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1

Edwin Hubble's Silence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In late 1928 Edwin Hubble was right in the middle of using V. M. Slipher's redshift data to prove that the universe is expanding, when Hubble's boss, George Hale, directed him to drop everything and rush to the Grand Canyon and test it as a possible site for Hale's planned 200-inch telescope. On his way, Hubble stopped at Lowell Observatory and met with V. M. Slipher. The letters both men wrote about this visit suggest that Hubble never said a word about his being in the middle of using Slipher's research to transform the universe. At the least, this silence is symbolic of the silence with which astronomical history has often treated Slipher's work. A survey of the historical literature suggests several reasons for this. Theorists and observers in astronomy (and other sciences) have long had different perspectives about how science works, and those who place more importance on theory have tended to credit the idea of the expanding universe to the theorists. Also, many sources indicate that Edwin Hubble was not a modest man or generous about sharing credit.

Lago, D.

2013-04-01

2

Edwin Hubble. Mariner of the nebulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biography of Edwin Hubble has been acclaimed by professionals and laymen alike. It is both the biography of an extraordinary human being and the story of the greatest quest in the history of astronomy since the Copernican revolution. Born in 1889 and reared in the village of Marshfield, Missouri, Edwin Powell Hubble became one of the towering figures in

G. E. Christianson

1997-01-01

3

Hubble, Edwin Powell (1889-1953)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronomer, born in Marshfield, MO, trained as a lawyer, with a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford University. Switched to astronomy at the University of Chicago, and became a staff astronomer at Mount Wilson Observatory where he had access to the best telescope in the world at that time---the 100 in telescope. Hubble was regarded as an aloof scientist, and, by contrast

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

4

Hubble, Edwin Powell (1889-1953)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer, born in Marshfield, MO, trained as a lawyer, with a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford University. Switched to astronomy at the University of Chicago, and became a staff astronomer at Mount Wilson Observatory where he had access to the best telescope in the world at that time—the 100 in telescope. Hubble was regarded as an aloof scientist, and, by contrast say to FRED HOYLE, did not spe...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

5

The man who discovered the expansion of the universe: the life and work of Edwin Hubble  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is written to the centenary of Edwin Hubble (1889 - 1953). It gives a detailed description of the life and activities of this famous astronomer. The authors have used not only published - surprisingly few - materials, but a lot of documents that never have been published before.

A. S. Sharov; I. D. Novikov

1989-01-01

6

Edwin Hubble's Famous Plate of 1923, and a Hubble-Hubble Connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 6, 1923 Edwin Hubble used the Mount Wilson 100-inch telescope to take a 45 minute exposure of a field in the Andromeda galaxy. This is the now-famous plate marked with his "VAR!" notation. I will discuss this plate and that notation. I will also tell the story of flying copies of that plate on the deployment mission for HST in 1990 as a Hubble memento and then locating those copies afterwards, and how copies were flown on Servicing Mission 4 on 2009 as well. This has led to an effort in which AAVSO members joined to identify and reobserve that noted star, arguably the most important object in the history of cosmology, but largely ignored since Hubble's time.

Soderblom, David R.

2011-05-01

7

Edwin Hubble : the great synthesizer : revealing the breadth and birth of the universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This biographical article explains why Edwin Hubble is the appropriate namesake for the Hubble Space Telescope. The article recounts how Hubble made two extraordinary discoveries in the early 1900s that revolutionized science's understanding of the universe. Using a topnotch telescope, Hubble first discovered that our galaxy, the Milky Way, is not the whole of the universe. He then discerned that the universe is expanding. This expansion is now known as Hubble's law, and the discovery paved the way for the development of the Big Bang theory and modern cosmology. The article includes links to supplementary readings about red shifts, Hubble's law, and the Big Bang. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Liza Gross

2001-01-01

8

Astronomers Track Down Asteroids in Hubble Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information related to the recently discovered asteroid 1997XF11. The Space Science Telescope Institute site has begun to document how astronomers are using photos from the Hubble Space Telescope to find asteroids; over 100 small asteroids have so far been found, of which captioned examples of four (in various formats) are now available.

1998-01-01

9

Multiple Galaxy Collisions Surprise Hubble Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recent surprising discoveries have led Hubble space telescope astronomers to rethink theories on a class of galaxies called ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRG). It was previously believed that only pairs of galaxies were interacting in ULIRGs, but recent photos from Hubble show multiple collisions of four or even five galaxies smashing together. The images, provided at this site, offer a glimpse of what conditions were like in the early universe when galaxy collisions were commonplace. Users can read the official press release and view a number of images in different sizes and formats at the above URL. Additional resources include two QuickTime movies of astronomer Dr. Kirk Borne discussing his new finding and describing one of the images, and links to related discoveries at the Hubble site.

1999-01-01

10

The Animated Story of Edwin Hubble and the Discovery of the Structure of the Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turning point in our understanding of the Universe was when Edwin Hubble determined the distances to nearby galaxies and showed conclusively that they are islands of stars separate from our own. Our computer animation explains the key moments of that story: the puzzle about the nature of galaxies, the decisive role and the power of the Hooker telescope at the Mt. Wilson Observatory, the discovery and use of Cepheids in the Andromeda galaxy, and the subsequent interpretation of results as this new paradigm of the universe filled with islands of stars was established. The animation can be used as educational material in classroom or in any public education setting

Longson, Tony; Armitage, P.; Chu, Y.; Dzhambazyan, G.; Bayindir, H.; Park, D.; Yefimenko, J.; Simonian, V.; Levitin, S.; Sullivan, A.; Shitanishi, J.; Wells, D.; Wong, F.; Kang, E. Y. E.; Mijic, M.; State LA SciVi Project, Cal

2009-05-01

11

Hubble Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship that states that the recessional velocities of distant galaxies are directly proportional to their distances. It is named after the American astronomer Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953) who, in 1929, published his discovery that the redshifts in the spectra of galaxies are proportional to their distances. This was one of the key discoveries in cosmology for it showed that

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

12

Hubble Astronomers Unveil: Crab Nebula The Movie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amazing photos have been added to the Space Telescope Electronic Information Service Site in May 1996. Hubble Space Telescope images released include Dynamics of the Crab Nebula and Doomed Star Eta Carinae. Included are several black & white and color resolutions, as well as well as explanatory captions.

1996-01-01

13

Hubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At last, a book presenting the fantastic scientific results of the first five years of Hubble Space Telescope observations! While a number of books for the general public emphasize the technological accomplishments of this multi-billion dollar project or deal with the well-publicized flaw in the telescope's optics, The Hubble: A New Window to the Universe concentrates on its astromonical achievements. The authors use new and ground-breaking Hubble results to illustrate a wide range of astronomical topics, from the great questions about the universe as a whole to quasars and black holes, and from the life and death of stars to our planetary neighbors in the solar system. The first part of this book presents a brief historical overview, "From Babylon to Cape Canaveral," concentrating on progress in astromony from the instrumentation point of view and on the Hubble project itself. The central and largest portion presents the wealth of exciting astronomical results obtained with the Hubble. The last part describes the Hubble operations, as well as the plans for the future of the telescope itself and beyond. The text contains a large number of spectacular images, mainly taken with the Hubble, as well as self-contained portraits of astronomers and explanations of astronomical topics and instruments. Written in a style appealing to both the interested public and to individuals familiar with the field, this compendium serves as a testament to the significant role the Hubble has played in astronomical accomplishment and discovery the past five years.

Fischer, Daniel; Duerbeck, Hilmar; Williams, R.; Jenkner, H.; Duncan, D.

14

Astronomers celebrate a year of new Hubble results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"We are beginning to understand that because of these observations we are going to have to change the way we look at the Universe," said ESA's Dr Duccio Macchetto, Associate Director for Science Programs at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The European Space Agency plays a major role in the Hubble Space Telescope programme. The Agency provided one of the telescope's four major instruments, called the Faint Object Camera, and two sets of electricity-generating solar arrays. In addition, 15 ESA scientific and technical staff work at the STScI. In return for this contribution, European astronomers are entitled to 15 percent of the telescope's observing time, although currently they account for 20 percent of all observations. "This is a testimony to the quality of the European science community", said Dr Roger Bonnet, Director of Science at ESA. "We are only guaranteed 15 percent of the telescope's use, but consistently receive much more than that." Astronomers from universities, observatories and research institutes across Europe lead more than 60 investigations planned for the telescope's fifth observing cycle, which begins this summer. Many more Europeans contribute to teams led by other astronomers. Looking back to the very start of time European astronomer Dr Peter Jakobsen used ESA's Faint Object Camera to confirm that helium was present in the early Universe. Astronomers had long predicted that 90 percent of the newly born Universe consisted of hydrogen, with helium making up the remainder. Before the refurbished Hubble came along, it was easy to detect the hydrogen, but the primordial helium remained elusive. The ultraviolet capabilities of the telescope, combined with the improvement in spatial resolution following the repair, made it possible for Dr Jakobsen to obtain an image of a quasar close to the edge of the known Universe. A spectral analysis of this picture revealed the quasar's light, which took 13 billion years to reach the telescope, had indeed passed through helium, and not only that, the helium was of just the right variety to match the established theory. Dr Jakobsen has spent more than 20 years working on this subject. His recent efforts concentrated on seeking out a quasar unobscured by clouds of hydrogen, which block the tell-tale signature of helium. His search drew him to the Space Telescope project and during the telescope's early years in orbit he studied 25 likely quasars and found one promising candidate. Dr Jacobsen then had to wait for the telescope's new optics before he could get the quality of data he needed to prove the existence of helium. "We were looking for a break in the cloud cover, so to speak," the astronomer said. "We had a tantalising glimpse of the quasar with the aberrated telescope but it was only after we fixed it that we could really get a clear answer. One of the first things that we did once we had the corrective optics in place was look at this object and it was exactly as we'd hoped." Getting the Universe to measure up When it comes to studying the expansion of the Universe, however, the telescope has raised morn; questions than answers. By determining how fast the Universe is expanding astronomers will be able to calculate its age and size. It may then become possible to discover what is the ultimate fate of the Universe; will it simply continue to expand until it evaporates? Will the expansion come to a complete stop? Or will the Universe stop expanding, start contracting and end in a "big crunch"? The rate at which the Universe expands is known as the Hubble Constant or H0. To measure this value, astronomers need to calculate how far away a galaxy is and how fast it is moving away from us. The former is difficult to determine because reliable distance indicators, sometimes known as "cosmic yardsticks ", such as variable stars and supernovae, must be found in the galaxies. An international team of astronomers recently used the Hubble Space Telescope to make a

1995-02-01

15

Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and the general public. The origins of these discoveries are examined and it is demonstrated that, in each case, a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place. In some cases the discoveries had either already been made, or competing versions were not adopted for complex scientific and sociological reasons.

Way, M. J.

2013-04-01

16

European astronomers' successes with the Hubble Space Telescope*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[Figure: Laguna Nebula] Their work spans all aspects of astronomy, from the planets to the most distant galaxies and quasars, and the following examples are just a few European highlights from Hubble's second phase, 1994-96. A scarcity of midget stars Stars less massive and fainter than the Sun are much numerous in the Milky Way Galaxy than the big bright stars that catch the eye. Guido De Marchi and Francesco Paresce of the European Southern Observatory as Garching, Germany, have counted them. With the wide-field WFPC2 camera, they have taken sample censuses within six globular clusters, which are large gatherings of stars orbiting independently in the Galaxy. In every case they find that the commonest stars have an output of light that is only one-hundredth of the Sun's. They are ten times more numerous than stars like the Sun. More significant for theories of the Universe is a scarcity of very faint stars. Some astronomers have suggested that vast numbers of such stars could account for the mysterious dark matter, which makes stars and galaxies move about more rapidly than expected from the mass of visible matter. But that would require an ever-growing count of objects at low brightnesses, and De Marchi and Paresce find the opposite to be the case -- the numbers diminish. There may be a minimum size below which Nature finds starmaking difficult. The few examples of very small stars seen so far by astronomers may be, not the heralds of a multitude of dark-matter stars, but rareties. Unchanging habits in starmaking Confirmation that very small stars are scarce comes from Gerry Gilmore of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge (UK). He leads a European team that analyses long-exposure images in the WFPC2 camera, obtained as a by-product when another instrument is examining a selected object. The result is an almost random sample of well-observed stars and galaxies. The most remarkable general conclusion is that the make-up of stellar populations never seems to vary. In dense or diffuse regions, in very young or very old agglomerations, in the Milky Way Galaxy or elsewhere, the relative numbers of stars of different masses are always roughly the same. Evidently Nature mass-produces quotas of large and small stars irrespective of circumstances. This discovery will assist astronomers in making sense of very distant and early galaxies. They can assume that the stars are of the most familiar kinds. Another surprise was spotted by Rebecca Elson in Gilmore's team, in long-exposure images of the giant galaxy M87, in the nearby Virgo cluster. It possesses globular clusters of very different ages. In the Milky Way and its similar spiral neighbour, the Andromeda galaxy, globular clusters contain the oldest stars. While M87 has ancient globular clusters too, some are different in colour and much younger. The theory is that they were manufactured during collisions of the galaxies that merged into M87, making it the egg-shaped giant seen today. If so, the absence of young globular clusters in the Milky Way may mean that our Galaxy has never suffered a major collision. Accidents in the galactic traffic Brighter than a million million suns, a quasar is the most powerful lamp in the Universe. Astronomers understand it to be powered by matter falling into a massive black hole in the heart of a galaxy. Mike Disney of the University of Wales, Cardiff, leads a European team that asks why some thousands of galaxies harbour quasars, in contrast to the billions that do not. In almost every case that he and his colleagues have investigated, using Hubble's WFPC2 camera at its highest resolution, they see the quasar's home galaxy involved in a collision with another galaxy. "It's my opinion that almost any galaxy can be a quasar," Disney says, "if only its central black hole gets enough to eat. In the galactic traffic accidents that Hubble reveals, we can visualize fresh supplies of stars and gas being driven into the black hole's clutches. My American opposite number, John Bahcall, prefers to stress those quasar hosts that look li

1997-02-01

17

Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and even the general public. The origins of three of the most well-known discoveries are examined: The distances to nearby spiral nebulae, the classification of extragalactic-nebulae and the Hubble constant. In the case of the first two a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place, but little credit was given. The Hubble Constant had already been estimated in 1927 by Georges Lemaitre with roughly the same value that Hubble obtained in 1929 using redshifts provided mostly by Vesto M. Slipher. These earlier estimates were not adopted or were forgotten by the astronomical community for complex scientific, sociological and psychological reasons.

Way, Michael J.

2014-01-01

18

AS102 -Day Laboratory Exercise: Hubble Law Page 1 Introduction -In the first quarter of the last century, astronomy was becoming a vigorous science  

E-print Network

developed. Due to advances in engineering, astronomers began to build large telescopes, capable of detecting century, astronomy was becoming a vigorous science as new technologies and new scientific theories were with new knowledge and new tools, astronomers Edwin Hubble and Milton Humason began observing galaxies

Opher, Merav

19

Hubble Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classification scheme for galaxies, devised in its original form in 1925 by Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953), and still widely used today. The Hubble classification recognizes four principal types of galaxy---elliptical, spiral, barred spiral and irregular---and arranges these in a sequence that is called the tuning-fork diagram....

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

20

New ephemeris for the first Cepheid variable observed by Edwin P. Hubble in M31. (Italian Title: Nuova effemeride della prima Cefeide osservata da Edwin P. Hubble in M31)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Cepheid discovered in M31 by E. P. Hubble around the end of 1923, has been re-observed with the 0.8 m Akiuz Mattei Telescope of Celado Observatory in order to update its photometric elements. They resulted: Max = JD 2455461.3 + 31.4d E, R max = 18.1, R min = 19.6, (B-V) = 0.7 (mean), (V-R) = 0.4 (mean). Based on a small sample of galactic Cepheids having known R magnitudes and parallaxes, the distance of M31 was estimated 780 kpc, or 2.5 Mly, accounting for the reddening.

Campestrin, M.; Ceriani, S.; Colombo, M.; Ercole, L.; Favero, G.

2011-08-01

21

NASA and ESA astronauts visit ESO. Hubble repair team meets European astronomers in Garching.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Wednesday, February 16, 1994, seven NASA and ESA astronauts and their spouses will spend a day at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. They are the members of the STS-61 crew that successfully repaired the Hubble Space Telescope during a Space Shuttle mission in December 1993. This will be the only stop in Germany during their current tour of various European countries. ESO houses the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST/ECF), a joint venture by the European Space Agency and ESO. This group of astronomers and computer specialists provide all services needed by European astronomers for observations with the Space Telescope. Currently, the European share is about 20 of the total time available at this telescope. During this visit, a Press Conference will be held on Wednesday, February 16, 11:45 - 12:30 at the ESO Headquarters Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748 Garching bei Munchen. Please note that participation in this Press Conference is by invitation only. Media representatives may obtain invitations from Mrs. E. Volk, ESO Information Service at this address (Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax.: +49-89-3202362), until Friday, February 11, 1994. After the Press Conference, between 12:30 - 14:00, a light refreshment will be served at the ESO Headquarters to all participants. >From 14:00 - 15:30, the astronauts will meet with students and teachers from the many scientific institutes in Garching in the course of an open presentation at the large lecture hall of the Physics Department of the Technical University. It is a 10 minute walk from ESO to the hall. Later the same day, the astronauts will be back at ESO for a private discussion of various space astronomy issues with their astronomer colleagues, many of whom are users of the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as ground-based telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and elsewhere. The astronauts continue to Switzerland in the evening.

1994-02-01

22

Expansion of the Universe -- Mistake of Edwin Hubble? Cosmological Redshift and Related Electromagnetic Phenomena in Static Lobachevskian (Hyperbolic) Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an alternative to the Big Bang (the standard model), we present a mathematical theory of cosmological redshift. We show that a fundamental formula of Lobachevskian (hyperbolic) geometry describes cosmological redshift and the Doppler effect as well. As presented here, the cosmological redshift preserves wavelength ratios (it shifts uniformly the whole electromagnetic spectrum), it is scale invariant, it is a monotonically increasing function of distance, and it is source independent. It agrees with all experimental data. The distortion introduced by imaging from hyperbolic into Euclidean space and the limitations of Special Relativity are discussed. Physical observations in Lobachevskian space are discussed and the new formula relating redshift and/or Doppler shift to aberration is given. An analysis is presented of an erroneous origin of Hubble's so called velocity distance law.

von Brzeski, J. G.

2008-06-01

23

Sloan Digital Sky Survey - Hubble Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, containing information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, provides projects and activities for advanced astronomy students. In this particular one, the user retraces Edwin Hubble's steps to discover that the Universe is expanding, by making a Hubble Diagram.

2010-01-07

24

Hubble's galaxy nomenclature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely written and believed that Edwin Hubble introduced the terms ``early'' and ``late types'' to suggest an evolutionary sequence for galaxies. This is incorrect. Hubble took these terms from spectral classification of stars to signify a sequence related to complexity of appearance, albeit based on images, not spectra. The temporal connotations had been abandoned before his 1926 paper on classification of galaxies.

Baldry, Ivan K.

2008-10-01

25

Emacs Lisp in Edwin SScheme  

E-print Network

The MIT-Scheme program development environment includes a general-purpose text editor, Edwin, that has an extension language, Edwin Scheme. Edwin is very similar to another general-purpose text editor, GNU Emacs, which ...

Birkholz, Matthew

1993-09-01

26

Astronomers in the Chemist's War  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

Trimble, Virginia L.

2012-01-01

27

Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion  

PubMed Central

Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

Kirshner, Robert P.

2004-01-01

28

Hubble and Shapley - Two Early Giants of Observational Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational cosmology of the first decades of the Twentieth Century was dominated by two giants: Edwin Hubble and Harlow Shapley. Hubble's major contributions were to the study and classification of individual galaxies with large telescopes, whereas Shapley is best remembered for his work on groups and clusters of galaxies using telescopes of more modest aperture.

van den Bergh, Sidney

2011-12-01

29

A Conversation with Edwin Shneidman  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a transcript of a conversation that took place with Edwin Shneidman, PhD, on August 19, 2008. Recent advances in machine learning, particularly neurocognitive computing, have provided a fresh approach to the idea of using computers to analyze the language of the suicidal person. Here this notion and many others are discussed.

Pestian, John

2010-01-01

30

A Conversation with Edwin Emery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interview with Edwin Emery, journalism professor and co-author of the widely used textbook "The Press and America," in which he discusses his book, historians and historical schools that influenced his work, and areas of journalism and mass communication history that need to be researched and expanded upon today. (GT)

Journalism History, 1980

1980-01-01

31

Edwin W. Lewis, Jr.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Edwin W. Lewis Jr. is a research pilot in the Airborne Science program, Flight Crew Branch, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. He currently flies the DC-8, F/A-18, Lear Jet 24, King Air, and T-34C in support of Dryden's flight operations and is mentor pilot for the King Air and the Lear Jet. Prior to accepting this assignment Lewis was a pilot for eight years at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, flying 10 different aircraft - C-130B, DC-8-72, UH-1, SH-3, King Air, Lear 24, T-38A, T-39G and YO-3A - in support of NASA flight missions. Lewis also flew the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (a modified civilian version of the Lockheed C-141 Starlifter). He was project pilot for Ames' 747 and T-38 programs. Lewis was born in New York City on May 19, 1936, and began flight training as a Civil Air Patrol cadet in 1951, ultimately earning his commercial pilot's certificate in 1958. He received a bachelor of arts degree in biology from Hobart College, Geneva, N.Y., and entered the U.S. Air Force through the Reserve Officer Training Corps. Following pilot training he was assigned to Moody Air Force Base, Ga., as an instructor pilot, for both the T-33 and T-37 aircraft. He served in Vietnam in 1965 and 1966, where he was a forward air controller, instructor and standardization/evaluation pilot, flying more than 1,000 hours in the O-1 'Bird Dog.' Lewis separated from the regular Air Force and joined Pan American World Airways and the 129th Air Commando Group, California Air National Guard (ANG) based in Hayward, California. During his 18-year career with the California ANG he flew the U-6, U-10, C-119, HC-130 aircraft and the HH-3 helicopter. He retired as commander, 129th Air Rescue and Recovery Group, a composite combat rescue group, in the grade of colonel. During his 22 years as an airline pilot, he flew the Boeing 707, 727 and 747. He took early retirement from Pan American in 1989 to become a pilot with NASA.

1999-01-01

32

Hubble: 20 Years of Discovery - Duration: 15:54.  

NASA Video Gallery

Hubble's discoveries have revolutionized nearly all areas of current astronomical research from planetary science to cosmology. Actor and writer Brent Spiner narrates a visual journey back in time ...

33

Hubble: A View to the Edge of Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers four categories of material about the Hubble Space Telescope: place, ideas, tools, and people. Diagrams, collections of images, readings, and interactive features fill the site, offering insight into the Hubble project and the scientific work that led up to it. Two of the ideas features--an annotated gallery of Hubble images and an article--explore what scientists are learning through Hubble about the universe and its origins. The tools section includes an interactive illustration of Hubble and an article about redshifts and the expanding universe. An article about Edwin Hubble, the telescope's namesake, is part of the people section, as are vignettes about a handful of Hubble's crew members. Archived webcasts about Hubble are also available.

Exploratorium

2001-01-01

34

Hubble Space Telescope Deep Field Lesson Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This product consists of four classroom activities, lithographs, and teachers guide. Students examine the Hubble Deep Field image and simulate the process astronomers use to count, classify, and identify objects in the image.

1997-01-01

35

Hubble's Cosmology: From a Finite Expanding Universe to a Static Endless Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the views of Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) as regards the large scale structure of the universe. In 1929 he initially accepted a finite expanding universe in order to explain the redshifts of distant galaxies. Later on he turned to an infinite stationary universe and a new principle of nature in order to explain the same phenomena. Initially, he was impressed by the agreement of his redshift-distance relation with one of the predictions of de Sitter's cosmological model, namely, the so-called "de Sitter effect'', the phenomenon of the scattering of material particles, leading to an expanding universe. A number of observational evidences, though, made him highly skeptical with such a scenario. They were better accounted for by an infinite static universe. The evidences he found were: (i) the huge values he was getting for the "recession'' velocities of the nebulae (1,800 km s-1 in 1929 up to 42,000 km s-1 in 1942, leading to v/c = 1/7), with the redshifts interpreted as velocity-shifts. All other known real velocities of large astronomical bodies are much smaller than these. (ii) The "number effect'' test, which is the running of nebulae luminosity with redshift. Hubble found that a static universe is, within the observational uncertainties, slightly favored. The test is equivalent to the modern "Tolman effect,'' for galaxy surface brightnesses, whose results are still a matter of dispute. (iii) The smallness of the size and the age of the curved expanding universe, implied by the expansion rate that he had determined, and, (iv) the fact that a uniform distribution of galaxies on large scales is more easily obtained from galaxy counts, when a static and flat model is considered. In an expanding and closed universe, Hubble found that homogeneity was only obtained at the cost of a large curvature. We show, by quoting his works, that Hubble remained cautiously against the big bang until the end of his life, contrary to the statements of many modern authors. In order to account for redshifts, in a non-expanding universe, Hubble called for a new principle of nature, like the "tired-light'' mechanism proposed by Fritz Zwicky in 1929. On the other hand, he was aware of the theoretical difficulties of such a radical assumption. Hubble's approach to cosmology strongly suggests that he would not agree with the present status of the modern cosmological paradigm, since he was, above all, driven by observations and by the consequences derived from them.

Assis, A. K. T.; Neves, M. C. D.; Soares, D. S. L.

2009-12-01

36

Hubble's Cosmology: From a Finite Expanding Universe to a Static Endless Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the views of Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) as regards the large scale structure of the universe. In 1929 he initially accepted a finite expanding universe in order to explain the redshifts of distant galaxies. Later on he turned to an infinite stationary universe and a new principle of nature in order to explain the same phenomena. Initially, he was

A. K. T. Assis; M. C. D. Neves; D. S. L. Soares

2009-01-01

37

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin on Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Meanwhile, astronaut Michael Collins piloted the command module in a parking orbit around the moon. This photo is of Edwin Aldrin walking on the lunar surface. Neil Armstrong, who took the photograph, can be seen reflected in Aldrin's helmet visor. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle, and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

38

Hubble's Famous Plate of 1923: A Story of Pink Polyethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 6, 1923 Edwin Hubble used the Mount Wilson 100-inch telescope to take a 45-minute exposure of a field in the Andromeda galaxy. This is the now-famous plate marked with his “VAR!” notation. I will discuss this plate and that notation. I will also tell the story of flying copies of that plate on the deployment mission for HST in 1990 as a Hubble memento and then locating those copies afterwards, and how copies were flown on Servicing Mission 4 on 2009 as well. This has led to an effort in which AAVSO members joined to identify and reobserve that noted star, arguably the most important object in the history of cosmology, but largely ignored since Hubble’s time.

Soderblom, D. R.

2012-06-01

39

The Advanced Camera for Surveys Coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

The Advanced Camera for Surveys Coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope John Krist1 , George: Hubble Space Telescope, coronagraph, high contrast imaging 1. INTRODUCTION There are certain astronomical to prevent saturation and optical ghosts. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has high-contrast capabilities

Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astonomy, Advanced Camera for Surveys Team

40

La prima variabile in M31 scoperta da Hubble. Campagna osservativa.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Heritage Team, with Dr. Keith Noll, Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), as Principal Investigator, plans to observe M31_V1 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and needs to know the phase of this Cepheid variable, the first one discovered by Edwin Hubble in M31. Although basic parameters are known for this star, no recent photometry exists, so observations are required to generate current phase information. Using telescope with mirror greater than 20 cm, the amateur can help to give useful data.

Bianciardi, G.

2011-02-01

41

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Egresses From Lunar Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Shown here is Aldrin Jr. making his exit from the LM to the lunar surface. Armstrong, who was already on the surface, took this photograph. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. During a 2½ hour surface exploration the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

42

Hubble's View of Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These NASA Hubble Space Telescope views of the blue-green planet Neptune provide three snapshots of changing weather conditions. The images were taken in 1994 on October 10 (upper left), October 18 (upper right), and November 2 (lower center), when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth.

Hubble is allowing astronomers to study Neptune's dynamic atmosphere with a level of detail not possible since the 1989 flyby of the Voyager 2 space probe. Building on Voyager's initial discoveries, Hubble is revealing that Neptune has a remarkably dynamic atmosphere that changes over just a few days.

The temperature difference between Neptune's strong internal heat source and its frigid cloud tops (-260 degrees Fahrenheit) might trigger instabilities in the atmosphere that drive these large-scale weather changes. In addition to hydrogen and helium, the main constituents, Neptune's atmosphere is composed of methane and hydrocarbons, like ethane and acetylene.

The picture was reconstructed from a series of Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images taken through different colored filters at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Absorption of red light by methane in Neptune's atmosphere contributes to the planet's distinctive aqua color; the clouds themselves are also somewhat blue. The pink features are high-altitude methane ice crystal clouds. Though the clouds appear white in visible light, they are tinted pink here because they were imaged at near infrared wavelengths.

The farthest of the gas giant planets, Neptune is four times Earth's diameter. Though Neptune was discovered in 1846, very little has been known about it until the advent of space travel and advanced telescopes.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

43

Astronomical masers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present treatment of astronomical masers discusses their thermodynamic equilibrium and matter-line radiation interaction, the OH, H2O, and SiO maser molecules, general properties of saturated masers, spherical and filamentary masers, and fully resolved Zeeman patterns and overlapping Zeeman components. Also considered are pumping effects, the stellar environment of astronomical masers, the relationship of astronomical masers to the stellar wing and

Moshe Elitzur

1992-01-01

44

Edwin M. McMillan, A biographical sketch  

SciTech Connect

Edwin M. McMillan was one of the great scientists of the middle years of this century. He made notable contributions to nuclear, and particle physics, the chemistry of transuranic elements, and accelerator physics.

Lofgren, E.J.

1994-07-01

45

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin photographed with pilot's hatch of spacecraft open  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot of the Gemini 12 space flight, is photographed with pilot's hatch of spacecraft open. Note J.A. Maurer camera which was used to photograph some of his extravehicular activity.

1966-01-01

46

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin practices work task aboard KC-135  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot for the Gemini 12 space flight, practices work tasks on a mock up of the adapter section of a spacecraft. Training took place on board an Air Force KC-135 jet aircraft.

1966-01-01

47

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin during zero gravity ingress and egress training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., prime crew pilot of the Gemini 12 space flight, undergoes zero gravity ingress and egress training aboard an Air Force KC-135 aircraft. He practices using camera equipment.

1966-01-01

48

Hubble's new view of the cosmos  

PubMed

Since the December 1993 repair of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) optics by the crew of the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the rapid-fire scientific achievements have brought a new era of discovery to the field of astronomy. Hubble has confirmed some astronomical theories, challenged others, and often come up with complete surprises. Some images are so unexpected that astronomers have to develop new theories to explain what they are seeing. The HST has detected galaxies out to the visible horizon of the cosmos, and has made an attempt at pinning down the universe's expansion rate. Both of these key research areas should ultimately yield answers to age-old questions: What has happened since the beginning of time, and will the universe go on forever? PMID:11538725

Villard, R

1996-05-01

49

HUBBLE REVEALS ULTRAVIOLET GALACTIC RING  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The appearance of a galaxy can depend strongly on the color of the light with which it is viewed. The Hubble Heritage image of NGC 6782 illustrates a pronounced example of this effect. This spiral galaxy, when seen in visible light, exhibits tightly wound spiral arms that give it a pinwheel shape similar to that of many other spirals. However, when the galaxy is viewed in ultraviolet light with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, its shape is startlingly different. Ultraviolet light has a shorter wavelength than ordinary visible light, and is emitted from stars that are much hotter than the Sun. At ultraviolet wavelengths, which are rendered as blue in the Hubble image, NGC 6782 shows a spectacular, nearly circular bright ring surrounding its nucleus. The ring marks the presence of many recently formed hot stars. Two faint, dusty spiral arms emerge from the outer edge of the blue ring and are seen silhouetted against the golden light of older and fainter stars. A scattering of blue stars at the outer edge of NGC 6782 in the shape of two dim spiral arms shows that some star formation is occurring there too. The inner ring surrounds a small central bulge and a bar of stars, dust, and gas. This ring is itself part of a larger dim bar that ends in these two outer spiral arms. Astronomers are trying to understand the relationship between the star formation seen in the ultraviolet light and how the bars may help localize the star formation into a ring. NGC 6782 is a relatively nearby galaxy, residing about 183 million light-years from Earth. The light from galaxies at much larger distances is stretched to longer, redder wavelengths ['redshifted'], due to the expansion of the universe. This means that if astronomers want to compare visible-light images of very distant galaxies with galaxies in our own neighborhood, they should use ultraviolet images of the nearby ones. Astronomers find that the distant galaxies tend to have different structures than nearby ones, even when they use the correct procedure of comparing visible light in distant galaxies with ultraviolet light from nearby ones. Since the distant galaxies are seen as they were billions of years ago, such observations are evidence that galaxies evolve with time. The Hubble image of NGC 6782 was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) in June 2000 as part of an ultraviolet survey of 37 nearby galaxies. The observations were carried out by an international 'Hubble mid-UV team' led by Dr. Rogier Windhorst of Arizona State University. Additional observations of NGC 6782 were made by the Hubble Heritage Team in June 2001. The color image was produced by combining data from both observing programs that were taken through color filters in the WFPC2 camera that isolated ultraviolet, blue, visible, and infrared light. Credits: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: R. Windhorst (ASU)

2002-01-01

50

Astronomical masers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research related to astronomical masers is reviewed. First, attention is given to phenomenology, including observations and modeling of galactic and extragalactic maser sources. The discussion then focuses on the developments concerning the physical properties of maser radiation. Finally, the use of masers as general tools for the study of astronomical environments where the radiation is produced and where it propagates, is discussed.

Elitzur, Moshe

1992-01-01

51

Astronomical observatories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The layout and equipment of astronomical observatories, the oldest scientific institutions of human society are discussed. The example of leading observatories of the USSR allows the reader to familiarize himself with both their modern counterparts, as well as the goals and problems on which astronomers are presently working.

Ponomarev, D. N.

1983-01-01

52

Astronomical kaleidoscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two

Alex Gaina

2005-01-01

53

A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a Rood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2011-01-01

54

Astronomical problems solved and unsolved - Reflections thereon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process by which scientists arrive at, come to accept, and later revise solutions to major problems is discussed using examples from the field of astronomy. The 300-year history of the discovery of annual stellar parallax is reviewed, and it is pointed out that Bessel's first measurements in the 1830's gained quick acceptance, without independent confirmation, from other astronomers. Hubble's

W. H. McCrea

1983-01-01

55

Hubble the Rotation of Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These three NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the planet Uranus reveal the motion of a pair of bright clouds in the planet's southern hemisphere, and a high altitude haze that forms a 'cap' above the planet's south pole.

Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These atmospheric details were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, detailed observations of Uranus's atmospheric features have not been possible because the planet is at the resolution limit of ground-based telescopes.

Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observed Uranus through a filter that is sensitive to light reflected by a pair of high altitude clouds. This makes a high altitude haze over Uranus' south polar region clearly visible, along with a pair of high altitude clouds or plume-type features that are 2500 and 1800 miles (4300 and 3100 kilometers) across, respectively. This sequence of images shows how the clouds (labeled A and B) rotate with the planet during the three hours that elapsed between the first two observations (left and center picture) and the five hours that elapsed between the second pair of observations (center and right picture). Some cloud motion might be due to high altitude winds on the planet. (Observations are indicated in Universal Time.)

By tracking the motion of high-altitude clouds, the new Hubble observations will allow astronomers to make new measurements of Uranus' rotation period. Based on the previous Voyager observations, Uranus spins on its axis at a faster rate than Earth does, completing one rotation every 7 hours, 14 minutes.

One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus's atmosphere, which should be unusual given the planet's large tilt.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1994-01-01

56

A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

Gardner, Jonathan

2011-01-01

57

A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2012-01-01

58

A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss the top 10 astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2009-01-01

59

A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2011-01-01

60

HUBBLE SPIES MOST DISTANT SUPERNOVA EVER SEEN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers pinpointed a blaze of light from the farthest supernova ever seen, a dying star that exploded 10 billion years ago. The detection and analysis of this supernova, called 1997ff, is greatly bolstering the case for the existence of a mysterious form of dark energy pervading the cosmos, making galaxies hurl ever faster away from each other. The supernova also offers the first glimpse of the universe slowing down soon after the Big Bang, before it began speeding up. This panel of images, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, shows the supernova's cosmic neighborhood; its home galaxy; and the dying star itself. Astronomers found this supernova in 1997 during a second look at the northern Hubble Deep Field [top panel], a tiny region of sky first explored by the Hubble telescope in 1995. The image shows the myriad of galaxies Hubble spied when it peered across more than 10 billion years of time and space. The white box marks the area where the supernova dwells. The photo at bottom left is a close-up view of that region. The white arrow points to the exploding star's home galaxy, a faint elliptical. Its redness is due to the billions of old stars residing there. The picture at bottom right shows the supernova itself, distinguished by the white dot in the center. Although this stellar explosion is among the brightest beacons in the universe, it could not be seen directly in the Hubble images. The stellar blast is so distant from Earth that its light is buried in the glow of its host galaxy. To find the supernova, astronomers compared two pictures of the 'deep field' taken two years apart. One image was of the original Hubble Deep Field; the other, the follow-up deep-field picture taken in 1997. Using special computer software, astronomers then measured the light from the galaxies in both images. Noting any changes in light output between the two pictures, the computer identified a blob of light in the 1997 picture that wasn't in the original deep-field study. That blob turned out to be the supernova. The red background texture is an artifact of the process of isolating the supernova. Credits: NASA, Adam Riess (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD)

2002-01-01

61

Hubble Space Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes the Hubble Space Telescope, shows visualizations of how optical and reflecting telescopes work, and shows original footage of the Hubble in Space. You hear why a telescope in space is valuable as well as see some of the amazing photographs the different cameras on the Hubble have taken.

Idaho PTV

2011-09-21

62

Official Portrait of Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the official NASA portrait of astronaut Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin. Prior to joining NASA, Aldrin flew 66 combat missions in F-86s while on duty in Korea. At Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, he served as an aerial gunnery instructor. Following his assignment as aide to the dean of faculty at the Air Force Academy, Aldrin flew F-100s as a flight commander at Bitburg, Germany. Aldrin was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963 and has logged 289 hours and 53 minutes in space, of which, 7 hours and 52 minutes were spent in Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). On November 11, 1966, he launched into space aboard the Gemini 12 spacecraft on a 4-day flight, which brought the Gemini program to a successful close. During that mission, Aldrin established a new record for EVA, spending 5-1/2 hours outside the spacecraft. July 16-24, 1969, Aldrin served as lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission. Aldrin followed Neil Armstrong onto the lunar surface on July 20, 1969, completing a 2-hour and 15 minute lunar EVA. Aldrin resigned from NASA in July 1971.

1967-01-01

63

Edwin Smith Papyrus Case 8: a reappraisal.  

PubMed

There are 3 translations of the Edwin Smith Papyrus: Breasted's (1930), Allen's (2005), and Sanchez and Meltzer's (2012). Case 8 is similarly presented in all 3 translations, although with increasing detail in the later works. The patient in Case 8 had a comminuted skull fracture under intact skin. There were palpable pulsations at the fracture site. There was deviation of the eye on the side of the injury and an ipsilateral spastic hemiparesis in an ambulant patient with bleeding from the nose and ear. Explanations of the paralysis have included a contrecoup lesion and compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorial incisura. Brainstem compression due to herniation is accompanied by loss of consciousness. Extensive contrecoup lesions consistent with the extent of the described paresis would also be associated with probable coma. The paralysis was spastic, but spasticity takes weeks to develop after trauma. Yet this patient's trauma was fresh, as there was still bleeding from the nose and the ear. It is suggested the paresis antedated the trauma, which was not its cause. The reasons for this suggestion are presented in this paper. PMID:24484229

Ganz, Jeremy C

2014-05-01

64

Determination of the Hubble constant  

PubMed Central

Establishing accurate extragalactic distances has provided an immense challenge to astronomers since the 1920s. The situation has improved dramatically as better detectors have become available, and as several new, promising techniques have been developed. For the first time in the history of this difficult field, relative distances to galaxies are being compared on a case-by-case basis, and their quantitative agreement is being established. New instrumentation, the development of new techniques for measuring distances, and recent measurements with the Hubble Space telescope all have resulted in new distances to galaxies with precision at the ±5–20% level. The current statistical uncertainty in some methods for measuring H0 is now only a few percent; with systematic errors, the total uncertainty is approaching ±10%. Hence, the historical factor-of-two uncertainty in the value of the H0 is now behind us. PMID:10500124

Freedman, Wendy L.; Feng, Long Long

1999-01-01

65

Determination of the Hubble constant.  

PubMed

Establishing accurate extragalactic distances has provided an immense challenge to astronomers since the 1920s. The situation has improved dramatically as better detectors have become available, and as several new, promising techniques have been developed. For the first time in the history of this difficult field, relative distances to galaxies are being compared on a case-by-case basis, and their quantitative agreement is being established. New instrumentation, the development of new techniques for measuring distances, and recent measurements with the Hubble Space telescope all have resulted in new distances to galaxies with precision at the +/-5-20% level. The current statistical uncertainty in some methods for measuring H(0) is now only a few percent; with systematic errors, the total uncertainty is approaching +/-10%. Hence, the historical factor-of-two uncertainty in the value of the H(0) is now behind us. PMID:10500124

Freedman, W L; Feng, L L

1999-09-28

66

HUBBLE FINDS NEW DARK SPOT ON NEPTUNE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet. The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared. Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere. Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere. The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops. Credit: H. Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and NASA

2002-01-01

67

Spike: AI scheduling for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spike scheduling system, developed for scheduling astronomical observations for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is described. Spike is an activity-based AI scheduler which incorporates innovative approaches to constraint representation and reasoning and scheduling search. Although developed for space telescope scheduling, the Spike system was designed around a general scheduling-constraint framework that can be applied to other domains. Techniques for

Mark D. Johnston

1990-01-01

68

HUBBLE HERITAGE PROJECT'S FIRST ANNIVERSARY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NGC 2440 is another planetary nebula ejected by a dying star, but it has a much more chaotic structure than NGC 2346. The central star of NGC 2440 is one of the hottest known, with a surface temperature near 200,000 degrees Celsius. The complex structure of the surrounding nebula suggests to some astronomers that there have been periodic oppositely directed outflows from the central star, somewhat similar to that in NGC 2346, but in the case of NGC 2440 these outflows have been episodic, and in different directions during each episode. The nebula is also rich in clouds of dust, some of which form long, dark streaks pointing away from the central star. In addition to the bright nebula, which glows because of fluorescence due to ultraviolet radiation from the hot star, NGC 2440 is surrounded by a much larger cloud of cooler gas which is invisible in ordinary light but can be detected with infrared telescopes. NGC 2440 lies about 4,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Puppis. The Hubble Heritage team made this image from observations of NGC 2440 acquired by Howard Bond (STScI) and Robin Ciardullo (Penn State). Image Credit: NASA/The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI).

2002-01-01

69

Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.  

PubMed

The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). It was named for Dr. Edwin B. Newman, the first national president of Psi Chi (1929) and one of its founders. The winners of this award for 1979 through 2014 are listed here. The 2014 recipient is Sümeyra Tosun. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25486158

2014-11-01

70

Astronomical kaleidoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two nice clocks in Prague, as well as a map of the Sanctuary in Orheiul -Vechi (Bessarabia) with an supposed ancient calendar.

Gaina, Alex

2005-10-01

71

HUBBLE CAPTURES DETAILED IMAGE OF URANUS' ATMOSPHERE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere. Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail. The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere. Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal. This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. CREDIT: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Lab) and NASA

2002-01-01

72

How I Became an Astronomer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life as an astronomer has taken me to view eclipses of the Sun from the Gaspe' Peninsula to the Pacific Ocean and the China and Coral Seas, and to observe the stars at observatories across the USA and as far south as Chile. I've also enjoyed working with NASA's telescopes in space, including the Hubble Space Telescope and the International Ultraviolet Explorer. It seems funny to reflect that it all began in the Sixth Grade by a fluke - the consequence of a hoax letter whose author I never identified.

Maran, Stephen P.

2001-01-01

73

The Astronomical Photographic Data Archive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute is the home of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA), a national effort to preserve, archive, and digitize astronomical photographic plate collections. APDA was formed in 2007 and presently holds more than 100,000 plates and films from more than a dozen observatory collections. While the photographic data pre-dates modern observational data taken with electronic instruments, it is nevertheless of extremely high quality. When one considers 100,000 plates and films in the APDA collection, some with 100's or 1000's of objects per plate, and plates taken over 100 years the value of the data in APDA becomes apparent. In addition to the astronomical photographic data collections, APDA also possesses two high precision glass plate measuring machines, GAMMA I and GAMMA II that were built for NASA and the Space Telescope Science Institute. The measuring machines were used by a team of scientists under the leadership of the late Dr. Barry Lasker to develop the Guide Star Catalog and Digitized Sky Survey that guide and direct the Hubble Space Telescope. We will describe the current set of collections, plans for the measuring machines, and the efforts that have been made to assure preservation of plate collections.

Cline, J. Donald; Barker, T.; Castelaz, M.

2010-01-01

74

New Hubble Servicing Mission to upgrade instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope is dominated by the familiar sharp images and amazing discoveries that have had an unprecedented scientific impact on our view of the world and our understanding of the universe. Nevertheless, such important contributions to science and humankind have only been possible as result of regular upgrades and enhancements to Hubble’s instrumentation. Using the Space Shuttle for this fifth Servicing Mission underlines the important role that astronauts have played and continue to play in increasing the Space Telescope’s lifespan and scientific power. Since the loss of Columbia in 2003, the Shuttle has been successfully launched on three missions, confirming that improvements made to it have established the required high level of safety for the spacecraft and its crew. “There is never going to be an end to the science that we can do with a machine like Hubble”, says David Southwood, ESA’s Director of Science. “Hubble is our way of exploring our origins. Everyone should be proud that there is a European element to it and that we all are part of its success at some level.” This Servicing Mission will not just ensure that Hubble can function for perhaps as much as another ten years; it will also increase its capabilities significantly in key areas. This highly visible mission is expected to take place in 2008 and will feature several space walks. As part of the upgrade, two new scientific instruments will be installed: the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and Wide Field Camera 3. Each has advanced technology sensors that will dramatically improve Hubble’s potential for discovery and enable it to observe faint light from the youngest stars and galaxies in the universe. With such an astounding increase in its science capabilities, this orbital observatory will continue to penetrate the most distant regions of outer space and reveal breathtaking phenomena. “Today, Hubble is producing more science than ever before in its history. Astronomers are requesting five times more observing time than that available to them” says Bob Fosbury, Head of the HST European Coordinating Facility. “The new instruments will open completely new windows on the universe. Extraordinary observations are planned over the coming years, including some of the most fascinating physical phenomena ever seen: investigation of planets around other stars, digging deeper into the ancestry of our Milky Way and above all gaining a much deeper insight into the evolution of the universe.” Around the same time that the Shuttle lifts off for the Servicing Mission, ESA will launch Herschel, the orbiting telescope with the largest mirror ever deployed in space. Herschel will complement Hubble in the infrared part of the spectrum and is an ESA mission with NASA participation. Instead of being left at the mercy of its aging instruments, the Hubble Space Telescope will now be given the new lease of life it deserves. In the hope that more discoveries from Hubble will help explain more of the mysteries of the universe, astronauts will make this fifth trip to the world’s most powerful visual light observatory and increase its lifespan and scientific power. Hubble’s direct successor, the James Webb Space Telescope - a collaborative project being undertaken by NASA, ESA and the Canadian Space Agency - is scheduled for launch in 2013. The Servicing Mission just decided on will reduce the gap between the end of the HST mission and the start of the JWST mission. Notes for editors The Hubble Space Telescope project is being carried out by ESA and NASA on the basis of international cooperation.

2006-10-01

75

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin practices work task aboard KC-135  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot for the Gemini 12 space flight, practices work tasks on a mock up of the adapter section of a spacecraft. Training took place on board an Air Force KC-135 jet aircraft. He wears a life support chest pack during the exercise.

1966-01-01

76

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin during underwater zero-gravity training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, pilot for the Gemini 12 space flight, assumes a rest position during underwater zero-gravity training. The underwater environment creates similar conditions to those found in space. He is secured to the adapter section of the spacecraft by special foot plates.

1966-01-01

77

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin practices tether attachment aboard KC-135  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot for the Gemini 12 space flight, attaches tether to hooks on mock up of the adapter section of a Gemini spacecraft. He is taking part in zero-gravity traiing on board an Air Force KC-135 jet aircraft in preparation for his extravehicular activity during the actual mission.

1966-01-01

78

Edwin Hopkins and the Costly Labor of Composition Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a "historical case study" of Edwin M. Hopkins, this article explores what Bruce Horner calls the "material social conditions" of teaching writing early in the twentieth century. It shows how Hopkins's own attitude and response to the demands of being a writing teacher serve as a backdrop for understanding his local and national crusade to…

Popken, Randall

2004-01-01

79

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin on Lunar Surface With Core Sampler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle, and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. This photo is of Edwin Aldrin on the lunar surface using the core sampler, one of the many tools used by the astronauts to collect samples. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

80

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin in open hatch of spacecraft during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, pilot for the Gemini 12 flight, stands up in the open hatch of the spacecraft during his extravehicular activity (EVA) on the first day of the four day mission in space. He prepares camera for installation on outside of the spacecraft (63537); Aldrin removes micrometeoroid package for return to the spacecraft (63538).

1966-01-01

81

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin undergoes evaluation with Astronaut Maneuvering Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., prime crew pilot of the Gemini 12 space flight, undergoes evaluation procedures with the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) in the 30 ft. altitude chamber at McDonnel Aircraft. The suited Aldrin is wearing an AMU back pack and an Extravehicular Life Support System chest pack.

1966-01-01

82

The Poet's Language: Foregrounding in Edwin Thumboo's "Gods Can Die."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores Singapore poet Edwin Thumboo's aesthetic use of consistent foregrounding, or use of certain linguistic devices to attract attention, in one poem from three perspectives: propositional; textual; and interpersonal. The approach adopted is functional-semantic in orientation and is designed to gain a better appreciation of the poem's texture…

Webster, Jonathan J.

1998-01-01

83

Astronaut Eugene Cernan and Edwin Aldrin during Apollo 10 debriefing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan (left), lunar module pilot of the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission, confers with Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during an Apollo 10 postflight debriefing session. Aldrin is the lunar module pilot of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

1969-01-01

84

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin practices work task aboard KC-135  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot for the Gemini 12 space flight, practices work tasks on a mock up of the adapter section of a spacecraft. He is secured to the mock up by special tethers. Training took place on board an Air Force KC-135 jet aircraft.

1966-01-01

85

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin egresses lunar module on lunar surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed egressing the lunar module during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. This picture was taken by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

1969-01-01

86

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin deploying Solar Wind Composition experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the Moon. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this picture with a 70mm lunar surface camera. Aldrin has just deployed the Solar Wind Composition experiment, a component of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP).

1969-01-01

87

Edwin L. Herr: Preeminent Scholar, Leader, Advocate, and Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This profile celebrates and chronicles selected themes and highlights of the ideas, scholarly accomplishments, leadership, humanity, and work ethic of Edwin L. Herr, one of the major forces in the counseling profession, for purposes of archiving elements of his history and stimulating continuity of his ideas, achievements, and dedication.

Engels, Dennis W.

2012-01-01

88

Finding the Right Formula: Edwin H. Walker Jr  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edwin H. Walker Jr earned his doctorate in chemistry at age 27 and has barely looked back. With 13 publications under his belt before coming out of graduate school, he has also given more than 20 poster presentations in national venues, most recently at the American Chemical Society. He can also include securing a half-million-dollar National…

Keels, Crystal L.

2005-01-01

89

"Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1  

ScienceCinema

Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

Edwin Campos

2013-06-10

90

KANT AND THE PERFECT DUTY TO OTHERS James Edwin Mahon  

E-print Network

ARTICLE KANT AND THE PERFECT DUTY TO OTHERS NOT TO LIE James Edwin Mahon INTRODUCTION A great contempt for lies and liars is evident in all of Kant's writings on practical philosophy and theology.1 Despite the frequency and the virulence 1 References to Kant's works in the text and endnotes are given

Marsh, David

91

The Truth about Kant on Lies James Edwin Mahon  

E-print Network

201 11 The Truth about Kant on Lies James Edwin Mahon As one philosopher has remarked, "one cannot Philosophie 10 (1956), 420. 2. Bernard Williams, Truth and Truthfulness: An Essay in Genealogy (Princeton:00:03 AM #12;202 Truth, Lies, and Self-Deception ethics is either overshadowed and ignored, or summarily

Marsh, David

92

On Digital Money and Card Technologies Edwin M. Knorr \\Lambda  

E-print Network

On Digital Money and Card Technologies Edwin M. Knorr \\Lambda Department of Computer Science fields: digital money and card technologies (especially smart cards), for possible PhD research topics. We believe that digital money and card technologies will revolutionize life in the 21st century

Knorr, Edwin M.

93

GORDON EDWIN DICKERSON, 1912 - 2000: A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gordon Edwin Dickerson was an international leader for most of the 20th Century in the field of quantitative animal breeding and genetics. This short biography sketches Gordon's personal, academic and scientific paths which are naturally intertwined. The sketch begins with his birth in Lagrande, Ore...

94

Pathos in Criticism: Edwin Black's Communism-as-Cancer Metaphor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edwin Black's essay on "The Second Persona," introduced to rhetorical critics a rationale and model for a type of ideological criticism. Because it ignored the role of pathos in both the rhetoric Black purported to critique and in the construction of his own audience, Black's essay mis-described key features of Robert Welch's "Blue Book", which…

Condit, Celeste M.

2013-01-01

95

"Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

Edwin Campos

2013-05-08

96

Hubble Finds New Dark Spot on Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet.

The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared.

Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere.

Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere.

The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

97

Hubble Legacy Archive And The Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) hosts the Image of the Month (IOTM) Series. The HLA is a joint project of STScI, the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC). The HLA is designed optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing online enhanced Hubble products and advanced browsing capabilities. The IOTM's are created for astronomers and the public to highlight various features within HLA, such as the "Interactive Display", "Footprint” and "Inventory” features to name a few. We have been working with the Office of Public Outreach (OPO) to create a standards based educational module for middle school to high school students of the IOTM: Rings and the Moons of Uranus. The set of Uranus activities are highlighted by a movie that displays the orbit of five of Uranus’ largest satellites. We made the movie based on eight visits of Uranus from 2000-06-16 to 2000-06-18, using the PC chip on the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and filter F850LP (proposal ID: 8680). Students will be engaged in activities that will allow them to "discover” the rings and satellites around Uranus, calculate the orbit of the satellites, and introduces students to analyze real data from Hubble.

Harris, Jessica; Whitmore, B.; Eisenhamer, B.; Bishop, M.; Knisely, L.

2012-01-01

98

Hubble Captures Detailed Image of Uranus' Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere.

Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail.

The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere.

Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal.

This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1996-01-01

99

Astronomical instruments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian astronomers have devised a number of instruments and the most important of these is the armillary sphere. The earliest armillary spheres were very simple instruments. Ptolemy in his Almagest enumerates at least three. The simplest of all was the equinoctial armilla. They had also the solstitial armilla which was a double ring, erected in the plane of the meridian with a rotating inner circle. This was used to measure the solar altitude.

Rai, R. N.

100

Modern Observations of Hubble''s First-discovered Cepheid in M31  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a modern ephemeris and modern light curve of the first-discovered Cepheid variable in M31, Edwin Hubble''s M31-V1. Observers of the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) undertook these observations during the latter half of 2010. The observations were in support of an outreach program by the Space Telescope Science Institute''s Hubble Heritage project, but the resulting data are the first concentrated observations of M31-V1 made in modern times. AAVSO observers obtained 214 V-band, Rc-band, and unfiltered observations from which a current ephemeris was derived. The ephemeris derived from these observations is JDMax=2,455,430.5(± 0.5) + 31.4( ± 0.1)E. The period derived from the 2010 data is in agreement with the historic values of the period, but the single season of data precludes a more precise determination of the period or measurement of the period change using these data alone. However, using an ephemeris based upon the period derived by Baade and Swope, we are able to fit all of the observed data acceptably well. Continued observations in the modern era will be very valuable in linking these modern data with data from the 1920s--1930s and 1950s and will enable us to measure period change in this historic Cepheid. In particular, we strongly encourage intensive observations of this star around predicted times of maximum to constrain the date of maximum to better than 0.5 days.

Templeton, M.; Henden, A.; Goff, W.; Smith, S.; Sabo, R.; Walker, G.; Buchheim, R.; Belcheva, G.; Crawford, T.; Cook, M.; Dvorak, S.; Harris, B.

2011-12-01

101

BEAUTY IN THE EYE OF HUBBLE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dying star, IC 4406, dubbed the 'Retina Nebula' is revealed in this month's Hubble Heritage image. Like many other so-called planetary nebulae, IC 4406 exhibits a high degree of symmetry; the left and right halves of the Hubble image are nearly mirror images of the other. If we could fly around IC4406 in a starship, we would see that the gas and dust form a vast donut of material streaming outward from the dying star. From Earth, we are viewing the donut from the side. This side view allows us to see the intricate tendrils of dust that have been compared to the eye's retina. In other planetary nebulae, like the Ring Nebula (NGC 6720), we view the donut from the top. The donut of material confines the intense radiation coming from the remnant of the dying star. Gas on the inside of the donut is ionized by light from the central star and glows. Light from oxygen atoms is rendered blue in this image; hydrogen is shown as green, and nitrogen as red. The range of color in the final image shows the differences in concentration of these three gases in the nebula. Unseen in the Hubble image is a larger zone of neutral gas that is not emitting visible light, but which can be seen by radio telescopes. One of the most interesting features of IC 4406 is the irregular lattice of dark lanes that criss-cross the center of the nebula. These lanes are about 160 astronomical units wide (1 astronomical unit is the distance between the Earth and Sun). They are located right at the boundary between the hot glowing gas that produces the visual light imaged here and the neutral gas seen with radio telescopes. We see the lanes in silhouette because they have a density of dust and gas that is a thousand times higher than the rest of the nebula. The dust lanes are like a rather open mesh veil that has been wrapped around the bright donut. The fate of these dense knots of material is unknown. Will they survive the nebula's expansion and become dark denizens of the space between the stars or simply dissipate? This image is a composite of data taken by Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in June 2001 by Bob O'Dell (Vanderbilt University) and collaborators and in January 2002 by The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI). Filters used to create this color image show oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen gas glowing in this object. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: C.R. O'Dell (Vanderbilt University)

2002-01-01

102

52Hubble Detects More Dark Matter This NASA Hubble Space  

E-print Network

52Hubble Detects More Dark Matter This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the distribution is an invisible form of matter that accounts for most of the universe's mass. Hubble cannot see the dark matter, tinted blue, on an image of the cluster taken by Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys. If the cluster

103

Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

1990-01-01

104

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin during underwater zero-gravity training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, pilot for the Gemini 12 space flight, practices work tasks in preparation for his extravehicular activity during the Gemini 12 flight. He works with a telescoping hand rail he will use to move from the spacecraft to the Agena Target Docking Vehicle (54934); Aldrin practices extravehicular work task during underwater zero-gravity training. He works on the docking collar of the Agena Target Docking Vehicle mockup using hand holds to secure himself to the vehicle (54935).

1966-01-01

105

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin makes sandwich in zero gravity conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Apollo 11 lunar module pilot, makes a sandwich in zero gravity conditions in this color reproduction taken from at TV transmission from the Apollo 11 spacecraft during its transearth journey home from the moon. When this picture was made, Apollo 11 was approximately 157,000 nautical miles from earth, traveling at a speed of about 4,300 feet per second.

1969-01-01

106

HUBBLE HERITAGE PROJECT'S FIRST ANNIVERSARY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HH 32 is an excellent example of a 'Herbig-Haro object,' which is formed when young stars eject jets of material back into interstellar space. This object, about 1,000 light-years from Earth, is somewhat older than Hubble's variable nebula, and the wind from the bright central star has already cleared much of the dust out of the central region, thus exposing the star to direct view. Many young stars, like the central object in HH 32, are surrounded by disks of gas and dust that form as additional material is attracted gravitationally from the surrounding nebula. Material in the disk gradually spirals in toward the star and eventually some of it accretes onto the star, increasing its mass. A fraction of the gas, however, is ejected perpendicularly to the disk at speeds near 200 miles per second, and forms two oppositely directed jets. These jets plow into the surrounding nebula, producing strong shock waves that heat the gas and cause it to glow in the light of hydrogen atoms (green) and sulfur ions (blue), several other atoms and ions, and sometimes radiation from the exciting star that is reflected by the surrounding gas (red). This glow is called a Herbig-Haro object, in honor of astronomers George Herbig and Guillermo Haro, who did much of the early work in this area in the 1950's. The jet on the top side, whose furthest extent is about 0.2 light-year from the star, is pointed more nearly in our direction, while the opposite jet on the bottom lies on the far side of the star and is fainter either because it is partially obscured by dust surrounding the star or because there is much less material in front of the star. The Hubble Heritage team (NASA/AURA/STScI) made this image from observations of Herbig-Haro 32 acquired by Salvador Curiel, Jorge Canto, Alejandro Raga, (UNAM), Alberto Noriega-Crespo (IPAC), and collaborators. Image Credit: NASA/The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI).

2002-01-01

107

Correcting Hubble Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the theory behind the workings of the Hubble Space Telescope, the spherical aberration in the primary mirror that caused a reduction in image quality, and the corrective device that compensated for the error. (JRH)

Shaw, John M.; Sheahen, Thomas P.

1994-01-01

108

Hubble Space Telescope Solar Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a view of a solar cell blanket deployed on a water table during the Solar Array deployment test. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Arrays provide power to the spacecraft. The arrays are mounted on opposite sides of the HST, on the forward shell of the Support Systems Module. Each array stands on a 4-foot mast that supports a retractable wing of solar panels 40-feet (12.1-meters) long and 8.2-feet (2.5-meters) wide, in full extension. The arrays rotate so that the solar cells face the Sun as much as possible to harness the Sun's energy. The Space Telescope Operations Control Center at the Goddard Space Center operates the array, extending the panels and maneuvering the spacecraft to focus maximum sunlight on the arrays. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST Solar Array was designed by the European Space Agency and built by British Aerospace. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

1985-01-01

109

European astronauts set for Hubble challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swiss-born Claude Nicollier will become the first European to make a "spacewalk" from the Space Shuttle. Frenchman Jean-François Clervoy, chief operator of the Shuttle's robotic arm, will capture the telescope and release it once work has been completed. The mission's main objective is to replace Hubble's failed pointing system, which allows astronomers to aim the telescope very precisely at stars, planets and other distant astronomical objects. During 10 days in orbit, astronauts will undertake four "spacewalks" to update and renew equipment. Nicollier will achieve the ambition of a lifetime when he exits the airlock at the beginning of the mission's second major spacewalk in the early hours of 16 December on his first six-hour stint carrying out repairs on the two-storey high Hubble telescope. The opportunity for one of its astronaut to make two spacewalks during the mission is important for ESA. "It is a question of building up experience. We have had EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) from Mir but this will be the first time a European has had the opportunity to go from the Shuttle," said Nicollier. Nicollier is on his fourth flight into space. Among them he took part in the first Hubble servicing mission in 1993, controlling the Shuttle's robotic arm while astronauts outside performed repairs to the telescope. This time Clervoy, on his third flight, will have that lead role in the operation of the robotic arm. About 48 hours after launch, Clervoy will take the controls, extend the Shuttle's arm and gently attach it to a fixture on Hubble as the two hurtle round the Earth in tandem at speeds of 27,000 km an hour. There is no room for mistakes as he performs a task in real time that he has practised for many hours in simulations on the ground. After attaching the arm, he will slowly guide the 12-ton telescope to its repair berth at the rear of the Shuttle's payload bay. Clervoy flew in space for the first time on the Space Shuttle Atlantis in November 1994 and the experience gained on that flight - when he controlled the robotic arm to deploy an atmospheric research satellite for the German space agency DLR - will be invaluable. Notes on the Hubble Space Telescope: The Hubble Space Telescope was launched in 1990 with an expected orbital lifetime of 20 years. ESA contributed a 15 percent share to its development and in return European astronomers receive a guaranteed 15 percent share of observing time. In reality this has averaged 20 percent because of the high quality of proposals from scientists in Europe. A servicing mission had been scheduled for June 2000 but after three of the telescope's six gyroscopes failed NASA officials decided not to risk waiting. Hubble requires three of its six gyroscopes to operate properly for accurate stabilisation but a fourth failed in November - posing no long term threat to the telescope but meaning observations had to be suspended until the replacements are fitted. As well as replacing all the telescope's gyros, the crew will install other equipment that has either degraded in the harsh space environment or can now be replaced with more up-to-date technology. Media opportunities during the mission: An inflight press conference will be held with the STS-103 crew including Claude Nicollier and Jean-François Clervoy. If you wish to attend, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it by fax to ESA Public Relations.

1999-12-01

110

S PIKE : Intelligent Scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the S PIKE system, a general framework for scheduling which has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute for NASA's Hubble Space Tele-scope (HST). Efficient use of astronomical observatories is very important to the scientific community: the demand for research-grade telescopes far exceeds the supply. The need for efficient scheduling is especially keen for space-based facilities

Mark D. Johnston; Glenn E. Miller

1994-01-01

111

75 FR 3761 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...the licensee), for operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and...

2010-01-22

112

75 FR 69137 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...the licensee), for operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant (HNP), Unit...the Final Environmental Statement for the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No....

2010-11-10

113

For Sale in London, Paris and Babylon: Edwin Long's The Babylonian Marriage Market  

E-print Network

1 For Sale in London, Paris and Babylon: Edwin Long's The Babylonian Marriage Market Sophie painting, The Babylonian Marriage Market was the `sensation picture' at the Royal Academy summer exhibition and elbowings of an Academy crowd. Edwin Longsden Long took two years to complete The Babylonian Marriage Market

Sheldon, Nathan D.

114

HUBBLE UNVEILS A GALAXY IN LIVING COLOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this view of the center of the magnificent barred spiral galaxy NGC 1512, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's broad spectral vision reveals the galaxy at all wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared. The colors (which indicate differences in light intensity) map where newly born star clusters exist in both 'dusty' and 'clean' regions of the galaxy. This color-composite image was created from seven images taken with three different Hubble cameras: the Faint Object Camera (FOC), the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). NGC 1512 is a barred spiral galaxy in the southern constellation of Horologium. Located 30 million light-years away, relatively 'nearby' as galaxies go, it is bright enough to be seen with amateur telescopes. The galaxy spans 70,000 light-years, nearly as much as our own Milky Way galaxy. The galaxy's core is unique for its stunning 2,400 light-year-wide circle of infant star clusters, called a 'circumnuclear' starburst ring. Starbursts are episodes of vigorous formation of new stars and are found in a variety of galaxy environments. Taking advantage of Hubble's sharp vision, as well as its unique wavelength coverage, a team of Israeli and American astronomers performed one of the broadest and most detailed studies ever of such star-forming regions. The results, which will be published in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal, show that in NGC 1512 newly born star clusters exist in both dusty and clean environments. The clean clusters are readily seen in ultraviolet and visible light, appearing as bright, blue clumps in the image. However, the dusty clusters are revealed only by the glow of the gas clouds in which they are hidden, as detected in red and infrared wavelengths by the Hubble cameras. This glow can be seen as red light permeating the dark, dusty lanes in the ring. 'The dust obscuration of clusters appears to be an on-off phenomenon,' says Dan Maoz, who headed the collaboration. 'The clusters are either completely hidden, enshrouded in their birth clouds, or almost completely exposed.' The scientists believe that stellar winds and powerful radiation from the bright, newly born stars have cleared away the original natal dust cloud in a fast and efficient 'cleansing' process. Aaron Barth, a co-investigator on the team, adds: 'It is remarkable how similar the properties of this starburst are to those of other nearby starbursts that have been studied in detail with Hubble.' This similarity gives the astronomers the hope that, by understanding the processes occurring in nearby galaxies, they can better interpret observations of very distant and faint starburst galaxies. Such distant galaxies formed the first generations of stars, when the universe was a fraction of its current age. Circumstellar star-forming rings are common in the universe. Such rings within barred spiral galaxies may in fact comprise the most numerous class of nearby starburst regions. Astronomers generally believe that the giant bar funnels the gas to the inner ring, where stars are formed within numerous star clusters. Studies like this one emphasize the need to observe at many different wavelengths to get the full picture of the processes taking place.

2002-01-01

115

The hubble constant.  

PubMed

The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and distance in the expanding universe. It is a fundamental property of cosmology that sets both the scale and the expansion age of the universe. It is determined by measurement of galaxy The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and development of new techniques for the measurements of galaxy distances, both calibration uncertainties and debates over systematic errors remain. Current determinations still range over nearly a factor of 2; the higher values favored by most local measurements are not consistent with many theories of the origin of large-scale structure and stellar evolution. PMID:17743107

Huchra, J P

1992-04-17

116

Hubble News Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hubble site this is a collection of all publicly released pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope. Accompanying each photograph is the official news release, an introduction to the object, fast facts, and related frequently asked questions. The news releases are sorted by category, year, and type. Some of these categories consist of: cosmology, exotic, galaxy, miscellaneous, nebula, solar system, star, star cluster, and survey. Image files in different sizes and formats are available for download. This is a nice resource for those interested in the more visual aspects of astronomy and space sciences.

2009-05-14

117

Hubble Heritage Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) offers a "celestial photo album" to offer users some of the best photos taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently, visual and textual descriptions are available for four objects: Galaxy NGC 7742; NGC 7635, The Bubble Nebula; Sagittarius Star Cloud (SGR-I); and Saturn. Users may choose to explore the site from the more easily navigated Subject Index, which also offers technical information about the images and the Hubble Project and a few links. The site will be updated the first Thursday of each month with a composition created from recent image data.

118

Hubble's Nobel Prize  

E-print Network

Astronomy is not in the list of natural sciences aimed at by the Nobel awards. In spite of that, there were, throughout the 1930s until the early 1950s, effective moves by important scientists to distinguish Hubble with the Prize. A short report on these attempts is made as well as speculation on what would be the citation for the prize in view of the broad range of Hubble's scientific achievements. Within this context, the opportunity is also taken for publicizing the Crafoord Prize which does consider astronomy.

Domingos Soares

2001-03-05

119

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin during underwater zero-gravity training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, pilot for the Gemini 12 space flight, practices egress procedures from mockup of his spacecraft during underwater zero-gravity training. He holds a telescoping hand rail in his left hand which he will use to move from the spacecraft to the Agena Target Docking vehicle (54937); Aldrin prepares to take a 'rest position' during underwater zero-gravity training. His feet are secured to a mockup of the adapter section of the spacecraft by a special foot plate (54938); Aldrin practices work tasks during underwater zero-gravity training. He is placing his feet into special foot plate in adapter section of the spacecraft (54939).

1966-01-01

120

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin deploying the EASEP on surface of moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed deploying the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the Moon. Here, he is deploying the Passive Seismic Experiments Package (PSEP). Already deployed is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR-3), which can be seen to the left and further in the background. In the center background is the Lunar Module (LM). A flag of the United States is deployed near the LM. In the far left background is the deployed black and white lunar surface television camera. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this picture with the 70mm lunar surface camera.

1969-01-01

121

Edwin E. Moise Bibliography of the Vietnam War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Edwin E. Moise of Clemson University has provided a vast bibliography of the Vietnam war. Containing mostly books, it is divided into three major sections: microfilmed document collections, general publications, and U.S. government publications. It is this organization, especially the latter two sections, that is the power of the site. General publications is divided into 45 sections (mostly chronological) and government publications is divided into 20 sections. Many entries are briefly annotated. Unfortunately, the site is not searchable, but the hundreds of citations and their categorization make this one of the more impressive bibliographies of its kind on the Internet.

Moise, Edwin E.

122

From Galileo to Hubble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial from the Space Telescope Science Institute covers the development of telescopes from Galileo to the Hubble Space Telescope, using images, animations, and text. Students must answer questions as they progress through the lesson. Telescopes covered include the Hooker, Hale, and Keck.

123

Hubble Telescope: Looking Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from the Space Telescope Science Institute shows what the Hubble telescope found when it stared at a single, nearly empty spot in the sky for 10 days in 1995. The unexpected result was a picture of a multitude of galaxies stretching into the distance.

2005-12-17

124

Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory  

E-print Network

Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory HST-COS FUV PER 11/8/00 FUV Detector System Materials;Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory HST-COS FUV PER 11/8/00 Materials and Processes · Materials based on Heritage of FUSE/ORFEUS Flight Systems #12;Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory HST

Colorado at Boulder, University of

125

HUBBLE SNAPS PICTURE OF REMARKABLE DOUBLE CLUSTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The double cluster NGC 1850, found in one of our neighboring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, is an eye-catching object. It is a young, 'globular-like' star cluster -- a type of object unknown in our own Milky Way Galaxy. Moreover, NGC 1850 is surrounded by a filigree pattern of diffuse gas, which scientists believe was created by the explosion of massive stars. NGC 1850, imaged here with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope, is an unusual double cluster that lies in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our own Milky Way. After the 30 Doradus complex, NGC 1850 is the brightest star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It is representative of a special class of objects -- young, globular-like star clusters -- that have no counterpart in our galaxy. The two components of the cluster are both relatively young and consist of a main, globular-like cluster in the center and an even younger, smaller cluster, seen below and to the right, composed of extremely hot, blue stars and, fainter red T-Tauri stars. The main cluster is about 50 million years old; the smaller cluster is only 4 million years old. One of Hubble's main contributions to the study of NGC 1850 is in the investigation of star formation at both ends of the stellar mass scale -- the low-mass T-Tauri stars and the high-mass OB stars. T-Tauri stars are young, solar-class stars that are still forming, so young that they may have not started converting hydrogen to helium, which is how our Sun produces its energy. Instead they radiate energy released by their own gravitational contraction. By investigating these stars astronomers learn about the births and lives of low-mass stars. T-Tauri stars tend to occur in crowded environments, but are themselves faint, making them difficult to distinguish with ground-based telescopes. However, Hubble's fine angular resolution can pick out these stars, even in galaxies other than our own. Hubble also has advantages when studying very massive stars. These stars emit large amounts of energetic ultraviolet radiation, which is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. From its position above the atmosphere, Hubble can detect ultraviolet light from these massive stars. The Hubble data can then be analyzed and used to characterize the stars' properties. This Hubble image is a good example of the interaction between gas, dust, and stars. Millions of years ago massive stars in the main cluster exploded as supernovas, forming the spectacular filigree pattern of diffuse gas visible in the image. It is believed that the birth of new stars can be triggered by the enormous forces in the shock fronts where the supernova blast waves hit and compress the gas. The nebulous gas is part of the N103 super bubble and looks similar to the well-known supernova remnant Cygnus Loop in our own Milky Way. NGC 1850 lies in the southern constellation of Dorado, the Goldfish, sometimes known as the Swordfish. This image was created from five archival exposures obtained with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 between April 3, 1994 and February 6, 1996. Image credits: NASA, ESA, and Martino Romaniello (European Southern Observatory, Germany) Acknowledgements: The image processing for this image was done by Martino Romaniello, Richard Hook, Bob Fosbury and the Hubble European Space Agency Information Center.

2002-01-01

126

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Undergoes Communications Systems Final Check  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dunned in his space suit, Lunar Module pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. does a final check of his communications system before the boarding of the Apollo 11 mission. Launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle, the first manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Aldrin; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Neil Armstrong, mission commander. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. Meanwhile, astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

127

Apollo 11 Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Prepares for Weightless Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, donned in his space suit, gets in more time under weightless conditions aboard a KC-135 aircraft from the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

128

Hubble Space Telescope via the Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) makes available a wide variety of information concerning the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) via the Space Telescope Electronic Information Service (STEIS). STEIS is accessible via anonymous ftp, gopher, WAIS, and WWW. The information on STEIS includes how to propose for time on the HST, the current status of HST, reports on the scientific instruments, the observing schedule, data reduction software, calibration files, and a set of publicly available images in JPEG, GIF and TIFF format. STEIS serves both the astronomical community as well as the larger Internet community. WWW is currently the most widely used interface to STEIS. Future developments on STEIS are expected to include larger amounts of hypertext, especially HST images and educational material of interest to students, educators, and the general public, and the ability to query proposal status.

O'Dea, Christopher P.

129

HUBBLE SHOWS EXPANSION OF ETA CARINAE DEBRIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The furious expansion of a huge, billowing pair of gas and dust clouds are captured in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope comparison image of the supermassive star Eta Carinae. To create the picture, astronomers aligned and subtracted two images of Eta Carinae taken 17 months apart (April 1994, September 1995). Black represents where the material was located in the older image, and white represents the more recent location. (The light and dark streaks that make an 'X' pattern are instrumental artifacts caused by the extreme brightness of the central star. The bright white region at the center of the image results from the star and its immediate surroundings being 'saturated' in one of the images.)Photo Credit: Jon Morse (University of Colorado), Kris Davidson (University of Minnesota), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

2002-01-01

130

Hubble's Sharpest View Of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sharpest view of Mars ever taken from Earth was obtained by the recently refurbished NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This stunning portrait was taken with the HST Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 (WFPC2) on March 10, 1997, just before Mars opposition, when the red planet made one of its closest passes to the Earth (about 60 million miles or 100 million km).

At this distance, a single picture element (pixel) in WFPC2's Planetary Camera spans 13 miles (22 km) on the Martian surface.

The Martian north pole is at the top (near the center of the bright polar cap) and East is to the right. The center of the disk is at about 23 degrees north latitude, and the central longitude is near 305 degrees.

This view of Mars was taken on the last day of Martian spring in the northern hemisphere (just before summer solstice). It clearly shows familiar bright and dark markings known to astronomers for more than a century. The annual north polar carbon dioxide frost (dry ice) cap is rapidly sublimating (evaporating from solid to gas), revealing the much smaller permanent water ice cap, along with a few nearby detached regions of surface frost. The receding polar cap also reveals the dark, circular sea of sand dunes that surrounds the north pole (Olympia Planitia).

Other prominent features in this hemisphere include Syrtis Major Planitia, the large dark feature seen just below the center of the disk. The giant impact basin Hellas (near the bottom of the disk) is shrouded in bright water ice clouds. Water ice clouds also cover several great volcanos in the Elysium region near the eastern edge of the planet (right). A diffuse water ice haze covers much of the Martian equatorial region as well.

The WFPC2 was used to monitor dust storm activity to support the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Missions, which are currently en route to Mars. Airborne dust is most easily seen in WFPC2's red and near-infrared images. Hubble's 'weather report' from these images in invaluable for Mars Pathfinder, which is scheduled for a July 4 landing. Fortunately, these images show no evidence for large-scale dust storm activity, which plagued a previous Mars mission in the early 1970s.

The WFPC2 was used to observe Mars in nine different colors spanning the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The specific colors were chosen to clearly discriminate between airborne dust, ice clouds, and prominent Martian surface features. This picture was created by combining images taken in blue (433 nm), green (554 nm), and red (763 nm) colored filters.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1997-01-01

131

European astronaut duo on their way to Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

They are on a 8-day mission to service the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope. The European scientific community is waiting anxiously for the telescope to be returned to full operation. Nicollier is set to become the first European to walk in space from the Space Shuttle. On Thrusday 23 December, Nicollier will step out of the Shuttle's airlock, help fit a new main computer, a replacement fine guidance sensor which will allow fine pointing and keep Hubble stable. Clervoy will operate the Shuttle's robotic arm during demanding phases of the mission, including initial capture of the satellite and for the spacewalks. Nicollier is on his fourth flight into space. Among them he took part in the first Hubble servicing mission in 1993, controlling the Shuttle's robotic arm while astronauts outside performed repairs to the telescope. This time Clervoy, on his third flight, will have the lead role in the operation of the robotic arm. A vital part of the mission is to replace the telescope's six gyroscopes which help stabilise the giant observatory during observations of distant astronomical objects. Hubble requires three of its six gyroscopes to operate properly for accurate stabilisation but a fourth failed in November posing no long term threat to the telescope but meaning observations had to be suspended until replacements are fitted. Discovery's mission is scheduled to last almost 9 days with a landing targeted to occur at the Kennedy Space Centre Shuttle Landing Facility on Monday 27 December at 17:24 EST local time (Monday 27 December 23:24 CET). Hubble was launched in 1990 with an expected orbital lifetime of 20 years. ESA contributed a 15 percent share to its development and in return European astronomers receive a guaranteed 15 percent share of observing time but in reality this has averaged 20 percent because of the high quality of proposals from scientists in Europe.

1999-12-01

132

HUBBLE SEES MINI-COMET FRAGMENTS FROM COMET LINEAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[lower right] In one stunning Hubble picture the fate of the mysteriously vanished solid nucleus of Comet LINEAR has been settled. The Hubble picture shows that the comet nucleus has been reduced to a shower of glowing 'mini-comets' resembling the fiery fragments from an exploding aerial firework. This is the first time astronomers have ever gotten a close-up look at what may be the smallest building blocks of cometary nuclei, the icy solid pieces called 'cometesimals', which are thought to be less than 100 feet across. The farthest fragment to the left, which is now very faint, may be the remains of the parent nucleus that fragmented into the cluster of smaller pieces to the right. The comet broke apart around July 26, when it made its closest approach to the Sun. The picture was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on August 5, 2000, when the comet was at a distance of 64 million miles (102 million kilometers) from Earth. Credit: NASA, Harold Weaver (the Johns Hopkins University), and the HST Comet LINEAR Investigation Team [upper left] A ground-based telescopic view (2.2-meter telescope) of Comet LINEAR taken on August 5, at nearly the same time as the Hubble observations. The comet appears as a diffuse elongated cloud of debris without any visible nucleus. Based on these images, some astronomers had concluded that the ices in the nucleus had completely vaporized, leaving behind a loose swarm of dust. Hubble's resolution was needed to pinpoint the remaining nuclei (inset box shows HST field of view as shown in lower right). Credit: University of Hawaii

2002-01-01

133

Zero CTE Glass in the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiting high above the turbulence of the Earth's atmosphere, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has provided breathtaking views of astronomical objects never before seen in such detail. The steady diffraction-limited images allow this medium-size telescope to reach faint galaxies fainter than 30th stellar magnitude. Some of these galaxies are seen as early as 2 billion years after the Big Bang in a 13.7 billion year old universe. Up until recently, astronomers assumed that all of the laws of physics and astronomy applied back then as they do today. Now, using the discovery that certain supernovae are "standard candles," astronomers have found that the universe is expanding faster today than it was back then: the universe is accelerating in its expansion. The Hubble Space Telescope is a two-mirror Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 2.4m aperture in low earth orbit. The mirrors are made of Ultra Low Expansion (ULE) glass by Corning Glass Works. This material allows rapid figuring and outstanding performance in space astronomy applications. The paper describes how the primary mirror was mis-figured in manufacturing and later corrected in orbit. Outstanding astronomical images taken over the last 17 years show how the application of this new technology has advanced our knowledge of the universe. Not only has the acceleration of the expansion been discovered, the excellent imaging capability of HST has allowed gravitational lensing to become a tool to study the distribution of dark matter and dark energy in distant clusters of galaxies. The HST has touched practically every field of astronomy enabling astronomers to solve many long-standing puzzles. It will be a long time until the end of the universe when the density is near zero and all of the stars have long since evaporated. It is remarkable that humankind has found the technology and developed the ability to interpret the measurements in order to understand this dramatic age we live in.

Wood, H. John

2008-01-01

134

The Hubble Deep Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginnings of observational cosmology Allan Sandage; The Hubble Deep Field Richard Ellis; Kinematics of distant galaxies Garth Illingworth; Redshift clustering in the HDF Judith Cohen; Radio observations of the HDF Kenneth Kellerman; The ISO survey of the HDF Michael Rowan-Robinson; Galaxy counts Rogier Windhorst; Large ground-based Redshift surveys in the context of the HDF Simon Lilly; Galaxy ages and morphologies at z

Livio, Mario; Fall, S. Michael; Madau, Piero

1998-12-01

135

Hubble Space Telescope Spies on 'Black Eye'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Residing roughly 17 million light years from Earth, in the northern constellation Coma Berenices, is a merged star system known as Messier 64 (M64). First cataloged in the 18th century by the French astronomer Messier, M64 is a result of two colliding galaxies and has an unusual appearance as well as bizarre internal motions. It has a spectacular dark band of absorbing dust in front of its bright nucleus, lending to it the nickname of the 'Black Eye' or 'Evil Eye' galaxy. Fine details of the dark band can be seen in this image of the central portion of M64 obtained by the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Appearing to be a fairly normal pinwheel-shaped galaxy, the M64 stars are rotating in the same direction, clockwise, as in the majority of galaxies. However, detailed studies in the 1990's led to the remarkable discovery that the interstellar gas in the outer regions of M64 rotates in the opposite direction from the gas and stars in the irner region. Astronomers believe that the oppositely rotating gas arose when M64 absorbed a satellite galaxy that collided with it, perhaps more than one billion years ago. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

2004-01-01

136

The Hubble Helix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the 14 hours of peak Leonid meteoroid flux in November 2002, the Hubble Space Telescope was pointed away from incoming meteoroids, and the solar arrays were oriented to minimize their cross-section. By coincidence, one of the most prominent planetary nebulae, the Helix Nebula, a.k.a. NGC 7293, was nearly opposite the incoming Leonids and could be observed. A ``Hubble Helix Team'' of volunteers led by M. Meixner (STScI) organized a nine-orbit campaign to observe the Helix with the ACS, WFPC2, NICMOS, and STIS. A contiguous 3 by 3 grid of 4kx4k-pixel ACS images covering much but not all of the Helix was exposed in two filters, H? +[N II] (F658N) and [O III] (F502N). A few of the WFPC2 images observed in parallel also observed the nebula in [O I] (F631N) or He II 4686 (F469N) or H? (F656N). NICMOS/NIC3 observations were obtained at two locations on the nebula and two off, in H2 (F212N) and Paschen-? (F187N). A few of the STIS parallel observations in [OII] (F28X0OII) were located on the nebula. The main purpose of this presentation is to advertise to all interested parties the availability of the non-proprietary data via the HST archive. Initial data analysis by the Hubble Helix Team will be presented in this poster.

McCullough, P. R.; Hubble Helix Team

2002-12-01

137

Edwin Hall and the Emergence of the Laboratory in Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the inception of laboratory activities in the instruction of physics in American secondary and higher education institutions. In particular, the impact of Edwin Hall on secondary school physics instruction is described. (CP)

Moyer, Albert E.

1976-01-01

138

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin undergoes zero-gravity egress training aboard KC-135  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., backup crew pilot for the Gemini 9 space flight, undergoes zero-gravity egress training aboard an Air Force KC-135. Extravehicular activity is planned for the Gemini 9 mission.

1966-01-01

139

Perspectives: Language Use in Society, Schools, and the Education Profession--Edwin Newman.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains an interview with journalist Edwin Newman in which Newman urges that students be taught to use language with greater precision, and a response to Newman by John S. Mayher and Rita S. Brause. (DD)

Dillon, David A.

1979-01-01

140

ACESTODE PARASITE IN THE FLESH OF THE BUTTERFISH. By EDWIN LINTON, Ph. D.  

E-print Network

ACESTODE PARASITE IN THE FLESH OF THE BUTTERFISH. By EDWIN LINTON, Ph. D. BUREAU OF FISHERIES of cysts in butterfish _.. " _ _.. _ __ __ 115 Details of examinationsof butterfish for cysts _ : .. _ _ , .125 Life history of the parasite.. __ _ __ .. " , __ _ __ 126 Special case of butterfish

141

Edwin Buzz Aldrin At Lunar Landing Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly 25 years ago, on July 20,1969, Edwin Buzz Aldrin, shown here with NASA Langley Research Centers Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) Simulator, became one of the first humans to walk on the moon after practicing with the simulator in May of 1969. Training with the simulator, part of Langleys Lunar Research Facility, allowed the Apollo astronauts to study and safely overcome problems that could have occurred during the final 150-foot descent to the surface of the moon. NASA needed such a facility in order to explore and develop techniques for landing the LEM on the moons surface, where the gravity is only one-sixth as strong as on Earth, as well as to determine the limits of human piloting capabilities in the new surroundings. This unique facility, completed in 1965 and now a National Historic Landmark, effectively canceled all but one-sixth of Earths gravitational force by using an overhead cable system.

1969-01-01

142

HUBBLE SNAPSHOT CAPTURES LIFE CYCLE OF STARS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a nearly face-on view of a swirling disk of dust and gas surrounding a developing star called AB Aurigae. The Hubble telescope image, taken in visible light by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, shows unprecedented detail in the disk, including clumps of dust and gas that may be the seeds of planet formation. Normally, a young star's bright light prevents astronomers from seeing material closer to it. That's why astronomers used a coronograph in these two images of AB Aurigae to block most of the light from the star. The rest of the disk material is illuminated by light reflected from the gas and dust surrounding the star. The image on the left represents the best ground-based coronographic observation of AB Aurigae. Paul Kalas of the Space Telescope Science Institute took the image with the University of Hawaii's 2.2-meter telescope. The telescope's coronograph eclipsed a 33.5-billion-mile (53.6-billion-kilometer) area centered on the star. This area is nine times larger than our solar system. The picture shows that the star resides in a region of dust clouds - the semicircular-shaped material to the left of the star. The Hubble telescope image on the right shows a windowpane-shaped occulting bar -- the dark bands running vertically through the middle of the image and horizontally across the upper part of it. The occulting bar covers the innermost part of the disk and star, about 7.1 billion miles (11.5 billion kilometers) or 1.4 times our solar system's diameter. The diagonal lines are the remnants of the diffraction spikes produced in Hubble telescope images of bright stars. The disk is extremely wide: its diameter is roughly 1,300 times Earth's distance from the Sun. The disk material seen in this image is at a distance equivalent to well beyond Pluto's orbit. One faint background star is visible at 5 o'clock. The star's disk shows a wealth of structure, with bright spiral-shaped bands from 9 o'clock to 6 o'clock and closer to the star from 12 o'clock to 3 o'clock. The outermost of these bands are seen in the ground-based image. The imaging spectrograph data show that these bands are themselves composed of numerous smaller bands. The smallest features include some bright knots of material to the left of the star. These knots are close in size to the resolution limit of the Hubble telescope and have diameters 1.3 to 3 billion miles (2 to 5 billion kilometers) wide or 14 to 32 times Earth's distance from the Sun. The brightest knot is at 9 o'clock. The image was taken Jan. 23 and 24, 1999. False colors were used to bring out details in AB Aurigae's disk. The wavelength range is 2,000 to 10,100 Angstroms. Credit: C.A. Grady (National Optical Astronomy Observatories, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), B. Woodgate (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), F. Bruhweiler and A. Boggess (Catholic University of America), P. Plait and D. Lindler (ACC, Inc., Goddard Space Flight Center), M. Clampin (Space Telescope Science Institute), and NASA.

2002-01-01

143

Hubble Hunts Black Holes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive, online module provides students the opportunity to explore actual Hubble images and the tools used to hunt for black holes. By completing this activity, students learn about the technology required to confirm the existence of black holes. Students may complete this activity independently or in small groups. Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title page, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards. This activity is a subsection of "Is a Black Hole Really A Hole?" It is within the online exploration No Escape: The Truth about Black Holes, available on the Amazing Space website.

144

Armenian Astronomical Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is given on the Armenian Astronomical Heritage from ancient times to nowadays. Armenian ancient astronomy includes the division of the skies into constellations, rock art, ancient Armenian calendar, ancient observatories (such as Metsamor and Karahunge), records of astronomical events (such as Halley's Comet recorded on Tigranes the Great's coin), ancient names of celestial bodies (planets, stars, constellations), etc. The Medieval Armenian astronomy includes two more calendars, Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage, the record of 1054 Supernova, sky maps by Luca Vanandetsi and Mkhitar Sebastatsi, etc. Modern Armenian astronomical heritage first of all consists of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory founded in 1946 by Viktor Ambartsumian, as well as Yerevan Astronomical Observatory, Armenian Astronomical Society, Armenian Virtual Observatory, Yerevan State University Department of Astrophysics, Astrofizika journal, and brilliant young students who systematically win high positions at International Astronomical Olympiads.

Mickaelian, A. M.

2014-10-01

145

Calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope polarimetric modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stellar and galactic polarimetry from space is an unexplored observational regime and one which holds exciting promise for answering many fundamental astrophysical questions. The Hubble Space Telescope will be the first space observatory to provide a variety of polarimetric modes to astronomers including spectral, imaging, and single-aperture UV polarimetry. As part of the calibration program for these modes, the Space Telescope Science Institute has initiated a ground-based program to define faint standard fields and solicited community support to establish a temporal baseline for these potential standard targets. In this paper, the polarimetric capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope, the philosophy and complications of in-flight calibration, and the status and direction of the standard targets program are discussed.

Lupie, O. L.; Stockman, H. S.

1988-01-01

146

American Astronomical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The major organization of professional astronomers in North America, the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) main goal "is to promote the advancement of astronomy and closely related branches of science." The website presents the Society's three scholarly journals and its numerous publications. The Education link offers an abundance of educational resources for users of all levels, answers to many astronomical questions, and fascinating news articles. Researchers can find out about grants, prizes, employment, and membership opportunities.

147

HUBBLE OBSERVES THE LOST ANCESTORS TO OUR MILKY WAY GALAX  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of the central portion of a remote cluster of galaxies (CL 0939+4713) as it looked when the universe was two-thirds of its present age. Hubble's high resolution allows astronomers to study, for the first time, the shapes of galaxies as they were long ago. The Space Telescope pictures are sharp enough to distinguish between various forms of spiral galaxies. Most of the spiral, or disk, galaxies have odd features, suggesting they were easily distorted within the environment of the rich cluster. Hubble reveals a number of mysterious 'fragments' of galaxies interspersed through the cluster. The HST picture confirms that billions of years ago, clusters of galaxies contained not only the types of galaxies dominating their descendant clusters today, but also several times as many spiral galaxies. These spiral galaxies have since disappeared through mergers and disruptions, as evident in the Hubble image. This visible light image was taken with HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in Wide Field Camera mode, on January 10 and 12, 1994. Credit: Alan Dressler (Carnegie Institution) and NASA

2002-01-01

148

Virtual Amateur Astronomer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Amateur Astronomer is an archive of high-quality images of all varieties of astronomical objects. The images, hosted on the Virtual Amateur Astronomer web site and linked from other web pages, include high- and low-resolution versions (where available), brief descriptions, and links to additional information. They are organized by subject: the solar system, Messier objects, the Milky Way and universe, and a selection of miscellaneous images. There is also a "best of" category, links to other web sites with astronomical imagery, and a selection of images capturing the amateur experience, captured through small telescopes.

149

The Carnegie Hubble Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present an overview of and preliminary results from an ongoing comprehensive program that has a goal of determining the Hubble constant to a systematic accuracy of 2%. As part of this program, we are currently obtaining 3.6 micron data using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer, and the program is designed to include JWST in the future. We demonstrate that the mid-infrared period-luminosity relation for Cepheids at 3.6 microns is the most accurate means of measuring Cepheid distances to date. At 3.6 microns, it is possible to minimize the known remaining systematic uncertainties in the Cepheid extragalactic distance scale. We discuss the advantages of 3.6 micron observations in minimizing systematic effects in the Cepheid calibration of the Hubble constant including the absolute zero point, extinction corrections, and the effects of metallicity on the colors and magnitudes of Cepheids. We are undertaking three independent tests of the sensitivity of the mid-IR Cepheid Leavitt Law to metallicity, which when combined will allow a robust constraint on the effect. Finally, we are providing a new mid-IR Tully-Fisher relation for spiral galaxies.

Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Vicky; Mnso, Andy; Persson, S. E.; Rigby, Jane; Sturch, Laura; Stetson, Peter

2011-01-01

150

18 years of science with the Hubble Space Telescope.  

PubMed

After several decades of planning, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched in 1990 as the first of NASA's Great Observatories. After a rocky start arising from an error in the fabrication of its main mirror, it went on to change forever many fields of astronomy, and to capture the public's imagination with its images. An ongoing programme of servicing missions has kept the telescope on the cutting edge of astronomical research. Here I review the advances made possible by the HST over the past 18 years. PMID:19122634

Dalcanton, Julianne J

2009-01-01

151

Perturbations to the Hubble diagram  

E-print Network

We compute the linear responses of the Hubble diagram to small scalar perturbations in the Robertson-Walker metric and to small peculiar velocities of emitter and receiver. We discuss the monotonicity constraint of the Hubble diagram in the light of these responses.

Thomas Schucker; Ilhem ZouZou

2005-11-17

152

Cosmology: From Hubble to HST  

SciTech Connect

The Hubble constant sets the size and age of the Universe, and, together with independent determinations of the age, provides a consistency check of the standard cosmology. The Hubble constant also provides an important test of our most attractive paradigm for extending the standard cosmology, inflation and cold dark matter.

Turner, Michael S.

1997-03-01

153

Calibration of Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

Calibration of Hubble Space Telescope Guidance Sensors: Application of Seminal Ideas of Eichhorn William H. Je#erys 11, Abstract calibration Space Telescope Guidance Sensors (FGS) a challenges. no su's on solving important astrometric problem. Introduction Hubble Telescope Guidance Sensors (FGS) designed

Jefferys, William

154

Observing Campaign on Hubble's First Variable in M31: M31_V1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An observing campaign is being carried out on M31_V1, the first variable star discovered in M31 by Edwin Hubble. The Hubble Heritage Team, with Dr. Keith Noll (STScI) as P.I., plans to observe M31_V1 with HST, and needs to know the phase of this Cepheid variable. Although basic parameters are known for this star, no recent photometry exists, so observations are required to generate current phase information. In 1925 Edwin Hubble published a note in The Observatory (vol. 48, 139) on "Cepheids in Spiral Nebulae." In 1929, he published a seminal paper in the Astrophysical Journal (vol. 69, 103), "A Spiral Nebula as a Stellar System, Messier 31." This paper discussed in detail the galaxy and the 50 variable stars he found in its outer regions. Hubble remarked that the 40 Cepheids found showed the period-luminosity relationship in a conspicuous manner, enabling distance to the galaxy to be calculated. Furthermore, he said that the results of his calculations supported the value determined by Harlow Shapley of the zero point of the period-luminosity relation. This confirmation of the zero point had significant implications for future extragalactic distance determinations. As the first of the variables on Hubble's list, V1, a Cepheid, is a historical curiosity. M31_V1 is magnitude 19.4V. B-V = +1.28, period is 30.41 days, and amplitude ~ 1.2 magnitudes in B, likely smaller in V. Five nights of data obtained by Arne Henden, AAVSO, show that the variable appears to have peaked on 2010 June 19 at about R=18 and as of July 2 was on its way down. It is recommended that observers use either an Rc filter or observe unfiltered. About an hour or more of exposure per integration will be required to reach S/N = 20, depending on your equipment and sky brightness; multiple exposures and stacking might be necessary to avoid saturating the background. The field is not crowded, and the variable itself is not blended. Contamination from the M31 background should n! ot be prohibitive. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp); Rc magnitudes of comparison stars are in the chart-associated photometry table. An R-band finder chart from the Isaac Newton 2.5-m telescope provided by Arne Henden is available. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and links to images and charts.

Waagen, Elizabeth O.

2010-07-01

155

Russian Astronomical Data Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate goal of the RVO initiative is to integrate resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions, and to provide Russian data to the rest of the world. We collect information about all available Russian and some former Soviet Union (fSU) astronomical data resources, classify them and register them in the registries of other VO projects. A

O. Yu. Malkov; D. A. Kovaleva; E. Yu. Kilpio

2006-01-01

156

The Practical Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The Practical Astronomer" by Thomas Dick, LLD, E.C. & J. Biddle, Philadelphia, 1849, is reviewed. Information on telescope makers and astronomers can be found. Mentioned are: Fraunhofer; John Herschel; Lawson; Dollond; Tulley; W. & S. Jones; and S.W. Burnham.

Koester, Jack

157

Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center is the largest astronomical institution in Poland, located in Warsaw and founded in 1956. At present it is a government-funded research institute supervised by the Polish Academy of Sciences and licensed by the government of Poland to award PhD and doctor habilitatus degrees in astronomy and astrophysics. In September 1999 staff included 21 senior scientist...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

158

Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center is the largest astronomical institution in Poland, located in Warsaw and founded in 1956. At present it is a government-funded research institute supervised by the Polish Academy of Sciences and licensed by the government of Poland to award PhD and doctor habilitatus degrees in astronomy and astrophysics. In September 1999 staff included 21 senior scientist...

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

159

Astronomical Software Directory Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report on the development of the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS), a distributable, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URL's indexed for full-text searching.

Hanisch, R. J.; Payne, H.; Hayes, J.

1998-01-01

160

Astronomical trip to Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint European Astronomical Meeting -1995 held in Catania, Sicily, chaired by Rodono, Marcelo is described. Few other details: the trip to Serbia through Romania, the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade (former director: Milan S. Dimitrijevic), as well as the trip through the Adriatic Sea , Italy the bridge in Messina and the city of Catania are described also.

Gaina, Alex

2007-12-01

161

The Hubble constant.  

PubMed Central

Five methods of estimating distances have demonstrated internal reproducibility at the level of 5-20% rms accuracy. The best of these are the cepheid (and RR Lyrae), planetary nebulae, and surface-brightness fluctuation techniques. Luminosity-line width and Dn-sigma methods are less accurate for an individual case but can be applied to large numbers of galaxies. The agreement is excellent between these five procedures. It is determined that Hubble constant H0 = 90 +/- 10 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16) m]. It is difficult to reconcile this value with the preferred world model even in the low-density case. The standard model with Omega = 1 may be excluded unless there is something totally misunderstood about the foundation of the distance scale or the ages of stars. PMID:11607391

Tully, R B

1993-01-01

162

The Hubble constant.  

PubMed

Five methods of estimating distances have demonstrated internal reproducibility at the level of 5-20% rms accuracy. The best of these are the cepheid (and RR Lyrae), planetary nebulae, and surface-brightness fluctuation techniques. Luminosity-line width and Dn-sigma methods are less accurate for an individual case but can be applied to large numbers of galaxies. The agreement is excellent between these five procedures. It is determined that Hubble constant H0 = 90 +/- 10 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16) m]. It is difficult to reconcile this value with the preferred world model even in the low-density case. The standard model with Omega = 1 may be excluded unless there is something totally misunderstood about the foundation of the distance scale or the ages of stars. PMID:11607391

Tully, R B

1993-06-01

163

Hubble Observes Surface of Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists for the first time have made images of the surface of Saturn's giant, haze-shrouded moon, Titan. They mapped light and dark features over the surface of the satellite during nearly a complete 16-day rotation. One prominent bright area they discovered is a surface feature 2,500 miles across, about the size of the continent of Australia.

Titan, larger than Mercury and slightly smaller than Mars, is the only body in the solar system, other than Earth, that may have oceans and rainfall on its surface, albeit oceans and rain of ethane-methane rather than water. Scientists suspect that Titan's present environment -- although colder than minus 289 degrees Fahrenheit, so cold that water ice would be as hard as granite -- might be similar to that on Earth billions of years ago, before life began pumping oxygen into the atmosphere.

Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and his team took the images with the Hubble Space Telescope during 14 observing runs between Oct. 4 - 18. Smith announced the team's first results last week at the 26th annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences in Bethesda, Md. Co-investigators on the team are Mark Lemmon, a doctoral candidate with the UA Lunar and Planetary Laboratory; John Caldwell of York University, Canada; Larry Sromovsky of the University of Wisconsin; and Michael Allison of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York City.

Titan's atmosphere, about four times as dense as Earth's atmosphere, is primarily nitrogen laced with such poisonous substances as methane and ethane. This thick, orange, hydrocarbon haze was impenetrable to cameras aboard the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft that flew by the Saturn system in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The haze is formed as methane in the atmosphere is destroyed by sunlight. The hydrocarbons produced by this methane destruction form a smog similar to that found over large cities, but is much thicker.

Smith's group used the Hubble Space Telescope's WideField/Planetary Camera 2 at near-infrared wavelengths (between .85 and 1.05 microns). Titan's haze is transparent enough in this wavelength range to allow mapping of surface features according to their reflectivity. Only Titan's polar regions could not be mapped this way, due to the telescope's viewing angle of the poles and the thick haze near the edge of the disk. Their image-resolution (that is, the smallest distance seen in detail) with the WFPC2 at the near-infrared wavelength is 360 miles. The 14 images processed and compiled into the Titan surface map were as 'noise' free, or as free of signal interference, as the space telescope allows, Smith said.

Titan makes one complete orbit around Saturn in 16 days, roughly the duration of the imaging project. Scientists have suspected that Titan's rotation also takes 16 days, so that the same hemisphere of Titan always faces Saturn, just as the same hemisphere of the Earth's moon always faces the Earth. Recent observations by Lemmon and colleagues at the University of Arizona confirm this true.

It's too soon to conclude much about what the dark and bright areas in the Hubble Space Telescope images are -- continents, oceans, impact craters or other features, Smith said. Scientists have long suspected that Titan's surface was covered with a global ehtane-methane ocean. The new images show that there is at least some solid surface.

Smith's team made a total 50 images of Titan last month in their program, a project to search for small scale features in Titan's lower atmosphere and surface. They have yet to analyze images for information about Titan's clouds and winds. That analysis could help explain if the bright areas are major impact craters in the frozen water ice-and-rock or higher-altitude features.

The images are important information for the Cassini mission, which is to launch a robotic spacecraft on a 7-year journey to Saturn in October 1997. About three weeks before Cassini's first flyby

1994-01-01

164

HUBBLE SEES SUPERSONIC EXHAUST FROM NEBULA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. Ground-based studies have shown that the nebula's size increases with time, suggesting that the stellar outburst that formed the lobes occurred just 1,200 years ago. The central star in M2-9 is known to be one of a very close pair which orbit one another at perilously close distances. It is even possible that one star is being engulfed by the other. Astronomers suspect the gravity of one star pulls weakly bound gas from the surface of the other and flings it into a thin, dense disk which surrounds both stars and extends well into space. The disk can actually be seen in shorter exposure images obtained with the Hubble telescope. It measures approximately 10 times the diameter of Pluto's orbit. Models of the type that are used to design jet engines ('hydrodynamics') show that such a disk can successfully account for the jet-exhaust-like appearance of M2-9. The high-speed wind from one of the stars rams into the surrounding disk, which serves as a nozzle. The wind is deflected in a perpendicular direction and forms the pair of jets that we see in the nebula's image. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in blue. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Vincent Icke (Leiden University, The Netherlands), Garrelt Mellema (Stockholm University), and NASA

2002-01-01

165

Type Ia Supernovae and the Hubble Constant  

E-print Network

The focus of this review is the work that has been done during the 1990s on using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to measure the Hubble constant ($H_0$). SNe Ia are well suited for measuring $H_0$. A straightforward maximum-light color criterion can weed out the minority of observed events that are either intrinsically subluminous or substantially extinguished by dust, leaving a majority subsample that has observational absolute-magnitude dispersions of less than $\\sigma_{obs}(M_B) \\simeq \\sigma_{obs}(M_V) \\simeq 0.3$ mag. Correlations between absolute magnitude and one or more distance-independent SN Ia or parent-galaxy observables can be used to further standardize the absolute magnitudes to better than 0.2 mag. The absolute magnitudes can be calibrated in two independent ways --- empirically, using Cepheid-based distances to parent galaxies of SNe Ia, and physically, by light curve and spectrum fitting. At present the empirical and physical calibrations are in agreement at $M_B \\simeq M_V \\simeq -19.4$ or -19.5. Various ways that have been used to match Cepheid-calibrated SNe Ia or physical models to SNe Ia that have been observed out in the Hubble flow have given values of $H_0$ distributed throughout the range 54 to 67 km/s Mpc$^{-1}$. Astronomers who want a consensus value of $H_0$ from SNe Ia with conservative errors could, for now, use $60 \\pm 10$ km/s Mpc^{-1}$.

D. Branch

1998-01-08

166

Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology.  

PubMed

Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists. PMID:25194751

Stewart, Alan E

2014-09-01

167

Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

Stewart, Alan E.

2014-09-01

168

HUBBLE'S PLANETARY NEBULA GALLERY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[Top left] - IC 3568 lies in the constellation Camelopardalis at a distance of about 9,000 light-years, and has a diameter of about 0.4 light-years (or about 800 times the diameter of our solar system). It is an example of a round planetary nebula. Note the bright inner shell and fainter, smooth, circular outer envelope. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Top center] - NGC 6826's eye-like appearance is marred by two sets of blood-red 'fliers' that lie horizontally across the image. The surrounding faint green 'white' of the eye is believed to be gas that made up almost half of the star's mass for most of its life. The hot remnant star (in the center of the green oval) drives a fast wind into older material, forming a hot interior bubble which pushes the older gas ahead of it to form a bright rim. (The star is one of the brightest stars in any planetary.) NGC 6826 is 2,200 light- years away in the constellation Cygnus. The Hubble telescope observation was taken Jan. 27, 1996 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy) and NASA [Top right ] - NGC 3918 is in the constellation Centaurus and is about 3,000 light-years from us. Its diameter is about 0.3 light-year. It shows a roughly spherical outer envelope but an elongated inner balloon inflated by a fast wind from the hot central star, which is starting to break out of the spherical envelope at the top and bottom of the image. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Bottom left] - Hubble 5 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or bipolar (two-lobed) nebula. The heat generated by fast winds causes each of the lobes to expand, much like a pair of balloons with internal heaters. This observation was taken Sept. 9, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Hubble 5 is 2,200 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Vincent Icke (Leiden University, The Netherlands), Garrelt Mellema (Stockholm University), and NASA [Bottom center ] - Like NGC 6826, NGC 7009 has a bright central star at the center of a dark cavity bounded by a football-shaped rim of dense, blue and red gas. The cavity and its rim are trapped inside smoothly-distributed greenish material in the shape of a barrel and comprised of the star's former outer layers. At larger distances, and lying along the long axis of the nebula, a pair of red 'ansae', or 'handles' appears. Each ansa is joined to the tips of the cavity by a long greenish jet of material. The handles are clouds of low-density gas. NGC 7009 is 1,400 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. The Hubble telescope observation was taken April 28, 1996 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy), NASA [Bottom right ] - NGC 5307 also lies in Centaurus but is about 10,000 light-years away and has a diameter of approximately 0.6 light-year. It is an example of a planetary nebula with a pinwheel or spiral structure; each blob of gas ejected from the central star has a counterpart on the opposite side of the star. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA

2002-01-01

169

Astronomical Society "Magellanic Cloud"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical society "Magellanic cloud" was founded on May 16, 2001 in the town of Prokuplje, Serbia, by A. Simonovi?, A. Valjarevi?, then students of geography at the University of Priština, Ž. Mijajlovi? professor of mathematics, S. šegan, professor of astronomy, both of the University of Belgrade. In this paper we present the activities of the Society in the popularization of astronomy and mathematics in Prokuplje and its vicinity. Also, the role of the Society in building the Astronomical station of the Astronomical observatory of Belgrade at the mountain Vidojevica close to Prokuplje is described.

Mijajlovic, Z.; Valjarevic, A.; Pejovic, N.; Simonovic, A.

2009-09-01

170

Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory  

E-print Network

Environmental Qualification Overview Dr. Barry Welsh FUV Project Manager #12;Space Telescope Programs Hubble ENVIRONMENTAL QUALIFICATION OVERVIEW · FUV detector environmental test requirements specified in the COS APPENDIX A: Environmental Verification Matrix Qualification Requirement Description A T I Assembly Level

Colorado at Boulder, University of

171

Microlensing with Hubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microlensing can be used to study dark matter, galactic structure, and to search for extra-solar planets. However, a significant problem with microlensing is the mass determination of the lens. Typically, microlensing events provides only a single measured quantity that depends on the lens mass, the Einstein angle crossing time, ?, which also depends on the distances to the lens and source as well as the relative transverse velocity. Thus, it is difficult to derive unique mass estimates for the lens. Non-degenerate solutions are possible, as was shown by Alcock et al. for MACHO LMC-5, when the source and lens can be resolved. It may be possible to distinguish between the lens and source by re-observing a microlensing candidate years after the first observation. As it turns out, a substantial number of fields containing microlensing events have been observed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We currently have identified over 180 possible matches to lensing events. In many of these cases, there was a time difference of years between the HST observation (or observations) and the ground-based detection. We present initial results from our archival program and discuss the implications for future studies.

Ginsburg, Idan; Di Stefano, Rosanne; Lepine, Sebastien; Primini, Francis A.; Oprescu, Antonia; Tunbridge, Ben

2014-06-01

172

HubbleSite: Video Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This index, part of the Hubble Space Telescope website, helps users find archived videos and image sets on every Hubble image released to the public. It is organized by topic: Cosmology, Dark Matter, Galaxies, Nebulae, Solar System, Stars, and Star Clusters. Example topics include black holes, neutron stars, distant galaxies, and supernovae. Users can search by subject or by keywords. All images and/or videos may be downloaded or embedded in classroom presentations.

2005-06-07

173

Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for Hubble's success is the advantage of being in orbit, beyond the Earth's atmosphere. From there it enjoys a crystal-clear view of the universe - without clouds and atmospheric disturbances to blur its vision. European astronomer Guido De Marchi from ESO in Munich has been using Hubble since the early days of the project. He explains: "HST can see the faintest and smallest details and lets us study the stars with great accuracy, even where they are packed together - just as with those in the centre of our Galaxy". Dieter Reimers from Hamburg Observatory adds: "HST has capabilities to see ultraviolet light, which is not possible from the ground due to the blocking effect of the atmosphere. And this is really vital to our work, the main aim of which is to discover the chemical composition of the Universe." The Servicing Missions In the early plans for telescope operations, maintenance visits were to have been made every 2.5 years. And every five years HST should have been transported back to the ground for thorough overhaul. This plan has changed somewhat over time and a servicing scheme, which includes Space Shuttle Servicing Missions every three years, was decided upon. The two first Servicing Missions, in December 1993 (STS-61) and February 1997 (STS-82) respectively, were very successful. In the first three years of operations HST did not meet expectations because its primary mirror was 2 microns too flat at the edge. The first Servicing Mission in 1993 (on which the European astronaut Claude Nicollier flew) dealt with this problem by installing a new instrument with corrective optics (COSTAR - Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement). With this pair of "glasses" HST's golden age began. The images were as sharp as originally hoped and astonishing new results started to emerge on a regular basis. The first Servicing Mission also replaced the solar panels and installed a new camera (Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 - WFPC2). The High-Speed Photometer (HSP) was replaced by COSTAR. During the second Servicing Missi

1999-11-01

174

Segmentation of astronomical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Object detection is one of the most important procedures in astronomical imaging. This paper deals with segmentation of astronomical images based on random forrest classifier. We consider astronomical image data acquired using a photometric system with B, V, R and I filters. Each image is acquired in more realizations. All image realizations are corrected using master dark frame and master at field obtained as an average of hundreds of images. Then a profile photometry is applied to find possible position of stars. The classifier is trained by B, V, R and I image vectors. Training samples are defined by user using ellipsoidal regions (20 selections for both classes: object, background). A number of objects and their positions are compared with astronomical object catalogue using Euclidean distance. We can conclude that the performance of the presented technique is fully comparable to other SoA algorithms.

Švihlík, Jan; Vítek, Stanislav; Fliegel, Karel; Páta, Petr; Anisimova, Elena

2014-09-01

175

Korean Astronomical Calendar, Chiljeongsan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fifteenth century Korea, there was a grand project for the astronomical calendar and instrument making by the order of King Sejong ?? (1418-1450). During this period, many astronomical and calendrical books including Islamic sources in Chinese versions were imported from Ming ? China, and corrected and researched by the court astronomers of Joseon ?? (1392-1910). Moreover, the astronomers and technicians of Korea frequently visited China to study astronomy and instrument making, and they brought back useful information in the form of new published books or specifications of instruments. As a result, a royal observatory equipped with 15 types of instrument was completed in 1438. Two types of calendar, Chiljeongsan Naepyeon ????? and Chiljeongsan Oepyeon ?????, based on the Chinese and Islamic calendar systems, respectively, were published in 1444 with a number of calendrical editions such as corrections and example supplements (??) including calculation methods and results for solar and lunar eclipses.

Lee, Eun Hee

176

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CAPTURES FIRST DIRECT IMAGE OF A STAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the first direct image of a star other than the Sun, made with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Called Alpha Orionis, or Betelgeuse, it is a red supergiant star marking the shoulder of the winter constellation Orion the Hunter (diagram at right). The Hubble image reveals a huge ultraviolet atmosphere with a mysterious hot spot on the stellar behemoth's surface. The enormous bright spot, more than ten times the diameter of Earth, is at least 2,000 Kelvin degrees hotter than the surface of the star. The image suggests that a totally new physical phenomenon may be affecting the atmospheres of some stars. Follow-up observations will be needed to help astronomers understand whether the spot is linked to oscillations previously detected in the giant star, or whether it moves systematically across the star's surface under the grip of powerful magnetic fields. The observations were made by Andrea Dupree of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, and Ronald Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, MD, who announced their discovery today at the 187th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Antonio, Texas. The image was taken in ultraviolet light with the Faint Object Camera on March 3, 1995. Hubble can resolve the star even though the apparent size is 20,000 times smaller than the width of the full Moon -- roughly equivalent to being able to resolve a car's headlights at a distance of 6,000 miles. Betelgeuse is so huge that, if it replaced the Sun at the center of our Solar System, its outer atmosphere would extend past the orbit of Jupiter (scale at lower left). Credit: Andrea Dupree (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), Ronald Gilliland (STScI), NASA and ESA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

2002-01-01

177

Brooks Astronomical Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brooks Astronomical Observatory, located at Central Michigan University, was built for research and public use. The website presents the history of the Observatory and its technological capabilities. Users can find a long list of scientific publications based on research performed at the observatory. The numerous astronomical topics researched include asteroids, stellar clusters, occultations, and light pollution. Individuals can view fantastic images of comets, planets, and other space phenomena collected at the Observatory.

178

HUBBLE SNAPS 'FAMILY PORTRAIT'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has peered into the Cone Nebula, revealing a stunning image of six baby sun-like stars surrounding their mother, a bright, massive star. Known as NGC 2264 IRS, the massive star triggered the creation of these baby stars by releasing high-speed particles of dust and gas during its formative years. The image on the left, taken in visible light by a ground-based telescope, shows the Cone Nebula, located 2,500 light-years away in the constellation Monoceros. The white box pinpoints the location of the star nursery. The nursery cannot be seen in this image because dust and gas obscure it. The large cone of cold molecular hydrogen and dust rising from the lefthand edge of the image was created by the outflow from NGC 2264 IRS. The NICMOS image on the right shows this massive star - the brightest source in the region - and the stars formed by its outflow. The baby stars are only .04 to .08 light-years away from their brilliant mother. The rings surrounding the massive star and the spikes emanating from it are not part of the image. This pattern demonstrates the near-perfect optical performance of NICMOS. A near-perfect optical system should bend light from point-like sources, such as NGC 2264 IRS, forming these diffraction patterns of rings and spikes. This false color image was taken with 1.1-, 1.6-, and 2.2-micron filters. The image was taken on April 28, 1997. Credits: Rodger Thompson, Marcia Rieke and Glenn Schneider (University of Arizona), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

2002-01-01

179

HUBBLE'S ULTRAVIOLET VIEWS OF NEARBY GALAXIES YIELD CLUES TO EARLY UNIVERSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomers are using these three NASA Hubble Space Telescope images to help tackle the question of why distant galaxies have such odd shapes, appearing markedly different from the typical elliptical and spiral galaxies seen in the nearby universe. Do faraway galaxies look weird because they are truly weird? Or, are they actually normal galaxies that look like oddballs, because astronomers are getting an incomplete picture of them, seeing only the brightest pieces? Light from these galaxies travels great distances (billions of light-years) to reach Earth. During its journey, the light is 'stretched' due to the expansion of space. As a result, the light is no longer visible, but has been shifted to the infrared where present instruments are less sensitive. About the only light astronomers can see comes from regions where hot, young stars reside. These stars emit mostly ultraviolet light. But this light is stretched, appearing as visible light by the time it reaches Earth. Studying these distant galaxies is like trying to put together a puzzle with some of the pieces missing. What, then, do distant galaxies really look like? Astronomers studied 37 nearby galaxies to find out. By viewing these galaxies in ultraviolet light, astronomers can compare their shapes with those of their distant relatives. These three Hubble telescope pictures, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, represent a sampling from that survey. Astronomers observed the galaxies in ultraviolet and visible light to study all the stars that make up these 'cities of stars.' The results of their survey support the idea that astronomers are detecting the 'tip of the iceberg' of very distant galaxies. Based on these Hubble ultraviolet images, not all the faraway galaxies necessarily possess intrinsically odd shapes. The results are being presented today at the 197th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, CA. The central region of the 'star-burst' spiral galaxy at far left, NGC 3310, shows young and old stars evenly distributed. If this were the case with most galaxies, astronomers would be able to recognize faraway galaxies fairly easily. In most galaxies, however, the stars are segregated by age, making classifying the distant ones more difficult. NGC 3310 is 46 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The image was taken Sept. 12-13, 2000. The middle image is an example of a tiny, youthful spiral galaxy. ESO 418-008 is representative of the myriad of dwarf galaxies astronomers have seen in deep surveys. These galaxies are much smaller than typical ones like our Milky Way. In this galaxy, the population of stars is more strongly segregated by age. The older stars [red] reside in the center; the younger [blue], in the developing spiral arms. These small, young galaxies may be the building blocks of galaxy formation. ESO 418-008 is 56 million light-years from Earth in the southern constellation Fornax. The image was taken Oct. 10, 2000. The picture at right shows a cosmic collision between two galaxies, UGC 06471 and UGC 06472. These collisions occurred frequently in the early universe, producing galaxies of unusual shapes. The Hubble telescope has spied many such galaxies in the deep field surveys. The ultraviolet images of this galaxy merger suggest the presence of large amounts of dust, which were produced by massive stars that formed before or during this dramatic collision. This dust reddens the starlight in many places, just like a dusty atmosphere reddens the sunset. Studying the effects of this nearby collision could help astronomers explain the peculiar shapes seen in some of the distant galaxies. UGC 06471 and UGC 06472 are 145 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The image was taken July 11, 2000. Photo credits: NASA, Rogier Windhorst (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ), and the Hubble mid-UV team

2002-01-01

180

Lidar-Radar Measurements of Snowfall Edwin W. Eloranta--Univ. Of Wisconsin  

E-print Network

Lidar-Radar Measurements of Snowfall Edwin W. Eloranta--Univ. Of Wisconsin Aerodynamic flow around gauges and the horizontal transport of windblown snow along the surface produce errors in snowfall in the high Arctic where snowfall amount are very low and blowing snow is frequent. This paper describes

Eloranta, Edwin W.

181

DIFFUSION-LIMITED AGGREGATION ON A TREE Martin T. Barlow * Robin Pemantle Edwin A. Perkins *  

E-print Network

DIFFUSION-LIMITED AGGREGATION ON A TREE by Martin T. Barlow * Robin Pemantle Edwin A. Perkins * U in first-passage percolation, and as a version of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), adjusted so, 60K35 Key Words: diffusion-limited aggregation, trees, random clusters, first-passage percolation

Pemantle, Robin

182

Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology: Edwin A. Fleishman  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology was awarded to Edwin A. Fleishman, for his significant contributions to the science and applications of psychology, which he has sustained over his remarkable career. He is cited for his research, which has had a profound influence on our understanding of human…

American Psychologist, 2004

2004-01-01

183

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin descends steps of Lunar Module ladder to walk on moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descends the steps of the Lunar Module (LM) ladder as he prepares to walk on the Moon. He had just egressed the LM. This picture was taken by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

1969-01-01

184

Lives and Deaths: Biographical Notes on Selections from the Works of Edwin S. Shneidman  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edwin S. Shneidman (DOB: 1918-05-13; DOD: 2009-05-15) is a father of contemporary suicidology. His work reflects the intensive study of lives lived and deaths, especially suicides, and is the mirror to his mind. His contributions can be represented by five categories: psychological assessment, logic, Melville and Murray, suicide, and death. His…

Leenaars, Antoon A.

2010-01-01

185

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin prepares to deploy EASEP on surface of moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, prepares to deploy the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera. In the foreground is the Apollo 11 35mm stereo close-up camera.

1969-01-01

186

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin in EMU verifies fit of Portable Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), verifies fit of the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) strap length during lunar surface training at the Kennedy Space Center. Aldrin is the prime crew lunar module pilot of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Aldrin's PLSS backpack is attached to a lunar weight simulator.

1969-01-01

187

Discussion Note: Response to Edwin Williams's Review of "Indices and Identity."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that Edwin Williams has not properly appreciated or presented the central theses of "Indices and Identity" (I&I). The article also states that criticisms of particular analyses offered are consistently off the mark. This discussion note is presented as a clarification of the issues presented. The central concern in I&I is with the nature…

Fiengo, Robert; May, Robert

1995-01-01

188

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin walks on lunar surface near leg of Lunar Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, walks on the Moon near a leg of the Lunar Module during Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera. The astronauts footprints are clearly visible in the foreground.

1969-01-01

189

Portrait of Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module pilot of Apollo 11 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portrait of Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot of the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing mission in his space suit, with his helmet on the table in front of him. Behind him is a large photograph of the lunar surface.

1969-01-01

190

The Role of the Federal Government in Special Education: An Interview with Dr. Edwin W. Martin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dr. Edwin W. Martin, the first director of the Bureau for the Education of the Handicapped and recent assistant secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, presents his views on early childhood programs, right to education, the future of P.L. 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act), due process, and the…

Exceptional Parent, 1982

1982-01-01

191

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin undergoes zero-gravity training aboard KC-135  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, undergoes zero-gravity training aboard a U.S. Air Force KC-135 jet aircraft from nearby Patrick Air Force Base, Florida. Aldrin is wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the type of equipment which he will wear on the lunar surface.

1969-01-01

192

Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award: Joseph H. Hammer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joseph H. Hammer, recipient of the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award, is cited for an outstanding research paper whose findings provide important evidence regarding the promise of a male-sensitive approach to mental health marketing and empirically support the inclusion of theory-driven enhancements in group-targeted mental…

American Psychologist, 2009

2009-01-01

193

Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through…

American Psychologist, 2012

2012-01-01

194

RAMON: Rapid-Mobility Network Emulator Edwin Hernandez and Abdelsalam (Sumi) Helal  

E-print Network

RAMON: Rapid-Mobility Network Emulator Edwin Hernandez and Abdelsalam (Sumi) Helal Computer protocols. Emulation, which presents a lower cost, more accurate, yet more complex engineering alternative to simulation, has not been widely used in mobile computing studies. RAMON is a software/hardware emulator

Helal, Abdelsalam

195

Permission Regions for Race-Free Parallelism Edwin Westbrook Jisheng Zhao Zoran Budimlic Vivek Sarkar  

E-print Network

Permission Regions for Race-Free Parallelism Edwin Westbrook Jisheng Zhao Zoran Budimli´c Vivek parallel programs that are correct. This is because of the potential for data races, where parallel tasks is dynamic race detection, which has the benefits over other approaches that it works transparently

Budimliæ, Zoran

196

Landscapes of Removal and Resistance: Edwin James's Nineteenth-Century Cross-Cultural Collaborations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The life of Edwin James (1797-1861) is bookended by the Lewis and Clark expedition (1803-6) and the Civil War (1861-65). James's work engaged key national concerns of western exploration, natural history, Native American relocation, and slavery. His principled stands for preservation of lands and animals in the Trans-Mississippi West and his…

Lyndgaard, Kyhl

2010-01-01

197

Atypical Facial "Neuralgia" Edwin D. Dunteman, MD, MS, and Robert A. Swarm, MD  

E-print Network

Atypical Facial "Neuralgia" Edwin D. Dunteman, MD, MS, and Robert A. Swarm, MD Pain Management Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri T here are many causesof head and facial pain (1). As with pain in other regions, myofascial origin

Steinbach, Joe Henry

198

A statistical perspective on data mining Jonathan Hosking, Edwin Pednault and Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

A statistical perspective on data mining Jonathan Hosking, Edwin Pednault and Madhu Sudan IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., U.S.A. Abstract Data mining can be regarded as a collection of methods for drawing inferences from data. The aims of data mining,and some of its methods

Sudan, Madhu

199

Hubble Takes First Image of a Possible Planet Around Another Star and Finds a Runaway World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hubble Space Telescope has returned an image of what is possibly the first planet outside our solar system. TMR-1C, about 450 light years away in the constellation Taurus, appears to have been "flung away from the vicinity of a newly forming pair of binary stars," as evidenced by a luminescent filament leading from the "planet" back to the stars. "Susan Terebey of the Extrasolar Research Corporation in Pasadena, California, and her team using Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS)," made the discovery. Hubble experts estimate the chance of the object being a background star instead of a planet at one to two percent. This Space Science Telescope Institute site contains the press release, captioned images in several formats and resolutions, and a space science update, a one hour RealPlayer press conference with Dr. Terebey and other astronomers.

1998-01-01

200

The 1% Concordance Hubble Constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the Hubble constant has been a central goal in observational astrophysics for nearly a hundred years. Extraordinary progress has occurred in recent years on two fronts: the cosmic distance ladder measurements at low redshift and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements at high redshift. The CMB is used to predict the current expansion rate through a best-fit cosmological model. Complementary progress has been made with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at relatively low redshifts. While BAO data do not independently determine a Hubble constant, they are important for constraints on possible solutions and checks on cosmic consistency. A precise determination of the Hubble constant is of great value, but it is more important to compare the high and low redshift measurements to test our cosmological model. Significant tension would suggest either uncertainties not accounted for in the experimental estimates or the discovery of new physics beyond the standard model of cosmology. In this paper we examine in detail the tension between the CMB, BAO, and cosmic distance ladder data sets. We find that these measurements are consistent within reasonable statistical expectations and we combine them to determine a best-fit Hubble constant of 69.6 ± 0.7 km s–1 Mpc–1. This value is based upon WMAP9+SPT+ACT+6dFGS+BOSS/DR11+H 0/Riess; we explore alternate data combinations in the text. The combined data constrain the Hubble constant to 1%, with no compelling evidence for new physics.

Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Hinshaw, G.

2014-10-01

201

Hubble info circuit : follow the path to and from Hubble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This diagram illustrates and describes the steps involved in sending directions to the Hubble Space Telescope, collecting and processing the data collected by Hubble, and delivering the requested data and images back to a scientist on Earth. When users roll over each of the six entities depicted in this sequence, they can read about that entity's involvement in this two-way process. Arrows document the flow of information between entities such as the Space Telescope Sky Institute, the Goddard Space Flight Center, and an array of antennas in New Mexico. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2001-01-01

202

Beyond the Hubble Constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International Astronomer Team Witnesses Very Ancient Stellar Explosion A few months ago, a violent stellar explosion -- a supernova -- was discovered in an extremely distant galaxy by an international team of astronomers [1]. This is the very promising first result of a recently initiated, dedicated search for such objects. Subsequent spectral observations have shown this to be the most distant supernova ever observed. Although it is very faint, it has been possible to classify it as a supernova of Type Ia, a kind that is particularly well suited for cosmological distance determinations. A Very Efficient Supernova Search Programme The present discovery was made during the team's first observations with the 4-metre telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. This telescope is equipped with a wide-field camera at its prime focus that enables the simultaneous recording of the images of even very faint objects in a 15-arcminute field. Hundreds of distant galaxies are located in a field of this size and this observational method is therefore very well suited for a search of faint and transient supernovae in such galaxies. With a carefully planned observing sequence, it is possible to image up to 55 sky fields per night. A comparison with earlier exposures makes it possible to detect suddenly appearing supernovae as faint points of light near the galaxy in which the exploding star is located (the parent galaxy). A crucial feature of the new programme is the possibility to perform follow-up spectroscopic observations, whenever a new supernova is discovered. For this, the team has obtained access to several other large telescopes, including the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and the Multi-Mirror Telescope (MMT) in Arizona, U.S.A.. The Spectrum of the Supernova The present supernova was first detected at Tololo on March 30, 1995. It was given the official designation SN 1995K, and its spectrum was observed a few nights later with the EMMI instrument at the ESO NTT at La Silla. Further direct images were taken with EMMI and also with the high-resolution NTT SUSI camera, three of which are shown on the photo with text accompanying this Press Release. The supernova is located only 1 arcsecond from the centre of the parent galaxy. As the supernova was very faint (its magnitude was about 22.7, or about 5 million times fainter than what can be seen with the unaided eye), an exposure of 2.5 hours was necessary to collect enough photons to allow a classification of its spectrum. Because of the very small angular distance, the light from the supernova was heavily contaminated with that of the parent galaxy, but the excellent angular resolution of the NTT optics made it possible to overcome this problem. It was also possible to measure the redshift [2] of the galaxy (and thereby of the supernova) as 0.478. This demonstrates that SN 1995K is the most distant supernova (indeed, the most distant star!) ever observed [3]. The spectrum clearly showed SN 1995K to be of Type Ia. This is evident by a comparison with that of a ``standard'' Type Ia supernova (SN 1989B), cf. the graph with explanatory text attached to this Press Release. When the redshift of SN 1995K is taken into account, the two spectra are very similar. The current belief is that supernovae of this type are due to the explosions of white dwarf stars in compact binary systems which are triggered by the successive accretion of stellar material from the other component. As the sequence of NTT images shows, SN 1995K quickly faded and in late May 1995, it could no longer be observed. The rate of change (the ``light-curve'') also closely matched that of a normal Type Ia supernova. Why Are Type Ia Supernovae So Important? While supernovae are important astrophysical objects by themselves, Type Ia supernovae are also of great interest to cosmologists. The main reason is that they provide independent information about the distances to galaxies and thereby about the expansion rate of the Universe. A simple

1995-08-01

203

Hubble Observes the Moons and Rings of Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings, at least five of the inner moons, and bright clouds in the planet's southern hemisphere. Hubble now allows astronomers to revisit the planet at a level of detail not possible since the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by the planet briefly, nearly a decade ago.

Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. Similar details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft that flew by Uranus in 1986 (the rings were discovered by stellar occultation experiments in 1977, but not seen directly until Voyager flew to Uranus). Since the flyby, none of these inner satellites has been observed further, and detailed observations of the rings and Uranus' atmosphere have not been possible, because the rings are lost in the planet's glare as seen through ground-based optical telescopes.

Each of the inner moons appears as a string of three dots in this picture because it is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart. When these images are combined, they show the motion of the moons compared with the sky background. Because the moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon, they change position noticeably over only a few minutes. (These multiple images also help to distinguish the moons from stars and imaging detector artifacts, i.e., cosmic rays and electronic noise).

Thanks to Hubble's capabilities, astronomers will now be able to determine the orbits more precisely. With this increase in accuracy, astronomers can better probe the unusual dynamics of Uranus' complicated satellite system. Measuring the moons' brightness in several colors might offer clues to the satellites' origin by providing new information on their mineralogical composition. Similar measurements of the rings should yield new insights into their composition and origin.

One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does reveal a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84- year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus' atmosphere, which should be unusual given the planet's large tilt.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1994-01-01

204

He2-90'S APPEARANCE DECEIVES ASTRONOMERS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have stumbled upon a mysterious object that is grudgingly yielding clues to its identity. A quick glance at the Hubble picture at top shows that this celestial body, called He2-90, looks like a young, dust-enshrouded star with narrow jets of material streaming from each side. But it's not. The object is classified as a planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a dying, lightweight star. But the Hubble observations suggest that it may not fit that classification, either. The Hubble astronomers now suspect that this enigmatic object may actually be a pair of aging stars masquerading as a single youngster. One member of the duo is a bloated red giant star shedding matter from its outer layers. This matter is then gravitationally captured in a rotating, pancake-shaped accretion disk around a compact partner, which is most likely a young white dwarf (the collapsed remnant of a sun-like star). The stars cannot be seen in the Hubble images because a lane of dust obscures them. The Hubble picture at top shows a centrally bright object with jets, appearing like strings of beads, emanating from both sides of center. (The other streaks of light running diagonally from He2-90 are artificial effects of the telescope's optical system.) Each jet possesses at least six bright clumps of gas, which are speeding along at rates estimated to be at least 375,000 miles an hour (600,000 kilometers an hour). These gaseous salvos are being ejected into space about every 100 years, and may be caused by periodic instabilities in He2-90's accretion disk. The jets from very young stars behave in a similar way. Deep images taken from terrestrial observatories show each jet extending at least 100,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit equals the Earth-Sun distance, 93 million miles). The jets' relatively modest speed implies that one member of the duo is a white dwarf. Observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, however, discovered a gamma-ray source in the vicinity of He2-90, suggesting that the companion may be a neutron star or a black hole (the compact corpses of dying, massive stars). But the jets from accretion disks around neutron stars or black holes travel at a few tenths the speed of light, much faster than the plodding pace of He2-90's jets. The Hubble astronomers are planning more observations to pinpoint the gamma-ray source to determine whether it is associated with He2-90. An accretion disk needs gravity to form. For gravity to create He2-90's disk, the pair of stars must reside at a cozy distance from each other: within about 10 astronomical units. Although the astronomers are uncertain about the details, they believe that magnetic fields associated with the accretion disk produce and constrict the pencil-thin jets seen in the Hubble image. The close-up Hubble photo at bottom shows a dark, flaring, disk-like structure [off-center] bisecting the bright light from the object. The disk is seen edge-on. Although too large to be an accretion disk, this dark, flaring disk may provide indirect proof of the other's existence. Most theories for producing jets require the presence of an accretion disk. The jets are seen streaming from both sides of the central object. The round, white objects at the lower left and upper right corners are two bright clumps of gas in the jets. The astronomers traced the jets to within 1,000 astronomical units of the central obscured star. The star ejected this jet material about 30 years ago. Scientists discovered this puzzling object while taking a census of planetary nebulae. They knew it had been classified as a dying, sun-like star. He2-90 is enshrouded in very hot (17,500 degrees Fahrenheit or 10,000 degrees Kelvin), glowing gas, a typical feature of planetary nebulae. And yet the disk and jets indicated the presence of an embryonic star. The mystified astronomers needed more information. Since embryonic stars are usually associated with cool, dense clouds of gas and dust, they used a ground-based radio telescope in Chile to look for evidence of such

2002-01-01

205

Modern Astronomical Optics Spring 2013  

E-print Network

turbulence and its effect on image quality Wavefront sensing for adaptive optics Wavefront correction Laser departments #12;Lectures Course introduction, Fundamentals of astronomical imaging systems This part to radiometric quantities. Introduction to course Fundamentals of astronomical imaging systems: diffraction limit

Arizona, University of

206

High School Teachers as Astronomers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a joint research program between several high school teachers and solar system astronomers in which data were collected on photoelectric observations of asteroids and minor planets via astronomical telescopes. (MLH)

Sather, Robert

1977-01-01

207

Hubble peers inside a celestial geode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

celestial geode hi-res Size hi-res: 148 Kb Credits: ESA/NASA, Yäel Nazé (University of Liège, Belgium) and You-Hua Chu (University of Illinois, Urbana, USA) Hubble peers inside a celestial geode In this unusual image, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures a rare view of the celestial equivalent of a geode - a gas cavity carved by the stellar wind and intense ultraviolet radiation from a young hot star. Real geodes are handball-sized, hollow rocks that start out as bubbles in volcanic or sedimentary rock. Only when these inconspicuous round rocks are split in half by a geologist, do we get a chance to appreciate the inside of the rock cavity that is lined with crystals. In the case of Hubble's 35 light-year diameter ‘celestial geode’ the transparency of its bubble-like cavity of interstellar gas and dust reveals the treasures of its interior. Low resolution version (JPG format) 148 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 1929 Kb Acknowledgment: This image was created with the help of the ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator. Real geodes are handball-sized, hollow rocks that start out as bubbles in volcanic or sedimentary rock. Only when these inconspicuous round rocks are split in half by a geologist, do we get a chance to appreciate the inside of the rock cavity that is lined with crystals. In the case of Hubble's 35 light-year diameter ‘celestial geode’ the transparency of its bubble-like cavity of interstellar gas and dust reveals the treasures of its interior. The object, called N44F, is being inflated by a torrent of fast-moving particles (what astronomers call a 'stellar wind') from an exceptionally hot star (the bright star just below the centre of the bubble) once buried inside a cold dense cloud. Compared with our Sun (which is losing mass through the so-called 'solar wind'), the central star in N44F is ejecting more than a 100 million times more mass per second and the hurricane of particles moves much faster at 7 million km per hour (as opposed to less than 1.5 million km per hour for our Sun). Because the bright central star does not exist in empty space but is surrounded by an envelope of gas, the stellar wind collides with this gas, pushing it out, like a snow plough. This forms a bubble, whose striking structure is clearly visible in the crisp Hubble image. The nebula N44F is one of a handful of known interstellar bubbles. Bubbles like these have been seen around evolved massive stars (called 'Wolf-Rayet stars'), and also around clusters of stars (where they are called 'super-bubbles'). But they have rarely been viewed around isolated stars, as is the case here. On closer inspection N44F harbours additional surprises. The interior wall of its gaseous cavity is lined with several four to eight light-year high finger-like columns of cool dust and gas. (The structure of these 'columns' is similar to the Eagle Nebula’s iconic 'Pillars of Creation' photographed by Hubble a decade ago, and is seen in a few other nebulae as well). The fingers are created by a blistering ultraviolet radiation from the central star. Like wind socks caught in a gale, they point in the direction of the energy flow. These pillars look small in this image only because they are much farther away from us then the Eagle Nebula’s pillars. N44F is located about 160 000 light-years in the neighbouring dwarf galaxy the Large Magellanic Cloud, in the direction of the southern constellation Dorado. N44F is part of the larger N44 complex, which contains a large super-bubble, blown out by the combined action of stellar winds and multiple supernova explosions. N44 itself is roughly 1000 light-years across. Several compact star-forming regions, including N44F, are found along the rim of the central super-bubble. This image was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, using filters that isolate light emitted by sulphur (shown in blue, a 1200-second exposure) and hydrogen gas (shown in red, a 1000-second exposure).

2004-08-01

208

Astronomical Station at Vidojevica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a project was started aimed at building a new astronomical station at the mountain of Vidojevica in Serbia (ASV) as an extension of the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade. The first phase - ASV1 - is planned to be finished during 2006. ASV1 will consist of one observatory dome, a reflector of 60cm aperture, and a dormitory. In this year, the Faculty of Mathematics and its Department of Astronomy applied for the project of reinforcing and upgrading it to ASV2. The project objective is to improve the research capacities in astronomy and applied mathematics in Serbia and Western Balkan.

Ninkovi?, S.; Pejovi?, N.; Mijajlovi?, Ž.

2007-05-01

209

The Planetarium and the Astronomer (An Overview)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science of astronomy is one of the most accessible of the so-called "hard" sciences. Most people are familiar with some sky phenomena, and do not feel threatened at the prospect of learning more about the stars and planets. In the media, some of the best-known scientists are astronomers, and programs about astronomy tend to gather appreciatively large audiences. Planetarium facilities are a very special form of science media, with the fortunate task of presenting astronomy to the public. Like science writers, planetarium professionals take complex science information and make it accessible to the public with a variety of audio-visual techniques. Because many planetarium professionals have science backgrounds as well as educational training, they have an advantage over traditional media practitioners, who -- except for a few notable exceptions -- do not always have the luxury of a science background when it comes to writing about science. The unique background of the planetarian, however, builds a logical and natural link between astronomers and the public. This paper summarizes the wide variety of ways in which planetaria disseminate astronomy information -- ranging from live public lectures, to "astronomy updates", to hands-on activities for school children, and professionally-produced multi-media programs created especially for the needs of the domed theater. It ends with a few broad suggestions about possible roles for astronomers in any or all of these activities. Carolyn Collins Petersen has been a writer and producer of planetarium programs since 1980. Her programs have appeared in more than 500 facilities around the world. Her print work has appeared in the Denver Post, Sky and Telescope, Astronomy Magazine, and the Griffith Observer. She is the lead author of the upcoming book "Hubble Vision: Science With the Hubble Space Telescope" (due out from Cambridge University Press in Fall, 1995). Petersen has won several awards for her work. She is also a Graduate Research Assistant at the LASP at the University of Colorado, where she works on tasks for the GHRS team and the Ulysses Comet Watch. She has just completed work on a masters' thesis in science journalism.

Petersen, Carolyn Collins

1995-05-01

210

Hubble Sees Material Ejected From Comet Hale-Bopp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These NASA Hubble Space Telescope pictures of comet Hale-Bopp show a remarkable 'pinwheel' pattern and a blob of free-flying debris near the nucleus. The bright clump of light along the spiral (above the nucleus, which is near the center of the frame) may be a piece of the comet's icy crust that was ejected into space by a combination of ice evaporation and the comet's rotation, and which then disintegrated into a bright cloud of particles.

Although the 'blob' is about 3.5 times fainter than the brightest portion at the nucleus, the lump appears brighter because it covers a larger area. The debris follows a spiral pattern outward because the solid nucleus is rotating like a lawn sprinkler, completing a single rotation about once per week.

Ground-based observations conducted over the past two months have documented at least two separate episodes of jet and pinwheel formation and fading. By coincidence, the first Hubble images of Hale-Bopp, taken on September 26, 1995, immediately followed one of these outbursts and allow researchers to examine it at unprecedented detail. For the first time they see a clear separation between the nucleus and some of the debris being shed. By putting together information from the Hubble images and those taken during the recent outburst using the 82 cm telescope of the Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain), astronomers find that the debris is moving away from the nucleus at a speed (projected on the sky) of about 68 miles per hour (109 kilometers per hour).

The Hubble observations will be used to determine if Hale-Bopp is really a giant comet or rather a more moderate-sized object whose current activity is driven by outgassing from a very volatile ice which will 'burn out' over the next year. Comet Hale-Bopp was discovered on July 23, 1995 by amateur astronomers Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp. Though this comet is still well outside the orbit of Jupiter (almost 600 million miles, or one billion kilometers from Earth) it looks surprisingly bright, fueling predictions that it could become the brightest comet of the century in early 1997.

The full-field picture on the left, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (in WF mode), shows the comet against a stellar backdrop in the constellation Sagittarius. The stars are streaked due to a combination of Hubble's orbital motion and its tracking of the nucleus, which is now falling toward the Sun at 33,800 miles per hour (54,000 km/hr). In the close-up picture on the right, the stars have been subtracted through image processing. Each picture element is nearly 300 miles (480 km) across at the comet's distance. In this false color scale the faintest regions are black, the brightest regions are white, and intermediate intensities are represented by different levels of red.

Even more detailed Hubble images will be taken with the Planetary Camera in late October to follow the further evolution of the spiral, look for more outbursts, place limits on the size of the nucleus, and use spectroscopy to study the enigmatic comet's chemical composition.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

211

Space Telescope Programs Hubble Observatory  

E-print Network

.E.R. HST-COS FUV Detector Pre-Environmental Review November 8th 2000 #12;Space Telescope Programs Hubble Electronics Board Qualification Status Unit Test Summaries Amplifiers DCEs TDCs Unit Cleanliness Status Matrix Spatial Linearity Image Stability Deadtime Dark Count QE DVA Metrology Plan Welsh FUV System Environmental

Colorado at Boulder, University of

212

Hubble Space Telescope Science Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its launch in 1990 April, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has produced an increasing flow of scientific results. The large number of refereed publications based on HST data permits a detailed evaluation of the effectiveness of this observatory and its scientific programs. This paper presents the results of selected science metrics related to paper counts, citation counts, citation history,

Georges Meylan; Juan P. Madrid; Duccio Macchetto

2004-01-01

213

The age of the universe, the Hubble constant, the accelerated expansion and the Hubble effect  

E-print Network

The idea of an accelerating universe comes almost simultaneously with the determination of Hubble's constant by one of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Projects. The age of the universe dilemma is probably the link between these two issues. In an appendix, I claim that "Hubble's law" might yet to be investigated for its ultimate cause, and suggest the "Hubble effect" as the searched candidate.

Domingos Soares

2014-07-07

214

Star Witness News: Birthday Wishes for Hubble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story celebrates the 17th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. The anniversary image of the Carina Nebula is described and Hubble’s most significant scientific discoveries are identified. The article is from the Amazing Space science newspaper, The Star Witness, which can be used as a science content reading.

215

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope COS November/December Monthly Status Review December 5, 1999 KSC #12;COS Monthly Status Review Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope John Review Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope John Andrews December 5, 1999 Progress Summary

Colorado at Boulder, University of

216

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope COS January Monthly Status Review February 1, 2000 GSFC #12;COS Monthly Status Review Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope John Andrews Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope John Andrews February 1, 2000 Progress Summary Since Last

Colorado at Boulder, University of

217

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope Early Science Results from the Cosmic Origins of Colorado October 12, 2010 #12;Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope COS Science Themes What inference." #12;Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Hubble Space Telescope Cycle 17/18 Observations · ~25% of prime

Colorado at Boulder, University of

218

Johannes Kepler's astronomical instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life and activity of Kepler coincided with an important period in the history of astronomy, when every decade new instruments were being invented, bringing about many great discoveries. At this time many scientists and artisans participated in the construction of astronomical instruments. The contribution made by them is fairly well known, but Kepler's work in this field has been

V. L. Chenakal

1975-01-01

219

The Knorre astronomers' dynasty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We attempt to throw light upon the poorly known astronomical dynasty of Knorre and describe its contribution to astronomy. The founder of the dynasty, Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (1759-1810), was born in Germany in 1759, and since 1802 he was a Professor of Mathematics at the Tartu University, and observer at its temporary observatory. He determined the first coordinates of Tartu by stellar observations. Karl Friedrich Knorre (1801-1883) was the first director of the Naval Observatory in Nikolaev since the age of 20, provided the Black Sea navy with accurate time and charts, trained mariners in astronomical navigation, and certified navigation equipment. He compiled star maps and catalogues, and determined positions of comets and planets. He also participated in Bessel's project of the Academic Star Charts, and was responsible for Hora 4, published by the Berlin Academy of Sciences. This sheet permitted to discover two minor planets, Astraea and Flora. Viktor Knorre (1840-1919) was born in Nikolaev. In 1862 he left for Berlin to study astronomy. After defending his thesis for a doctor's degree, he went to Pulkovo as an astronomical calculator in 1867. Since 1873 Viktor worked as an observer of the Berlin Observatory Fraunhofer refractor. His main research focussed on minor planets, comets and binary stars. He discovered the minor planets Koronis, Oenone, Hypatia and Penthesilea. Viktor Knorre also worked on improving astronomical instrumentation, e.g. the Knorre / Heele equatorial telescope mounting.

Pinigin, G.

2009-06-01

220

Astronomical Microdensitometry Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the current microdensitometers used for digitizing astronomical imagery is discussed. The tests and improvements that have and can be made to the Photometric Data System PDS microdensitometer are examined. The various types of microdensitometers that currently exist in the world are investigated. Papers are presented on the future needs and the data processing problems associated with digitizing large images.

Klinglesmith, D. A. (editor)

1984-01-01

221

BISHOP'S UNIVERSITY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY  

E-print Network

internet access can point the telescope at planets, stars, and galaxies and see exactly what the telescope point the telescope in the direction of the sun. 3) Always fully open the dome shutter before removingBISHOP'S UNIVERSITY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY PlaneWave CDK17 Equatorial Mount Telescope OPERATIONS

222

Memphis Astronomical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Web site for amateur astronomers offering free "Getting Started with Your New Telescope" article (PDF), monthly newsletter, weblog ("MemphisAstro"), and information for ordering inexpensive out-of-print amateur's guides to finding Messier objects. The Society is a public-service organization promoting interest and education in astronomy and holding monthly meetings and offering lectures and demonstrations to local (Memphis, Tennessee) members.

2007-03-18

223

Russian astronomical software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institute of Applied Astronomy of RAS has published “ The Astronomical Yearbook ” ( AY) with 1921, “ The Nautical Astronomical Yearbook ” (NAY) with 1930, “ The Nautical Astronomical Almanac ”’ biennial (NAA - 2) with 2001. The new IAU2006/2000 precession - nutation models, and the FK6/HIPPARCOS stellar catalogues were used in these editions. Ephemeris editions are based on the domestic EPM2004 (IAA RAS) theory of movement of planets, Sun and Moon. The electronic versions are developed for two editions. The important stage of work is creation of “The Personal Astronomical Yearbook ”’ (PersAY). The system gives ample opportunities to the user to put and to solve tasks of calculation of ephemerides for any moment in various time scales, and for any location of the observer on a terrestrial surface. Also in PersAY it is possible to calculate by means of DE405/LE405 theory to make comparison with others ephemeris editions. The time interval of validity of the system makes 2010 - 2015. Besides system of the removed access the "Navigator" was developed. It intended to solve some the navigating tasks describe d in NAA - 2. The system is accessible on a site http://shturman.ipa.nw.ru/ (in Russian). In electronic systems as in Y the same reduce theories and the theory of movement of planets, the Sun, the Moon are used. All calculations are work out on the basis of the multifunctional software system ERA.

Lukashova, Marina V.; Glebova, Nina I.; Netsvetaev, Ilja N.; Netsvetaeva, Galina A.; Parijskaja, Ekaterina Ju.; Pitieva, Elena V.; Sveshnikov, Michael L.; Skripnichenko, Vladimir I.

2012-08-01

224

Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

Walsh, Jennifer Robin

2004-05-01

225

Alternative Astronomical Software Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when the United Nations, in collaboration with Wolfram Research, has selected the Mathematica software package to inform developing countries about available scientific tools, it is important to review other choices of software being used by active scientists around the world. For observational astronomers with large volumes of digital data to be analyzed, the main challenges are data

M. R. Pérez

1997-01-01

226

NRAO Astronomer Honored by American Astronomical Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dr. Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), received the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) Helen B. Warner Prize on January 11, at the society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. The prize is awarded annually for "a significant contribution to observational or theoretical astronomy during the five years preceding the award." Presented by AAS President Debra Elmegreen, the prize recognized Ransom "for his astrophysical insight and innovative technical leadership enabling the discovery of exotic, millisecond and young pulsars and their application for tests of fundamental physics." "Scott has made landmark contributions to our understanding of pulsars and to using them as elegant tools for investigating important areas of fundamental physics. We are very proud that his scientific colleagues have recognized his efforts with this prize," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. A staff astronomer at the NRAO since 2004, Ransom has led efforts using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope and other facilities to study pulsars and use them to make advances in areas of frontier astrophysics such as gravitational waves and particle physics. In 2010, he was on a team that discovered the most massive pulsar yet known, a finding that had implications for the composition of pulsars and details of nuclear physics, gravitational waves, and gamma-ray bursts. Ransom also is a leader in efforts to find and analyze rapidly-rotating millisecond pulsars to make the first direct detection of the gravitational waves predicted by Albert Einstein. In other work, he has advanced observational capabilities for finding millisecond pulsars in globular clusters of stars and investigated how millisecond pulsars are formed. A graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY, Ransom served as an artillery officer in the U.S. Army. After leaving the Army, he earned a Ph.D. at Harvard University in 2001, and was a postdoctoral fellow at McGill University before joining the NRAO in 2004. Ransom will deliver his Warner Prize Lecture, entitled "Millisecond Pulsars: The Gifts that Keep on Giving," at the AAS meeting on Tuesday, January 11, 2011, at 3:40 p.m., Pacific Time.

2011-01-01

227

Coma Cluster Activity Using Hubble Space Telescope Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This product uses a collection of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of galaxies in the Coma Cluster, and engages students in an inquiry-based learning activity studying the evolution of galaxies in dense clustered environments. Students learn the basics of galaxy classification by making use of the HST images to discover a "morphology-density effect," and will then make hypotheses about the cause of this effect. Along with this product are a series of StarDate Radio programs on the Coma Cluster and its related galaxies, and a brief YouTube video about research that is being conducted by astronomers and students at the University of Texas using HST data of the Coma Cluster.

Shardha Jogee

2008-01-01

228

Star Witness News: Hubble Reveals Orion in Picture Perfect Glory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The article explains how an area in the constellation, Orion, called the Orion Nebula is a stellar nursery, where more than 3,000 stars are being born. Students read about why astronomers are interested in this region of space and how they go about studying the nebula. This science content reading identifies and defines scientific words and phrases that might be new to the student. The discussion questions with answers are available to help focus the student's attention on important information and to challenge the student to delve deeper into the subject of star formation. Star Witness is a series of articles that mirror the content of recent Hubble Space Telescope press releases.

229

The League of Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The League of Astronomers is committed to engaging the University of Washington (UW) and the greater Seattle communities through outreach, research, and events. Since its re-founding two years ago, the LOA has provided a clear connection between the UW Astronomy Department, undergraduate students, and members of the public. Weekly outreach activities such as public star parties and planetarium talks in both the UW Planetarium and the Mobile Planetarium have connected enthusiastic LOA volunteers with hundreds of public observers. In addition, collaboration with organizations like the Seattle Astronomical Society and the UW Society of Physics Students has allowed the LOA to reach an even greater audience. The club also provides opportunities for undergraduate students to participate in research projects. The UW Student Radio Telescope (SRT) and the Manastash Ridge Observatory (MRO) both allow students to practice collecting their own data and turning it into a completed project. Students have presented many of these research projects at venues like the UW Undergraduate Research Symposium and meetings of the American Astronomical Society. For example, the LOA will be observing newly discovered globular clusters at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, B.C. and constructing color-magnitude diagrams. The LOA also helps engage students with the Astronomy major through a variety of events. Bimonthly seminars led by graduate students on their research and personal experiences in the field showcase the variety of options available for students in astronomy. Social events hosted by the club encourage peer mentoring and a sense of community among the Astronomy Department’s undergraduate and graduate students. As a part of one of the nation’s largest undergraduate astronomy programs, members of the League of Astronomers have a unique opportunity to connect and interact with not only the Seattle public but also the greater astronomical community.

Thomas, Nancy H.; Brandel, A.; Paat, A. M.; Schmitz, D.; Sharma, R.; Trujillo, J.; Laws, C. S.

2014-01-01

230

HUBBLE OBSERVES THE MOONS AND RINGS OF THE PLANET URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings, at least five of the inner moons, and bright clouds in the planet's southern hemisphere. Hubble now allows astronomers to revisit the planet at a level of detail not possible since the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by the planet briefly, nearly a decade ago. Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. Similar details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft that flew by Uranus in 1986 (the rings were discovered by stellar occultation experiments in 1977, but not seen directly until Voyager flew to Uranus). Since the flyby, none of these inner satellites has been observed further, and detailed observations of the rings and Uranus' atmosphere have not been possible, because the rings are lost in the planet's glare as seen through ground-based optical telescopes. Each of the inner moons appears as a string of three dots in this picture because it is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart. When these images are combined, they show the motion of the moons compared with the sky background. Because the moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon, they change position noticeably over only a few minutes. (These multiple images also help to distinguish the moons from stars and imaging detector artifacts, i.e., cosmic rays and electronic noise). Thanks to Hubble's capabilities, astronomers will now be able to determine the orbits more precisely. With this increase in accuracy, astronomers can better probe the unusual dynamics of Uranus' complicated satellite system. Measuring the moons' brightness in several colors might offer clues to the satellites' origin by providing new information on their mineralogical composition. Similar measurements of the rings should yield new insights into their composition and origin. One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does reveal a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus' atmosphere, which should be unusual given the planet's large tilt. Credit: Kenneth Seidelmann, U.S. Naval Observatory, and NASA These observations were conducted by a team led by Dr. Ken Seidelmann of the U.S. Naval Observatory as Principal Investigator. These images have been processed by Professor Douglas Currie and Mr. Dan Dowling in the Department of Physics at the University of Maryland. Other team members are Dr. Ben Zellner at Georgia Southern University, Dr. Dan Pascu and Mr. Jim Rhode at the U.S. Naval Observatory, and Dr. Ed Wells, Mr. Charles Kowal (Computer Science Corporation) and Dr. Alex Storrs of the Space Telescope Science Institute.

2002-01-01

231

HUBBLE'S TOP TEN GRAVITATIONAL LENSES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Hubble Space Telescope serendipitous survey of the sky has uncovered exotic patterns, rings, arcs and crosses that are all optical mirages produced by a gravitational lens, nature's equivalent of having giant magnifying glass in space. Shown are the top 10 lens candidates uncovered in the deepest 100 Hubble fields. Hubble's sensitivity and high resolution allow it to see faint and distant lenses that cannot be detected with ground-based telescopes whose images are blurred by Earth's atmosphere. [Top Left] - HST 01248+0351 is a lensed pair on either side of the edge-on disk lensing galaxy. [Top Center] - HST 01247+0352 is another pair of bluer lensed source images around the red spherical elliptical lensing galaxy. Two much fainter images can be seen near the detection limit which might make this a quadruple system. [Top Right] - HST 15433+5352 is a very good lens candidate with a bluer lensed source in the form of an extended arc about the redder elliptical lensing galaxy. [Middle Far Left] - HST 16302+8230 could be an 'Einstein ring' and the most intriguing lens candidate. It has been nicknamed the 'the London Underground' since it resembles that logo. [Middle Near Left] - HST 14176+5226 is the first, and brightest lens system discovered in 1995 with the Hubble telescope. This lens candidate has now been confirmed spectroscopically using large ground-based telescopes. The elliptical lensing galaxy is located 7 billion light-years away, and the lensed quasar is about 11 billion light-years distant. [Middle Near Right] - HST 12531-2914 is the second quadruple lens candidate discovered with Hubble. It is similar to the first, but appears smaller and fainter. [Middle Far Right] - HST 14164+5215 is a pair of bluish lensed images symmetrically placed around a brighter, redder galaxy. [Bottom Left] - HST 16309+8230 is an edge-on disk-like galaxy (blue arc) which has been significantly distorted by the redder lensing elliptical galaxy. [Bottom Center] - HST 12368+6212 is a blue arc in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). [Bottom Right] - HST 18078+4600 is a blue arc caused by the gravitational potential of a small group of 4 galaxies. Credit: Kavan Ratnatunga (Carnegie Mellon Univ.) and NASA

2002-01-01

232

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin walks on lunar surface near leg of Lunar Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, faces the camera as he walks on the Moon during Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. The plexiglass of his helmet reflects back the scene in front of him, such as the Lunar Module and Astronaut Armstrong taking his picuture. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera. The astronauts footprints are clearly visible in the foreground.

1969-01-01

233

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin prepares to deploy EASEP on surface of moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, moves toward a position to deploy two components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. The Passive Seismic Experiments Package (PSEP) is in his left hand; and in his right hand is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR3). Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

1969-01-01

234

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin poses for photograph beside deployed U.S. flag  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, poses for a photograph beside the deployed United States flag during Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. The Lunar Module 'Eagle' is on the left. The footprints of the astronauts are clearly visible in the soil of the moon. This picture was taken by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

1969-01-01

235

From Alexander von Humboldt to Frederic Edwin Church: Voyages of Scientific Exploration and Creativity  

E-print Network

.......................................................................................................13 „From Humboldt to F. E. Church“ (F. Baron) 2HiN VI, 10 (2005) Humboldt im Netz From Alexander von Humboldt to Frederic Edwin Church: Voyages of Scientific Exploration and Creativity Frank Baron Abstract Stephen Jay Gould wrote recently that „when.... Zusammenfassung Der amerikanische Wissenschaftshistoriker Stephen Jay Gould stellte fest, daß Alexander von Humboldt um die Mitte des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts vielleicht der berühmteste und einflußreichste Intellektuelle gewesen sei. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt bietet...

Baron, Frank

2005-01-01

236

John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) and endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation: A historical vignette  

PubMed Central

John Edwin Scarff (1898-1978) was one of the pioneers of neuroendoscopy and the head of the Department of Neurological Surgery at Columbia University in New York from 1947 to 1949. In this article, we highlight the pioneering and longstanding efforts of John E. Scarff in support of endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation. These efforts represent an important part of the rich history of neuroendoscopy and a legacy to which the current procedure owes a great credit. PMID:25024890

Azab, Waleed A.; Shohoud, Sherien A.; Alsheikh, Tarek M.; Nasim, Khurram

2014-01-01

237

HUBBLE SERVES UP A GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What may first appear as a sunny side up egg is actually NASA Hubble Space Telescope's face-on snapshot of the small spiral galaxy NGC 7742. But NGC 7742 is not a run-of-the-mill spiral galaxy. In fact, this spiral is known to be a Seyfert 2 active galaxy, a type of galaxy that is probably powered by a black hole residing in its core. The core of NGC 7742 is the large yellow 'yolk' in the center of the image. The lumpy, thick ring around this core is an area of active starbirth. The ring is about 3,000 light-years from the core. Tightly wound spiral arms also are faintly visible. Surrounding the inner ring is a wispy band of material, which is probably the remains of a once very active stellar breeding ground. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)

2002-01-01

238

COSMOS: Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) was initiated with an extensive allocation (590 orbits in Cycles 12-13) using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for high-resolution imaging. Here we review the characteristics of the HST imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and parallel observations with NICMOS and WFPC2. A square field (1.8 deg2) has been imaged with single-orbit ACS I-band

N. Scoville; R. G. Abraham; H. Aussel; J. E. Barnes; A. Benson; A. W. Blain; D. Calzetti; A. Comastri; P. Capak; C. Carilli; J. E. Carlstrom; C. M. Carollo; J. Colbert; E. Daddi; N. Scoville; M. Elvis; S. P. Ewald; M. Fall; A. Franceschini; M. Giavalisco; R. E. Griffiths; L. Guzzo; G. Hasinger; C. Impey; J.-P. Kneib; J. Koda; A. Koekemoer; O. Lefevre; S. Lilly; C. T. Liu; H. J. McCracken; R. Massey; Y. Mellier; S. Miyazaki; B. Mobasher; J. Mould; C. Norman; A. Refregier; A. Renzini; J. Rhodes; M. Rich; D. B. Sanders; D. Schiminovich; E. Schinnerer; M. Scodeggio; K. Sheth; P. L. Shopbell; Y. Taniguchi; N. D. Tyson; C. M. Urry; L. Van Waerbeke; P. Vettolani; S. D. M. White; L. Yan

2007-01-01

239

Misconceptions about astronomical magnitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present system of astronomical magnitudes was created as an inverse scale by Claudius Ptolemy in about 140 A.D. and was defined to be logarithmic in 1856 by Norman Pogson, who believed that human eyes respond logarithmically to the intensity of light. Although scientists have known for some time that the response is instead a power law, astronomers continue to use the Pogson magnitude scale. The peculiarities of this system make it easy for students to develop numerous misconceptions about how and why to use magnitudes. We present a useful exercise in the use of magnitudes to derive a cosmologically interesting quantity (the mass-to-light ratio for spiral galaxies), with potential pitfalls pointed out and explained.

Schulman, Eric; Cox, Caroline V.

1997-10-01

240

Misconceptions about astronomical magnitudes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The present system of astronomical magnitudes was created as an inverse scale by Claudius Ptolemy in about 140 A.D. and was defined to be logarithmic in 1856 by Norman Pogson, who believed that human eyes respond logarithmically to the intensity of light. Although scientists have known for some time that the response is instead a power law, astronomers continue to use the Pogson magnitude scale. The peculiarities of this system make it easy for students to develop numerous misconceptions about how and why to use magnitudes. We present a useful exercise in the use of magnitudes to derive a cosmologically interesting quantity (the mass-to-light ratio for spiral galaxies), with potential pitfalls pointed out and explained.

Schulman, Eric; Cox, Caroline

2005-11-23

241

Astronomical Fourier spectropolarimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectra of the Stokes polarization parameters of Venus (resolution 0.5 per cm) are presented. They were obtained at the Cassegrain focus of the 154-cm telescope of the National Mexican Observatory, Baja California, Mexico, July 12 and 13, 1972, with the Fourier Interferometer Polarimeter (FIP). A preliminary, limited analysis of four spectral features and of the CO2 rotational band structures at 6080 and 6200 per cm has demonstrated that spectral polarization is indeed present. These experimental results, confirmed by two series of observations, provide substantiation for this theoretically predicted phenomenon. They also tend to show that the FIP represents a novel astronomical tool for variable spectral resolution studies of both the intensity and the state of polarization of astronomical light sources.

Forbes, F. F.; Fymat, A. L.

1974-01-01

242

Microcomputers and astronomical navigation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experienced navigators remember ancient astronomical navigation and its limitations. Using microcomputers in small packages and selecting up-to-date efficient methods will overcome many of these limitations. Both features lead to focus on observations, and encourage an increase in their numbers. With no intention of competing with satellite navigation, sextant navigation in the open sea can then be accessed again by anybody. It can be considered for demonstrative use or as a complement to the GPS.

Robin-Jouan, Y.

1996-04-01

243

Astronomical Society of Victoria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astronomical Society of Victoria website promotes its efforts to act as a forum for a wide variety of people interested in astronomy. Users can find learn about the monthly meetings open to the public. The website introduces the Society's many sections including Computing, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Current Phenomena, and Radio Astronomy. The Newcomers link furnishes helpful lists of astronomy books, magazines, and computer software. Everyone will enjoy the fantastic images of the Great Orion Nebula, the Trifid Nebula, and other space phenomena.

244

The Astronomical Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Chicago Press has announced unrestricted access to an online journal until mid-1998. Full text articles, announcements, and editorials are all available. Available electronic issues of The Astronomical Journal (AJ) begin with Volume 115, number 1 (January, 1998). AJ covers "The expanded coverage of quasars, supernova remnants, and studies of the interstellar medium [as well as] traditional areas of astronomy." The publication is available in various formats.

245

Alternative Astronomical Software Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when the United Nations, in collaboration with Wolfram Research, has selected the Mathematica software package to\\u000a inform developing countries about available scientific tools, it is important to review other choices of software being used\\u000a by active scientists around the world. For observational astronomers with large volumes of digital data to be analyzed, the\\u000a main challenges are data

M. R. Pérez

1997-01-01

246

HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe, only the lighter elements, such as hydrogen, filled the heavens. The heavier elements were produced later as stars died. Neon, in particular, is produced only when massive stars die in supernova explosions. Thus, a higher abundance of neon in 'bipolar' planetary nebulae indicates that the stars that sculpted these objects were born more recently (i.e., in an environment that had suffered more supernova explosions) than those that created the more symmetrically shaped clouds of gas. On the other hand, the stars that form planetary nebulae are great producers of carbon, the most important element for the origin of life, as we know it. The question of how life-forming atoms were made is at the heart of understanding how and why life evolved in our own solar system very shortly after the Sun itself had formed from clouds of carbon-enriched gas and dust 4.6 billion years ago. Scientists do not know for sure how the Milky Way behaved before the birth of the Sun. But they can look at regions in other galaxies where conditions may be very similar to the pre-solar days of the Milky Way. The Large Magellanic Cloud is an ideal laboratory for such an experiment, since its chemistry mimics a pre-solar environment. Astronomers are using the Hubble images of these planetary nebulae, together with spectroscopic information from ground-based observatories, to understand the important carbon-forming mechanisms in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The progenitor stars are expected to form some carbon and lock it deep in their interiors near the end of their lives. In the last few thousand years of their active lives, just before ejecting planetary nebulae, stars are able to dredge up the carbon locked deep in their cores. They undergo a phase as 'carbon stars,' then fling the carbon-rich gas into space as they form planetary nebulae, material for new generations of stars and planets. The Hubble images were taken between June and September 1999. Credits for the Hubble images: NASA; L. Stanghellini, R. Shaw, C. Blades, and M. Mutchler, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.; an

2002-01-01

247

Astrobiology: An astronomer's perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review we explore aspects of the field of astrobiology from an astronomical viewpoint. We therefore focus on the origin of life in the context of planetary formation, with additional emphasis on tracing the most abundant volatile elements, C, H, O, and N that are used by life on Earth. We first explore the history of life on our planet and outline the current state of our knowledge regarding the delivery of the C, H, O, N elements to the Earth. We then discuss how astronomers track the gaseous and solid molecular carriers of these volatiles throughout the process of star and planet formation. It is now clear that the early stages of star formation fosters the creation of water and simple organic molecules with enrichments of heavy isotopes. These molecules are found as ice coatings on the solid materials that represent microscopic beginnings of terrestrial worlds. Based on the meteoritic and cometary record, the process of planet formation, and the local environment, lead to additional increases in organic complexity. The astronomical connections towards this stage are only now being directly made. Although the exact details are uncertain, it is likely that the birth process of star and planets likely leads to terrestrial worlds being born with abundant water and organics on the surface.

Bergin, Edwin A.

2014-12-01

248

Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was approximately 25,000 pounds. In principle, it is no different than the reflecting telescopes in ground-based astronomical observatories. Like ground-based telescopes, the HST was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of using a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic allows the HST to be used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs of an international user community. The telescope s planned useful operational lifetime is 15 years, during which it will make observations in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. The extended operational life of the HST is possible by using the capabilities of the Space Transportation System to periodically visit the HST on-orbit to replace failed or degraded components, install instruments with improved capabilities, re-boost the HST to higher altitudes compensating for gravitational effects, and to bring the HST back to Earth when the mission is terminated. The largest ground-based observatories, such as the 200-inch aperture Hale telescope at Palomar Mountain, California, can recognize detail in individual galaxies several billion light years away. However, like all earthbound devices, the Hale telescope is limited because of the blurring effect of the Earth s atmosphere. Further, the wavelength region observable from the Earth s surface is limited by the atmosphere to the visible part of the spectrum. The very important ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is lost. The HST uses a 2.4-meter reflective optics system designed to capture data over a wavelength region that reaches far into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.

1993-01-01

249

Hubble Observes the Planet Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings and bright clouds and a high altitude haze above the planet's south pole.

Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, none of these inner satellites has been further observed, and detailed observations of the rings have not been possible.

Though Uranus' rings were discovered indirectly in 1977 (through stellar occultation observations), they have never before been seen in visible light through a ground-based telescope.

Hubble resolves several of Uranus' rings, including the outermost Epsilon ring. The planet has a total of 11 concentric rings of dark dust. Uranus is tipped such that its rotation axis lies in the plane of its orbit, so the rings appear nearly face-on.

Three of Uranus' inner moons each appear as a string of three dots at the bottom of the picture. This is because the picture is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart, and then combined to show the moons' orbital motions. The satellites are, from left to right, Cressida, Juliet, and Portia. The moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon does as it moves around the Earth, so they noticeably change position over only a few minutes.

One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does resolve a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus's atmosphere, which should be unusual given the planet's large tilt.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1994-01-01

250

Astronomical Software Directory Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the support of NASA's Astrophysics Data Program (NRA 92-OSSA-15), we have developed the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS): a distributed, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URLs indexed for full-text searching. Users are performing about 400 searches per month. A new aspect of our service is the inclusion of telescope and instrumentation manuals, which prompted us to change the name to the Astronomical Software and Documentation Service. ASDS was originally conceived to serve two purposes: to provide a useful Internet service in an area of expertise of the investigators (astronomical software), and as a research project to investigate various architectures for searching through a set of documents distributed across the Internet. Two of the co-investigators were then installing and maintaining astronomical software as their primary job responsibility. We felt that a service which incorporated our experience in this area would be more useful than a straightforward listing of software packages. The original concept was for a service based on the client/server model, which would function as a directory/referral service rather than as an archive. For performing the searches, we began our investigation with a decision to evaluate the Isite software from the Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (CNIDR). This software was intended as a replacement for Wide-Area Information Service (WAIS), a client/server technology for performing full-text searches through a set of documents. Isite had some additional features that we considered attractive, and we enjoyed the cooperation of the Isite developers, who were happy to have ASDS as a demonstration project. We ended up staying with the software throughout the project, making modifications to take advantage of new features as they came along, as well as influencing the software development. The Web interface to the search engine is provided by a gateway program written in C++ by a consultant to the project (A. Warnock).

Hanisch, Robert J.; Payne, Harry; Hayes, Jeffrey

1997-01-01

251

XXXVI Polish Astronomical Society Meeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XXXVI meeting of Polish Astronomical Society was held in Warsaw on Sept. 11-14, 2013. The conference brought together 150 astronomers working in different institutes in Poland and abroad. The highlight of the Congress was the first awarding of the Paczynski's Medal. The first laureate of the Medal is Professor Martin Rees from University of Cambridge. Medal was given by the President of the Polish Astronomical Society prof. Bozena Czerny.

Ró?a?ska, Agata; Bejger, Micha?

2014-12-01

252

Getting Astronomers Involved in the IYA: Astronomer in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomer in the Classroom program provides professional astronomers the opportunity to engage with 3rd-12th grade students across the nation in grade appropriate discussions of their recent research, and provides students with rich STEM content in a personalized forum, bringing greater access to scientific knowledge for underserved populations. 21st Century Learning and Interstellar Studios, the producer of the 400 Years of the Telescope documentary along with their educational partners, will provide the resources necessary to facilitate the Astronomer in the Classroom program, allowing students to interact with astronomers throughout the IYA2009. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION One of hundreds of astronomers will be available to interact with students via live webcast daily during Spring/Fall 2009. The astronomer for the day will conduct three 20-minute discussions (Grades 3-5 /6-8/9-12), beginning with a five-minute PowerPoint on their research or area of interest. The discussion will be followed by a question and answer period. The students will participate in real-time from their school computer(s) with the technology provided by 21st Century Learning. They will see and hear the astronomer on their screen, and pose questions from their keyboard. Teachers will choose from three daily sessions; 11:30 a.m., 12:00 p.m., 12:30 p.m. Eastern Time. This schedule overlaps all US time zones, and marginalizes bandwidth usage, preventing technological barriers to web access. The educational partners and astronomers will post materials online, providing easy access to information that will prepare teachers and students for the chosen discussion. The astronomers, invited to participate from the AAS and IAU, will receive a web cam shipment with instructions, a brief training and conductivity test, and prepaid postage for shipment of the web cam to the next astronomer on the list. The anticipated astronomer time required is 3-hours, not including the time to develop the PowerPoint.

Koenig, Kris

2008-05-01

253

Light Dragging, the Origin of Hubble's Constant  

E-print Network

Recently E. Harrison has argued the Red Shift distance law proposed by Hubble and velocity-distance law developed later on theoretical grounds has no general proof demonstrating the two laws are actually equivalent. It is the purpose of this paper to account for the nebular redshift law of Hubble based on two principles: 1) Spacetime motion and light dragging. 2) An overall spacetime index of refraction based on Hubble's Constant.

Walter J. Christensen Jr

2008-10-07

254

Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

2009-01-01

255

HUBBLE OBSERVES THE PLANET URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings and bright clouds and a high altitude haze above the planet's south pole. Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. These details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus in 1986. Since then, none of these inner satellites has been further observed, and detailed observations of the rings have not been possible. Though Uranus' rings were discovered indirectly in 1977 (through stellar occultation observations), they have never before been seen in visible light through a ground-based telescope. Hubble resolves several of Uranus' rings, including the outermost Epsilon ring. The planet has a total of 11 concentric rings of dark dust. Uranus is tipped such that its rotation axis lies in the plane of its orbit, so the rings appear nearly face-on. Three of Uranus' inner moons each appear as a string of three dots at the bottom of the picture. This is because the picture is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart, and then combined to show the moons' orbital motions. The satellites are, from left to right, Cressida, Juliet, and Portia. The moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon does as it moves around the Earth, so they noticeably change position over only a few minutes. One of the four gas giant planets of our solar system, Uranus is largely featureless. HST does resolve a high altitude haze which appears as a bright 'cap' above the planet's south pole, along with clouds at southern latitudes (similar structures were observed by Voyager). Unlike Earth, Uranus' south pole points toward the Sun during part of the planet's 84-year orbit. Thanks to its high resolution and ability to make observations over many years, Hubble can follow seasonal changes in Uranus's atmosphere, which should be unusual given the planet's large tilt. Credit: Kenneth Seidelmann, U.S. Naval Observatory, and NASA These observations were conducted by a team led by Dr. Ken Seidelmann of the U.S. Naval Observatory as Principal Investigator. These images have been processed by Professor Douglas Currie and Mr. Dan Dowling in the Department of Physics at the University of Maryland. Other team members are Dr. Ben Zellner at Georgia Southern University, Dr. Dan Pascu and Mr. Jim Rhode at the U.S. Naval Observatory, and Dr. Ed Wells, Mr. Charles Kowal (Computer Science Corporation) and Dr. Alex Storrs of the Space Telescope Science Institute.

2002-01-01

256

Hubble Space Telescope Science Metrics  

E-print Network

Since its launch in April 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has produced an increasing flow of scientific results. The large number of refereed publications based on HST data allows a detailed evaluation of the effectiveness of this observatory and of its scientific programs. This paper presents the results of selected science metrics related to paper counts, citation counts, citation history, high-impact papers, and the most productive programs and most cited papers, through the end of 2003. All these indicators point towards the high-quality scientific impact of HST.

Georges Meylan; Juan P. Madrid; Duccio Macchetto

2004-06-29

257

The very local Hubble flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images of eighteen galaxies situated in the vicinity of the Local Group (LG) as part of an ongoing snapshot survey of nearby galaxies. Their distances derived from the magnitude of the tip of the red giant branch are 1.92±0.10 Mpc (ESO 294-010), 3.06±0.37 (NGC 404), 3.15±0.32 (UGCA 105), 1.36±0.07 (Sex B), 1.33±0.08 (NGC 3109), 2.64±0.21 (UGC 6817), 2.86±0.14 (KDG 90), 2.27±0.19 (IC 3104), 2.54±0.17 (UGC 7577), 2.56±0.15 (UGC 8508), 3.01±0.29 (UGC 8651), 2.61±0.16 (KKH 86), 2.79±0.26 (UGC 9240), 1.11±0.07 (SagDIG), 0.94±0.04 (DDO 210), 2.07±0.18 (IC 5152), 2.23±0.15 (UGCA 438), and 2.45±0.13 (KKH 98). Based on the velocity-distance data for 36 nearest galaxies around the LG, we find the radius of the zero-velocity surface of the LG to be R0 = (0.94±0.10) Mpc, which yields a total mass MLG = (1.3±0.3) × 1012 Msolar. The galaxy distribution around the LG reveals a Local Minivoid which does not contain any galaxy brighter than MV=-11 mag within a volume of ~100 Mpc3. The local Hubble flow seems to be very cold, having a one-dimensional mean random motion of ~30 km s-1. The best-fit value of the local Hubble parameter is 73±15 km s-1 Mpc-1. The luminosity function for the nearby field galaxies is far less steep than one for members of the nearest groups. Figure 2 is only available in the electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Karachentsev, I. D.; Sharina, M. E.; Makarov, D. I.; Dolphin, A. E.; Grebel, E. K.; Geisler, D.; Guhathakurta, P.; Hodge, P. W.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Sarajedini, A.; Seitzer, P.

2002-07-01

258

On astronomical drawing [1846  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reprinted from the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society 15, 1846, pp. 71-82. With annotations and illustrations added by Klaus Hentschel. The activities of the Astronomer Royal for Scotland, Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900), include the triangulation of South African districts, landscape painting, day-to-day or tourist sketching, the engraving and lithographing of prominent architectural sites, the documentary photography of the Egyptian pyramids or the Tenerife Dragon tree, and `instant photographs' of the clouds above his retirement home in Clova, Ripon. His colorful records of the aurora polaris, and solar and terrestrial spectra all profited from his trained eye and his subtle mastery of the pen and the brush. As his paper on astronomical drawing, which we chose to reproduce in this volume, amply demonstrates, he was conversant in most of the print technology repertoire that the 19th century had to offer, and carefully selected the one most appropriate to each sujet. For instance, he chose mezzotint for the plates illustrating Maclear's observations of Halley's comet in 1835/36, so as to achieve a ``rich profundity of shadows, the deep obscurity of which is admirably adapted to reproduce those fine effects of chiaroscuro frequently found in works where the quantity of dark greatly predominates.'' The same expertise with which he tried to emulate Rembrandt's chiaroscuro effects he applied to assessing William and John Herschel's illustrations of nebulae, which appeared in print between 1811 and 1834. William Herschel's positive engraving, made partly by stippling and partly by a coarse mezzotint, receives sharp admonishment because of the visible ruled crossed lines in the background and the fact that ``the objects, which are also generally too light, [have] a much better definition than they really possess.'' On the other hand, John Herschel's illustration of nebulae and star clusters, given in negative, ``in which the lights are the darkest part of the picture'', finds his praise.

Smyth, Charles Piazzi

259

Star Witness News: Hubble’s Picture Book of the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news story celebrates the 15th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. Information about the top ten discoveries made by Hubble is included. This selection was written in conjunction with the HubbleSite press release: Hubble Celebrates 15th Anniversary with Spectacular New Images. The article is from the Amazing Space science newspaper, The Star Witness, which can be used as a science content reading.

260

Excursions in Astronomical Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These "excursions" into astronomical optics discuss innovative, often radical, suggestions for the design of optical instruments. Providing a storehouse of ideas and approaches not available elsewhere, Mertz suggests opportunities for further exploration and development rather than proven solutions. Covering a wide array of topics, from x-ray telescopes to gravitational lenses and from microscope objectives to Fourier transform spectroscopy, the excursions share a common thread of optical science related to astronomy. The book should thus interest researchers and graduate students in astronomy, optics, and optical engineering. Appendices provide Fortran code for some of the design techniques discussed in the book and for Monte Carlo image synthesis.

Mertz, Lawrence N.

261

Refracting Astronomical Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates the working of a refracting astronomical telescope. The telescope has two lenses called objective and eyepiece. The focal length of the two lensees can be changed by the user. As an example six brightest stars of the Pleiades, is viewed through the telescope and the resluting change in the image with a change in the focal lengths can be viewed. This applet part of large collection of physics applets by the author and may be accessed in a variety of languages here: http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/

Fendt, Walter

2008-05-07

262

Astronomical Instruments in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

263

Hubble Spots Northern Hemispheric Clouds on Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time.

Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness).

Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds.

Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost edge). The 'red' image (on the right) is taken at 6,190 Angstroms, and is sensitive to absorption by methane molecules in the planet's atmosphere. The banded structure of Uranus is evident, and the small cloud near the northern limb is now visible.

Scientists are expecting that the discrete clouds and banded structure may become even more pronounced as Uranus continues in its slow pace around the Sun. 'Some parts of Uranus haven't seen the Sun in decades,' says Dr. Hammel, 'and historical records suggest that we may see the development of more banded structure and patchy clouds as the planet's year progresses.'

Some scientists have speculated that the winds of Uranus are not symmetric around the planet's equator, but no clouds were visible to test those theories. The new data will provide the opportunity to measure the northern winds. Hammel and colleagues expect to have results soon.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http:// oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1997-01-01

264

Finding Our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Origins program is a series of space telescopes designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, I will concentrate on the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with the Hubble Space Telescope through to the present day. I will introduce several of the tools that astronomers use to measure distances, measure velocities, and look backwards in time. I will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, which is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past. I will finish with a short discussion of other missions in the Origins theme, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2003-01-01

265

Finding our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Origins program is a series of space telescopes designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, I will concentrate on the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with the Hubble Space Telescope through to the present day. I will introduce several of the tools that astronomers use to measure distances, measure velocities, and look backwards in time. I will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, which is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past. I will finish with a short discussion of other missions in the Origins theme, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2004-01-01

266

Hubble’s 25th Anniversary: A Quarter-Century of Discovery and Inspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

April 24, 2015 marks the 25th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. In its quarter-century in orbit, the Hubble Space Telescope has transformed the way we understand the Universe, helped us find our place among the stars, and paved the way to incredible advancements in science and technology. NASA and ESA, including STScI and partners, will use the 25th anniversary of Hubble’s launch as a unique opportunity to communicate to the widest possible audience the significance of the past quarter-century of discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope and to highlight that Hubble will continue to produce groundbreaking science results. We will enhance public understanding of Hubble’s many contributions to the scientific world, and will capitalize on Hubble’s cultural popularity by emphasizing its’ successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. This poster highlights many of the upcoming opportunities to join in the anniversary activities, both in-person and online. Find out more at hubble25th.org and follow #Hubble25 on social media.

Straughn, Amber; Jirdeh, Hussein

2015-01-01

267

HUBBLE PHOTOGRAPHS WARPED GALAXY AS CAMERA PASSES MILESTONE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured an image of an unusual edge-on galaxy, revealing remarkable details of its warped dusty disk and showing how colliding galaxies spawn the formation of new generations of stars. The dust and spiral arms of normal spiral galaxies, like our own Milky Way, appear flat when viewed edge-on. This month's Hubble Heritage image of ESO 510-G13 shows a galaxy that, by contrast, has an unusual twisted disk structure, first seen in ground-based photographs obtained at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile. ESO 510-G13 lies in the southern constellation Hydra, roughly 150 million light-years from Earth. Details of the structure of ESO 510-G13 are visible because the interstellar dust clouds that trace its disk are silhouetted from behind by light from the galaxy's bright, smooth central bulge. The strong warping of the disk indicates that ESO 510-G13 has recently undergone a collision with a nearby galaxy and is in the process of swallowing it. Gravitational forces distort the structures of the galaxies as their stars, gas, and dust merge together in a process that takes millions of years. Eventually the disturbances will die out, and ESO 510-G13 will become a normal-appearing single galaxy. In the outer regions of ESO 510-G13, especially on the right-hand side of the image, we see that the twisted disk contains not only dark dust, but also bright clouds of blue stars. This shows that hot, young stars are being formed in the disk. Astronomers believe that the formation of new stars may be triggered by collisions between galaxies, as their interstellar clouds smash together and are compressed. The Heritage Team used Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) to observe ESO 510-G13 in April 2001. Pictures obtained through blue, green, and red filters were combined to make this color-composite image, which emphasizes the contrast between the dusty spiral arms, the bright bulge, and the blue star-forming regions. During the observations of ESO 510-G13, WFPC2 passed the milestone of taking its 100,000th image since its installation in the telescope by shuttle astronauts in 1993. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: C. Conselice (U. Wisconsin/STScI)

2002-01-01

268

Jeremiah Horrocks, astronomer and poet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will consider the work of Jeremiah Horrocks, the first astronomer to observe the transit of Venus, with reference to his book on the subject (Venus in sole visa). It also explores a New Zealand connection. The paper focuses on Horrocks's interest in writing poetry, the relationship between his poetry and his astronomical work, and what this can tell

R Horrocks

2012-01-01

269

HUBBLE PROBES THE VIOLENT BIRTH OF STARS IN GALAXY NGC 253 [Left  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image of the spiral galaxy NGC 253, taken with a ground-based telescope. The galaxy is located about 8 million light-years away in the constellation Sculptor. Credit: Jay Gallagher (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Alan Watson (Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ), and NASA [Right] This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the core of the nearest starburst spiral galaxy, NGC 253, reveals violent star formation within a region 1,000 light-years across. A starburst galaxy has an exceptionally high rate of star birth, first identified by its excess of infrared radiation from warm dust. Hubble's high resolution allows astronomers to quantify complex structures in the starburst core of the galaxy for the first time, including luminous star clusters, dust lanes which trace regions of dense gas and filaments of glowing gas. Hubble identifies several regions of intense star formation, which include a bright, super-compact star cluster. These observations confirm that stars are often born in dense clusters within starbursts, and that dense gas coexists with and obscures the starburst core. This image was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (in PC mode). Credit: Carnegie Institution of Washington

2002-01-01

270

Hubble Space Telescope pointing control system: Designed for performance and mission operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope was designed to be an orbiting astronomical observatory which could be operated in the same manner as ground based observatories. The design drivers for the pointing control system's hardware and software were the requirements of an absolute pointing accuracy of 4.8E-8 radians and pointing stability (jitter) of 3.4E-8 radians. Of comparable importance was the objective of providing a flexible command methodology and structure to enable seven day operational planning employing stored program command and real time command capability. The pointing control system hardware, software, safemode control schemes, ground system monitoring capability, and in-orbit results are reviewed.

Bradley, A.; Ryan, J.

1991-01-01

271

Hubble Witnesses The Final Blaze Of Glory Of Sun-Like Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Telescope Science Institute has released this stunning photograph from the Hubble Space Telescope, the "supersonic exhaust from [planetary] nebula M2-9." This is an example of a "bipolar planetary nebula" and is estimated to be ten times the diameter of Pluto's orbit. This picture, along with others, contributes to astronomers' understanding of the complex processes that can result from the death throes of Sun-like stars. The site contains the M2-9 photo in several resolutions and formats, an explanatory caption, a photo gallery of other planetary nebulas, a QuickTime movie illustrating the process, and other explanatory material.

1997-01-01

272

Introduction to Astronomical Photometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This textbook for graduate students in observational astronomy, describes the methods used to measure the radiation (mostly in the optical domain) from stars. It starts with an overview, followed by definitions of the main terms encountered in the subject. This is followed by a description of the fundamental physical theory of the measurement of radiative flux. Wide ranging problems in astronomical photometry are then approached. The central chapters deal with photometer design, data handling techniques, and the generation of light curves. Many applications of photometry are then described. Users of this textbook will be able to develop an interest in the practicalities of obtaining data of good quality from photometry. The book will appeal to amateur and professional astronomers engaged in variable star observations and the measurement of stellar luminosity. It is intended to encourage interest in the practicalities of observational astronomy and an understanding of stellar astrophysics from a data-based perspective. It fills a gap between a popular approach and a research monograph.

Budding, Edwin

1993-09-01

273

Professional Ethics for Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

Marvel, K. B.

2005-05-01

274

View of Astronaut Edwin Aldrin in Lunar Module taken from television  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, is seen in this color reproduction taken from the third television transmission from the Apollo 11 spacecraft during its translunar journey toward the moon. Aldrin is inside the Lunar Module (LM). In the background are some of the LM's controls and displays. A LM window is on the right. The LM is still docked nose to nose with the Command/Service modules . Apollo 11 was approximately 176,000 nautical miles from earth, and traveling at a speed of about 3,200 feet per second when this photograph was taken.

1969-01-01

275

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin after deployment of EASEP on surface of moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the Moon. He has just deployed the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP). In the foreground is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP); beyond it is the Laser Ranging RetroReflector (LR-3); in the center background is the United States flag; in the left background is the black and white lunar surface television camera; in the far right background is the Lunar Module. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

1969-01-01

276

Scientist and observational astronomer with expertise/interests in: Low-mass stars and brown dwarfs Search for extra-solar planets  

E-print Network

Scientist and observational astronomer with expertise/interests in: Low-mass stars and brown dwarfs project. "A systematic search for nearby white dwarfs in the GALEX archive: positions and motions of 100,000 disk and halo white dwarfs". $90,000- National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Hubble

277

East Asian astronomical records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese, Japanese and Korean celestial observations have made major contributions to Applied Historical Astronomy, especially in the study of supernovae, comets, Earth's rotation (using eclipses) and solar variability (via sunspots and aurorae). Few original texts now survive; almost all extant records exist only in printed versions, often with the loss of much detail. The earliest Chinese astronomical observations extend back to before 1000 BC. However, fairly systematic records are only available since 200 BC - and even these have suffered losses through wars, etc. By around AD 800, many independent observations are available from Japan and Korea and these provide a valuable supplement to the Chinese data. Throughout East Asia dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar and conversion to the Julian or Gregorian calendar can be readily effected.

Stephenson, F. Richard

278

Immanuel Halton, the astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immanuel Halton was born in Cumberland, studied at Grays Inn, London during the later stages of the English Civil War and, during the Commonwealth, entered the service of Henry Howard, later 6th Duke of Norfolk. He pursued his mathematical and astronomical interests while auditor to the Duke of Norfolk. He met with John Flamsteed, encouraged the latter's interest in mathematics and astronomy and became his first patron, as well as contributing observations to Flamsteed's published works. Immanuel ended his days at Wingfield Manor, Derbyshire. A short biographical piece on Immanuel Halton appeared in the Journal in the early 1950s, consisting mostly of quotations from Flamsteed's 'Self Inspections' and Baily's 'Life of Flamsteed'. 1996 is the 350th anniversary of Flamsteed's birth, and it is hoped that this fuller account will flesh out the bones of his first patron.

Barber, P. M.

1996-02-01

279

Scientific American The Amateur Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the longest running column in Scientific American's history comes this collection of fascinating projects for amateur astronomers For over seventy years, "The Amateur Scientist" column in Scientific American has helped people explore their world and make original discoveries. This collection of both classic and recent articles presents projects for amateur astronomers at all levels. Hands-on astronomy fans will find how to build inexpensive astronomical instruments using ordinary shop-tools. From making a telescope to predicting satellite orbits to detecting the chemical composition of faraway stars, this book has something for everyone interested in practical astronomy.

American, Scientific; Carlson, Shawn

2000-12-01

280

Hubble Gallery of Jupiter's Galilean Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of the four largest moons of Jupiter, first observed by the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei nearly four centuries ago. Located approximately one-half billion miles away, the moons are so small that, in visible light, they appear as fuzzy disks in the largest ground-based telescopes. Hubble can resolve surface details seen previously only by the Voyager spacecraft in the early 1980s. While the Voyagers provided close-up snapshots of the satellites, Hubble can now follow changes on the moons and reveal other characteristics at ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths.

Over the past year Hubble has charted new volcanic activity on Io's active surface, found a faint oxygen atmosphere on the moon Europa, and identified ozone on the surface of Ganymede. Hubble ultraviolet observations of Callisto show the presence of fresh ice on the surface that may indicate impacts from micrometeorites and charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere.

Hubble observations will play a complementary role when the Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter in December of this year.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1995-01-01

281

Why Reason? A Conversation About Logic With Edwin J. Delattre Conducted by Thomas J. Donovan. National Humanities Faculty Why Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is one of the National Humanities Faculty publications designed to examine the question of what is taught, and why. This dialogue between Edwin Delattre and Thomas Donovan explores how humans go about reasoning and solving problems according to their collective, reflective intelligence. (Author/MJ)

Delattre, Edwin J.; Donovan, Thomas J.

282

Edwin Zaccai (d.), Sustainable consumption, ecology and fair trade, Londres, Routledge, 2007 Is large-scale fair trade possible?  

E-print Network

Edwin Zaccai (éd.), Sustainable consumption, ecology and fair trade, Londres, Routledge, 2007 1 Is large-scale fair trade possible? Ronan Le Velly Abstract The article presents the changes in the nature of the market relationship that are induced by the expansion of fair trade. It shows that the increase

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

Astronomical Society of the Pacific  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astronomical Society of the Pacific is an international nonprofit scientific and educational organization founded in 1889 that works to increase understanding and appreciation of astronomy. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific is the largest general astronomy society in the world. The society provides many kinds of educational materials which can be ordered online from this site. The site includes links to many other astronomy-related sites.

2003-10-10

284

The astronomer - N. N. Donitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a history of friendship and collaboration between the astronomers N. Donitch and A.A. Baikov. Information on other astronomers, L.V. Okulitch and E.A. Von der Pahlen, and meteorologists V.H. Dubinskii and Nina Gouma, can also be found. Details on the expeditions aimed at observing the total solar eclipses on 30 August 1905 (organized by the Imperial Academy of

A. A. Baikov; A. Gaina

2003-01-01

285

Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.

The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.

The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.

The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.

The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1996-01-01

286

THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY  

SciTech Connect

The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury program to image {approx}1/3 of M31's star-forming disk in six filters, spanning from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR). We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) to resolve the galaxy into millions of individual stars with projected radii from 0 to 20 kpc. The full survey will cover a contiguous 0.5 deg{sup 2}area in 828 orbits. Imaging is being obtained in the F275W and F336W filters on the WFC3/UVIS camera, F475W and F814W on ACS/WFC, and F110W and F160W on WFC3/IR. The resulting wavelength coverage gives excellent constraints on stellar temperature, bolometric luminosity, and extinction for most spectral types. The data produce photometry with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4 at m{sub F275W} = 25.1, m{sub F336W} = 24.9, m{sub F475W} = 27.9, m{sub F814W} = 27.1, m{sub F110W} = 25.5, and m{sub F160W} = 24.6 for single pointings in the uncrowded outer disk; in the inner disk, however, the optical and NIR data are crowding limited, and the deepest reliable magnitudes are up to 5 mag brighter. Observations are carried out in two orbits per pointing, split between WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR cameras in primary mode, with ACS/WFC run in parallel. All pointings are dithered to produce Nyquist-sampled images in F475W, F814W, and F160W. We describe the observing strategy, photometry, astrometry, and data products available for the survey, along with extensive testing of photometric stability, crowding errors, spatially dependent photometric biases, and telescope pointing control. We also report on initial fits to the structure of M31's disk, derived from the density of red giant branch stars, in a way that is independent of assumed mass-to-light ratios and is robust to variations in dust extinction. These fits also show that the 10 kpc ring is not just a region of enhanced recent star formation, but is instead a dynamical structure containing a significant overdensity of stars with ages >1 Gyr.

Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosenfield, Philip; Weisz, Daniel R.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Gogarten, Stephanie M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lang, Dustin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lauer, Tod R.; Dong Hui [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Kalirai, Jason S.; Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dorman, Claire E.; Guhathakurta, Puragra [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

2012-06-01

287

Hubble Finds Many Bright Clouds on Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent Hubble Space Telescope view reveals Uranus surrounded by its four major rings and by 10 of its 17 known satellites. This false-color image was generated by Erich Karkoschka using data taken on August 8, 1998, with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer. Hubble recently found about 20 clouds - nearly as many clouds on Uranus as the previous total in the history of modern observations.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1998-01-01

288

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Transportation Operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ready for transportation to the Kennedy Space Center, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is pictured onboard the strongback dolly at the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) at the Lockheed assembly plant upon completion of final testing and verification.

1989-01-01

289

Satellite Drag and the Hubble Space Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a figure showing four re-entry scenarios for the Hubble Space Telescope. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

290

THE SPIRAL GALAXY M100 AS SEEN WITH THE HUBBLE'S IMPROVED VISION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image of the grand design spiral galaxy M100 obtained with the second generation Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC-2), newly installed in the Hubble Space Telescope. Though the galaxy lies several tens of millions of light-years away, modified optics incorporated within the WFPC-2 allow Hubble to view M100 with a level of clarity and sensitivity previously possible only for the very few nearby galaxies that compose our ``Local Group.'' Just as one does not learn about the diversity of mankind by conversing only with your next door neighbor, astronomers must study many galaxies in a host of different environments if they are to come to understand how our own galaxy, our star, and our earth came to be. By expanding the region of the universe that can be studied in such detail a thousand fold, the WFPC-2 will help the Hubble Space Telescope to fulfill this mission. One of the greatest gains of the high resolution provided by Hubble is the ability to resolve individual stars in other galaxies. The new camera not only allows astronomers to separate stars which would have been blurred together at the resolution available from the ground, but also allows astronomers to accurately measure the light from very faint stars. The quantitative study of compositions, ages, temperatures, and other properties of stars and gas in other galaxies will provide important clues about how galaxies form and evolve. In addition, the WFPC-2 will allow the Hubble Space Telescope to be used to attack one of the most fundamental questions in science: the age and scale of the universe. Astronomers have many ``yardsticks'' for measuring the scale of the universe, but lack a good knowledge of how long these yardsticks really are. M100 is a member of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. By allowing astronomers to resolve and measure individual stars in the Virgo Cluster -- in particular a special type of star called Cepheid variables, which have well known absolute brightnesses -- HST observations are expected to provide a crucial measurement of this much needed scale. (Only Space Telescope can make these types of observations. Cepheids are too faint and the resolution too poor, as seen from ground-based telescopes, to separate the images in such a crowded region of a distant galaxy.) The picture is chevron-shaped because it is a mosaic of the three wide field cameras and the planetary camera which make up the WFPC-2. The three wide field detectors in the camera reveal individual stars and filamentary dust lanes in the outer arms of the majestic spiral galaxy. The instrument's planetary camera image (upper right) resolves complex structure in the core of the galaxy, which is the site of vigorous star formation. The image was taken on December 31, 1993. The field of view is about two and a half arc minutes across. PHOTO RELEASE NO.: STScI-PR94-02

2002-01-01

291

XEphem: Interactive Astronomical Ephemeris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XEphem is a scientific-grade interactive astronomical ephemeris package for UNIX-like systems. Written in C, X11 and Motif, it is easily ported to systems. Among other things, XEphem: computes heliocentric, geocentric and topocentric information for all objects; has built-in support for all planets; the moons of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Earth; central meridian longitude of Mars and Jupiter; Saturn's rings; and Jupiter's Great Red Spot; allows user-defined objects including stars, deepsky objects, asteroids, comets and Earth satellites; provides special efficient handling of large catalogs including Tycho, Hipparcos, GSC; displays data in configurable tabular formats in conjunction with several interactive graphical views; displays a night-at-a-glance 24 hour graphic showing when any selected objects are up; displays 3-D stereo Solar System views that are particularly well suited for visualizing comet trajectories; quickly finds all close pairs of objects in the sky; and sorts and prints all catalogs with very flexible criteria for creating custom observing lists. Its capabilities are listed more fully in the user manual introduction.

Downey, Elwood Charles

2011-12-01

292

Hubble’s 25th Anniversary: A Quarter-Century of Discovery and Inspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

April 24, 2015 marks the 25th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. In its quarter-century in orbit, the Hubble Space Telescope has transformed the way we understand the Universe, helped us find our place among the stars, and paved the way to incredible advancements in science and technology. NASA and ESA, including STScI and partners, will use the 25th anniversary of Hubble's launch as a unique opportunity to communicate to the widest possible audience the significance of the past quarter-century of discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope and to highlight that Hubble will continue to produce groundbreaking science results. We will enhance public understanding of Hubble's many contributions to the scientific world, and will capitalize on Hubble's cultural popularity by emphasizing its' successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. This poster highlights many of the upcoming opportunities to join in the anniversary activities, both in-person and online. Find out more at hubble25th.org and follow #Hubble25 on social media.

Straughn, Amber; Jirdeh, Hussein

2015-01-01

293

HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost edge). The 'red' image (on the right) is taken at 6,190 Angstroms, and is sensitive to absorption by methane molecules in the planet's atmosphere. The banded structure of Uranus is evident, and the small cloud near the northern limb is now visible. Scientists are expecting that the discrete clouds and banded structure may become even more pronounced as Uranus continues in its slow pace around the Sun. 'Some parts of Uranus haven't seen the Sun in decades,' says Dr. Hammel, 'and historical records suggest that we may see the development of more banded structure and patchy clouds as the planet's year progresses.' Some scientists have speculated that the winds of Uranus are not symmetric around the planet's equator, but no clouds were visible to test those theories. The new data will provide the opportunity to measure the northern winds. Hammel and colleagues expect to have results soon. Credits: Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and NASA.

2002-01-01

294

ISO Results Presented at International Astronomical Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the work being presented is collected in the attached ESA Information Note N 25-97, ISO illuminates our cosmic ancestry. A set of six colour images illustrating various aspects have also been released and are available at http://www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/iso1808.htm or in hard copy from ESA Public Relations Paris (fax:+33.1.5369.7690). These pictures cover: 1. Distant but powerful infrared galaxies 2. A scan across the milky way 3. Helix nebula: the shroud of a dead star 4. Supernova remnant Cassiopeia A 5. Trifid nebula: a dusty birthplace of stars 6. Precursors of stars and planets The International Astronomical Union provides a forum where astronomers from all over the world can develop astronomy in all its aspects through international co-operation. General Assemblies are held every three years. It is expected that over 1600 astronomers will attend this year's meeting, which is being held in Kyoto, Japan from 18-30 August. Further information on the meeting can be found at: www.tenmon.or.jp/iau97/ . ISO illuminates our cosmic ancestry The European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, is unmatched in its ability to explore and analyse many of the universal processes that made our existence possible. We are children of the stars. Every atom in our bodies was created in cosmic space and delivered to the Sun's vicinity in time for the Earth's formation, during a ceaseless cycle of birth, death and rebirth among the stars. The most creative places in the sky are cool and dusty, and opaque even to the Hubble Space Telescope. Infrared rays penetrating the dust reveal to ISO hidden objects, and the atoms and molecules of cosmic chemistry. "ISO is reading Nature's recipe book," says Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "As the world's only telescope capable of observing the Universe over a wide range of infrared wavelengths, ISO plays an indispensable part in astronomical discoveries that help to explain how we came to exist." This Information Note describes several stages in our cosmic ancestry, revealed when ISO examines their counterparts still observable today. The evolving galaxies In the beginning was hydrogen, mixed with helium and minute traces of other light atoms. These were the atomic products of the Big Bang, the hypothetical cataclysm that created the Universe more than 10 billion years ago. The primeval gas was very dull. Nature could not make dust from it, never mind a living creature. But gravity gathered the hydrogen and helium into stars, and by nuclear reactions the stars glowed. As the first stars aged, the reactions made novel chemical elements like carbon, oxygen and silicon. Expelled into the stars' surroundings, these materials reacted with one another and with hydrogen to make the icy, tarry and stony grains of cosmic dust. The vast assemblies of stars called galaxies became crucibles where Nature could use physics and chemistry to make new materials and new stars. Rays from the most distant galaxies have taken so many billions of years to reach us that we see them as they were when they were young. The farthest galaxy observed so far by ISO is a quasar called BR 1202-0225, dating from a time when the Universe was less than one-tenth of its present age. Already it is dusty. ISO has also observed many galaxies at about half the age of the Universe, by staring long and hard through a window in the dust of our own Milky Way Galaxy, called the Lockman Hole. In those that glow most brightly in the infrared, astronomers suspect that frantic star-making is in progress, in episodes called starbursts. In nearer galaxies, ISO's astronomers can relate strong infrared emissions to collisions and to violent eruptions in the galactic cores, which have punctuated the evolution of the galaxies. "Having ISO in space brings special opportunities for the study of the history of the galaxies," says the Japanese astronomer Yoshiaki Taniguchi of Tohoku University. "By detecting infrared wavelengths that are hard to observe from the Earth, ISO picks out very clearly th

1997-08-01

295

Solar object tracking for the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is designed to carry five major scientific instruments to collect imagery, spectrographic, and photometric astronomical data. The Pointing Control System is to achieve pointing accuracies and line of sight jitter levels an order of magnitude less than can be achieved with ground mounted telescopes. In addition, the HST must be able to acquire and track solar system targets with apparent motion up to 0.21 arcsec/s. Such targets include planetary satellites, planetary surface features and comets. It is to perform this tracking with an accuracy under 0.03 arcsec at the maximum rate. Tracking of solar objects by the Space Telescope accounts for the effects of velocity aberration and parallax, as well as solar targeting a celestial object in a science instrument aperture. The design of the Pointing Control System solar object tracking features is discussed, with emphasis on the special timing and granulation problems inherent with a sampled-data, multirate digital control system.

Rodden, J. J.; Dougherty, H. J.

1987-01-01

296

High-Redshift Supernovae in the Hubble Deep Field  

SciTech Connect

Two supernovae detected in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) using the original 1995 December epoch and data from a shorter (63,000 s in F814W) 1997 December visit with {ital HST} are discussed. The supernovae (SNe) are both associated with distinct galaxies at redshifts of 0.95 (spectroscopic) from Cohen et al. and 1.32 (photometric) from the work of Fern{acute a}ndez-Soto, Lanzetta, & Yahil. These redshifts are near, in the case of 0.95, and well beyond, for 1.32, the greatest distance reported previously for SNe. We show that our observations are sensitive to supernovae to z{approx_lt}1.8 in either epoch for an event near peak brightness. Detailed simulations are discussed that quantify the level at which false events from our search phase would start to arise and the completeness of our search as a function of both SN brightness and host galaxy redshift. The number of Type Ia and Type II SNe expected as a function of redshift in the two HDF epochs are discussed in relation to several published predictions and our own detailed calculations. A mean detection frequency of one SN per epoch for the small HDF area is consistent with expectations from current theory. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

Gilliland, R.L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Nugent, P.E. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50-232, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50-232, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Phillips, M.M. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)] [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)

1999-08-01

297

Hubble Space Telescope - New view of an ancient universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduled for a March 1990 Shuttle launch, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will give astronomers a tool of unprecedented accuracy to observe the universe: an optically superb instrument free of the atmospheric turbulence, distortion, and brightness that plague all earthbound telescopes. The observatory will carry into orbit two cameras, a pair of spectrographs, a photometer, and fine guidance sensors optimized for astrometry. The diffraction limit for the 2.4-m aperture of the HST corresponds to 90 percent of the radiation from a point source falling within a circle of 0.1 arcsec angular radius at a wavelength of 633 nm. The 15-year mission will make observations in the ultraviolet as well as the optical spectral region, thus, widening the wavelength window to a range extending from the Lyman alpha wavelengnth of 122 nm to just about 2 microns. The observational program that awaits the HST will include the study of planetary atmospheres, in particular the search for aerosols; the study of globular star clusters within the Galaxy; and the determination of the present rate of expansion of the universe. The HST will achieve resolutions of 0.1 arcsec consistently, regardless of observation duration. The HST engineering challenge is also discussed.

Leckrone, David S.; Longair, Malcolm S.; Stockman, Peter; Olivier, Jean R.

1989-01-01

298

Hubble Identifies What May Be the Most Luminous Star Known  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Telescope Science Institute and National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory contain sites of current interest related to the stars and planets this week. A UCLA-led team using cameras recently installed aboard the Hubble Space Telescope has identified a massive star approximately 25,000 light-years from Earth. Named the "Pistol Star" for the pistol-shaped nebula surrounding it, it is believed to be one of the largest ever discovered, releasing up to ten million times the energy of our sun and spanning the diameter of the Earth's orbit. Astronomers claim that the Pistol Star "unleashes as much energy in six seconds as our sun does in one year." This site offers the official press release and a caption for photos of the star, which are available in five resolutions and three formats (JPEG, GIF, .pdf). The Cassini flight system, containing a launch vehicle and the Huygens probe orbiter which will explore Saturn's moon Titan in the year 2004, is set to launch October 13, 1997. At this JPL site, interested users can follow launch activity. It features a large section explaining the mission, and includes a section on the controversial nuclear safety issues involved. Users can read both the Cassini Final and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statements issued by NASA (in 1995 and 1997 respectively). There is also an image section and a kids page, among other features.

1997-01-01

299

HUBBLE UNCOVERS MYSTERY OBJECTS IN THE DENSE CORE OF A NEARBY STAR CLUSTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piercing the heart of a glittering swarm of stars, NASA's sharp-eyed Hubble Space Telescope unveils the central region of the globular cluster M22, a 12- to 14-billion-year-old grouping of stars in the constellation Sagittarius. The telescope's view of the cluster's core measures 3.3 light-years across. The stars near the cluster's core are 100,000 times more numerous than those in the Sun's neighborhood. Buried in the glow of starlight are about six 'mystery objects,' which astronomers estimate are no larger than one quarter the mass of the giant planet Jupiter, the solar system's heftiest planet. The mystery objects are too far and dim for Hubble to see directly. Instead, the orbiting observatory detected these unseen celestial bodies by looking for their gravitational effects on the light from far distant stars. In this case, the stars are far beyond the cluster in the galactic bulge, about 30,000 light-years from Earth at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. M22 is 8,500 light-years away. The invisible objects betrayed their presence by bending the starlight gravitationally and amplifying it, a phenomenon known as microlensing. From February 22 to June 15, 1999, Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 looked through this central region and monitored 83,000 stars. During that time the orbiting observatory recorded six unexpectedly brief microlensing events. In each case a background star jumped in brightness for less than 20 hours before dropping back to normal. These transitory spikes in brightness mean that the object passing in front of the star must have been much smaller than a normal star. Hubble also detected one clear microlensing event. In that observation a star appeared about 10 times brighter over an 18-day span before returning to normal. Astronomers traced the leap in brightness to a dwarf star in the cluster floating in front of the background star. The inset photo shows the entire globular cluster of about 10 million stars. M22 is about 60 light-years wide. The image was taken in June 1995 by the Burrell Schmidt telescope at the Case Western Reserve University's Warner and Swasey Observatory on Kitt Peak in Arizona. This release is issued jointly by NASA and ESA. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, Kailash Sahu, Stefano Casertano, Mario Livio, Ron Gilliland (Space Telescope Science Institute), Nino Panagia (European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute), Michael Albrow and Mike Potter (Space Telescope Science Institute) Credits for ground-based image: Nigel A.Sharp, REU program/AURA/NOAO/NSF

2002-01-01

300

CATALOG MATCHING WITH ASTROMETRIC CORRECTION AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE HUBBLE LEGACY ARCHIVE  

SciTech Connect

Object cross-identification in multiple observations is often complicated by the uncertainties in their astrometric calibration. Due to the lack of standard reference objects, an image with a small field of view can have significantly larger errors in its absolute positioning than the relative precision of the detected sources within. We present a new general solution for the relative astrometry that quickly refines the World Coordinate System of overlapping fields. The efficiency is obtained through the use of infinitesimal three-dimensional rotations on the celestial sphere, which do not involve trigonometric functions. They also enable an analytic solution to an important step in making the astrometric corrections. In cases with many overlapping images, the correct identification of detections that match together across different images is difficult to determine. We describe a new greedy Bayesian approach for selecting the best object matches across a large number of overlapping images. The methods are developed and demonstrated on the Hubble Legacy Archive, one of the most challenging data sets today. We describe a novel catalog compiled from many Hubble Space Telescope observations, where the detections are combined into a searchable collection of matches that link the individual detections. The matches provide descriptions of astronomical objects involving multiple wavelengths and epochs. High relative positional accuracy of objects is achieved across the Hubble images, often sub-pixel precision in the order of just a few milliarcseconds. The result is a reliable set of high-quality associations that are publicly available online.

Budavari, Tamas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lubow, Stephen H., E-mail: budavari@jhu.edu, E-mail: lubow@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-12-20

301

Hubble Tracks Clouds on Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taking its first peek at Uranus, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has detected six distinct clouds in images taken July 28,1997.

The image on the right, taken 90 minutes after the left-hand image, shows the planet's rotation. Each image is a composite of three near-infrared images. They are called false-color images because the human eye cannot detect infrared light. Therefore, colors corresponding to visible light were assigned to the images. (The wavelengths for the 'blue,' 'green,' and 'red' exposures are 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 micrometers, respectively.)

At visible and near-infrared light, sunlight is reflected from hazes and clouds in the atmosphere of Uranus. However, at near-infrared light, absorption by gases in the Uranian atmosphere limits the view to different altitudes, causing intense contrasts and colors.

In these images, the blue exposure probes the deepest atmospheric levels. A blue color indicates clear atmospheric conditions, prevalent at mid-latitudes near the center of the disk. The green exposure is sensitive to absorption by methane gas, indicating a clear atmosphere; but in hazy atmospheric regions, the green color is seen because sunlight is reflected back before it is absorbed. The green color around the south pole (marked by '+') shows a strong local haze. The red exposure reveals absorption by hydrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Uranus. Most sunlight shows patches of haze high in the atmosphere. A red color near the limb (edge) of the disk indicates the presence of a high-altitude haze. The purple color to the right of the equator also suggests haze high in the atmosphere with a clear atmosphere below.

The five clouds visible near the right limb rotated counterclockwise during the time between both images. They reach high into the atmosphere, as indicated by their red color. Features of such high contrast have never been seen before on Uranus. The clouds are almost as large as continents on Earth, such as Europe. Another cloud (which barely can be seen) rotated along the path shown by the black arrow. It is located at lower altitudes, as indicated by its green color.

The rings of Uranus are extremely faint in visible light but quite prominent in the near infrared. The brightest ring, the epsilon ring, has a variable width around its circumference. Its widest and thus brightest part is at the top in this image. Two fainter, inner rings are visible next to the epsilon ring.

Eight of the 10 small Uranian satellites, discovered by Voyager 2, can be seen in both images. Their sizes range from about 25 miles (40 kilometers) for Bianca to 100 miles (150 kilometers) for Puck. The smallest of these satellites have not been detected since the departure of Voyager 2 from Uranus in 1986. These eight satellites revolve around Uranus in less than a day. The inner ones are faster than the outer ones. Their motion in the 90 minutes between both images is marked in the right panel. The area outside the rings was slightly enhanced in brightness to improve the visibility of these faint satellites.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1997-01-01

302

Specview: 1-D spectral visualization and analysis of astronomical spectrograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specview is a tool for 1-D spectral visualization and analysis of astronomical spectrograms. Written in Java, it is capable of reading all the Hubble Space Telescope spectral data formats as well as data from several other instruments (such as IUE, FUSE, ISO, FORS and SDSS), preview spectra from MAST, and data from generic FITS and ASCII tables. It can read data from Virtual Observatory servers, and read and write spectrogram data in Virtual Observatory SED format. It can also read files in the SPC Galactic format used in the chemistry field. Once ingested, data can be plotted and examined with a large selection of custom settings. Specview supports instrument-specific data quality handling, flexible spectral units conversions, custom plotting attributes, plot annotations, tiled plots, hardcopy to JPEG files and PostScript file or printer, etc. Specview can be used to build wide-band SEDs, overplotting or combining data from the same astronomical source taken with different instruments and/or spectral bands. Data can be further processed with averaging, splicing, detrending, and Fourier filtering tools. Specview has a spectral model fitting capability that enables the user to work with multi-component models (including user-defined models) and fit models to data.

Space Telescope Science Institute

2012-10-01

303

A Redetermination of the Hubble Constant with the Hubble Space Telescope from a Differential Distance Ladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report results from a program to determine the Hubble constant to ˜ 5% precision from a refurbished distance ladder based on extensive use of differential measurements. The measurement makes use of 240 Cepheid variables observed with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Cepheids are distributed across six recent hosts of

Adam G. Riess; Lucas Macri; Stefano Casertano; Megan Sosey; Hubert Lampeitl; Henry C. Ferguson; Alexei V. Filippenko; Saurabh W. Jha; Weidong Li; Ryan Chornock; Devdeep Sarkar

2009-01-01

304

Final Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project to Measure the Hubble Constant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here the final results of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Key Project to measure the Hubble constant. We summarize our method, the results, and the uncertainties, tabulate our revised distances, and give the implications of these results for cosmology. Our results are based on a Cepheid calibration of several secondary distance methods applied over the range of about

Wendy L. Freedman; Barry F. Madore; Brad K. Gibson; Laura Ferrarese; Daniel D. Kelson; Shoko Sakai; Jeremy R. Mould; Robert C. Kennicutt Jr.; Holland C. Ford; John A. Graham; John P. Huchra; Shaun M. G. Hughes; Garth D. Illingworth; Lucas M. Macri; Peter B. Stetson; P. B. Stetson

2001-01-01

305

Leslie Peltier: The World's Greatest Amateur Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a brief account of the life of amateur astronomer Leslie C. Peltier, with reflections on how his astronomical accomplishments influenced the author's own involvement in variable star observing.

Simonsen, M.

2014-05-01

306

Knowledge discovery in astronomical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the construction and development of ground-based and space-based observatories, astronomical data amount to Terascale, even Petascale. How to extract knowledge from so huge data volume by automated methods is a big challenge for astronomers. Under this situation, many researchers have studied various approaches and developed different softwares to solve this issue. According to the special task of data mining, we need to select an appropriate technique suiting the requirement of data characteristics. Moreover all algorithms have their own pros and cons. We introduce the characteristics of astronomical data, present the taxonomy of knowledge discovery, and describe the functionalities of knowledge discovery in detail. Then the methods of knowledge discovery are touched upon. Finally the successful applications of data mining techniques in astronomy are summarized and reviewed. Facing data avalanche in astronomy, knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) shows its superiority.

Zhang, Yanxia; Zheng, Hongwen; Zhao, Yongheng

2008-08-01

307

Outlier detection in astronomical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical data sets have experienced an unprecedented and continuing growth in the volume, quality, and complexity over the past few years, driven by the advances in telescope, detector, and computer technology. Like many other fields, astronomy has become a very data rich science. Information content measured in multiple Terabytes, and even larger, multi Petabyte data sets are on the horizon. To cope with this data flood, Virtual Observatory (VO) federates data archives and services representing a new information infrastructure for astronomy of the 21st century and provides the platform to science discovery. Data mining promises to both make the scientific utilization of these data sets more effective and more complete, and to open completely new avenues of astronomical research. Technological problems range from the issues of database design and federation, to data mining and advanced visualization, leading to a new toolkit for astronomical research. This is similar to challenges encountered in other data intensive fields today. Outlier detection is of great importance, as one of four knowledge discovery tasks. The identification of outliers can often lead to the discovery of truly unexpected knowledge in various fields. Especially in astronomy, the great interest of astronomers is to discover unusual, rare or unknown types of astronomical objects or phenomena. The outlier detection approaches in large datasets correctly meet the need of astronomers. In this paper we provide an overview of some techniques for automated identification of outliers in multivariate data. Outliers often provide useful information. Their identification is important not only for improving the analysis but also for indicating anomalies which may require further investigation. The technique may be used in the process of data preprocessing and also be used for preselecting special object candidates.

Zhang, Yan-Xia; Luo, A.-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

2004-09-01

308

Astronomical Heritage in the National Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book contains Proceedings of the Archaeoastronomical Meeting "Astronomical Heritage in the National Culture" Dedicated to Anania Shirakatsi's 1400th Anniversary and XI Annual Meeting of the Armenian Astronomical Society. It consists of 3 main sections: "Astronomical Heritage", "Anania Shirakatsi" and "Modern Astronomy", as well as Literature about Anania Shirakatsi is included. The book may be interesting for astronomers, historians, archaeologists, linguists, students and other readers.

Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Parsamian, E. S.

2014-10-01

309

Old Star's "Rebirth" Gives Astronomers Surprises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising results have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the outburst of Sakurai's Object is the first such blast seen in modern times. Stellar outbursts observed in 1670 and 1918 may have been caused by the same phenomenon. Astronomers expect the Sun to become a white dwarf in about five billion years. A white dwarf is a dense core left after a star's normal, fusion-powered life has ended. A teaspoon of white dwarf material would weigh about 10 tons. White dwarfs can have masses up to 1.4 times that of the Sun; larger stars collapse at the end of their lives into even-denser neutron stars or black holes. Computer simulations indicated that heat-spurred convection (or "boiling") would bring hydrogen from the star's outer envelope down into the helium shell, driving a brief flash of new nuclear fusion. This would cause a sudden increase in brightness. The original computer models suggested a sequence of observable events that would occur over a few hundred years. "Sakurai's object went through the first phases of this sequence in just a few years -- 100 times faster than we expected -- so we had to revise our models," Zijlstra said. The revised models predicted that the star should rapidly reheat and begin to ionize gases in its surrounding region. "This is what we now see in our latest VLA observations," Zijlstra said. "It's important to understand this process. Sakurai's Object has ejected a large amount of the carbon from its inner core into space, both in the form of gas and dust grains. These will find their way into regions of space where new stars form, and the dust grains may become incorporated in new planets. Some carbon grains found in a meteorite show isotope ratios identical to those found in Sakurai's Object, and we think they may have come from such an event. Our results suggest this source for cosmic carbon may be far more important than we suspected before," Zijlstra added. The scientists continue to observe Sakurai's Object to take advantage of the rare opportunity to learn about the process of re-ignition. They are making new VLA observations just

2005-04-01

310

The Red Rectangle: An Astronomical Example of Mach Bands?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) produced spectacular images of the "Red Rectangle". This appears to be a binary star system undergoing recurrent mass loss episodes. The image-processed HST photographs display distinctive diagonal lightness enhancements. Some of the visual appearance undoubtedly arises from actual variations in the luminosity distribution of the light of the nebula itself, i.e., due to limb brightening. Psychophysical enhancement similar to the Vasarely or pyramid effect also seems to be involved in the visual impression conveyed by the HST images. This effect is related to Mach bands (as well as to the Chevreul and Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet effects). The effect can be produced by stacking concentric squares (or other geometrical figures such as rectangles or hexagons) of linearly increasing or decreasing size and lightness, one on top of another. We have constructed controllable Flash applets of this effect as part of the NSF supported "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments". They can be found in the vision section of the LITE web site at http://lite.bu.edu. Mach band effects have previously been seen in medical x-ray images. Here we report for the first time the possibility that such effects play a role in the interpretation of astronomical images. Specifically, we examine to what extent the visual impressions of the Red Rectangle and other extended astronomical objects are purely physical (photometric) in origin and to what degree they are enhanced by psychophysical processes. To help assess the relative physical and psychophysical contributions to the perceived lightness effects, we have made use of a center-surround (Difference of Gaussians) filter we developed for MatLab. We conclude that local (lateral inhibition) and longer range human visual perception effects probably do contribute to the lightness features seen in astronomical objects like the Red Rectangle. Project LITE is supported by NSF Grant # DUE-0125992.

Brecher, K.

2005-12-01

311

Two amateur astronomers at Berkeley  

E-print Network

The book on Mechanics of the Physics at Berkeley, by C. Kittel, W.D. Knight and M.A. Ruderman, is proposing at the end of its first chapter some problems of simple astronomy within the solar system. The discussion begins with two amateur astronomers who set for themselves the goal of determining the diameter and mass of the Sun. Here we discuss the problems proposed by the book and some other matters on ancient and modern astronomical studies of the solar system.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2012-01-01

312

The astronomer - N. N. Donitch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a history of friendship and collaboration between the astronomers N. Donitch and A.A. Baikov. Information on other astronomers, L.V. Okulitch and E.A. Von der Pahlen, and meteorologists V.H. Dubinskii and Nina Gouma, can also be found. Details on the expeditions aimed at observing the total solar eclipses on 30 August 1905 (organized by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Sankt-Petersburg) and 19 June 1936 (organized by the Romanian Royal Cultural foundation) are given. The main part represents the first English translation of the paper by Baikov, published earlier in Russian and Romanian, with a new preface, annotations, and comments.

Baikov, A. A.; Gaina, A.

313

114The Hubble Search for the Farthest Galaxy in the Universe Astronomers have recently discovered  

E-print Network

= (1029-121)/121 = 7.5 Problem 2 ­ According to the Big Bang theory, the redshift of a galaxy is related was the redshift of the new galaxy based on the lyman-alpha spectral line? Problem 2 ­ According to the Big Bang_GND_5296? Problem 3 ­ The Big Bang occurred 13.8 billion years ago. How soon after the Big Bang

Christian, Eric

314

The New Amateur Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amateur astronomy has changed beyond recognition in less than two decades. The reason is, of course, technology. Affordable high-quality telescopes, computer-controlled 'go to' mountings, autoguiders, CCD cameras, video, and (as always) computers and the Internet, are just a few of the advances that have revolutionized astronomy for the twenty-first century. Martin Mobberley first looks at the basics before going into an in-depth study of what’s available commercially. He then moves on to the revolutionary possibilities that are open to amateurs, from imaging, through spectroscopy and photometry, to patrolling for near-earth objects - the search for comets and asteroids that may come close to, or even hit, the earth. The New Amateur Astronomer is a road map of the new astronomy, equally suitable for newcomers who want an introduction, or old hands who need to keep abreast of innovations. From the reviews: "This is one of several dozen books in Patrick Moore's "Practical Astronomy" series. Amid this large family, Mobberley finds his niche: the beginning high-tech amateur. The book's first half discusses equipment: computer-driven telescopes, CCD cameras, imaging processing software, etc. This market is changing every bit as rapidly as the computer world, so these details will be current for only a year or two. The rest of the book offers an overview of scientific projects that serious amateurs are carrying out these days. Throughout, basic formulas and technical terms are provided as needed, without formal derivations. An appendix with useful references and Web sites is also included. Readers will need more than this book if they are considering a plunge into high-tech amateur astronomy, but it certainly will whet their appetites. Mobberley's most valuable advice will save the book's owner many times its cover price: buy a quality telescope from a reputable dealer and install it in a simple shelter so it can be used with as little set-up time as possible. A poor purchase choice and the hassle of setting up are why most fancy telescopes gather dust in their owners' dens. Summing Up: Highly recommended. General readers; lower- and upper-division undergraduates."( T. D. Oswalt, CHOICE, March 2005)

Mobberley, Martin

315

Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). "When we understand this system, we will have a much clearer picture of how galaxies are changed by being part of a bigger cluster of galaxies," he added. B1359+154 was discovered in 1999 by the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey, an international collaboration of astronomers who use radio telescopes to search the sky for gravitational lenses. Images made by the NSF's Very Large Array in New Mexico and by Britain's MERLIN radio telescope showed six objects suspected of being gravitational-lens images, but the results were inconclusive. Rusin and his team used the VLBA and HST in 1999 and 2000 to make more-detailed studies of B1359+154. The combination of data from the VLBA and HST convinced the astronomers that B1359+154 actually consists of six lensed images of a single background galaxy. The VLBA images were made from data collected during observations at a radio frequency of 1.7 GHz. "This is a great example of modern, multi-wavelength astronomy," said Rusin. "We need the radio telescopes to detect the gravitational lenses in the first place, then we need the visible-light information from Hubble to show us additional detail about the structure of the system." Armed with the combined VLBA and HST data about the positions and brightnesses of the six images of the background galaxy as well as the positions of the three intermediate galaxies, the astronomers did computer simulations to show how the gravitation of the three galaxies could produce the lens effect. They were able to design a computer model of the system that, in fact, produces the six images seen in B1359+154. "Our computer model certainly is not perfect, and we need to do more observations of this system to refine it, but we have clearly demonstrated that the three galaxies we see can produce a six-image lens system," said Martin Norbury, a graduate student at Jodrell Bank Observatory in Britain. "We think this work will give us an excellent tool for studying much-denser clusters of gala

2001-08-01

316

HUBBLE SENDS SEASON'S GREETINGS FROM THE COSMOS TO EARTH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Looking like a colorful holiday card, this image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth, where nature seems to have put on the traditional colors of the season. These colors, produced by the light emitted by oxygen and hydrogen, help astronomers investigate the star-forming processes in nebulas such as NGC 2080. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that have attracted special attention. These regions have been studied in detail with Hubble and have long been identified as unique star-forming sites. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the whole local group of galaxies. The light from the nebula captured in this image is emitted by two elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The red and the blue light are from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind (a stream of high-speed particles) coming from a massive star just outside the image. The white region in the center is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. The intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in the surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) - are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from a single massive star. A2 has a more complex appearance due to the presence of more dust, and it contains several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newly born stars. The research team noted that Hubble's superb resolution is essential to see the various features in the nebula and to better understand the formation of massive stars in this interesting region. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained March 28, 2000, with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The colors are red (ionized hydrogen, H-alpha, 1040 seconds), green (ionized oxygen, 1200 seconds) and blue (ionized hydrogen, H-beta, 1040 seconds). The image spans 67 x 67 arc-seconds, corresponding to 55 x 55 light-years at the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud (168,000 light-years). Credit: NASA, ESA and Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Observatoire de Paris, France)

2002-01-01

317

HUBBLE'S NEW IMPROVED OPTICS PROBE THE CORE OF A DISTANT GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This comparison image of the core of the galaxy M100 shows the dramatic improvement in Hubble Space Telescope's view of the universe. The new image was taken with the second generation Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC-2) which was installed during the STS-61 Hubble Servicing Mission. The picture beautifully demonstrates that the corrective optics incorporated within the WFPC-2 compensate fully for optical aberration in Hubble's primary mirror. The new camera will allow Hubble to probe the universe with unprecedented clarity and sensitivity, and to fulfill many of the most important scientific objectives for which the telescope was originally built. [ Right ] The core of the grand design spiral galaxy M100, as imaged by Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in its high resolution channel. The WFPC-2 contains modified optics that correct for Hubble's previously blurry vision, allowing the telescope for the first time to cleanly resolve faint structure as small as 30 light-years across in a galaxy which is tens of millions of light years away. The image was taken on December 31, 1993. [Left ] For comparison, a picture taken with the WFPC-1 camera in wide field mode, on November 27, 1993, just a few days prior to the STS-61 servicing mission. The effects of optical aberration in HST's 2.4-meter primary mirror blur starlight, smear out fine detail, and limit the telescope's ability to see faint structure. Both Hubble images are 'raw;' they have not been subject to computer image reconstruction techniques commonly used in aberrated images made before the servicing mission. TARGET INFORMATION: M100 The galaxy M100 (100th object in the Messier Catalog of non-stellar objects) is one of the brightest members of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. The galaxy is in the spring constellation Coma Berenices and can be seen through a moderate-sized amateur telescope. M100 is spiral shaped, like our Milky Way, and tilted nearly face-on as seen from earth. The galaxy has two prominent arms of bright stars and several fainter arms. Though the galaxy is estimated to be tens of millions of light-years away, Hubble reveals the sort of detail only seen previously (with ground based telescopes) in neighboring galaxies that are ten times closer. Before HST, astronomers could only see such a level of detail in roughly a dozen galaxies in our Local Group. Now, with Hubble's improved vision, the portion of the universe which can be studied with such clarity has grown a thousand fold. Only the future will tell what revelations await as Hubble's spectacular vision is applied to a host of fascinating and important questions about the universe and our place in it. PHOTO RELEASE NO.: STScI-PR94-01

2002-01-01

318

Local gravitational physics of the Hubble expansion  

E-print Network

We study physical consequences of the Hubble expansion of FLRW manifold on measurement of space, time and light propagation in the local inertial frame. We analyse the solar system radar ranging and Doppler tracking experiments, and time synchronization. FLRW manifold is covered by global coordinates (t,y^i), where t is the cosmic time coinciding with the proper time of the Hubble observers. We introduce local inertial coordinates x^a=(x^0,x^i) in the vicinity of a world line of a Hubble observer with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and is materialized by the congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers being at rest with respect to the local spatial coordinates x^i. We consider geodesic motion of test particles and notice that the local coordinate time x^0=x^0(t) taken as a parameter along the world line of particle, is a function of the Hubble's observer time t. This function changes smoothly from x^0=t for a particle at rest (observer's clock), to x^0=t+1/2 Ht^2 for photons, where H is the Hubble constant. Thus, motion of a test particle is non-uniform when its world line is parametrized by time t. NASA JPL Orbit Determination Program presumes that motion of light (after the Shapiro delay is excluded) is uniform with respect to the time t but it does not comply with the non-uniform motion of light on cosmological manifold. For this reason, the motion of light in the solar system analysed with the Orbit Determination Program appears as having a systematic blue shift of frequency, of radio waves circulating in the Earth-spacecraft radio link. The magnitude of the anomalous blue shift of frequency is proportional to the Hubble constant H that may open an access to the measurement of this fundamental cosmological parameter in the solar system radiowave experiments.

Sergei Kopeikin

2015-01-21

319

Local gravitational physics of the Hubble expansion  

E-print Network

We study physical consequences of the Hubble expansion of FLRW manifold on measurement of space, time and light propagation in the local inertial frame. We analyse the solar system radar ranging and Doppler tracking experiments, and time synchronization. FLRW manifold is covered by global coordinates (t,y^i), where t is the cosmic time coinciding with the proper time of the Hubble observers. We introduce local inertial coordinates x^a=(x^0,x^i) in the vicinity of a world line of a Hubble observer with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and is materialized by the congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers being at rest with respect to the local spatial coordinates x^i. We consider geodesic motion of test particles and notice that the local coordinate time x^0=x^0(t) taken as a parameter along the world line of particle, is a function of the Hubble's observer time t. This function changes smoothly from x^0=t for a particle at rest (observer's clock), to x^0=t+1/2 Ht^2 for photons, where H is the Hubble constant. Thus, motion of a test particle is non-uniform when its world line is parametrized by time t. NASA JPL Orbit Determination Program presumes that motion of light (after the Shapiro delay is excluded) is uniform with respect to the time t but it does not comply with the non-uniform motion of light on cosmological manifold. For this reason, the motion of light in the solar system analysed with the Orbit Determination Program appears as having a systematic blue shift of frequency, of radio waves circulating in the Earth-spacecraft radio link. The magnitude of the anomalous blue shift of frequency is proportional to the Hubble constant H that may open an access to the measurement of this fundamental cosmological parameter in the solar system radiowave experiments.

Sergei Kopeikin

2014-07-24

320

Simple Astronomical Theory of Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author derives, applying perturbation theory, from a simple astronomical model the approximate periods of secular variation of some of the parameters of the Earth's orbit and relates these periods to the past climate of the Earth, indicating the difficulties in predicting the climate of the future. (GA)

Benumof, Reuben

1979-01-01

321

Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) system at the fundamental station Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO). It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the previous year. The outlook lists the outstanding tasks to improve the performance of GGAO.

Redmond, Jay; Kodak, Charles

2001-01-01

322

astroplotlib: Astronomical library of plots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astropoltlib is a multi-language astronomical library of plots, a collection of templates useful for creating paper-quality figures. Most of the codes for producing the plots are written in IDL and/or Python; a very few are written in Mathematica. Any plot can be downloaded and customized to one's own needs.

Ubeda, Leonardo; Davis, Matt; Diaz, Rosa; Hammer, Derek; Philippe-Lajoie, Charles; Le Blanc, Tommy; Lim, Pey-Lian; Viana, Alex

2014-02-01

323

Outlier detection in astronomical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronomical data sets have experienced an unprecedented and continuing growth in the volume, quality, and complexity over the past few years, driven by the advances in telescope, detector, and computer technology. Like many other fields, astronomy has become a very data rich science. Information content measured in multiple Terabytes, and even larger, multi Petabyte data sets are on the horizon.

Yan-Xia Zhang; A.-Li Luo; Yong-Heng Zhao

2004-01-01

324

Astronomical Photography for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes class projects involving astronomical photography. Includes a description of how to make an astrocamera or convert a pocket camera into one suitable for astrophotography, film choices, and phenomena to photograph, such as star trails, meteors, the sun, and the moon. (DS)

Hulme, Kenneth S.

1981-01-01

325

Nikolay N. Donitch - the astronomer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is devoted to milestones of life and scientific activity of the eminent astronomer Nikolay Nikolaevich Donitch (Nicolae N. Donici) (1874-1956), a graduate from the Odessa (Novorossiski) university. He was a wellknown expert in the field of reseacrh of objects of Solar system. A person highly cultured, which built the first in Bessarabia (actually a part of the Republic

Alex B. Gaina; M. Yu. Volyanskaya

1999-01-01

326

An Astronomical Software Directory Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will be developing an on-line Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS) with funding from NASA's Astrophysics Data Program. Our primary objective is to allow astronomers and astronomical software developers to easily locate existing programs for their use and re-use, providing a uniform level of high-level documentation (package capabilities, system dependencies, installation requirements, etc.). The ASDS will catalog a comprehensive set of astronomical data reduction and analysis software, including the packages being developed with ADP support. The ASDS is intended as a directory service -- a query for a certain type of software will result in the user being given information about what software is available as well as instructions for retrieving relevant packages from anonymous FTP servers. Software retrieval may also be automated. We will not archive software per se, given that problems of revision control, currency, and algorithm validation are untenable. Users will interact with the system using a public domain distributed database interface such as WAIS, Gopher, and/or WWW.

Hanisch, R. J.; Payne, H.; Hayes, J. J. E.

327

Astronomical Deities in Ancient Mesoamerica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The best known astronomical deities in ancient Mesoamerica are the sun, moon, and Venus. The Milky Way was also deified, and its constellations were visualized as celestial animals or locations. The sun and Venus were male deities, but the moon had both male and female aspects. Some of these concepts survive today in Mesoamerican ethnographic accounts referencing different transformations of the moon.

Milbrath, Susan

328

Hubble Heritage Observations of LBN 67  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are proposing new observations for the Hubble Heritage project in cycle 22. We have identified a new target that will be used to produce high-quality, high-impact images that ensure continued public support for the Hubble mission. This proposal is submitted to the cycle 22 DD program to provide new images that will be obtained and released over the coming year. Our continuing ability to do science with HST and our hopes for JWST depend crucially on public support generated by our continuing commitment to sharing new images with the public.

Levay, Zolt

2014-10-01

329

Hubble Surveys the Homes of Quasars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Telescope Electronic Information Service has recently released breathtaking Hubble Telescope photos of galaxies that "host" quasars. The quasars seem to "live in a remarkable variety of galaxies, many of which are violently colliding....Hubble researchers are intrigued by the fact that the quasars studied do not appear to have obviously damaged the galaxies in which they live." The photos are of galactic objects 1.4 and 1.5 billion light years from Earth. Photos are in black and white and color, and at various resolutions. The photos are accompanied by an explanatory caption, background material on quasars, and an MPEG model of a quasar.

Bahcall, John.

1996-01-01

330

HUBBLE TRACKS CLOUDS ON URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taking its first peek at Uranus, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) has detected six distinct clouds in images taken July 28,1997. The image on the right, taken 90 minutes after the left-hand image, shows the planet's rotation. Each image is a composite of three near-infrared images. They are called false-color images because the human eye cannot detect infrared light. Therefore, colors corresponding to visible light were assigned to the images. (The wavelengths for the 'blue,' 'green,' and 'red' exposures are 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 micrometers, respectively.) At visible and near-infrared light, sunlight is reflected from hazes and clouds in the atmosphere of Uranus. However, at near-infrared light, absorption by gases in the Uranian atmosphere limits the view to different altitudes, causing intense contrasts and colors. In these images, the blue exposure probes the deepest atmospheric levels. A blue color indicates clear atmospheric conditions, prevalent at mid-latitudes near the center of the disk. The green exposure is sensitive to absorption by methane gas, indicating a clear atmosphere; but in hazy atmospheric regions, the green color is seen because sunlight is reflected back before it is absorbed. The green color around the south pole (marked by '+') shows a strong local haze. The red exposure reveals absorption by hydrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere of Uranus. Most sunlight shows patches of haze high in the atmosphere. A red color near the limb (edge) of the disk indicates the presence of a high-altitude haze. The purple color to the right of the equator also suggests haze high in the atmosphere with a clear atmosphere below. The five clouds visible near the right limb rotated counterclockwise during the time between both images. They reach high into the atmosphere, as indicated by their red color. Features of such high contrast have never been seen before on Uranus. The clouds are almost as large as continents on Earth, such as Europe. Another cloud (which barely can be seen) rotated along the path shown by the black arrow. It is located at lower altitudes, as indicated by its green color. The rings of Uranus are extremely faint in visible light but quite prominent in the near infrared. The brightest ring, the epsilon ring, has a variable width around its circumference. Its widest and thus brightest part is at the top in this image. Two fainter, inner rings are visible next to the epsilon ring. Eight of the 10 small Uranian satellites, discovered by Voyager 2, can be seen in both images. Their sizes range from about 25 miles (40 kilometers) for Bianca to 100 miles (150 kilometers) for Puck. The smallest of these satellites have not been detected since the departure of Voyager 2 from Uranus in 1986. These eight satellites revolve around Uranus in less than a day. The inner ones are faster than the outer ones. Their motion in the 90 minutes between both images is marked in the right panel. The area outside the rings was slightly enhanced in brightness to improve the visibility of these faint satellites. Credits: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), and NASA.

2002-01-01

331

Determination of the cosmological rate of change of G and the tidal accelerations of earth and moon from ancient and modern astronomical data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory and numerical analysis of ancient astronomical observations (1374 to 1715) are combined with modern data in a simultaneous solution for: the tidal acceleration of the lunar longitude; the observed apparent acceleration of the earth's rotation; the true nontidal geophysical part of this acceleration; and the rate of change in the gravitational constant. Provided are three independent determinations of a rate of change of G consistent with the Hubble Constant and a near zero nontidal rotational acceleration of the earth. The tidal accelerations are shown to have remained constant during the historical period within uncertainties. Ancient and modern solar system data, and extragalactic observations provided a completely consistent astronomical and cosmological scheme.

Muller, P. M.

1976-01-01

332

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ON TRACK FOR MEASURING THE EXPANSION RATE OF THE UNIVERSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two international teams of astronomers, using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, are reporting major progress in converging on an accurate measurement of the Universe's rate of expansion -- a value which has been debated for over half a century. These new results yield ranges for the age of the Universe from 9-12 billion years, and 11-14 billion years, respectively. The goal of the project is to measure the Hubble Constant to ten percent accuracy. The Hubble Space Telescope Key Project team, an international group of over 20 astronomers, is led by Wendy Freedman of Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA, Robert Kennicutt, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, and Jeremy Mould, Mount Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatory, Australia. The group's interim results, announced at a meeting held at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, are consistent with their preliminary result, announced in 1994, of 80 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km/sec/Mpc), based on observations of a galaxy in the Virgo cluster. 'We have five different ways of measuring the Hubble Constant with HST,' said Dr. Freedman. 'The results are coming in between 68 and 78 km/sec/Mpc.' (For example, at an expansion rate of 75 km/sec/Mpc, galaxies appear to be receding from us at a rate of 162,000 miles per hour for every 3.26 million light-years farther out we look). Two months ago, a second team, led by Allan Sandage, also of the Carnegie Observatories, Abhijit Saha, STScI, Gustav Tammann and Lukas Labhardt, Astronomical Institute, University of Basel, Duccio Macchetto and Nino Panagia, STScI/European Space Agency, reported a slower expansion rate of 57 km/sec/Mpc. The value of the Hubble Constant allows astronomers to calculate the expansion age of the Universe, the time elapsed since the Big Bang. Astronomers have been arguing recently whether the time since the Big Bang is consistent with the ages of the oldest stars. The ages are calculated from combining the expansion rate with an estimate of how much matter is in space. The younger age values from each team assume the Universe is at a critical density where it contains just enough matter to expand indefinitely. The higher age estimates are calculated based on a low density of matter in space. (See 'Science Background' for more information on the expanding Universe.) 'A point of great interest is whether the age of the Universe arrived at this way is really older than the independently derived ages of the oldest stars,' said Saha, an investigator on both Hubble teams. 'The numbers lean on the side that the stellar ages are a little lower, or that the hypothesis that we live in a critical density universe needs to be questioned,' said Saha. 'As further results accumulate over the next few years, we hope to tighten the constraints on these issues.' THE OBSERVATIONS The Key Project team is midway along in their three-year program to derive the expansion rate of the Universe based on precise distance measurements to galaxies. They have now measured Cepheid distances to a dozen galaxies, and are about halfway through their overall program. The Key Project team also presented a preliminary estimate of the distance to the Fornax cluster of galaxies. The estimate was obtained through the detection and measurement with the Hubble Space Telescope of pulsating stars known as Cepheid variables found in the Fornax cluster. The Fornax cluster is measured to be approximately as far away as the Virgo cluster of galaxies -- about 60 million light-years. The Key Project team member who led this effort, Caltech astronomer Barry Madore said, 'This cluster allows us to make independent estimates of the expansion rate of the Universe using a number of different techniques. All of these methods are now in excellent agreement. With Fornax we are now at turning point in this field.' The team is measuring Cepheid distances to the Virgo and Fornax clusters of galaxies as a complementary test. Their strategy is to compare and contrast expansion numbers from a variety of distance indicators. The Key Projec

2002-01-01

333

Astronomical Heritages: Astronomical Archives and Historic Transits of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These Proceedings contain a selection of presentations and research papers emanating from meetings of the Astronomical Archives and Transits of Venus Working Groups of Commission 41, and from presentations at the last three IAU General Assemblies. Some additional reports related to the topic of this book have also been added. The first part of the book deals with archives, the second part with facts related to historical transits of Venus - although there is substantial overlap since some archive papers deal with Transits of Venus as well. The compilation deals with many wonderful and even rare sources of information, such as official documents and reports, private letters, astronomical instruments and telescopes, national inventories, photographic plates, etc. A lot of documentation described in this book is available only on national level, and the combination of this material in one single volume looks like a cross-cultural study dealing with art and science, and almost can serve as a travel guide in time and space.

Sterken, C.; Duerbeck, H. W.

2005-03-01

334

Hubble: A View to the Edge of Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This feature from the Exploratorium Museum (last mentioned in the May 30, 2000 Scout Report) offers a nice, compact overview of the Hubble Space telescope and what we have learned from its observations. Aimed at a general audience, the site's contents include a tour of Hubble, a gallery of images and information on how these are produced, and an introduction to the people behind Hubble, among others. Related links and Hubble factoids are offered throughout the site.

335

The Best of the Hubble Space Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collection of high quality images from the Hubble Space Telescope. The images are categorized into extra galactic, galactic, and solar system objects. Each image has a detailed description of the image, including both how it was taken and interesting science.

2007-01-24

336

Is Hubble's Expansion due to Dark Energy  

E-print Network

{\\it The universe is expanding} is known (through Galaxy observations) since 1929 through Hubble's discovery ($V = H D$). Recently in 1999, it is found (through Supernovae observations) that the universe is not simply expanding but is accelerating too. We, however, hardly know only $4\\%$ of the universe. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite observational data suggest $73\\%$ content of the universe in the form of dark-energy, $23\\%$ in the form of non-baryonic dark-matter and the rest $4\\%$ in the form of the usual baryonic matter. The acceleration of the universe is ascribed to this dark-energy with bizarre properties (repulsive-gravity). The question is that whether Hubble's expansion is just due to the shock of big-bang & inflation or it is due to the repulsive-gravity of dark-energy? Now, it is believed to be due to dark-energy, say, by re-introducing the once-discarded cosmological-constant $\\Lambda$. In the present paper, it is shown that `the formula for acceleration due to dark-energy' is (almost) exactly of same-form as `the acceleration formula from the Hubble's law'. Hence, it is concluded that: yes, `indeed it is the dark-energy responsible for the Hubble's expansion too, in-addition to the current on-going acceleration of the universe'.

R. C. Gupta; Anirudh Pradhan

2010-10-19

337

Hubble space telescope pointing control system simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time domain simulation of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointing control system is described. The simulation was developed to aid in the evaluation of moving target pointing algorithms and to serve as an analysis tool. The HST pointing control system is briefly described, and the time domain simulation is discussed. A typical simulation result for moving target tracking is

K. Strohbehn; T. E. Strikwerda

1987-01-01

338

Hubble space telescope pointing control system simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A time domain simulation of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointing control system is described. The simulation was developed to aid in the evaluation of moving target pointing algorithms and to serve as an analysis tool. The HST pointing control system is briefly described, and the time domain simulation is discussed. A typical simulation result for moving target tracking is presented.

Strohbehn, K.; Strikwerda, T. E.

1987-01-01

339

The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

Villard, Ray

1990-01-01

340

FGS Astrometry with the Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

This article describes astrometric science that can be done with the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors and presents some recent science results. We outline how these data are modeled, acquired, and calibrated. We next show how the astrometer, FGS 3, works as an interferometer. Finally, we present a guide to the literature that provides additional detail for each item discussed in the article.

G. Fritz Benedict

2000-07-05

341

Hubble Space Telescope characterized by using phase-retrieval algorithms  

E-print Network

Hubble Space Telescope characterized by using phase-retrieval algorithms J. R. Fienup, J. C. Marron, T. J. Schulz, and J. H. Seldin We describe several results characterizing the Hubble Space Telescope HST was - 1.0144. Key words: Hubble Space Telescope,phase retrieval, aberrations. 1. Introduction Soon

Fienup, James R.

342

Calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors  

E-print Network

Calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors: An Application of Seminal Ideas, showing the location of the FGS The Hubble Space Telescope is a 2.4-meter, f-24 instrument of Ritchey- Chr of H.K. Eichhorn William H. Jefferys May 11, 1998 Abstract The calibration of the Hubble Space

Jefferys, William

343

Modeling the Hubble Space Telescope with Trace Marshall D. Perrin  

E-print Network

Modeling the Hubble Space Telescope with Trace Marshall D. Perrin University of California, Berkeley February 12, 2001 1 The Hubble Space Telescope The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a 2.4 m f/24 Richey-Cretien Cassegrain telescope, located in Low Earth Orbit. It was designed to carry out

Backer, Don

344

PBS Online NewsHour: Hubble and Webb Telescopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In-depth coverage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the next generation of orbiting observatories. Includes interactive on orbiting telescopes, slide show of Hubble images, and reports on the debate over keeping Hubble operating and over coloring its images. The main story and some of the archived stories are available as streaming video and RealAudio as well as text.

345

Propagating orientation constraints for the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An observing program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is described in terms of exposures that are obtained by one or more of the instruments onboard the HST. Many requested exposures might specify orientation requirements and accompanying ranges. Orientation refers to the amount of roll (in degrees) about the line of sight. The range give the permissible tolerance (also in degrees). These requirements may be (1) absolute (in relation to the celestial coordinate system), (2) relative to the nominal roll angle for HST during that exposure, or (3) relative (in relation to other exposures in the observing program). The TRANSformation expert system converts proposals for astronomical observations with HST into detailed observing plans. Part of the conversion involves grouping exposures into higher level structures based on exposure characteristics. Exposures constrained to be at different orientations cannot be grouped together. Because relative orientation requirements cause implicit constraints, orientation constraints have to be propagated. TRANS must also identify any inconsistencies that may exist so they can be corrected. We have designed and implemented an orientation constraint propagator as part of TRANS. The propagator is based on an informal algebra that facilitates the setting up and propagation of the orientation constraints. The constraint propagator generates constraints between directly related exposures, and propagates derived constraints between exposures that are related indirectly. It provides facilities for path-consistency checking, identification of unsatisfiable constraints, and querying of orientation relationships. The system has been successfully operational as part of TRANS for over seven months. The solution has particular significance to space applications in which satellite/telescope pointing and attitude are constrained and relationships exist between multiple configurations.

Bose, Ashim; Gerb, Andy

1994-01-01

346

HUBBLE DISCOVERS POWERFUL LASER BEAMED FROM CHAOTIC STAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an artist's concept of a gas cloud (left) that acts as a natural ultraviolet laser, near the huge, unstable star Eta Carinae (right) -- one of most massive and energetic stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. The super-laser was identified by a team led by Kris Davidson of the University of Minnesota, and including nine other collaborators in the U.S. and Sweden during spectroscpic observations made with the Goddard High Resolution spectrograph aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Since it's unlikely that a single beam from the cloud would happen to be precisely aimed in earth's driection, the astronomers conclude that numerous beams must be radiating from the cloud in all directions - beams from a dance hall mirror-ball. The interstellar laser may result from Eta Carinae's violently chaotic eruptions, illustrated here as a reddish (due to light scattering by dust) outflow from the bright star. A laser, (an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) creates an intense coherent beam of light when atoms or molecules in a gas, liquid or solid medium, force an incoming mix of wavelengths (or colors) of light to work in phase, or, at the same wavelength. Though a natural infrared laser was identified in space in 1995, lasers are very rare in space and nothing like the UV laser has ever been seen before. Eta Carinae is several million times brighter than the Sun, and one hundred times as massive. The superstar, located 8,000 light-years away in the souther constellation Carina, underwent a colossal outburst 150 years ago. Illustration courtesy James Gitlin/STScI

2002-01-01

347

American Association of Amateur Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Association of Amateur Astronomers (AAAA) is intended to foster interest in amateur astronomy by developing and promoting programs for its membership and the amateur community at large in the areas of observational astronomy and electronic communications on the internet. The AAAA's web site features links to membership information, news releases, and announcements of astronomical events and organizational activities. Educational materials include a tutorial on the solar system, an introduction to the constellations, a history and introduction to astronomy, and a link to the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. There is also an FAQ feature, a link to the organization's newsletter, links to partner organizations, and information on products available at the AAAA online store.

348

The Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The path of the total solar eclipse across the United States on August 21, 2017 crosses the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) located in western North Carolina. The partial eclipse begins at about 17:08 UT, followed by the nearly 2 minute total eclipse which begins at about 18:37 UT. The PARI campus includes radio and optical telescopes, as well as earth science instruments that include a seismometer, geomagnetometer, EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, time standards, and several weather stations. The instruments stream data to the PARI website and will be available for the eclipse. In anticipation of the 2017 solar eclipse, we present the instruments and infrastructure of the PARI campus. We invite astronomers to explore the use of the PARI campus as a site for their own instruments and/or the use of instruments already located at PARI.

Cline, J. Donald

2015-01-01

349

Astronomical Research Institute Photometric Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomical Research Institute (ARI) conducts astrometric and photometric studies of asteroids with a concentration on near-Earth objects (NEOs). A 0.76-m autoscope was used for photometric studies of seven asteroids of which two were main-belt targets and five were NEOs, including one potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA). These objects are: 3122 Florence, 3960 Chaliubieju, 5143 Heracles, (6455) 1992 HE, (36284) 2000 DM8, (62128) 2000 SO1, and 2010 LF86.

Linder, Tyler R.; Sampson, Ryan; Holmes, Robert

2013-01-01

350

Optical fibres for astronomical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on the spectral transmission and focal ratio degradation (FRD) characteristics of a number of optical fibers designed for astronomical applications (including HCR114T, HCN612T, 100\\/140 AS, QSF 133-200 ASW, FHP 100\\/120\\/140, FHP 100\\/110\\/125, SG820, and SG840), together with spectral transmission data on 'dry' and 'wet' fibers in the 350-850 nm range. The results can be used for the

Jean Guerin; Paul Felenbok

1988-01-01

351

Directory of astronomical data files  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Directory of Astronomical Data Files was prepared by the Data Task Force of the Interagency Coordination Committee for Astronomy (ICCA) in cooperation with the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The purpose of the Directory is to provide a listing which will enable a user to locate stellar and extragalactic data sources keyed along with sufficient descriptive information to permit him to assess the value of the files for his use as well as the status and availability of the compilations.

1978-01-01

352

Sümeyra Tosun: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.  

PubMed

The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2014 recipient is Sümeyra Tosun. Tosun was chosen for "an outstanding research paper that examines the cognitive repercussions of obligatory versus optional marking of evidentiality, the linguistic coding of the source of information. In English, evidentiality is conveyed in the lexicon through the use of adverbs. In Turkish, evidentiality is coded in the grammar. In two experiments, it was found that English speakers were equally good at remembering and monitoring the source of firsthand information and the source of non-firsthand information. Turkish speakers were worse at remembering and monitoring non-firsthand information than firsthand information and were worse than English speakers at remembering and monitoring non-firsthand information." Tosun's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25486159

2014-11-01

353

Edwin James' and John Hinton's revisions of Maclure's geologic map of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

William Maclure's pioneering geologic map of the eastern United States, published first in 1809 with Observations on the Geology of the United States, provided a foundation for many later maps - a template from which geologists could extend their mapping westward from the Appalachians. Edwin James, botanist, geologist and surgeon for the 1819/1820 United States Army western exploring expedition under Major Stephen H. Long, published a full account of this expedition with map and geologic sections in 1822-1823. In this he extended Maclure's geology across the Mississippi Valley to the Colorado Rockies. John Howard Hinton (1791-1873) published his widely read text: The History and Topography of the United States in 1832, which included a compilations of Maclure's and James' work in a colored geologic map and vertical sections. All three men were to some degree confounded in their attempts to employ Wernerian rock classification in their mapping and interpretations of geologic history, a common problem in the early 19th Century prior to the demise of Neptunist theory and advent of biostratigraphic techniques of correlation. However, they provided a foundation for the later, more refined mapping and geologic interpretation of the eastern United States.

Aalto, K. R.

2012-03-01

354

HUBBLE SPIES HUGE CLUSTERS OF STARS FORMED  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BY ANCIENT ENCOUNTER This stunningly beautiful image [right] taken with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope shows the heart of the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. The ongoing violent star formation due to an ancient encounter with its large galactic neighbor, M81, gives this galaxy its disturbed appearance. The smaller picture at upper left shows the entire galaxy. The image was taken in December 1994 by the Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope. Hubble's view is represented by the white outline in the center. In the Hubble image, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the huge lanes of dust that crisscross M82's disk are another telltale sign of the flurry of star formation. Below the center and to the right, a strong galactic wind is spewing knotty filaments of hydrogen and nitrogen gas. More than 100 super star clusters -- very bright, compact groupings of about 100,000 stars -- are seen in this detailed Hubble picture as white dots sprinkled throughout M82's central region. The dark region just above the center of the picture is a huge dust cloud. A collaboration of European and American scientists used these clusters to date the ancient interaction between M82 and M81. About 600 million years ago, a region called 'M82 B' (the bright area just below and to the left of the central dust cloud) exploded with new stars. Scientists have discovered that this ancient starburst was triggered by the violent encounter with M81. M82 is a bright (eighth magnitude), nearby (12 million light-years from Earth) galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major (the Great Bear). The Hubble picture was taken Sept. 15, 1997. The natural-color composite was constructed from three Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures, which were combined in chromatic order: 4,250 seconds through a blue filter (428 nm); 2,800 seconds through a green filter (520 nm); and 2,200 seconds through a red (820 nm) filter. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, ESA, R. de Grijs (Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK) Credits for ground-based picture: N.A. Sharp (Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, National Optical Astronomy Observatories, National Science Foundation)

2002-01-01

355

XXIInd National Australian Convention of Amateur Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The twenty second National Australian Convention of Amateur Astronomers (NACAA) was held in Frankston, near Melbourne over Easter Weekend. This convention takes place every two years, and is hosted by a different Australian Amateur Astronomy Society. This year's conference was hosted by the Mornington Peninsula Astronomical Society and its theme was "Amateur Astronomical Science Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow". A variety of speakers and workshops were presented over the four day weekend with ample opportunity to renew old acquaintances and make new ones.

Loader, Pauline; Loader, Brian

2006-06-01

356

Hubble Camera Resumes Science Operation With Picture Of 'Butterfly' In Space.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

he Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is back at work, capturing this black-and-white image of the 'butterfly wing'-shaped nebula, NGC 2346. The nebula is about 2,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. It represents the spectacular 'last gasp' of a binary star system at the nebula's center. The image was taken on March 6, as part of the recommissioning of the Hubble Space Telescope's previously installed scientific instruments following the successful servicing of the HST by NASA astronauts in February. WFPC2 was installed in HST during the servicing mission in 1993. At the center of the nebula lies a pair of stars that are so close together that they orbit around each other every 16 days. This is so close that, even with Hubble, the pair of stars cannot be resolved into its two components. One component of this binary is the hot core of a star that has ejected most of its outer layers, producing the surrounding nebula. Astronomers believe that this star, when it evolved and expanded to become a red giant, actually swallowed its companion star in an act of stellar cannibalism. The resulting interaction led to a spiraling together of the two stars, culminating in ejection of the outer layers of the red giant. Most of the outer layers were ejected into a dense disk, which can still be seen in the Hubble image, surrounding the central star. Later the hot star developed a fast stellar wind. This wind, blowing out into the surrounding disk, has inflated the large, wispy hourglass-shaped wings perpendicular to the disk. These wings produce the butterfly appearance when seen in projection. The total diameter of the nebula is about one-third of a light-year, or 2 trillion miles. Our own Sun will eject a nebula about 5 billion years from now. However, the Sun is not a double star, so its nebula may well be more spherical in shape. The image was taken through a filter that shows the light of glowing nitrogen atoms. Scientists are still testing and calibrating the newly installed instruments on Hubble , the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). These instruments will be ready to make observations in a few weeks. Credit: Massimo Stiavelli (STScI), and NASA other team member: Inge Heyer (STScI) Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

2002-01-01

357

Amateur Astronomers: Secret Agents of EPO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amateur astronomers prime the public to be more interested, receptive, and excited about space science, missions, and programs. Through recent research and targeted programs, amateur astronomy outreach is being increasingly recognized by professional astronomers, educators, and other amateurs as a valued and important service. The Night Sky Network program, administered by the ASP, is the first nationwide research-based program specifically targeted to support outreach by amateur astronomers. This Network of trained and informed amateur astronomers can provide a stimulating introduction to your EPO programs as Network members share the night sky with families, students, and youth groups.

Berendsen, M.; White, V.; Devore, E.; Reynolds, M.

2008-06-01

358

Anisotropic hubble expansion of large scale structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim of understanding the cosmic velocity fields at large scale, we investigate the dynamics of a pressureless distribution of gravitational sources moving under an anisotropic generalization of Hubble expansion and according to Euler-Poisson equations system. As a result, it turns out that such a behavior requires the distribution to be homogenous, similarly to Hubble law. Among several solutions, we show a planar kinematics which admits a constant (eternal) and rotational distortion, where the velocity field is not potential. Within this class, the one with no rotational distortion identifies to a bulk flow. To apply this model within cosmic structures as the Local Super Cluster, the solutions are interpreted as approximations providing us with an hint on the behavior of the cosmic flow just after decoupling era up to present date. Such a result suggests that the observed bulk flow may not be due exclusively to tidal forces but has a primordial origin.

Fliche, H. H.; Souriau, J. M.; Triay, R.

2006-03-01

359

Median statistics and the Hubble constant  

E-print Network

Following Gott et al. (2001), we use Huchra's final compilation of 553 measurements of the Hubble constant ($H_0$) to determine median statistical constraints on $H_0$. We find $H_0=68 \\pm 5.5$ (or $\\pm 1$) $\\kmsmpc$, where the errors are the 95% statistical and systematic (or statistical) errors. With about two-third more measurements, these results are close to what Gott et al. found a decade ago, with smaller statistical errors and similar systematic errors.

Chen, Gang

2011-01-01

360

Hubble Reveals Stellar Fireworks Accompanying Galaxy Collisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Science Telescope Institute and National Aeronautics and Space Administration have made this resource available. NASA's Hubble Telescope has photographed the results of the collision of the Antennae galaxies: the eruption of over a thousand bright young star clusters. At this site users can view a number of striking images in a variety of resolutions. The official press release and fact sheets are also available, as are several Quicktime movies.

1997-01-01

361

HUBBLE TRACKS 'PERFECT STORM' ON MARS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two dramatically different faces of our Red Planet neighbor appear in these comparison images showing how a global dust storm engulfed Mars with the onset of Martian spring in the Southern Hemisphere. When NASA's Hubble Space Telescope imaged Mars in June, the seeds of the storm were caught brewing in the giant Hellas Basin (oval at 4 o'clock position on disk) and in another storm at the northern polar cap. When Hubble photographed Mars in early September, the storm had already been raging across the planet for nearly two months obscuring all surface features. The fine airborne dust blocks a significant amount of sunlight from reaching the Martian surface. Because the airborne dust is absorbing this sunlight, it heats the upper atmosphere. Seasonal global Mars dust storms have been observed from telescopes for over a century, but this is the biggest storm ever seen in the past several decades. Mars looks gibbous in the right photograph because it is 26 million miles farther from Earth than in the left photo (though the pictures have been scaled to the same angular size), and our viewing angle has changed. The left picture was taken when Mars was near its closest approach to Earth for 2001 (an event called opposition); at that point the disk of Mars was fully illuminated as seen from Earth because Mars was exactly opposite the Sun. Both images are in natural color, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Credit: NASA, James Bell (Cornell Univ.), Michael Wolff (Space Science Inst.), and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

2002-01-01

362

Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

1996-01-01

363

Classifying Galaxies Using Hubble's Fork Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the idea of classifying objects. They start by giving examples of objects that can be classified in everyday life and in science. They then characterize and classify a set of galaxies using their own scheme, and using Hubble's classification scheme. Includes student worksheet and background information for the teacher. This is activity three in "The Hidden Lives of Galaxies" information and activity booklet.

2012-08-03

364

From Hubble diagrams to scale factors  

E-print Network

We present a lower bound on the radius of the universe today $a_0$ and a monotonicity constraint on the Hubble diagram. Our theoretical input is Einstein's kinematics and maximally symmetric universes. Present supernova data yield $a_0 > 1.2\\cdot 10^{26}$ m. A first attempt to quantify the monotonicity constraint is described. We do not see any indication of non-monotonicity.

Thomas Schucker; Andre Tilquin

2005-06-20

365

Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project is an ongoing panchromatic survey designed to study the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud in the near UV, optical and near IR down to the sub-solar mass regime. We will discuss the observing strategy, and the data products that will be distributed to the community. We will present preliminary results on the stellar populations and the clustering properties of the region obtained from the analysis of the IR observations acquired so far.

Sabbi, E.; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; van de Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M.; Cignoni, M.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gordon, K.; Goulliermis, D.; Grebel, E. K.

2013-06-01

366

The application of artificial intelligence to astronomical scheduling problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient utilization of expensive space- and ground-based observatories is an important goal for the astronomical community; the cost of modern observing facilities is enormous, and the available observing time is much less than the demand from astronomers around the world. The complexity and variety of scheduling constraints and goals has led several groups to investigate how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques might help solve these kinds of problems. The earliest and most successful of these projects was started at Space Telescope Science Institute in 1987 and has led to the development of the Spike scheduling system to support the scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The aim of Spike at STScI is to allocate observations to timescales of days to a week observing all scheduling constraints and maximizing preferences that help ensure that observations are made at optimal times. Spike has been in use operationally for HST since shortly after the observatory was launched in Apr. 1990. Although developed specifically for HST scheduling, Spike was carefully designed to provide a general framework for similar (activity-based) scheduling problems. In particular, the tasks to be scheduled are defined in the system in general terms, and no assumptions about the scheduling timescale are built in. The mechanisms for describing, combining, and propagating temporal and other constraints and preferences are quite general. The success of this approach has been demonstrated by the application of Spike to the scheduling of other satellite observatories: changes to the system are required only in the specific constraints that apply, and not in the framework itself. In particular, the Spike framework is sufficiently flexible to handle both long-term and short-term scheduling, on timescales of years down to minutes or less. This talk will discuss recent progress made in scheduling search techniques, the lessons learned from early HST operations, the application of Spike to other problem domains, and plans for the future evolution of the system.

Johnston, Mark D.

1992-01-01

367

Hubble tracks down a galaxy cluster's dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique mass map hi-res Size hi-res: 495 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Unique mass map This is a mass map of galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 derived from an extensive Hubble Space Telescope campaign. The colour image is made from two images: a dark-matter map (the blue part of the image) and a 'luminous-matter' map determined from the galaxies in the cluster (the red part of the image). They were constructed by feeding Hubble and ground-based observations into advanced mathematical mass-mapping models. The map shows that dark matter is present where the galaxies clump together. The mass of the galaxies is shown in red, the mass of the dark matter in blue. The dark matter behaves like a 'glue', holding the cluster together. The dark-matter distribution in the cluster is not spherical. A secondary concentration of dark-matter mass is shown in blue to the upper right of the main concentration. Sky around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 hi-res Size hi-res: 3742 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Sky around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 This is a 2.5-degree field around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654. The cluster galaxies are visible in the centre of the image in yellow. The image is a colour composite constructed from three Digitized Sky Survey 2 images: Blue (shown in blue), Red (shown in green), and Infrared (shown in red). HST observes shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies hi-res Size hi-res: 5593 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Hubble observes shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies Five days of observations produced the altogether 39 Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images required to map the mass of the galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654. Each WFPC2 image has a size of about 1/150 the diameter of the full Moon. In total, the image measures 27 arc-minutes across, slightly smaller than the diameter of the Moon. The observed warped shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies have been converted into a unique map of the dark matter in the cluster. The images were taken through a red filter and have been reduced a factor of two in size. Ground-based image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 hi-res Size hi-res: 4699 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Ground-based image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 This is a colour image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 obtained with the CFHT12k camera at the Canada France Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea (Hawaii). The cluster clearly appears as a concentration of yellow galaxies in the centre of this image although cluster galaxies actually extend at least to the edge of this image. This image measures 21 x 21 arc-minutes. Clusters of galaxies are the largest stable systems in the Universe. They are like laboratories for studying the relationship between the distributions of dark and visible matter. In 1937, Fritz Zwicky realised that the visible component of a cluster (the thousands of millions of stars in each of the thousands of galaxies) represents only a tiny fraction of the total mass. About 80-85% of the matter is invisible, the so-called 'dark matter'. Although astronomers have known about the presence of dark matter for many decades, finding a technique to view its distribution is a much more recent development. Led by Drs Jean-Paul Kneib (from the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, United States), Richard Ellis and Tommaso Treu (both Caltech, United States), the team used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to reconstruct a unique 'mass map' of the galaxy cluster CL0024+1654. It enabled them to see for the first time on such large scales how mysterious dark matter is distributed with respect to galaxies. This comparison gives new clues on how such large clusters assemble and which role dark matter plays in cosmic evolution. Tracing dark ma

2003-07-01

368

Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing  

SciTech Connect

Narrow spectral features in ocean sediment records offer strong evidence that the cycles of glaciation were driven by astronomical forces. Two million years ago, the cycles match the 41,000-year period of Earth`s obliquity. This supports the Croll/Milankovitch theory, which attributes the cycles to variations in insolation. But for the past million years, the spectrum is dominated by a single 100,000-year feature and is a poor match to the predictions of insolation models. The spectrum can be accounted for by a theory that derives the cycles of glaciation from variations in the inclination of Earth`s orbital plane.

Muller, R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); MacDonald, G.J. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)] [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

1997-07-11

369

Visualizing Astronomical Data with Blender  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present methods for using the 3D graphics program Blender in the visualization of astronomical data. The software's forte for animating 3D data lends itself well to use in astronomy. The Blender graphical user interface and Python scripting capabilities can be utilized in the generation of models for data cubes, catalogs, simulations, and surface maps. We review methods for data import, 2D and 3D voxel texture applications, animations, camera movement, and composite renders. Rendering times can be improved by using graphic processing units (GPUs). A number of examples are shown using the software features most applicable to various kinds of data paradigms in astronomy.

Kent, Brian R.

2014-01-01

370

BYU Astronomical Society Observation Log Book  

E-print Network

elements designed for the amateur astronomer: an observation program, and a log book. Brigham Young newcomers to the hobby of astronomy become experienced amateur astronomers. It is designed to be accessible using telescopes within an amateur's capabilities. By working to individually observe and record

Hart, Gus

371

Astronomical Society of Australia Annual Scientific Meeting  

E-print Network

Astronomical Society of Australia Annual Scientific Meeting University of Adelaide (4 ­ 8 July 2011 would like to welcome you to Adelaide for the 2011 ASA Annual Scientific Meeting. The meeting in the Australian astronomical community. Evidence of this is the fact that just over 200 (talk+poster) abstracts

Adelaide, University of

372

Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge among Amateur Astronomers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amateur astronomers regularly serve as informal astronomy educators for their communities. This research inquires into the level of knowledge of basic astronomy concepts among amateur astronomers and examines factors related to amateur astronomy that affect that knowledge. Using the concept questions from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2,…

Berendsen, Margaret L.

2005-01-01

373

Aristotle University Astronomical Station at Mt. Holomon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aristotle University Astronomical Station was established seven years ago in order to fulfill the educational needs of its students. Astronomical observations are undertaken using three fully equipped small telescopes. Some interesting results are presented below, including the study of asteroids and flare stars, the detection of optical emission from supernovae remnants and follow up observations in extra solar planets.

Avdellidou, C.; Ioannidis, P.; Kouroubatzakis, K.; Nitsos, A.; Vakoulis, J.; Seiradakis, J. H.

2012-01-01

374

42Planetary Conjunctions Since 1995, astronomers have  

E-print Network

above, draw a series of new diagrams that show where will the planets be in their orbits after: A) 142Planetary Conjunctions Since 1995, astronomers have detected over 350 planets orbiting distant stars. Our solar system has 8 planets, and for thousands of years astronomers have studied their motions

375

Astronomical catalog desk reference, 1994 edition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference is designed to aid astronomers in locating machine readable catalogs in the Astronomical Data Center (ADC) archives. The key reference components of this document are as follows: A listing of shortened titles for all catalogs available from the ADC (includes the name of the lead author and year of publication), brief descriptions of over 300 astronomical catalogs, an index of ADC catalog numbers by subject keyword, and an index of ADC catalog numbers by author. The heart of this document is the set of brief descriptions generated by the ADC staff. The 1994 edition of the Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference contains descriptions for over one third of the catalogs in the ADC archives. Readers are encouraged to refer to this section for concise summaries of those catalogs and their contents.

1994-01-01

376

LGBT Workplace Issues for Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws and regulations do not provide protection from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity or gender expression. Sexual minority astronomers (including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; LGBT) can face additional challenges at school and work. Studies show that LGBT students on many campuses report experiences of harassment. Cities, counties, and states may or may not have statutes to protect against such discrimination. There is wide variation in how states and insurance plans handle legal and medical issues for transgender people. Federal law does not acknowledge same-sex partners, including those legally married in the U.S. or in other countries. Immigration rules in the U.S. (and many other, but not all) countries do not recognize same-sex partners for visas, employment, etc. State `defense of marriage act' laws have been used to remove existing domestic partner benefits at some institutions, or benefits can disappear with a change in governor. LGBT astronomers who change schools, institutions, or countries during their career may experience significant differences in their legal, medical, and marital status.

Kay, Laura E.; Danner, R.; Sellgren, K.; Dixon, V.; GLBTQastro

2011-01-01

377

The League of Astronomers: Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Washington League of Astronomers (LOA) is an organization comprised of University of Washington (UW) undergraduate students. Our main goal is to share our interest in astronomy with the UW community and with the general public. The LOA hosts star parties on the UW campus and collaborates with the Seattle Astronomical Society (SAS) on larger Seattle-area star parties. At the star parties, we strive to teach our local community about what they can view in our night sky. LOA members share knowledge of how to locate constellations and use a star wheel. The relationship the LOA has with members of SAS increases both the number of events and people we are able to reach. Since the cloudy skies of the Northwest prevent winter star parties, we therefore focus our outreach on the UW Mobile Planetarium, an inflatable dome system utilizing Microsoft’s WorldWide Telescope (WWT) software. The mobile planetarium brings astronomy into the classrooms of schools unable to travel to the UW on-campus planetarium. Members of the LOA volunteer their time towards this project and we make up the majority of the Mobile Planetarium volunteers. Our outreach efforts allow us to connect with the community and enhance our own knowledge of astronomy.

Paat, Anthony; Brandel, A.; Schmitz, D.; Sharma, R.; Thomas, N. H.; Trujillo, J.; Laws, C. S.; Astronomers, League of

2014-01-01

378

Extracting meaning from astronomical telegrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapidly emerging field of time domain astronomy is one of the most exciting and vibrant new research frontiers, ranging in scientific scope from studies of the Solar System to extreme relativistic astrophysics and cosmology. It is being enabled by a new generation of large synoptic digital sky surveys - LSST, PanStarrs, CRTS - that cover large areas of sky repeatedly, looking for transient objects and phenomena. One of the biggest challenges facing these is the automated classification of transient events, a process that needs machine-processible astronomical knowledge. Semantic technologies enable the formal representation of concepts and relations within a particular domain. ATELs (http://www.astronomerstelegram.org) are a commonly-used means for reporting and commenting upon new astronomical observations of transient sources (supernovae, stellar outbursts, blazar flares, etc). However, they are loose and unstructured and employ scientific natural language for description: this makes automated processing of them - a necessity within the next decade with petascale data rates - a challenge. Nevertheless they represent a potentially rich corpus of information that could lead to new and valuable insights into transient phenomena. This project lies in the cutting-edge field of astrosemantics, a branch of astroinformatics, which applies semantic technologies to astronomy. The ATELs have been used to develop an appropriate concept scheme - a representation of the information they contain - for transient astronomy using aspects of natural language processing. We demonstrate that it is possible to infer the subject of an ATEL from the vocabulary used and to identify previously unassociated reports.

Graham, Matthew; Conwill, L.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Drake, A.

2011-01-01

379

Astronomical Applications for ``Radial Polarimetry''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many objects on the sky exhibit a centrosymmetric polarization pattern, particularly in cases involving single scattering around a central source. Utilizing a novel liquid crystal device (the “theta cell'') that transforms the coordinate system of linear polarization in an image plane from Cartesian to polar, the observation of centrosymmetric polarization patterns can be improved: instead of measuring Stokes Q and U on the sky, one only needs to measure Stokes Q' in the new instrument coordinate system. This reduces the effective exposure time by a factor of two and simplifies the polarization modulator design. According to the manufacturer's specifications and to measurements in the lab, the liquid crystal device can be applied in the visible and NIR wavelength range. Astronomical science cases for a“radial polarimeter'' include exoplanet detection, imaging of circumstellar disks, reflection nebulae and light echos, characterization of planetary atmospheres and diagnostics of the solar K-corona. The first astronomical instrument that utilizes a theta cell for radial polarimetry is the S5T (Small Synoptic Second Solar Spectrum Telescope), which accurately measures scattering polarization signals near the limb of the sun. These observations are crucial for understanding the nature and origin of weak, turbulent magnetic fields in the solar photosphere and elsewhere in the universe. A “radial polarimeter'' observing a slightly defocused point source performs one-shot full linear polarimetry. With a theta cell in a pupil plane, a beam's linear polarization properties (e.g. for calibration purposes) can be fully controlled through pupil masking.

Snik, F.

2011-11-01

380

Star Witness News: Hubble--A Lunar Prospecting Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story explains how the Hubble Space Telescope was used to assist scientists in finding natural resources on the Moon. This information can be used to introduce the idea of using reflected light to identify different materials on the Moon's surface. This selection is an adaptation of the HubbleSite press release: NASA's Hubble Looks for Possible Moon Resources. The article is from the Amazing Space science newspaper, The Star Witness, which can be used as a science content reading.

381

Hubble Captures Celestial Fireworks Within the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a color Hubble Space Telescope (HST) heritage image of supernova remnant N49, a neighboring galaxy, that was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Color filters were used to sample light emitted by sulfur, oxygen, and hydrogen. The color image was superimposed on a black and white image of stars in the same field also taken with Hubble. Resembling a fireworks display, these delicate filaments are actually sheets of debris from a stellar explosion.

2000-01-01

382

Hubble Provides Clear Images of Saturn's Aurora  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the first image of Saturn's ultraviolet aurora taken by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope in October 1997, when Saturn was a distance of 810 million miles (1.3 billion kilometers) from Earth. The new instrument, used as a camera, provides more than ten times the sensitivity of previous Hubble instruments in the ultraviolet. STIS images reveal exquisite detail never before seen in the spectacular auroral curtains of light that encircle Saturn's north and south poles and rise more than a thousand miles above the cloud tops.

Saturn's auroral displays are caused by an energetic wind from the Sun that sweeps over the planet, much like the Earths aurora that is occasionally seen in the nighttime sky and similar to the phenomenon that causes fluorescent lamps to glow. But unlike the Earth, Saturn's aurora is only seen in ultraviolet light that is invisible from the Earths surface, hence the aurora can only be observed from space. New Hubble images reveal ripples and overall patterns that evolve slowly, appearing generally fixed in our view and independent of planet rotation. At the same time, the curtains show local brightening that often follow the rotation of the planet and exhibit rapid variations on time scales of minutes. These variations and regularities indicate that the aurora is primarily shaped and powered by a continual tug-of-war between Saturn's magnetic field and the flow of charged particles from the Sun.

Study of the aurora on Saturn had its beginnings just seventeen years ago. The Pioneer 11 spacecraft observed a far-ultraviolet brightening on Saturn's poles in 1979. The Saturn flybys of the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in the early 1980s provided a basic description of the aurora and mapped for the first time planets enormous magnetic field that guides energetic electrons into the atmosphere near the north and south poles.

The first images of Saturn's aurora were provided in 1994-5 by the Hubble Space Telescopes Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC2). Much greater ultraviolet sensitivity of the new STIS instrument allows the workings of Saturn's magnetosphere and upper atmosphere to be studied in much greater detail. These Hubble aurora investigations provide a framework that will ultimately complement the in situ measurements of Saturn's magnetic field and charged particles by NASA/ ESA's Cassini spacecraft, now en route to its rendezvous with Saturn early in the next decade.

Two STIS imaging modes have been used to discriminate between ultraviolet emissions predominantly from hydrogen atoms (shown in red) and emissions due to molecular hydrogen (shown in blue). Hence the bright red aurora features are dominated by atomic hydrogen, while the white traces within them map the more tightly confined regions of molecular hydrogen emissions. The southern aurora is seen at lower right, the northern at upper left.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1998-01-01

383

StarChild: A Learning Center for Young Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The StarChild website, a service of the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC)/NASA, offers a wealth of information on space science for young astronomers and teachers who are searching for space science activities for young learners. Each of these major topics are covered in an age appropriate manner, either for Level 1 or Level 2 learners: Solar System, Universe, Space Stuff, and a Glossary. Links are provided between Level 1 and Level 2 versions of pages so that differences in difficulty can be easily compared. The basics of the Solar System and Universe are covered, as well as human endeavors in Space Stuff, such as astronauts, space wardrobes, space travel, space probes, the Hubble Space Telescope, and Who's Who in Space. Difficult words are linked from the text to a glossary. Questions are posed after many of the textual explanations and interactive activities can be accessed within each topic. The activities can be used via the Web or with pencil and paper. Links are provided to other educational space science sites.

Joyce Dejoie

384

Geodynamics and rate of volcanism on massive Earth-like planets Edwin S.Kite* and Michael Manga -University of California,Berkeley  

E-print Network

Geodynamics and rate of volcanism on massive Earth-like planets (1) Edwin S.Kite* and Michael Manga to that of the known terrestrial planets, at least 3 modes of mantle convection are possible: a) Earth-like - Plate not explicitly model mush ocean geodynamics. Instead, we track the lithosphere's Peclet number (i.e., the ratio

Kite, Edwin

385

A brief history of hair cell regeneration research and speculations on Edwin W Rubel a,b,*, Stephanie A. Furrer a  

E-print Network

Review A brief history of hair cell regeneration research and speculations on the future Edwin W worldwide suffer from hearing and balance disorders caused by loss of the sensory hair cells that convert, the great majority of hair cells are produced during embryogenesis. Hair cells that are lost after birth

Rubel, Edwin

386

A brief history of hair cell regeneration research and speculations on Edwin W. Rubel a,b,*, Stephanie A. Furrer a  

E-print Network

Review A brief history of hair cell regeneration research and speculations on the future Edwin W from hearing and balance disorders caused by loss of the sensory hair cells that convert sound majority of hair cells are produced during embryogenesis. Hair cells that are lost after birth

Rubel, Edwin

387

Hubble, a view to the edge of space : telescope tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eight thumbnail images of key features of the Hubble Space Telescope surround this drawing of Hubble. Users can move their mouse over the image of a feature to reveal both the location(s) of the feature and a description of its function. The solar arrays, communications antennae, aperture door, and fine gauge sensors are among the featured parts. Three of the eight feature descriptions offer users the option to link to additional information about these parts of Hubble. Links to more information and to activities about Hubble are provided at the bottom of the page. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2001-01-01

388

Hubble : a view to the edge of space, gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gallery offers 20 photographs of the Hubble Space Telescope operations at the Space Science Telescope Institute and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The images are presented as enlargeable thumbnails. When enlarged, captions appear that describe the connection between each photograph's contents and the functioning of Hubble. The behind-the-scenes images include some of the clean room where Hubble components were constructed. The opening screen offers a link to a set of interactive panoramic photographs of other Hubble-related scenes. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2001-01-01

389

Hubble Parameter in Bulk Viscous Cosmology  

E-print Network

We discuss influences of bulk viscosity on the Early Universe, which is modeled by Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and Einstein field equations. We assume that the matter filling the isotropic and homogeneous background is relativistic viscous characterized by ultra-relativistic equations of state deduced from recent lattice QCD simulations. We obtain a set of complicated differential equations, for which we suggest approximate solutions for Hubble parameter $H$. We find that finite viscosity in Eckart and Israel-Stewart fluids would significantly modify our picture about the Early Universe.

A. Tawfik; H. Mansour; M. Wahba

2009-12-01

390

Hubble Space Telescope (HST): Emergency support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a national facility that consists of a 2.4-m aperture Ritchey-Chretien cassegrain telescope weighing approximately 9525 kg with various energy detectors designed for the observation of IR, visible, and UV wavelengths (0.12 to 1000 microns). The HST was deployed into a 28.5-degree inclination, circular orbit, which permits a mission lifetime of 15 years. The orbit is decaying circular between 594 and 400 km x 28.5 deg; the period = 95 minutes. Information is presented in tabular form on the following areas: Deep Space Network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

Repass, J.; Wojtalik, F.

1991-01-01

391

HUBBLE FINDS MANY BRIGHT CLOUDS ON URANUS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent Hubble Space Telescope view reveals Uranus surrounded by its four major rings and by 10 of its 17 known satellites. This false-color image was generated by Erich Karkoschka using data taken on August 8, 1998, with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer. Hubble recently found about 20 clouds - nearly as many clouds on Uranus as the previous total in the history of modern observations. The orange-colored clouds near the prominent bright band circle the planet at more than 300 mph (500 km/h), according to team member Heidi Hammel (MIT). One of the clouds on the right-hand side is brighter than any other cloud ever seen on Uranus. The colors in the image indicate altitude. Team member Mark Marley (New Mexico State University) reports that green and blue regions show where the atmosphere is clear and sunlight can penetrate deep into Uranus. In yellow and grey regions the sunlight reflects from a higher haze or cloud layer. Orange and red colors indicate very high clouds, such as cirrus clouds on Earth. The Hubble image is one of the first images revealing the precession of the brightest ring with respect to a previous image [LINK to PRC97-36a]. Precession makes the fainter part of the ring (currently on the upper right-hand side) slide around Uranus once every nine months. The fading is caused by ring particles crowding and hiding each other on one side of their eight-hour orbit around Uranus. The blue, green and red components of this false-color image correspond to exposures taken at near-infrared wavelengths of 0.9, 1.1, and 1.7 micrometers. Thus, regions on Uranus appearing blue, for example, reflect more sunlight at 0.9 micrometer than at the longer wavelengths. Apparent colors on Uranus are caused by absorption of methane gas in its atmosphere, an effect comparable to absorption in our atmosphere which can make distant clouds appear red. Credit: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona) and NASA

2002-01-01

392

Hubble Captures Volcanic Eruption Plume From Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a picture of a 400-km-high (250-mile-high) plume of gas and dust from a volcanic eruption on Io, Jupiter's large innermost moon.

Io was passing in front of Jupiter when this image was taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in July 1996. The plume appears as an orange patch just off the edge of Io in the eight o'clock position, against the blue background of Jupiter's clouds. Io's volcanic eruptions blasts material hundreds of kilometers into space in giant plumes of gas and dust. In this image, material must have been blown out of the volcano at more than 2,000 mph to form a plume of this size, which is the largest yet seen on Io.

Until now, these plumes have only been seen by spacecraft near Jupiter, and their detection from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope opens up new opportunities for long-term studies of these remarkable phenomena.

The plume seen here is from Pele, one of Io's most powerful volcanos. Pele's eruptions have been seen before. In March 1979, the Voyager 1 spacecraft recorded a 300-km-high eruption cloud from Pele. But the volcano was inactive when the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Jupiter in July 1979. This Hubble observation is the first glimpse of a Pele eruption plume since the Voyager expeditions.

Io's volcanic plumes are much taller than those produced by terrestrial volcanos because of a combination of factors. The moon's thin atmosphere offers no resistance to the expanding volcanic gases; its weak gravity (one-sixth that of Earth) allows material to climb higher before falling; and its biggest volcanos are more powerful than most of Earth's volcanos.

This image is a contrast-enhanced composite of an ultraviolet image (2600 Angstrom wavelength), shown in blue, and a violet image (4100 Angstrom wavelength), shown in orange. The orange color probably occurs because of the absorption and/or scattering of ultraviolet light in the plume. This light from Jupiter passes through the plume and is absorbed by sulfur dioxide gas or is scattered by fine dust, or both, while violet light passes through unimpeded. Future HST observations may be able to distinguish between the gas and dust explanations.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1997-01-01

393

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field Lithograph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field lithograph shows the deepest visible light observation of the early universe. In vibrant contrast to the image's rich harvest of classic spiral and elliptical galaxies, there is a zoo of oddball galaxies littering the field. Some look like toothpicks; others like links on a bracelet. A few appear to be interacting. In the accompanying educational activity, In Search of...Galaxy Evolution, students investigate galaxies from different eras to determine how they have evolved and changed over time through a level 1 inquiry activity using the images and text from the lithograph and other resources. A level 1 inquiry activity can help prepare students to become independent thinkers.

2012-12-06

394

Doppler effect and Hubble effect in different models of space-time in the case of auto-parallel motion of the observer  

E-print Network

Doppler effect and Hubble effect in different models of space-time in the case of auto-parallel motion of the observer are considered. The Doppler effect and shift frequency parameter are specialized for the case of auto-parallel motion of the observer. The Hubble effect and shift frequency parameter are considered for the same case. It is shown that by the use of the variation of the shift frequency parameter during a time perod, considered locally in the proper frame of reference of an observer, one can directly determine the centrifugal (centripetal) relative velocity and acceleration as well as the Coriolis relative velocity and acceleration of an astronomical object moving relatively to the observer. All results are obtained on purely kinematic basis without taking into account the dynamic reasons for the considered effect. PACS numbers: 98.80.Jk; 98.62.Py; 04.90.+e; 04.80.Cc

Sawa Manoff

2004-01-04

395

Construction of Korean Astronomical Journal DB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Korean Astronomical Data Center (KADC) in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has developed a database of astronomical journals published by the Korean Astronomical Society and the Korean Space Science Society. It consists of all bibliographic records of the Journal of the Korean Astronomical Society (JKAS), Publications of the Korean Astronomical Society (PKAS), and Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences (JASS). The KADC provides useful search functions in the search page such as search criterion of bibcode, publication date, author names, title words, or abstract words. The journal name is one of the search criterion in which more than one journal can be designated at the same time. The criterion of author name is provided bilingually: English or Korean. The abstract and full text can be downloaded as PDF files. It is also possible to search papers related to a specific research topic published in Korean astronomical journals, provided by the KADC, which often cannot be found in the worldwide Astrophysics Data System (ADS) services. The KADC will become basic infrastructure for the systematic construction of bibliographic records, and hence, make the society of Korean astronomers more interactive and collaborative.

Sung, Hyun-Il; Kim, Soon-Wook; Yim, In Sung; Sang, Jian

2006-12-01

396

Astronomical Data Center Bulletin, volume 1, no. 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information about work in progress on astronomical catalogs is presented. In addition to progress reports, an upadated status list for astronomical catalogs available at the Astronomical Data Center is included. Papers from observatories and individuals involved with astronomical data are also presented.

Warren, W. H., Jr. (editor); Nagy, T. A. (editor); Mead, J. M. (editor)

1980-01-01

397

Detecting Bimodality in Astronomical Datasets  

E-print Network

We discuss statistical techniques for detecting and quantifying bimodality in astronomical datasets. We concentrate on the KMM algorithm, which estimates the statistical significance of bimodality in such datasets and objectively partitions data into sub-populations. By simulating bimodal distributions with a range of properties we investigate the sensitivity of KMM to datasets with varying characteristics. Our results facilitate the planning of optimal observing strategies for systems where bimodality is suspected. Mixture-modeling algorithms similar to the KMM algorithm have been used in previous studies to partition the stellar population of the Milky Way into subsystems. We illustrate the broad applicability of KMM by analysing published data on globular cluster metallicity distributions, velocity distributions of galaxies in clusters, and burst durations of gamma-ray sources. PostScript versions of the tables and figures, as well as FORTRAN code for KMM and instructions for its use, are available by anonymous ftp from kula.phsx.ukans.edu.

Keith M. Ashman; Christina M. Bird; Steven E. Zepf

1994-08-10

398

Detecting bimodality in astronomical datasets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We discuss statistical techniques for detecting and quantifying bimodality in astronomical datasets. We concentrate on the KMM algorithm, which estimates the statistical significance of bimodality in such datasets and objectively partitions data into subpopulations. By simulating bimodal distributions with a range of properties we investigate the sensitivity of KMM to datasets with varying characteristics. Our results facilitate the planning of optimal observing strategies for systems where bimodality is suspected. Mixture-modeling algorithms similar to the KMM algorithm have been used in previous studies to partition the stellar population of the Milky Way into subsystems. We illustrate the broad applicability of KMM by analyzing published data on globular cluster metallicity distributions, velocity distributions of galaxies in clusters, and burst durations of gamma-ray sources. FORTRAN code for the KMM algorithm and directions for its use are available from the authors upon request.

Ashman, Keith A.; Bird, Christina M.; Zepf, Stephen E.

1994-01-01

399

An astronomical observatory for Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar

2011-06-01

400

Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

2010-07-01

401

Inverse Hubble flows in molecular clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by recent numerical simulations of molecular cloud (MC) evolution, in which the clouds engage in global gravitational contraction, and local collapse events culminate significantly earlier than the global collapse, we investigate the growth of density perturbations embedded in a collapsing background, to which we refer as an inverse Hubble flow (IHF). We use the standard procedure for the growth of perturbations in a universe that first expands (the usual Hubble flow) and then recollapses (the IHF). We find that linear density perturbations immersed in an IHF grow faster than perturbations evolving in a static background (the standard Jeans analysis). A fundamental distinction between the two regimes is that, in the Jeans case, the time ?nl for a density fluctuation to become non-linear increases without limit as its initial value approaches zero, while in the IHF case ?nl ? ?ff always, where ?ff is the free-fall time of the background density. We suggest that this effect, although moderate, implies that small-scale density fluctuations embedded in globally collapsing clouds must collapse earlier than their parent cloud, regardless of whether the initial amplitude of the fluctuations is moderate or strongly non-linear, thus allowing the classical mechanism of Hoyle fragmentation to operate in multi-Jeans-mass MCs. More fundamentally, our results show that, contrary to the standard paradigm that fluctuations of all scales grow at the same rate in the linear regime, the hierarchical nesting of the fluctuations of different scales does affect their growth even in the linear stage.

Toalá, Jesús A.; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Colín, Pedro; Gómez, Gilberto C.

2015-02-01

402

HUBBLE REVEALS STELLAR FIREWORKS ACCOMPANYING GALAXY COLLISION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Hubble Space Telescope image provides a detailed look at a brilliant 'fireworks show' at the center of a collision between two galaxies. Hubble has uncovered over 1,000 bright, young star clusters bursting to life as a result of the head-on wreck. [Left] A ground-based telescopic view of the Antennae galaxies (known formally as NGC 4038/4039) - so named because a pair of long tails of luminous matter, formed by the gravitational tidal forces of their encounter, resembles an insect's antennae. The galaxies are located 63 million light-years away in the southern constellation Corvus. [Right] The respective cores of the twin galaxies are the orange blobs, left and right of image center, crisscrossed by filaments of dark dust. A wide band of chaotic dust, called the overlap region, stretches between the cores of the two galaxies. The sweeping spiral- like patterns, traced by bright blue star clusters, shows the result of a firestorm of star birth activity which was triggered by the collision. This natural-color image is a composite of four separately filtered images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), on January 20, 1996. Resolution is 15 light-years per pixel (picture element). Credit: Brad Whitmore (STScI), and NASA

2002-01-01

403

Enhancing Science with the Hubble Source Catalog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Source Catalog (HSC) is an initiative to combine the tens of thousands of visit-based Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA - available at http://hla.stsci.edu) source lists into a single master catalog. The HSC currently includes ACS/WFC, WFPC2, and WFC3 source lists generated using the Source Extractor (Bertin & Arnouts 1996) software, and a cross-matching technique described in Budavari & Lubow (2012). The astrometric residuals for the HCS individual objects are typically within 10 mas. The talk will focus on the development of several detailed use cases that demonstrate both the quality of the data in the HSC and some of its current limitations that users should be aware of. We are currently in the Beta 0.3 stage of development with plans for Version 1 (i.e., improved WFPC2 and ACS sources lists, better matching and enhanced tools including a CASJOBS capability) in the summer of 2014. Demonstrations will be provided at the Space Telescope Science Institute booth during the conference and people will have the opportunity to use the system interactively. We are also looking for people that are interested in joining our HSC Working Group that helps develop use cases and tests new capabilities as they are developed. The url for the HSC is http://archive.stsci.edu/hst/hsc/

Whitmore, Bradley C.; Allam, S. S.; Budavari, T.; Casertano, S.; Lubow, S. H.; Quick, L.; Strolger, L.; White, R. L.

2014-01-01

404

Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Source Catalog (HSC) is an initiative to combine the tens of thousands of visit-based Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA - available at http://hla.stsci.edu) source lists into a single master catalog. The HSC currently includes ACS/WFC, WFPC2, and WFC3 source lists generated using the Source Extractor software (Bertin & Arnouts 1996), cross-matched using the technique described in Budavari & Lubow (2012). The astrometric residuals for the HSC individual objects are typically within 10 mas and the magnitude residuals between repeats are generally within 0.10 mag. Version 1 of the HSC is scheduled to be released in winter 2015. Some of the primary improvements over the current Beta 0.3 version of the HSC include: 1) improved WFC3 source lists, 2) two more years of WFC3 data, 3) improved matching algorithms, 4) a draft paper to be submitted to PASP, 5) inclusion in the MAST Discovery Portal (http://mast.stsci.edu), and 6) a CasJobs capability for advanced searches. Demonstrations will be provided at the Space Telescope Science Institute booth during the conference and people will have the opportunity to use the system interactively. The URL for the HSC is http://archive.stsci.edu/hst/hsc/ .

Whitmore, Bradley C.; Allam, Sahar S.; Budavari, Tamas; Donaldson, Tom; Lubow, Stephen H.; Quick, Lee; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wallace, Geoff; White, Richard L.

2015-01-01

405

HUBBLE CAPTURES MERGER BETWEEN QUASAR AND GALAXY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows evidence fo r a merger between a quasar and a companion galaxy. This surprising result might require theorists to rethink their explanations for the nature of quasars, the most energetic objects in the universe. The bright central object is the quasar itself, located several billion light-years away. The two wisps on the (left) of the bright central object are remnants of a bright galaxy that have been disrupted by the mutual gravitational attraction between the quasar and the companion galaxy. This provides clear evidence for a merger between the two objects. Since their discovery in 1963, quasars (quasi-stellar objects) have been enigmatic because they emit prodigious amounts of energy from a very compact source. The most widely accepted model is that a quasar is powered by a supermassive black hole in the core of a galaxy. These new observations proved a challenge for theorists as no current models predict the complex quasar interactions unveiled by Hubble. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. Credit: John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study, NASA.

2002-01-01

406

Astronomical Image Processing with Hadoop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the coming decade astronomical surveys of the sky will generate tens of terabytes of images and detect hundreds of millions of sources every night. With a requirement that these images be analyzed in real time to identify moving sources such as potentially hazardous asteroids or transient objects such as supernovae, these data streams present many computational challenges. In the commercial world, new techniques that utilize cloud computing have been developed to handle massive data streams. In this paper we describe how cloud computing, and in particular the map-reduce paradigm, can be used in astronomical data processing. We will focus on our experience implementing a scalable image-processing pipeline for the SDSS database using Hadoop (http://hadoop.apache.org). This multi-terabyte imaging dataset approximates future surveys such as those which will be conducted with the LSST. Our pipeline performs image coaddition in which multiple partially overlapping images are registered, integrated and stitched into a single overarching image. We will first present our initial implementation, then describe several critical optimizations that have enabled us to achieve high performance, and finally describe how we are incorporating a large in-house existing image processing library into our Hadoop system. The optimizations involve prefiltering of the input to remove irrelevant images from consideration, grouping individual FITS files into larger, more efficient indexed files, and a hybrid system in which a relational database is used to determine the input images relevant to the task. The incorporation of an existing image processing library, written in C++, presented difficult challenges since Hadoop is programmed primarily in Java. We will describe how we achieved this integration and the sophisticated image processing routines that were made feasible as a result. We will end by briefly describing the longer term goals of our work, namely detection and classification of transient objects and automated object classification.

Wiley, K.; Connolly, A.; Krughoff, S.; Gardner, J.; Balazinska, M.; Howe, B.; Kwon, Y.; Bu, Y.

2011-07-01

407

America's foremost early astronomer. [David Rittenhouse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life of 18th century astronomer, craftsman, and partriot David Rittenhouse is detailed. As a craftsman, he distinguished himself as one of the foremost builders of clocks. He also built magnetic compasses and surveying instruments. The finest examples of his craftsmanship are considered two orreries, mechanical solar systems. In terms of astronomical observations, his best-known contribution was his observation of the transit of Venus in 1769. Rittenhouse constructed the first diffraction grating. Working as Treasurer of Pennsylvania throughout the Revolution, he became the first director of the Mint in 1792. Astronomical observations in later life included charting the position of Uranus after its discovery.

Rubincam, David Parry; Rubincam, Milton, II

1995-01-01

408

14Counting Galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope In 2004, the Hubble Space Telescope took a million-second exposure of a  

E-print Network

14Counting Galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope In 2004, the Hubble Space Telescope took as faint as the faintest galaxy that Hubble detected in the Deep Field image? Space Math http in counting these galaxies? Problem 2 ­ One square degree equals 3,600 square arcminutes. If Hubble Ultra Deep

409

The Hubble constant and dark energy from cosmological distance measures  

SciTech Connect

We study how the determination of the Hubble constant from cosmological distance measures is affected by models of dark energy and vice versa. For this purpose, constraints on the Hubble constant and dark energy are investigated using the cosmological observations of cosmic microwave background, baryon acoustic oscillations and type Ia supernovae. When one investigates dark energy, the Hubble constant is often a nuisance parameter; thus it is usually marginalized over. On the other hand, when one focuses on the Hubble constant, simple dark energy models such as a cosmological constant and a constant equation of state are usually assumed. Since we do not know the nature of dark energy yet, it is interesting to investigate the Hubble constant assuming some types of dark energy and see to what extent the constraint on the Hubble constant is affected by the assumption concerning dark energy. We show that the constraint on the Hubble constant is not affected much by the assumption for dark energy. We furthermore show that this holds true even if we remove the assumption that the universe is flat. We also discuss how the prior on the Hubble constant affects the constraints on dark energy and/or the curvature of the universe.

Ichikawa, Kazuhide [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo, E-mail: kazuhide@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

2008-04-15

410

The Hubble constant and the expansion age of the Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hubble constant, which measures the expansion rate, together with the total energy density of the Universe, sets the size of the observable Universe, its age, and its radius of curvature. Excellent progress has been made recently toward the measurement of the Hubble constant: a number of different methods for measuring distances have been developed and refined, and a primary

W. L. Freedman

2000-01-01

411

Replacement vs. Renovation: The Reincarnation of Hubble Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the original Hubble Middle School, neither the views (a congested Roosevelt Road and glimpses of downtown Wheaton) nor the century-old facility that offered them was very inspiring. Built at the start of the 20th century, the 250,000-square-foot building was converted from Wheaton Central High School to Hubble Middle School in the early 1980s.…

Ogurek, Douglas J.

2010-01-01

412

Hubble Provides A Moving Look At Neptune's Stormy Disposition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA offers these images from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Galileo Project. Simultaneous observations at Hubble and NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii have also provided glimpses into Neptune's huge storms and equatorial winds of 900 mph. The site provides a press release, images, and a Quicktime animation.

1998-01-01

413

THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE  

E-print Network

THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE G.D. ILLINGWORTH UCO/Lick Observatory for the Advanced Camera The ACS team is building an Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Tele- scope which), will be a high throughput (45% at 700 nm, including the HST optical telescope assembly (OTA)), wide eld (20000

Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astonomy, Advanced Camera for Surveys Team

414

An Astronomical Observatory in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a project developed at the University of Granada in collaboration with the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía aimed at using a remote telescope for live astronomical observations from the classroom. Available instrumentation, software and activities are presented.

Lara, L.; Gallego, T.; de La Torre, A.

415

The Strange Case of Hubble's V19 in M33: Monitoring the Remarkable Changes and Possible Real-Time Evolution of a Classical Cepheid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the influential work "A Spiral Nebula as a Stellar System: Messier 33” (Hubble 1926) Edwin Hubble determined the distance to M33 by using 35 Cepheids he discovered. One of those Cepheids was designated V19. Observations revealed V19 to have a 54.7-day period and B-band (converted from photographic magnitudes) light amplitude of 1.1-mag. Its mean B-magnitude was 19.59+/-0.23. Its properties were consistent with the Period-Luminosity Law for M33 derived by Hubble at that time. Follow up observations in 1996-1997 as part of the DIRECT Program (Macri et al. 2001), however, revealed large and surprising changes in the properties of V19. Its mean B-magnitude had risen to 19.05+/-0.05 and its amplitude had fallen to < 0.1-mag. The DIRECT study thoroughly checked for possible misclassifications of the variable or contamination by nearby objects, and found none. For all intents and purposes, V19 was no longer a Classical Cepheid, or at least varying below the detectable levels of the photometry. The only other well-documented instance of Cepheid pulsations declining over time is in the case of Polaris - whose V-band amplitude fell from just over 0.1-mag to below 0.03-mag over the course of a century (Engle et al 2004). Also, a study of Polaris’ visual magnitudes over the past two millennia has shown a possible increase in brightness of 1-mag over the past 1000 years. The changes present in V19 are obviously on a much more dramatic scale. We report on our continuing efforts to monitor the behavior and properties of Hubble's V19 in M33. Photometry has been carried out with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope and the 1.3-m RCT (Robotically Controlled Telescope) at KPNO. It is our hope that these observations will help solve the mystery of V19 and its unprecedented evolutionary behavior. We gratefully acknowledge NASA/HST grant and NSF/RUI grant AST1009903.

Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, E.; Macri, L.; Pellerin, A.

2011-01-01

416

Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Displav" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) evolved our existing image display program into fully extensible. cross-platform image display software. We also devised messaging software to support integration of image display into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we migrated our software from reliance on Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes the cross-platform Tcl/Tk technology.

Mandel, Eric

2000-01-01

417

An outstanding astronomer - N.N. Donitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a history of collaboration between the astronomers N. Donitch and A.A. Baikov. Information on other astronomers, L.V. Ocoulitch and E.A. Von der Pahlen, and meteorologists V.H. Dubinskii and Nina Gouma, can also be found. Details on the expeditions aimed at observing the total solar eclipses on 30 August 1905 (organized by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in

A. A. Baikov; Alexei Gaina

1995-01-01

418

HUBBLE CLICKS IMAGES OF IO SWEEPING ACROSS JUPITER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While hunting for volcanic plumes on Io, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured these images of the volatile moon sweeping across the giant face of Jupiter. Only a few weeks before these dramatic images were taken, the orbiting telescope snapped a portrait of one of Io's volcanoes spewing sulfur dioxide 'snow.' These stunning images of the planetary duo are being released to commemorate the ninth anniversary of the Hubble telescope's launch on April 24, 1990. All of these images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The three overlapping snapshots show in crisp detail Io passing above Jupiter's turbulent clouds. The close-up picture of Io (bottom right) reveal a 120-mile-high (200-kilometer) plume of sulfur dioxide 'snow' emanating from Pillan, one of the moon's active volcanoes. 'Other observations have inferred sulfur dioxide 'snow' in Io's plumes, but this image offers direct observational evidence for sulfur dioxide 'snow' in an Io plume,' explains John R. Spencer of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz. A Trip Around Jupiter The three snapshots of the volcanic moon rounding Jupiter were taken over a 1.8-hour time span. Io is roughly the size of Earth's moon but 2,000 times farther away. In two of the images, Io appears to be skimming Jupiter's cloud tops, but it's actually 310,000 miles (500,000 kilometers) away. Io zips around Jupiter in 1.8 days, whereas the moon circles Earth every 28 days. The conspicuous black spot on Jupiter is Io's shadow and is about the size of the moon itself (2,262 miles or 3,640 kilometers across). This shadow sails across the face of Jupiter at 38,000 mph (17 kilometers per second). The smallest details visible on Io and Jupiter measure 93 miles (150 kilometers) across, or about the size of Connecticut. These images were further sharpened through image reconstruction techniques. The view is so crisp that one would have to stand on Io to see this much detail on Jupiter with the naked eye. The bright patches on Io are regions of sulfur dioxide frost. On Jupiter, the white and brown regions distinguish areas of high-altitude haze and clouds; the blue regions depict relatively clear skies at high altitudes. These images were taken July 22, 1997, in two wavelengths: 3400 Angstroms (ultraviolet) and 4100 Angstroms (violet). The colors do not correspond closely to what the human eye would see because ultraviolet light is invisible to the eye. Io: Jupiter's Volcanic Moon In the close-up picture of Io (bottom right), the mound rising from Io's surface is actually an eruption from Pillan, a volcano that had previously been dormant. Measurements at two ultraviolet wavelengths indicate that the ejecta consist of sulfur dioxide 'snow,' making the plume appear green in this false-color image. Astronomers increased the color contrast and added false colors to the image to make the faint plume visible. Pillan's plume is very hot and its ejecta is moving extremely fast. Based on information from the Galileo spacecraft, Pillan's outburst is at least 2,240 degrees Fahrenheit (1,500 degrees Kelvin). The late bloomer is spewing material at speeds of 1,800 mph (2,880 kilometers per hour). The hot sulfur dioxide gas expelled from the volcano cools rapidly as it expands into space, freezing into snow. Io is well known for its active volcanoes, many of which blast huge plumes of volcanic debris into space. Astronomers discovered Pillan's volcanic explosion while looking for similar activity from a known active volcano, Pele, about 300 miles (500 kilometers) away from Pillan. But Pele turned out to be peaceful. Io has hundreds of active volcanoes, but only a few, typically eight or nine, have visible plumes at any given time. Scientists will get a closer look at Io later this year during a pair of close flybys to be performed by NASA's Galileo spacecraft, which has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons for nearly 3-1/2 years. The first Galileo flyby is scheduled for Oct. 10 at an altitude of 379 miles (610 kilometers), and the other will occur on Nov. 25, when the spacecraft will fly only 186 mil

2002-01-01

419

Hubble Clicks Images of Io Sweeping Across Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While hunting for volcanic plumes on Io, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured these images of the volatile moon sweeping across the giant face of Jupiter. Only a few weeks before these dramatic images were taken, the orbiting telescope snapped a portrait of one of Io's volcanoes spewing sulfur dioxide 'snow.'

These stunning images of the planetary duo are being released to commemorate the ninth anniversary of the Hubble telescope's launch on April 24, 1990. All of these images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

The three overlapping snapshots show in crisp detail Io passing above Jupiter's turbulent clouds. The close-up picture of Io (bottom right) reveal a 120-mile-high (200-kilometer) plume of sulfur dioxide 'snow' emanating from Pillan, one of the moon's active volcanoes.

'Other observations have inferred sulfur dioxide 'snow' in Io's plumes, but this image offers direct observational evidence for sulfur dioxide 'snow' in an Io plume,' explains John R. Spencer of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz.

A Trip Around Jupiter

The three snapshots of the volcanic moon rounding Jupiter were taken over a 1.8-hour time span. Io is roughly the size of Earth's moon but 2,000 times farther away. In two of the images, Io appears to be skimming Jupiter's cloud tops, but it's actually 310,000 miles (500,000 kilometers) away. Io zips around Jupiter in 1.8 days, whereas the moon circles Earth every 28 days.

The conspicuous black spot on Jupiter is Io's shadow and is about the size of the moon itself (2,262 miles or 3,640 kilometers across). This shadow sails across the face of Jupiter at 38,000 mph (17 kilometers per second). The smallest details visible on Io and Jupiter measure 93 miles (150 kilometers) across, or about the size of Connecticut.

These images were further sharpened through image reconstruction techniques. The view is so crisp that one would have to stand on Io to see this much detail on Jupiter with the naked eye.

The bright patches on Io are regions of sulfur dioxide frost. On Jupiter, the white and brown regions distinguish areas of high-altitude haze and clouds; the blue regions depict relatively clear skies at high altitudes.

These images were taken July 22, 1997, in two wavelengths: 3400 Angstroms (ultraviolet) and 4100 Angstroms (violet). The colors do not correspond closely to what the human eye would see because ultraviolet light is invisible to the eye.

Io: Jupiter's Volcanic Moon

In the close-up picture of Io (bottom right), the mound rising from Io's surface is actually an eruption from Pillan, a volcano that had previously been dormant.

Measurements at two ultraviolet wavelengths indicate that the ejecta consist of sulfur dioxide 'snow,' making the plume appear green in this false-color image. Astronomers increased the color contrast and added false colors to the image to make the faint plume visible.

Pillan's plume is very hot and its ejecta is moving extremely fast. Based on information from the Galileo spacecraft, Pillan's outburst is at least 2,240 degrees Fahrenheit (1,500 degrees Kelvin). The late bloomer is spewing material at speeds of 1,800 mph (2,880 kilometers per hour). The hot sulfur dioxide gas expelled from the volcano cools rapidly as it expands into space, freezing into snow.

Io is well known for its active volcanoes, many of which blast huge plumes of volcanic debris into space. Astronomers discovered Pillan's volcanic explosion while looking for similar activity from a known active volcano, Pele, about 300 miles (500 kilometers) away from Pillan. But Pele turned out to be peaceful. Io has hundreds of active volcanoes, but only a few, typically eight or nine, have visible plumes at any given time.

Scientists will get a closer look at Io later this year during a pair of close flybys to be performed by NASA's Galileo spacecraft, which has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons for nearly 3-1/2 years.&

1999-01-01

420

A Survey of Astronomical Research: A Baseline for Astronomical Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in "astronomical development" with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A.

2013-12-01

421

Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.  

PubMed

The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls. PMID:20480370

Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

2010-10-01

422

Astronomers Unveiling Life's Cosmic Origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processes that laid the foundation for life on Earth -- star and planet formation and the production of complex organic molecules in interstellar space -- are yielding their secrets to astronomers armed with powerful new research tools, and even better tools soon will be available. Astronomers described three important developments at a symposium on the "Cosmic Cradle of Life" at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, IL. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) In one development, a team of astrochemists released a major new resource for seeking complex interstellar molecules that are the precursors to life. The chemical data released by Anthony Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and his university colleagues is part of the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey, or PRIMOS, a project studying a star-forming region near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. PRIMOS is an effort of the National Science Foundation's Center for Chemistry of the Universe, started at the University of Virginia (UVa) in October 2008, and led by UVa Professor Brooks H. Pate. The data, produced by the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, came from more than 45 individual observations totalling more than nine GigaBytes of data and over 1.4 million individual frequency channels. Scientists can search the GBT data for specific radio frequencies, called spectral lines -- telltale "fingerprints" -- naturally emitted by molecules in interstellar space. "We've identified more than 720 spectral lines in this collection, and about 240 of those are from unknown molecules," Remijan said. He added, "We're making available to all scientists the best collection of data below 50 GHz ever produced for the study of interstellar chemistry," Remijan said. Astronomers have already identified more than 150 molecules in interstellar space in the past 40 years, including complex organic compounds such as sugars and alcohols. "This is a major change in how we search for molecules in space," Remijan explained. "Before, people decided beforehand which molecules they were looking for, then searched in a very narrow band of radio frequencies emitted by those molecules. In this GBT survey, we've observed a wide range of frequencies, collected the data and immediately made it publicly available. Scientists anywhere can 'mine' this resource to find new molecules," he said. Another key development, presented by Crystal Brogan of the NRAO, showed that highly-detailed images of "protoclusters" of massive young stars reveal a complex mix of stars in different stages of formation, complicated gas motions, and numerous chemical clues to the physical conditions in such stellar nurseries. "We saw a much more complex picture than we had expected and now have new questions to answer," she said. Using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Submillimeter Array (SMA) in Hawaii, Brogan and her colleagues studied a nebula 5,500 light-years from Earth in the constellation Scorpius where stars significantly more massive than our Sun are forming. "It's essential to understand what's going on in systems like this because most stars, Sun-like stars included, form in clusters," Brogan said. "The most massive stars in the cluster have a tremendous impact on the formation and environment of the rest of the cluster, including the less-massive stars and their planets," Brogan said, adding that "if we want to understand how solar systems that could support life form and evolve, we need to know how these giant stars affect their environment." Also, Brogan said, the massive young stars are surrounded by "hot cores" that include copious organic material that later may be spewed in

2009-02-01

423

Nikolay N. Donitch - the astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article is devoted to milestones of life and scientific activity of the eminent astronomer Nikolay Nikolaevich Donitch (Nicolae N. Donici) (1874-1956), a graduate from the Odessa (Novorossiski) university. He was a wellknown expert in the field of reseacrh of objects of Solar system. A person highly cultured, which built the first in Bessarabia (actually a part of the Republic of Moldova) observatory. He was borne in Kishinev (Chisinau) in a nobles family of notable Moldavian landersmen. N.D. graduated from the Richelieu lyceym in Odessa and afterwards, in 1897, graduated from the Odessa (Novorossiysky) University. A.K. Kononovich (1850-1910)headed the chair of astronomy and the Observatory at that time - a foremost authority in the field of astrophysics and stellar astronomy. Many of his disciples became eminent scientists of their time. N. Donitch was among them. N.D. worked till 1918 at Pulkovo Observatory and became a master in the field of studying of such phenomena as solar and lunar eclipses. To observe the Sun N.D., could afford to design and manufacture a spectroheliograph, the first in Russia, with the assistance of a famous Odessa mechanic J.A. Timchenko. This instrument enabled him to obtain topquality photos of the Sun's surface and prominences. It was mounted together with coelostat in the private observatory of N.D. , built in the village Staryie Doubossary in 1908. Besides the heliograoph, the observatory was equiped with a five inch refractor-equatorial with numerous instruments for various observations. Of the other instruments should be mentioned : "a comet triplet" - an instrument consisting of guiding refractor, a photographic camera and a spectrograph with an objective prism. N.D. was lucky enough to observe rare astronomical phenomena. He observed the transit of Mercury through the disk of the Sun on November 14, 1907 and showed the athmosphere absence around this planet, observed the Halley's comet in 1910, the bright Pons-Winneke comet in 1927. In 1933 he was cartying out observations of Saturn and determined the rotational period of the planet. Eight scientific papers on the zodiacal light investigations were published by N.D.. Due to a H. Shapley's recommmendation he obtained in his observatory a number of stelar sky photos. N.N. Donitch was a brillant personality in the astronomical community of his time. He was a member of many scientific societies. Hard and sad times came to Donitch during the last years of his life. At first he leaved Bessarabia for Bucharest (1940), then Romania for Germany (1944), then Germany for France (1945), where he worked at the Meudon Observatory. At last he found himself under tryiung financial situation. According to some findings he spent the last days in an old men house near Nice and died in 1956.

Gaina, Alex B.; Volyanskaya, M. Yu.

1999-08-01

424

23Satellite Drag and the Hubble Space Telescope The Hubble Space Telescope was never designed to operate forever. What  

E-print Network

is completed in 2012. Originally, a Space Shuttle was proposed to safely return it to Earth, where it would23Satellite Drag and the Hubble Space Telescope The Hubble Space Telescope was never designed to operate forever. What to do with the observatory remains a challenge for NASA once its scientific mission

425

99Counting Craters On the Hubble Space Telescope! The STS-125 Atlantis astronauts retrieved the Hubble Space Telescope Wide-  

E-print Network

on the average. The images below show some close-up images of impact craters on the Hubble Space Telescope99Counting Craters On the Hubble Space Telescope! The STS-125 Atlantis astronauts retrieved, it received numerous impacts by micrometeoroids and man-made particles (flecks of paint, etc). The circles

426

System Architecture for a Hubble Legacy Archive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), in collaboration with the European Coordinating Facility (ECF) and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC), is studying the development of an enhanced archive for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Distinct from (but complimentary to) the existing archive system at the STScI, development of this enhanced archive affords the opportunity to leverage modern architectural and design principles toward meeting project objectives and serving the archive community. To wit, the STScI is designing the entire system as a service-oriented architecture (SOA). Composed of loosely-coupled, highly-interoperable Web services, an SOA embodies a great deal of flexibility in meeting future needs placed on the HST archive while also positioning it well within the emerging Virtual Observatory (VO) framework. A high-level architecture for the enhanced archive at the STScI is presented.

Miller, W. W., III; Gaffney, N.; Jenkner, H.; Whitmore, B.

2007-10-01

427

Hubble Spectroscopy of Sungrazing Comet ISON  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of Comet ISON {C/2012 S1} at a heliocentric distanceof 6 AU, and its identification as a dynamically new comet passing withintwo solar radii of the Sun in November 2013, present an exceptional opportunityto investigate the heliocentric evolution of a comet's volatile composition and howthat composition responds to an intensive heating event.C/ISON is predicted to be very bright this fall {naked eye visibility},with large gas production rates enabling higher than usual sensitivitiesto be achieved. We propose a series of HST observations of C/ISON that aim to: {1} monitor the evolution of CO production with heliocentric distance,{2} search for compositional changes associated with theintense heating episode during the comet's close approach to the Sun,and {3} measure D/H in this comet.Our focus here is on scientific objectives that are uniquelyaccomplished via ultraviolet observations with Hubble.

Weaver, Harold

2013-10-01

428

Super-Hubble nonlinear perturbations during inflation  

SciTech Connect

We show that the nonlinear evolution of long-wavelength perturbations may be important in a wide class of inflationary scenarios. We develop a solution for the evolution of such nonlinear perturbations which is exact to first order in a gradient expansion. As a first application, we demonstrate that in single field models of inflation there can be no parametric amplification of super-Hubble modes during reheating. We consider the implications of the solution for recent discussions of the back-reaction effect of long wavelength perturbations on the background geometry, give a new derivation of the equation of motion of stochastic inflation, and demonstrate that if the (generalized) slow-rolling condition is not satisfied, then inevitably long wavelength vector modes for gravitational fluctuations will be generated.

Afshordi, Niayesh; Brandenberger, Robert

2001-06-15

429

Hubble Space Telescope: A cosmic time machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is to explore the expanding and evolving universe. During the 3,000 operating hours every year for the next 15 years or more, the HST will be used to study: galaxies; pulsars; globular clusters; neighboring stars where planets may be forming; binary star systems; condensing gas clouds and their chemical composition; and the rings of Saturn and the swirling ultraviolet clouds of Venus. The major technical achievements - its nearly perfect mirrors, its precise guidance system of rate gyroscopes, reaction wheels, star trackers, and fine guidance sensors are briefly discussed. The scientific instruments on board HST are briefly described. The integration of the equipment and instruments is outlined. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) has approved time for 162 observations from among 556 proposals. The mission operation and data flow are explained.

Westphal, J. A.; Harms, R. J.; Brandt, J. C.; Bless, R. C.; Macchetto, F. D.; Jefferys, W. H.

1991-01-01

430

Bianchi I meets the Hubble diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We improve existing fits of the Bianchi I metric to the Hubble diagram of supernovae and find an intriguing yet non-significant signal for anisotropy that should be verified or falsified in the near future by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Since the literature contains two different formulas for the apparent luminosity as a function of time of flight in Bianchi I metrics, we present an independent derivation confirming the result by Saunders. The present fit differs from earlier ones by Koivisto & Mota and by Campanelli et al. in that we use Saunders' formula, a larger sample of supernovae, Union 2 and Joint Light curve Analysis, and we use the general Bianchi I metric with three distinct eigenvalues.

Schücker, Thomas; Tilquin, André; Valent, Galliano

2014-11-01

431

From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

2012-01-01

432

Hubble Provides Clear Images of Saturn's Aurora  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the first image of Saturn's ultraviolet aurora taken by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in October 1998, when Saturn was a distance of 810 million miles (1.3 billion kilometers) from Earth. The new instrument, used as a camera, provides more than 10 times the sensitivity of the previous HST instruments in the ultraviolet. STIS images reveal exquisite detail never before seen in the spectacular auroral curtains of light that encircle Saturn's north and south poles which rise more than a thousand miles above the cloud tops. Saturn's auroral displays are caused by an energetic wind from the Sun that sweeps over the planet, much like the Earth's aurora that is occasionally seen in the nighttime sky. Unlike the Earth, Saturn's aurora is only seen in ultraviolet light that is invisible from the Earth's surface, hence can only be observed from space.

1998-01-01

433

Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this sturning image provided by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Omega Nebula (M17) resembles the fury of a raging sea, showing a bubbly ocean of glowing hydrogen gas and small amounts of other elements such as oxygen and sulfur. The nebula, also known as the Swan Nebula, is a hotbed of newly born stars residing 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The wavelike patterns of gas have been sculpted and illuminated by a torrent of ultraviolet radiation from the young massive stars, which lie outside the picture to the upper left. The ultraviolet radiation is carving and heating the surfaces of cold hydrogen gas clouds. The warmed surfaces glow orange and red in this photograph. The green represents an even hotter gas that masks background structures. Various gases represented with color are: sulfur, represented in red; hydrogen, green; and oxygen blue.

1999-01-01

434

Comparing Stellar Populations Across the Hubble Sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work (Jansen et al., 2000, Taylor et al., 2005) has revealed trends in the optical wavelength radial profiles of galaxies across the Hubble Sequence. Radial profiles offer insight into stellar populations, metallicity, and dust concentrations, aspects which are deeply tied to the individual evolution of a galaxy. The Nearby Field Galaxy Survey (NFGS) provides a sampling of nearby galaxies that spans the range of morphological types, luminosities, and masses. Currently available NFGS data includes optical radial surface profiles and spectra of 196 nearby galaxies. We aim to look for trends in the infrared portion of the spectrum for these galaxies, but find that existing 2MASS data is not sufficiently deep. Herein, we expand the available data for the NGFS galaxy IC1639 deeper into the infrared using new data taken with the Infrared Sideport Imager (ISPI) on the 4-m Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. Images taken in J, H, and Ks were reduced using standard IRAF and IDL procedures. Photometric calibrations were completed by using the highest quality (AAA) 2MASS stars in the field. Aperture photometry was then performed on the galaxy and radial profiles of surface brightness, J-H color, and H-Ks color were produced. For IC1639, the new ISPI data reveals flat color gradients and surface brightness gradients that decrease with radius. These trends reveal an archetypal elliptical galaxy, with a relatively homogeneous stellar population, stellar density decreasing with radius, and little-to-no obscuration by dust. We have obtained ISPI images for an additional 8 galaxies, and further reduction and analysis of these data will allow for investigation of radial trends in the infrared for galaxies across the Hubble Sequence.

Loeffler, Shane; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Parkash, Vaishali

2015-01-01

435

Cosmographic Hubble fits to the supernova data  

E-print Network

The Hubble relation between distance and redshift is a purely cosmographic relation that depends only on the symmetries of a FLRW spacetime, but does not intrinsically make any dynamical assumptions. This suggests that it should be possible to estimate the parameters defining the Hubble relation without making any dynamical assumptions. To test this idea, we perform a number of inter-related cosmographic fits to the legacy05 and gold06 supernova datasets. Based on this supernova data, the "preponderance of evidence" certainly suggests an accelerating universe. However we would argue that (unless one uses additional dynamical and observational information) this conclusion is not currently supported "beyond reasonable doubt". As part of the analysis we develop two particularly transparent graphical representations of the redshift-distance relation -- representations in which acceleration versus deceleration reduces to the question of whether the relevant graph slopes up or down. Turning to the details of the cosmographic fits, three issues in particular concern us: First, the fitted value for the deceleration parameter changes significantly depending on whether one performs a chi^2 fit to the luminosity distance, proper motion distance or other suitable distance surrogate. Second, the fitted value for the deceleration parameter changes significantly depending on whether one uses the traditional redshift variable z, or what we shall argue is on theoretical grounds an improved parameterization y=z/(1+z). Third, the published estimates for systematic uncertainties are sufficiently large that they certainly impact on, and to a large extent undermine, the usual purely statistical tests of significance. We conclude that the supernova data should be treated with some caution.

Celine Cattoen; Matt Visser

2008-09-03

436

Hubble Reopens Eye on the Universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In its first glimpse of the heavens following the successful December 1999 servicing mission, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured a majestic view of a planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a dying, Sun-like star. This stellar relic, first spied by William Herschel in 1787, is nicknamed the 'Eskimo' Nebula (NGC 2392) because, when viewed through ground-based telescopes, it resembles a face surrounded by a fur parka. In this Hubble telescope image, the 'parka' is really a disk of material embellished with a ring of comet-shaped objects, with their tails streaming away from the central, dying star. The Eskimo's 'face' also contains some fascinating details. Although this bright central region resembles a ball of twine, it is, in reality, a bubble of material being blown into space by the central star's intense 'wind' of high-speed material. In this photo, one bubble lies in front of the other, obscuring part of the second lobe. Scientists believe that a ring of dense material around the star's equator, ejected during its red giant phase, created the nebula's shape. The bubbles are not smooth like balloons but have filaments of denser matter. Each bubble is about 1 light-year long and about half a light-year wide. Scientists are still puzzled about the origin of the comet-shaped features in the 'parka.' One possible explanation is that these objects formed from a collision of slow-and fast-moving gases. The Eskimo Nebula is about 5,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Gemini. The picture was taken Jan. 10 and 11, 2000, with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The nebula's glowing gases produce the colors in this image: nitrogen (red), hydrogen (green), oxygen (blue), and helium (violet).

2000-01-01

437

Hubble Space Telescope observations of globular cluster systems along the Hubble sequence of spiral galaxies  

E-print Network

We have studied the globular cluster (GC) systems of 7 giant, edge-on spiral galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope imaging in V and I. The galaxy sample covers the Hubble types Sa to Sc, allowing us to study the variation of the properties of GC systems along the Hubble sequence. The photometry reaches ~1.5 mag beyond the turn-over magnitude of the GC luminosity function for each galaxy. Specific frequencies (S_N values) of GCs were evaluated by comparing the numbers of GCs found in our WFPC2 pointings with those in the Milky Way which would be detected in the same metric area. The S_N values of spirals with B/T Hubble type later than about Sb) are consistent with a value of S_N = 0.55 +- 0.25. We suggest that this population of GCs represents a `universal', old halo population that is present around each galaxy. Most galaxies in our sample have S_N values that are consistent with a scenario in which GC systems are made up of (i) the aforementioned halo population plus (ii) a population that is associated with bulges, which grows linearly with the mass of the bulge. Such scenarios include the `merger scenario' for the formation of elliptical galaxies as well as the `multi-phase collapse' scenario, but it seems inconsistent with the `secular evolution' scenario of Pfenniger & Norman (1990), in which bulges are formed from disc stars by means of the redistribution of angular momentum through bar instabilities and/or minor perturbations. However, there is one bulge-dominated spiral galaxy in our sample (NGC 7814) with a low S_N value that is consistent with those of the latest-type spirals. Thus, our results suggest that the formation histories of galaxy bulges of early-type spirals can be significantly different from one galaxy to another. (abridged)

Paul Goudfrooij; Jay Strader; Laura Brenneman; Markus Kissler-Patig; Dante Minniti; Edwin Huizinga

2003-04-10

438

RR Lyrae stars and Type Ia supernovae: Discovery and calibration of astronomical standard candles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After briefly reviewing the history of astronomical photometry, we calibrate secondary standard stars for a new photometric system (for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) and show how this system can be used to discover a variety of objects of interest on the basis of their color indices. Using this new photometric system we identified candidate RR Lyrae stars and obtained light curves of these standard candles. We then obtained optical and near infrared photometry of Type Ia supernovae and devised a new method of determining the extinction towards these objects. This relies on the uniformity of V-H and V-K color evolution of Type Ia supernovae with "normal" decline rates. Our results have the potential of providing more accurate distances to galaxies, which in turn leads to a more accurate determination of key cosmological parameters such as the Hubble constant, the cosmological constant, and the age of the universe.

Krisciunas, Kevin Lee

439

Generating Mosaics of Astronomical Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Montage" is the name of a service of the National Virtual Observatory (NVO), and of software being developed to implement the service via the World Wide Web. Montage generates science-grade custom mosaics of astronomical images on demand from input files that comply with the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) standard and contain image data registered on projections that comply with the World Coordinate System (WCS) standards. "Science-grade" in this context signifies that terrestrial and instrumental features are removed from images in a way that can be described quantitatively. "Custom" refers to user-specified parameters of projection, coordinates, size, rotation, and spatial sampling. The greatest value of Montage is expected to lie in its ability to analyze images at multiple wavelengths, delivering them on a common projection, coordinate system, and spatial sampling, and thereby enabling further analysis as though they were part of a single, multi-wavelength image. Montage will be deployed as a computation-intensive service through existing astronomy portals and other Web sites. It will be integrated into the emerging NVO architecture and will be executed on the TeraGrid. The Montage software will also be portable and publicly available.

Bergou, Attila; Berriman, Bruce; Good, John; Jacob, Joseph; Katz, Daniel; Laity, Anastasia; Prince, Thomas; Williams, Roy

2005-01-01

440

A Future Astronomical Software Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyzing data sets in astronomy has become more and more complex and has driven the development of specific tools, functions and tasks. In order to integrate these tools in a global environment and thereby preserving them, the OPTICON Network 9.2 in coordination with US-VAO has outlined requirements, defined an architectural concept and developed a prototype of a Future Astronomical Software Environment (FASE). Important features are support for user scripting (e.g. Python), access to legacy applications (e.g. IRAF, MIDAS), integration with the Virtual Observatory (VO) for access to remote data and computation, and scalability supporting desktops to distributed cluster systems. A first prototype has been implemented and demonstrates the feasibility by offering access to numerous applications (e.g. ds9, ESO CPL pipelines, MIDAS, topcat) from a Python or Unix shell using VO-SAMP as a software bus. A simple packaging system is also provided to allow easy definition and sharing of applications at a Web portal.

Grosböl, P.; Tody, D.; Paioro, L.; Granet, Y.; Garilli, B.; Surace, C.; Opticon Fase Network

2012-09-01