees Fahrenheit). This image was taken in near-infrared light, on January 5, 1995. GL 105C is located 3.4 arc seconds to the west-northwest of the larger GL 105A. (One arc second equals 1/3600 of a degree.) The bright spikes are caused by diffraction of light within the telescope's optical system, and the brighter white bar is an artifact of the CCD camera, which bleeds along a CCD column when a relatively bright

  17. HUBBLE UNVEILS A GALAXY IN LIVING COLOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this view of the center of the magnificent barred spiral galaxy NGC 1512, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's broad spectral vision reveals the galaxy at all wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared. The colors (which indicate differences in light intensity) map where newly born star clusters exist in both 'dusty' and 'clean' regions of the galaxy. This color-composite image was created from seven images taken with three different Hubble cameras: the Faint Object Camera (FOC), the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). NGC 1512 is a barred spiral galaxy in the southern constellation of Horologium. Located 30 million light-years away, relatively 'nearby' as galaxies go, it is bright enough to be seen with amateur telescopes. The galaxy spans 70,000 light-years, nearly as much as our own Milky Way galaxy. The galaxy's core is unique for its stunning 2,400 light-year-wide circle of infant star clusters, called a 'circumnuclear' starburst ring. Starbursts are episodes of vigorous formation of new stars and are found in a variety of galaxy environments. Taking advantage of Hubble's sharp vision, as well as its unique wavelength coverage, a team of Israeli and American astronomers performed one of the broadest and most detailed studies ever of such star-forming regions. The results, which will be published in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal, show that in NGC 1512 newly born star clusters exist in both dusty and clean environments. The clean clusters are readily seen in ultraviolet and visible light, appearing as bright, blue clumps in the image. However, the dusty clusters are revealed only by the glow of the gas clouds in which they are hidden, as detected in red and infrared wavelengths by the Hubble cameras. This glow can be seen as red light permeating the dark, dusty lanes in the ring. 'The dust obscuration of clusters appears to be an on-off phenomenon,' says Dan Maoz, who headed the

  18. Hubble Tracks Jupiter Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is following dramatic and rapid changes in Jupiter's turbulent atmosphere that will be critical for targeting observations made by the Galileo space probe when it arrives at the giant planet later this year.

    This Hubble image provides a detailed look at a unique cluster of three white oval-shaped storms that lie southwest (below and to the left) of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The appearance of the clouds, as imaged on February 13, 1995 is considerably different from their appearance only seven months earlier. Hubble shows these features moving closer together as the Great Red Spot is carried westward by the prevailing winds while the white ovals are swept eastward. (This change in appearance is not an effect of last July's comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collisions with Jupiter.)

    The outer two of the white storms formed in the late 1930s. In the centers of these cloud systems the air is rising, carrying fresh ammonia gas upward. New, white ice crystals form when the upwelling gas freezes as it reaches the chilly cloud top level where temperatures are -200 degrees Fahrenheit (- 130 degrees Centigrade).

    The intervening white storm center, the ropy structure to the left of the ovals, and the small brown spot have formed in low pressure cells. The white clouds sit above locations where gas is descending to lower, warmer regions. The extent of melting of the white ice exposes varied amounts of Jupiter's ubiquitous brown haze. The stronger the down flow, the less ice, and the browner the region.

    A scheduled series of Hubble observations will help target regions of interest for detailed scrutiny by the Galileo spacecraft, which will arrive at Jupiter in early December 1995. Hubble will provide a global view of Jupiter while Galileo will obtain close-up images of structure of the clouds that make up the large storm systems such as the Great Red Spot and white ovals that are seen in this picture.

    This color picture is assembled from a

  19. Astronomical Data in Undergraduate courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, William I.; Swift, Carrie; Hughes, Kelli; Burke, Christopher J. F.; Burgess, Colin C.; Elrod, Aunna V.; Howard, Brittany; Stahl, Lucas; Matzke, David; Bord, Donald J.

    2016-06-01

    We present status and plans for our ongoing efforts to develop data analysis and problem-solving skills through Undergraduate Astronomy instruction. While our initiatives were developed with UM-Dearborn’s student body primarily in mind, they should be applicable for a wide range of institution and of student demographics. We focus here on two strands of our effort.Firstly, students in our Introductory Astronomy (ASTR 130) general-education course now perform several “Data Investigations”, in which they interrogate the Hubble Legacy Archive to illustrate important course concepts. This was motivated in part by the realization that typical public data archives now include tools to interrogate the observations that are sufficiently accessible that introductory astronomy students can use them to perform real science, albeit mostly at a descriptive level. We are continuing to refine these investigations, and, most importantly, to critically assess their effectiveness in terms of the student learning outcomes we wish to achieve. This work is supported by grant HST-EO-13758, provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.Secondly, at the advanced-undergraduate level, students taking courses in our Astronomy minor are encouraged to gain early experience in techniques of astronomical observation and analysis that are used by professionals. We present two example projects from the Fall 2015 iteration of our upper-division course ASTR330 (The Cosmic Distance Ladder), one involving Solar System measurements, the second producing calibrated aperture photometry. For both projects students conducted, analysed, and interpreted observations using our 0.4m campus telescope, and used many of the same analysis tools as professional astronomers. This work is supported partly from a Research Initiation and Seed grant from the

  20. Astronomers meet in phoenix, recount a stellar year.

    PubMed

    Flam, F

    1993-01-22

    Despite a tightening of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's budget and the trouble with the Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers were starry-eyed over their latest findings, presented at the major annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society, (AAS) January 3 to 7. New images and measurements of stars, galaxies, cosmic microwaves, and mysterious gamma rays, along with an exciting nova explosion, made it a bright year for those working with existing orbiting satellites and ground-based telescopes, though uncertain funding clouds the future. PMID:17734156

  1. HUBBLE SNAPS PICTURE OF REMARKABLE DOUBLE CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The double cluster NGC 1850, found in one of our neighboring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, is an eye-catching object. It is a young, 'globular-like' star cluster -- a type of object unknown in our own Milky Way Galaxy. Moreover, NGC 1850 is surrounded by a filigree pattern of diffuse gas, which scientists believe was created by the explosion of massive stars. NGC 1850, imaged here with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope, is an unusual double cluster that lies in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our own Milky Way. After the 30 Doradus complex, NGC 1850 is the brightest star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It is representative of a special class of objects -- young, globular-like star clusters -- that have no counterpart in our galaxy. The two components of the cluster are both relatively young and consist of a main, globular-like cluster in the center and an even younger, smaller cluster, seen below and to the right, composed of extremely hot, blue stars and, fainter red T-Tauri stars. The main cluster is about 50 million years old; the smaller cluster is only 4 million years old. One of Hubble's main contributions to the study of NGC 1850 is in the investigation of star formation at both ends of the stellar mass scale -- the low-mass T-Tauri stars and the high-mass OB stars. T-Tauri stars are young, solar-class stars that are still forming, so young that they may have not started converting hydrogen to helium, which is how our Sun produces its energy. Instead they radiate energy released by their own gravitational contraction. By investigating these stars astronomers learn about the births and lives of low-mass stars. T-Tauri stars tend to occur in crowded environments, but are themselves faint, making them difficult to distinguish with ground-based telescopes. However, Hubble's fine angular resolution can pick out these stars, even in galaxies other than our own. Hubble also has advantages when studying very massive stars

  2. Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center is the largest astronomical institution in Poland, located in Warsaw and founded in 1956. At present it is a government-funded research institute supervised by the Polish Academy of Sciences and licensed by the government of Poland to award PhD and doctor habilitatus degrees in astronomy and astrophysics. In September 1999 staff included 21 senior scientist...

  3. Astronomers Working in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bless, Robert C.; King, Ivan R.

    1981-01-01

    Four scientists, trained as astronomers, describe their astronomical training and present careers in non-astronomy, industrial jobs. They recount some of the differences, positive and negative, between industrial and academic employment, and comment on some of the attitudes they perceive academic and industrial scientists hold toward each other.…

  4. American Astronomical Society (AAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Founded in 1899, the AAS is a non-profit scientific society created to promote the advancement of astronomy and closely related branches of science. Its membership consists primarily of professional researchers in the astronomical sciences, but also includes educators, students and others interested in the advancement of astronomical research. About 85% of the membership is drawn from North Ame...

  5. Astronomical Software Directory Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Payne, H.; Hayes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report on the development of the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS), a distributable, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URL's indexed for full-text searching.

  6. Lives and deaths: Biographical notes on selections from the works of Edwin S. Shneidman.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    2010-10-01

    Edwin S. Shneidman (DOB: 1918-05-13; DOD: 2009-05-15) is a father of contemporary suicidology. His work reflects the intensive study of lives lived and deaths, especially suicides, and is the mirror to his mind. His contributions can be represented by five categories: psychological assessment, logic, Melville and Murray, suicide, and death. His works on suicide can be further divided into five parts: definitional and theoretical, suicide notes, administrative and programmatic, clinical and community, and psychological autopsy and postvention. In this article, not only are the selected works explicated, but also Dr. Shneidman's rather personal biographical notes are shared to allow the reader to understand one more unique individual's life lived, and his death: Edwin S. Shneidman. PMID:21034210

  7. Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through the use of a mock trial experiment, the research revealed that jurors discounted a juvenile's coerced confession and sometimes used intellectual disability as a mitigating factor. Attribution theory and the discounting principle were used to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying this effect. The paper, titled 'Understanding Jurors' Judgments in Cases Involving Juvenile Defendants,' was published in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law in October 2011 and was the basis for Najdowski's selection as the recipient of the 2012 Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. Bette L. Bottoms, PhD, served as faculty supervisor. Najdowski's Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented. PMID:23163461

  8. HUBBLE PINPOINTS DISTANT SUPERNOVAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Hubble Space Telescope images pinpoint three distant supernovae, which exploded and died billions of years ago. Scientists are using these faraway light sources to estimate if the universe was expanding at a faster rate long ago and is now slowing down. Images of SN 1997cj are in the left hand column; SN 1997ce, in the middle; and SN 1997ck, on the right. All images were taken by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The top row of images are wider views of the supernovae. The supernovae were discovered in April 1997 in a ground-based survey at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Once the supernovae were discovered, the Hubble telescope was used to distinguish the supernovae from the light of their host galaxies. A series of Hubble telescope images were taken in May and June 1997 as the supernovae faded. Six Hubble telescope observations spanning five weeks were taken for each supernova. This time series enabled scientists to measure the brightness and create a light curve. Scientists then used the light curve to make an accurate estimate of the distances to the supernovae. Scientists combined the estimated distance with the measured velocity of the supernova's host galaxy to determine the expansion rate of the universe in the past (5 to 7 billion years ago) and compare it with the current rate. These supernovae belong to a class called Type Ia, which are considered reliable distance indicators. Looking at great distances also means looking back in time because of the finite velocity of light. SN 1997ck exploded when the universe was half its present age. It is the most distant supernova ever discovered (at a redshift of 0.97), erupting 7.7 billion years ago. The two other supernovae exploded about 5 billion years ago. SN 1997ce has a redshift of 0.44; SN 1997cj, 0.50. SN 1997ck is in the constellation Hercules, SN 1997ce is in Lynx, just north of Gemini; and SN 1997cj is in Ursa Major, near the Hubble Deep Field

  9. The Astronomical League

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J. A.; Stevens, B. L.

    2000-10-01

    Founded over fifty years ago, the League is the largest general astronomy society in the world. It is a recognized non-profit, educational organization, promoting the science of astronomy. This includes astronomical education, research, individual observing of the heavens and coordination between the amateur and professional astronomy communities. The Astronomical League publishes a quarterly newsletter, the "Reflector", which details amateur activities and amateur collaboration with professional astronomers. The League's Observing Clubs hone the skills of the amateur astronomer in using their telescopes. These clubs provide awards to encourge observing and learning the sky. More general awards are presented to encourage amateur astronomy and the science of astronomy. These include the National Young Astronomer Award, amd the Horkheimer Planetary Imaging Award. They also sponsor conventions on both the National and Regional levels. This year's national is in Ventura, California, next year, near Washington, D.C.

  10. A Unique test for Hubble's new Solar Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    pairs. The arrays use high efficiency solar cells and an advanced structural system to support the solar panels. Unlike the earlier sets, which roll up like window shades, the new arrays are rigid. ESA provided Hubble's first two sets of solar arrays, and built and tested the motors and electronics of the new set provided by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Now, this NASA/ESA test has benefits that extend beyond Hubble to the world-wide aerospace community. It will greatly expand basic knowledge of the jitter phenomenon. Engineers across the globe can apply these findings to other spacecraft that are subjected to regular, dramatic changes in sunlight and temperature. Note to editors The Hubble Project The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international co-operation between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The partnership agreement between ESA and NASA was signed on 7 October 1977. ESA has provided two pairs of solar panels and one of Hubble's scientific instruments (the Faint Object Camera), as well as a number of other components and supports NASA during routine Servicing Missions to the telescope. In addition, 15 European scientists are working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (STScI), which is responsible for the scientific operation of the Hubble Observatory and is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA. In return, European astronomers have guaranteed access to 15% of Hubble's observing time. The Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) hosted at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Garching bei München, Germany, supports European Hubble users. ESA and ESO jointly operate the ST-ECF.

  11. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin prepares to deploy EASEP on surface of moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, moves toward a position to deploy two components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. The Passive Seismic Experiments Package (PSEP) is in his left hand; and in his right hand is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR3). Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  12. John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) and endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation: A historical vignette

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Waleed A.; Shohoud, Sherien A.; Alsheikh, Tarek M.; Nasim, Khurram

    2014-01-01

    John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) was one of the pioneers of neuroendoscopy and the head of the Department of Neurological Surgery at Columbia University in New York from 1947 to 1949. In this article, we highlight the pioneering and longstanding efforts of John E. Scarff in support of endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation. These efforts represent an important part of the rich history of neuroendoscopy and a legacy to which the current procedure owes a great credit. PMID:25024890

  13. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin poses for photograph beside deployed U.S. flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, poses for a photograph beside the deployed United States flag during Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. The Lunar Module 'Eagle' is on the left. The footprints of the astronauts are clearly visible in the soil of the moon. This picture was taken by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  14. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  15. Obituary: Raymond Edwin White Jr., 1933-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, James William

    2004-12-01

    President Manuel Pachecho recognized Ray's extensive contributions by asking him to serve as Master of Ceremonies at the University commencement. Ray White's research career was not as extensive as his teaching activities, but it was creative. His original specialty was globular star clusters and classes of variable stars within them. He made several catalogs of star clusters and associations, measured the exact centers, the axial ratios and the orientations of around 100 Galactic globular clusters. Certainly, Ray's greatest love in research, especially in later years, was archaeoastronomy. He studied the evidence for astronomical observations of the Sun, Moon and stars from the mound sites of the prehistoric Hohokam inhabitants of the Salt River Valley of Arizona. He was best known for his studies of the Inkaic people of the pre-Columbian, Peruvian Andes. Most of this research involved the grand Machu Picchu site, where he showed (with David Dearborn) that the central tower (the "Torreon") certainly had been used as an Observatory. They also discovered a separate, solstice observatory and named it Intimachay. Characteristically, Ray combined much of his archaeoastronomy research interests with the involvement of undergraduate students and adults through the Earthwatch program in field trips to Machu Picchu. With a Professor in the humanities who was also well known at the University of Arizona, Donna Swaim, Ray introduced a group of undergraduates in summer classes to several archaeoastronomy sites in such countries as Ireland and the British isles. Of course they also gave on-site lectures at art museums, and sites of historical and cultural interest. Like many astronomers, Ray was well traveled. He had sabbaticals at the University of Cambridge in 1980, and at the Dublin Institute of Advanced Study (Dunsink Observatory), Ireland, in 1996-97. The latter was funded by his winning a Fulbright Fellowship, which enabled him to further his studies of the Celtic astronomical

  16. Hubble's Sharpest View Of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The sharpest view of Mars ever taken from Earth was obtained by the recently refurbished NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This stunning portrait was taken with the HST Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 (WFPC2) on March 10, 1997, just before Mars opposition, when the red planet made one of its closest passes to the Earth (about 60 million miles or 100 million km).

    At this distance, a single picture element (pixel) in WFPC2's Planetary Camera spans 13 miles (22 km) on the Martian surface.

    The Martian north pole is at the top (near the center of the bright polar cap) and East is to the right. The center of the disk is at about 23 degrees north latitude, and the central longitude is near 305 degrees.

    This view of Mars was taken on the last day of Martian spring in the northern hemisphere (just before summer solstice). It clearly shows familiar bright and dark markings known to astronomers for more than a century. The annual north polar carbon dioxide frost (dry ice) cap is rapidly sublimating (evaporating from solid to gas), revealing the much smaller permanent water ice cap, along with a few nearby detached regions of surface frost. The receding polar cap also reveals the dark, circular sea of sand dunes that surrounds the north pole (Olympia Planitia).

    Other prominent features in this hemisphere include Syrtis Major Planitia, the large dark feature seen just below the center of the disk. The giant impact basin Hellas (near the bottom of the disk) is shrouded in bright water ice clouds. Water ice clouds also cover several great volcanos in the Elysium region near the eastern edge of the planet (right). A diffuse water ice haze covers much of the Martian equatorial region as well.

    The WFPC2 was used to monitor dust storm activity to support the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Missions, which are currently en route to Mars. Airborne dust is most easily seen in WFPC2's red and near-infrared images. Hubble's 'weather report' from these images

  17. Hubble's unsung heroes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    2008-12-01

    Zimmerman, a science writer and historian of space exploration, brings back to life those long-forgotten scientists and engineers who engaged in a decades-long campaign to bring Hubble to the launch pad. The building of the telescope was a relay race, or perhaps an obstacle course, in which advancing along the path required having the right person at the right time and place.

  18. The Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Neal

    2015-09-01

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H_0 values of around 72-74 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, with typical errors of 2-3 km s^-1 Mpc^-1. This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67-68 km s^-1 Mpc^-1 and typical errors of 1-2 km s^-1 Mpc^-1. The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  19. HUBBLE SHOWS EXPANSION OF ETA CARINAE DEBRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The furious expansion of a huge, billowing pair of gas and dust clouds are captured in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope comparison image of the supermassive star Eta Carinae. To create the picture, astronomers aligned and subtracted two images of Eta Carinae taken 17 months apart (April 1994, September 1995). Black represents where the material was located in the older image, and white represents the more recent location. (The light and dark streaks that make an 'X' pattern are instrumental artifacts caused by the extreme brightness of the central star. The bright white region at the center of the image results from the star and its immediate surroundings being 'saturated' in one of the images.)Photo Credit: Jon Morse (University of Colorado), Kris Davidson (University of Minnesota), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  20. Odessa Astronomical Calendar-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karetnikov, V. G.; Mihalchuk, V. V.; Bazey, A. A.; Andronov, I. L.; Volyanskaya, M. Yu.; Garbuzov, G. A.; Komarov, N. S.; Koshkin, N. I.; Pozigun, V. A.; Ryabov, M. I.

    2002-10-01

    The Odessa Astronomical Calendar is intended for a wide range of readers, who are interested in the problems of astronomy and in the applications of the astronomical data. The items, of information, assembled in the Calendar may be useful to professional workers requiring a definition of time of sets and rises of the Sun and the Moon and approach of twilights, as well as to the amateurs astronomers and other citizens. The Calendar may be used for astronomical education at schools, hymnasia, lycea, colleges and institutes. In this issue of the Calendar, besides a description of the main astronomical events of the year and the tables of the positions of celestial bodies and time of observations of astronomical events on the celestial sphere, there are also included sketches on interesting problems of astronomy and, as the appendix, the instruction on observations of comets. The Odessa Astronomical Calendar is published in Russian and is intended for the inhabitants of southern region of Ukraine. The Calendar is published every year with a constant part and series of articles, which change every year.

  1. The Astronomers' Data Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, R. P.

    2006-08-01

    A draft manifesto is presented for discussion. The manifesto sets out guidelines to which the astronomical community should aspire to maximise the rate and cost-effectiveness of scientific discovery. The challenges are not underestimated, but can still be overcome if astronomers, observatories, journals, data centres, and the Virtual Observatory Alliance work together to overcome the hurdles. The key points of the manifesto are: 1. All major tables, images, and spectra published in journals should appear in the astronomical data centres. 2. All data obtained with publicly-funded observatories should, after appropriate proprietary periods, be placed in the public domain. 3. In any new major astronomical construction project, the data processing, storage, migration, and management requirements should be built in at an early stage of the project plan, and costed along with other parts of the project. 4. Astronomers in all countries should have the same access to astronomical data and information. 5. Legacy astronomical data can be valuable, and high-priority legacy data should be preserved and stored in digital form in the data centres. 6. The IAU should work with other international organisations to achieve our common goals and learn from our colleagues in other fields.

  2. New Hubble Servicing Mission to upgrade instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-10-01

    its history. Astronomers are requesting five times more observing time than that available to them” says Bob Fosbury, Head of the HST European Coordinating Facility. “The new instruments will open completely new windows on the universe. Extraordinary observations are planned over the coming years, including some of the most fascinating physical phenomena ever seen: investigation of planets around other stars, digging deeper into the ancestry of our Milky Way and above all gaining a much deeper insight into the evolution of the universe.” Around the same time that the Shuttle lifts off for the Servicing Mission, ESA will launch Herschel, the orbiting telescope with the largest mirror ever deployed in space. Herschel will complement Hubble in the infrared part of the spectrum and is an ESA mission with NASA participation. Instead of being left at the mercy of its aging instruments, the Hubble Space Telescope will now be given the new lease of life it deserves. In the hope that more discoveries from Hubble will help explain more of the mysteries of the universe, astronauts will make this fifth trip to the world’s most powerful visual light observatory and increase its lifespan and scientific power. Hubble’s direct successor, the James Webb Space Telescope - a collaborative project being undertaken by NASA, ESA and the Canadian Space Agency - is scheduled for launch in 2013. The Servicing Mission just decided on will reduce the gap between the end of the HST mission and the start of the JWST mission. Notes for editors The Hubble Space Telescope project is being carried out by ESA and NASA on the basis of international cooperation.

  3. The Lifetimes of Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2015-08-01

    For members of the American Astronomical Society, I collected data on their lifetimes from (1) 489 obituaries published in 1991-2015, (2) about 127 members listed as deceased but without published obituaries, and (3) a sample of AAS members without obituaries or not known to the AAS as being deceased. These show that the most frequent lifetimes is 85 years. Of 674 deceased members with known lifetimes, 11.0 ± 1.3% lived to be 90 or more years. In comparison to the astronomers, the most frequent lifetime for the general population is 77 years, showing that astronomers live an average of 8 years longer than the general population.

  4. Astronomical Video Suites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco Salgado, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Astronomer and visual artist Jose Francisco Salgado has directed two astronomical video suites to accompany live performances of classical music works. The suites feature awe-inspiring images, historical illustrations, and visualizations produced by NASA, ESA, and the Adler Planetarium. By the end of 2009, his video suites Gustav Holst's The Planets and Astronomical Pictures at an Exhibition will have been presented more than 40 times in over 10 countries. Lately Salgado, an avid photographer, has been experimenting with high dynamic range imaging, time-lapse, infrared, and fisheye photography, as well as with stereoscopic photography and video to enhance his multimedia works.

  5. America's foremost early astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubincam, David Parry; Rubincam, Milton, II

    1995-05-01

    The life of 18th century astronomer, craftsman, and patriot David Rittenhouse is detailed. As a craftsman, he distinguished himself as one of the foremost builders of clocks. He also built magnetic compasses and surveying instruments. The finest examples of his craftsmanship are considered two orreries, mechanical solar systems. In terms of astronomical observations, his best-known contribution was his observation of the transit of Venus in 1769. Rittenhouse constructed the first diffraction grating. Working as Treasurer of Pennsylvania throughout the Revolution, he became the first director of the Mint in 1792. Astronomical observations in later life included charting the position of Uranus after its discovery.

  6. The Edwin Smith Papyrus: the birth of analytical thinking in medicine and otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Marc; Shaner, Arlene; Schaefer, Steven D

    2006-02-01

    The Edwin Smith Papyrus, discovered in 1862 outside of Luxor, Egypt, is the oldest known surgical text in the history of civilization. The surviving scroll, a copy of an earlier text from around 3,000 B.C., gives us remarkable insight into the medical practice of ancient Egyptians in the Nile River bed during the dawn of civilization. The Papyrus is divided into 48 cases, most of which describe traumatic injuries. The text instructs the physician to examine the patient and look for revealing physical signs that may indicate the outcome of the injury. Although in modern medicine we take for granted that the use of physical examination and rational thinking lead to an accurate conclusion, 5,000 years ago, this was extraordinary. The Edwin Smith Papyrus cast aside the prevailing magic and mysticism of that time in favor of logic and deductive reasoning. As Egyptian civilization declined during the next millennium, the teachings of the Papyrus would be lost. It would not be until 300 B.C. when Hippocrates and his disciples in ancient Greece would once again revive logic in medical thinking and teaching. It is believed that the ancient Greeks had knowledge of the contents of the Edwin Smith Papyrus and its teachings and used them as the basis for their writings. As Europe entered the Dark Ages, so did medicine yet again, reverting to spells and prayers instead of judgment and reason. Although Hippocrates teachings were recognized by some scholars during the Middle Ages, they did not make up the basis for mainstream medical knowledge. With the dawn of the Renaissance, medicine would finally purge itself of its past supernatural foundation. Hippocratic teachings were used to form the basis of modern medicine, and medical pioneers in the 17 century studied the ancient Greek texts as the origin for their ideas. Many of the concepts physicians and patients today take as common knowledge originated in the Edwin Smith Papyrus. The authors attempt to uncover some of these

  7. Obituary: Raymond Edwin White Jr., 1933-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, James William

    2004-12-01

    President Manuel Pachecho recognized Ray's extensive contributions by asking him to serve as Master of Ceremonies at the University commencement. Ray White's research career was not as extensive as his teaching activities, but it was creative. His original specialty was globular star clusters and classes of variable stars within them. He made several catalogs of star clusters and associations, measured the exact centers, the axial ratios and the orientations of around 100 Galactic globular clusters. Certainly, Ray's greatest love in research, especially in later years, was archaeoastronomy. He studied the evidence for astronomical observations of the Sun, Moon and stars from the mound sites of the prehistoric Hohokam inhabitants of the Salt River Valley of Arizona. He was best known for his studies of the Inkaic people of the pre-Columbian, Peruvian Andes. Most of this research involved the grand Machu Picchu site, where he showed (with David Dearborn) that the central tower (the "Torreon") certainly had been used as an Observatory. They also discovered a separate, solstice observatory and named it Intimachay. Characteristically, Ray combined much of his archaeoastronomy research interests with the involvement of undergraduate students and adults through the Earthwatch program in field trips to Machu Picchu. With a Professor in the humanities who was also well known at the University of Arizona, Donna Swaim, Ray introduced a group of undergraduates in summer classes to several archaeoastronomy sites in such countries as Ireland and the British isles. Of course they also gave on-site lectures at art museums, and sites of historical and cultural interest. Like many astronomers, Ray was well traveled. He had sabbaticals at the University of Cambridge in 1980, and at the Dublin Institute of Advanced Study (Dunsink Observatory), Ireland, in 1996-97. The latter was funded by his winning a Fulbright Fellowship, which enabled him to further his studies of the Celtic astronomical

  8. HUBBLE CAPTURES VIEW OF SUPERNOVA BLAST IN REMOTE GALAXY CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In March 1996, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 just happened to be pointed at the faraway galaxy cluster MS1054-0321 when it captured the light from an exploding star, called supernova 1996CL. The cluster is 8 billion light-years from Earth. The Hubble telescope can clearly distinguish the supernova light from the glow of its parent galaxy. The larger image on the left shows the entire cluster of galaxies. The galaxy where the supernova was discovered is located in the boxed area. The bright knot of light from the supernova and the fainter glow from the parent galaxy are shown in the inset image on the right. The arrow points to the light from the supernova explosion. The supernova was discovered by members of the Supernova Cosmology Project, led by Saul Perlmutter of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in California. Perlmutter and his team made this discovery using images from the Hubble telescope and ground-based observatories. The Hubble data were furnished by Megan Donahue of the Space Telescope Science Institute. Donahue was using the Hubble telescope to study galaxy cluster MS1054-0321. Members of the Supernova Project use ground-based telescopes to search for distant supernovae, such as 1996CL, by comparing multiple, wide-field images of galaxies and clusters of galaxies taken at different times. Supernovae are named for the year and the order in which they are found. Supernova 1996CL is a Type Ia supernova. Exploding stars of this type are particularly useful for cosmology because they share a standard maximum brightness. By measuring this brightness, astronomers can determine a Type Ia's distance from Earth. Astronomers use this information to measure the expansion rate of the universe.

  9. HUBBLE SEES MINI-COMET FRAGMENTS FROM COMET LINEAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [lower right] In one stunning Hubble picture the fate of the mysteriously vanished solid nucleus of Comet LINEAR has been settled. The Hubble picture shows that the comet nucleus has been reduced to a shower of glowing 'mini-comets' resembling the fiery fragments from an exploding aerial firework. This is the first time astronomers have ever gotten a close-up look at what may be the smallest building blocks of cometary nuclei, the icy solid pieces called 'cometesimals', which are thought to be less than 100 feet across. The farthest fragment to the left, which is now very faint, may be the remains of the parent nucleus that fragmented into the cluster of smaller pieces to the right. The comet broke apart around July 26, when it made its closest approach to the Sun. The picture was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on August 5, 2000, when the comet was at a distance of 64 million miles (102 million kilometers) from Earth. Credit: NASA, Harold Weaver (the Johns Hopkins University), and the HST Comet LINEAR Investigation Team [upper left] A ground-based telescopic view (2.2-meter telescope) of Comet LINEAR taken on August 5, at nearly the same time as the Hubble observations. The comet appears as a diffuse elongated cloud of debris without any visible nucleus. Based on these images, some astronomers had concluded that the ices in the nucleus had completely vaporized, leaving behind a loose swarm of dust. Hubble's resolution was needed to pinpoint the remaining nuclei (inset box shows HST field of view as shown in lower right). Credit: University of Hawaii

  10. Observing Campaign on Hubble's First Variable in M31: M31_V1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2010-07-01

    An observing campaign is being carried out on M31_V1, the first variable star discovered in M31 by Edwin Hubble. The Hubble Heritage Team, with Dr. Keith Noll (STScI) as P.I., plans to observe M31_V1 with HST, and needs to know the phase of this Cepheid variable. Although basic parameters are known for this star, no recent photometry exists, so observations are required to generate current phase information. In 1925 Edwin Hubble published a note in The Observatory (vol. 48, 139) on "Cepheids in Spiral Nebulae." In 1929, he published a seminal paper in the Astrophysical Journal (vol. 69, 103), "A Spiral Nebula as a Stellar System, Messier 31." This paper discussed in detail the galaxy and the 50 variable stars he found in its outer regions. Hubble remarked that the 40 Cepheids found showed the period-luminosity relationship in a conspicuous manner, enabling distance to the galaxy to be calculated. Furthermore, he said that the results of his calculations supported the value determined by Harlow Shapley of the zero point of the period-luminosity relation. This confirmation of the zero point had significant implications for future extragalactic distance determinations. As the first of the variables on Hubble's list, V1, a Cepheid, is a historical curiosity. M31_V1 is magnitude 19.4V. B-V = +1.28, period is 30.41 days, and amplitude ~ 1.2 magnitudes in B, likely smaller in V. Five nights of data obtained by Arne Henden, AAVSO, show that the variable appears to have peaked on 2010 June 19 at about R=18 and as of July 2 was on its way down. It is recommended that observers use either an Rc filter or observe unfiltered. About an hour or more of exposure per integration will be required to reach S/N = 20, depending on your equipment and sky brightness; multiple exposures and stacking might be necessary to avoid saturating the background. The field is not crowded, and the variable itself is not blended. Contamination from the M31 background should n! ot be prohibitive

  11. Decoding Astronomical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durisen, Richard H.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    Two astronomy professors, using the Decoding the Disciplines process, help their students use abstract theories to analyze light and to visualize the enormous scale of astronomical concepts. (Contains 5 figures.)

  12. An astronomical murder?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenkiy, Ari

    2010-04-01

    Ari Belenkiy examines the murder of Hypatia of Alexandria, wondering whether problems with astronomical observations and the date of Easter led to her becoming a casualty of fifth-century political intrigue.

  13. HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into a neighboring galaxy to reveal details of the formation of new stars. Hubble's target was a newborn star cluster within the Small Magellanic Cloud, a small galaxy that is a satellite of our own Milky Way. The new images show young, brilliant stars cradled within a nebula, or glowing cloud of gas, cataloged as N 81. These massive, recently formed stars inside N 81 are losing material at a high rate, sending out strong stellar winds and shock waves and hollowing out a cocoon within the surrounding nebula. The two most luminous stars, seen in the Hubble image as a very close pair near the center of N 81, emit copious ultraviolet radiation, causing the nebula to glow through fluorescence. Outside the hot, glowing gas is cooler material consisting of hydrogen molecules and dust. Normally this material is invisible, but some of it can be seen in silhouette against the nebular background, as long dust lanes and a small, dark, elliptical-shaped knot. It is believed that the young stars have formed from this cold matter through gravitational contraction. Few features can be seen in N 81 from ground-based telescopes, earning it the informal nick-name 'The Blob.' Astronomers were not sure if just one or a few hot stars were embedded in the cloud, or if it was a stellar nursery containing a large number of less massive stars. Hubble's high-resolution imaging shows the latter to be the case, revealing that numerous young, white-hot stars---easily visible in the color picture---are contained within N 81. This crucial information bears strongly on theories of star formation, and N 81 offers a singular opportunity for a close-up look at the turbulent conditions accompanying the birth of massive stars. The brightest stars in the cluster have a luminosity equal to 300,000 stars like our own Sun. Astronomers are especially keen to study star formation in the Small Magellanic

  14. Colliding Galaxies: Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-10-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope looks deep within the violent center where the two Antennae Galaxies were merging. The Hubble's high resolution and sensitivity reveals the birth of young star clusters formed in the collision. New Hubble images of young star clusters help investigators put the evolutionary sequence into the right order. The Hubble Space Telescope images are: (1) zoom into the antennae galaxies; (2) galaxy merger evolution sequence; (3) the formation of the antennae pair; and (4) artist's conception of the collision of Milky-Way Galaxy with the Andromeda.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Spies on 'Black Eye'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Residing roughly 17 million light years from Earth, in the northern constellation Coma Berenices, is a merged star system known as Messier 64 (M64). First cataloged in the 18th century by the French astronomer Messier, M64 is a result of two colliding galaxies and has an unusual appearance as well as bizarre internal motions. It has a spectacular dark band of absorbing dust in front of its bright nucleus, lending to it the nickname of the 'Black Eye' or 'Evil Eye' galaxy. Fine details of the dark band can be seen in this image of the central portion of M64 obtained by the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Appearing to be a fairly normal pinwheel-shaped galaxy, the M64 stars are rotating in the same direction, clockwise, as in the majority of galaxies. However, detailed studies in the 1990's led to the remarkable discovery that the interstellar gas in the outer regions of M64 rotates in the opposite direction from the gas and stars in the irner region. Astronomers believe that the oppositely rotating gas arose when M64 absorbed a satellite galaxy that collided with it, perhaps more than one billion years ago. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

  16. Hubble's deepest view ever of the Universe unveils earliest galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Both images reveal some galaxies that are too faint to be seen by ground-based telescopes, or even in Hubble's previous faraway looks, called the Hubble Deep Fields (HDFs), taken in 1995 and 1998. The HUDF field contains an estimated 10,000 galaxies in a patch of sky just one-tenth the diameter of the full Moon. Besides the rich harvest of classic spiral and elliptical galaxies, there is a zoo of oddball galaxies littering the field. Some look like toothpicks; others like links on a bracelet. A few appear to be interacting. Their strange shapes are a far cry from the majestic spiral and elliptical galaxies we see today. These oddball galaxies chronicle a period when the Universe was more chaotic. Order and structure were just beginning to emerge. The combination of ACS and NICMOS images will be used to search for galaxies that existed between 400 and 800 million years after the Big Bang (in cosmological terms this corresponds to a 'redshift' range of 7 to 12). Astronomers around the world will use these data to understand whether in this very early stages the Universe appears to be the same as it did when the cosmos was between 1000 and 2000 million years old. Hubble's ACS allows astronomers to see galaxies two to four times fainter than Hubble could view previously, but the NICMOS sees even farther than the ACS. The NICMOS reveals the farthest galaxies ever seen because the expanding Universe has stretched their light into the near-infrared portion of the spectrum. The ACS uncovered galaxies that existed 800 million years after the Big Bang (at a redshift of 7). But the NICMOS might have spotted galaxies that lived just 400 million years after the birth of the cosmos (at a redshift of 12). Just like the previous HDFs, the new data are expected to galvanise the astronomical community and lead to dozens of research papers that will offer new insights into the birth and evolution of galaxies. This will hold the record as the deepest

  17. Zero CTE Glass in the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John

    2008-01-01

    Orbiting high above the turbulence of the Earth's atmosphere, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has provided breathtaking views of astronomical objects never before seen in such detail. The steady diffraction-limited images allow this medium-size telescope to reach faint galaxies fainter than 30th stellar magnitude. Some of these galaxies are seen as early as 2 billion years after the Big Bang in a 13.7 billion year old universe. Up until recently, astronomers assumed that all of the laws of physics and astronomy applied back then as they do today. Now, using the discovery that certain supernovae are "standard candles," astronomers have found that the universe is expanding faster today than it was back then: the universe is accelerating in its expansion. The Hubble Space Telescope is a two-mirror Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 2.4m aperture in low earth orbit. The mirrors are made of Ultra Low Expansion (ULE) glass by Corning Glass Works. This material allows rapid figuring and outstanding performance in space astronomy applications. The paper describes how the primary mirror was mis-figured in manufacturing and later corrected in orbit. Outstanding astronomical images taken over the last 17 years show how the application of this new technology has advanced our knowledge of the universe. Not only has the acceleration of the expansion been discovered, the excellent imaging capability of HST has allowed gravitational lensing to become a tool to study the distribution of dark matter and dark energy in distant clusters of galaxies. The HST has touched practically every field of astronomy enabling astronomers to solve many long-standing puzzles. It will be a long time until the end of the universe when the density is near zero and all of the stars have long since evaporated. It is remarkable that humankind has found the technology and developed the ability to interpret the measurements in order to understand this dramatic age we live in.

  18. Hubble illuminates the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    1992-01-01

    Latest observations by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are described, including the first 'parallel' observations (on January 6, 1992) by the two of the Hubble's instruments of two different targets at the same time. On this date, the faint-object camera made images of the quasar 3C 273 in Virgo, while the wide-field and planetary camera recorded an adjacent field. The new HST images include those of the nucleus and the jet of M85, the giant elliptical galaxy at the heart of the Virgo cluster, and what appears to be a black hole of mass 2.6 billion solar masses in M87, and an image of N66, a planetary nebula in the LMC. Other images yield evidence of 'blue stragglers' in the core of 47 Tucanae, a globular cluster about 16,000 light-years from earth. The Goddard spectrograph recorded the spectrum of the star Capella at very high wavelength resolution, which made it possible to measure deuterium from the Big Bang.

  19. The Carnegie Hubble Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Vicky; Mnso, Andy; Persson, S. E.; Rigby, Jane; Sturch, Laura; Stetson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of and preliminary results from an ongoing comprehensive program that has a goal of determining the Hubble constant to a systematic accuracy of 2%. As part of this program, we are currently obtaining 3.6 micron data using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer, and the program is designed to include JWST in the future. We demonstrate that the mid-infrared period-luminosity relation for Cepheids at 3.6 microns is the most accurate means of measuring Cepheid distances to date. At 3.6 microns, it is possible to minimize the known remaining systematic uncertainties in the Cepheid extragalactic distance scale. We discuss the advantages of 3.6 micron observations in minimizing systematic effects in the Cepheid calibration of the Hubble constant including the absolute zero point, extinction corrections, and the effects of metallicity on the colors and magnitudes of Cepheids. We are undertaking three independent tests of the sensitivity of the mid-IR Cepheid Leavitt Law to metallicity, which when combined will allow a robust constraint on the effect. Finally, we are providing a new mid-IR Tully-Fisher relation for spiral galaxies.

  20. Women Astronomers: Australia: Women astronomers in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2001-08-01

    Ragbir Bhathal summarizes the role played by women astronomers in Australia's astronomy, now and in the past. Australia has a great tradition in astronomy, from the early observations of Aboriginal people through the colonial drive to explore and understand, culminating in the established excellence of research there today. Women have contributed to this achievement in no small way, yet their contribution has been unremarked, if not ignored. Here I summarize the historical and present state of affairs and look forward to a brighter and more equitable future.

  1. HUBBLE SNAPSHOT CAPTURES LIFE CYCLE OF STARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a nearly face-on view of a swirling disk of dust and gas surrounding a developing star called AB Aurigae. The Hubble telescope image, taken in visible light by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, shows unprecedented detail in the disk, including clumps of dust and gas that may be the seeds of planet formation. Normally, a young star's bright light prevents astronomers from seeing material closer to it. That's why astronomers used a coronograph in these two images of AB Aurigae to block most of the light from the star. The rest of the disk material is illuminated by light reflected from the gas and dust surrounding the star. The image on the left represents the best ground-based coronographic observation of AB Aurigae. Paul Kalas of the Space Telescope Science Institute took the image with the University of Hawaii's 2.2-meter telescope. The telescope's coronograph eclipsed a 33.5-billion-mile (53.6-billion-kilometer) area centered on the star. This area is nine times larger than our solar system. The picture shows that the star resides in a region of dust clouds - the semicircular-shaped material to the left of the star. The Hubble telescope image on the right shows a windowpane-shaped occulting bar -- the dark bands running vertically through the middle of the image and horizontally across the upper part of it. The occulting bar covers the innermost part of the disk and star, about 7.1 billion miles (11.5 billion kilometers) or 1.4 times our solar system's diameter. The diagonal lines are the remnants of the diffraction spikes produced in Hubble telescope images of bright stars. The disk is extremely wide: its diameter is roughly 1,300 times Earth's distance from the Sun. The disk material seen in this image is at a distance equivalent to well beyond Pluto's orbit. One faint background star is visible at 5 o'clock. The star's disk shows a wealth of structure, with bright spiral-shaped bands from 9 o'clock to 6 o

  2. Cosmology: From Hubble to HST

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Michael S.

    1997-03-01

    The Hubble constant sets the size and age of the Universe, and, together with independent determinations of the age, provides a consistency check of the standard cosmology. The Hubble constant also provides an important test of our most attractive paradigm for extending the standard cosmology, inflation and cold dark matter.

  3. HUBBLE OBSERVES THE LOST ANCESTORS TO OUR MILKY WAY GALAX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of the central portion of a remote cluster of galaxies (CL 0939+4713) as it looked when the universe was two-thirds of its present age. Hubble's high resolution allows astronomers to study, for the first time, the shapes of galaxies as they were long ago. The Space Telescope pictures are sharp enough to distinguish between various forms of spiral galaxies. Most of the spiral, or disk, galaxies have odd features, suggesting they were easily distorted within the environment of the rich cluster. Hubble reveals a number of mysterious 'fragments' of galaxies interspersed through the cluster. The HST picture confirms that billions of years ago, clusters of galaxies contained not only the types of galaxies dominating their descendant clusters today, but also several times as many spiral galaxies. These spiral galaxies have since disappeared through mergers and disruptions, as evident in the Hubble image. This visible light image was taken with HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in Wide Field Camera mode, on January 10 and 12, 1994. Credit: Alan Dressler (Carnegie Institution) and NASA

  4. HUBBLE FINDS A BARE BLACK HOLE POURING OUT LIGHT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has provided a never-before-seen view of a warped disk flooded with a torrent of ultraviolet light from hot gas trapped around a suspected massive black hole. [Right] This composite image of the core of the galaxy was constructed by combining a visible light image taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), with a separate image taken in ultraviolet light with the Faint Object Camera (FOC). While the visible light image shows a dark dust disk, the ultraviolet image (color-coded blue) shows a bright feature along one side of the disk. Because Hubble sees ultraviolet light reflected from only one side of the disk, astronomers conclude the disk must be warped like the brim of a hat. The bright white spot at the image's center is light from the vicinity of the black hole which is illuminating the disk. [Left] A ground-based telescopic view of the core of the elliptical galaxy NGC 6251. The inset box shows Hubble Space Telescope's field of view. The galaxy is 300 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Minor. Photo Credit: Philippe Crane (European Southern Observatory), and NASA

  5. The Edwin Smith papyrus: a clinical reappraisal of the oldest known document on spinal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Gonzalo M.; Burridge, Alwyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Dating from the seventeenth century b.c. the Edwin Smith papyrus is a unique treatise containing the oldest known descriptions of signs and symptoms of injuries of the spinal column and spinal cord. Based on a recent “medically based translation” of the Smith papyrus, its enclosed treasures in diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic reasoning are revisited. Although patient demographics, diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options considerably changed over time, the documented rationale on spinal injuries can still be regarded as the state-of-the-art reasoning for modern clinical practice. PMID:20697750

  6. Connor H. G. Patros: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2015 recipient is Connor H. G Patros. Patros was chosen for "an excellent research paper that examines the complex relationship between working memory, choice-impulsivity, and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotype." Patros's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618965

  7. Maximizing the Scientific Return and Legacy of the Hubble Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has pushed the forefront of astrophysics for over 25 years. Thanks to multiple upgrades over the years and innovative improvements in ground operations and observing techniques, the observatory is in excellent condition and is more scientifically powerful now than ever before. Yet with no more Space Shuttle servicing missions, it is critical at this juncture in the mission to maximize the near-term science return from the observatory, while simultaneously making sure we collect the most important data that only HST can obtain for Hubble's legacy archive and for preparation of future missions like JWST. I will discuss Hubble's greatest scientific achievements and, based on vigorous discussions with the astronomical community, the highest priority scientific goals for Hubble in its remaining years.

  8. The Hubble constant.

    PubMed

    Tully, R B

    1993-06-01

    Five methods of estimating distances have demonstrated internal reproducibility at the level of 5-20% rms accuracy. The best of these are the cepheid (and RR Lyrae), planetary nebulae, and surface-brightness fluctuation techniques. Luminosity-line width and Dn-sigma methods are less accurate for an individual case but can be applied to large numbers of galaxies. The agreement is excellent between these five procedures. It is determined that Hubble constant H0 = 90 +/- 10 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16) m]. It is difficult to reconcile this value with the preferred world model even in the low-density case. The standard model with Omega = 1 may be excluded unless there is something totally misunderstood about the foundation of the distance scale or the ages of stars. PMID:11607391

  9. The Hubble constant.

    PubMed Central

    Tully, R B

    1993-01-01

    Five methods of estimating distances have demonstrated internal reproducibility at the level of 5-20% rms accuracy. The best of these are the cepheid (and RR Lyrae), planetary nebulae, and surface-brightness fluctuation techniques. Luminosity-line width and Dn-sigma methods are less accurate for an individual case but can be applied to large numbers of galaxies. The agreement is excellent between these five procedures. It is determined that Hubble constant H0 = 90 +/- 10 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16) m]. It is difficult to reconcile this value with the preferred world model even in the low-density case. The standard model with Omega = 1 may be excluded unless there is something totally misunderstood about the foundation of the distance scale or the ages of stars. PMID:11607391

  10. Hubble Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubow, S.; Budavári, T.

    2013-10-01

    We have created an initial catalog of objects observed by the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The catalog is based on observations taken on more than 6000 visits (telescope pointings) of ACS/WFC and more than 25000 visits of WFPC2. The catalog is obtained by cross matching by position in the sky all Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) Source Extractor source lists for these instruments. The source lists describe properties of source detections within a visit. The calculations are performed on a SQL Server database system. First we collect overlapping images into groups, e.g., Eta Car, and determine nearby (approximately matching) pairs of sources from different images within each group. We then apply a novel algorithm for improving the cross matching of pairs of sources by adjusting the astrometry of the images. Next, we combine pairwise matches into maximal sets of possible multi-source matches. We apply a greedy Bayesian method to split the maximal matches into more reliable matches. We test the accuracy of the matches by comparing the fluxes of the matched sources. The result is a set of information that ties together multiple observations of the same object. A byproduct of the catalog is greatly improved relative astrometry for many of the HST images. We also provide information on nondetections that can be used to determine dropouts. With the catalog, for the first time, one can carry out time domain, multi-wavelength studies across a large set of HST data. The catalog is publicly available. Much more can be done to expand the catalog capabilities.

  11. NRAO Astronomer Honored by American Astronomical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), received the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) Helen B. Warner Prize on January 11, at the society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. The prize is awarded annually for "a significant contribution to observational or theoretical astronomy during the five years preceding the award." Presented by AAS President Debra Elmegreen, the prize recognized Ransom "for his astrophysical insight and innovative technical leadership enabling the discovery of exotic, millisecond and young pulsars and their application for tests of fundamental physics." "Scott has made landmark contributions to our understanding of pulsars and to using them as elegant tools for investigating important areas of fundamental physics. We are very proud that his scientific colleagues have recognized his efforts with this prize," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. A staff astronomer at the NRAO since 2004, Ransom has led efforts using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope and other facilities to study pulsars and use them to make advances in areas of frontier astrophysics such as gravitational waves and particle physics. In 2010, he was on a team that discovered the most massive pulsar yet known, a finding that had implications for the composition of pulsars and details of nuclear physics, gravitational waves, and gamma-ray bursts. Ransom also is a leader in efforts to find and analyze rapidly-rotating millisecond pulsars to make the first direct detection of the gravitational waves predicted by Albert Einstein. In other work, he has advanced observational capabilities for finding millisecond pulsars in globular clusters of stars and investigated how millisecond pulsars are formed. A graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY, Ransom served as an artillery officer in the U.S. Army. After leaving the Army, he earned a Ph.D. at Harvard University in 2001, and was a postdoctoral fellow

  12. BY POPULAR DEMAND: HUBBLE OBSERVES THE HORSEHEAD NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rising from a sea of dust and gas like a giant seahorse, the Horsehead nebula is one of the most photographed objects in the sky. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope took a close-up look at this heavenly icon, revealing the cloud's intricate structure. This detailed view of the horse's head is being released to celebrate the orbiting observatory's eleventh anniversary. Produced by the Hubble Heritage Project, this picture is a testament to the Horsehead's popularity. Internet voters selected this object for the orbiting telescope to view. The Horsehead, also known as Barnard 33, is a cold, dark cloud of gas and dust, silhouetted against the bright nebula, IC 434. The bright area at the top left edge is a young star still embedded in its nursery of gas and dust. But radiation from this hot star is eroding the stellar nursery. The top of the nebula also is being sculpted by radiation from a massive star located out of Hubble's field of view. Only by chance does the nebula roughly resemble the head of a horse. Its unusual shape was first discovered on a photographic plate in the late 1800s. Located in the constellation Orion, the Horsehead is a cousin of the famous pillars of dust and gas known as the Eagle nebula. Both tower-like nebulas are cocoons of young stars. The Horsehead nebula lies just south of the bright star Zeta Orionis, which is easily visible to the unaided eye as the left-hand star in the line of three that form Orion's Belt. Amateur astronomers often use the Horsehead as a test of their observing skills; it is known as one of the more difficult objects to see visually in an amateur-sized telescope. The magnificent extent of the Horsehead is best appreciated in a new wide-field image of the nebula being released today by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, taken by Travis Rector with the National Science Foundation's 0.9 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, AZ. This popular celestial target was the clear winner among more

  13. Methods in Astronomical Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörsäter, S.

    A Brief Introductory Note History of Astronomical Imaging Astronomical Image Data Images in Various Formats Digitized Image Data Digital Image Data Philosophy of Astronomical Image Processing Properties of Digital Astronomical Images Human Image Processing Astronomical vs. Computer Science Image Processing Basic Tools of Astronomical Image Processing Display Applications Calibration of Intensity Scales Calibration of Length Scales Image Re-shaping Feature Enhancement Noise Suppression Noise and Error Analysis Image Processing Packages: Design of AIPS and MIDAS AIPS MIDAS Reduction of CCD Data Bias Subtraction Clipping Preflash Subtraction Dark Subtraction Flat Fielding Sky Subtraction Extinction Correction Deconvolution Methods Rebinning/Combining Summary and Prospects for the Future

  14. 18 years of science with the Hubble Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Dalcanton, Julianne J

    2009-01-01

    After several decades of planning, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched in 1990 as the first of NASA's Great Observatories. After a rocky start arising from an error in the fabrication of its main mirror, it went on to change forever many fields of astronomy, and to capture the public's imagination with its images. An ongoing programme of servicing missions has kept the telescope on the cutting edge of astronomical research. Here I review the advances made possible by the HST over the past 18 years. PMID:19122634

  15. Astronomical education in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulmaa, A.; Tsolmon, R.; Lkhagvajav, Ch.; Jargalsuren, Sh.; Bayartungalag, B.; Zaya, M.

    2011-06-01

    The history, current situation, education and future directions of modern Mongolian space science and astronomy is reviewed. This paper discusses recent efforts to develop astronomy education and research capacity in Mongolia with cooperation of the International Astronomical Union. Various capacity-building initiatives in space science including remote sensing in Mongolia are discussed.

  16. Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jennifer Robin

    2004-05-01

    I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

  17. Misconceptions of Astronomical Distances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…

  18. Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    This Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory is a unit of the Adam Mickiewicz University, located in Poznan acute, Poland. From its foundation in 1919, it has specialized in astrometry and celestial mechanics (reference frames, dynamics of satellites and small solar system bodies). Recently, research activities have also included planetary and stellar astrophysics (asteroid photometry, catalysmic b...

  19. Astronomical Microdensitometry Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinglesmith, D. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The status of the current microdensitometers used for digitizing astronomical imagery is discussed. The tests and improvements that have and can be made to the Photometric Data System PDS microdensitometer are examined. The various types of microdensitometers that currently exist in the world are investigated. Papers are presented on the future needs and the data processing problems associated with digitizing large images.

  20. Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Rahimov, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about the Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year, a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to their required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  1. Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Dyakov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to the required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  2. Korean Astronomical Calendar, Chiljeongsan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Hee

    In fifteenth century Korea, there was a grand project for the astronomical calendar and instrument making by the order of King Sejong 世宗 (1418-1450). During this period, many astronomical and calendrical books including Islamic sources in Chinese versions were imported from Ming 明 China, and corrected and researched by the court astronomers of Joseon 朝鮮 (1392-1910). Moreover, the astronomers and technicians of Korea frequently visited China to study astronomy and instrument making, and they brought back useful information in the form of new published books or specifications of instruments. As a result, a royal observatory equipped with 15 types of instrument was completed in 1438. Two types of calendar, Chiljeongsan Naepyeon 七政算內篇 and Chiljeongsan Oepyeon 七政算外篇, based on the Chinese and Islamic calendar systems, respectively, were published in 1444 with a number of calendrical editions such as corrections and example supplements (假令) including calculation methods and results for solar and lunar eclipses.

  3. The Knorre astronomers' dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinigin, G.

    2009-06-01

    We attempt to throw light upon the poorly known astronomical dynasty of Knorre and describe its contribution to astronomy. The founder of the dynasty, Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (1759-1810), was born in Germany in 1759, and since 1802 he was a Professor of Mathematics at the Tartu University, and observer at its temporary observatory. He determined the first coordinates of Tartu by stellar observations. Karl Friedrich Knorre (1801-1883) was the first director of the Naval Observatory in Nikolaev since the age of 20, provided the Black Sea navy with accurate time and charts, trained mariners in astronomical navigation, and certified navigation equipment. He compiled star maps and catalogues, and determined positions of comets and planets. He also participated in Bessel's project of the Academic Star Charts, and was responsible for Hora 4, published by the Berlin Academy of Sciences. This sheet permitted to discover two minor planets, Astraea and Flora. Viktor Knorre (1840-1919) was born in Nikolaev. In 1862 he left for Berlin to study astronomy. After defending his thesis for a doctor's degree, he went to Pulkovo as an astronomical calculator in 1867. Since 1873 Viktor worked as an observer of the Berlin Observatory Fraunhofer refractor. His main research focussed on minor planets, comets and binary stars. He discovered the minor planets Koronis, Oenone, Hypatia and Penthesilea. Viktor Knorre also worked on improving astronomical instrumentation, e.g. the Knorre / Heele equatorial telescope mounting.

  4. Hubble Observes Surface of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Scientists for the first time have made images of the surface of Saturn's giant, haze-shrouded moon, Titan. They mapped light and dark features over the surface of the satellite during nearly a complete 16-day rotation. One prominent bright area they discovered is a surface feature 2,500 miles across, about the size of the continent of Australia.

    Titan, larger than Mercury and slightly smaller than Mars, is the only body in the solar system, other than Earth, that may have oceans and rainfall on its surface, albeit oceans and rain of ethane-methane rather than water. Scientists suspect that Titan's present environment -- although colder than minus 289 degrees Fahrenheit, so cold that water ice would be as hard as granite -- might be similar to that on Earth billions of years ago, before life began pumping oxygen into the atmosphere.

    Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and his team took the images with the Hubble Space Telescope during 14 observing runs between Oct. 4 - 18. Smith announced the team's first results last week at the 26th annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences in Bethesda, Md. Co-investigators on the team are Mark Lemmon, a doctoral candidate with the UA Lunar and Planetary Laboratory; John Caldwell of York University, Canada; Larry Sromovsky of the University of Wisconsin; and Michael Allison of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York City.

    Titan's atmosphere, about four times as dense as Earth's atmosphere, is primarily nitrogen laced with such poisonous substances as methane and ethane. This thick, orange, hydrocarbon haze was impenetrable to cameras aboard the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft that flew by the Saturn system in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The haze is formed as methane in the atmosphere is destroyed by sunlight. The hydrocarbons produced by this methane destruction form a smog similar to that found over large cities, but is much

  5. HUBBLE'S PLANETARY NEBULA GALLERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [Top left] - IC 3568 lies in the constellation Camelopardalis at a distance of about 9,000 light-years, and has a diameter of about 0.4 light-years (or about 800 times the diameter of our solar system). It is an example of a round planetary nebula. Note the bright inner shell and fainter, smooth, circular outer envelope. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Top center] - NGC 6826's eye-like appearance is marred by two sets of blood-red 'fliers' that lie horizontally across the image. The surrounding faint green 'white' of the eye is believed to be gas that made up almost half of the star's mass for most of its life. The hot remnant star (in the center of the green oval) drives a fast wind into older material, forming a hot interior bubble which pushes the older gas ahead of it to form a bright rim. (The star is one of the brightest stars in any planetary.) NGC 6826 is 2,200 light- years away in the constellation Cygnus. The Hubble telescope observation was taken Jan. 27, 1996 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy) and NASA [Top right ] - NGC 3918 is in the constellation Centaurus and is about 3,000 light-years from us. Its diameter is about 0.3 light-year. It shows a roughly spherical outer envelope but an elongated inner balloon inflated by a fast wind from the hot central star, which is starting to break out of the spherical envelope at the top and bottom of the image. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Bottom left] - Hubble 5 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or bipolar (two-lobed) nebula. The heat generated by fast winds causes

  6. The League of Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nancy H.; Brandel, A.; Paat, A. M.; Schmitz, D.; Sharma, R.; Trujillo, J.; Laws, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The League of Astronomers is committed to engaging the University of Washington (UW) and the greater Seattle communities through outreach, research, and events. Since its re-founding two years ago, the LOA has provided a clear connection between the UW Astronomy Department, undergraduate students, and members of the public. Weekly outreach activities such as public star parties and planetarium talks in both the UW Planetarium and the Mobile Planetarium have connected enthusiastic LOA volunteers with hundreds of public observers. In addition, collaboration with organizations like the Seattle Astronomical Society and the UW Society of Physics Students has allowed the LOA to reach an even greater audience. The club also provides opportunities for undergraduate students to participate in research projects. The UW Student Radio Telescope (SRT) and the Manastash Ridge Observatory (MRO) both allow students to practice collecting their own data and turning it into a completed project. Students have presented many of these research projects at venues like the UW Undergraduate Research Symposium and meetings of the American Astronomical Society. For example, the LOA will be observing newly discovered globular clusters at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, B.C. and constructing color-magnitude diagrams. The LOA also helps engage students with the Astronomy major through a variety of events. Bimonthly seminars led by graduate students on their research and personal experiences in the field showcase the variety of options available for students in astronomy. Social events hosted by the club encourage peer mentoring and a sense of community among the Astronomy Department’s undergraduate and graduate students. As a part of one of the nation’s largest undergraduate astronomy programs, members of the League of Astronomers have a unique opportunity to connect and interact with not only the Seattle public but also the greater astronomical community.

  7. HUBBLE VIEWS ANCIENT STORM IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF JUPITER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    When 17th-century astronomers first turned their telescopes to Jupiter, they noted a conspicuous reddish spot on the giant planet. This Great Red Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. It is now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low-pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of about 270 mph. The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself. The long lifetime of the Red Spot may be due to the fact that Jupiter is mainly a gaseous planet. It possibly has liquid layers, but lacks a solid surface, which would dissipate the storm's energy, much as happens when a hurricane makes landfall on the Earth. However, the Red Spot does change its shape, size, and color, sometimes dramatically. Such changes are demonstrated in high-resolution Wide Field and Planetary Cameras 1 and 2 images of Jupiter obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and presented here by the Hubble Heritage Project team. The mosaic presents a series of pictures of the Red Spot obtained by Hubble between 1992 and 1999. Astronomers study weather phenomena on other planets in order to gain a greater understanding of our own Earth's climate. Lacking a solid surface, Jupiter provides us with a laboratory experiment for observing weather phenomena under very different conditions than those prevailing on Earth. This knowledge can also be applied to places in the Earth's atmosphere that are over deep oceans, making them more similar to Jupiter's deep atmosphere. The Hubble images were originally collected by Amy Simon (Cornell U.), Reta Beebe (NMSU), Heidi Hammel (Space Science Institute, MIT), and their collaborators, and have been

  8. Thomas Kuhn's Influence on Astronomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Harry L.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys the astronomical community on their familiarity with the work of Thomas Kuhn. Finds that for some astronomers, Kuhn's thought resonated well with their picture of how science is done and provided perspectives on their scientific careers. (Author/CCM)

  9. High School Teachers as Astronomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sather, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a joint research program between several high school teachers and solar system astronomers in which data were collected on photoelectric observations of asteroids and minor planets via astronomical telescopes. (MLH)

  10. Astronomers, Congress, and the Large Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanle, P. A.

    1985-04-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) project was initiated near the end of the Apollo program and immediately encountered fiscal contraints. Planned as a long-term facility, the HST had to be continually justified to the public, astronomers and Congress from 1973 onward. Budgetary restraints caused design reductions which for a while threatened the practicality of the HST and changed it from a pressurized, manned unit to an automatic mode, teleoperated, intermittently visited spacecraft. It is noted that numerous exaggerations were made of both the power of the HST for scientific research and the total support of the astronomical community during promotion of the HST program, although the HST is the most powerful visual wavelength telescope ever to be built due to its unique operating environment. NASA's consistent and steadily more detailed definitions of the design features and missions of the HST proved to be a decisive factor in repeated requests for information by funding committees who were deliberating in the presence of severe fiscal difficulties.

  11. Hubble's View of a Dying Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A recent image of a dying star containing strange, complex structures may help explain the death throes of stars and defy our current understanding of physics. The image of protoplanetary nebula IRAS22036+5306 (in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Point Source Catalog) was taken on Dec. 15, 2001, by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, onboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. It is one of the best images yet to capture a fleeting period at the end of a Sun-like star's life, called the protoplanetary nebula phase.

    This phase, which looks like a beautiful cloud of glowing gas lit up by ultraviolet light from the star's core, results when a star evolves into a bloated red giant and sheds its outer layers. 'Protoplanetary nebulas are rare objects with short lifetimes,' said JPL astrophysicist Dr. Raghvendra Sahai. 'It has generally been very difficult to obtain images of such objects in which their structure can be resolved in detail.'

    This image is particularly important because it contains a series of what Sahai and his colleagues call 'knotty jets,' blob-like objects emerging along roughly straight lines from the center of the cigar-shaped, bipolar nebula (See insets). There are various theories about what may produce such jets, though it is hard to prove their existence due to their short-lived, episodic nature. Detailed multi-wavelength studies of these nebulas with NASA's Great Observatories are being carried out to understand the nature and origin of these enigmatic jets, and how they may be sculpting shrouds of dying stars into exotic shapes. The Hubble Space Telescope is one of NASA's Great Observatories.

  12. Hubble Observes Surface of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Scientists for the first time have made images of the surface of Saturn's giant, haze-shrouded moon, Titan. They mapped light and dark features over the surface of the satellite during nearly a complete 16-day rotation. One prominent bright area they discovered is a surface feature 2,500 miles across, about the size of the continent of Australia.

    Titan, larger than Mercury and slightly smaller than Mars, is the only body in the solar system, other than Earth, that may have oceans and rainfall on its surface, albeit oceans and rain of ethane-methane rather than water. Scientists suspect that Titan's present environment -- although colder than minus 289 degrees Fahrenheit, so cold that water ice would be as hard as granite -- might be similar to that on Earth billions of years ago, before life began pumping oxygen into the atmosphere.

    Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and his team took the images with the Hubble Space Telescope during 14 observing runs between Oct. 4 - 18. Smith announced the team's first results last week at the 26th annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences in Bethesda, Md. Co-investigators on the team are Mark Lemmon, a doctoral candidate with the UA Lunar and Planetary Laboratory; John Caldwell of York University, Canada; Larry Sromovsky of the University of Wisconsin; and Michael Allison of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York City.

    Titan's atmosphere, about four times as dense as Earth's atmosphere, is primarily nitrogen laced with such poisonous substances as methane and ethane. This thick, orange, hydrocarbon haze was impenetrable to cameras aboard the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft that flew by the Saturn system in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The haze is formed as methane in the atmosphere is destroyed by sunlight. The hydrocarbons produced by this methane destruction form a smog similar to that found over large cities, but is much

  13. Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the ...

  14. Hubble View of Comet ISON

    NASA Video Gallery

    This time-lapse sequence of images from the Hubble Space Telescope shows comet ISON as it appeared on May 8, 2013. At the time the images were taken, the comet was 403 million miles from the Earth,...

  15. 75 FR 9620 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 3761; dated January 22, 2010... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption...

  16. HUBBLE SEES SUPERSONIC EXHAUST FROM NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. Ground-based studies have shown that the nebula's size increases with time, suggesting that the stellar outburst that formed the lobes occurred just 1,200 years ago. The central star in M2-9 is known to be one of a very close pair which orbit one another at perilously close distances. It is even possible that one star is being engulfed by the other. Astronomers suspect the gravity of one star pulls weakly bound gas from the surface of the other and flings it into a thin, dense disk which surrounds both stars and extends well into space. The disk can actually be seen in shorter exposure images obtained with the Hubble telescope. It measures approximately 10 times the diameter of Pluto's orbit. Models of the type that are used to design jet engines ('hydrodynamics') show that such a disk can successfully account for the jet-exhaust-like appearance of M2-9. The high-speed wind from one of the stars rams into the surrounding disk, which serves as a nozzle. The wind is deflected in a perpendicular direction and forms the pair of jets that we see in the nebula's image. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in

  17. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurre, G.

    1987-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope will employ magnetic torque controllers, which make use of the Earth's magnetic field augmented by four reaction wheels. DC torques are easily allowed for, but variations, orbit by orbit, can result in excessive wheel speeds which can excite vibratory modes in the telescope structure. If the angular momentum from aerodynamic sources exceeds its allocation of 100 Nms, the excess has to come out of the maneuvering budget since the total capacity of the momentum storage system is fixed at 500 Nms. This would mean that maneuvers could not be made as quickly, and this would reduce the amount of science return. In summary, there is a definite need for a model that accurately portrays short term (within orbit) variations in density for use in angular momentum management analyses. It would be desirable to have a simplified model that could be used for planning purposes; perhaps applicable only over a limited altitude range (400 to 700 km) and limited latitude band.

  18. The Planetarium and the Astronomer (An Overview)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    The science of astronomy is one of the most accessible of the so-called "hard" sciences. Most people are familiar with some sky phenomena, and do not feel threatened at the prospect of learning more about the stars and planets. In the media, some of the best-known scientists are astronomers, and programs about astronomy tend to gather appreciatively large audiences. Planetarium facilities are a very special form of science media, with the fortunate task of presenting astronomy to the public. Like science writers, planetarium professionals take complex science information and make it accessible to the public with a variety of audio-visual techniques. Because many planetarium professionals have science backgrounds as well as educational training, they have an advantage over traditional media practitioners, who -- except for a few notable exceptions -- do not always have the luxury of a science background when it comes to writing about science. The unique background of the planetarian, however, builds a logical and natural link between astronomers and the public. This paper summarizes the wide variety of ways in which planetaria disseminate astronomy information -- ranging from live public lectures, to "astronomy updates", to hands-on activities for school children, and professionally-produced multi-media programs created especially for the needs of the domed theater. It ends with a few broad suggestions about possible roles for astronomers in any or all of these activities. Carolyn Collins Petersen has been a writer and producer of planetarium programs since 1980. Her programs have appeared in more than 500 facilities around the world. Her print work has appeared in the Denver Post, Sky and Telescope, Astronomy Magazine, and the Griffith Observer. She is the lead author of the upcoming book "Hubble Vision: Science With the Hubble Space Telescope" (due out from Cambridge University Press in Fall, 1995). Petersen has won several awards for her work. She is also a

  19. He2-90'S APPEARANCE DECEIVES ASTRONOMERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have stumbled upon a mysterious object that is grudgingly yielding clues to its identity. A quick glance at the Hubble picture at top shows that this celestial body, called He2-90, looks like a young, dust-enshrouded star with narrow jets of material streaming from each side. But it's not. The object is classified as a planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a dying, lightweight star. But the Hubble observations suggest that it may not fit that classification, either. The Hubble astronomers now suspect that this enigmatic object may actually be a pair of aging stars masquerading as a single youngster. One member of the duo is a bloated red giant star shedding matter from its outer layers. This matter is then gravitationally captured in a rotating, pancake-shaped accretion disk around a compact partner, which is most likely a young white dwarf (the collapsed remnant of a sun-like star). The stars cannot be seen in the Hubble images because a lane of dust obscures them. The Hubble picture at top shows a centrally bright object with jets, appearing like strings of beads, emanating from both sides of center. (The other streaks of light running diagonally from He2-90 are artificial effects of the telescope's optical system.) Each jet possesses at least six bright clumps of gas, which are speeding along at rates estimated to be at least 375,000 miles an hour (600,000 kilometers an hour). These gaseous salvos are being ejected into space about every 100 years, and may be caused by periodic instabilities in He2-90's accretion disk. The jets from very young stars behave in a similar way. Deep images taken from terrestrial observatories show each jet extending at least 100,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit equals the Earth-Sun distance, 93 million miles). The jets' relatively modest speed implies that one member of the duo is a white dwarf. Observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, however, discovered a

  20. He2-90'S APPEARANCE DECEIVES ASTRONOMERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have stumbled upon a mysterious object that is grudgingly yielding clues to its identity. A quick glance at the Hubble picture at top shows that this celestial body, called He2-90, looks like a young, dust-enshrouded star with narrow jets of material streaming from each side. But it's not. The object is classified as a planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a dying, lightweight star. But the Hubble observations suggest that it may not fit that classification, either. The Hubble astronomers now suspect that this enigmatic object may actually be a pair of aging stars masquerading as a single youngster. One member of the duo is a bloated red giant star shedding matter from its outer layers. This matter is then gravitationally captured in a rotating, pancake-shaped accretion disk around a compact partner, which is most likely a young white dwarf (the collapsed remnant of a sun-like star). The stars cannot be seen in the Hubble images because a lane of dust obscures them. The Hubble picture at top shows a centrally bright object with jets, appearing like strings of beads, emanating from both sides of center. (The other streaks of light running diagonally from He2-90 are artificial effects of the telescope's optical system.) Each jet possesses at least six bright clumps of gas, which are speeding along at rates estimated to be at least 375,000 miles an hour (600,000 kilometers an hour). These gaseous salvos are being ejected into space about every 100 years, and may be caused by periodic instabilities in He2-90's accretion disk. The jets from very young stars behave in a similar way. Deep images taken from terrestrial observatories show each jet extending at least 100,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit equals the Earth-Sun distance, 93 million miles). The jets' relatively modest speed implies that one member of the duo is a white dwarf. Observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, however, discovered a

  1. HUBBLE SNAPSHOT CAPTURES LIFE CYCLE OF STARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper right of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right and lower left of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). The 'proplyds' in NGC 3603 are 5 to 10 times larger in size and correspondingly also more massive. This single view nicely illustrates the entire stellar life cycle of stars, starting with the Bok globules and giant gaseous pillars, followed by circumstellar disks, and progressing to evolved massive stars in the young starburst cluster. The blue supergiant with its ring and bipolar outflow marks the end of the life cycle. The color difference between the supergiant's bipolar outflow and the diffuse

  2. Hubble Space Telescope, Wide Field Planetary Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This illustration is a diagram of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's), Wide Field Planetary Camera (WF/PC), one of the five Scientific Instruments. The WF/PC uses a four-sided pyramid mirror to split a light image into quarters. It then focuses each quadrant onto one of two sets of four sensors. The sensors are charge-coupled detectors and function as the electronic equivalent of extremely sensitive photographic plates. The WF/PC operates in two modes. The Wide-Field mode that will view 7.2-arcmin sections of the sky, and the Planetary mode that will look at narrower fields of view, such as planets or areas within other galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  3. Misconceptions about astronomical magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Eric; Cox, Caroline V.

    1997-10-01

    The present system of astronomical magnitudes was created as an inverse scale by Claudius Ptolemy in about 140 A.D. and was defined to be logarithmic in 1856 by Norman Pogson, who believed that human eyes respond logarithmically to the intensity of light. Although scientists have known for some time that the response is instead a power law, astronomers continue to use the Pogson magnitude scale. The peculiarities of this system make it easy for students to develop numerous misconceptions about how and why to use magnitudes. We present a useful exercise in the use of magnitudes to derive a cosmologically interesting quantity (the mass-to-light ratio for spiral galaxies), with potential pitfalls pointed out and explained.

  4. Astronomers without borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Mike

    2011-06-01

    ``Astronomers Without Borders'' is a new global organisational dedicated to furthering understanding and goodwill across national and cultural boundaries using the universal appeal of astronomy and space science. A growing network of affiliate organisations brings together clubs, magazines and other organizations involved in astronomy and space science. Forums, galleries, video conferences and other interactive technologies are used to connect participants around the world. Sharing of resources and direct connections through travel programs are also planned. One project, ``The World at Night'' (TWAN), has become an Special Project of IYA2009. TWAN creates wide-angle images of the night sky in important natural and historic settings around the world, dramatically demonstrating the universal nature and appeal of the night sky. ``Astronomers Without Borders'' is also a leader of the 100 Hours of Astronomy IYA2009 Global Cornerstone Project.

  5. Astronomers as Software Developers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pildis, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomers know that their research requires writing, adapting, and documenting computer software. Furthermore, they often have to learn new computer languages and figure out how existing programs work without much documentation or guidance and with extreme time pressure. These are all skills that can lead to a software development job, but recruiters and employers probably won't know that. I will discuss all the highly useful experience that astronomers may not know that they already have, and how to explain that knowledge to others when looking for non-academic software positions. I will also talk about some of the pitfalls I have run into while interviewing for jobs and working as a developer, and encourage you to embrace the curiosity employers might have about your non-standard background.

  6. Astronomical Fourier spectropolarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, F. F.; Fymat, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Spectra of the Stokes polarization parameters of Venus (resolution 0.5 per cm) are presented. They were obtained at the Cassegrain focus of the 154-cm telescope of the National Mexican Observatory, Baja California, Mexico, July 12 and 13, 1972, with the Fourier Interferometer Polarimeter (FIP). A preliminary, limited analysis of four spectral features and of the CO2 rotational band structures at 6080 and 6200 per cm has demonstrated that spectral polarization is indeed present. These experimental results, confirmed by two series of observations, provide substantiation for this theoretically predicted phenomenon. They also tend to show that the FIP represents a novel astronomical tool for variable spectral resolution studies of both the intensity and the state of polarization of astronomical light sources.

  7. Microcomputers and astronomical navigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin-Jouan, Y.

    1996-04-01

    Experienced navigators remember ancient astronomical navigation and its limitations. Using microcomputers in small packages and selecting up-to-date efficient methods will overcome many of these limitations. Both features lead to focus on observations, and encourage an increase in their numbers. With no intention of competing with satellite navigation, sextant navigation in the open sea can then be accessed again by anybody. It can be considered for demonstrative use or as a complement to the GPS.

  8. Astrobiology: An astronomer's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-12-08

    In this review we explore aspects of the field of astrobiology from an astronomical viewpoint. We therefore focus on the origin of life in the context of planetary formation, with additional emphasis on tracing the most abundant volatile elements, C, H, O, and N that are used by life on Earth. We first explore the history of life on our planet and outline the current state of our knowledge regarding the delivery of the C, H, O, N elements to the Earth. We then discuss how astronomers track the gaseous and solid molecular carriers of these volatiles throughout the process of star and planet formation. It is now clear that the early stages of star formation fosters the creation of water and simple organic molecules with enrichments of heavy isotopes. These molecules are found as ice coatings on the solid materials that represent microscopic beginnings of terrestrial worlds. Based on the meteoritic and cometary record, the process of planet formation, and the local environment, lead to additional increases in organic complexity. The astronomical connections towards this stage are only now being directly made. Although the exact details are uncertain, it is likely that the birth process of star and planets likely leads to terrestrial worlds being born with abundant water and organics on the surface.

  9. On Tokugawa Bakufu's astronomical officials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Keiji

    2005-06-01

    Tokugawa Bakufu's astronomical office, established in 1684, is the post for calendar reform. The reform was conducted when the calendar did not predict peculiar celestial phenomena, such as solar or lunar eclipses. It was, so to speak, the theme of the ancient astronomy. From removal of the embargo on importing western science books in 1720, Japanese astronomers studied European astronomy and attempted to apply its knowledge to calendar making. Moreover, they knew the Copernican system and also faced several modern astronomical subjects. The French astronomer Lalande's work "ASTRONOMY" exerted particularly strong influence on astronomers. This paper overviews the activities of Paris observatory and French astronomers in the 17th and 18th centuries, and survey what modern astronomical subjects were. Finally, it sketches a role of the Edo observatory played in the Japanese cultural history.

  10. HUBBLE SNAPS 'FAMILY PORTRAIT'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has peered into the Cone Nebula, revealing a stunning image of six baby sun-like stars surrounding their mother, a bright, massive star. Known as NGC 2264 IRS, the massive star triggered the creation of these baby stars by releasing high-speed particles of dust and gas during its formative years. The image on the left, taken in visible light by a ground-based telescope, shows the Cone Nebula, located 2,500 light-years away in the constellation Monoceros. The white box pinpoints the location of the star nursery. The nursery cannot be seen in this image because dust and gas obscure it. The large cone of cold molecular hydrogen and dust rising from the lefthand edge of the image was created by the outflow from NGC 2264 IRS. The NICMOS image on the right shows this massive star - the brightest source in the region - and the stars formed by its outflow. The baby stars are only .04 to .08 light-years away from their brilliant mother. The rings surrounding the massive star and the spikes emanating from it are not part of the image. This pattern demonstrates the near-perfect optical performance of NICMOS. A near-perfect optical system should bend light from point-like sources, such as NGC 2264 IRS, forming these diffraction patterns of rings and spikes. This false color image was taken with 1.1-, 1.6-, and 2.2-micron filters. The image was taken on April 28, 1997. Credits: Rodger Thompson, Marcia Rieke and Glenn Schneider (University of Arizona), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  11. Astronomical Software Directory Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Payne, Harry; Hayes, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    With the support of NASA's Astrophysics Data Program (NRA 92-OSSA-15), we have developed the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS): a distributed, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URLs indexed for full-text searching. Users are performing about 400 searches per month. A new aspect of our service is the inclusion of telescope and instrumentation manuals, which prompted us to change the name to the Astronomical Software and Documentation Service. ASDS was originally conceived to serve two purposes: to provide a useful Internet service in an area of expertise of the investigators (astronomical software), and as a research project to investigate various architectures for searching through a set of documents distributed across the Internet. Two of the co-investigators were then installing and maintaining astronomical software as their primary job responsibility. We felt that a service which incorporated our experience in this area would be more useful than a straightforward listing of software packages. The original concept was for a service based on the client/server model, which would function as a directory/referral service rather than as an archive. For performing the searches, we began our investigation with a decision to evaluate the Isite software from the Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (CNIDR). This software was intended as a replacement for Wide-Area Information Service (WAIS), a client/server technology for performing full-text searches through a set of documents. Isite had some additional features that we considered attractive, and we enjoyed the cooperation of the Isite developers, who were happy to have ASDS as a demonstration project. We ended up staying with the software throughout the project, making modifications to take advantage of new features as they came along, as well as

  12. From philosopher to psychologist: the early career of Edwin Ray Guthrie, Jr.

    PubMed

    Clark, David O

    2005-08-01

    Edwin R. Guthrie rose to prominence as a psychologist in the 1930s. His theoretical outlook was behavioristic. This approach came from his conviction that an objective method could be applied to a scientific treatment of mind. Prior to becoming a psychologist, he was a philosopher of mathematics. Guthrie was initiated into psychology by Stevenson Smith, from whom he learned a psychology of adjustment informed by comparative research, Columbia functionalism, and clinical psychology. Guthrie's first step into psychology was in collaboration with Smith on Chapters in General Psychology (S. Smith & E.R. Guthrie, 1921). To synthesize their own unique position on learning from the contemporary theory and research, they used the principle of association. This articles focuses on Guthrie's origin and his development into a learning theorist. PMID:16217880

  13. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA (color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This colorful photo shows a ground-based image of the entire Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion witnessed over 900 years ago. The nebula, which is 10 light-years across, is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. The green, yellow and red filaments concentrated toward the edges of the nebula are remnants of the star that were ejected into space by the explosion. At the center of the Crab Nebula lies the Crab Pulsar -- the collapsed core of the exploded star. The Crab Pulsar is a rapidly rotating neutron star -- an object only about six miles across, but containing more mass than our Sun. As it rotates at a rate of 30 times per second the Crab Pulsar's powerful magnetic field sweeps around, accelerating particles, and whipping them out into the nebula at speeds close to that of light. The blue glow in the inner part of the nebula -- light emitted by energetic electrons as they spiral through the Crab's magnetic field -- is powered by the Crab Pulsar. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  14. HUBBLE SEES A NEUTRON STAR ALONE IN SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    his is the first direct look, in visible light, at a lone neutron star, as seen by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The Hubble results show the star is very hot (1.2 million degrees Fahrenheit at the surface), and can be no larger than 16.8 miles (28 kilometers) across. These results prove that the object must be a neutron star, because no other known type of object can be this hot, small, and dim (below 25th magnitude). The first clue that there was a neutron star at this location came in 1992, when the ROSAT (the Roentgen Satellite) found a bright X-ray source without any optical counterpart in optical sky surveys. Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 was used in October 1996 to undertake a sensitive search for the optical object, and found a stellar pinpoint of light within only 2 arc seconds (1/900th the diameter of the Moon) of the X-ray position. Astronomers haven't directly measured the neutron star's distance, but fortunately the neutron star lies in front of a molecular cloud known to be about 400 light-years away in the southern constellation Corona Australis. Credit: Fred Walter (State University of New York at Stony Brook), and NASA

  15. HUBBLE PICTURES SHOW HOT GAS BUBBLE EJECTED BY YOUNG STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 reveal the evolution of bubbles of glowing gas being blown out from the young binary star system XZ Tauri. Gas from an unseen disk around one or both of the stars is channeled through magnetic fields surrounding the binary system and then is forced out into space at nearly 300,000 miles per hour (540,000 kilometers per hour). This outflow, which is only about 30 years old, extends nearly 60 billion miles (96 billion kilometers). Hubble first discovered this unique bubble in 1995, and additional observations were made between 1998 and 2000. These images show that there was a dramatic change in its appearance between 1995 and 1998. In 1995, the bubble's edge was the same brightness as its interior. However, when Hubble took another look at XZ Tauri in 1998, the edge was suddenly brighter. This brightening is probably caused by the hot gas cooling off, which allows electrons in the gas to recombine with atoms, a process that gives off light. This is the first time that astronomers have seen such a cooling zone 'turn on.' These images provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the development of a very recent outflow from young (about 1 million years old) stars. Credits: NASA, John Krist (Space Telescope Science Institute), Karl Stapelfeldt (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Jeff Hester (Arizona State University), Chris Burrows (European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute)

  16. The new European Hubble archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Arevalo, Maria; Merin, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The European Hubble Archive (hereafter eHST), hosted at ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre, has been released for public use in October 2015. The eHST is now fully integrated with the other ESA science archives to ensure long-term preservation of the Hubble data, consisting of more than 1 million observations from 10 different scientific instruments. The public HST data, the Hubble Legacy Archive, and the high-level science data products are now all available to scientists through a single, carefully designed and user friendly web interface. In this talk, I will show how the the eHST can help boost archival research, including how to search on sources in the field of view thanks to precise footprints projected onto the sky, how to obtain enhanced previews of imaging data and interactive spectral plots, and how to directly link observations with already published papers. To maximise the scientific exploitation of Hubble's data, the eHST offers connectivity to virtual observatory tools, easily integrates with the recently released Hubble Source Catalog, and is fully accessible through ESA's archives multi-mission interface.

  17. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CAPTURES FIRST DIRECT IMAGE OF A STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the first direct image of a star other than the Sun, made with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Called Alpha Orionis, or Betelgeuse, it is a red supergiant star marking the shoulder of the winter constellation Orion the Hunter (diagram at right). The Hubble image reveals a huge ultraviolet atmosphere with a mysterious hot spot on the stellar behemoth's surface. The enormous bright spot, more than ten times the diameter of Earth, is at least 2,000 Kelvin degrees hotter than the surface of the star. The image suggests that a totally new physical phenomenon may be affecting the atmospheres of some stars. Follow-up observations will be needed to help astronomers understand whether the spot is linked to oscillations previously detected in the giant star, or whether it moves systematically across the star's surface under the grip of powerful magnetic fields. The observations were made by Andrea Dupree of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, and Ronald Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, MD, who announced their discovery today at the 187th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Antonio, Texas. The image was taken in ultraviolet light with the Faint Object Camera on March 3, 1995. Hubble can resolve the star even though the apparent size is 20,000 times smaller than the width of the full Moon -- roughly equivalent to being able to resolve a car's headlights at a distance of 6,000 miles. Betelgeuse is so huge that, if it replaced the Sun at the center of our Solar System, its outer atmosphere would extend past the orbit of Jupiter (scale at lower left). Credit: Andrea Dupree (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), Ronald Gilliland (STScI), NASA and ESA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  18. Hubble Views Ancient Storm in the Atmosphere of Jupiter - Montage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    When 17th-century astronomers first turned their telescopes to Jupiter, they noted a conspicuous reddish spot on the giant planet. This Great Red Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. It is now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low-pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of about 270 mph.

    The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself.

    The long lifetime of the Red Spot may be due to the fact that Jupiter is mainly a gaseous planet. It possibly has liquid layers, but lacks a solid surface, which would dissipate the storm's energy, much as happens when a hurricane makes landfall on the Earth. However, the Red Spot does change its shape, size, and color, sometimes dramatically. Such changes are demonstrated in high-resolution Wide Field and Planetary Cameras 1 & 2 images of Jupiter obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and presented here by the Hubble Heritage Project team. The mosaic presents a series of pictures of the Red Spot obtained by Hubble between 1992 and 1999 (see PIA01594 thru PIA01599 and PIA02400 thru PIA02402 for individual images).

    Astronomers study weather phenomena on other planets in order to gain a greater understanding of our own Earth's climate. Lacking a solid surface, Jupiter provides us with a laboratory experiment for observing weather phenomena under very different conditions than those prevailing on Earth. This knowledge can also be applied to places in the Earth's atmosphere that are over deep oceans, making them more similar to Jupiter's deep atmosphere.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  20. On astronomical drawing [1846

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Charles Piazzi

    Reprinted from the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society 15, 1846, pp. 71-82. With annotations and illustrations added by Klaus Hentschel. The activities of the Astronomer Royal for Scotland, Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900), include the triangulation of South African districts, landscape painting, day-to-day or tourist sketching, the engraving and lithographing of prominent architectural sites, the documentary photography of the Egyptian pyramids or the Tenerife Dragon tree, and `instant photographs' of the clouds above his retirement home in Clova, Ripon. His colorful records of the aurora polaris, and solar and terrestrial spectra all profited from his trained eye and his subtle mastery of the pen and the brush. As his paper on astronomical drawing, which we chose to reproduce in this volume, amply demonstrates, he was conversant in most of the print technology repertoire that the 19th century had to offer, and carefully selected the one most appropriate to each sujet. For instance, he chose mezzotint for the plates illustrating Maclear's observations of Halley's comet in 1835/36, so as to achieve a ``rich profundity of shadows, the deep obscurity of which is admirably adapted to reproduce those fine effects of chiaroscuro frequently found in works where the quantity of dark greatly predominates.'' The same expertise with which he tried to emulate Rembrandt's chiaroscuro effects he applied to assessing William and John Herschel's illustrations of nebulae, which appeared in print between 1811 and 1834. William Herschel's positive engraving, made partly by stippling and partly by a coarse mezzotint, receives sharp admonishment because of the visible ruled crossed lines in the background and the fact that ``the objects, which are also generally too light, [have] a much better definition than they really possess.'' On the other hand, John Herschel's illustration of nebulae and star clusters, given in negative, ``in which the lights are the darkest part of the

  1. Astronomical Fourier spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Connes, P; Michel, G

    1975-09-01

    A high resolution near ir Fourier spectrometer with the same general design as previously described laboratory instruments has been built for astronomical observations at a coudé focus. Present spectral range is 0.8-3.5 microm with PbS and Ge detectors and maximum path difference 1 m. The servo system can accommodate various recording modes: stepping or continuous scan, path difference modulation, sky chopping. A real time computer is incorporated into the system, which has been set up at the Hale 500-cm telescope on Mount Palomar. Samples of the results are given. PMID:20154966

  2. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  3. Astropix: Everyone's New Portal to the Universe of Astronomical Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt, Robert L.; Squires, G. K.; Llamas, J.; Rosenthal, C.; Brinkworth, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Astropix is a new online repository for astronomical imagery that is now available for everyone to use. Currently in a beta development state, Astropix provides powerful ways to browse, search, and download images, diagrams, artwork, and photographs from many astronomical missions. The site is built around the Astronomical Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard developed by the Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP) that captures all the key descriptive information for a public image, including color representations and astronomical and sky coordinates. Existing image galleries containing AVM-tagged images can easily supply them to Astropix, which downloads them, extracts the metadata into its database, and generates versions of the images at a variety of common sizes. Visitors to Astropix can search the database using simple free-text queries, or use a structured search (similar to "Smart Playlists" found in iTunes, for example). The Astropix archive also features an Xquery-based method for posting http queries and retrieving XML lists of matching imagery, allowing for scripted access to the site. Current assets include imagery from Spitzer, Chandra, ESO, Galex, Herschel, Hubble, Spitzer, and WISE, with more on the way. Website: astropix.ipac.caltech.edu

  4. XXXVI Polish Astronomical Society Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różańska, Agata; Bejger, Michał

    2014-12-01

    XXXVI meeting of Polish Astronomical Society was held in Warsaw on Sept. 11-14, 2013. The conference brought together 150 astronomers working in different institutes in Poland and abroad. The highlight of the Congress was the first awarding of the Paczynski's Medal. The first laureate of the Medal is Professor Martin Rees from University of Cambridge. Medal was given by the President of the Polish Astronomical Society prof. Bozena Czerny.

  5. Strasbourg's "First" astronomical observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2011-08-01

    The turret lantern located at the top of the Strasbourg Hospital Gate is generally considered as the first astronomical observatory of the city, but such a qualification must be treated with caution. The thesis of this paper is that the idea of a tower-observatory was brought back by a local scholar, Julius Reichelt (1637-1717), after he made a trip to Northern Europe around 1666 and saw the "Rundetårn" (Round Tower) recently completed in Copenhagen. There, however, a terrace allowed (and still allows) the full viewing of the sky, and especially of the zenith area where the atmospheric transparency is best. However, there is no such terrace in Strasbourg around the Hospital Gate lantern. Reichelt had also visited Johannes Hevelius who was then developing advanced observational astronomy in Gdansk, but nothing of the kind followed in Strasbourg. Rather, the Hospital Gate observatory was built essentially for the prestige of the city and for the notoriety of the university, and the users of this observing post did not make any significant contributions to the progress of astronomical knowledge. We conclude that the Hospital Gate observatory was only used for rudimentary viewing of bright celestial objects or phenomena relatively low on the horizon.

  6. Really Bad Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    What happens when even Percival Lowell stops believing in your Mars observations? History can be troubling. This I learned while editing the Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (Springer, 2007). There have been astronomers who do not fit our commonly held, and clung to, conceptual model: a sociological system that sifts out generally like-minded and sensible colleagues. I refer to those individuals who (for at least a time) successfully entered the mainstream profession, but now disturb our worldview that says prosperity as a scientist usually is achieved by a rational being holding certain common values. My List of Shame includes examples from each of the last four centuries. Not "crack pot” cosmologists, these were hard-working observers for whom the end justified the means. And they all got away with it. Each person I discuss was vetted by the professional establishment of the day. Yet you will learn how to be fired from a major observatory, banned from prominent journals. But only after damage to the science is done. Be afraid.

  7. Grigor Narekatsi's astronomical insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Samvel

    2015-07-01

    What stand out in the solid system of Gr. Narekatsi's naturalistic views are his astronomical insights on the material nature of light, its high speed and the Sun being composed of "material air". Especially surprising and fascinating are his views on stars and their clusters. What astronomers, including great Armenian academician V. Ambartsumian (scattering of stellar associations), would understand and prove with much difficulty thousand years later, Narekatsi predicted in the 10th century: "Stars appear and disappear untimely", "You who gather and scatter the speechless constellations, like a flock of sheep". Gr. Narekatsti's reformative views were manifested in all the spheres of the 10th century social life; he is a reformer of church life, great language constructor, innovator in literature and music, freethinker in philosophy and science. His ideology is the reflection of the 10th century Armenian Renaissance. During the 9th-10th centuries, great masses of Armenians, forced to migrate to the Balkans, took with them and spread reformative ideas. The forefather of the western science, which originated in the period of Reformation, is considered to be the great philosopher Nicholas of Cusa. The study of Gr. Narekatsti's logic and naturalistic views enables us to claim that Gr. Narekatsti is the great grandfather of European science.

  8. Professional Ethics for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    2005-05-01

    There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

  9. Getting Astronomers Involved in the IYA: Astronomer in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Kris

    2008-05-01

    The Astronomer in the Classroom program provides professional astronomers the opportunity to engage with 3rd-12th grade students across the nation in grade appropriate discussions of their recent research, and provides students with rich STEM content in a personalized forum, bringing greater access to scientific knowledge for underserved populations. 21st Century Learning and Interstellar Studios, the producer of the 400 Years of the Telescope documentary along with their educational partners, will provide the resources necessary to facilitate the Astronomer in the Classroom program, allowing students to interact with astronomers throughout the IYA2009. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION One of hundreds of astronomers will be available to interact with students via live webcast daily during Spring/Fall 2009. The astronomer for the day will conduct three 20-minute discussions (Grades 3-5 /6-8/9-12), beginning with a five-minute PowerPoint on their research or area of interest. The discussion will be followed by a question and answer period. The students will participate in real-time from their school computer(s) with the technology provided by 21st Century Learning. They will see and hear the astronomer on their screen, and pose questions from their keyboard. Teachers will choose from three daily sessions; 11:30 a.m., 12:00 p.m., 12:30 p.m. Eastern Time. This schedule overlaps all US time zones, and marginalizes bandwidth usage, preventing technological barriers to web access. The educational partners and astronomers will post materials online, providing easy access to information that will prepare teachers and students for the chosen discussion. The astronomers, invited to participate from the AAS and IAU, will receive a web cam shipment with instructions, a brief training and conductivity test, and prepaid postage for shipment of the web cam to the next astronomer on the list. The anticipated astronomer time required is 3-hours, not including the time to develop the PowerPoint.

  10. Beyond the Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    International Astronomer Team Witnesses Very Ancient Stellar Explosion A few months ago, a violent stellar explosion -- a supernova -- was discovered in an extremely distant galaxy by an international team of astronomers [1]. This is the very promising first result of a recently initiated, dedicated search for such objects. Subsequent spectral observations have shown this to be the most distant supernova ever observed. Although it is very faint, it has been possible to classify it as a supernova of Type Ia, a kind that is particularly well suited for cosmological distance determinations. A Very Efficient Supernova Search Programme The present discovery was made during the team's first observations with the 4-metre telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. This telescope is equipped with a wide-field camera at its prime focus that enables the simultaneous recording of the images of even very faint objects in a 15-arcminute field. Hundreds of distant galaxies are located in a field of this size and this observational method is therefore very well suited for a search of faint and transient supernovae in such galaxies. With a carefully planned observing sequence, it is possible to image up to 55 sky fields per night. A comparison with earlier exposures makes it possible to detect suddenly appearing supernovae as faint points of light near the galaxy in which the exploding star is located (the parent galaxy). A crucial feature of the new programme is the possibility to perform follow-up spectroscopic observations, whenever a new supernova is discovered. For this, the team has obtained access to several other large telescopes, including the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and the Multi-Mirror Telescope (MMT) in Arizona, U.S.A.. The Spectrum of the Supernova The present supernova was first detected at Tololo on March 30, 1995. It was given the official designation SN 1995K, and its

  11. HUBBLE DETECTION OF COMET NUCLEUS AT FRINGE OF SOLAR SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is sample data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope that illustrates the detection of comets in the Kuiper Belt, a region of space beyond the orbit of the planet Neptune. This pair of images, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), shows one of the candidate Kuiper Belt objects found with Hubble. Believed to be an icy comet nucleus several miles across, the object is so distant and faint that Hubble's search is the equivalent of finding the proverbial needle-in-haystack. Each photo is a 5-hour exposure of a piece of sky carefully selected such that it is nearly devoid of background stars and galaxies that could mask the elusive comet. The left image, taken on August 22, 1994, shows the candidate comet object (inside circle) embedded in the background. The right picture, take of the same region one hour forty-five minutes later shows the object has apparently moved in the predicted direction and rate of motion for a kuiper belt member. The dotted line on the images is a possible orbit that this Kuiper belt comet is following. A star (lower right corner) and a galaxy (upper right corner) provide a static background reference. In addition, other objects in the picture have not moved during this time, indicating they are outside our solar system. Through this search technique astronomers have identified 29 candidate comet nuclei belonging to an estimated population of 200 million particles orbiting the edge of our solar system. The Kupier Belt was theorized 40 years ago, and its larger members detected several years ago. However, Hubble has found the underlying population of normal comet-sized bodies. Credit: A. Cochran (University of Texas) and NASA

  12. HUBBLE CAPTURES BEST VIEW OF MARS EVER OBTAINED FROM EARTH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Frosty white water ice clouds and swirling orange dust storms above a vivid rusty landscape reveal Mars as a dynamic planet in this sharpest view ever obtained by an Earth-based telescope. NASA's Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope took the picture on June 26, when Mars was approximately 43 million miles (68 million km) from Earth -- the closest Mars has ever been to Earth since 1988. Hubble can see details as small as 10 miles (16 km) across. The colors have been carefully balanced to give a realistic view of Mars' hues as they might appear through a telescope. Especially striking is the large amount of seasonal dust storm activity seen in this image. One large storm system is churning high above the northern polar cap [top of image], and a smaller dust storm cloud can be seen nearby. Another large dust storm is spilling out of the giant Hellas impact basin in the Southern Hemisphere [lower right]. Hubble has observed Mars before, but never in such detail. The biennial close approaches of Mars and Earth are not all the same. Mars' orbit around the Sun is markedly elliptical; the close approaches to Earth can range from 35 million to 63 million miles. Astronomers are interested in studying the changeable surface and weather conditions on Mars, in part, to help plan for a pair of NASA missions to land rovers on the planet's surface in 2004. The Mars opposition of 2001 serves as a prelude for 2003 when Mars and Earth will come within 35 million miles of each other, the closest since 1924 and not to be matched until 2287. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: J. Bell (Cornell U.), P. James (U. Toledo), M. Wolff (Space Science Institute), A. Lubenow (STScI), J. Neubert (MIT/Cornell)

  13. Hubble Sees Young Galaxies Bursting with Stars

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a zoom into the Hubble GOODS South Deep (GSD) field. Candidate extreme emission line galaxies are identified. This object was observed as part of the Hubble CANDELS Legacy Project....

  14. Hubble peers inside a celestial geode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    celestial geode hi-res Size hi-res: 148 Kb Credits: ESA/NASA, Yäel Nazé (University of Liège, Belgium) and You-Hua Chu (University of Illinois, Urbana, USA) Hubble peers inside a celestial geode In this unusual image, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures a rare view of the celestial equivalent of a geode - a gas cavity carved by the stellar wind and intense ultraviolet radiation from a young hot star. Real geodes are handball-sized, hollow rocks that start out as bubbles in volcanic or sedimentary rock. Only when these inconspicuous round rocks are split in half by a geologist, do we get a chance to appreciate the inside of the rock cavity that is lined with crystals. In the case of Hubble's 35 light-year diameter ‘celestial geode’ the transparency of its bubble-like cavity of interstellar gas and dust reveals the treasures of its interior. Low resolution version (JPG format) 148 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 1929 Kb Acknowledgment: This image was created with the help of the ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator. Real geodes are handball-sized, hollow rocks that start out as bubbles in volcanic or sedimentary rock. Only when these inconspicuous round rocks are split in half by a geologist, do we get a chance to appreciate the inside of the rock cavity that is lined with crystals. In the case of Hubble's 35 light-year diameter ‘celestial geode’ the transparency of its bubble-like cavity of interstellar gas and dust reveals the treasures of its interior. The object, called N44F, is being inflated by a torrent of fast-moving particles (what astronomers call a 'stellar wind') from an exceptionally hot star (the bright star just below the centre of the bubble) once buried inside a cold dense cloud. Compared with our Sun (which is losing mass through the so-called 'solar wind'), the central star in N44F is ejecting more than a 100 million times more mass per second and the hurricane of particles moves much faster at 7 million km per hour

  15. HUBBLE REVEALS THE HEART OF THE WHIRLPOOL GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    New images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope are helping researchers view in unprecedented detail the spiral arms and dust clouds of a nearby galaxy, which are the birth sites of massive and luminous stars. The Whirlpool galaxy, M51, has been one of the most photogenic galaxies in amateur and professional astronomy. Easily photographed and viewed by smaller telescopes, this celestial beauty is studied extensively in a range of wavelengths by large ground- and space-based observatories. This Hubble composite image shows visible starlight as well as light from the emission of glowing hydrogen, which is associated with the most luminous young stars in the spiral arms. M51, also known as NGC 5194, is having a close encounter with a nearby companion galaxy, NGC 5195, just off the upper edge of this image. The companion's gravitational pull is triggering star formation in the main galaxy, as seen in brilliant detail by numerous, luminous clusters of young and energetic stars. The bright clusters are highlighted in red by their associated emission from glowing hydrogen gas. This Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image enables a research group, led by Nick Scoville (Caltech), to clearly define the structure of both the cold dust clouds and the hot hydrogen and link individual clusters to their parent dust clouds. Team members include M. Polletta (U. Geneva); S. Ewald and S. Stolovy (Caltech); R. Thompson and M. Rieke (U. of Arizona). Intricate structure is also seen for the first time in the dust clouds. Along the spiral arms, dust 'spurs' are seen branching out almost perpendicular to the main spiral arms. The regularity and large number of these features suggests to astronomers that previous models of 'two-arm' spiral galaxies may need to be revisited. The new images also reveal a dust disk in the nucleus, which may provide fuel for a nuclear black hole. The team is also studying this galaxy at near-infrared wavelengths with the NICMOS instrument onboard Hubble. At these

  16. Hubble Observes the Moons and Rings of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings, at least five of the inner moons, and bright clouds in the planet's southern hemisphere. Hubble now allows astronomers to revisit the planet at a level of detail not possible since the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by the planet briefly, nearly a decade ago.

    Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. Similar details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft that flew by Uranus in 1986 (the rings were discovered by stellar occultation experiments in 1977, but not seen directly until Voyager flew to Uranus). Since the flyby, none of these inner satellites has been observed further, and detailed observations of the rings and Uranus' atmosphere have not been possible, because the rings are lost in the planet's glare as seen through ground-based optical telescopes.

    Each of the inner moons appears as a string of three dots in this picture because it is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart. When these images are combined, they show the motion of the moons compared with the sky background. Because the moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon, they change position noticeably over only a few minutes. (These multiple images also help to distinguish the moons from stars and imaging detector artifacts, i.e., cosmic rays and electronic noise).

    Thanks to Hubble's capabilities, astronomers will now be able to determine the orbits more precisely. With this increase in accuracy, astronomers can better probe the unusual dynamics of Uranus' complicated satellite system. Measuring the moons' brightness in several colors might offer clues to the satellites' origin by providing new information on their mineralogical composition. Similar measurements of the rings should yield new insights into their composition and origin.

    One of

  17. HUBBLE'S ULTRAVIOLET VIEWS OF NEARBY GALAXIES YIELD CLUES TO EARLY UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers are using these three NASA Hubble Space Telescope images to help tackle the question of why distant galaxies have such odd shapes, appearing markedly different from the typical elliptical and spiral galaxies seen in the nearby universe. Do faraway galaxies look weird because they are truly weird? Or, are they actually normal galaxies that look like oddballs, because astronomers are getting an incomplete picture of them, seeing only the brightest pieces? Light from these galaxies travels great distances (billions of light-years) to reach Earth. During its journey, the light is 'stretched' due to the expansion of space. As a result, the light is no longer visible, but has been shifted to the infrared where present instruments are less sensitive. About the only light astronomers can see comes from regions where hot, young stars reside. These stars emit mostly ultraviolet light. But this light is stretched, appearing as visible light by the time it reaches Earth. Studying these distant galaxies is like trying to put together a puzzle with some of the pieces missing. What, then, do distant galaxies really look like? Astronomers studied 37 nearby galaxies to find out. By viewing these galaxies in ultraviolet light, astronomers can compare their shapes with those of their distant relatives. These three Hubble telescope pictures, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, represent a sampling from that survey. Astronomers observed the galaxies in ultraviolet and visible light to study all the stars that make up these 'cities of stars.' The results of their survey support the idea that astronomers are detecting the 'tip of the iceberg' of very distant galaxies. Based on these Hubble ultraviolet images, not all the faraway galaxies necessarily possess intrinsically odd shapes. The results are being presented today at the 197th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, CA. The central region of the 'star-burst' spiral galaxy at far left

  18. Available Tools and Challenges Classifying Cutting-Edge and Historical Astronomical Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerstrom, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The STScI Library assists the Science Policies Division in evaluating and choosing scientific keywords and categories for proposals for the Hubble Space Telescope mission and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope mission. In addition we are often faced with the question “what is the shape of the astronomical literature?” However, subject classification in astronomy in recent times has not been cultivated. This talk will address the available tools and challenges of classifying cutting-edge as well as historical astronomical documents. In at the process, we will give an overview of current and upcoming practices of subject classification in astronomy.

  19. Immanuel Halton, the astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, P. M.

    1996-02-01

    Immanuel Halton was born in Cumberland, studied at Grays Inn, London during the later stages of the English Civil War and, during the Commonwealth, entered the service of Henry Howard, later 6th Duke of Norfolk. He pursued his mathematical and astronomical interests while auditor to the Duke of Norfolk. He met with John Flamsteed, encouraged the latter's interest in mathematics and astronomy and became his first patron, as well as contributing observations to Flamsteed's published works. Immanuel ended his days at Wingfield Manor, Derbyshire. A short biographical piece on Immanuel Halton appeared in the Journal in the early 1950s, consisting mostly of quotations from Flamsteed's 'Self Inspections' and Baily's 'Life of Flamsteed'. 1996 is the 350th anniversary of Flamsteed's birth, and it is hoped that this fuller account will flesh out the bones of his first patron.

  20. Astronomers against Newton.

    PubMed

    Higgitt, Rebekah

    2004-03-01

    Francis Baily's publication of the manuscripts of John Flamsteed, the first Astronomer Royal, provoked a furious response. Flamsteed had quarrelled with Isaac Newton, and described him in terms unforgivable to those who claimed him as a paragon of all virtues, both moral and scientific. Baily was condemned for putting Flamsteed's complaints in the public sphere. However, his supporters saw his work as a critique of the excessive hero-worship accorded to Newton. Written when the word 'scientist' had been newly coined, this work and the debates it provoked gives us an insight into contemporary views of the role of the man of science and of the use of science to back political, religious and moral positions. PMID:15036924

  1. Astronomical tides and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Mao, Wei; Huang, Yong

    2001-03-01

    A review on the studies of correlation between astronomical tides and earthquakes is given in three categories, including (1) earthquakes and the relative locations of the sun, the moon and the earth, (2) earthquakes and the periods and phases of tides and (3) earthquakes and the tidal stress. The first two categories mainly investigate whether or not there exist any dominant pattern of the relative locations of the sun, the moon and the earth during earthquakes, whether or not the occurrences of earthquakes are clustered in any special phase during a tidal period, whether or not there exists any tidal periodic phenomenon in seismic activities, By empasizing the tidal stress in seismic focus, the third category investigates the relationship between various seismic faults and the triggering effects of tidal stress, which reaches the crux of the issue. Possible reasons to various inconsistent investigation results by using various methods and samples are analyzed and further investigations are proposed.

  2. The Amateur Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick

    This 2000 Edition of Sir Patrick Moore’s classic book has been completely revised in the light of changes in technology. Not only do these changes include commercially available astronomical telescopes and software, but also what we know and understand about the universe. There are many new photographs and illustrations. Writing in the easy-going style that made him famous as a writer and broadcaster, Sir Patrick introduced astronomy and amateur observing together, so that his reader gets an idea of what he is observing at the same time as how to observe. Almost half the book is Appendices. These are hugely comprehensive and provide hints and tips, as well as data (year 2000 onwards) for pretty well every aspect of amateur astronomy. This is probably the only book in which all this information is collected in one place.

  3. East Asian astronomical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    Chinese, Japanese and Korean celestial observations have made major contributions to Applied Historical Astronomy, especially in the study of supernovae, comets, Earth's rotation (using eclipses) and solar variability (via sunspots and aurorae). Few original texts now survive; almost all extant records exist only in printed versions, often with the loss of much detail. The earliest Chinese astronomical observations extend back to before 1000 BC. However, fairly systematic records are only available since 200 BC - and even these have suffered losses through wars, etc. By around AD 800, many independent observations are available from Japan and Korea and these provide a valuable supplement to the Chinese data. Throughout East Asia dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar and conversion to the Julian or Gregorian calendar can be readily effected.

  4. The 1% concordance Hubble constant

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Hinshaw, G.

    2014-10-20

    The determination of the Hubble constant has been a central goal in observational astrophysics for nearly a hundred years. Extraordinary progress has occurred in recent years on two fronts: the cosmic distance ladder measurements at low redshift and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements at high redshift. The CMB is used to predict the current expansion rate through a best-fit cosmological model. Complementary progress has been made with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at relatively low redshifts. While BAO data do not independently determine a Hubble constant, they are important for constraints on possible solutions and checks on cosmic consistency. A precise determination of the Hubble constant is of great value, but it is more important to compare the high and low redshift measurements to test our cosmological model. Significant tension would suggest either uncertainties not accounted for in the experimental estimates or the discovery of new physics beyond the standard model of cosmology. In this paper we examine in detail the tension between the CMB, BAO, and cosmic distance ladder data sets. We find that these measurements are consistent within reasonable statistical expectations and we combine them to determine a best-fit Hubble constant of 69.6 ± 0.7 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. This value is based upon WMAP9+SPT+ACT+6dFGS+BOSS/DR11+H {sub 0}/Riess; we explore alternate data combinations in the text. The combined data constrain the Hubble constant to 1%, with no compelling evidence for new physics.

  5. Apparent nonlinearity of the redshift-distance relation in infrared astronomical satellite galaxy samples.

    PubMed

    Segal, I E; Nicoll, J F

    1992-12-15

    The Hubble (linear) redshift-distance law predicts values for directly observed quantities that are quite deviant from their actual values in infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) galaxy samples. These samples are objectively defined, have modern measurements, are presently the largest such samples to which the Hubble law is theoretically applicable, and are otherwise generally considered to be statistically appropriate. The Hubble law predicts in particular that the dispersion in log flux will be much greater than it is observed to be. This type of deviation is fundamentally incapable of explanation via the assumption of any physically known type of perturbation. The Lundmark (quadratic) redshift-distance law predicts values for these directly observed quantities that are consistent with, and in fact quite close to, their actual values in the same samples. The predictions of a cubic law are typically deviant from observation but somewhat less so than those of the Hubble law. The Lundmark law accurately predicts the deviations from observation of statistical estimates predicated on either the Hubble or the cubic law. Parallel predictions for the latter laws for the results of statistical estimation predicated on the alternative laws are typically quite inaccurate. The Hubble and Lundmark laws are predicted at the low redshifts of the IRAS galaxy samples by generic big bang cosmology (BBC) and chronometric cosmology (CC), respectively. The present results confirm earlier studies of a variety of objectively defined samples of discrete sources in other wave bands that were contraindicative of BBC and indicative of CC. PMID:11607342

  6. Visualizing Astronomical Data with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2013-06-01

    Astronomical data take on a multitude of forms—catalogs, data cubes, images, and simulations. The availability of software for rendering high-quality three-dimensional graphics lends itself to the paradigm of exploring the incredible parameter space afforded by the astronomical sciences. The software program Blender gives astronomers a useful tool for displaying data in a manner used by three-dimensional (3D) graphics specialists and animators. The interface to this popular software package is introduced with attention to features of interest in astronomy. An overview of the steps for generating models, textures, animations, camera work, and renders is outlined. An introduction is presented on the methodology for producing animations and graphics with a variety of astronomical data. Examples from subfields of astronomy with different kinds of data are shown with resources provided to members of the astronomical community. An example video showcasing the outlined principles and features is provided along with scripts and files for sample visualizations.

  7. Hubble Sees Material Ejected From Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope pictures of comet Hale-Bopp show a remarkable 'pinwheel' pattern and a blob of free-flying debris near the nucleus. The bright clump of light along the spiral (above the nucleus, which is near the center of the frame) may be a piece of the comet's icy crust that was ejected into space by a combination of ice evaporation and the comet's rotation, and which then disintegrated into a bright cloud of particles.

    Although the 'blob' is about 3.5 times fainter than the brightest portion at the nucleus, the lump appears brighter because it covers a larger area. The debris follows a spiral pattern outward because the solid nucleus is rotating like a lawn sprinkler, completing a single rotation about once per week.

    Ground-based observations conducted over the past two months have documented at least two separate episodes of jet and pinwheel formation and fading. By coincidence, the first Hubble images of Hale-Bopp, taken on September 26, 1995, immediately followed one of these outbursts and allow researchers to examine it at unprecedented detail. For the first time they see a clear separation between the nucleus and some of the debris being shed. By putting together information from the Hubble images and those taken during the recent outburst using the 82 cm telescope of the Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain), astronomers find that the debris is moving away from the nucleus at a speed (projected on the sky) of about 68 miles per hour (109 kilometers per hour).

    The Hubble observations will be used to determine if Hale-Bopp is really a giant comet or rather a more moderate-sized object whose current activity is driven by outgassing from a very volatile ice which will 'burn out' over the next year. Comet Hale-Bopp was discovered on July 23, 1995 by amateur astronomers Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp. Though this comet is still well outside the orbit of Jupiter (almost 600 million miles, or one billion kilometers from Earth

  8. HUBBLE WATCHES STAR TEAR APART ITS NEIGHBORHOOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a view of a stellar demolition zone in our Milky Way Galaxy: a massive star, nearing the end of its life, tearing apart the shell of surrounding material it blew off 250,000 years ago with its strong stellar wind. The shell of material, dubbed the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888), surrounds the 'hefty,' aging star WR 136, an extremely rare and short-lived class of super-hot star called a Wolf-Rayet. Hubble's multicolored picture reveals with unprecedented clarity that the shell of matter is a network of filaments and dense knots, all enshrouded in a thin 'skin' of gas [seen in blue]. The whole structure looks like oatmeal trapped inside a balloon. The skin is glowing because it is being blasted by ultraviolet light from WR 136. Hubble's view covers a small region at the northeast tip of the structure, which is roughly three light-years across. A picture taken by a ground-based telescope [lower right] shows almost the entire nebula. The whole structure is about 16 light-years wide and 25 light-years long. The bright dot near the center of NGC 6888 is WR 136. The white outline in the upper left-hand corner represents Hubble's view. Hubble's sharp vision is allowing scientists to probe the intricate details of this complex system, which is crucial to understanding the life cycle of stars and their impact on the evolution of our galaxy. The results of this study appear in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal. WR 136 created this web of luminous material during the late stages of its life. As a bloated, red super-giant, WR 136 gently puffed away some of its bulk, which settled around it. When the star passed from a super-giant to a Wolf-Rayet, it developed a fierce stellar wind - a stream of charged particles released from its surface - and began expelling mass at a furious rate. The star began ejecting material at a speed of 3.8 million mph (6.1 million kilometers per hour), losing matter equal to that of our Sun's every 10

  9. The ESA Hubble 15th Anniversary Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, L. L.; Kornmesser, M.

    2005-12-01

    The 15th anniversary of the launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope occurred on 24th April 2005. As Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects in the world, ESA decided to celebrate this anniversary, among other things, with the production of a Hubble 15th Anniversary movie and a book, both called "Hubble, 15 years of discovery". The movie covers all aspects of the Hubble Space Telescope project - a journey through the history, the problems and the scientific successes of Hubble. With more than 700,000 multi-lingual DVDs distributed to the public, media, educators, decision-makers and scientists, the Hubble 15th anniversary campaign has been one of the largest such projects in Europe.

  10. The Hubble rate in averaged cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Umeh, Obinna; Larena, Julien; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: julien.larena@gmail.com

    2011-03-01

    The calculation of the averaged Hubble expansion rate in an averaged perturbed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology leads to small corrections to the background value of the expansion rate, which could be important for measuring the Hubble constant from local observations. It also predicts an intrinsic variance associated with the finite scale of any measurement of H{sub 0}, the Hubble rate today. Both the mean Hubble rate and its variance depend on both the definition of the Hubble rate and the spatial surface on which the average is performed. We quantitatively study different definitions of the averaged Hubble rate encountered in the literature by consistently calculating the backreaction effect at second order in perturbation theory, and compare the results. We employ for the first time a recently developed gauge-invariant definition of an averaged scalar. We also discuss the variance of the Hubble rate for the different definitions.

  11. HUBBLE'S TOP TEN GRAVITATIONAL LENSES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Hubble Space Telescope serendipitous survey of the sky has uncovered exotic patterns, rings, arcs and crosses that are all optical mirages produced by a gravitational lens, nature's equivalent of having giant magnifying glass in space. Shown are the top 10 lens candidates uncovered in the deepest 100 Hubble fields. Hubble's sensitivity and high resolution allow it to see faint and distant lenses that cannot be detected with ground-based telescopes whose images are blurred by Earth's atmosphere. [Top Left] - HST 01248+0351 is a lensed pair on either side of the edge-on disk lensing galaxy. [Top Center] - HST 01247+0352 is another pair of bluer lensed source images around the red spherical elliptical lensing galaxy. Two much fainter images can be seen near the detection limit which might make this a quadruple system. [Top Right] - HST 15433+5352 is a very good lens candidate with a bluer lensed source in the form of an extended arc about the redder elliptical lensing galaxy. [Middle Far Left] - HST 16302+8230 could be an 'Einstein ring' and the most intriguing lens candidate. It has been nicknamed the 'the London Underground' since it resembles that logo. [Middle Near Left] - HST 14176+5226 is the first, and brightest lens system discovered in 1995 with the Hubble telescope. This lens candidate has now been confirmed spectroscopically using large ground-based telescopes. The elliptical lensing galaxy is located 7 billion light-years away, and the lensed quasar is about 11 billion light-years distant. [Middle Near Right] - HST 12531-2914 is the second quadruple lens candidate discovered with Hubble. It is similar to the first, but appears smaller and fainter. [Middle Far Right] - HST 14164+5215 is a pair of bluish lensed images symmetrically placed around a brighter, redder galaxy. [Bottom Left] - HST 16309+8230 is an edge-on disk-like galaxy (blue arc) which has been significantly distorted by the redder lensing elliptical galaxy. [Bottom Center] - HST 12368

  12. Algorithm for astronomical, extended source, signal-to-noise radio calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to simulate the expected signal-to-noise ratio as a function of observation time in the charge coupled device detector plane of an optical telescope located outside the Earth's atmosphere for an extended, uniform astronomical source embedded in a uniform cosmic background. By choosing the appropriate input values, the expected extended source signal-to-noise ratios can be computed for the Hubble Space Telescope using the Wide Field/Planetary Camera science instrument.

  13. European astronomers observe first evaporating planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    The scorched planet called HD 209458b orbits ‘only’ 7 million kilometres from its yellow Sun-like star. By comparison, Jupiter, the closest gas giant in our Solar System, orbits 780 million kilometres from our Sun. NASA/ESA Hubble Space telescope observations reveal a hot and puffed-up evaporating hydrogen atmosphere surrounding the planet. This huge envelope of hydrogen resembles a comet with a tail trailing behind the planet. The planet circles the parent star in a tight 3.5-day orbit. Earth also has an extended atmosphere of escaping hydrogen gas, but the loss rate is much lower. A mainly European team led by Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) reports this discovery in the 13 March edition of Nature. "We were astonished to see that the hydrogen atmosphere of this planet extends over 200 000 kilometres," says Vidal-Madjar. Studying extrasolar planets, especially if they are very close to their parent stars, is not easy because the starlight is usually too blinding. The planet was also too close to the star for Hubble to photograph directly in this case. However, astronomers were able to observe the planet indirectly since it blocks light from a small part of the star during transits across the disc of the star, thereby dimming it slightly. Light passing through the atmosphere around the planet is scattered and acquires a signature from the atmosphere. In a similar way, the Sun’s light is reddened as it passes obliquely through the Earth’s atmosphere at sunset. Astronomers used Hubble’s space telescope imaging spectrograph (STIS) to measure how much of the planet's atmosphere filters light from the star. They saw a startling drop in the star's hydrogen emission. A huge, puffed-up atmosphere can best explain this result. What is causing the atmosphere to escape? The planet’s outer atmosphere is extended and heated so much by the nearby star that it starts to escape the planet's gravity. Hydrogen boils off in the

  14. Evaluation of the vent header crack at Edwin 1. Hatch Unit No. 2 Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A metallurgical failure analysis was performed on pieces of the cracked vent header pipe from the Edwin I. Hatch Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. The analysis consisted of optical microscopy, chemical analysis, mechanical Charpy impact testing and fractography. The general conclusions drawn from this analysis were: (1) the material of the vent header met the mechanical and chemical properties of ASTM A516 Gr. 70 material and that the microstructures were consistent with this material; (2) the fracture faces of the cracked pipe were predominantly brittle in appearance with no evidence of fatigue contribution; (3) the NDTT (Nil Ductility Transition Temperature) for this material is approximately -60/sup 0/F (-51/sup 0/C); and (4) the fact that the material's NDTT is significantly out of the normal operating range of the pipe suggests that an impingement of low temperature nitrogen (caused by a faulty torus inerting system) induced a thermal shock in the pipe which, when cooled below its NDTT, cracked in a brittle manner.

  15. Sümeyra Tosun: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2014 recipient is Sümeyra Tosun. Tosun was chosen for "an outstanding research paper that examines the cognitive repercussions of obligatory versus optional marking of evidentiality, the linguistic coding of the source of information. In English, evidentiality is conveyed in the lexicon through the use of adverbs. In Turkish, evidentiality is coded in the grammar. In two experiments, it was found that English speakers were equally good at remembering and monitoring the source of firsthand information and the source of non-firsthand information. Turkish speakers were worse at remembering and monitoring non-firsthand information than firsthand information and were worse than English speakers at remembering and monitoring non-firsthand information." Tosun's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486159

  16. Hubble Reveals Sombrero Galaxy (M104)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In the 19th century, astronomer V. M. Slipher first discovered a hat-like object that appeared to be rushing away from us at 700 miles per second. This enormous velocity offered some of the earliest clues that it was really another galaxy, and that the universe was expanding in all directions. The trained razor sharp eye of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) easily resolves this Sombrero galaxy, Messier 104 (M104). The galaxy is 50,000 light-years across and is located 28 million light-years from Earth at the southern edge of the rich Virgo cluster of galaxies. Equivalent to 800 billion suns, Sombrero is one of the most massive objects in that group. The hallmark of Sombrero is a brilliant white, bulbous core encircled by the thick dust lanes comprising the spiral structure of the galaxy. As seen from Earth, the galaxy is tilted nearly edge-on. We view it from just six degrees north of its equatorial plane. At a relatively bright magnitude of +8, M104 is just beyond the limit of naked-eye visibility and is easily seen through small telescopes. This rich system of globular clusters are estimated to be nearly 2,000 in number which is 10 times as many as in our Milky Way galaxy. The ages of the clusters are similar to the clusters in the Milky Way, ranging from 10-13 billion years old. Embedded in the bright core of M104 is a smaller disk, which is tilted relative to the large disk. X-ray emission suggests that there is material falling into the compact core, where a 1-billion-solar-mass black hole resides. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

  17. Measuring the Hubble Constant with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Wendy

    1996-05-01

    In a uniform and isotropic Universe, the relative expansion velocity v is proportional to the relative distance r such that v = H × r. Thus a determination of the present-day value of the Hubble constant H0 determines both the expansion timescale and the size scale of the Universe. The Hubble constant also provides constraints on the density of baryons produced in the Big Bang, the amount of dark matter, and how structure formed in the early Universe. The most accurate means of measuring the distances to nearby galaxies has proved to be the application of a relationship between the period and the luminosity for a class of supergiant variable stars known as classical Cepheids. Unfortunately the Cepheid variables are not intrinsically luminous enough to be measured out to distances where the velocities of recession of galaxies are a few thousand km/sec and thus dominate the peculiar velocities due to the gravitational interactions between galaxies (typically a few hundred km/sec). The Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance has been designed to measure a value of the Hubble constant accurate to ±10% [random + systematic]. The program has been designed to use Cepheid variables to determine the distances to a representative sample of about 20 galaxies both inside and out of small groups and in major clusters. These galaxies are being used to tie into methods with high internal precision ( ~ ±5%) that operate at greater distances, thereby allowing an accurate absolute calibration and an intercomparison of several independent techniques. Our preliminary result is that the value of the Hubble constant is 80 ± 17 km/sec/Mpc footnote Freedman, W. L. et al., Nature, 371, 757, (1994) New results will be presented based on observations of several new galaxies, including NGC 1365 in the nearby Fornax cluster. My collaborators on the HST Key Project team are R. Kennicutt, J. Mould, F. Bresolin, L. Ferrarese, H. Ford, J. Graham, M. Han, P. Harding, J

  18. HUBBLE CAPTURES THE HEART OF STAR BIRTH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    about 35,000 light-years across. The right-hand image, taken by WFPC2, provides a closer look at the flurry of star birth at the galaxy's core. The star clusters (blue) can be seen (and many more are likely obscured) amid thick lanes of gas and dust. This image shows that stars are often born in compact clusters within star bursts, and that dense gas and dust heavily obscures the star burst region. The brightest knot of star birth seen here is probably a giant cluster of stars, about 100 light-years in diameter, at the very center of the galaxy. The other star clusters are about 10 to 50 light-years in diameter. The entire star burst region shown here is about 3,000 light-years across. This galaxy is about 40 million light-years away in the southern constellation Columba. The observation was taken Aug. 14, 1997, and was the last of 13 Hubble Space Telescope amateur programs. Credits: Jim Flood, an amateur astronomer affiliated with Sperry Observatory at Union College in New Jersey, and Max Mutchler, a member of the Space Telescope Science Institute staff who volunteered to work with Jim.

  19. HUBBLE IMAGES REVEAL A YOUNG STAR'S DYNAMIC DISK AND JETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images of HH 30 show changes over only a five-year period in the disk and jets of this newborn star, which is about half a million years old. The pictures were taken between 1995 and 2000 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Astronomers are interested in the disk because it is probably similar to the one from which the Sun and the planets in our solar system formed. Hubble reveals an edge-on disk (located at the bottom of the images), which appears as a flattened cloud of dust split into two halves by a dark lane. The disk blocks light from the central star. All that is visible is the reflection of the star's light by dust above and below the plane of the disk. The disk's diameter is 450 astronomical units (one astronomical unit equals the Earth-Sun distance). Shadows billions of miles in size can be seen moving across the disk. In 1995 and 2000, the left and right sides of the disk were about the same brightness, but in 1998 the right side was brighter. These patterns may be caused by bright spots on the star or variations in the disk near the star. The dust cloud near the top of these frames is illuminated by the star and reflects changes in its brightness. The star's magnetic field plays a major role in forming the jets (located above and below the disk), which look like streams of water from a fire hose. The powerful magnetic field creates the jets by channeling gas from the disk along the magnetic poles above and below the star. The gaps between the compact knots of gas seen in the jet above the disk indicate that this is a sporadic process. By tracking the motion of these knots over time, astronomers have measured the jet's speed at between 200,000 to 600,000 miles per hour (160,000 and 960,000 kilometers per hour). Oddly, the jet below the disk is moving twice as fast as the one above it. Credits: NASA, Alan Watson (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Karl Stapelfeldt (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John

  20. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, Molly S.; Tumlinson, Jason; Fox, Andrew; Aloisi, Alessandra; Ayres, Thomas R.; Danforth, Charles; Fleming, Scott W.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Keeney, Brian A.; Oliveira, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    With no future space ultraviolet instruments currently planned, the data from the UV spectrographs aboard the Hubble Space Telescope have a legacy value beyond their initial science goals. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive will provide to the community new science-grade combined spectra for all publicly available data obtained by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). These data will be packaged into "smart archives" according to target type and scientific themes to facilitate the construction of archival samples for common science uses. A new "quick look" capability will make the data easy for users to quickly access, assess the quality of, and download for archival science starting in Cycle 24, with the first generation of these products for the FUV modes of COS available online via MAST in early 2016.

  1. HUBBLE SERVES UP A GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    What may first appear as a sunny side up egg is actually NASA Hubble Space Telescope's face-on snapshot of the small spiral galaxy NGC 7742. But NGC 7742 is not a run-of-the-mill spiral galaxy. In fact, this spiral is known to be a Seyfert 2 active galaxy, a type of galaxy that is probably powered by a black hole residing in its core. The core of NGC 7742 is the large yellow 'yolk' in the center of the image. The lumpy, thick ring around this core is an area of active starbirth. The ring is about 3,000 light-years from the core. Tightly wound spiral arms also are faintly visible. Surrounding the inner ring is a wispy band of material, which is probably the remains of a once very active stellar breeding ground. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)

  2. Major Conference about Astronomical Technology in Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    continents. There will be plenary sessions and specialised working group meetings on virtually all subject areas related to modern astronomical technology, ranging from optical design, materials and fabrication to telescope structures, detectors and the associated discovery and research prospects. While the performance and results from the new, large ground-based facilities like the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) will constitute one of the focal points, much attention will also be devoted to new projects in space astronomy, e.g., the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) , the planned successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Other space missions to be discussed are the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-Ray observatories. Radio Telescopes , herunder the projected Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) , as well as Optical Interferometry are other hot subjects, as are the current plans for optical telescopes in the extremely large class , with surface diameters of 30 - 100 metres. Press Conference An international Press Conference will be held at the meeting site in the Munich International Conference Center on Monday, March 27, at 12:15 hrs local time (CET) . It will be attended by some of the key participants, with possibilities for individual interviews. More information about the Press Conference is available from

  3. XEphem: Interactive Astronomical Ephemeris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Elwood Charles

    2011-12-01

    XEphem is a scientific-grade interactive astronomical ephemeris package for UNIX-like systems. Written in C, X11 and Motif, it is easily ported to systems. Among other things, XEphem: computes heliocentric, geocentric and topocentric information for all objects; has built-in support for all planets; the moons of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Earth; central meridian longitude of Mars and Jupiter; Saturn's rings; and Jupiter's Great Red Spot; allows user-defined objects including stars, deepsky objects, asteroids, comets and Earth satellites; provides special efficient handling of large catalogs including Tycho, Hipparcos, GSC; displays data in configurable tabular formats in conjunction with several interactive graphical views; displays a night-at-a-glance 24 hour graphic showing when any selected objects are up; displays 3-D stereo Solar System views that are particularly well suited for visualizing comet trajectories; quickly finds all close pairs of objects in the sky; and sorts and prints all catalogs with very flexible criteria for creating custom observing lists. Its capabilities are listed more fully in the user manual introduction.

  4. Virtual Astronomical Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, R.; Protopapas, P.; Lehner, M.

    2007-10-01

    The sheer magnitude of databases and data rates in new surveys makes it hard to develop pipelines to enable both the analysis of data and the federation of these databases for correlation and followup. There is thus a compelling need to facilitate the creation and management of dynamic workflow pipelines that enable correlating data between separate, parallel streams; changing the workflow in response to an event; using the NVO to obtain additional needed information from databases; and modifying the observing program of a primary survey to follow-up a transient or moving object. This paper describes such a Virtual Astronomical Pipeline (VAP) system which is running in the TAOS project. The software enables components in the pipeline to react to events encapsulated in XML messages, modifying and subsequently routing these messages to multiple other components. This architecture allows for the bootstrapping of components individually in the development process and for dynamic reconfiguration of the pipeline as a response to external and internal events. The software will be extended for future work in combining the results of surveys and followups into a global virtual pipeline.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtalik, F. S.

    1988-01-01

    The role of systems engineering in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) development program at NASA Marshall is reviewed. The scientific objectives and overall characteristics of the HST are recalled, and particular attention is given to the early identification and correction of problems in the optical system, the pointing-control system (maneuvering and fine guidance), the rate-gyro assembly, reaction-wheel isolation, the battery reconditioning circuit, and optical cleanliness.

  6. Computer version of astronomical ephemerides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choliy, V. Ya.

    A computer version of astronomical ephemerides for bodies of the Solar System, stars, and astronomical phenomena was created at the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Astronomy and Cosmic Physics Department of the Taras Shevchenko National University. The ephemerides will be distributed via INTERNET or in the file form. This information is accessible via the web servers space.ups.kiev.ua and alfven.ups.kiev.ua or the address choliy@astrophys.ups.kiev.ua.

  7. HUBBLE OBSERVES THE MOONS AND RINGS OF THE PLANET URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings, at least five of the inner moons, and bright clouds in the planet's southern hemisphere. Hubble now allows astronomers to revisit the planet at a level of detail not possible since the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by the planet briefly, nearly a decade ago. Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. Similar details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft that flew by Uranus in 1986 (the rings were discovered by stellar occultation experiments in 1977, but not seen directly until Voyager flew to Uranus). Since the flyby, none of these inner satellites has been observed further, and detailed observations of the rings and Uranus' atmosphere have not been possible, because the rings are lost in the planet's glare as seen through ground-based optical telescopes. Each of the inner moons appears as a string of three dots in this picture because it is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart. When these images are combined, they show the motion of the moons compared with the sky background. Because the moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon, they change position noticeably over only a few minutes. (These multiple images also help to distinguish the moons from stars and imaging detector artifacts, i.e., cosmic rays and electronic noise). Thanks to Hubble's capabilities, astronomers will now be able to determine the orbits more precisely. With this increase in accuracy, astronomers can better probe the unusual dynamics of Uranus' complicated satellite system. Measuring the moons' brightness in several colors might offer clues to the satellites' origin by providing new information on their mineralogical composition. Similar measurements of the rings should yield new insights into their composition and origin. One of the four

  8. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  9. The CAPRI Project: Coordinates for Astronomical Press Release Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattare, Lisa M.; Ferguson, B. A.; Summers, F.; Levay, Z. G.

    2009-01-01

    The beauty and splendor of astronomical press release images has made an enormously positive impact with the media and public alike. As a leading provider of astronomical imagery and a major contributor of Hubble Space Telescope press release images, the outreach division of Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) recognizes the importance of making press release images compliant with virtual observatory standards for inclusion in databases and repositories. Our goal is to make outreach images accessible by virtual observatory applications by calculating World Coordinate System (WCS) data for these images. We provide updated and improved software that allows observatories to easily and accurately transform coordinates on their astronomical press release images, using reference FITS files. The resultant metadata conforms to the Simple Image Access (SIA) protocol established by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance and has been used by popular end users such as Google Sky and World Wide Telescope. Several hundred images from the STScI Office of Public Outreach NewsCenter database have been processed, and their coordinates and other relevant metadata are accessible through an SIA-compliant web service.

  10. Hubble Observes the Planet Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings and bright clouds and a high altitude haze above the planet's south pole.

    Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, none of these inner satellites has been further observed, and detailed observations of the rings have not been possible.

    Though Uranus' rings were discovered indirectly in 1977 (through stellar occultation observations), they have never before been seen in visible light through a ground-based telescope.

    Hubble resolves several of Uranus' rings, including the outermost Epsilon ring. The planet has a total of 11 concentric rings of dark dust. Uranus is tipped such that its rotation axis lies in the plane of its orbit, so the rings appear nearly face-on.

    Three of Uranus' inner moons each appear as a string of three dots at the bottom of the picture. This is because the picture is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart, and then combined to show the moons' orbital motions. The satellites are, from left to right, Cressida, Juliet, and Portia. The moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon does as it moves around the Earth, so they noticeably change position over only a few minutes.

    One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does resolve a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus's atmosphere, which should

  11. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  12. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  13. Annotations of a Public Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, A.

    2011-06-01

    Angelo Adamo is an Italian astronomer and artist interested in inspiring people with scientifically-based tales. He has recently published two illustrated books exploring the relationships between mankind and cosmos through physics, art, literature, music, cartoons, and movies.

  14. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  15. Hubble Views Saturn Ring-Plane Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This sequence of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope documents a rare astronomical alignment -- Saturn's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This occurs when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane, as it does approximately every 15 years.

    These pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on 22 May 1995, when Saturn was at a distance of 919 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. At Saturn, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles (725 km) across. In each image, the dark band across Saturn is the ring shadow cast by the Sun which is still 2.7 degrees above Saturn's ring plane. The box around the western portion of the rings (to the right of Saturn) in each image indicates the area in which the faint light from the rings has been multiplied through image processing (by a factor of 25) to make the rings more visible.

    [Top] -

    This image was taken while the Earth was above the lit face of the rings. The moons Tethys and Dione are visible to the east (left) of Saturn; Janus is the bright spot near the center of the ring portion in the box, and Pandora is faintly visible just inside the left edge of this box. Saturn's atmosphere shows remarkable detail: multiple banding in both the northern and southern hemispheres, wispy structure at the north edge of the equatorial zone, and a bright area above the ring shadow that is caused by sunlight scattered off the rings onto the atmosphere. There is evidence of a faint polar haze over the north pole of Saturn and a fainter haze over the south.

    [Center] -

    This image was taken close to the time of ring-plane crossing. The rings are 75% fainter than in the top image, though they do not disappear completely because the vertical face of the rings still reflects sunlight when the rings are edge-on. Rhea is visible to the east of Saturn, Enceladus is the bright satellite in the rings to the west, and Janus is the fainter blip to its right. Pandora is just to the left of

  16. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    , only the lighter elements, such as hydrogen, filled the heavens. The heavier elements were produced later as stars died. Neon, in particular, is produced only when massive stars die in supernova explosions. Thus, a higher abundance of neon in 'bipolar' planetary nebulae indicates that the stars that sculpted these objects were born more recently (i.e., in an environment that had suffered more supernova explosions) than those that created the more symmetrically shaped clouds of gas. On the other hand, the stars that form planetary nebulae are great producers of carbon, the most important element for the origin of life, as we know it. The question of how life-forming atoms were made is at the heart of understanding how and why life evolved in our own solar system very shortly after the Sun itself had formed from clouds of carbon-enriched gas and dust 4.6 billion years ago. Scientists do not know for sure how the Milky Way behaved before the birth of the Sun. But they can look at regions in other galaxies where conditions may be very similar to the pre-solar days of the Milky Way. The Large Magellanic Cloud is an ideal laboratory for such an experiment, since its chemistry mimics a pre-solar environment. Astronomers are using the Hubble images of these planetary nebulae, together with spectroscopic information from ground-based observatories, to understand the important carbon-forming mechanisms in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The progenitor stars are expected to form some carbon and lock it deep in their interiors near the end of their lives. In the last few thousand years of their active lives, just before ejecting planetary nebulae, stars are able to dredge up the carbon locked deep in their cores. They undergo a phase as 'carbon stars,' then fling the carbon-rich gas into space as they form planetary nebulae, material for new generations of stars and planets. The Hubble images were taken between June and September 1999. Credits for the Hubble images: NASA; L

  17. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    , only the lighter elements, such as hydrogen, filled the heavens. The heavier elements were produced later as stars died. Neon, in particular, is produced only when massive stars die in supernova explosions. Thus, a higher abundance of neon in 'bipolar' planetary nebulae indicates that the stars that sculpted these objects were born more recently (i.e., in an environment that had suffered more supernova explosions) than those that created the more symmetrically shaped clouds of gas. On the other hand, the stars that form planetary nebulae are great producers of carbon, the most important element for the origin of life, as we know it. The question of how life-forming atoms were made is at the heart of understanding how and why life evolved in our own solar system very shortly after the Sun itself had formed from clouds of carbon-enriched gas and dust 4.6 billion years ago. Scientists do not know for sure how the Milky Way behaved before the birth of the Sun. But they can look at regions in other galaxies where conditions may be very similar to the pre-solar days of the Milky Way. The Large Magellanic Cloud is an ideal laboratory for such an experiment, since its chemistry mimics a pre-solar environment. Astronomers are using the Hubble images of these planetary nebulae, together with spectroscopic information from ground-based observatories, to understand the important carbon-forming mechanisms in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The progenitor stars are expected to form some carbon and lock it deep in their interiors near the end of their lives. In the last few thousand years of their active lives, just before ejecting planetary nebulae, stars are able to dredge up the carbon locked deep in their cores. They undergo a phase as 'carbon stars,' then fling the carbon-rich gas into space as they form planetary nebulae, material for new generations of stars and planets. The Hubble images were taken between June and September 1999. Credits for the Hubble images: NASA; L

  18. ESA's new European Hubble Science Archive at ESAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) has recently launched a new version of the European Hubble Space Telescope science archive. The new and enhanced archive offers several new features, some of which are not available anywhere else. The new web-based archive has been completely re-engineered and is now faster, more accurate and more robust than ever. Several of its unique features will be presented: the possibility of seeing the exact footprint of each observations on top of an optical all-sky image, the online visualization and inspection of FITS headers, imaging and spectral observation previews without downloading files or the possibility to search for data that has not yet been published in refereed journals. This state-of-the-art science data archive will be the new main access point to HST data for the European astronomical community and will be enhanced in the near-future to include the Hubble Source Catalogue or other high-level data products as required.

  19. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard

  20. Hubble Captures Best View of Mars Ever Obtained from Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Frosty white water ice clouds and swirling orange dust storms above a vivid rusty landscape reveal Mars as a dynamic planet in this sharpest view ever obtained by an Earth-based telescope.

    NASA's Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope took the picture on June 26, when Mars was approximately 43 million miles (68 million km) from Earth -- the closest Mars has ever been to Earth since 1988. Hubble can see details as small as 10 miles (16 km) across. The colors have been carefully balanced to give a realistic view of Mars' hues as they might appear through a telescope.

    Especially striking is the large amount of seasonal dust storm activity seen in this image. One large storm system is churning high above the northern polar cap [top of image], and a smaller dust storm cloud can be seen nearby. Another large dust storm is spilling out of the giant Hellas impact basin in the Southern Hemisphere [lower right].

    Hubble has observed Mars before, but never in such detail. The biennial close approaches of Mars and Earth are not all the same. Mars' orbit around the Sun is markedly elliptical; the close approaches to Earth can range from 35 million to 63 million miles.

    Astronomers are interested in studying the changeable surface and weather conditions on Mars, in part, to help plan for a pair of NASA missions to land rovers on the planet's surface in 2004.

    The Mars opposition of 2001 serves as a prelude for 2003 when Mars and Earth will come within 35 million miles of each other, the closest since 1924 and not to be matched until 2287.

  1. Enthusiastic Little Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Ines

    2016-04-01

    Younger primary school students often show great interest in the vast Universe hiding behind the starry night's sky, but don't have a way of learning about it and exploring it in regular classes. Some of them would search children's books, Internet or encyclopedias for information or facts they are interested in, but there are those whose hunger for knowledge would go unfulfilled. Such students were the real initiators of our extracurricular activity called Little Astronomers. With great enthusiasm they would name everything that interests them about the Universe that we live in and I would provide the information in a fun and interactive yet acceptable way for their level of understanding. In our class we learn about Earth and its place in the Solar System, we learn about the planets and other objects of our Solar System and about the Sun itself. We also explore the night sky using programs such as Stellarium, learning to recognize constellations and name them. Most of our activities are done using a PowerPoint presentation, YouTube videos, and Internet simulations followed by some practical work the students do themselves. Because of the lack of available materials and funds, most of materials are hand made by the teacher leading the class. We also use the school's galileoscope as often as possible. Every year the students are given the opportunity to go to an observatory in a town 90 km away so that they could gaze at the sky through the real telescope for the first time. Our goal is to start stepping into the world of astronomy by exploring the secrets of the Universe and understanding the process of rotation and revolution of our planet and its effects on our everyday lives and also to become more aware of our own role in our part of the Universe. The hunger for knowledge and enthusiasm these students have is contagious. They are becoming more aware of their surroundings and also understanding their place in the Universe that helps them remain humble and helps

  2. The New Amateur Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobberley, Martin

    Amateur astronomy has changed beyond recognition in less than two decades. The reason is, of course, technology. Affordable high-quality telescopes, computer-controlled 'go to' mountings, autoguiders, CCD cameras, video, and (as always) computers and the Internet, are just a few of the advances that have revolutionized astronomy for the twenty-first century. Martin Mobberley first looks at the basics before going into an in-depth study of what’s available commercially. He then moves on to the revolutionary possibilities that are open to amateurs, from imaging, through spectroscopy and photometry, to patrolling for near-earth objects - the search for comets and asteroids that may come close to, or even hit, the earth. The New Amateur Astronomer is a road map of the new astronomy, equally suitable for newcomers who want an introduction, or old hands who need to keep abreast of innovations. From the reviews: "This is one of several dozen books in Patrick Moore's "Practical Astronomy" series. Amid this large family, Mobberley finds his niche: the beginning high-tech amateur. The book's first half discusses equipment: computer-driven telescopes, CCD cameras, imaging processing software, etc. This market is changing every bit as rapidly as the computer world, so these details will be current for only a year or two. The rest of the book offers an overview of scientific projects that serious amateurs are carrying out these days. Throughout, basic formulas and technical terms are provided as needed, without formal derivations. An appendix with useful references and Web sites is also included. Readers will need more than this book if they are considering a plunge into high-tech amateur astronomy, but it certainly will whet their appetites. Mobberley's most valuable advice will save the book's owner many times its cover price: buy a quality telescope from a reputable dealer and install it in a simple shelter so it can be used with as little set-up time as

  3. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences. PMID:27066627

  4. Two ESA astronauts named to early Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    Nicollier and three NASA astronauts, who had already been training for a Hubble servicing mission planned for June 2000, have been reassigned to this earlier mission (STS-103). Jean-Francois Clervoy and two other NASA astronauts will complete the STS-103 crew. The repairs and maintenance of the telescope will require many hours spent working outside the Shuttle and will make extensive use of the Shuttle's robotic arm Nicollier, of Swiss nationality and making his fourth flight, will be part of the team that will perform the "spacewalks". An astronomer by education, he took part in the first Hubble servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993, controlling the Shuttle's robotic arm while astronauts on the other end of the arm performed the delicate repairs to the telescope. He also served on STS-46 in 1992 using the robotic arm to deploy ESA's Eureca retrievable spacecraft from the Shuttle, and on STS-75 with the Italian Tethered Satellite System in 1996. Nicollier is currently the chief of the robotics branch in NASA's astronaut office and ESA's lead astronaut in Houston. Jean-Francois Clervoy, of French nationality and making his third flight, will have the lead role in the operation of the robotic arm for this mission. He previously served on STS-66 in 1994 using the robotic arm to deploy and later retrieve the German CRISTA-SPAS atmospheric research satellite, and on STS-84 in 1997, a Shuttle mission to the Russian Mir space station. The other STS-103 crewmembers are: Commander Curtis Brown, pilot Scott Kelly, and mission specialists Steven Smith, Michael Foale and John Grunsfeld. During the flight, the astronauts will replace Hubble's failing pointing system, which allows the telescope to aim at stars, planets and other targets, and install other equipment that will be ready for launch at that time. A second mission to complete the previously-scheduled Hubble refurbishment work is foreseen at a later date. The crew for that mission has not yet been assigned. The Hubble

  5. HUBBLE OBSERVES THE PLANET URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings and bright clouds and a high altitude haze above the planet's south pole. Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, none of these inner satellites has been further observed, and detailed observations of the rings have not been possible. Though Uranus' rings were discovered indirectly in 1977 (through stellar occultation observations), they have never before been seen in visible light through a ground-based telescope. Hubble resolves several of Uranus' rings, including the outermost Epsilon ring. The planet has a total of 11 concentric rings of dark dust. Uranus is tipped such that its rotation axis lies in the plane of its orbit, so the rings appear nearly face-on. Three of Uranus' inner moons each appear as a string of three dots at the bottom of the picture. This is because the picture is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart, and then combined to show the moons' orbital motions. The satellites are, from left to right, Cressida, Juliet, and Portia. The moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon does as it moves around the Earth, so they noticeably change position over only a few minutes. One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does resolve a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus's atmosphere, which should be unusual given

  6. Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

  7. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, Guido; Lusso, Elisabeta

    2015-09-01

    We present a new method to test the cosmological model at high z, and measure the cosmological parameters, based on the non-linear correlation between UV and X-ray luminosity in quasars. While the method can be successfully tested with the data available today, a deep X-ray survey matching the future LSST and Euclid quasar catalogs is needed to achieve a high precision. Athena could provide a Hubble diagram for quasar analogous to that available today for supernovae, but extending up to z>6.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was approximately 25,000 pounds. In principle, it is no different than the reflecting telescopes in ground-based astronomical observatories. Like ground-based telescopes, the HST was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of using a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic allows the HST to be used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs of an international user community. The telescope s planned useful operational lifetime is 15 years, during which it will make observations in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. The extended operational life of the HST is possible by using the capabilities of the Space Transportation System to periodically visit the HST on-orbit to replace failed or degraded components, install instruments with improved capabilities, re-boost the HST to higher altitudes compensating for gravitational effects, and to bring the HST back to Earth when the mission is terminated. The largest ground-based observatories, such as the 200-inch aperture Hale telescope at Palomar Mountain, California, can recognize detail in individual galaxies several billion light years away. However, like all earthbound devices, the Hale telescope is limited because of the blurring effect of the Earth s atmosphere. Further, the wavelength region observable from the Earth s surface is limited by the atmosphere to the visible part of the spectrum. The very important ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is lost. The HST uses a 2.4-meter reflective optics system designed to capture data over a wavelength region that reaches far into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.

  10. ISO Results Presented at International Astronomical Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    Some of the work being presented is collected in the attached ESA Information Note N 25-97, ISO illuminates our cosmic ancestry. A set of six colour images illustrating various aspects have also been released and are available at http://www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/iso1808.htm or in hard copy from ESA Public Relations Paris (fax:+33.1.5369.7690). These pictures cover: 1. Distant but powerful infrared galaxies 2. A scan across the milky way 3. Helix nebula: the shroud of a dead star 4. Supernova remnant Cassiopeia A 5. Trifid nebula: a dusty birthplace of stars 6. Precursors of stars and planets The International Astronomical Union provides a forum where astronomers from all over the world can develop astronomy in all its aspects through international co-operation. General Assemblies are held every three years. It is expected that over 1600 astronomers will attend this year's meeting, which is being held in Kyoto, Japan from 18-30 August. Further information on the meeting can be found at: www.tenmon.or.jp/iau97/ . ISO illuminates our cosmic ancestry The European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, is unmatched in its ability to explore and analyse many of the universal processes that made our existence possible. We are children of the stars. Every atom in our bodies was created in cosmic space and delivered to the Sun's vicinity in time for the Earth's formation, during a ceaseless cycle of birth, death and rebirth among the stars. The most creative places in the sky are cool and dusty, and opaque even to the Hubble Space Telescope. Infrared rays penetrating the dust reveal to ISO hidden objects, and the atoms and molecules of cosmic chemistry. "ISO is reading Nature's recipe book," says Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "As the world's only telescope capable of observing the Universe over a wide range of infrared wavelengths, ISO plays an indispensable part in astronomical discoveries that help to explain how we came to exist." This Information Note

  11. Hubble Spots Northern Hemispheric Clouds on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time.

    Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness).

    Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds.

    Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb

  12. Hubble 2008: Science Year in Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Hubbles remarkable mission has now spanned 18 years. During that time, it has been at the nexus of perhaps the most exciting period of discovery in the history of astronomy. Simultaneously, Hubble has offered up some of the most daunting engineering challenges to humans working in space, and success in meeting those challenges has been among NASAs greatest triumphs.

  13. HUBBLE PHOTOGRAPHS WARPED GALAXY AS CAMERA PASSES MILESTONE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured an image of an unusual edge-on galaxy, revealing remarkable details of its warped dusty disk and showing how colliding galaxies spawn the formation of new generations of stars. The dust and spiral arms of normal spiral galaxies, like our own Milky Way, appear flat when viewed edge-on. This month's Hubble Heritage image of ESO 510-G13 shows a galaxy that, by contrast, has an unusual twisted disk structure, first seen in ground-based photographs obtained at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile. ESO 510-G13 lies in the southern constellation Hydra, roughly 150 million light-years from Earth. Details of the structure of ESO 510-G13 are visible because the interstellar dust clouds that trace its disk are silhouetted from behind by light from the galaxy's bright, smooth central bulge. The strong warping of the disk indicates that ESO 510-G13 has recently undergone a collision with a nearby galaxy and is in the process of swallowing it. Gravitational forces distort the structures of the galaxies as their stars, gas, and dust merge together in a process that takes millions of years. Eventually the disturbances will die out, and ESO 510-G13 will become a normal-appearing single galaxy. In the outer regions of ESO 510-G13, especially on the right-hand side of the image, we see that the twisted disk contains not only dark dust, but also bright clouds of blue stars. This shows that hot, young stars are being formed in the disk. Astronomers believe that the formation of new stars may be triggered by collisions between galaxies, as their interstellar clouds smash together and are compressed. The Heritage Team used Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) to observe ESO 510-G13 in April 2001. Pictures obtained through blue, green, and red filters were combined to make this color-composite image, which emphasizes the contrast between the dusty spiral arms, the bright bulge, and the blue star-forming regions. During the

  14. Interference in astronomical speckle patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Astronomical speckle patterns are examined in an atmospheric-optics context in order to determine what kind of image quality is to be expected from several different imaging techniques. The model used to describe the instantaneous complex field distribution across the pupil of a large telescope regards the pupil as a deep phase grating with a periodicity given by the size of the cell of uniform phase or the refractive index structure function. This model is used along with an empirical formula derived purely from the physical appearance of the speckle patterns to discuss the orders of interference in astronomical speckle patterns.

  15. HUBBLE PROBES THE VIOLENT BIRTH OF STARS IN GALAXY NGC 253 [Left

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An image of the spiral galaxy NGC 253, taken with a ground-based telescope. The galaxy is located about 8 million light-years away in the constellation Sculptor. Credit: Jay Gallagher (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Alan Watson (Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ), and NASA [Right] This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the core of the nearest starburst spiral galaxy, NGC 253, reveals violent star formation within a region 1,000 light-years across. A starburst galaxy has an exceptionally high rate of star birth, first identified by its excess of infrared radiation from warm dust. Hubble's high resolution allows astronomers to quantify complex structures in the starburst core of the galaxy for the first time, including luminous star clusters, dust lanes which trace regions of dense gas and filaments of glowing gas. Hubble identifies several regions of intense star formation, which include a bright, super-compact star cluster. These observations confirm that stars are often born in dense clusters within starbursts, and that dense gas coexists with and obscures the starburst core. This image was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (in PC mode). Credit: Carnegie Institution of Washington

  16. Beyond the Hubble Space Telescope: Early Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert W.; Patrick McCray, W.

    In this paper we investigate the early history of what was at first called the Next Generation Space Telescope, later to be renamed the James Webb Space Telescope. We argue that the initial ideas for such a Next Generation Space Telescope were developed in the context of the planning for a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. Much the most important group of astronomers and engineers examining such a successor was based at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. By the late 1980s, they had fashioned concepts for a successor that would work in optical, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, concepts that would later be regarded as politically unrealistic given the costs associated with them. We also explore how the fortunes of the planned Next Generation Space Telescope were intimately linked to that of its "parent," the Hubble Space Telescope.

  17. Finding Our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Origins program is a series of space telescopes designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, I will concentrate on the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with the Hubble Space Telescope through to the present day. I will introduce several of the tools that astronomers use to measure distances, measure velocities, and look backwards in time. I will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, which is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past. I will finish with a short discussion of other missions in the Origins theme, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder.

  18. Finding our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    NASA s Origins program is a series of space telescopes designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, I will concentrate on the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with the Hubble Space Telescope through to the present day. I will introduce several of the tools that astronomers use to measure distances, measure velocities, and look backwards in time. I will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, which is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past. I will finish with a short discussion of other missions in the Origins theme, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder.

  19. Pickles: A Visual Tool for Pointing the Hubble Space Telescope and Displaying Star Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCartney, J.; McArthur, B.; Jefferys, W.

    1994-05-01

    Pickles is a Macintosh program that was first developed by the HST Astrometry Team as a tool for determining pointings and rolls of the Hubble Space Telescope when desired target and guide stars were in the fine guidance sensor "pickles". Over time, it has become a much more sophisticated tool, and now includes apertures for all the Hubble science instruments, the ability to add user-defined apertures and the ability to display an 8! x 8 degree (HST Fixed Head Star Tracker) window. It has the new aperture locations from the post-servicing mission telescope. Because of its ability to extract and display star positions from the Guide Star Catalog, ACRS, SAO, AGK3 catalog CD ROMs, pickles is also being used in other astronomical projects. Pickles is a powerful, easy-to-use tool for visualization of star positions for any purpose.

  20. Astronomical Limiting Magnitude at Langkawi Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Mohd. Zambri; Loon, Chin Wei; Harun, Saedah

    2010-07-01

    Astronomical limiting magnitude is an indicator for astronomer to conduct astronomical measurement at a particular site. It gives an idea to astronomer of that site what magnitude of celestial object can be measured. Langkawi National Observatory (LNO) is situated at Bukit Malut with latitude 6°18' 25'' North and longitude 99°46' 52'' East in Langkawi Island. Sky brightness measurement has been performed at this site using the standard astronomical technique. The value of the limiting magnitude measured is V = 18.6+/-1.0 magnitude. This will indicate that astronomical measurement at Langkawi observatory can only be done for celestial objects having magnitude less than V = 18.6 magnitudes.

  1. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard

  2. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, Jay; Kodak, Charles

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) system at the fundamental station Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO). It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the previous year. The outlook lists the outstanding tasks to improve the performance of GGAO.

  3. Simple Astronomical Theory of Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benumof, Reuben

    1979-01-01

    The author derives, applying perturbation theory, from a simple astronomical model the approximate periods of secular variation of some of the parameters of the Earth's orbit and relates these periods to the past climate of the Earth, indicating the difficulties in predicting the climate of the future. (GA)

  4. An Astronomical Data Analyzing Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, D.

    ThP need for exchange of programmes and data between astronomical facilities is generally recognized, but practicable concepts concerning its realization are rare. Standardization of data formats through FITS is widely accepted; for (interactive) programs, however, identical hardware configurations seem to be the favoured solution. As an alternative, a software approach to the problem is presented.

  5. Astronomical searches for nitrogen heterocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnley, Steven B.; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Huang, Hui-Chun; Botta, Oliver; Butner, Harold M.; Cox, Nick; Despois, Didier; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Lee, Ying-Ying; Markwick, Andrew J.; Peeters, Zan; Rodgers, Steven D.

    We have conducted extensive astronomical searches for the N-bearing ring molecules pyridine, quinoline and isoquinoline towards the circumstellar envelopes of carbon-rich stars, and for interstellar pyrimidine in hot molecular cores. Here we report the derived upper limits on the column densities of these molecules, and summarize the current status of these observations.

  6. Astronomical Photography for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Kenneth S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes class projects involving astronomical photography. Includes a description of how to make an astrocamera or convert a pocket camera into one suitable for astrophotography, film choices, and phenomena to photograph, such as star trails, meteors, the sun, and the moon. (DS)

  7. Australian sites of astronomical heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, T.; Lomb, N.

    2015-03-01

    The heritage of astronomy in Australia has proven an effective communication medium. By interpreting science as a social and cultural phenomenon new light is thrown on challenges, such as the dispersal of instruments and problems identifying contemporary astronomy heritage. Astronomers are asked to take note and to consider the communication of astronomy now and in the future through a tangible heritage legacy.

  8. John Couch Adams, the astronomer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, N.

    1989-03-01

    The planet Neptune was discovered more than 140 years ago. The circumstances of the discovery gave rise to great controversy, and very nearly led to an international incident between Britain and France, but this was only one of John Couch Adams' many contributions to astronomical science.

  9. Old Star's "Rebirth" Gives Astronomers Surprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising results have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the

  10. Hubble Space Telescope: High speed photometer instrument handbook. Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Richard L. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This manual is a guide for astronomers who intend to use the High Speed Photometer (HSP), one of the scientific instruments onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). All the information needed for ordinary uses of the HSP is presented, including: (1) an overview of the instrument; (2) a detailed description of some details of the HSP-ST system that may be important for some observations; (3) tables and figures describing the sensitivity and limitations of the HSP; (4) how to go about planning an observation with the HSP; and (5) a description of the standard calibration to be applied to HSP data and the resulting data products.

  11. An expert system for ground support of the Hubble space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, Don; Monger, Patricia; Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope is an orbiting optical observatory due to be launched by the Space Shuttle in late 1987. It is a complex, multi-instrument observatory whose resources will be available to the world-wide astronomical community. The 'Transformation' system is a hybrid system which utilizes a rule-based expert system to convert scientific proposals into pre-optimized linked hierarchies of spacecraft activities. These activities are generated in a format that can be directly scheduled by the planning and scheduling component of the Space Telescope ground support system. The Transformation system will be described in detail in this paper, with particular attention given to the rule base.

  12. Slipher, Vesto Melvin (1875-1969)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Mulberry, IN, became director at the Lowell Observatory. He used spectroscopy to determine the rotation periods of several planets, and identified the constituents of their atmospheres. He recorded the first radial velocities of galaxies. The exposure times for these early photographs were as long as a week. The data were extended by EDWIN HUBBLE to discover the expansion of t...

  13. Hubble Gallery of Jupiter's Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is a Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of the four largest moons of Jupiter, first observed by the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei nearly four centuries ago. Located approximately one-half billion miles away, the moons are so small that, in visible light, they appear as fuzzy disks in the largest ground-based telescopes. Hubble can resolve surface details seen previously only by the Voyager spacecraft in the early 1980s. While the Voyagers provided close-up snapshots of the satellites, Hubble can now follow changes on the moons and reveal other characteristics at ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths.

    Over the past year Hubble has charted new volcanic activity on Io's active surface, found a faint oxygen atmosphere on the moon Europa, and identified ozone on the surface of Ganymede. Hubble ultraviolet observations of Callisto show the presence of fresh ice on the surface that may indicate impacts from micrometeorites and charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere.

    Hubble observations will play a complementary role when the Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter in December of this year.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  14. Engaging Students through Astronomically Inspired Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a lesson outline in which astronomically inspired musical compositions are used to teach astronomical concepts via an introductory activity, close listening, and critical/creative reflection.

  15. Planning and scheduling the Hubble Space Telescope: Practical application of advanced techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a major astronomical facility that was launched in April, 1990. In late 1993, the first of several planned servicing missions refurbished the telescope, including corrections for a manufacturing flaw in the primary mirror. Orbiting above the distorting effects of the Earth's atmosphere, the HST provides an unrivaled combination of sensitivity, spectral coverage and angular resolution. The HST is arguably the most complex scientific observatory ever constructed and effective use of this valuable resource required novel approaches to astronomical observation and the development of advanced software systems including techniques to represent scheduling preferences and constraints, a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) based scheduler and a rule based planning system. This paper presents a discussion of these systems and the lessons learned from operational experience.

  16. Planning and scheduling the Hubble Space Telescope: Practical application of advanced techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Glenn E.

    1994-10-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a major astronomical facility that was launched in April, 1990. In late 1993, the first of several planned servicing missions refurbished the telescope, including corrections for a manufacturing flaw in the primary mirror. Orbiting above the distorting effects of the Earth's atmosphere, the HST provides an unrivaled combination of sensitivity, spectral coverage and angular resolution. The HST is arguably the most complex scientific observatory ever constructed and effective use of this valuable resource required novel approaches to astronomical observation and the development of advanced software systems including techniques to represent scheduling preferences and constraints, a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) based scheduler and a rule based planning system. This paper presents a discussion of these systems and the lessons learned from operational experience.

  17. Selective Insulin Resistance and the Development of Cardiovascular Diseases in Diabetes: The 2015 Edwin Bierman Award Lecture.

    PubMed

    King, George L; Park, Kyoungmin; Li, Qian

    2016-06-01

    The Edwin Bierman Award Lecture is presented in honor of the memory of Edwin L. Bierman, MD, an exemplary scientist, mentor, and leader in the field of diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. The award and lecture recognizes a leading scientist in the field of macrovascular complications and contributing risk factors in diabetes. George L. King, MD, of the Section of Vascular Cell Biology and Complications, Dianne Nunnally Hoppes Laboratory for Diabetes Complications, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, received the prestigious award at the American Diabetes Association's 75th Scientific Sessions, 5-9 June 2015, in Boston, MA. He presented the Edwin Bierman Award Lecture, "Selective Insulin Resistance and the Development of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes," on Sunday, 7 June 2015.This review is focused on the factors and potential mechanisms that are causing various cardiovascular pathologies. In diabetes, insulin's actions on the endothelium and other vascular cells have significant influence on systemic metabolisms and the development of cardiovascular pathologies. Our studies showed that insulin receptors on the endothelium are important for insulin transport across the endothelial barrier and mediate insulin's actions in muscle, heart, fat, and the brain. Insulin actions on the vascular cells are mediated by two pathways involving the actions of either IRS/PI3K/Akt or Grb/Shc/MAPK. Insulin's activation of IRS/PI3K/Akt results in mostly antiatherogenic actions, as this pathway induces activation of eNOS, the expressions of HO-1 and VEGF, and the reduction of VCAM-1. In contrast, insulin's activation of the Grb/Shc/MAPK pathway mediates the expressions of ET-1 and PAI-1 and migration and proliferation of contractile cells, which have proatherogenic actions. Elevated levels of glucose, free fatty acids, and inflammatory cytokines due to diabetes and insulin resistance selectively inhibit insulin's antiatherogenic actions

  18. Astronomical Heritage in the National Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Parsamian, E. S.

    2014-10-01

    The book contains Proceedings of the Archaeoastronomical Meeting "Astronomical Heritage in the National Culture" Dedicated to Anania Shirakatsi's 1400th Anniversary and XI Annual Meeting of the Armenian Astronomical Society. It consists of 3 main sections: "Astronomical Heritage", "Anania Shirakatsi" and "Modern Astronomy", as well as Literature about Anania Shirakatsi is included. The book may be interesting for astronomers, historians, archaeologists, linguists, students and other readers.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing begins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    The day's work began when astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman stepped out into the cargo bay at 9h41 pm CST, Saturday (4h41 am CET, Sunday). They immediately set to work replacing two gyroscope assemblies, known as the Rate Sensor Units, two associated electronics boxes, called Electronic Control Units, and eight electrical fuse plugs. The work was completed ahead of schedule, but the astronauts had trouble closing the doors of the compartment housing the gyros and took over an hour to get them shut. The astronauts also prepared equipment for the replacement of the solar arrays. "The feeling down here is one of great satisfaction for a tremendous job today" said spacecraft communicator Greg Harbaugh in mission control. "We are very proud of the work that you all did and we are very confident in the continued success of the mission. Everything is going great and tomorrow is going to be another great day". ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier played a vital role during the spacewalk moving the astronauts and their equipment around the cargo bay with the shuttle's robot arm. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission features more robot arm operations than any other shuttle flight. The telescope's left-hand solar array was rolled up successfully at 6h24 am CST (1h24 pm CET). The 11-tonne observatory was rotated 180 degrees on its turntable before commands were sent to retract the second array at 8h23 am CST (3h23 pm CET). The crew stopped the retraction when it appeared the system may have jammed. Mission control instructed the crew to jettison the array, a procedure that they have trained for. Tomorrow astronauts Kathy Thornton and Tom Akers will make a six-hour spacewalk to jettison the troublesome wing, store the other in the cargo bay, and install two new panels supplied by ESA. The second set of arrays feature thermal shields and a modified thermal compensation system to prevent the flexing that affected the first pair. The Hubble Space Telescope was plucked

  20. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY

    SciTech Connect

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosenfield, Philip; Weisz, Daniel R.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Lang, Dustin; Lauer, Tod R.; Dong Hui; Kalirai, Jason S.; Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D.; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Bell, Eric F.; Bianchi, Luciana C.; Caldwell, Nelson; Dorman, Claire E.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; and others

    2012-06-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury program to image {approx}1/3 of M31's star-forming disk in six filters, spanning from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR). We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) to resolve the galaxy into millions of individual stars with projected radii from 0 to 20 kpc. The full survey will cover a contiguous 0.5 deg{sup 2}area in 828 orbits. Imaging is being obtained in the F275W and F336W filters on the WFC3/UVIS camera, F475W and F814W on ACS/WFC, and F110W and F160W on WFC3/IR. The resulting wavelength coverage gives excellent constraints on stellar temperature, bolometric luminosity, and extinction for most spectral types. The data produce photometry with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4 at m{sub F275W} = 25.1, m{sub F336W} = 24.9, m{sub F475W} = 27.9, m{sub F814W} = 27.1, m{sub F110W} = 25.5, and m{sub F160W} = 24.6 for single pointings in the uncrowded outer disk; in the inner disk, however, the optical and NIR data are crowding limited, and the deepest reliable magnitudes are up to 5 mag brighter. Observations are carried out in two orbits per pointing, split between WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR cameras in primary mode, with ACS/WFC run in parallel. All pointings are dithered to produce Nyquist-sampled images in F475W, F814W, and F160W. We describe the observing strategy, photometry, astrometry, and data products available for the survey, along with extensive testing of photometric stability, crowding errors, spatially dependent photometric biases, and telescope pointing control. We also report on initial fits to the structure of M31's disk, derived from the density of red giant branch stars, in a way that is independent of assumed mass-to-light ratios and is robust to variations in dust extinction. These fits also show that the 10 kpc ring is not just a region of enhanced recent star formation, but is instead a dynamical structure

  1. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.

    The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.

    The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.

    The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.

    The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.

    This image and

  2. Hubble Discovery Image of New Moon Orbiting Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This four-picture sequence (spanning 30 minutes) shows one of four new moons discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope, in images taken of Saturn on May 22, 1995, when Saturn's rings were tilted edge-on to Earth.

    Identified as S/1995 S3, the moon appears as an elongated white spot near the center of each image. The new moon lies just outside Saturn's outermost 'F' ring and is no bigger than about 15 miles across. The brighter object to the left is the moon Epimetheus, which was discovered during the ring-plane crossing of 1966. Both moons change position from frame to frame because they are orbiting the planet.

    Saturn appears as a bright white disk at far right, and the edge-on rings extend diagonally to the upper left. To the left of the vertical line, each image has been processed to remove residual light from the rings and accentuate any faint satellites orbiting near the rings. The long observing times necessary to detect the faint satellites have resulted in Saturn's bright, overexposed appearance.

    Saturn ring plane crossings happen only once every 15 years, and historically have given astronomers an opportunity to discover new satellites that are normally lost in the glare of the planet's bright ring system.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Berthed in Columbia's Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST),in its origianl configuration, berthed in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-109 mission silhouetted against the airglow of the Earth's horizon. The telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm, where 4 of the 7-member crew performed 5 spacewalks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. Launched March 1, 2002 the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  4. Swift and Hubble Probe an Asteroid Crash

    NASA Video Gallery

    In late 2010, images from the University of Arizona's Catalina Sky Survey, a project of NASA's Near Earth Object Observations Program, revealed an outburst from asteroid Scheila. Swift and Hubble t...

  5. Hubble Finds Many Bright Clouds on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A recent Hubble Space Telescope view reveals Uranus surrounded by its four major rings and by 10 of its 17 known satellites. This false-color image was generated by Erich Karkoschka using data taken on August 8, 1998, with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer. Hubble recently found about 20 clouds - nearly as many clouds on Uranus as the previous total in the history of modern observations.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  6. Hubble 2007: Science Year in Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This book epitomizes Hubbles continuing years of glorious accomplishments, presenting a sample of the activities, operations and observations, and scientific findings from 2007. Here is our observatory. Here are a few of our talented people. Here is what we have done. NASA plans a final servicing mission to Hubble in 2008. Two powerful new instruments are to be installed, and repairs made. After the astronauts do their wonderful work, Hubble will be more capable than at any time since launch. The science community eagerly anticipates the new opportunities for research offered by a refurbished observatory. While we do not know exactly what new science stories will appear in future editions of this book, we are certain that the frontiers of science will continue to be pushed outward by the forces of human curiosity and cleverness, channeled by the Hubble Space Telescope.

  7. The Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, J. Donald

    2015-01-01

    The path of the total solar eclipse across the United States on August 21, 2017 crosses the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) located in western North Carolina. The partial eclipse begins at about 17:08 UT, followed by the nearly 2 minute total eclipse which begins at about 18:37 UT. The PARI campus includes radio and optical telescopes, as well as earth science instruments that include a seismometer, geomagnetometer, EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, time standards, and several weather stations. The instruments stream data to the PARI website and will be available for the eclipse. In anticipation of the 2017 solar eclipse, we present the instruments and infrastructure of the PARI campus. We invite astronomers to explore the use of the PARI campus as a site for their own instruments and/or the use of instruments already located at PARI.

  8. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  9. New Explanation of Hubble's Red Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2016-03-01

    The balance system between dark massenergy (with a spacetime center) and stellar massenergy (with a massenergy center) cause a flat universe. In the flat universe, the Hubble 's redshift is caused by the Lorentz transformation (Einstein transformation). This paper will discuss about the relationship among Einstein transformation, Doppler effect, and Hubble 's redshift under the balanced and flat universe model. http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2014.APR.Y9.1

  10. Directory of astronomical data files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This Directory of Astronomical Data Files was prepared by the Data Task Force of the Interagency Coordination Committee for Astronomy (ICCA) in cooperation with the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The purpose of the Directory is to provide a listing which will enable a user to locate stellar and extragalactic data sources keyed along with sufficient descriptive information to permit him to assess the value of the files for his use as well as the status and availability of the compilations.

  11. Armenian Astronomical Society Annual Activities in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    A report is given on the achievements of the Armenian astronomy during the last year and on the present activities of the Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS). ArAS membership, ArAS electronic newsletters (ArASNews), ArAS webpage, annual meetings, Annual Prize for Young Astronomers (Yervant Terzian Prize) and other awards, international relations, presence in international organizations, summer schools, astronomical Olympiads and other events, matters related to astronomical education, astronomical heritage, astronomy outreach and ArAS further projects are discussed. The present meeting, BAO Science Camp, ArAS School lectures are among 2014 events as well.

  12. Astronomical publications of Melbourne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andropoulos, Jenny Ioanna

    2014-05-01

    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, four well-equipped government observatories were maintained in Australia - in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. These institutions conducted astronomical observations, often in the course of providing a local time service, and they also collected and collated meteorological data. As well, some of these observatories were involved at times in geodetic surveying, geomagnetic recording, gravity measurements, seismology, tide recording and physical standards, so the term "observatory" was being used in a rather broad sense! Despite the international renown that once applied to Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories, relatively little has been written by modern-day scholars about astronomical activities at these observatories. This research is intended to rectify this situation to some extent by gathering, cataloguing and analysing the published astronomical output of the two Observatories to see what contributions they made to science and society. It also compares their contributions with those of Sydney, Adelaide and Perth Observatories. Overall, Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories produced a prodigious amount of material on astronomy in scientific and technical journals, in reports and in newspapers. The other observatories more or less did likewise, so no observatory of those studied markedly outperformed the others in the long term, especially when account is taken of their relative resourcing in staff and equipment.

  13. Conceptual approach to astronomical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, N. A.; Avvakumova, E. A.; Bryukhov, D. O.; Vovchenko, A. E.; Vol'nova, A. A.; Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Kalinichenko, L. A.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Pozanenko, A. S.; Stupnikov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    New technical capabilities have brought about the sweeping growth of the amount of data acquired by the astronomers from observations with different instruments in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. We consider conceptual approach to be a promising tool to efficiently deal with these data. It uses problem domain knowledge to formulate the tasks and develop problem-solving algorithms and data analysis methods in terms of domain concepts without reference to particular data sources, and thereby allows solving certain problems in general form. We demonstrate the benefits of conceptual approach by using it to solve problems related to search for secondary photometric standard candidates, determination of galaxy redshifts, creation of a binary and multiple star repository based on inhomogeneous databases, and classification of eclipsing binaries.We formulate and solve these problems over specifications of astronomical knowledge units such as photometric systems, astronomical objects, multiple stars, etc., and define them in terms of the corresponding problem domains independently of the existing data resources.

  14. HUBBLE PROBES THE COMPLEX HISTORY OF A DYING STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The dynamical effects of two stars orbiting one another most easily explains the intricate structures, which are much more complicated than features seen in most planetary nebulae. (The two stars are too close together to be individually resolved by Hubble, and instead, appear as a single point of light at the center of the nebula.) According to this model, a fast 'stellar wind' of gas blown off the central star created the elongated shell of dense, glowing gas. This structure is embedded inside two larger lobes of gas blown off the star at an earlier phase. These lobes are 'pinched' by a ring of denser gas, presumably ejected along the orbital plane of the binary companion. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light-years away in the

  15. HUBBLE IDENTIFIES SOURCE OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT IN AN OLD GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope's exquisite resolution has allowed astronomers to resolve, for the first time, hot blue stars deep inside an elliptical galaxy. The swarm of nearly 8,000 blue stars resembles a blizzard of snowflakes near the core (lower right) of the neighboring galaxy M32, located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. Hubble confirms that the ultraviolet light comes from a population of extremely hot helium-burning stars at a late stage in their lives. Unlike the Sun, which burns hydrogen into helium, these old stars exhausted their central hydrogen long ago, and now burn helium into heavier elements. The observations, taken in October 1998, were made with the camera mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in ultraviolet light. The STIS field of view is only a small portion of the entire galaxy, which is 20 times wider on the sky. For reference, the full moon is 70 times wider than the STIS field-of-view. The bright center of the galaxy was placed on the right side of the image, allowing fainter stars to be seen on the left side of the image. These results are to be published in the March 1, 2000 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Thirty years ago, the first ultraviolet observations of elliptical galaxies showed that they were surprisingly bright when viewed in ultraviolet light. Before those pioneering UV observations, old groups of stars were assumed to be relatively cool and thus extremely faint in the ultraviolet. Over the years since the initial discovery of this unexpected ultraviolet light, indirect evidence has accumulated that it originates in a population of old, but hot, helium-burning stars. Now Hubble provides the first direct visual evidence. Nearby elliptical galaxies are thought to be relatively simple galaxies comprised of old stars. Because they are among the brightest objects in the Universe, this simplicity makes them useful for tracing the evolution of stars and galaxies. Credits: NASA and Thomas

  16. Applying artificial intelligence to astronomical databases - A survey of applicable technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    AI technologies which are relevant to astronomical data bases are reviewed, including intelligent interfaces, internal representations, and data analysis. The natural language query system developed for the Hubble Space Telescope and the technique of goal directed queries are considered. Two technologies which might lead to the development of pictorial interfaces are presented: one based on Bayesian probabilities, the other on associative memories. The development of a data analysis system which can discover classes of data within a data base without any information other than the data itself is examined. A prototype data analysis assistant to automatically develop and implement plans for data reduction is described.

  17. Force That Increases at Larger Distance Has Some Psychological and Astronomical Evidence Supporting its Existence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, James

    2011-09-01

    Force that Increases with distance is different than dark energy as I am arguing for existence of force based on psychological and astronomical bases. Hubble shift, doppler shift, comet return, quasar zoo and quasars and psychological evidence of interest in distant objects lends support to a force like gravity, nuclear, weak, strong, virtual, decay, biological, growth forces which increases its intensity with distance unlike gravity which decreases in intensity with distance. Jane Frances Back Struck contributed to this finding with her request that her grandparents have "perfect justice" even though her grandparents had died before she was born; interest increasing with distance from grandparents.

  18. SPHEREx: Science Opportunities for the Astronomical Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; SPHEREx Science Team

    2016-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Small Explorer (SMEX) program that was selected for Phase A study in July 2015, will perform an all-sky near-infrared spectral survey between 0.75 - 4.8 microns, reaching 19th mag (5sigma) in narrow R=40 filters. The key science topics of the SPHEREx team are: (a) primordial non-Gaussianity through 3-dimensional galaxy clustering; (b) extragalactic background light fluctuations; and (c) ices and biogenic molecules in the interstellar medium and towards protoplanetary environments.The large legacy dataset of SPHEREx will enable a large number of scientific studies and find interesting targets for follow-up observations with Hubble, JWST, ALMA, among other facilities. The SPHEREx catalog will include 1.5 billion galaxies with redshifts secured for more than 10 and 120 million with fractional accuracies in error/(1+z) better than 0.3% and 3%, respectively. The spectral coverage and resolution provided by SPHEREx are adequate to determine redshifts for all WISE-detected sources with an accuracy better than 3%. The catalog will contain close to 1.5 million quasars including several hundred bright QSOs seen during the epoch of reionization. The catalog will be adequate to obtain redshifts for all 25,000 galaxy clusters expected to be detected in X-rays with e-Rosita. SPHEREx could also produce all-sky maps of the Galactic emission lines, including hydrocarbon emission around 3 microns.In this poster, we will discuss the data release schedule and some example science studies the broader astronomical community will beable to lead using the SPHEREx database. We will also outline existing plans within the SPHEREx team to develop software tools to enable easy access to the data and to conduct catalog searches, and ways in which the community can provide input to the SPHEREx Science Team on scientific studies and data/software requirements for those studies. The team is eager to develop best software tools and facilitate easy access on a timely

  19. Hubble Tracks Clouds on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Taking its first peek at Uranus, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has detected six distinct clouds in images taken July 28,1997.

    The image on the right, taken 90 minutes after the left-hand image, shows the planet's rotation. Each image is a composite of three near-infrared images. They are called false-color images because the human eye cannot detect infrared light. Therefore, colors corresponding to visible light were assigned to the images. (The wavelengths for the 'blue,' 'green,' and 'red' exposures are 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 micrometers, respectively.)

    At visible and near-infrared light, sunlight is reflected from hazes and clouds in the atmosphere of Uranus. However, at near-infrared light, absorption by gases in the Uranian atmosphere limits the view to different altitudes, causing intense contrasts and colors.

    In these images, the blue exposure probes the deepest atmospheric levels. A blue color indicates clear atmospheric conditions, prevalent at mid-latitudes near the center of the disk. The green exposure is sensitive to absorption by methane gas, indicating a clear atmosphere; but in hazy atmospheric regions, the green color is seen because sunlight is reflected back before it is absorbed. The green color around the south pole (marked by '+') shows a strong local haze. The red exposure reveals absorption by hydrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Uranus. Most sunlight shows patches of haze high in the atmosphere. A red color near the limb (edge) of the disk indicates the presence of a high-altitude haze. The purple color to the right of the equator also suggests haze high in the atmosphere with a clear atmosphere below.

    The five clouds visible near the right limb rotated counterclockwise during the time between both images. They reach high into the atmosphere, as indicated by their red color. Features of such high contrast have never been seen before on Uranus. The clouds are

  20. HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost

  1. Hubble gets revitalised in new Servicing Mission for more and better science!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    European astronomers look forward to use the new camera and perform new science building on the great breakthroughs they have already achieved." ACS is going to replace the Faint Object Camera, or FOC, built by ESA. The FOC, which has functioned perfectly since the beginning, has been a key instrument to get the best out of the unprecedented imaging capability of Hubble. The FOC was a "state-of-the art" instrument in the 80s, but the field of digital imaging has progressed so much in the past 20 years that, having fulfilled its scientific goals, this ESA flagship on Hubble is chivalrously giving way to newer technology. However, the story of FOC is not over yet: experts will still learn from it, as it will be brought back to Earth and inspected, to study the effects on the hardware of the long duration exposure in space. Hubble is expected to continue to explore the sky during the next decade, after which its work will be taken over by its successor, the powerful ESA/NASA/CSA(*) Next Generation Space Telescope. NGST's main focus will be observations of the faint infrared light from the first stars and galaxies in the Universe. Notes for editors The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international co-operation between ESA and NASA. It was launched in 1990. The partnership agreement between ESA and NASA was signed on 7 October 1977; as a result of this agreement European astronomers have guaranteed access to more than 20% of Hubble's observing time. Astronauts have already paid visits to Hubble in 1993, '97, '99 and now, in the spring of 2002, it is time for the fourth Servicing Mission (named Servicing Mission 3B), planned for launch on 28th February. Originally planned as one mission, the third Servicing Mission was split into two parts (Servicing Mission 3A and 3B) because of the sheer number of tasks to be carried out and the urgency with which Hubble's gyroscopes had to be replaced in late '99. In addition to the new solar panels and the ACS camera, astronauts will

  2. ISO Results Presented at International Astronomical Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    Some of the work being presented is collected in the attached ESA Information Note N 25-97, ISO illuminates our cosmic ancestry. A set of six colour images illustrating various aspects have also been released and are available at http://www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/iso1808.htm or in hard copy from ESA Public Relations Paris (fax:+33.1.5369.7690). These pictures cover: 1. Distant but powerful infrared galaxies 2. A scan across the milky way 3. Helix nebula: the shroud of a dead star 4. Supernova remnant Cassiopeia A 5. Trifid nebula: a dusty birthplace of stars 6. Precursors of stars and planets The International Astronomical Union provides a forum where astronomers from all over the world can develop astronomy in all its aspects through international co-operation. General Assemblies are held every three years. It is expected that over 1600 astronomers will attend this year's meeting, which is being held in Kyoto, Japan from 18-30 August. Further information on the meeting can be found at: www.tenmon.or.jp/iau97/ . ISO illuminates our cosmic ancestry The European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, is unmatched in its ability to explore and analyse many of the universal processes that made our existence possible. We are children of the stars. Every atom in our bodies was created in cosmic space and delivered to the Sun's vicinity in time for the Earth's formation, during a ceaseless cycle of birth, death and rebirth among the stars. The most creative places in the sky are cool and dusty, and opaque even to the Hubble Space Telescope. Infrared rays penetrating the dust reveal to ISO hidden objects, and the atoms and molecules of cosmic chemistry. "ISO is reading Nature's recipe book," says Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "As the world's only telescope capable of observing the Universe over a wide range of infrared wavelengths, ISO plays an indispensable part in astronomical discoveries that help to explain how we came to exist." This Information Note

  3. High-Redshift Supernovae in the Hubble Deep Field

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, R.L.; Nugent, P.E.; Phillips, M.M.

    1999-08-01

    Two supernovae detected in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) using the original 1995 December epoch and data from a shorter (63,000 s in F814W) 1997 December visit with {ital HST} are discussed. The supernovae (SNe) are both associated with distinct galaxies at redshifts of 0.95 (spectroscopic) from Cohen et al. and 1.32 (photometric) from the work of Fern{acute a}ndez-Soto, Lanzetta, & Yahil. These redshifts are near, in the case of 0.95, and well beyond, for 1.32, the greatest distance reported previously for SNe. We show that our observations are sensitive to supernovae to z{approx_lt}1.8 in either epoch for an event near peak brightness. Detailed simulations are discussed that quantify the level at which false events from our search phase would start to arise and the completeness of our search as a function of both SN brightness and host galaxy redshift. The number of Type Ia and Type II SNe expected as a function of redshift in the two HDF epochs are discussed in relation to several published predictions and our own detailed calculations. A mean detection frequency of one SN per epoch for the small HDF area is consistent with expectations from current theory. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  4. Hubble Space Telescope - New view of an ancient universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckrone, David S.; Longair, Malcolm S.; Stockman, Peter; Olivier, Jean R.

    1989-01-01

    Scheduled for a March 1990 Shuttle launch, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will give astronomers a tool of unprecedented accuracy to observe the universe: an optically superb instrument free of the atmospheric turbulence, distortion, and brightness that plague all earthbound telescopes. The observatory will carry into orbit two cameras, a pair of spectrographs, a photometer, and fine guidance sensors optimized for astrometry. The diffraction limit for the 2.4-m aperture of the HST corresponds to 90 percent of the radiation from a point source falling within a circle of 0.1 arcsec angular radius at a wavelength of 633 nm. The 15-year mission will make observations in the ultraviolet as well as the optical spectral region, thus, widening the wavelength window to a range extending from the Lyman alpha wavelengnth of 122 nm to just about 2 microns. The observational program that awaits the HST will include the study of planetary atmospheres, in particular the search for aerosols; the study of globular star clusters within the Galaxy; and the determination of the present rate of expansion of the universe. The HST will achieve resolutions of 0.1 arcsec consistently, regardless of observation duration. The HST engineering challenge is also discussed.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope, Wide Field and Planetary Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    In this photograph, engineers and technicians prepare the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WF/PC) for installation at the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The WF/PC is designed to investigate the age of the universe and to search for new planetary systems around young stars. It takes pictures of large numbers of galaxies and close-ups of planets in our solar system. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  6. Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.A.; MacDonald, G.J.

    1997-07-11

    Narrow spectral features in ocean sediment records offer strong evidence that the cycles of glaciation were driven by astronomical forces. Two million years ago, the cycles match the 41,000-year period of Earth`s obliquity. This supports the Croll/Milankovitch theory, which attributes the cycles to variations in insolation. But for the past million years, the spectrum is dominated by a single 100,000-year feature and is a poor match to the predictions of insolation models. The spectrum can be accounted for by a theory that derives the cycles of glaciation from variations in the inclination of Earth`s orbital plane.

  7. astroplan: Observation Planning for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brett

    2016-03-01

    Astroplan is an observation planning package for astronomers. It is an astropy-affiliated package which began as a Google Summer of Code project. Astroplan facilitates convenient calculation of common observational quantities, like target altitudes and azimuths, airmasses, and rise/set times. Astroplan also computes when targets are observable given various extensible observing constraints, for example: within a range of airmasses or altitudes, or at a given separation from the Moon. Astroplan is taught in the undergraduate programming for astronomy class, and enables observational Pre- MAP projects at the University of Washington. In the near future, we plan to implement scheduling capabilities in astroplan on top of the constraints framework.

  8. Visualizing Astronomical Data with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    We present methods for using the 3D graphics program Blender in the visualization of astronomical data. The software's forte for animating 3D data lends itself well to use in astronomy. The Blender graphical user interface and Python scripting capabilities can be utilized in the generation of models for data cubes, catalogs, simulations, and surface maps. We review methods for data import, 2D and 3D voxel texture applications, animations, camera movement, and composite renders. Rendering times can be improved by using graphic processing units (GPUs). A number of examples are shown using the software features most applicable to various kinds of data paradigms in astronomy.

  9. CATALOG MATCHING WITH ASTROMETRIC CORRECTION AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE HUBBLE LEGACY ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Budavari, Tamas; Lubow, Stephen H. E-mail: lubow@stsci.edu

    2012-12-20

    Object cross-identification in multiple observations is often complicated by the uncertainties in their astrometric calibration. Due to the lack of standard reference objects, an image with a small field of view can have significantly larger errors in its absolute positioning than the relative precision of the detected sources within. We present a new general solution for the relative astrometry that quickly refines the World Coordinate System of overlapping fields. The efficiency is obtained through the use of infinitesimal three-dimensional rotations on the celestial sphere, which do not involve trigonometric functions. They also enable an analytic solution to an important step in making the astrometric corrections. In cases with many overlapping images, the correct identification of detections that match together across different images is difficult to determine. We describe a new greedy Bayesian approach for selecting the best object matches across a large number of overlapping images. The methods are developed and demonstrated on the Hubble Legacy Archive, one of the most challenging data sets today. We describe a novel catalog compiled from many Hubble Space Telescope observations, where the detections are combined into a searchable collection of matches that link the individual detections. The matches provide descriptions of astronomical objects involving multiple wavelengths and epochs. High relative positional accuracy of objects is achieved across the Hubble images, often sub-pixel precision in the order of just a few milliarcseconds. The result is a reliable set of high-quality associations that are publicly available online.

  10. HUBBLE UNCOVERS MYSTERY OBJECTS IN THE DENSE CORE OF A NEARBY STAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Piercing the heart of a glittering swarm of stars, NASA's sharp-eyed Hubble Space Telescope unveils the central region of the globular cluster M22, a 12- to 14-billion-year-old grouping of stars in the constellation Sagittarius. The telescope's view of the cluster's core measures 3.3 light-years across. The stars near the cluster's core are 100,000 times more numerous than those in the Sun's neighborhood. Buried in the glow of starlight are about six 'mystery objects,' which astronomers estimate are no larger than one quarter the mass of the giant planet Jupiter, the solar system's heftiest planet. The mystery objects are too far and dim for Hubble to see directly. Instead, the orbiting observatory detected these unseen celestial bodies by looking for their gravitational effects on the light from far distant stars. In this case, the stars are far beyond the cluster in the galactic bulge, about 30,000 light-years from Earth at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. M22 is 8,500 light-years away. The invisible objects betrayed their presence by bending the starlight gravitationally and amplifying it, a phenomenon known as microlensing. From February 22 to June 15, 1999, Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 looked through this central region and monitored 83,000 stars. During that time the orbiting observatory recorded six unexpectedly brief microlensing events. In each case a background star jumped in brightness for less than 20 hours before dropping back to normal. These transitory spikes in brightness mean that the object passing in front of the star must have been much smaller than a normal star. Hubble also detected one clear microlensing event. In that observation a star appeared about 10 times brighter over an 18-day span before returning to normal. Astronomers traced the leap in brightness to a dwarf star in the cluster floating in front of the background star. The inset photo shows the entire globular cluster of about 10 million stars. M22 is about 60

  11. HUBBLE'S CLOSE-UP VIEW OF A SHOCKWAVE FROM A STELLAR EXPLOSION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a small portion of a nebula called the 'Cygnus Loop.' Covering a region on the sky six times the diameter of the full Moon, the Cygnus Loop is actually the expanding blastwave from a stellar cataclysm - a supernova explosion - which occurred about 15,000 years ago. In this image the supernova blast wave, which is moving from left to right across the field of view, has recently hit a cloud of denser than average interstellar gas. This collision drives shock waves into the cloud that heats interstellar gas, causing it to glow. Just as the microscope revolutionized the study of the human body by revealing the workings of cells, the Hubble Space Telescope is offering astronomers an unprecedented look at fine structure within these shock fronts. Astronomers have been performing calculations of what should go on behind shock fronts for about the last 20 years, but detailed observations have not been possible until Hubble. This image was taken with Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). The color is produced by composite of three different images. Blue shows emission from 'doubly ionized' oxygen atoms (atoms that have had two electrons stripped away) produced by the heat behind the shock front. Red shows light given off by 'singly ionized' sulfur atoms (sulfur atoms that are missing a single electron). This sulfur emission arises well behind the shock front, in gas that has had a chance to cool since the passage of the shock. Green shows light emitted by hydrogen atoms. Much of the hydrogen emission comes from an extremely thin zone (only several times the distance between the Sun and Earth) immediately behind the shock front itself. These thin regions appear as sharp, green, filaments in the image. This supernova remnant lies 2,500 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus the Swan. Credit: Jeff Hester (Arizona State University) and NASA

  12. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, G.; Lusso, E.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method to test the ΛCDM cosmological model and to estimate cosmological parameters based on the nonlinear relation between the ultraviolet and X-ray luminosities of quasars. We built a data set of 1138 quasars by merging several samples from the literature with X-ray measurements at 2 keV and SDSS photometry, which was used to estimate the extinction-corrected 2500 Å flux. We obtained three main results: (1) we checked the nonlinear relation between X-ray and UV luminosities in small redshift bins up to z˜ 6, confirming that the relation holds at all redshifts with the same slope; (2) we built a Hubble diagram for quasars up to z˜ 6, which is well matched to that of supernovae in the common z = 0-1.4 redshift interval and extends the test of the cosmological model up to z˜ 6; and (3) we showed that this nonlinear relation is a powerful tool for estimating cosmological parameters. Using the present data and assuming a ΛCDM model, we obtain {{{Ω }}}M = 0.22{}-0.08+0.10 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.92{}-0.30+0.18 ({{{Ω }}}M = 0.28 ± 0.04 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.73 +/- 0.08 from a joint quasar-SNe fit). Much more precise measurements will be achieved with future surveys. A few thousand SDSS quasars already have serendipitous X-ray observations from Chandra or XMM-Newton, and at least 100,000 quasars with UV and X-ray data will be made available by the extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array all-sky survey in a few years. The Euclid, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics surveys will further increase the sample size to at least several hundred thousand. Our simulations show that these samples will provide tight constraints on the cosmological parameters and will allow us to test for possible deviations from the standard model with higher precision than is possible today.

  13. HUBBLE FINDS THOUSANDS OF GASEOUS FRAGMENTS SURROUNDING DYING STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Resembling a bizarre setting from a science fiction movie, dramatic images sent back by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have surprised astronomers by uncovering thousands of gigantic tadpole-shaped objects surrounding a dying star. Dubbed 'cometary knots' because their glowing heads and gossamer tails superficially resemble comets, they are probably the result of a dying star's final outbursts. Though ground-based telescopic observations have hinted at such objects, they have not previously been seen in such abundance, say researchers. The knots were detected by Hubble astronomer C. Robert O'Dell and graduate student Kerry P. Handron of Rice University in Houston, Texas, while exploring the Helix nebula, a ring of glowing gases blown off the surface of a sunlike star late in its life. O'Dell expects the gaseous knots, which are each several billion miles across, will eventually dissipate and vanish into the cold emptiness of interstellar space. However, he speculates that if the objects contract to form permanent solid bodies, they may contribute to a fraction (less than ten percent) of the missing mass of our galaxy, simply because of their sheer abundance around a typical dying star. (This so-called dark matter is a known source of gravity that affects the motions of stars in the galaxy). The mysterious 'space pods' came into view as O'Dell used Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 to survey the Helix nebula, located 450 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius and the closest planetary nebula to Earth -- so close that its angular size is almost half that of the full Moon. The most visible cometary knots all lie along the inner edge of the ring, at a distance of trillions of miles from the central star. Their comet-like tails, each stretching a hundred billion miles, form a radial pattern around the star like the spokes on a wagon wheel. Though previous ground-based observations show a spoke pattern in the Helix, and some structure, O'Dell emphasizes that

  14. Hubble tracks down a galaxy cluster's dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    total, the image measures 27 arc-minutes across, slightly smaller than the diameter of the Moon. The observed warped shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies have been converted into a unique map of the dark matter in the cluster. The images were taken through a red filter and have been reduced a factor of two in size. Ground-based image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 hi-res Size hi-res: 4699 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Ground-based image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 This is a colour image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 obtained with the CFHT12k camera at the Canada France Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea (Hawaii). The cluster clearly appears as a concentration of yellow galaxies in the centre of this image although cluster galaxies actually extend at least to the edge of this image. This image measures 21 x 21 arc-minutes. Clusters of galaxies are the largest stable systems in the Universe. They are like laboratories for studying the relationship between the distributions of dark and visible matter. In 1937, Fritz Zwicky realised that the visible component of a cluster (the thousands of millions of stars in each of the thousands of galaxies) represents only a tiny fraction of the total mass. About 80-85% of the matter is invisible, the so-called 'dark matter'. Although astronomers have known about the presence of dark matter for many decades, finding a technique to view its distribution is a much more recent development. Led by Drs Jean-Paul Kneib (from the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, United States), Richard Ellis and Tommaso Treu (both Caltech, United States), the team used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to reconstruct a unique 'mass map' of the galaxy cluster CL0024+1654. It enabled them to see for the first time on such large scales how mysterious dark matter is distributed with respect to galaxies. This comparison gives new clues on how such

  15. Citizen Astronomers... Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiIulio, Ron

    2015-05-01

    While our understanding of the Universe seems to be expanding much like the Big Bang, there seem to be fewer and fewer new people dedicated to gathering, interpreting, and disseminating scientific astronomical data. In this paper I present a plan to create "Certified Citizen Astronomers", i.e., the development of a curriculum where people of all ages and backgrounds can develop robust photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic techniques so that they can participate more fully in the astronomical adventure.

  16. Topics in Machine Learning for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisewski, Jessi

    2016-01-01

    As astronomical datasets continue to increase in size and complexity, innovative statistical and machine learning tools are required to address the scientific questions of interest in a computationally efficient manner. I will introduce some tools that astronomers can employ for such problems with a focus on clustering and classification techniques. I will introduce standard methods, but also get into more recent developments that may be of use to the astronomical community.

  17. LGBT Workplace Issues for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Laura E.; Danner, R.; Sellgren, K.; Dixon, V.; GLBTQastro

    2011-01-01

    Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws and regulations do not provide protection from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity or gender expression. Sexual minority astronomers (including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; LGBT) can face additional challenges at school and work. Studies show that LGBT students on many campuses report experiences of harassment. Cities, counties, and states may or may not have statutes to protect against such discrimination. There is wide variation in how states and insurance plans handle legal and medical issues for transgender people. Federal law does not acknowledge same-sex partners, including those legally married in the U.S. or in other countries. Immigration rules in the U.S. (and many other, but not all) countries do not recognize same-sex partners for visas, employment, etc. State `defense of marriage act' laws have been used to remove existing domestic partner benefits at some institutions, or benefits can disappear with a change in governor. LGBT astronomers who change schools, institutions, or countries during their career may experience significant differences in their legal, medical, and marital status.

  18. The League of Astronomers: Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paat, Anthony; Brandel, A.; Schmitz, D.; Sharma, R.; Thomas, N. H.; Trujillo, J.; Laws, C. S.; Astronomers, League of

    2014-01-01

    The University of Washington League of Astronomers (LOA) is an organization comprised of University of Washington (UW) undergraduate students. Our main goal is to share our interest in astronomy with the UW community and with the general public. The LOA hosts star parties on the UW campus and collaborates with the Seattle Astronomical Society (SAS) on larger Seattle-area star parties. At the star parties, we strive to teach our local community about what they can view in our night sky. LOA members share knowledge of how to locate constellations and use a star wheel. The relationship the LOA has with members of SAS increases both the number of events and people we are able to reach. Since the cloudy skies of the Northwest prevent winter star parties, we therefore focus our outreach on the UW Mobile Planetarium, an inflatable dome system utilizing Microsoft’s WorldWide Telescope (WWT) software. The mobile planetarium brings astronomy into the classrooms of schools unable to travel to the UW on-campus planetarium. Members of the LOA volunteer their time towards this project and we make up the majority of the Mobile Planetarium volunteers. Our outreach efforts allow us to connect with the community and enhance our own knowledge of astronomy.

  19. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  20. HUBBLE provides multiple views of how to feed a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    Although the cause-and-effect relationships are not yet clear, the views provided by complementary images from two instruments aboard the Hubble Space Telescope are giving astronomers new insights into the powerful forces being exerted in this complex maelstrom. Researchers believe these forces may even have shifted the axis of the massive black hole from its expected orientation. The Hubble wide-field camera visible image of the merged Centaurus A galaxy, also called NGC 5128, shows in sharp clarity a dramatic dark lane of dust girdling the galaxy. Blue clusters of newborn stars are clearly resolved, and silhouettes of dust filaments are interspersed with blazing orange-glowing gas. Located only 10 million light-years away, this peculiar-looking galaxy contains the closest active galactic nucleus to Earth and has long been considered an example of an elliptical galaxy disrupted by a recent collision with a smaller companion spiral galaxy. Using the infrared vision of Hubble, astronomers have penetrated this wall of dust for the first time to see a twisted disk of hot gas swept up in the black hole's gravitational whirlpool. The suspected black hole is so dense it contains the mass of perhaps a billion stars, compacted into a small region of space not much larger than our Solar System. Resolving features as small as seven light-years across, Hubble has shown astronomers that the hot gas disk is tilted in a different direction from the black hole's axis -- like a wobbly wheel around an axle. The black hole's axis is identified by the orientation of a high-speed jet of material, glowing in X-rays and radio frequencies, blasted from the black hole at 1/100th the speed of light. This gas disk presumably fueling the black hole may have formed so recently it is not yet aligned to the black hole's spin axis, or it may simply be influenced more by the galaxy's gravitational tug than by the black hole's. "This black hole is doing its own thing. Aside from receiving fresh

  1. Radio Astronomers Set New Standard for Accurate Cosmic Distance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    A team of radio astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to make the most accurate measurement ever made of the distance to a faraway galaxy. Their direct measurement calls into question the precision of distance determinations made by other techniques, including those announced last week by a team using the Hubble Space Telescope. The radio astronomers measured a distance of 23.5 million light-years to a galaxy called NGC 4258 in Ursa Major. "Ours is a direct measurement, using geometry, and is independent of all other methods of determining cosmic distances," said Jim Herrnstein, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. The team says their measurement is accurate to within less than a million light-years, or four percent. The galaxy is also known as Messier 106 and is visible with amateur telescopes. Herrnstein, along with James Moran and Lincoln Greenhill of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Phillip Diamond, of the Merlin radio telescope facility at Jodrell Bank and the University of Manchester in England; Makato Inoue and Naomasa Nakai of Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory; Mikato Miyoshi of Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; Christian Henkel of Germany's Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy; and Adam Riess of the University of California at Berkeley, announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. "This is an incredible achievement to measure the distance to another galaxy with this precision," said Miller Goss, NRAO's Director of VLA/VLBA Operations. "This is the first time such a great distance has been measured this accurately. It took painstaking work on the part of the observing team, and it took a radio telescope the size of the Earth -- the VLBA -- to make it possible," Goss said. "Astronomers have sought to determine the Hubble Constant, the rate of expansion of the universe, for decades. This will in turn lead to an

  2. Clusters of Galaxies and the Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcon, N.

    2008-09-01

    The expansion rate, at height scale, of the Universe, is given for the value of the Hubble constant (H0). Several methods have used by determinations of the Hubble constant: CMB anisotropy's, Supernovae observation and AGN at height red-shift. In this work, we used the Grainge et al (3) method by estimated of the Hubble constant thought of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and the result of the VSA interferometer (Teide Observatory) and the X-ray data by ROSAT. We obtain, h ? 0,78, in accord with other report by cluster of galaxies (Mason et al, 2001) as higher than of the standard value h =0,71 obtain by other method. We discussed the systematic fount of error and possible discrepant by assumptions of the spheroid and isothermal in cluster and the Sunyaev- Zel'dovich Kinetic effect.

  3. Testing the isotropy of the Hubble expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migkas, K.; Plionis, M.

    2016-04-01

    We have used the Union2.1 SNIa compilation to search for possible Hubble expansion anisotropies, dividing the sky in 9 solid angles containing roughly the same number of SNIa, as well as in two Galactic hemispheres. We identified only one sky region, containing 82 SNIa (˜ 15% of total sample with z>0.02), that indeed appears to share a Hubble expansion significantly different from the rest of the sample. However, this behaviour can be attributed to the joint "erratic" behaviour of only three SNIa and not to an anisotropic expansion. We also find that the northern and southern galactic hemispheres have different cosmological parameter solutions, but still not significant enough to support a Hubble expansion anisotropy. We conclude that even a few outliers can induce artificial indications of anisotropies, when the number of analysed SNIa is relatively small.

  4. Combined ultraviolet studies of astronomical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Baliunas, S. L.; Blair, W. P.; Hartmann, L. W.; Huchra, J. P.; Raymond, J. C.; Smith, G. H.; Sonderblom, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultraviolet studies of various astronomical entities are reported. Among the specific phenomena examined were supernova remnants, dwarf novae, red giant stars, stellar winds, binary stars, and galaxies.

  5. San Marcos Astronomical Project and Doctoral Prospectus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, M. L.

    2009-05-01

    The Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, UNMSM, in Lima, Perú, is the only Peruvian institution working for the peruvian astronomical development as a career since 1970. We are conforming a network with international friend astronomers to invite them as Visiting Lectures to assure the academic level for the future doctoral studies in the UNMSM. The Chancellor of UNMSM has decided that the Astronomical Project is a UNMSM Project, to encourage and advance in this scientific and strategical area, to impulse the modernity of Peru, the major effort will be the building of the San Marcos Astronomical Observatory, with a telescope of 1 meter aperture.

  6. Amateur Astronomers: Secret Agents of EPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendsen, M.; White, V.; Devore, E.; Reynolds, M.

    2008-06-01

    Amateur astronomers prime the public to be more interested, receptive, and excited about space science, missions, and programs. Through recent research and targeted programs, amateur astronomy outreach is being increasingly recognized by professional astronomers, educators, and other amateurs as a valued and important service. The Night Sky Network program, administered by the ASP, is the first nationwide research-based program specifically targeted to support outreach by amateur astronomers. This Network of trained and informed amateur astronomers can provide a stimulating introduction to your EPO programs as Network members share the night sky with families, students, and youth groups.

  7. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  8. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Allam, Sahar S.; Budavari, Tamas; Casertano, Stefano; Downes, Ronald A.; Donaldson, Thomas; Fall, S. Michael; Lubow, Stephen H.; Quick, Lee; Strolger, Louis -Gregory; et al

    2016-05-11

    The Hubble Source Catalog is designed to help optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by combining the tens of thousands of visit-based source lists in the Hubble Legacy Archive into a single master catalog. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog includes WFPC2, ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR photometric data generated using SExtractor software to produce the individual source lists. The catalog includes roughly 80 million detections of 30 million objects involving 112 different detector/filter combinations, and about 160 thousand HST exposures. Source lists from Data Release 8 of the Hubble Legacy Archive are matched using an algorithm developed by Budavari & Lubow (2012). The mean photometric accuracy for the catalog as a whole is better than 0.10 mag, with relative accuracy as good as 0.02 mag in certain circumstances (e.g., bright isolated stars). The relative astrometric residuals are typically within 10 mas, with a value for the mode (i.e., most common value) of 2.3 mas. The absolute astrometric accuracy is better thanmore » $$\\sim$$0.1 arcsec for most sources, but can be much larger for a fraction of fields that could not be matched to the PanSTARRS, SDSS, or 2MASS reference systems. In this paper we describe the database design with emphasis on those aspects that enable the users to fully exploit the catalog while avoiding common misunderstandings and potential pitfalls. Here, we provide usage examples to illustrate some of the science capabilities and data quality characteristics, and briefly discuss plans for future improvements to the Hubble Source Catalog.« less

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, S.; et al.

    2012-12-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21 is a companion document to the HST Call for Proposals1. It provides an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with basic information about telescope operations, instrument capabilities, and technical aspects of the proposal preparation process. A thorough understanding of the material in this document is essential for the preparation of a competitive proposal. This document is available as an online HTML document and a PDF file. The HTML version, optimized for online browsing, contains many links to additional information. The PDF version is optimized for printing, but online PDF readers have search capabilities for quick retrieval of specific information.

  10. HUBBLE SENDS SEASON'S GREETINGS FROM THE COSMOS TO EARTH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, this image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth, where nature seems to have put on the traditional colors of the season. These colors, produced by the light emitted by oxygen and hydrogen, help astronomers investigate the star-forming processes in nebulas such as NGC 2080. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that have attracted special attention. These regions have been studied in detail with Hubble and have long been identified as unique star-forming sites. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the whole local group of galaxies. The light from the nebula captured in this image is emitted by two elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The red and the blue light are from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind (a stream of high-speed particles) coming from a massive star just outside the image. The white region in the center is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. The intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in the surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) - are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from a single massive star. A2 has a more complex appearance due to the presence of more dust, and it contains several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newly born stars. The research team noted that Hubble

  11. HUBBLE'S NEW IMPROVED OPTICS PROBE THE CORE OF A DISTANT GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    galaxy has two prominent arms of bright stars and several fainter arms. Though the galaxy is estimated to be tens of millions of light-years away, Hubble reveals the sort of detail only seen previously (with ground based telescopes) in neighboring galaxies that are ten times closer. Before HST, astronomers could only see such a level of detail in roughly a dozen galaxies in our Local Group. Now, with Hubble's improved vision, the portion of the universe which can be studied with such clarity has grown a thousand fold. Only the future will tell what revelations await as Hubble's spectacular vision is applied to a host of fascinating and important questions about the universe and our place in it. PHOTO RELEASE NO.: STScI-PR94-01

  12. HUBBLE TRACKS CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Taking its first peek at Uranus, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has detected six distinct clouds in images taken July 28,1997. The image on the right, taken 90 minutes after the left-hand image, shows the planet's rotation. Each image is a composite of three near-infrared images. They are called false-color images because the human eye cannot detect infrared light. Therefore, colors corresponding to visible light were assigned to the images. (The wavelengths for the 'blue,' 'green,' and 'red' exposures are 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 micrometers, respectively.) At visible and near-infrared light, sunlight is reflected from hazes and clouds in the atmosphere of Uranus. However, at near-infrared light, absorption by gases in the Uranian atmosphere limits the view to different altitudes, causing intense contrasts and colors. In these images, the blue exposure probes the deepest atmospheric levels. A blue color indicates clear atmospheric conditions, prevalent at mid-latitudes near the center of the disk. The green exposure is sensitive to absorption by methane gas, indicating a clear atmosphere; but in hazy atmospheric regions, the green color is seen because sunlight is reflected back before it is absorbed. The green color around the south pole (marked by '+') shows a strong local haze. The red exposure reveals absorption by hydrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Uranus. Most sunlight shows patches of haze high in the atmosphere. A red color near the limb (edge) of the disk indicates the presence of a high-altitude haze. The purple color to the right of the equator also suggests haze high in the atmosphere with a clear atmosphere below. The five clouds visible near the right limb rotated counterclockwise during the time between both images. They reach high into the atmosphere, as indicated by their red color. Features of such high contrast have never been seen before on Uranus. The clouds are almost as

  13. BOOK REVIEW: The Wandering Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, Elizabeth

    2000-09-01

    Fans of Patrick Moore will like this book. I enjoyed it more than I expected, having anticipated a collection of personal anecdotes of the type favoured by certain tedious after-dinner speakers. Some of the 41 short items it contains do tend towards that category, but there are also some nuggets which might enliven your physics teaching. For example, did you know that, in a murder trial in 1787, the defendant's belief that the Sun was inhabited was cited as evidence of his insanity? This was despite his views being shared by many astronomers of the day including William Herschel. Or that Clyde Tombaugh had a cat called Pluto after the planet he discovered, which was itself named by an eleven-year-old girl? Another gem concerns a brief flurry, in the early 1990s, over a suspected planet orbiting a pulsar; variations in the arrival time of its radio pulses indicated the presence of an orbiting body. These shifts were later found to arise from an error in a computer program that corrected for the Earth's motion. The programmer had assumed a circular orbit for the Earth whereas it is actually elliptical. The book is clearly intended for amateur astronomers and followers of Patrick Moore's TV programmes. There is plenty of astronomy, with an emphasis on the solar system, but very little astrophysics. The author's metricophobia means that quantities are given in imperial units throughout, with metric equivalents added in brackets (by an editor, I suspect) which can get irritating, particularly as powers-of-ten notation is avoided. It is quite a novelty to see the temperature for hydrogen fusion quoted as 18 000 000 °F (10 000 000 °C). By way of contrast, astronomical terms are used freely - ecliptic, first-magnitude star, and so on. Such terms are defined in a glossary at the end, but attention is not drawn to this and I only stumbled across it by chance. Patrick Moore obviously knows his public, and this book will serve them well. For physics teachers and students

  14. Hubble 25th Anniversary: NASA Social at Goddard

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope celebrated its 25th anniversary on April 24, 2015. To mark the occasion, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland -- home of Hubble operations -- host...

  15. The application of artificial intelligence to astronomical scheduling problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1992-01-01

    Efficient utilization of expensive space- and ground-based observatories is an important goal for the astronomical community; the cost of modern observing facilities is enormous, and the available observing time is much less than the demand from astronomers around the world. The complexity and variety of scheduling constraints and goals has led several groups to investigate how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques might help solve these kinds of problems. The earliest and most successful of these projects was started at Space Telescope Science Institute in 1987 and has led to the development of the Spike scheduling system to support the scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The aim of Spike at STScI is to allocate observations to timescales of days to a week observing all scheduling constraints and maximizing preferences that help ensure that observations are made at optimal times. Spike has been in use operationally for HST since shortly after the observatory was launched in Apr. 1990. Although developed specifically for HST scheduling, Spike was carefully designed to provide a general framework for similar (activity-based) scheduling problems. In particular, the tasks to be scheduled are defined in the system in general terms, and no assumptions about the scheduling timescale are built in. The mechanisms for describing, combining, and propagating temporal and other constraints and preferences are quite general. The success of this approach has been demonstrated by the application of Spike to the scheduling of other satellite observatories: changes to the system are required only in the specific constraints that apply, and not in the framework itself. In particular, the Spike framework is sufficiently flexible to handle both long-term and short-term scheduling, on timescales of years down to minutes or less. This talk will discuss recent progress made in scheduling search techniques, the lessons learned from early HST operations, the application of Spike

  16. Determination of the cosmological rate of change of G and the tidal accelerations of earth and moon from ancient and modern astronomical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    The theory and numerical analysis of ancient astronomical observations (1374 to 1715) are combined with modern data in a simultaneous solution for: the tidal acceleration of the lunar longitude; the observed apparent acceleration of the earth's rotation; the true nontidal geophysical part of this acceleration; and the rate of change in the gravitational constant. Provided are three independent determinations of a rate of change of G consistent with the Hubble Constant and a near zero nontidal rotational acceleration of the earth. The tidal accelerations are shown to have remained constant during the historical period within uncertainties. Ancient and modern solar system data, and extragalactic observations provided a completely consistent astronomical and cosmological scheme.

  17. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  18. Detecting bimodality in astronomical datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashman, Keith A.; Bird, Christina M.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss statistical techniques for detecting and quantifying bimodality in astronomical datasets. We concentrate on the KMM algorithm, which estimates the statistical significance of bimodality in such datasets and objectively partitions data into subpopulations. By simulating bimodal distributions with a range of properties we investigate the sensitivity of KMM to datasets with varying characteristics. Our results facilitate the planning of optimal observing strategies for systems where bimodality is suspected. Mixture-modeling algorithms similar to the KMM algorithm have been used in previous studies to partition the stellar population of the Milky Way into subsystems. We illustrate the broad applicability of KMM by analyzing published data on globular cluster metallicity distributions, velocity distributions of galaxies in clusters, and burst durations of gamma-ray sources. FORTRAN code for the KMM algorithm and directions for its use are available from the authors upon request.

  19. IAU Public Astronomical Organisations Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canas, Lina; Cheung, Sze Leung

    2015-08-01

    The Office for Astronomy Outreach has devoted intensive means to create and support a global network of public astronomical organisations around the world. Focused on bringing established and newly formed amateur astronomy organizations together, providing communications channels and platforms for disseminating news to the global community and the sharing of best practices and resources among these associations around the world. In establishing the importance that these organizations have for the dissemination of activities globally and acting as key participants in IAU various campaigns social media has played a key role in keeping this network engaged and connected. Here we discuss the implementation process of maintaining this extensive network, the processing and gathering of information and the interactions between local active members at a national and international level.

  20. Astronomical Software---A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortridge, K.

    It is now impossible to imagine `doing astronomy' without using software. Sometimes it is hard to remember that it has not always been like this. Over a timescale now measured in decades, the art (or science) of astronomical programming has evolved. Once it involved the squeezing of hand-crafted assembler routines into insufficient memory. Now it includes the design of ambitiously large frameworks for data acquisition and reduction. The organisation required for the production of such software has had to grow to match these new ambitions. This review looks back on the path taken by this fascinating evolutionary process, in the hope that it can provide a background that may let us imagine where the next years will lead.

  1. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the VLBI system at the fundamental station GGAO. It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the report year. The Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) consists of a 5-meter radio telescope for VLBI, a new 12-meter radio telescope for VLBI2010 development, a 1-meter reference antenna for microwave holography development, an SLR site that includes MOBLAS-7, the NGSLR development system, and a 48" telescope for developmental two-color Satellite Laser Ranging, a GPS timing and development lab, a DORIS system, meteorological sensors, and a hydrogen maser. In addition, we are a fiducial IGS site with several IGS/IGSX receivers. GGAO is located on the east coast of the United States in Maryland. It is approximately 15 miles NNE of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland.

  2. First Visiting Astronomers at VLT KUEYEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    few cases, the images of the objects behind the clusters are split into several components. Knowing the distance to the objects for which we see multiple images and the distribution of matter in the cluster that produce the lensing effect allows to determine the geometry of the universe in the corresponding direction , independently of its rate of expansion. For a given cluster lens, a minimum of three such multiple-imaged objects with measured distances and positions is in principle sufficient to determine the geometry of the universe in that direction, as expressed by the values of two of the main cosmological parameters, the density (Omega: ) and the cosmological constant (Lambda: ). Detailed observations of these cosmic mirages thus have a direct implication for our understanding of the universe in which we live. A study of the clusters of galaxies Abell 1689 and MS 1008 The first visiting astronomers to KUEYEN used FORS2 to measure the distances to some of the background objects that are being multiple-lensed by the cluster of galaxies Abell 1689 . This cluster was first discovered by American astronomer George Abell some thirty years ago when he studied photographic plates obtained at the Palomar Observatory. Since then, this cluster has been further observed and deep images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have revealed at least five multiple-lensed objects in this direction. However, because of the faintness of these images, it has so far not been possible to measure the distances to those objects. This has only become possible now, with the advent of new and powerful astronomical instruments like the FORS2 spectrograph at KUEYEN. At the beginning of the night - before Abell 1689 was high enough in the sky to be observable - the astronomers also observed another cluster lens, MS 1008 . This cluster was discovered with the Einstein X-ray satellite and has been studied in great detail by means of images in different colours by the VLT ANTU telescope

  3. Aristotle University Astronomical Station at Mt. Holomon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdellidou, C.; Ioannidis, P.; Kouroubatzakis, K.; Nitsos, A.; Vakoulis, J.; Seiradakis, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The Aristotle University Astronomical Station was established seven years ago in order to fulfill the educational needs of its students. Astronomical observations are undertaken using three fully equipped small telescopes. Some interesting results are presented below, including the study of asteroids and flare stars, the detection of optical emission from supernovae remnants and follow up observations in extra solar planets.

  4. Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge among Amateur Astronomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berendsen, Margaret L.

    2005-01-01

    Amateur astronomers regularly serve as informal astronomy educators for their communities. This research inquires into the level of knowledge of basic astronomy concepts among amateur astronomers and examines factors related to amateur astronomy that affect that knowledge. Using the concept questions from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2,…

  5. COMMISSION 5: Documentation and Astronomical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Françoise; Norris, Raymond P.; Bessel, M. S.; Dluzhnevskaia, O.; Jenkner, H.; Malkov, O.; Murtagh, F.; Nakajima, K.; Ochsenbein, F.; Pence, W.; Schmitz, M.; Wielen, R.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2007-03-01

    The triennial report of Commission V Documentation and Astronomical Data/Documentation et Données Astronomiques covers 2002-2005 activities, and in particular the activities of the five Working Groups: Working Group Astronomical Data; Working Group Designations; Working Group Libraries; Working Group FITS; Working Group Virtual Observatories; and of Task Force for the Preservation and Digitization of Photographic Plates.

  6. Astronomical observatory for shuttle. Phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthals, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, and configuration of the astronomical observatory for shuttle are discussed. The characteristics of the one meter telescope in the spaceborne observatory are described. A variety of basic spectroscopic and image recording instruments and detectors which will permit a large variety of astronomical observations are reported. The stDC 37485elines which defined the components of the observatory are outlined.

  7. Dark Energy and the Hubble Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.

    The Big Bang predicted by Friedmann could not be empirically discovered in the 1920th, since global cosmological distances (more than 300-1000 Mpc) were not available for observations at that time. Lemaitre and Hubble studied receding motions of galaxies at local distances of less than 20-30 Mpc and found that the motions followed the (nearly) linear velocity-distance relation, known now as Hubble's law. For decades, the real nature of this phenomenon has remained a mystery, in Sandage's words. After the discovery of dark energy, it was suggested that the dynamics of local expansion flows is dominated by omnipresent dark energy, and it is the dark energy antigravity that is able to introduce the linear velocity-distance relation to the flows. It implies that Hubble's law observed at local distances was in fact the first observational manifestation of dark energy. If this is the case, the commonly accepted criteria of scientific discovery lead to the conclusion: In 1927, Lemaitre discovered dark energy and Hubble confirmed this in 1929.

  8. Enabling Science with the Hubble Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkner, Helmut; Miller, W. Warren; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    Significant enhancements to the Hubble archive will prepare it for legacy use and provide major new science capabilities. The focus is on higher-level data products than are available from the classic Hubble archive, including fully calibrated exposures and enhanced image products as well as source lists. All data products are immediately available on disk, eliminating the latency of queued data delivery. This capability will make HST data easier to obtain, combine, and compare with data from other space missions and with ground-based data. Image headers will be updated with improved astrometric information, greatly reducing the 1-2 arcsecond errors that frequently affect current pipeline products. A generalized footprint service allows users to determine quickly whether, and for how long, a particular region of the sky has been observed with HST instruments. In addition, all Hubble data become accessible through standard Virtual Observatory interfaces. This improved archive, the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA), is expected to provide an essential research resource for many years, if not decades.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2004-01-01

    Battery cell wear out mechanisms and signatures are examined and compared to orbital data from the six on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) batteries, and the Flight Spare Battery (FSB) Test Bed at Marshall Space Fiight Center (MSFC), which is instrumented with individual cell voltage monitoring.

  10. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  11. Astronomical catalog desk reference, 1994 edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference is designed to aid astronomers in locating machine readable catalogs in the Astronomical Data Center (ADC) archives. The key reference components of this document are as follows: A listing of shortened titles for all catalogs available from the ADC (includes the name of the lead author and year of publication), brief descriptions of over 300 astronomical catalogs, an index of ADC catalog numbers by subject keyword, and an index of ADC catalog numbers by author. The heart of this document is the set of brief descriptions generated by the ADC staff. The 1994 edition of the Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference contains descriptions for over one third of the catalogs in the ADC archives. Readers are encouraged to refer to this section for concise summaries of those catalogs and their contents.

  12. Astronomical pipeline processing using fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Lior; Nemiroff, Robert J. Nemiroff

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental astronomical questions on the composition of the universe, the abundance of Earth-like planets, and the cause of the brightest explosions in the universe are being attacked by robotic telescopes costing billions of dollars and returning vast pipelines of data. The success of these programs depends on the accuracy of automated real time processing of images never seen by a human, and all predicated on fast and accurate automatic identifications of known astronomical objects and new astronomical transients. In this paper the needs of modern astronomical pipelines are discussed in the light of fuzzy-logic based decision-making. Several specific fuzzy-logic algorithms have been develop for the first time for astronomical purposes, and tested with excellent results on a test pipeline of data from the existing Night Sky Live sky survey.

  13. Developing an astronomical observatory in Paraguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troche-Boggino, Alexis E.

    Background: Paraguay has some heritage from the astronomy of the Guarani Indians. Buenaventura Suarez S.J. was a pioneer astronomer in the country in the XVIII century. He built various astronomical instruments and imported others from England. He observed eclipses of Jupiter's satellites and of the Sun and Moon. He published his data in a book and through letters. The Japanese O.D.A. has collaborated in obtaining equipment and advised their government to assist Paraguay in building an astronomical observatory, constructing a moving-roof observatory and training astronomers as observatory operators. Future: An astronomical center is on the horizon and some possible fields of research are being considered. Goal: To improve education at all possible levels by not only observing sky wonders, but also showing how instruments work and teaching about data and image processing, saving data and building a data base. Students must learn how a modern scientist works.

  14. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Allam, Sahar S.; Budavári, Tamás; Casertano, Stefano; Downes, Ronald A.; Donaldson, Thomas; Fall, S. Michael; Lubow, Stephen H.; Quick, Lee; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wallace, Geoff; White, Richard L.

    2016-06-01

    The Hubble Source Catalog is designed to help optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by combining the tens of thousands of visit-based source lists in the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) into a single master catalog. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog includes WFPC2, ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR photometric data generated using SExtractor software to produce the individual source lists. The catalog includes roughly 80 million detections of 30 million objects involving 112 different detector/filter combinations, and about 160,000 HST exposures. Source lists from Data Release 8 of the HLA are matched using an algorithm developed by Budavári & Lubow. The mean photometric accuracy for the catalog as a whole is better than 0.10 mag, with relative accuracy as good as 0.02 mag in certain circumstances (e.g., bright isolated stars). The relative astrometric residuals are typically within 10 mas, with a value for the mode (i.e., most common value) of 2.3 mas. The absolute astrometric accuracy is better than 0''\\hspace{-0.5em}. 1 for most sources, but can be much larger for a fraction of fields that could not be matched to the PanSTARRS, SDSS, or 2MASS reference systems. In this paper we describe the database design with emphasis on those aspects that enable the users to fully exploit the catalog while avoiding common misunderstandings and potential pitfalls. We provide usage examples to illustrate some of the science capabilities and data quality characteristics, and briefly discuss plans for future improvements to the Hubble Source Catalog.

  15. A SURVEY OF ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH: A BASELINE FOR ASTRONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A. E-mail: russo@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in ''astronomical development'' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  16. A Survey of Astronomical Research: A Baseline for Astronomical Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in "astronomical development" with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  17. Astronomers Unveiling Life's Cosmic Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    Processes that laid the foundation for life on Earth -- star and planet formation and the production of complex organic molecules in interstellar space -- are yielding their secrets to astronomers armed with powerful new research tools, and even better tools soon will be available. Astronomers described three important developments at a symposium on the "Cosmic Cradle of Life" at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, IL. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) In one development, a team of astrochemists released a major new resource for seeking complex interstellar molecules that are the precursors to life. The chemical data released by Anthony Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and his university colleagues is part of the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey, or PRIMOS, a project studying a star-forming region near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. PRIMOS is an effort of the National Science Foundation's Center for Chemistry of the Universe, started at the University of Virginia (UVa) in October 2008, and led by UVa Professor Brooks H. Pate. The data, produced by the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, came from more than 45 individual observations totalling more than nine GigaBytes of data and over 1.4 million individual frequency channels. Scientists can search the GBT data for specific radio frequencies, called spectral lines -- telltale "fingerprints" -- naturally emitted by molecules in interstellar space. "We've identified more than 720 spectral lines in this collection, and about 240 of those are from unknown molecules," Remijan said. He added, "We're making available to all scientists the best collection of data below 50 GHz ever produced for

  18. Young Galaxy's Magnetism Surprises Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    Astronomers have made the first direct measurement of the magnetic field in a young, distant galaxy, and the result is a big surprise. Looking at a faraway protogalaxy seen as it was 6.5 billion years ago, the scientists measured a magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than that of our own Milky Way. They had expected just the opposite. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The scientists made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's ultra-sensitive Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. "This new measurement indicates that magnetic fields may play a more important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies than we have realized," said Arthur Wolfe, of the University of California-San Diego (UCSD). At its great distance, the protogalaxy is seen as it was when the Universe was about half its current age. According to the leading theory, cosmic magnetic fields are generated by the dynamos of rotating galaxies -- a process that would produce stronger fields with the passage of time. In this scenario, the magnetic fields should be weaker in the earlier Universe, not stronger. The new, direct magnetic-field measurement comes on the heels of a July report by Swiss and American astronomers who made indirect measurements that also implied strong magnetic fields in the early Universe. "Our results present a challenge to the dynamo model, but they do not rule it out," Wolfe said. There are other possible explanations for the strong magnetic field seen in the one protogalaxy Wolfe's team studied. "We may be seeing the field close to the central region of a massive galaxy, and we know such fields are stronger toward the centers of nearby galaxies. Also, the field we see may have been amplified by a shock wave caused by the collision of two galaxies," he said. The protogalaxy studied with the GBT, called DLA-3C286, consists of gas with little or no star formation occurring in it. The astronomers suspect that

  19. Nikolay N. Donitch - the astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex B.; Volyanskaya, M. Yu.

    1999-08-01

    The article is devoted to milestones of life and scientific activity of the eminent astronomer Nikolay Nikolaevich Donitch (Nicolae N. Donici) (1874-1956), a graduate from the Odessa (Novorossiski) university. He was a wellknown expert in the field of reseacrh of objects of Solar system. A person highly cultured, which built the first in Bessarabia (actually a part of the Republic of Moldova) observatory. He was borne in Kishinev (Chisinau) in a nobles family of notable Moldavian landersmen. N.D. graduated from the Richelieu lyceym in Odessa and afterwards, in 1897, graduated from the Odessa (Novorossiysky) University. A.K. Kononovich (1850-1910)headed the chair of astronomy and the Observatory at that time - a foremost authority in the field of astrophysics and stellar astronomy. Many of his disciples became eminent scientists of their time. N. Donitch was among them. N.D. worked till 1918 at Pulkovo Observatory and became a master in the field of studying of such phenomena as solar and lunar eclipses. To observe the Sun N.D., could afford to design and manufacture a spectroheliograph, the first in Russia, with the assistance of a famous Odessa mechanic J.A. Timchenko. This instrument enabled him to obtain topquality photos of the Sun's surface and prominences. It was mounted together with coelostat in the private observatory of N.D. , built in the village Staryie Doubossary in 1908. Besides the heliograoph, the observatory was equiped with a five inch refractor-equatorial with numerous instruments for various observations. Of the other instruments should be mentioned : "a comet triplet" - an instrument consisting of guiding refractor, a photographic camera and a spectrograph with an objective prism. N.D. was lucky enough to observe rare astronomical phenomena. He observed the transit of Mercury through the disk of the Sun on November 14, 1907 and showed the athmosphere absence around this planet, observed the Halley's comet in 1910, the bright Pons-Winneke comet

  20. Analysis of Infrared Astronomical Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko

    Many Galactic objects are surrounded by dust which processes their radiation, shifting the spectral energy distribution to infrared wavelengths. Here we present systematic modeling of this phenomenon and analyze the resulting infrared emission for various Galactic objects. A major new result is the recognition that the radiative transfer problem possesses scaling properties. For a given dust chemical composition, the solution depends only on overall optical depth and the functional form of the radial dust distribution. We show that distribution of Galactic sources in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) color -color diagrams indeed can be understood in terms of these parameters. These methods are employed in a detailed analysis of late-type stars which are a subset of Galactic infrared objects. Dynamical structure and infrared emission of winds around these stars are studied in a self-consistent model that couples the equations of motion and radiative transfer. Thanks to its scaling properties, both the dynamics and IR spectrum of the solution are fully characterized by tauF, the flux averaged optical depth of the wind. Five types of dust grains are considered: astronomical silicate, crystalline olivine, graphite, amorphous carbon and SiC, as well as mixtures. Both dynamics and properties of infrared emission are in good agreement with observations, and show that virtually all IRAS point sources located in the relevant regions of the color-color diagrams can be explained as late-type stars. Because of general scaling properties, the angular profiles of surface brightness are essentially determined by overall optical depth and self-similarly scaled by the size of the dust condensation zone. We find that mid-IR is the best wavelength range to directly measure the size of this zone and identify the 15 best candidates for such future observations. We also show that the infrared emission should display time variability because of cyclical changes in overall

  1. HUBBLE SPIES HUGE CLUSTERS OF STARS FORMED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    BY ANCIENT ENCOUNTER This stunningly beautiful image [right] taken with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope shows the heart of the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. The ongoing violent star formation due to an ancient encounter with its large galactic neighbor, M81, gives this galaxy its disturbed appearance. The smaller picture at upper left shows the entire galaxy. The image was taken in December 1994 by the Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope. Hubble's view is represented by the white outline in the center. In the Hubble image, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the huge lanes of dust that crisscross M82's disk are another telltale sign of the flurry of star formation. Below the center and to the right, a strong galactic wind is spewing knotty filaments of hydrogen and nitrogen gas. More than 100 super star clusters -- very bright, compact groupings of about 100,000 stars -- are seen in this detailed Hubble picture as white dots sprinkled throughout M82's central region. The dark region just above the center of the picture is a huge dust cloud. A collaboration of European and American scientists used these clusters to date the ancient interaction between M82 and M81. About 600 million years ago, a region called 'M82 B' (the bright area just below and to the left of the central dust cloud) exploded with new stars. Scientists have discovered that this ancient starburst was triggered by the violent encounter with M81. M82 is a bright (eighth magnitude), nearby (12 million light-years from Earth) galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major (the Great Bear). The Hubble picture was taken Sept. 15, 1997. The natural-color composite was constructed from three Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures, which were combined in chromatic order: 4,250 seconds through a blue filter (428 nm); 2,800 seconds through a green filter (520 nm); and 2,200 seconds through a red (820 nm) filter. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, ESA, R. de Grijs (Institute of

  2. Reporting Astronomical Discoveries: Past, Now, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Green, Daniel W. E.; Samus, Nikolai N.; West, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Many new astronomical objects have been discovered over the years by amateur astronomers, and this continues to be the case. They have traditionally reported them (as have professional astronomers) to the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT), which was established in the 19th century. This procedure has worked very well throughout the 20th century, moving under the umbrella of the newly established IAU in 1920. The discoverers have been honored by the formal announcement of their discoveries in the publications of the CBAT.In recent years, some professional research groups have established other ways of announcing their discoveries of explosive objects such as novae and supernovae; some do not now report their discoveries or spectroscopic confirmations of the transients to the CBAT, including often spectroscopic reports of objects posted to the CBAT "Transient Objects Confirmation Page" -- the highly successful TOCP webpage, which assigns official positional designations to new transients posted there by approved, registered users. This leads to a delay in formal announcements of discoveries by amateur astronomers in many cases, as well as inconsistent designations being put into use by individual groups. Amateur astronomers are feeling frustrated about this situation, and they hope that the IAU will help to settle the situation.We have proposed the new IAU commission NC-52, which will treat these phenomena in a continuation of Commission 6, through the CBAT. We hope to continuously support the reporting of the discoveries by amateur astronomers, as well as professional astronomers, who all deserve and desire proper recognition. Our strategy will maintain the firm trust between the amateur and professional astronomers, which is necessary for true collaboration. The plan is for the CBAT to work with collaborators to assure that discoveries posted on the TOCP are promptly designated and announced by the CBAT, even when confirmations are made elsewhere

  3. Ultraviolet observations of astronomical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    The final report on 'Ultraviolet Observations of Astronomical Sources,' which ran for a total of three years, roughly between 1 July 1988 and 14 Feb. 1993 is presented. During the first year, I worked at Indiana University; since October, 1989, I have been at Tennessee State University. This grant has supported my studies of archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of zeta Aur binaries, cool stars that are paired with hot stars in binary systems. Such systems are important as a source of detailed knowledge about the structures of chromospheres and winds in cool giant and supergiant stars, since the hot star serves as a probe of many lines of sight through the cool supergiant star's outer atmosphere. By determining the physical conditions along many such lines of sight, a detailed two-dimensional map of the chromosphere and wind may be constructed. The grant grew out of my analysis of archival IUE observations of 31 Cyg in which I analyzed five epochs of an atmospheric eclipse that occurred in 1982. I fit the attenuation spectra of atmospheric eclipse throughout the ultraviolet (lambda(lambda)1175-1950 and lambda(lambda)2500-3100) with theoretically calculated spectra, thereby determining the physical properties of gas (mass column density of absorbers, temperature, and velocity spread) along each observed line of sight. A similar analysis for other such zeta Aur binaries was accomplished and theoretical models for the chromospheres of these stars based on my observations were constructed.

  4. Astronomical surveys and big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ -rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ -ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS), and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  5. Real Explorations in Astronomical Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer; Wilhelm, R.

    2007-12-01

    Real Explorations in Astronomical Learning (REAL) is an innovative and new approach to student learning that thoughtfully integrates the excitement of space science discovery with science and mathematics. Students explore NASA images of planetary surfaces using the contexts of crater density, cratering rates, and surface age while developing critical thinking skills in science and mathematics that can be applied to any number of real life situations. Project REAL participants develop, implement, and evaluate an integrated astronomy curriculum designed for middle level students that focuses on the tools necessary for astronomy research concerning the origins and evolution of surface features on planetary bodies within our Solar System. Through the REAL curriculum, students experience the excitement of exploration by becoming authentic space science researchers. Students are provided with opportunities to: • Engage in hands-on space science research • Both quantitatively and qualitatively understand the phases of the Moon, and the origins and evolution of specific features on the surfaces of planetary bodies within our Solar System • Communicate their own scientific thinking and to understand others’ scientific thinking We present year one's findings concerning the state and effectiveness of this REAL curriculum funded by a NASA-IDEAS grant.

  6. Generating Mosaics of Astronomical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergou, Attila; Berriman, Bruce; Good, John; Jacob, Joseph; Katz, Daniel; Laity, Anastasia; Prince, Thomas; Williams, Roy

    2005-01-01

    "Montage" is the name of a service of the National Virtual Observatory (NVO), and of software being developed to implement the service via the World Wide Web. Montage generates science-grade custom mosaics of astronomical images on demand from input files that comply with the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) standard and contain image data registered on projections that comply with the World Coordinate System (WCS) standards. "Science-grade" in this context signifies that terrestrial and instrumental features are removed from images in a way that can be described quantitatively. "Custom" refers to user-specified parameters of projection, coordinates, size, rotation, and spatial sampling. The greatest value of Montage is expected to lie in its ability to analyze images at multiple wavelengths, delivering them on a common projection, coordinate system, and spatial sampling, and thereby enabling further analysis as though they were part of a single, multi-wavelength image. Montage will be deployed as a computation-intensive service through existing astronomy portals and other Web sites. It will be integrated into the emerging NVO architecture and will be executed on the TeraGrid. The Montage software will also be portable and publicly available.

  7. Astronomical Knowledge in Holy Books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate religious myths related to astronomy from different cultures in an attempt to identify common subjects and characteristics. The paper focuses on astronomy in religion. The initial review covers records from Holy books about sky related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. The purpose of this study is to introduce sky related religious and national traditions (particularly based on different calendars; Solar or Lunar). We carried out a comparative study of astronomical issues contained in a number of Holy books: Ancient Egyptian Religion (Pyramid Texts), Zoroastrianism (Avesta), Hinduism (Vedas), Buddhism (Tipitaka), Confucianism (Five Classics), Sikhism (Guru Granth Sahib), Christianity (Bible), Islam (Quran), Druidism (Mabinogion) and Maya Religion (Popol Vuh). These books include various information on the creation of the Universe, Sun and Moon, the age of the Universe, Cosmic sizes, understanding about the planets, stars, Milky Way and description of the Heavens in different religions. We come to the conclusion that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture, and from religion to religion and preastronomical views had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on religious diversities. We prove that Astronomy is the basis of cultures, and that national identity and mythology and religion were formed due to the special understanding of celestial objects.

  8. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  9. Chrysanthos Notaras as an Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovithis, P.

    The aim of the present work is to emphasize the contribution of Chrysanthos Notaras (16??-1731) in the dispersion of Astronomy in the begining of the eighteenth century. Chysanthos Notaras, Partiarch of Jerusalem (1707-1731), is included among the most educated Greeks of his epoch. Although his first studies were suitable for ecclesiastic offices and religion, (since he studied ecclesiastic low, at Patavio, Italy), he continued at Paris for additional studies in Astronomy and Geography (1700). He became student of G.D. Cassini, who was the Director of Paris Observatory at that time, and he served as observer and astronomical instruments constructor, under Cassini's supervision. Chrysanthos Notaras included the teaching of "Astronomy" as a lesson in the schools of the Holy Sepulchre, in order to disperse the new ideas and knowledge about the earth and the universe among the young students. He published the first International Map (of the known world) in the Greek language in 1700 and in 1716 his book "Intoduction in Geography and Sphericals" was published in Paris. This book, written before 1707, was mainly an introduction to Astronomy and was used by the afterwards authors as an essential and basic manual and offered a lot to the enlightenment of the enslavement Greeks.

  10. A Future Astronomical Software Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosböl, P.; Tody, D.; Paioro, L.; Granet, Y.; Garilli, B.; Surace, C.; Opticon Fase Network

    2012-09-01

    Analyzing data sets in astronomy has become more and more complex and has driven the development of specific tools, functions and tasks. In order to integrate these tools in a global environment and thereby preserving them, the OPTICON Network 9.2 in coordination with US-VAO has outlined requirements, defined an architectural concept and developed a prototype of a Future Astronomical Software Environment (FASE). Important features are support for user scripting (e.g. Python), access to legacy applications (e.g. IRAF, MIDAS), integration with the Virtual Observatory (VO) for access to remote data and computation, and scalability supporting desktops to distributed cluster systems. A first prototype has been implemented and demonstrates the feasibility by offering access to numerous applications (e.g. ds9, ESO CPL pipelines, MIDAS, topcat) from a Python or Unix shell using VO-SAMP as a software bus. A simple packaging system is also provided to allow easy definition and sharing of applications at a Web portal.

  11. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  12. Hubble and ESO's VLT provide unique 3D views of remote galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    Astronomers have obtained exceptional 3D views of distant galaxies, seen when the Universe was half its current age, by combining the twin strengths of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope's acute eye, and the capacity of ESO's Very Large Telescope to probe the motions of gas in tiny objects. By looking at this unique "history book" of our Universe, at an epoch when the Sun and the Earth did not yet exist, scientists hope to solve the puzzle of how galaxies formed in the remote past. ESO PR Photo 10a/09 A 3D view of remote galaxies ESO PR Photo 10b/09 Measuring motions in 3 distant galaxies ESO PR Video 10a/09 Galaxies in collision For decades, distant galaxies that emitted their light six billion years ago were no more than small specks of light on the sky. With the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope in the early 1990s, astronomers were able to scrutinise the structure of distant galaxies in some detail for the first time. Under the superb skies of Paranal, the VLT's FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph (ESO 13/02) -- which obtains simultaneous spectra from small areas of extended objects -- can now also resolve the motions of the gas in these distant galaxies (ESO 10/06). "This unique combination of Hubble and the VLT allows us to model distant galaxies almost as nicely as we can close ones," says François Hammer, who led the team. "In effect, FLAMES/GIRAFFE now allows us to measure the velocity of the gas at various locations in these objects. This means that we can see how the gas is moving, which provides us with a three-dimensional view of galaxies halfway across the Universe." The team has undertaken the Herculean task of reconstituting the history of about one hundred remote galaxies that have been observed with both Hubble and GIRAFFE on the VLT. The first results are coming in and have already provided useful insights for three galaxies. In one galaxy, GIRAFFE revealed a region full of ionised gas, that is, hot gas composed of atoms that have been stripped of

  13. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ON TRACK FOR MEASURING THE EXPANSION RATE OF THE UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Two international teams of astronomers, using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, are reporting major progress in converging on an accurate measurement of the Universe's rate of expansion -- a value which has been debated for over half a century. These new results yield ranges for the age of the Universe from 9-12 billion years, and 11-14 billion years, respectively. The goal of the project is to measure the Hubble Constant to ten percent accuracy. The Hubble Space Telescope Key Project team, an international group of over 20 astronomers, is led by Wendy Freedman of Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA, Robert Kennicutt, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, and Jeremy Mould, Mount Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatory, Australia. The group's interim results, announced at a meeting held at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, are consistent with their preliminary result, announced in 1994, of 80 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km/sec/Mpc), based on observations of a galaxy in the Virgo cluster. 'We have five different ways of measuring the Hubble Constant with HST,' said Dr. Freedman. 'The results are coming in between 68 and 78 km/sec/Mpc.' (For example, at an expansion rate of 75 km/sec/Mpc, galaxies appear to be receding from us at a rate of 162,000 miles per hour for every 3.26 million light-years farther out we look). Two months ago, a second team, led by Allan Sandage, also of the Carnegie Observatories, Abhijit Saha, STScI, Gustav Tammann and Lukas Labhardt, Astronomical Institute, University of Basel, Duccio Macchetto and Nino Panagia, STScI/European Space Agency, reported a slower expansion rate of 57 km/sec/Mpc. The value of the Hubble Constant allows astronomers to calculate the expansion age of the Universe, the time elapsed since the Big Bang. Astronomers have been arguing recently whether the time since the Big Bang is consistent with the ages of the oldest stars. The ages are calculated from combining the expansion

  14. America's foremost early astronomer. [David Rittenhouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry; Rubincam, Milton, II

    1995-01-01

    The life of 18th century astronomer, craftsman, and partriot David Rittenhouse is detailed. As a craftsman, he distinguished himself as one of the foremost builders of clocks. He also built magnetic compasses and surveying instruments. The finest examples of his craftsmanship are considered two orreries, mechanical solar systems. In terms of astronomical observations, his best-known contribution was his observation of the transit of Venus in 1769. Rittenhouse constructed the first diffraction grating. Working as Treasurer of Pennsylvania throughout the Revolution, he became the first director of the Mint in 1792. Astronomical observations in later life included charting the position of Uranus after its discovery.

  15. Astronomical Site Characterization at the Canarian Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Varela, A. M.; Castro-Almazán, J. A.

    2015-04-01

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma) and Teide Observatory (Tenerife) are prime astronomical sites, as confirmed by more than 30 years of intensive site-testing campaigns. The IAC has long been aware of the importance of promoting initiatives for the characterization and protection of the Canarian Observatories. For this purpose, in the late ’80s a Sky Team was created to measure the atmospheric parameters relating to astronomical observations, to design and develop new instruments and techniques for astronomical site testing, and to improve and maintain a high level of instrumentation in site characterization. New instruments and techniques are welcomed by the Observatories.

  16. Franklin Edward Kameny (1925-2011, Astronomer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Frank Kameny is best known today as one of the most important members of the gay rights movement in the United States, but he was also a PhD astronomer. In fact, it was his firing from his civil service position as astronomer for the US Army Map Service on the grounds of homosexuality that sparked his lifelong career of activism. Here, I explore some aspects of his short but interesting astronomical career and the role of the AAS in his life.

  17. Astronomers Take the Measure of Dark Matter in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation, the large-scale distribution of galaxies, and the properties of distant supernovas. The Institute of Astronomy team minimized systematic errors in their work by placing independent constraints on the masses of the clusters using data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope atop Mauna Kea, HI. The new Chandra results also show how the average X-ray luminosity and temperature of the hot gas varies with the mass of a cluster. These findings should allow astronomers to use the data from large cluster catalogues, for which only X-ray luminosities are generally available, to get even more accurate measurements of the mean mass density of the universe, and to understand further the processes by which clusters form and grow. The Chandra observations were carried out using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which was built for NASA by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and Pennsylvania State University, University Park. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. Images associated with this release are available on the World Wide Web at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov

  18. Propagating orientation constraints for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Ashim; Gerb, Andy

    1994-01-01

    An observing program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is described in terms of exposures that are obtained by one or more of the instruments onboard the HST. Many requested exposures might specify orientation requirements and accompanying ranges. Orientation refers to the amount of roll (in degrees) about the line of sight. The range give the permissible tolerance (also in degrees). These requirements may be (1) absolute (in relation to the celestial coordinate system), (2) relative to the nominal roll angle for HST during that exposure, or (3) relative (in relation to other exposures in the observing program). The TRANSformation expert system converts proposals for astronomical observations with HST into detailed observing plans. Part of the conversion involves grouping exposures into higher level structures based on exposure characteristics. Exposures constrained to be at different orientations cannot be grouped together. Because relative orientation requirements cause implicit constraints, orientation constraints have to be propagated. TRANS must also identify any inconsistencies that may exist so they can be corrected. We have designed and implemented an orientation constraint propagator as part of TRANS. The propagator is based on an informal algebra that facilitates the setting up and propagation of the orientation constraints. The constraint propagator generates constraints between directly related exposures, and propagates derived constraints between exposures that are related indirectly. It provides facilities for path-consistency checking, identification of unsatisfiable constraints, and querying of orientation relationships. The system has been successfully operational as part of TRANS for over seven months. The solution has particular significance to space applications in which satellite/telescope pointing and attitude are constrained and relationships exist between multiple configurations.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Image of NGC 4676, 'The Mice'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), the newest camera on the Hubble Space Telescope, has captured a spectacular pair of galaxies. Located 300 million light-years away in the constellation Coma Berenices, the colliding galaxies have been nicknamed 'The Mice' because of the long tails of stars and gas emanating from each galaxy. Otherwise known as NGC 4676, the pair will eventually merge into a single giant galaxy. In the galaxy at left, the bright blue patch is resolved into a vigorous cascade of clusters and associations of young, hot blue stars, whose formation has been triggered by the tidal forces of the gravitational interaction. The clumps of young stars in the long, straight tidal tail (upper right) are separated by fainter regions of material. These dim regions suggest that the clumps of stars have formed from the gravitational collapse of the gas and dust that once occupied those areas. Some of the clumps have luminous masses comparable to dwarf galaxies that orbit the halo of our own Milky Way Galaxy. Computer simulations by astronomers show that we are seeing two near identical spiral galaxies approximately 160 million years after their closest encounter. The simulations also show that the pair will eventually merge, forming a large, nearly spherical galaxy (known as an elliptical galaxy). The Mice presage what may happen to our own Milky Way several billion years from now when it collides with our nearest large neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). This picture is assembled from three sets of images taken on April 7, 2002, in blue, orange, and near-infrared filters. Credit: NASA, H. Fort (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M. Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA.

  20. HUBBLE DISCOVERS POWERFUL LASER BEAMED FROM CHAOTIC STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a gas cloud (left) that acts as a natural ultraviolet laser, near the huge, unstable star Eta Carinae (right) -- one of most massive and energetic stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. The super-laser was identified by a team led by Kris Davidson of the University of Minnesota, and including nine other collaborators in the U.S. and Sweden during spectroscpic observations made with the Goddard High Resolution spectrograph aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Since it's unlikely that a single beam from the cloud would happen to be precisely aimed in earth's driection, the astronomers conclude that numerous beams must be radiating from the cloud in all directions - beams from a dance hall mirror-ball. The interstellar laser may result from Eta Carinae's violently chaotic eruptions, illustrated here as a reddish (due to light scattering by dust) outflow from the bright star. A laser, (an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) creates an intense coherent beam of light when atoms or molecules in a gas, liquid or solid medium, force an incoming mix of wavelengths (or colors) of light to work in phase, or, at the same wavelength. Though a natural infrared laser was identified in space in 1995, lasers are very rare in space and nothing like the UV laser has ever been seen before. Eta Carinae is several million times brighter than the Sun, and one hundred times as massive. The superstar, located 8,000 light-years away in the souther constellation Carina, underwent a colossal outburst 150 years ago. Illustration courtesy James Gitlin/STScI

  1. HUBBLE CAPTURES AN EXTRAORDINARY AND POWERFUL ACTIVE GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Resembling a swirling witch's cauldron of glowing vapors, the black hole-powered core of a nearby active galaxy appears in this colorful NASA Hubble Space Telescope image. The galaxy lies 13 million light-years away in the southern constellation Circinus. This galaxy is designated a type 2 Seyfert, a class of mostly spiral galaxies that have compact centers and are believed to contain massive black holes. Seyfert galaxies are themselves part of a larger class of objects called Active Galactic Nuclei or AGN. AGN have the ability to remove gas from the centers of their galaxies by blowing it out into space at phenomenal speeds. Astronomers studying the Circinus galaxy are seeing evidence of a powerful AGN at the center of this galaxy as well. Much of the gas in the disk of the Circinus spiral is concentrated in two specific rings -- a larger one of diameter 1,300 light-years, which has already been observed by ground-based telescopes, and a previously unseen ring of diameter 260 light-years. In the Hubble image, the smaller inner ring is located on the inside of the green disk. The larger outer ring extends off the image and is in the plane of the galaxy's disk. Both rings are home to large amounts of gas and dust as well as areas of major 'starburst' activity, where new stars are rapidly forming on timescales of 40 - 150 million years, much shorter than the age of the entire galaxy. At the center of the starburst rings is the Seyfert nucleus, the believed signature of a supermassive black hole that is accreting surrounding gas and dust. The black hole and its accretion disk are expelling gas out of the galaxy's disk and into its halo (the region above and below the disk). The detailed structure of this gas is seen as magenta-colored streamers extending towards the top of the image. In the center of the galaxy and within the inner starburst ring is a V-shaped structure of gas. The structure appears whitish-pink in this composite image, made up of four filters. Two

  2. Delivering Hubble Discoveries to the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Villard, R.; Weaver, D.; Cordes, K.; Knisely, L.

    2013-04-01

    Today's classrooms are significantly influenced by current news events, delivered instantly into the classroom via the Internet. Educators are challenged daily to transform these events into student learning opportunities. In the case of space science, current news events may be the only chance for educators and students to explore the marvels of the Universe. Inspired by these circumstances, the education and news teams developed the Star Witness News science content reading series. These online news stories (also available in downloadable PDF format) mirror the content of Hubble press releases and are designed for upper elementary and middle school level readers to enjoy. Educators can use Star Witness News stories to reinforce students' reading skills while exposing students to the latest Hubble discoveries.

  3. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbi, E.; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; van de Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M.; Cignoni, M.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gordon, K.; Goulliermis, D.; Grebel, E. K.

    2013-06-01

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project is an ongoing panchromatic survey designed to study the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud in the near UV, optical and near IR down to the sub-solar mass regime. We will discuss the observing strategy, and the data products that will be distributed to the community. We will present preliminary results on the stellar populations and the clustering properties of the region obtained from the analysis of the IR observations acquired so far.

  4. Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope: Battery Capacity Trend Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. Gopalakrishna; Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Battery cell wear out mechanisms and signatures are examined and compared to orbital data from the six on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) batteries, and the Flight Spare Battery (FSB) Test Bed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which is instrumented with individual cell voltage monitoring. Capacity trend data is presented which suggests HST battery replacement is required in 2005-2007 or sooner.

  6. HUBBLE TRACKS 'PERFECT STORM' ON MARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Two dramatically different faces of our Red Planet neighbor appear in these comparison images showing how a global dust storm engulfed Mars with the onset of Martian spring in the Southern Hemisphere. When NASA's Hubble Space Telescope imaged Mars in June, the seeds of the storm were caught brewing in the giant Hellas Basin (oval at 4 o'clock position on disk) and in another storm at the northern polar cap. When Hubble photographed Mars in early September, the storm had already been raging across the planet for nearly two months obscuring all surface features. The fine airborne dust blocks a significant amount of sunlight from reaching the Martian surface. Because the airborne dust is absorbing this sunlight, it heats the upper atmosphere. Seasonal global Mars dust storms have been observed from telescopes for over a century, but this is the biggest storm ever seen in the past several decades. Mars looks gibbous in the right photograph because it is 26 million miles farther from Earth than in the left photo (though the pictures have been scaled to the same angular size), and our viewing angle has changed. The left picture was taken when Mars was near its closest approach to Earth for 2001 (an event called opposition); at that point the disk of Mars was fully illuminated as seen from Earth because Mars was exactly opposite the Sun. Both images are in natural color, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Credit: NASA, James Bell (Cornell Univ.), Michael Wolff (Space Science Inst.), and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

  7. Hubble (HST) hardware is inspected in PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, part of the servicing equipment for the third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (SM-3A), STS-103, is given a black light inspection. The hardware is undergoing final testing and integration of payload elements. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the Hubble's pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  8. Hubble (HST) hardware is inspected in PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, a worker gives a black light inspection to part of the servicing equipment for the third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (SM-3A), STS-103. The hardware is undergoing final testing and integration of payload elements. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the Hubble's pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  9. The Hubble Legacy Archive NICMOS grism data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudling, W.; Kümmel, M.; Haase, J.; Hook, R.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J.

    2008-11-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) aims to create calibrated science data from the Hubble Space Telescope archive and make them accessible via user-friendly and Virtual Observatory (VO) compatible interfaces. It is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) and the Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF). Data produced by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instruments with slitless spectroscopy modes are among the most difficult to extract and exploit. As part of the HLA project, the ST-ECF aims to provide calibrated spectra for objects observed with these HST slitless modes. In this paper, we present the HLA NICMOS G141 grism spectra. We describe in detail the calibration, data reduction and spectrum extraction methods used to produce the extracted spectra. The quality of the extracted spectra and associated direct images is demonstrated through comparison with near-IR imaging catalogues and existing near-IR spectroscopy. The output data products and their associated metadata are publicly available (http://hla.stecf.org/) through a web form, as well as a VO-compatible interface that enables flexible querying of the archive of the 2470 NICMOS G141 spectra. In total, spectra of 1923  unique targets are included.

  10. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Bradley

    2015-08-01

    The Hubble Source Catalog (HSC) is designed to help optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by combining the tens of thousands of visit-based Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA - available at http://hla.stsci.edu) source lists into a single master catalog. The HSC includes ACS/WFC, WFPC2, and WFC3 source lists generated using the Source Extractor software (Bertin & Arnouts 1996). The current version of the catalog includes roughly 80 million detections of 30 million objects involving 112 different detector/filter combinations and about 50 thousand HST exposures cross-matched using the technique described in Budavari & Lubow (2012). The astrometric residuals for HSC objects are typically within 10 mas and the magnitude residuals between repeat measurements are generally within 0.10 mag. Version 1 of the HSC was released on February 25, 2015. The primary ways to access the HSC are the MAST Discovery Portal (http://mast.stsci.edu), and a CasJobs capability for advanced searches. Detailed use cases and videos are available to help researchers get started. The HSC will be an important reference for future telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope and survey programs such as Pan-STARRS and LSST. The URL for the HSC is http://archive.stsci.edu/hst/hsc/ .

  11. Hubble Images of Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This is a series of Hubble Space Telescope observations of the region around the nucleus of Hale-Bopp, taken on eight different dates since September 1995. They chronicle changes in the evolution of the nucleus as it moves ever closer to, and is warmed by, the sun.

    The first picture in the sequence, seen at upper left shows a strong dust outburst on the comet that occurred when it was beyond the orbit of Jupiter. Images in the Fall of 1996 show multiple jets that are presumably connected to the activation of multiple vents on the surface of the nucleus.

    In these false color images, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the faintest regions are black, the brightest regions are white, and intermediate intensities are represented by different levels of red. All images are processed at the same spatial scale of 280 miles per pixel (470 kilometers), so the solid nucleus, no larger than 25 miles across, is far below Hubble's resolution.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  12. Accelerating the Rate of Astronomical Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This meeting marks the the International Year of Astronomy by reviewing the extent to which astronomers are achieving the optimal rate of astronomical discovery. Can we identify and overcome the limits to progress? What steps can be taken to accelerate the rate of expansion of astronomical knowledge? What lessons can be learnt both from the recent and distant past? As the public announcements regarding the 2009 IYA have emphasized, new astronomical discoveries are currently being made at an extraordinary rate, while the invention of the telescope ushered in an equally momentous "golden age of discovery" 400 years ago. The meeting addresses a range of potential limits to progress-paradigmatic, technological, organizational, and political-examining each issue both from modern and historical perspectives, and drawing lessons to guide future progress. The program focusses on how astronomy actually progresses, using careful historical studies and real data, rather than anecdotes and folklore.

  13. Astronomical education in Tajikistan. Project TAJASTRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadinov, Khursandkul I.; Rahmonov, A. A.

    2011-06-01

    The centre of astronomy in Tajikistan is the Institute of Astrophysics of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan. This institute carries out scientific research and contributes to the preparation of the astronomical staff and to astronomical education. The reform of education in Tajikistan continues and now astronomy is studied in schools (together with physics) and at universities. The Tajik State Pedagogical University resumed in 2007 the training of teachers in physics and astronomy. Since 1999 the Tajik National University (TNU) offers a a specialty in astronomy. In 2006 is restored the Small Academy of Sciences (SAS) of Tajikistan. There is a planetarium in Khujand and in 2006 the Institute of Astrophysics, TNU and the Astronomical Society of Tajikistan, along with the support IBSP/UNESCO, organised the Training Methodical Center (TMC) ``TAJASTRO'' at the Hisar astronomical observatory for students, graduate students, young scientists, and teachers at secondary schools.

  14. Astronomical data bases and retrieval systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, J. M.; Nagy, T. A.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The status of the development of machine-readable stellar and extragalactic data bases is summarized, including several examples of astronomical applications using these data sets. The creation of a computerized bibliographical data base for cometary research is described.

  15. Maintaining an expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope ground support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenmayer, Kelly; Vick, Shon; Rosenthal, Don

    1987-01-01

    The transformation portion of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Proposal Entry Processor System converts astronomer-oriented description of a scientific observing program into a detailed description of the parameters needed for planning and scheduling. The transformation system is one of a very few rulebased expert systems that has ever entered an operational phase. The day to day operations of the system and its rulebase are no longer the responsibility of the original developer. As a result, software engineering properties of the rulebased approach become more important. Maintenance issues associated with the coupling of rules within a rulebased system are discussed and a method is offered for partitioning a rulebase so that the amount of knowledge needed to modify the rulebase is minimized. This method is also used to develop a measure of the coupling strength of the rulebase.

  16. Updated Status and Performance for the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Onboard the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Joanna M.; Aloisi, A.; Bacinski, J.; Bostroem, K. A.; Debes, J. H.; Roman-Duval, J.; Ely, J.; DiFelice, A.; Hernandez, S.; Kriss, G. A.; Hodge, P.; Lindsay, K.; Lockwood, S. A.; Massa, D.; Oliveira, C. M.; Osten, R. A.; Penton, S. V.; Proffitt, C. R.; Sahnow, D. J.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Wheeler, T.

    2013-06-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope in May 2009. Although COS was initially designed to perform high-sensitivity medium- and low-resolution spectroscopy of astronomical objects in the 1150-3200 Å wavelength range, new wavelength settings have recently become available that allow medium-resolution spectroscopy down to 900 Å, at effective areas comparable to those of FUSE. Here we provide an update on the implementation of the new short wavelength settings G130M/1222, 1096, and 1055. We discuss changes to the Far-Ultraviolet (FUV) and Near-Ultraviolet (NUV) dark rates, FUV pulse height filtering, new and improved flux calibrations for FUV Lifetime Positions 1 and 2, changes in sensitivity for both the NUV and FUV channels, and give a general overview of the calibration projects undertaken in Cycles 19 and 20.

  17. ALE: Astronomical LIDAR for Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Gimmestad, G.; Roberts, D.; Stewart, J.; Dawsey, M.; Fitch, J.; Smith, J.; Townsend, A.; Black, B.

    2006-12-01

    The primary impediment to precision all-sky photometry is the scattering or absorption of incoming starlight by the aerosols suspended in, and the molecules of, the Earth's atmosphere. The University of New Mexico (UNM) and the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) are currently developing the Astronomical LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) for Extinction (ALE), which is undergoing final integration and initial calibration at UNM. ALE is based upon a 527nm laser operated at a pulse repetition rate of 1500 pps, and rendered eyesafe by expanding its beam through a 32cm diameter transmitter. The alt-az mounted ALE will operate in multiple modes, including mapping the sky to obtain a quantitative measurement of extinction sources, measuring a monochromatic extinction coefficient by producing Langely plots, and monitoring extinction in the direction in which a telescope is observing. A primary goal is to use the Rayleigh scattered LIDAR return from air above 20km as a quasi-constant illumination source. Air above this altitude is generally free from aerosols and the variations in density are relatively constant over intervals of a few minutes. When measured at several zenith angles, the integrated line-of-sight extinction can be obtained from a simple model fit of these returns. The 69 microjoule exit pulse power and 0.6m aperture receiver will allow ALE to collect approximately one million photons per minute from above 20km, enough to enable measurements of the monochromatic vertical extinction to better than 1% under photometric conditions. Along the way, ALE will also provide a plethora of additional information about the vertical and horizontal distributions of low-lying aerosols, dust or smoke in the free troposphere, and high cirrus, as well as detect the passage of boundary layer atmospheric gravity waves. This project is funded by NSF Grant 0421087.

  18. Hubble Camera Resumes Science Operation With Picture Of 'Butterfly' In Space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    he Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is back at work, capturing this black-and-white image of the 'butterfly wing'-shaped nebula, NGC 2346. The nebula is about 2,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. It represents the spectacular 'last gasp' of a binary star system at the nebula's center. The image was taken on March 6, as part of the recommissioning of the Hubble Space Telescope's previously installed scientific instruments following the successful servicing of the HST by NASA astronauts in February. WFPC2 was installed in HST during the servicing mission in 1993. At the center of the nebula lies a pair of stars that are so close together that they orbit around each other every 16 days. This is so close that, even with Hubble, the pair of stars cannot be resolved into its two components. One component of this binary is the hot core of a star that has ejected most of its outer layers, producing the surrounding nebula. Astronomers believe that this star, when it evolved and expanded to become a red giant, actually swallowed its companion star in an act of stellar cannibalism. The resulting interaction led to a spiraling together of the two stars, culminating in ejection of the outer layers of the red giant. Most of the outer layers were ejected into a dense disk, which can still be seen in the Hubble image, surrounding the central star. Later the hot star developed a fast stellar wind. This wind, blowing out into the surrounding disk, has inflated the large, wispy hourglass-shaped wings perpendicular to the disk. These wings produce the butterfly appearance when seen in projection. The total diameter of the nebula is about one-third of a light-year, or 2 trillion miles. Our own Sun will eject a nebula about 5 billion years from now. However, the Sun is not a double star, so its nebula may well be more spherical in shape. The image was taken through a filter that shows the light of glowing

  19. Astronomers and the Media: What Reporters Expect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedgfried, Tom; Witze, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Journalists writing about astronomy bring varying levels of knowledge to the task. Most rely on astronomers for help. To be most helpful, astronomers should familiarize themselves with the practices and needs of journalists and learn effective methods for presenting astronomy via news releases, interviews and news conferences. In all aspects of communicating with the media, the ability to express technical findings in plain language is essential.

  20. The many faces of Hubble; measuring the public impact of the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, I.; Eisenhammer, B.; Stoke, J.; Kakadelis, S.; Teays, T.; Villard, R.; Voit, G.; Stanley, M.

    The Office of Public Outreach (OPO) at the STScI was created to share the amazing discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope with the American public. During the last five years we have developed a multitude of products and that have capitalized on the intense interest in Hubble to inform and inspire millions of Americans and many others around the globe. Our Education and Public outreach program has five complementary strands that broadly define the communities we serve. These are News, Formal Education, Informal Science Education, Online Outreach, Origins Forum In this paper we will present and discuss mechanisms we use to identify "The many faces of Hubble" We will discuss some of the metrics for effectiveness and success that we have developed and use in each area of our outreach program.

  1. Hubble Views Saturn Ring-Plane Crossing (satellites labeled)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This sequence of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope documents a rare astronomical alignment -- Saturn's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This occurs when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane, as it does approximately every 15 years.

    These pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on 22 May 1995, when Saturn was at a distance of 919 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. At Saturn, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles (725 km) across. In each image, the dark band across Saturn is the ring shadow cast by the Sun which is still 2.7 degrees above Saturn's ring plane. The box around the western portion of the rings (to the right of Saturn) in each image indicates the area in which the faint light from the rings has been multiplied through image processing (by a factor of 25) to make the rings more visible.

    [Top] -

    This image was taken while the Earth was above the lit face of the rings. The moons Tethys and Dione are visible to the east (left) of Saturn; Janus is the bright spot near the center of the ring portion in the box, and Pandora is faintly visible just inside the left edge of this box. Saturn's atmosphere shows remarkable detail: multiple banding in both the northern and southern hemispheres, wispy structure at the north edge of the equatorial zone, and a bright area above the ring shadow that is caused by sunlight scattered off the rings onto the atmosphere. There is evidence of a faint polar haze over the north pole of Saturn and a fainter haze over the south.

    [Center] -

    This image was taken close to the time of ring-plane crossing. The rings are 75% fainter than in the top image, though they do not disappear completely because the vertical face of the rings still reflects sunlight when the rings are edge-on. Rhea is visible to the east of Saturn, Enceladus is the bright satellite in the rings to the west, and Janus is the fainter blip to its right. Pandora is just to the left of

  2. Hubble tracks down a galaxy cluster's dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    total, the image measures 27 arc-minutes across, slightly smaller than the diameter of the Moon. The observed warped shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies have been converted into a unique map of the dark matter in the cluster. The images were taken through a red filter and have been reduced a factor of two in size. Ground-based image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 hi-res Size hi-res: 4699 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Ground-based image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 This is a colour image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 obtained with the CFHT12k camera at the Canada France Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea (Hawaii). The cluster clearly appears as a concentration of yellow galaxies in the centre of this image although cluster galaxies actually extend at least to the edge of this image. This image measures 21 x 21 arc-minutes. Clusters of galaxies are the largest stable systems in the Universe. They are like laboratories for studying the relationship between the distributions of dark and visible matter. In 1937, Fritz Zwicky realised that the visible component of a cluster (the thousands of millions of stars in each of the thousands of galaxies) represents only a tiny fraction of the total mass. About 80-85% of the matter is invisible, the so-called 'dark matter'. Although astronomers have known about the presence of dark matter for many decades, finding a technique to view its distribution is a much more recent development. Led by Drs Jean-Paul Kneib (from the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, United States), Richard Ellis and Tommaso Treu (both Caltech, United States), the team used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to reconstruct a unique 'mass map' of the galaxy cluster CL0024+1654. It enabled them to see for the first time on such large scales how mysterious dark matter is distributed with respect to galaxies. This comparison gives new clues on how such

  3. ViewSpace: A model for advancing public understanding of astronomical research through museum-based multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoke, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    The Office of Public Outreach (OPO) of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) has developed a unique multimedia presentation product that orchestrates images, digital video animations, music and interpretive text to provide a frequently-updated astronomy display suitable for mini-theater environments in museum-based exhibit galleries and planetarium lobbies (that may be, otherwise, seldom updated). "ViewSpace" utilizes the scientific expertise of STScI astronomers and puts Hubble discoveries into publically-accessible contexts. The program, which is offered at no charge to the museum and planetarium community in the United States, has been received with strong enthusiasm by the informal science education community. Future aspirations include higher-definition and immersive presentation formats, multi-lingual text display, an audible description track for the visually impaired, an associated interactive kiosk, and correlated education guides. Astronomers with interesting science stories to tell are invited to participate in the development of a ViewSpace segment.

  4. Astronomical Data Center Bulletin, volume 1, no. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr. (Editor); Nagy, T. A. (Editor); Mead, J. M. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Information about work in progress on astronomical catalogs is presented. In addition to progress reports, an upadated status list for astronomical catalogs available at the Astronomical Data Center is included. Papers from observatories and individuals involved with astronomical data are also presented.

  5. Artist's Concept of Hubble-Discovered Ancient Gas-Giant Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) precisely measured the mass of the oldest known planet in our Milky Way Galaxy bringing closure to a decade of speculation. Scientists weren't sure if the object was a planet or a brown dwarf. Hubble's analysis shows that the object is 2.5 times the mass of Jupiter, confirming that it is indeed a planet. At an estimated age of 13 billion years, the planet is more than twice the age of Earth's 4.5 billion years. It formed around a young, sun-like star barely 1 million years after our universe's birth in the Big Bang. The ancient planet resides in an unlikely, rough neighborhood. It orbits a peculiar pair of burned-out stars in the crowded core cluster of more than 100,000 stars. Its very existence provides evidence that the first planets formed rapidly, within a billion years of the Big Bang, and leads astronomers to conclude that planets may be very abundant in our galaxy. This artist's concept depicts the planet with a view of a rich star filled sky.

  6. Astronomers debate diamonds in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  7. Scalable Machine Learning for Massive Astronomical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Gray, A.

    2014-04-01

    We present the ability to perform data mining and machine learning operations on a catalog of half a billion astronomical objects. This is the result of the combination of robust, highly accurate machine learning algorithms with linear scalability that renders the applications of these algorithms to massive astronomical data tractable. We demonstrate the core algorithms kernel density estimation, K-means clustering, linear regression, nearest neighbors, random forest and gradient-boosted decision tree, singular value decomposition, support vector machine, and two-point correlation function. Each of these is relevant for astronomical applications such as finding novel astrophysical objects, characterizing artifacts in data, object classification (including for rare objects), object distances, finding the important features describing objects, density estimation of distributions, probabilistic quantities, and exploring the unknown structure of new data. The software, Skytree Server, runs on any UNIX-based machine, a virtual machine, or cloud-based and distributed systems including Hadoop. We have integrated it on the cloud computing system of the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre, the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), creating the world's first cloud computing data mining system for astronomy. We demonstrate results showing the scaling of each of our major algorithms on large astronomical datasets, including the full 470,992,970 objects of the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog. We demonstrate the ability to find outliers in the full 2MASS dataset utilizing multiple methods, e.g., nearest neighbors. This is likely of particular interest to the radio astronomy community given, for example, that survey projects contain groups dedicated to this topic. 2MASS is used as a proof-of-concept dataset due to its convenience and availability. These results are of interest to any astronomical project with large and/or complex

  8. Scalable Machine Learning for Massive Astronomical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2014-01-01

    We present the ability to perform data mining and machine learning operations on a catalog of half a billion astronomical objects. This is the result of the combination of robust, highly accurate machine learning algorithms with linear scalability that renders the applications of these algorithms to massive astronomical data tractable. We demonstrate the core algorithms kernel density estimation, K-means clustering, linear regression, nearest neighbors, random forest and gradient-boosted decision tree, singular value decomposition, support vector machine, and two-point correlation function. Each of these is relevant for astronomical applications such as finding novel astrophysical objects, characterizing artifacts in data, object classification (including for rare objects), object distances, finding the important features describing objects, density estimation of distributions, probabilistic quantities, and exploring the unknown structure of new data. The software, Skytree Server, runs on any UNIX-based machine, a virtual machine, or cloud-based and distributed systems including Hadoop. We have integrated it on the cloud computing system of the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre, the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), creating the world's first cloud computing data mining system for astronomy. We demonstrate results showing the scaling of each of our major algorithms on large astronomical datasets, including the full 470,992,970 objects of the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog. We demonstrate the ability to find outliers in the full 2MASS dataset utilizing multiple methods, e.g., nearest neighbors, and the local outlier factor. 2MASS is used as a proof-of-concept dataset due to its convenience and availability. These results are of interest to any astronomical project with large and/or complex datasets that wishes to extract the full scientific value from its data.

  9. Hubble Captures Celestial Fireworks Within the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is a color Hubble Space Telescope (HST) heritage image of supernova remnant N49, a neighboring galaxy, that was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Color filters were used to sample light emitted by sulfur, oxygen, and hydrogen. The color image was superimposed on a black and white image of stars in the same field also taken with Hubble. Resembling a fireworks display, these delicate filaments are actually sheets of debris from a stellar explosion.

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ON TRACK FOR MEASURING THE EXPANSION RATE OF THE UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Two international teams of astronomers, using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, are reporting major progress in converging on an accurate measurement of the Universe's rate of expansion -- a value which has been debated for over half a century. These new results yield ranges for the age of the Universe from 9-12 billion years, and 11-14 billion years, respectively. The goal of the project is to measure the Hubble Constant to ten percent accuracy. The Hubble Space Telescope Key Project team, an international group of over 20 astronomers, is led by Wendy Freedman of Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA, Robert Kennicutt, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, and Jeremy Mould, Mount Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatory, Australia. The group's interim results, announced at a meeting held at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, are consistent with their preliminary result, announced in 1994, of 80 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km/sec/Mpc), based on observations of a galaxy in the Virgo cluster. 'We have five different ways of measuring the Hubble Constant with HST,' said Dr. Freedman. 'The results are coming in between 68 and 78 km/sec/Mpc.' (For example, at an expansion rate of 75 km/sec/Mpc, galaxies appear to be receding from us at a rate of 162,000 miles per hour for every 3.26 million light-years farther out we look). Two months ago, a second team, led by Allan Sandage, also of the Carnegie Observatories, Abhijit Saha, STScI, Gustav Tammann and Lukas Labhardt, Astronomical Institute, University of Basel, Duccio Macchetto and Nino Panagia, STScI/European Space Agency, reported a slower expansion rate of 57 km/sec/Mpc. The value of the Hubble Constant allows astronomers to calculate the expansion age of the Universe, the time elapsed since the Big Bang. Astronomers have been arguing recently whether the time since the Big Bang is consistent with the ages of the oldest stars. The ages are calculated from combining the expansion

  11. Hubble Provides Clear Images of Saturn's Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This is the first image of Saturn's ultraviolet aurora taken by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope in October 1997, when Saturn was a distance of 810 million miles (1.3 billion kilometers) from Earth. The new instrument, used as a camera, provides more than ten times the sensitivity of previous Hubble instruments in the ultraviolet. STIS images reveal exquisite detail never before seen in the spectacular auroral curtains of light that encircle Saturn's north and south poles and rise more than a thousand miles above the cloud tops.

    Saturn's auroral displays are caused by an energetic wind from the Sun that sweeps over the planet, much like the Earths aurora that is occasionally seen in the nighttime sky and similar to the phenomenon that causes fluorescent lamps to glow. But unlike the Earth, Saturn's aurora is only seen in ultraviolet light that is invisible from the Earths surface, hence the aurora can only be observed from space. New Hubble images reveal ripples and overall patterns that evolve slowly, appearing generally fixed in our view and independent of planet rotation. At the same time, the curtains show local brightening that often follow the rotation of the planet and exhibit rapid variations on time scales of minutes. These variations and regularities indicate that the aurora is primarily shaped and powered by a continual tug-of-war between Saturn's magnetic field and the flow of charged particles from the Sun.

    Study of the aurora on Saturn had its beginnings just seventeen years ago. The Pioneer 11 spacecraft observed a far-ultraviolet brightening on Saturn's poles in 1979. The Saturn flybys of the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in the early 1980s provided a basic description of the aurora and mapped for the first time planets enormous magnetic field that guides energetic electrons into the atmosphere near the north and south poles.

    The first images of Saturn's aurora were provided in 1994-5 by the

  12. Quasars Candidates in the Hubble Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, A.; Kennefick, J. D.; Martini, P. L.; Omser, P. S.

    1996-12-01

    The Hubble Deep Field gives us an unprecedented view of our universe and an opportunity to study a wide range of questions in galaxy evolution and cosmology. Here, we will focus on the search for faint quasars and AGN in the crude combined images using a multicolor imaging analysis that has proven very successful in recent years. To produce a catalog of objects in the field, we used the FOCAS package for object detection with particular care to the set of input parameters used to minimize spurious detections. For each detected source we measured aperture magnitudes in several different apertures using the IRAF PHOT routine. For object classification we have chosen not to use the built in FOCAS routines, instead we have developed classification schemes that closely resemble those of Flynn at al. (1996) to distinguish resolved from unresolved objects in the Hubble Deep Field. We generated synthetic quasar spectra in the range 2.0Hubble Deep Field may contain of order 10 quasars.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Fine Guidance Sensor Performance Analysis with Respect to Guide Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Amber; Taylor, Denise; Reinhart, Merle

    2016-06-01

    The Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) onboard HST include one of Hubble’s first-generation instruments still in operation today. After several servicing missions and even some refurbishment to the FGSs, the interferometers, although aged, perform at a level exceeding expectations. Since launch in April 1990, FGS3 has performed within operational standards while FGS1 & 2 underwent replacements or refurbishments during SM2, SM3A and SM4. Up until 1999 FGS3 was used for astrometry science when FGS1R took over that role. Currently FGS1R is the only FGS used as a primary science instrument. While very few observing programs request the FGS as their prime instrument nearly all GO observations executed onboard HST use the interferometers to lock onto guide stars. Most observations execute successfully onboard HST while 1.93% of all orbits executed onboard HST have an issue that requires repeating the observations. Of all failed visits, roughly 65% are due to a variation of suboptimal guide star options that test the boundaries of FGS capabilities. In this poster we present the limitations of the FGS interferometers regarding guide stars, their surprising capabilities, and suggest specific guidelines to astronomers who are faced with “shared risk” opportunities for their observations. We hope to share this knowledge with the HST community to improve guide star execution onboard Hubble and to make comparisons to the future James Webb Space Telescope FGS instrument, where astronomers will take part in guide star selection.

  14. UV Spectroscopy with Hubble Space Telescope- A Success Story of Pro/Am Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, W. R.; Linsky, J. L.; Wood, B. E.

    2000-05-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope amateur program has provided a unique opportunity for amateur astronomers to not only perform research on HST, but to also to interact with many professional astronomers during their research. In particular, a very successful partnership was established between William Alexander (amateur) and Jeff Linsky and Brian Wood (professionals). At the heart of this project was the use of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) aboard HST to provide high-resolution UV spectra in the Lyman-alpha region at 1216 angstroms. These spectra were needed to study the Deuterium to Hydrogen (D/H) ratio along the line of sight toward lambda-Andromedae and epsilon-Indi. These measurements were important to more fully understand big bang nucleosynthesis. The amateur, Alexander, was fully involved at each stage of the project, from obtaining all of the raw data to collaborating with Linsky and Wood in the writing of the article that appeared in The Astrophysical Journal (APJ, 470: 1157-1171). This collaboration has shown that amateurs can provide significant `academic' contributions to astronomy. This contribution can be added to the numerous observational contributions that amateurs have made to astronomy through out the centuries. Funding support was provided by NASA grant GO-0100.01-92A from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggett, Randy; Miller, Jim; Leisgang, Tom

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes one of the most comprehensive models ever developed for a spacecraft electrical power system (EPS). The model was developed for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to evaluate vehicle power system performance and to assist in scheduling maintenance and refurbishment missions by providing data needed to forecast EPS power and energy margins for the mission phases being planned. The EPS model requires a specific mission phase description as the input driver and uses a high granularity database to produce a multi-orbit power system performance report. The EPS model accurately predicts the power system response to various mission timelines over the entire operational life of the spacecraft.

  16. Hubble Captures Volcanic Eruption Plume From Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a picture of a 400-km-high (250-mile-high) plume of gas and dust from a volcanic eruption on Io, Jupiter's large innermost moon.

    Io was passing in front of Jupiter when this image was taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in July 1996. The plume appears as an orange patch just off the edge of Io in the eight o'clock position, against the blue background of Jupiter's clouds. Io's volcanic eruptions blasts material hundreds of kilometers into space in giant plumes of gas and dust. In this image, material must have been blown out of the volcano at more than 2,000 mph to form a plume of this size, which is the largest yet seen on Io.

    Until now, these plumes have only been seen by spacecraft near Jupiter, and their detection from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope opens up new opportunities for long-term studies of these remarkable phenomena.

    The plume seen here is from Pele, one of Io's most powerful volcanos. Pele's eruptions have been seen before. In March 1979, the Voyager 1 spacecraft recorded a 300-km-high eruption cloud from Pele. But the volcano was inactive when the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Jupiter in July 1979. This Hubble observation is the first glimpse of a Pele eruption plume since the Voyager expeditions.

    Io's volcanic plumes are much taller than those produced by terrestrial volcanos because of a combination of factors. The moon's thin atmosphere offers no resistance to the expanding volcanic gases; its weak gravity (one-sixth that of Earth) allows material to climb higher before falling; and its biggest volcanos are more powerful than most of Earth's volcanos.

    This image is a contrast-enhanced composite of an ultraviolet image (2600 Angstrom wavelength), shown in blue, and a violet image (4100 Angstrom wavelength), shown in orange. The orange color probably occurs because of the absorption and/or scattering of ultraviolet light in the plume. This light from Jupiter passes through

  17. HUBBLE FINDS MANY BRIGHT CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A recent Hubble Space Telescope view reveals Uranus surrounded by its four major rings and by 10 of its 17 known satellites. This false-color image was generated by Erich Karkoschka using data taken on August 8, 1998, with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer. Hubble recently found about 20 clouds - nearly as many clouds on Uranus as the previous total in the history of modern observations. The orange-colored clouds near the prominent bright band circle the planet at more than 300 mph (500 km/h), according to team member Heidi Hammel (MIT). One of the clouds on the right-hand side is brighter than any other cloud ever seen on Uranus. The colors in the image indicate altitude. Team member Mark Marley (New Mexico State University) reports that green and blue regions show where the atmosphere is clear and sunlight can penetrate deep into Uranus. In yellow and grey regions the sunlight reflects from a higher haze or cloud layer. Orange and red colors indicate very high clouds, such as cirrus clouds on Earth. The Hubble image is one of the first images revealing the precession of the brightest ring with respect to a previous image [LINK to PRC97-36a]. Precession makes the fainter part of the ring (currently on the upper right-hand side) slide around Uranus once every nine months. The fading is caused by ring particles crowding and hiding each other on one side of their eight-hour orbit around Uranus. The blue, green and red components of this false-color image correspond to exposures taken at near-infrared wavelengths of 0.9, 1.1, and 1.7 micrometers. Thus, regions on Uranus appearing blue, for example, reflect more sunlight at 0.9 micrometer than at the longer wavelengths. Apparent colors on Uranus are caused by absorption of methane gas in its atmosphere, an effect comparable to absorption in our atmosphere which can make distant clouds appear red. Credit: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona) and NASA

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Galilean Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M. A.

    One of the premier areas of scientific return from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of solar system objects has been studies of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Because these objects are unresolvable in most ground-based observations, HST's spatially resolved imaging and spectroscopy of their surfaces, atmospheres, and electrodynamic interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere have provided unique results. This talk will review highlights of the science results from HST observations of the Galilean satellites, including discovery of auroral emissions at the poles of Ganymede, the recent discovery of molecular sulfur in the Pele plume on Io, and the presence of SO2 in the surface of Callisto.

  19. Large astronomical catalog management for telescope operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruffolo, Andrea; Benacchio, Leopoldo

    1998-07-01

    Large astronomical catalogues containing from a million up to hundreds of millions records are currently available, even larger catalogues will be released in the near future. They will have an important operational role since they will be used throughout the observing cycle of next generation large telescopes, for proposal and observation preparation, telescope scheduling, selection of guide stars, etc. These large databases pose new problems for fast and general access. Solutions based on custom software or on customized versions of specific catalogues have been proposed, but the problem will benefit from a more general database approach. While traditional database technologies have proven to be inadequate for this task, new technologies are emerging, in particular that of Object Relational DBMSs, that seem to be suitable to solve the problem. In this paper we describe our experiences in experimenting with ORDBMSs for the management of large astronomical catalogues. We worked especially on the database query language and access methods. In the first field to extend the database query language capabilities with astronomical functionalities and to support typical astronomical queries.In the second, to speed up the execution of queries containing astronomical predicates.

  20. HUBBLE CLICKS IMAGES OF IO SWEEPING ACROSS JUPITER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    While hunting for volcanic plumes on Io, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured these images of the volatile moon sweeping across the giant face of Jupiter. Only a few weeks before these dramatic images were taken, the orbiting telescope snapped a portrait of one of Io's volcanoes spewing sulfur dioxide 'snow.' These stunning images of the planetary duo are being released to commemorate the ninth anniversary of the Hubble telescope's launch on April 24, 1990. All of these images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The three overlapping snapshots show in crisp detail Io passing above Jupiter's turbulent clouds. The close-up picture of Io (bottom right) reveal a 120-mile-high (200-kilometer) plume of sulfur dioxide 'snow' emanating from Pillan, one of the moon's active volcanoes. 'Other observations have inferred sulfur dioxide 'snow' in Io's plumes, but this image offers direct observational evidence for sulfur dioxide 'snow' in an Io plume,' explains John R. Spencer of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz. A Trip Around Jupiter The three snapshots of the volcanic moon rounding Jupiter were taken over a 1.8-hour time span. Io is roughly the size of Earth's moon but 2,000 times farther away. In two of the images, Io appears to be skimming Jupiter's cloud tops, but it's actually 310,000 miles (500,000 kilometers) away. Io zips around Jupiter in 1.8 days, whereas the moon circles Earth every 28 days. The conspicuous black spot on Jupiter is Io's shadow and is about the size of the moon itself (2,262 miles or 3,640 kilometers across). This shadow sails across the face of Jupiter at 38,000 mph (17 kilometers per second). The smallest details visible on Io and Jupiter measure 93 miles (150 kilometers) across, or about the size of Connecticut. These images were further sharpened through image reconstruction techniques. The view is so crisp that one would have to stand on Io to see this much detail on Jupiter with the naked eye. The bright patches on Io

  1. Hubble Clicks Images of Io Sweeping Across Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    While hunting for volcanic plumes on Io, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured these images of the volatile moon sweeping across the giant face of Jupiter. Only a few weeks before these dramatic images were taken, the orbiting telescope snapped a portrait of one of Io's volcanoes spewing sulfur dioxide 'snow.'

    These stunning images of the planetary duo are being released to commemorate the ninth anniversary of the Hubble telescope's launch on April 24, 1990. All of these images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

    The three overlapping snapshots show in crisp detail Io passing above Jupiter's turbulent clouds. The close-up picture of Io (bottom right) reveal a 120-mile-high (200-kilometer) plume of sulfur dioxide 'snow' emanating from Pillan, one of the moon's active volcanoes.

    'Other observations have inferred sulfur dioxide 'snow' in Io's plumes, but this image offers direct observational evidence for sulfur dioxide 'snow' in an Io plume,' explains John R. Spencer of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz.

    A Trip Around Jupiter

    The three snapshots of the volcanic moon rounding Jupiter were taken over a 1.8-hour time span. Io is roughly the size of Earth's moon but 2,000 times farther away. In two of the images, Io appears to be skimming Jupiter's cloud tops, but it's actually 310,000 miles (500,000 kilometers) away. Io zips around Jupiter in 1.8 days, whereas the moon circles Earth every 28 days.

    The conspicuous black spot on Jupiter is Io's shadow and is about the size of the moon itself (2,262 miles or 3,640 kilometers across). This shadow sails across the face of Jupiter at 38,000 mph (17 kilometers per second). The smallest details visible on Io and Jupiter measure 93 miles (150 kilometers) across, or about the size of Connecticut.

    These images were further sharpened through image reconstruction techniques. The view is so crisp that one would have to stand on Io to see this much detail on Jupiter with the naked eye

  2. A Journal for the Astronomical Computing Community?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, N.; Mann, R. G.

    2011-07-01

    One of the Birds of a Feather (BoF) discussion sessions at ADASS XX considered whether a new journal is needed to serve the astronomical computing community. In this paper we discuss the nature and requirements of that community, outline the analysis that led us to propose this as a topic for a BoF, and review the discussion from the BoF session itself. We also present the results from a survey designed to assess the suitability of astronomical computing papers of different kinds for publication in a range of existing astronomical and scientific computing journals. The discussion in the BoF session was somewhat inconclusive, and it seems likely that this topic will be debated again at a future ADASS or in a similar forum.

  3. The Automated Astronomic Positioning System (AAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, O. N.

    1973-01-01

    Two prototype systems of The Automated Astronomic Positioning System (AAPS) have been delivered to Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). The AAPS was developed to automate and expedite the determination of astronomic positions (latitude and longitude). This equipment is capable of defining astronomic positions to an accuracy sigma = 0.3 in each component within a two hour span of stellar observations which are acquired automatically. The basic concept acquires observations by timing stellar images as they cross a series of slits, comparing these observations to a stored star catalogue, and automatically deducing position and accuracy by least squares using pre-set convergence criteria. An exhaustive DMA operational test program has been initiated to evaluate the capabilities of the AAPS in a variety of environments (both climatic and positional). Status of the operational test is discussed.

  4. Aligning Astronomical Telescopes via Identification of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A proposed method of automated, precise alignment of a ground-based astronomical telescope would eliminate the need for initial manual alignment. The method, based on automated identification of known stars and other celestial objects in the telescope field of view, would also eliminate the need for an initial estimate of the aiming direction. The method does not require any equipment other than a digital imaging device such as a charge-coupled-device digital imaging camera and control computers of the telescope and camera, all of which are standard components in professional astronomical telescope systems and in high-end amateur astronomical telescope systems. The method could be implemented in software running in the telescope or camera control computer or in an external computer communicating with the telescope pointing mount and camera control computers.

  5. The associate principal astronomer telescope operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Edgington, Will; Henry, Greg

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with ATIS, a language for commanding remotely located automatic telescopes. This paper introduces the notion of an Associate Principal Astronomer, or APA. At the heart of the APA is automatic observation loading and scheduling software, and it is this software that is expected to help achieve efficient and productive telescope operations. The purpose of the APA system is to make it possible for astronomers to submit observation requests to and obtain resulting data from remote automatic telescopes, via the Internet, in a highly-automated way that minimizes human interaction with the system and maximizes the scientific return from observing time.

  6. DVD Database Astronomical Manuscripts in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.; Simonia, Ts.; Abuladze, T.; Chkhikvadze, N.; Samkurashvili, L.; Pataridze, K.

    2016-06-01

    Little known and unknown Georgian, Persian, and Arabic astronomical manuscripts of IX-XIX centuries are kept in the centers, archives, and libraries of Georgia. These manuscripts has a form of treaties, handbooks, texts, tables, fragments, and comprises various theories, cosmological models, star catalogs, calendars, methods of observations. We investigated this large material and published DVD database Astronomical Manuscripts in Georgia. This unique database contains information about astronomical manuscripts as original works. It contains also descriptions of Georgian translations of Byzantine, Arabic and other sources. The present paper is dedicated to description of obtained results and DVD database. Copies of published DVD database are kept in collections of the libraries of: Ilia State University, Georgia; Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK; Congress of the USA, and in other centers.

  7. Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, David; Frew, David J.

    1995-10-01

    Many of the most spectacular astronomical objects are found in the southern skies. With this up-to-date, superbly illustrated handbook, both the amateur with binoculars and the expert with a telescope can make discoveries about new and interesting objects. Professor E. J. Hartung first produced his comprehensive and highly respected guide in 1968. Now the book has been greatly expanded and thoroughly revised, enhancing its character as an indispensable information source. With over 150 illustrations, new material is included on constellations and celestial coordinate systems as well as more modern descriptions of stars, nebulae and galaxies. The authors have included a new "southern Messier" list of objects. The authors' passion for their subject make this a unique and inspirational book. Many of the beautiful photographs were taken by David Malin, the world's leading astronomical photographer. The result will fascinate active and armchair astronomers alike.

  8. Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, M.

    2011-10-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

  9. ORCID Uptake in the Astronomical Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmquist, Jane

    2015-08-01

    The IAU General Assembly provides librarians with a unique opportunity to interact with astronomers from all over the world. From the perspective of an ORCID Ambassador, the Focus Group Meeting on "Scholarly Publication in Astronomy" also provides an opportunity to demonstrate the cooperation and collaboration needed by individual astronomers, societies, librarians, publishers and bibliographic database providers to achieve universal adoption of ORCID, a standard unique identifier for authors, just as the DOI (digital object identifier) has been adopted for each journal article published.I propose to 1) present at the Focus Group Meeting an update on the uptake of ORCID by members of the astronomical community and 2) set up a small station (TBA) near the IAU registration area where librarians can show researchers how to register for an ORCID in 30 seconds.

  10. Design of a multifunction astronomical CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Dalei; Wen, Desheng; Xue, Jianru; Chen, Zhi; Wen, Yan; Jiang, Baotan; Xi, Jiangbo

    2015-07-01

    To satisfy the requirement of the astronomical observation, a novel timing sequence of frame transfer CCD is proposed. The multiple functions such as the adjustments of work pattern, exposure time and frame frequency are achieved. There are four work patterns: normal, standby, zero exposure and test. The adjustment of exposure time can set multiple exposure time according to the astronomical observation. The fame frequency can be adjusted when dark target is imaged and the maximum exposure time cannot satisfy the requirement. On the design of the video processing, offset correction and adjustment of multiple gains are proposed. Offset correction is used for eliminating the fixed pattern noise of CCD. Three gains pattern can improve the signal to noise ratio of astronomical observation. Finally, the images in different situations are collected and the system readout noise is calculated. The calculation results show that the designs in this paper are practicable.

  11. On Astronomical Records of Dangun Chosun Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Daile; Park, Changbom

    1993-10-01

    Events of eclipses as well as other major astronomical events observable in the eastern sector of Asian continent are computed and checked with astronomical records of antiquity. Particular attention was given to two types of the events recorded in remaining records of Dangun Chosun Period (DCP): (1) concentration of major planets near the constellation of Nu-Sung (Beta Aries) and (2) a large ebb-tide. We find them most likely to have occurred in real time. i.e., when the positions of the sun, moon, and planets happen to be aligned in the most appropriate position. For solar eclipses data, however, we find among 10 solar eclipse events recorded, only 6 of them are correct up to months, implying its statistical significance is no less insignificant. We therefore conclude that the remaining history books of DCP indeed contains important astronomical records, thereby the real antiquity of the records of DCP cannot be disproved.

  12. Proceedings of the 127th Colloquium of the International Astronomical Union Reference Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, James A.; Smith, Clayton A.; Kaplan, George H.

    Both invited oral and poster papers were presented on topics ranging from theoretical relativistic considerations to new observational programs and results. Partial contents include a report of the Subgroup on Time; preliminary report of the work of the Subgroup on Coordinate Frames and Origins; activity report of the IAU Working Group on reference system: subgroup on astronomical constants; relativistic hierarchy of reference systems and time scales; relativistic celestial mechanics and reference frames; current status of the astrometric capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope fine guidance sensors; necessary procedures to reach an agreeable reference frame: counterproposal to the circular letter no. 4 of Kovalevsky; stability of the extragalactic reference frame realized by VLBI; The ZMOA-1990 nutation series; and long-period perturbations in terrestrial reference frames.

  13. Education Efforts of the International Astronomical Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    I describe the education activities of the International Astronomical Union, particularly the work of Commission 46 on Education and Development. We are most interested in education in schools and for general university education rather than for pre-professional training or graduate schools. We have over 75 National Liaisons, mostly from member countries of the I.A.U. but some from nonmembers or regional groupings. We operate through 10 program groups, which are described at our Website at http://www.astronomyeducation.org. We also organize Special Sessions at General Assemblies of the International Astronomical Union, such as this Special Session 2 on Innovation in Teaching/ Learning Astronomy Methods, organized by Rosa Ros and me, and Special Session 5 on Astronomy for the Developing World, organized by John Hearnshaw. A modified version of our Special Session from the 2003 Sydney General Assembly was published as Teaching and Learning Astronomy: Effective Strategies for Educators Worldwide (Jay M. Pasachoff and John R. Percy, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2005). Michele Gerbaldi and Ed Guinan run the International Schools for Young Astronomers. Jay White heads the Teaching Astronomy for Development Program Group. John Hearnshaw runs the Program Group for the Worldwide Development of Astronomy. Charles Tolbert and John Percy run an Exchange of Astronomers program with a limited number of grants for stays of over three months between astronomers in developing countries and established astronomical institutions. Barrie Jones, as vice-president, aided by Tracey Moore, runs the Newsletter and keeps track of the National Liaisons list. I run the Program group of Public Education at the Times of Solar Eclipses.

  14. HUBBLE CAPTURES MERGER BETWEEN QUASAR AND GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows evidence fo r a merger between a quasar and a companion galaxy. This surprising result might require theorists to rethink their explanations for the nature of quasars, the most energetic objects in the universe. The bright central object is the quasar itself, located several billion light-years away. The two wisps on the (left) of the bright central object are remnants of a bright galaxy that have been disrupted by the mutual gravitational attraction between the quasar and the companion galaxy. This provides clear evidence for a merger between the two objects. Since their discovery in 1963, quasars (quasi-stellar objects) have been enigmatic because they emit prodigious amounts of energy from a very compact source. The most widely accepted model is that a quasar is powered by a supermassive black hole in the core of a galaxy. These new observations proved a challenge for theorists as no current models predict the complex quasar interactions unveiled by Hubble. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. Credit: John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study, NASA.

  15. Hubble Provides Complete View of Jupiter's Auroras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured a complete view of Jupiter's northern and southern auroras.

    Images taken in ultraviolet light by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) show both auroras, the oval-shaped objects in the inset photos. While the Hubble telescope has obtained images of Jupiter's northern and southern lights since 1990, the new STIS instrument is 10 times more sensitive than earlier cameras. This allows for short exposures, reducing the blurring of the image caused by Jupiter's rotation and providing two to five times higher resolution than earlier cameras. The resolution in these images is sufficient to show the 'curtain' of auroral light extending several hundred miles above Jupiter's limb (edge). Images of Earth's auroral curtains, taken from the space shuttle, have a similar appearance. Jupiter's auroral images are superimposed on a Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image of the entire planet. The auroras are brilliant curtains of light in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Jovian auroral storms, like Earth's, develop when electrically charged particles trapped in the magnetic field surrounding the planet spiral inward at high energies toward the north and south magnetic poles. When these particles hit the upper atmosphere, they excite atoms and molecules there, causing them to glow (the same process acting in street lights).

    The electrons that strike Earth's atmosphere come from the sun, and the auroral lights remain concentrated above the night sky in response to the 'solar wind.'

  16. HUBBLE REVEALS STELLAR FIREWORKS ACCOMPANYING GALAXY COLLISION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Hubble Space Telescope image provides a detailed look at a brilliant 'fireworks show' at the center of a collision between two galaxies. Hubble has uncovered over 1,000 bright, young star clusters bursting to life as a result of the head-on wreck. [Left] A ground-based telescopic view of the Antennae galaxies (known formally as NGC 4038/4039) - so named because a pair of long tails of luminous matter, formed by the gravitational tidal forces of their encounter, resembles an insect's antennae. The galaxies are located 63 million light-years away in the southern constellation Corvus. [Right] The respective cores of the twin galaxies are the orange blobs, left and right of image center, crisscrossed by filaments of dark dust. A wide band of chaotic dust, called the overlap region, stretches between the cores of the two galaxies. The sweeping spiral- like patterns, traced by bright blue star clusters, shows the result of a firestorm of star birth activity which was triggered by the collision. This natural-color image is a composite of four separately filtered images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), on January 20, 1996. Resolution is 15 light-years per pixel (picture element). Credit: Brad Whitmore (STScI), and NASA

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Close to Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with its normal routine temporarily interrupted, is about to be captured by the Space Shuttle Columbia prior to a week of servicing and upgrading by the STS-109 crew. The telescope was captured by the shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay where 4 of the 7-member crew performed 5 space walks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: The replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. Launched March 1, 2002, the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  18. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Allam, Sahar S.; Budavari, Tamas; Donaldson, Tom; Lubow, Stephen H.; Quick, Lee; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wallace, Geoff; White, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    The Hubble Source Catalog (HSC) is an initiative to combine the tens of thousands of visit-based Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA - available at http://hla.stsci.edu) source lists into a single master catalog. The HSC currently includes ACS/WFC, WFPC2, and WFC3 source lists generated using the Source Extractor software (Bertin & Arnouts 1996), cross-matched using the technique described in Budavari & Lubow (2012). The astrometric residuals for the HSC individual objects are typically within 10 mas and the magnitude residuals between repeats are generally within 0.10 mag. Version 1 of the HSC is scheduled to be released in winter 2015. Some of the primary improvements over the current Beta 0.3 version of the HSC include: 1) improved WFC3 source lists, 2) two more years of WFC3 data, 3) improved matching algorithms, 4) a draft paper to be submitted to PASP, 5) inclusion in the MAST Discovery Portal (http://mast.stsci.edu), and 6) a CasJobs capability for advanced searches. Demonstrations will be provided at the Space Telescope Science Institute booth during the conference and people will have the opportunity to use the system interactively. The URL for the HSC is http://archive.stsci.edu/hst/hsc/ .

  19. Astronomers gossip about the (cosmic) neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Jayawardhana, R

    1994-09-01

    The Hague, Netherlands, last month welcomed 2000 astronomers from around the world for the 22nd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From 15 to 27 August, they participated in symposia and discussions on topics ranging from the down-to-Earth issue of light and radio-frequency pollution to the creation of elements at the farthest reaches of time and space, in the big bang. Some of the most striking news, however, came in new findings from our galaxy and its immediate surroundings. PMID:17801522

  20. Formation and structure of neutrino astronomical objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tan; Luo, Liao-fu; Yang, Gou-chen

    1981-12-01

    Neutrinos with non-zero mass could gather to form a new kind of astronomical bodies: the Neutrino Astronomical Objects (NAO). We have investigated the mechanism of their formation and the relation of this formation to that of the galaxies, ascertained their e, p, He 4 content, whose presence should produce a series of observable effects. NAOs are a peculiar kind of heavenly bodies with many new properties. They have a linear size of the order of 100 pc, a total neutrino content of the order of 10 14M⊙ and an e, p, He 4 content of the order of 10 9M⊙.

  1. Johann and Elizabeth Hevelius, astronomers of Danzig.

    PubMed

    Cook, A

    2000-01-01

    Elizabeth Hevelius (1647-1693) was the second wife of Johann Hevelius, the renowned astronomer of Danzig, and assisted with his observations from the first years of her marriage. Hevelius wrote of her in his books as an able collaborator and she is portrayed in one of them observing with him. She brought out his final, posthumous work. With Johann, she received many notable visitors (including Edmond Halley) and observed with some of them at Danzig. She is the first woman astronomer of whom we have any record. PMID:10824438

  2. The Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, M. W.

    2009-08-01

    Astronomical photographic data constitute an enormously important and, for the large part, unrepeatable resource for astronomical research. To answer the need for rescue, preservation and digitization of astronomical photographic data, the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) was established at Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). APDA is essential both for the health of astronomical science and for credibility of the current generation of astronomers as guardians of its unique heritage. The basic facility requirements met at PARI for APDA include: a secure area with controlled access; several thousand square feet of floor space with a solid foundation; a clean, dust-free environment with controlled humidity and temperature; protection from sunlight; office and lab space for high-resolution scanners and with internet access. APDA development is focused on collections in danger of disposal or extreme damage. Beyond this essential salvage effort, PARI is currently working to establish the physical archives environment, collection development plan, and standard finding aids for the archive. This essay describes the current set of collections, status for access, research resulting from the collections, and future direction of APDA.

  3. Astronauts give Hubble a new lease of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Astronauts successfully repaired and upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope last month by performing five space walks each lasting more than six hours. The mission will improve Hubble's "observational power" by up to a factor of 100. The upgrade will also enable the 19-year-old instrument to carry on obtaining images of the early universe until 2014.

  4. The Hubble constant and dark energy from cosmological distance measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2008-04-15

    We study how the determination of the Hubble constant from cosmological distance measures is affected by models of dark energy and vice versa. For this purpose, constraints on the Hubble constant and dark energy are investigated using the cosmological observations of cosmic microwave background, baryon acoustic oscillations and type Ia supernovae. When one investigates dark energy, the Hubble constant is often a nuisance parameter; thus it is usually marginalized over. On the other hand, when one focuses on the Hubble constant, simple dark energy models such as a cosmological constant and a constant equation of state are usually assumed. Since we do not know the nature of dark energy yet, it is interesting to investigate the Hubble constant assuming some types of dark energy and see to what extent the constraint on the Hubble constant is affected by the assumption concerning dark energy. We show that the constraint on the Hubble constant is not affected much by the assumption for dark energy. We furthermore show that this holds true even if we remove the assumption that the universe is flat. We also discuss how the prior on the Hubble constant affects the constraints on dark energy and/or the curvature of the universe.

  5. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  6. Combined ultraviolet studies of astronomical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Giampapa, M. S.; Huchra, J. P.; Noyes, R. W.; Hartmann, L. W.; Raymond, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraviolet studies of astronomical sources are discussed. Some studies utilized IVE data. Non-radiative shock at the edge of the Cygnses Loop, stellar flares, local interestellar medium, hot galaxies, stellar mass ejection, contact binaries, double quasars, and stellar chromosphere and coronae are discussed.

  7. astLib: Tools for research astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Matt; Boada, Steven

    2016-07-01

    astLib is a set of Python modules for performing astronomical plots, some statistics, common calculations, coordinate conversions, and manipulating FITS images with World Coordinate System (WCS) information through PyWCSTools, a simple wrapping of WCSTools (ascl:1109.015).

  8. Public software for the astronomer - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Murtagh, Fionn

    1992-01-01

    Sources of public software are described that are available over wide-area research networks in journals and from government sources which may be valuable to the astronomer and astrophysicist. A very large amount of high-quality public software is accessible at all times. Locations with material useful for research are emphasized with practical suggestions regarding access.

  9. Professional Astronomers in Service to the AAVSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saladyga, Michael; Waagen, E. O.

    2011-05-01

    Throughout its 100-year history, the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) has welcomed professional astronomers to its membership ranks, and has encouraged their participation as organization leaders. The AAVSO has been fortunate to have many distinguished professionals serve as officers (Directors, Presidents, Council), and as participants in its various scientific and organizational committees.

  10. Professional Astronomers in Service to the AAVSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saladyga, M.; Waagen, E. O.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) Throughout its 100-year history, the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) has welcomed professional astronomers to its membership ranks, and has encouraged their participation as organization leaders. The AAVSO has been fortunate to have over 60 distinguished professionals serve as officers (Directors, Presidents, Council), and as participants in its various scientific and organizational committees.

  11. The Virtual Astronomical Observatory Users Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, August A.; Emery Bunn, S.; Astronomical Observatory, Virtual

    2013-01-01

    We present the online forum astrobabel.com, which has the goal of being a gathering place for the collective community intelligence about astronomical computing. The audience for this forum is anyone engaged in the analysis of astronomical or planetary data, whether that data be observational or theoretical. It is a free, community driven site where discussions are formulated primarily around the "question and answer" format. Current topics on the forum range from “Is there a photometry package in Python?” to “Where are the support forums for astronomy software packages?” and “Why is my SDSS SkyQuery query missing galaxies?” The poster will detail the full scope of discussions in the forum, and provide some basic guidelines for ensuring high quality forum posts. We will highlight the ways astronomers can discover and participate in discussions. Further, we view this as an excellent opportunity to gather feedback and feature requests from AAS221 attendees. Acknowledgement: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. An Astronomical Observatory in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, L.; Gallego, T.; de La Torre, A.

    We describe a project developed at the University of Granada in collaboration with the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía aimed at using a remote telescope for live astronomical observations from the classroom. Available instrumentation, software and activities are presented.

  13. Kepler as astronomical observer in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    Official histories of science have consistently perpetuated the rumour that Kepler's poor eyesight prevented him from undertaking astronomical observations. However the condition of his eyesight could not have been so serious for in 1582, when his father made it possible for him to see a lunar eclipse, Kepler saw the moon emerge clearly. We find quite a lot of his astronomical observations especially of the years in Prague, mostly left in his manuscripts and unpublished until now. They will be edited in Vol. XXI.1 of the Kepler-Edition in the next future. Kepler's astronomical observations in Prague were mostly initiated by spectacular phenomena in the sky. He was self-critical enough to know, that his observations could not compete with those of the best observers of his time. It was not necessary for him to come up to highest standard of accuracy, and it was not possible to do so because he did not possess proper astronomical instruments. But nevertheless it was important for him as a theorist of astronomy and as a philosopher of nature to take a view of the phenomena which he wished to study carefully.

  14. Astronomía en la cultura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.

    La Astronomía en la Cultura es el estudio interdisciplinario a nivel global de la astronomía prehistórica, antigua y tradicional, en el marco de su contexto cultural. Esta disciplina abarca cualquier tipo de estudios o líneas de investigación en que se relacione a la astronomía con las ciencias humanas o sociales. En ella se incluyen tanto fuentes escritas, relatos orales como fuentes arqueológicas, abarcando entre otros, los siguientes temas: calendarios, observación práctica, cultos y mitos, representación simbólica de eventos, conceptos y objetos astronómicos, orientación astronómica de tumbas, templos, santuarios y centros urbanos, cosmología tradicional y la aplicación ceremonial de tradiciones astronómicas, la propia historia de la astronomía y la etnoastronomía (Krupp, 1989) (Iwaniszewski, 1994). En nuestro trabajo abordamos la historia y situación actual de esta disciplina, sus métodos y sus relaciones con otras áreas de investigación.

  15. Prospective Science Teachers' Conceptions about Astronomical Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify prospective science teachers' conceptions on basic astronomical phenomena. A questionnaire consisting of nine open-ended questions was administered to 327 prospective science teachers. The questionnaire was constructed after extensive review of the literature and took into consideration the reported…

  16. Astronomical Data Bank: The Solar System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David

    1983-01-01

    Provided are two tables which contain the latest orbital and physical characteristics of the planets and their main satellites. These tables are part of a series of information materials available from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1290 24th Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94122. (JN)

  17. Astroquery: querying astronomical web forms and databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipocz, Brigitta

    2016-03-01

    Astroquery is an Astropy affiliated package for a set of tools for querying astronomical web forms and databases. In this lightning talk I give an overview of the available services and the usage of the package including a live demo of a typical use case.

  18. Sociological profile of astronomers in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ussel, J. I.; Trinidad, A.; Ruíz, D.; Battaner, E.; Delgado, A. J.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Salvador-Solé, E.; Torrelles, J. M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  19. Sociological Profile of Astronomers in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias de Ussel, Julio; Trinidad, Antonio; Ruiz, Diego; Battaner, Eduardo; Delgado, Antonio J.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, José M.; Salvador-Solé, Eduard; Torrelles, José M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of Astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish Astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of Astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines Astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of Astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  20. Astronomical imaging with InSb arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipher, Judith L.

    Ten years ago, Forrest presented the first astronomical images with a Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) 32 x 32 InSb array camera at the first NASA-Ames Infrared Detector Technology Work-shop. Soon after, SBRC began development of 58 x 62 InSb arrays, both for ground-based astronomy and for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). By the time of the 1987 Hilo workshop 'Ground-based Astronomical Observations with Infrared Array Dectectors' astronomical results from cameras based on SBRC 32 x 32 and 58 x 62 InSb arrays, a CE linear InSb array, and a French 32 x 32 InSb charge injection device (CID) array were presented. And at the Tucson 1990 meeting 'Astrophysics with Infrared Arrays', it was clear that this new technology was no longer the province of 'IR pundits', but provided a tool for all astronomers. At this meeting, the first astronomical observations with SBRC's new, gateless passivation 256 x 256 InSb arrays will be presented: they perform spectacularly] In this review, I can only broadly brush on the interesting science completed with InSb array cameras. Because of the broad wavelength coverage (1-5.5 micrometer) of InSb, and the extremely high performance levels throughout the band, InSb cameras are used not only in the near IR, but also from 3-5.5 micrometer, where unique science is achieved. For example, the point-like central engines of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are delineated at L' and M', and Bra and 3.29 micrometer dust emission images of galactic and extragalactic objects yield excitation conditions. Examples of imaging spectroscopy, high spatial resolution imaging, as well as deep, broad-band imaging with InSb cameras at this meeting illustrate the power of InSb array cameras.