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Sample records for astrophytum myriostigma lemaire

  1. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM.

    PubMed

    Frati-Munari, A C; Gordillo, B E; Altamirano, P; Ariza, C R

    1988-01-01

    To assess the hypoglycemic effect of the nopal Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire (O. streptacantha Lem.), three groups of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied. Group one (16 patients) ingested 500 g of broiled nopal stems. Group 2 (10 patients) received only 400 ml of water as a control test. Three tests were performed on group 3 (6 patients): one with nopal, a second with water, and a third with ingestion of 500 g broiled squash. Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0, 60, 120, and 180 min. After the intake of O. streptacantha Lem., serum glucose and serum insulin levels decreased significantly in groups 1 and 3, whereas no similar changes were noticed in group 2. The mean reduction of glucose reached 17.6 +/- 2.2% of basal values at 180 min in group 1 and 16.2 +/- 1.8% in group 3; the reduction of serum insulin at 180 min reached 50.2 +/- 8.0% in group 1 and 40.3 +/- 12.4% in group 3. This study shows that the stems of O. streptacantha Lem. cause a hypoglycemic effect in patients with NIDDM. The mechanism of this effect is unknown, but an increased insulin sensitivity is suggested. PMID:3276479

  2. Clinical evaluation of the LeMaire anterior cruciate [correction of concrete] ligament lateral substitution procedure. A quality audit of the Leicester modification.

    PubMed

    Thomas, O L; Oni, O O; Howard, L

    1998-07-01

    The results of a modified LeMaire anterior cruciate [corrected] ligament (ACL) lateral substitution procedure have been assessed using a variety of methods. Of the patients, 87.5 per cent obtained a satisfactory result 3-4 years after the operation. The post-operative morbidity was relatively minor. PMID:9813695

  3. Hydrolysis of Agave fourcroydes Lemaire (henequen) leaf juice and fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbon sources for biofuel production are wide-ranging and their availability depends on the climate and soil conditions of the land where the production chain is located. Henequen (Agave fourcroydes Lem.) is cultivated in Yucatán, Mexico to produce natural fibers from the leaves, and a juice containing fructans is produced during this process. Fructans can be hydrolyzed to fructose and glucose and metabolized into ethanol by appropriate yeasts. In Mexico, different Agave species provide the carbon source for (distilled and non-distilled) alcoholic beverage production using the stem of the plant, whilst the leaves are discarded. In this work, we investigated the effect of thermal acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of the juice on the amount of reducing sugars released. Growth curves were generated with the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus and fermentations were then carried out with Kluyveromyces marxianus to determine alcohol yields. Results With thermal acid hydrolysis, the greatest increase in reducing sugars (82.6%) was obtained using 5% H2SO4 at 100°C with a 30 min reaction time. Statistically similar results can be obtained using the same acid concentration at a lower temperature and with a shorter reaction time (60°C, 15 min), or by using 1% H2SO4 at 100°C with a 30 min reaction time. In the case of enzymatic hydrolysis, the use of 5.75, 11.47 and 22.82 U of enzyme did not produce significant differences in the increase in reducing sugars. Although both hydrolysis processes obtained similar results, the difference was observed after fermentation. Ethanol yields were 50.3 ± 4 and 80.04 ± 5.29% of the theoretical yield respectively. Conclusions Final reducing sugars concentrations obtained with both thermal acid and enzymatic hydrolysis were similar. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a good ethanol producer, did not grow in the hydrolysates. Only Kluyveromyces marxianus was able to grow in them, giving a higher ethanol yield with the enzymatic hydrolysate. The leaves account for a non-negligible weight of the total agave plant biomass, so this work complements the knowledge already developed on agave fermentations by making it possible to produce ethanol from almost the entire plant (stem and leaves). PMID:24529165

  4. [Hypoglycemic action of different doses of nopal (Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Frati-Munari, A C; Del Valle-Martínez, L M; Ariza-Andraca, C R; Islas-Andrade, S; Chávez-Negrete, A

    1989-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the doses of O. streptacantha Lem. and its acute hypoglycemic action in diabetics, eight patients with type II diabetes mellitus were studied. Four test were performed to each patient with the intake of: (a) 400 ml of water, (b) 100 g (c) 300 g and (d) 500 g of broiled stems of O. streptacantha Lem. Serum glucose was measured at 0, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Maximal decrease of serum glucose was noticed at 180 minutes, with a mean of 2.3, 10, 30.1 and 46.7 mg/dl less than basal value with 0, 100, 300 and 500 g respectively (P = NS, less than 0.05, less than 0.001 and less than 0.001 respectively). A significant direct correlation (r = 0.690, P less than 0.001) was noticed between the doses and the hypoglycemic effect. PMID:2557805

  5. Pre-release efficacy assessment of the leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a potential biological control agent for Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata (Asteraceae), in western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike & Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) is a potential biological control agent for the invasive vine Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lemaire (Asteraceae), in western North America, where two morphological varieties (stipulate and exstipulate) of Cape-i...

  6. Efficiency and Adaptiveness of Multiple School-Taught Strategies in the Domain of Simple Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the fluency with which first-graders with strong, moderate, or weak mathematical abilities apply the decomposition-to-10 and tie strategy on almost-tie sums with bridge over 10. It also assessed children's memorized knowledge of additions up to 20. Children's strategies were analysed in terms of Lemaire and Siegler's model…

  7. Biology and laboratory host range of the moth, Diota rostra (Wallengren) (Noctuidae: Arctiinae), a natural enemy of Cape ivy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delairea odorata Lemaire (Cape-ivy) has become naturalised and invasive in many countries including the United States of America where biological control is being considered as a low-cost, long-term solution to managing this invasive vine. Extensive surveys throughout the natural range of the plant...

  8. Simple Addition Strategies in a First-Grade Class With Multiple Strategy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the fluency with which first graders of different mathematical achievement levels applied multiple, school-taught strategies for finding arithmetic sums over 10. We characterized children's strategies with the 4 parameters of Lemaire and Siegler's (1995) model of strategy change (strategy repertoire, distribution,…

  9. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia cactus.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Camacho, R; Roman-Ramos, R

    1979-01-01

    Nopal (Opuntia sp.) has been traditionally used by the Mexican population for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this work is to describe effects produced by directly liquified nopal and extracts from this plant in healthy and pancreatectomized rabbits. Preliminary results allow us to conclude that Opuntia streptacantha, Lemaire, has hypoglycemic properties when orally administered, in animals with experimentally induced diabetes as well as in healthy ones with physiologic hyperglycemia. PMID:539865

  10. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  11. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  12. Strategy sequential difficulty effects vary with working-memory and response-stimulus-intervals: a study in arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Uittenhove, Kim; Lemaire, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Strategy sequential difficulty effects are the findings that when participants execute strategies, performance is worse after a difficult strategy than after an easy strategy (Uittenhove & Lemaire, 2012). Strategy sequential difficulty effects are hypothesized to result from decreased working-memory resources following difficult strategy execution. In the present study we found a correlation between individuals' working memory and strategy sequential difficulty effects in arithmetic, supporting a working-memory account of these effects. Furthermore, we varied response-stimulus intervals, and we found decreased strategy sequential difficulty effects with increasing response-stimulus intervals. Implications of these findings for further understanding of strategic variations in human cognition are discussed. PMID:23558154

  13. "Nonempty" Gap Between Radiation Belts: The First Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2013-12-01

    The first space experiments carried out in 1958 by the scientific groups of James Van Allen (United States) on board the first Explorer satellites and Sergey Vernov (Soviet Union) on board the satellite Sputnik 3 led to the discovery of the Earth's radiation belts—the particles (mainly protons and electrons) captured by the magnetic field of the Earth. Two scientific groups independently came to the conclusion that the electrons in the geomagnetic trapping region fill two areas, inner and outer radiation belts, unlike the protons, which fill the whole trapping region [see, e.g., Lemaire, 2000].

  14. Plasmaspheric Electron Density Distributions Sampled by Radio Plasma Imager on the IMAGE Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, S. F.; Garcia, L. N.; Green, J. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Carpenter, D. L.; Reinisch, B. W.; Galkin, I. A.; Khmyrov, G.; Sandel, B. R.

    2001-12-01

    Distribution of plasmaspheric density changes in response to plasma electrodynamical processes in both the ionosphere and magnetosphere. During a geomagnetic storm, for example, the plasmasphere can significantly diminish in size during the main phase of the storm and relax to regain its more normal size during recovery phase. During unusually quiet times, the plasmasphere can become quite large. The processes by which the plasmasphere is eroded and refilled are still areas of active research [Carpenter and Lemaire, 1997]. Previous in situ observations (e.g., CRRES) have shown that the plasmasphere has a lot of structures [Carpenter et al., 2000], quite possibly results of plasma dynamical processes. Recent global EUV images obtained by IMAGE also reveal large-scale plasma structures as well as large-scale variations of the plasmasphere resulting from magnetospheric activities. In this paper, we investigate the large-scale plasmaspheric density variations as a function of solar wind and geomagnetic activities by analyzing a large collection of passive RPI observations of quasi-thermal noise through the plasmasphere obtained over the first year of the IMAGE mission. We will compare our results with existing models of plasmaspheric density distributions. Carpenter, D. L., and J. Lemaire, Erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere in the plasmapause region, Space Sci. Rev., 80, 153, 1997. Carpenter, D. L., R. R. Anderson, W. Calvert, and M. B. Moldwin, CRRES observations of density cavities inside the plasmasphere, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 23323, 2000.

  15. Diterbium hepta­nickel: a crystal structure redetermination

    PubMed Central

    Levytskyy, Volodymyr; Babizhetskyy, Volodymyr; Kotur, Bohdan; Smetana, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, Tb2Ni7, was redetermined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. In comparison with previous studies based on powder X-ray diffraction data [Lemaire et al. (1967). C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B, 265, 1280–1282; Lemaire & Paccard (1969). Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr. 92, 9–16; Buschow & van der Goot (1970). J. Less-Common Met. 22, 419–428], the present redetermination affords refined coordinates and anisotropic displacement parameters for all atoms. A partial occupation for one Tb atom results in the non-stoichiometric composition Tb1.962 (4)Ni7. The title compound adopts the Ce2Ni7 structure type and can also be derived from the CaCu5 structure type as an inter­growth structure. The asymmetric unit contains two Tb sites (both site symmetries 3m.) and five Ni sites (.m., mm2, 3m., 3m., -3m.). The two different coordination polyhedra of Tb are a Frank–Kasper polyhedron formed by four Tb and 12 Ni atoms and a pseudo Frank–Kasper polyhedron formed by two Tb and 18 Ni atoms. The four different coordination polyhedra of Ni are Frank–Kasper icosa­hedra formed by five Tb and seven Ni atoms, four Tb and eight Ni atoms, three Tb and nine Ni atoms, and six Tb and six Ni atoms, respectively. PMID:25249871

  16. Potential assessed in Argentina's association contract areas

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, J.C. , Buenos Aires )

    1994-06-20

    The majority of the Austral basin fields discovered are mainly associated with structural and combination traps. Except for El Condor, La Sara, and San Sebastian fields, most of the oil reserves of limited size. This is due to several factors: small areal extent (5--50 sq km), variability of the Springhill thickness which frequently wedges out over the top of structures, facies changes and related complex reservoir distributions, and lack of hydrocarbons. Until 1985, all the commercial discoveries have been made in the area of the platform mostly in the Springhill reservoir and to a lesser extent on top of the volcanic Bahia Laura group (equivalent Lemaire or Tobifera formations). However, the Tertiary discoveries in Campo Boleadoras and Puesto Peter fields opened a zone, named Intermediate'' by YPF's geologists, located to the west of the known producing areas. In this zone, the lower member of the Magallanes group has yielded production. Reservoir characteristics are discussed.

  17. New Observation of the Polar Wind in the Topside Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The theoretical prediction of the "classical" polar wind dates back to the works of Banks et al., Lemaire et al., Marubashi, Nishida, and other authors in the late sixties and early seventies. Since then, direct in-situ observations of the polar wind have been made on a number of satellites above the topside ionosphere, notably ISIS-2, Akebono, and DE-1, at altitudes of 1400-50,000 km. In this paper, we present the first in-situ observation of the polar wind inside the topside ionosphere on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) down to 600 km, and we compare our low-altitude observation with earlier observations at higher altitudes as well as theoretical predictions.

  18. Restoration of the proton density distribution in the Earth's plasmasphere from measurements along the INTERBALL-1 satellite orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verigin, M. I.; Kotova, G. A.; Bezrukikh, V. V.; Aken'tieva, O. S.

    2012-11-01

    Based on experimental data obtained in 1995-2000 on board the INTERBALL-1 spacecraft using the ALPHA-3 instrument, a semi-empirical two-dimensional model of the Earth plasmasphere is developed, which allows for the plasma distribution in the entire meridional plane to be restored from the temperature and proton density measurements along the satellite orbit. The model has also been tested using the data of the IMAGE spacecraft. The model uses theoretical expressions (Lemaire and Schere, 1974) that describe the plasma distribution in the plasmasphere for the cases of thermal equilibrium and collisionless initial partial filling of plasmaspheric shells; therefore, the parameters of the constructed model have a clear physical meaning and make it possible, in particular, to estimate the degree of plasmasphere filling.

  19. Structure of current sheets in magnetic holes at 1 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1978-01-01

    Current density profiles in several types of interplanetary magnetic holes have been calculated using high-resolution Imp 6 magnetic field data (12.5 vector measurements/s), assuming that the currents flow in planar sheets and that the magnetic field varies only in the direction normal to the sheet. The planarity was verified in four holes which were observed by two suitably spaced spacecraft. Four types of simple magnetic holes are discussed, in which B varies nearly monotonically on each side of the hole. In two of the holes, B varies in intensity but not in direction as a result of currents normal to B. In the other two holes, B changes in both magnitude and direction as a result of currents both normal and parallel to B. The observed structures are found to be qualitatively consistent with the models of Burlaga and Lemaire (1978). Examples of complex irregular magnetic holes are also presented, and they are shown to contain multiple current sheets in which currents flow parallel to one another at various angles with respect to B. There is no model of such magnetic holes at present.

  20. (International Energy Agency third experts meeting of Annex 20 on Airflow patterns within buildings, May 30--June 2, 1989, Aalborg, Denmark; June 1, Aalborg University, Denmark; June 5-6, Taastrup, Denmark): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrje, D.T.

    1989-06-09

    The third experts meeting of Annex 20, Airflow Patterns Within Buildings, took place on May 30--June 2, 1989 in Aalborg, Denmark. The operating agent, A. Moser (SW), introduced two new countries to the Annex: France and West Germany, bringing the total Annex participation to 3 countries with 29 experts present. Subtask I, Single-Room Air and Contaminant Flow, is being led by T. Lemaire (NL) and emphasizes test room flow modeling and multicountry intercomparisons for a number of specified test situations. Improved airflow models is a prime goal. Subtask II, Multizone Air and Contaminant Flow and Required Measurement Techniques, is being led by C.A. Roulet (SW). The emphasis in that task, where the US is directly involved, includes flow through large openings, simulated use of doors and windows, contaminant movement, multiroom ventilation efficiency, multizone airflow measurement methods and enhanced leakage distribution measurement methods, and data bases and data sets. Laboratory visits emphasized test room facilities (Aalborg University) and multitracer airflow measurements (Technologist Institute). The Annex is making excellent progress toward its stated goals.

  1. Identification of seven Zingiberaceous species based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics of seeds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The fruits and seeds of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt. & Smith, Amomum kravanh Pierre ex Gagnep., Amomum subulatum Roxb., Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire, and Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton from Alpinia, Amomum, and Elettaria genera in the Zingiberaceae family are difficult to distinguish between each other. This study aims to identify the seeds of these seven species from Zingiberaceae family based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics. Methods We compared the morphological structures of seed coats by observing the microscopic characteristics of seeds in transverse sections. We described the macroscopic characteristics of seeds in detail. Results The seeds of these three genera could not be identified to the species level based on their macroscopic features. However, based on the anatomical features of the seed coat observed in transverse sections, a dichotomous key for these seven species was feasible. Conclusion Seven species in the Zingiberaceae family could be identified based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics of transverse section of seed. PMID:24607026

  2. Connecting World Heritage Nominations and Monitoring with the Support of the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vileikis, O.; Dumont, B.; Serruys, E.; Van Balen, K.; Tigny, V.; De Maeyer, P.

    2013-07-01

    Serial transnational World Heritage nominations are challenging the way cultural heritage has been managed and evaluated in the past. Serial transnational World Heritage nominations are unique in that they consist of multiple sites listed as one property, distributed in different countries, involving a large diversity of stakeholders in the process. As a result, there is a need for precise baseline information for monitoring, reporting and decision making. This type of nomination requires different methodologies and tools to improve the monitoring cycle from the beginning of the nomination towards the periodic reporting. The case study of the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS) illustrates the use of a Geographical Content Management System (Geo-CMS) supporting the serial transnational World Heritage nomination and the monitoring of the Silk Roads in the five Central Asian countries. The Silk Roads CHRIS is an initiative supported by UNESCO World Heritage Centre (WHC) and the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO), and developed by a consortium headed by the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC) at the KULeuven. The Silk Roads CHRIS has been successfully assisting in the preparation of the nomination dossiers of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and will be used as a tool for monitoring tool in the Central Asian countries.

  3. Neural correlates of arithmetic calculation strategies.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Lovett, Marsha C; Anderson, John R

    2009-09-01

    Recent research into math cognition has identified areas of the brain that are involved in number processing (Dehaene, Piazza, Pinel, & Cohen, 2003) and complex problem solving (Anderson, 2007). Much of this research assumes that participants use a single strategy; yet, behavioral research finds that people use a variety of strategies (LeFevre et al., 1996; Siegler, 1987; Siegler & Lemaire, 1997). In the present study, we examined cortical activation as a function of two different calculation strategies for mentally solving multidigit multiplication problems. The school strategy, equivalent to long multiplication, involves working from right to left. The expert strategy, used by "lightning" mental calculators (Staszewski, 1988), proceeds from left to right. The two strategies require essentially the same calculations, but have different working memory demands (the school strategy incurs greater demands). The school strategy produced significantly greater early activity in areas involved in attentional aspects of number processing (posterior superior parietal lobule, PSPL) and mental representation (posterior parietal cortex, PPC), but not in a numerical magnitude area (horizontal intraparietal sulcus, HIPS) or a semantic memory retrieval area (lateral inferior prefrontal cortex, LIPFC). An ACT-R model of the task successfully predicted BOLD responses in PPC and LIPFC, as well as in PSPL and HIPS. PMID:19679763

  4. Preface to the CJEP special section on numerical cognition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jamie I D

    2016-03-01

    This editorial explains the special section of the CJEP on numerical cognition, which is an outcome of the 33rd meeting of the Banff Annual Seminar in Cognitive Science (BASICS) held in May, 2014. The importance of numeracy to modern societies can hardly be overemphasised. We are immersed in numbers and basic calculations every day and rely heavily on technologies that would be impossible without sophisticated mathematical knowledge. In the world's increasingly computer-based technological economy, numeracy is at least as important to socioeconomic opportunities as literacy, although the latter has historically received far more research attention. Over the last four decades, however, there has been a major escalation of research in the behavioural and brain sciences directed to understanding numeracy skills. This research intersects numerous subfields including cognitive and neurological development, educational psychology, computational modelling, animal cognition, neuropsychology, as well as cognitive science and neuroscience, including brain imaging and brain stimulation research. This conference provided an opportunity for Jo-Anne LeFevre (see record 2016-09785-002), Daniel Ansari (see record 2016-09785-003), Patrick Lemaire (see record 2015-41950-001), Wim Fias and Jean-Philippe van Dijck (see record 2016-09785-004), and Roi Cohen Kadosh (see record 2016-09785-005) to talk about their research in big-picture fashion. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913780

  5. Conserved regions of the DMD 3’ UTR regulate translation and mRNA abundance in cultured myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, C. Aaron; Howard, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle-wasting disease, is caused by mutations in the DMD gene, which encodes for the protein dystrophin. Its regulation is of therapeutic interest as even small changes in expression of functional dystrophin can significantly impact the severity of DMD. While tissue-specific distribution and transcriptional regulation of several DMD mRNA isoforms has been well characterized, the post-transcriptional regulation of dystrophin synthesis is not well understood. Here, we utilize qRTPCR and a quantitative dual-luciferase reporter assay to examine the effects of isoform specific DMD 5’ UTRs and the highly conserved DMD 3’ UTR on mRNA abundance and translational control of gene expression in C2C12 cells. The 5’ UTRs were shown to initiate translation with low efficiency in both myoblasts and myotubes. Whereas, two large highly conserved elements in the 3’ UTR, which overlap the previously described Lemaire A and D regions, increase mRNA levels and enhance translation upon differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. The results presented here implicate an important role for DMD UTRs in dystrophin expression and delineate the cis-acting elements required for the myotube-specific regulation of steady-state mRNA levels and translational enhancer activity found in the DMD 3’ UTR. PMID:24928536

  6. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  7. Coleopterans Associated with Plants that form Phytotelmata in Subtropical and Temperate Argentina, South America

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Raúl E.; Fernández, Liliana A.

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  8. Adiabatic Betatron deceleration of ionospheric charged particles: a new explanation for (i) the rapid outflow of ionospheric O ions, and for (ii) the increase of plasma mass density observed in magnetospheric flux tubes during main phases of geomagnetic s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Joseph; Pierrard, Viviane; Darrouzet, Fabien

    2013-04-01

    Using European arrays of magnetometers and the cross-phase analysis to determine magnetic field line resonance frequencies, it has been found by Kale et al. (2009) that the plasma mass density within plasmaspheric flux tubes increased rapidly after the SSC of the Hallowe'en 2003 geomagnetic storms. These observations tend to confirm other independent experimental results, suggesting that heavy ion up-flow from the ionosphere is responsible for the observed plasma density increases during main phases of geomagnetic storms. The aim of our contribution is to point out that, during main phases, reversible Betatron effect induced by the increase of the southward Dst-magnetic field component (|Δ Bz|), diminishes slightly the perpendicular kinetic energy (W?) of charged particles spiraling along field lines. Furthermore, due to the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant (μ = Wm/ Bm) the mirror points of all ionospheric ions and electrons are lifted up to higher altitudes i.e. where the mirror point magnetic field (Bm) is slightly smaller. Note that the change of the mirror point altitude is given by: Δ hm = -1/3 (RE + hm) Δ Bm / Bm. It is independent of the ion species and it does not depend of their kinetic energy. The change of kinetic energy is determined by: Δ Wm = Wm Δ Bm / Bm. Both of these equations have been verified numerically by Lemaire et al. (2005; doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00099-1) using trajectory calculations in a simple time-dependant B-field model: i.e. the Earth's magnetic dipole, plus an increasing southward B-field component: i.e. the Dst magnetic field whose intensity becomes more and more negative during the main phase of magnetic storms. They showed that a variation of Bz (or Dst) by more than - 50 nT significantly increases the mirror point altitudes by more than 100 km which is about equal to scale height of the plasma density in the topside ionosphere where particles are almost collisionless (see Fig. 2 in Lemaire et al., 2005

  9. A community-based study of factors associated with continuing transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alexis; Won, Kimberly Y; McClintock, Shannon K; Donovan, Catherine V; Laney, Sandra J; Williams, Steven A; Pilotte, Nils; Streit, Thomas G; Beau de Rochars, Madsen V E; Lammie, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    Seven rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) have been administered in Leogane, Haiti, an area hyperendemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF). Sentinel site surveys showed that the prevalence of microfilaremia was reduced to <1% from levels as high as 15.5%, suggesting that transmission had been reduced. A separate 30-cluster survey of 2- to 4-year-old children was conducted to determine if MDA interrupted transmission. Antigen and antifilarial antibody prevalence were 14.3% and 19.7%, respectively. Follow-up surveys were done in 6 villages, including those selected for the cluster survey, to assess risk factors related to continued LF transmission and to pinpoint hotspots of transmission. One hundred houses were mapped in each village using GPS-enabled PDAs, and then 30 houses and 10 alternates were chosen for testing. All individuals in selected houses were asked to participate in a short survey about participation in MDA, history of residence in Leogane and general knowledge of LF. Survey teams returned to the houses at night to collect blood for antigen testing, microfilaremia and Bm14 antibody testing and collected mosquitoes from these communities in parallel. Antigen prevalence was highly variable among the 6 villages, with the highest being 38.2% (Dampus) and the lowest being 2.9% (Corail Lemaire); overall antigen prevalence was 18.5%. Initial cluster surveys of 2- to 4-year-old children were not related to community antigen prevalence. Nearest neighbor analysis found evidence of clustering of infection suggesting that LF infection was focal in distribution. Antigen prevalence among individuals who were systematically noncompliant with the MDAs, i.e. they had never participated, was significantly higher than among compliant individuals (p<0.05). A logistic regression model found that of the factors examined for association with infection, only noncompliance was significantly associated with infection. Thus, continuing transmission of LF seems to be linked to

  10. Biology and Host Range of Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a Candidate Agent for Biological Control of Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata) in California and Oregon.

    PubMed

    Mehelis, Christopher N; Balciunas, Joe K; Reddy, Angelica M; Van Der Westhuizen, Liame; Neser, Stefan; Moran, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata Lemaire) is an ornamental vine native to South Africa that has escaped into natural areas in coastal California and Oregon, displacing native vegetation. Surveys in South Africa led to the discovery of the leaf- and stem-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike and Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae: Acrolepiinae) as one of several common and damaging native herbivores on Cape-ivy. In greenhouse studies, adult female life span averaged 16 d (46 d maximum). Most (72%) mated females began laying eggs within 72 h of emergence. Females had an average lifetime fecundity of 52 eggs, with >70% laid on leaf laminae, and 89% of eggs were laid by the 15th day postemergence. Lifetime fertility (adult production) averaged three to four offspring per female. At 25 °C, egg hatch required 10 d, pupal formation 26 d, and adult emergence 41 d, while under variable greenhouse and laboratory conditions development to adult required 54-60 d. In four-way choice tests, involving 100 plant species other than Cape-ivy, including 11 genera and 37 species in the Asteraceae, subtribe Senecioninae from both native and invaded ranges, D. delaireae inflicted damage and produced pupae only on Cape-ivy. Leaf mining damage occurred on 30% of leaves of native Senecio hydrophilus in no-choice tests and on 2% of leaves in dual-choice tests, but no pupation occurred. If approved for field release in the continental United States, the moth D. delaireae is expected to produce multiple generations per year on Cape-ivy, and to pose little risk of damage to native plants. PMID:26313180

  11. Depth Seismic-Migration Modeling Offshore `Tierra Del Fuego', Argentina (54° 25' S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comínguez, A. H.; Flores, J.; Tassone, A.

    2007-05-01

    Within the framework of the TESAC Project (Tectonic Evolution of the South America-Scotia plate boundary during the Cenozoic), about 900 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles were acquired off the Atlantic coast of the Tierra del Fuego Island. The profiles cut across the South America-Scotia plate boundary, a transform margin which traverses in an E-W direction the Island. Data processing and interpretation of a seismic reflection profile is presented in this contribution. A robust post-stack technique involved depth-migration of the seismic section, using an interval-velocity model of the upper Crust adjusted by iterative processing. An interpreted seismic- velocity section (which trends roughly NW-SE), shows a complex superposition of different tectonic structures, with presence of extensional, compressional and transtensional features in the area located to the north of Isla de los Estados. The profile, which crosses the offshore part of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt, images the deep structural framework of part of this tectonic province. The identification of acoustic fabrics and seismic discontinuities allowed us to recognize four main units. Overlaying the acoustic basement (Seismic unit 1), there is another unit (Seismic unit 2) which exhibits some reflector packages of high amplitude; this unit must be related to the volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences of Tobífera/Lemaire Fms. The Seismic Unit 3 displays internal reflector configurations of moderate amplitude and continuity and low-to-moderate frequency; the Yaghán/Beauvoir Fms must be the onshore equivalent of this unit. An uppermost seismic layer (Unit 4) may be correlated with the Tertiary sediments of the Magallanes foreland basin which were involved in the fold and thrust belt. A major structure identified in the studied seismic profile is a SE structural high (which involves the units 1, 2 and 3) and a NW down-faulted area. The latter display folds of kilometric size (3-4 km

  12. Ecology of larval mosquitoes, with special reference to Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culcidae) in market-garden wells in urban Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Robert, V; Awono-Ambene, H P; Thioulouse, J

    1998-11-01

    The urban area of Dakar, Senegal, contains > 5,000 market-garden wells that provide permanent sites for mosquito larvae, in particular Anopheles arabiensis Patton, the major vector of malaria. A study of the bioecology of mosquito larvae was conducted over 1 yr with a monthly visit to 48 of these wells. Overall, 9,589 larvae were collected of which 80.1% were Culicinae and 11.9% Anophelinae. Larvae from stages III and IV (n = 853) were identified to 10 species. An. arabiensis represented 86% of the anophelines collected and An. ziemanni Grunberg 14%. The most common Culicinae species included Aedeomyia africana Neveu-Lemaire, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Mimomyia splendens Theobald. Maximum anopheline abundance was observed at the end of the dry season in June, whereas maximum Culicinae abundance was observed at the end of the rainy season in September. Most wells (67%) did not harbor any An. arabiensis larvae and in the remaining 33% the larval abundance was low, averaging 0.54 larvae in stages III-IV per tray sample. To identify factors that determine the abundance of larvae in these wells, a co-inertia (multivariate) analysis was carried out to account for physicochemical variables (depth, turbidity, temperature, pH, conductivity, Na+, Cl-, HCO3-, CO3--, and NO3- concentrations) and biological variables (abundance of mosquito species, predators [e.g., fish, Dytiscidae, Notonectidae, odonates], molluscs [Bulinus and Biomphalaria], and surface plants [water lettuce, Lemna, and filamentous algae]). The co-inertia analysis indicated that the abundance of An. arabiensis was associated with Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. decens for the physiochemical data but was not associated with other mosquito species for floro-faunistic data. The conditions associated with abundant An. arabiensis were warm temperature (28-30 degrees C), clear and not too deep water (< 0.5 m), elevated concentrations of HCO3- and CO3--, low concentrations of NO3- and NaCl, low populations of

  13. Loss of diacylglycerol kinase epsilon in mice causes endothelial distress and impairs glomerular Cox-2 and PGE2 production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jili; Chaki, Moumita; Lu, Dongmei; Ren, Chongyu; Wang, Shan-Shan; Rauhauser, Alysha; Li, Binghua; Zimmerman, Susan; Jun, Bokkyoo; Du, Yong; Vadnagara, Komal; Wang, Hanquin; Elhadi, Sarah; Quigg, Richard J; Topham, Matthew K; Mohan, Chandra; Ozaltin, Fatih; Zhou, Xin J; Marciano, Denise K; Bazan, Nicolas G; Attanasio, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a disorder characterized by microvascular occlusion that can lead to thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and glomerular damage. Complement activation is the central event in most cases of TMA. Primary forms of TMA are caused by mutations in genes encoding components of the complement or regulators of the complement cascade. Recently, we and others have described a genetic form of TMA caused by mutations in the gene diacylglycerol kinase-ε (DGKE) that encodes the lipid kinase DGKε (Lemaire M, Fremeaux-Bacchi V, Schaefer F, Choi MR, Tang WH, Le Quintrec M, Fakhouri F, Taque S, Nobili F, Martinez F, Ji WZ, Overton JD, Mane SM, Nurnberg G, Altmuller J, Thiele H, Morin D, Deschenes G, Baudouin V, Llanas B, Collard L, Majid MA, Simkova E, Nurnberg P, Rioux-Leclerc N, Moeckel GW, Gubler MC, Hwa J, Loirat C, Lifton RP. Nat Genet 45: 531-536, 2013; Ozaltin F, Li BH, Rauhauser A, An SW, Soylemezoglu O, Gonul II, Taskiran EZ, Ibsirlioglu T, Korkmaz E, Bilginer Y, Duzova A, Ozen S, Topaloglu R, Besbas N, Ashraf S, Du Y, Liang CY, Chen P, Lu DM, Vadnagara K, Arbuckle S, Lewis D, Wakeland B, Quigg RJ, Ransom RF, Wakeland EK, Topham MK, Bazan NG, Mohan C, Hildebrandt F, Bakkaloglu A, Huang CL, Attanasio M. J Am Soc Nephrol 24: 377-384, 2013). DGKε is unrelated to the complement pathway, which suggests that unidentified pathogenic mechanisms independent of complement dysregulation may result in TMA. Studying Dgke knockout mice may help to understand the pathogenesis of this disease, but no glomerular phenotype has been described in these animals so far. Here we report that Dgke null mice present subclinical microscopic anomalies of the glomerular endothelium and basal membrane that worsen with age and develop glomerular capillary occlusion when exposed to nephrotoxic serum. We found that induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and of the proangiogenic prostaglandin E2 are impaired in Dgke null kidneys and are associated with reduced expression of the

  14. Restoration of susceptibility of intracellular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactams: comparison of strains, cells, and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Olivier, Aurélie; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M; Appelbaum, Peter C; Glupczynski, Youri

    2008-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invades eukaryotic cells. When methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591 is phagocytized by human THP-1 macrophages, complete restoration of susceptibility to cloxacillin and meropenem is shown and the strain becomes indistinguishable from MSSA ATCC 25923 due to the acid pH prevailing in phagolysosomes (S. Lemaire et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:1627-1632, 2007). We examined whether this observation can be extended to (i) strains of current clinical and epidemiological interest (three hospital-acquired MRSA [HA-MRSA] strains, two community-acquired MRSA [CA-MRSA] strains, two HA-MRSA strains with the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, one HA-MRSA strain with the vancomycin-resistant phenotype, and one animal [porcine] MRSA strain), (ii) activated THP-1 cells and nonprofessional phagocytes (keratinocytes, Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells), and (iii) other beta-lactams (imipenem, oxacillin, cefuroxime, cefepime). All strains showed (i) a marked reduction in MICs in broth at pH 5.5 compared with the MIC at pH 7.4 and (ii) sigmoidal dose-response curves with cloxacillin (0.01x to 100x MIC, 24 h of incubation) after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages that were indistinguishable from each other and from the dose-response curve for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC 25923 (relative potency [50% effect], 6.09x MIC [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.50 to 8.25]; relative efficacy [change in bacterial counts over the original inoculum for an infinitely large cloxacillin concentration, or maximal effect], -0.69 log CFU [95% CI, -0.79 to -0.58]). Similar dose-response curves for cloxacillin were also observed with MSSA ATCC 25923 and MRSA ATCC 33591 after phagocytosis by activated THP-1 macrophages, keratinocytes, and Calu-3 cells. By contrast, there was a lower level of restoration of susceptibility of MRSA ATCC 33591 to cefuroxime and cefepime after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages, even when the data were normalized for

  15. Restoration of Susceptibility of Intracellular Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to β-Lactams: Comparison of Strains, Cells, and Antibiotics▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Olivier, Aurélie; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M.; Appelbaum, Peter C.; Glupczynski, Youri

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invades eukaryotic cells. When methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591 is phagocytized by human THP-1 macrophages, complete restoration of susceptibility to cloxacillin and meropenem is shown and the strain becomes indistinguishable from MSSA ATCC 25923 due to the acid pH prevailing in phagolysosomes (S. Lemaire et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:1627-1632, 2007). We examined whether this observation can be extended to (i) strains of current clinical and epidemiological interest (three hospital-acquired MRSA [HA-MRSA] strains, two community-acquired MRSA [CA-MRSA] strains, two HA-MRSA strains with the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, one HA-MRSA strain with the vancomycin-resistant phenotype, and one animal [porcine] MRSA strain), (ii) activated THP-1 cells and nonprofessional phagocytes (keratinocytes, Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells), and (iii) other β-lactams (imipenem, oxacillin, cefuroxime, cefepime). All strains showed (i) a marked reduction in MICs in broth at pH 5.5 compared with the MIC at pH 7.4 and (ii) sigmoidal dose-response curves with cloxacillin (0.01× to 100× MIC, 24 h of incubation) after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages that were indistinguishable from each other and from the dose-response curve for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC 25923 (relative potency [50% effect], 6.09× MIC [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.50 to 8.25]; relative efficacy [change in bacterial counts over the original inoculum for an infinitely large cloxacillin concentration, or maximal effect], −0.69 log CFU [95% CI, −0.79 to −0.58]). Similar dose-response curves for cloxacillin were also observed with MSSA ATCC 25923 and MRSA ATCC 33591 after phagocytosis by activated THP-1 macrophages, keratinocytes, and Calu-3 cells. By contrast, there was a lower level of restoration of susceptibility of MRSA ATCC 33591 to cefuroxime and cefepime after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages, even when the data were normalized

  16. Electron transport in the solar wind -results from numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Håkan; Marsch, Eckart; Helander, Per

    . 2003, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1294. Landi, S., and Pantellini, F. G. E. 2003, Astron. Astrophys., 400, 769. Lie-Svendsen, Ø., Leer, E., and Hansteen, V. H. 2001, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 8217. Pierrard, V., Maksimovic, M., and Lemaire, J. 2001, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 29305.

  17. Protecting Unesco World Heritage PROPERTIES'S Integrity: the Role of Recording and Documentation in Risk Management for PETRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana Quintero, M.; Cesaro, G.; Ishakat, F.; Vandesande, A.; Vileikis, O.; Vadafari, A.; Paolini, A.; Van Balen, K.; Fakhoury, L.

    2012-07-01

    Risk management - as it has been defined - involves the decision-making process following a risk assessment (Ball, Watt, 2003). It is the process that involves managing to minimize losses and impacts on the significant of historic structures and to reach the balance between gaining and losing opportunities. This contribution explains the "heritage information" platform developed using low-cost recording, documentation and information management tools to serve as container for assessments resulting from the application of a risk methodology at a pilot area of the Petra Archaeological Park, in particular those that permit digitally and cost effective to prepare an adequate baseline record to identify disturbances and threats. Furthermore, this paper will reflect on the issue of mapping the World Heritage property's boundaries by illustrating a methodology developed during the project and further research to overcome the lack of boundaries and buffer zone for the protection of the Petra World Heritage site, as identified in this project. This paper is based on on-going field project from a multidisciplinary team of experts from the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (University of Leuven), UNESCO Amman, Petra Development Tourism and Region Authority (PDTRA), and Jordan's Department of Antiquities (DoA), as well as, experts from Jordan. The recording and documentation approach included in this contribution is part of an on-going effort to develop a methodology for mitigating (active and preventive) risks on the Petra Archaeological Park (Jordan). The risk assessment has been performed using non-intrusive techniques, which involve simple global navigation satellite system (GNSS), photography, and structured visual inspection, as well as, a heritage information framework based on Geographic Information Systems. The approach takes into consideration the comparison of vulnerability to sites with the value assessment to prioritize monuments at risk based

  18. Review on hydroxylamine, a precursor to amino-acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Jean Louis

    2015-08-01

    Does life on earth come from interstellar space (IS)?It has been recently demonstrated that part of the terrestrial water is of IS origin [Cleeves et al. Science 2014]. This raises the question whether materials like amino-acids or their pre-biotic molecular precursors could have been formed and brought to earth in the same way than water. Another question is whether these molecules were formed in the gas phase or through reactions on the surface/volume of ice-covered grains. This may then have occurred in the vicinity of proto-stellar cores or deep into a pristine dense molecular clouds at very low temperatures.As far as bio-related molecules are concerned, chemistry with nitrogen-bearing molecules (like NH3 and NO) is involved. I review recent experimental work showing that hydroxylamine (NH2OH) could be formed either by surface or by volume reactions in conditions close to those prevailing in dense media. They use either electron-UV irradiation of water-ammonia ices [Zheng & Kaiser JCPA 2010] or successive hydrogenation of solid nitric oxide[Congiu, Fedoseev & al. ApJL.2012] or the simple oxidation of ammonia [He, Vidali, Lemaire & Garrod, ApJ, 2015] or the reaction of ammonia with hydroxyl radicals in a rare gas matrix [Zins & Krim, 2014, 69th ISMS]. A step further, the synthesis of the simplest amino-acids, glycine (NH2CH2COOH) and L- or D-alanine (NH2CH3CHCOOH) has already been obtained via reactions in the gas phase involving NH2OH+ [Blagojevic & al. MNRAS 2003].In addition to several earlier models demonstrating that the formation of all these molecules is possible in the gas phase, a new recent three-phase gas-grain chemical kinetics model of hot cores [Garrod ApJ 2013] shows that the results of ammonia oxidation we obtain are plausible by surface/volume reactions.Although none of the aforementioned molecules (except glycine in a sample of cometary origin) has been yet detected in the IS, they all are considered by many observers and modelers as likely

  19. Data Processing and In -flight Calibration/validation of Envisat and Jason Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obligis, E.; Eymard, L.; Zanife, O. Z.

    Retrieval algorithms for wet tropospheric correction, integrated vapor and liquid water contents are formulated using a database of geophysical parameters from global analyses from a meteorological model and corresponding simulated brightness temperatures and backscattering cross -sections. Meteorological data are 12 hours predictions of the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. Relationships between satellite measurements and geophysical parameters are formulated using a statistical method. Quality of retrieval algorithms depends therefore on the representativity of the database, the accuracy of the radiative transfer model used for the simulations and finally on the quality of the inversion model. The database has been built using the latest version of the ECMWF forecast model, which has been operationally run since November, 2000. The 60 levels in the model allows a complete description of the troposphere/s tratosphere profiles and the horizontal resolution is now half of a degree. The radiative transfer model is the emissivity model developed at the Université Catholique de Louvain [Lemaire, 1998], coupled to an atmospheric model [Liebe et al, 1993] for gazeous absorption. For the inversion, we will compare performances of a classical loglinear regression with those of a neural networks inversion. In case of Envisat, the backscattering coefficient in Ku band is used in the different algorithms to take into account the surface roughness like it is done with the 18 GHz channel for TOPEX algorithms and a third term in wind speed for ERS2 algorithms. The in-flight calibration/validation of both radiometers will consist first in the evaluation of the calibration by comparison of measurements with simulations, using the same radiative transfer model and several other ECMWF global meteorological fields at coincident locations with satellite measurements. Although such a method only provides the relative discrepancy with respect to the

  20. Mineralogical, IR-spectral and geochemical monitoring of hydrothermal alteration in a deformed and metamorphosed Jurassic VMS deposit at Arroyo Rojo, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, C.; Subías, I.; Acevedo, R. D.; Yusta, I.; Velasco, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Arroyo Rojo Zn-Pb-Cu volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit is the main deposit of the Fin del Mundo District in the Fuegian Andes, Argentina. This deposit is hosted by a Middle Jurassic volcanic and volcanoclastic sequence forming the Lemaire Formation. The latter consists, from the base up, of the following: rhyolitic and dacitic porphyritic rocks, ignimbrite, tuff, and flow. It is underlain by a pre-Jurassic basement and overlain by the hyaloclastic andesites of the Yahgán Formation. The Arroyo Rojo consists of stacked lenticular lenses that are associated with disseminated mineralization in both the footwall and the hanging wall. The internal structure of the ore lenses is marked by the occurrence of massive, semi-massive and banded facies, along with stringer and brecciated zones and minor ore disseminations. The mineral assemblage comprises mainly pyrite and sphalerite, with minor amounts of galena and chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite and bournonite. The ores and the volcanic host rocks have metamorphosed to greenschist facies and were overprinted by a penetrative tectonic foliation, which led to the development of mylonitic, and cataclastic textures, recrystallization and remobilization. Primary depositional characteristics and regional and hydrothermal alteration patterns were preserved despite deformation and metamorphism. Therefore, primary banding was preserved between facies boundaries. In addition, some remnants of magmatic origin are recognizable in preserved phenocrysts and volcaniclastic phenoclasts. Most of the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the host sequence show a rhyolitic to rhyo-dacitic composition. Regional seafloor alteration, characterized by the presence of clinozoisite, Fe-chlorite and titanite, along with quartz and albite, is partially obliterated by hydrothermal alteration. The hydrothermal alteration is stratabound with the following assemblages, which developed from the base to top: (1) Quartz

  1. The anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil is metabolized by the isolated perfused rat liver and in rats into highly toxic fluoroacetate.

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, M.; Malet-Martino, M.; Martino, R.; Gires, P.

    1998-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of the biotransformation of the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (FU) into two new metabolites, alpha-fluoro-beta-hydroxypropionic acid (FHPA) and fluoroacetate (FAC), in the isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) and in the rat in vivo. IPRL was perfused with solutions of pure FU at two doses, 15 or 45 mg kg(-1) body weight, and rats were injected i.p. with 180 mg of FU kg(-1) body weight. Fluorine-19 NMR analysis of perfusates from IPRL and rat urine showed the presence of the normal metabolites of FU and low amounts of FHPA (0.4% or 0.1% of injected FU in perfusates from IPRL treated with 15 or 45 mg of FU kg(-1) body weight, respectively; 0.08% of the injected FU in rat urine) and FAC (0.1% or 0.03% of injected FU in perfusates from IPRL treated with 15 or 45 mg of FU kg(-1) body weight, respectively; 0.003% of the injected FU in rat urine). IPRL was also perfused with a solution of alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL) hydrochloride at 16.6 mg kg(-1) body weight dose equivalent to 15 mg of FU kg(-1) body weight. Low amounts of FHPA (0.2% of injected FBAL) and FAC (0.07%) were detected in perfusates, thus demonstrating that FHPA and FAC arise from FBAL catabolism. As FAC is a well-known cardiotoxic poison, and FHPA is also cardiotoxic at high doses, the cardiotoxicity of FU might stem from at least two sources. The first one, established in previous papers (Lemaire et al, 1992, 1994), is the presence in commercial solutions of FU of degradation products of FU that are metabolized into FHPA and FAC; these are formed over time in the basic medium necessary to dissolve the drug. The second, demonstrated in the present study, is the metabolism of FU itself into the same compounds. PMID:9459149

  2. The Equation of State in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrier, Gilles; Schatzman, Evry

    1994-08-01

    Fernandes; 25. Ground based helioseismology: IRIS and GONG F.-X. Schmider; 26. The statial GOLF project S. Turck-Chiéze; 27. The DENIS survey T. Forveille; 28. PRISMA: a mission to study interior and surface of stars P. Lemaire; Part III. Posters: 29. Towards a helioseismic calibration of the equation of state in the solar convective envelope S. V. Vorontsov, V. A. Baturin, D. O. Gough and W. Däppen; 30. Thermal cyclotron and annihilation radiation in strong magnetic fields V. G. Bezchastnov and A. D. Kaminker; 31. Modified adiabatic approximation for a hydrogen atom moving in a magnetic field V. G. Bezchastnov and A. Y. Potekhin; 32. Computations of static white dwarf models P. Brassard and G. Fontaine; 33. The Chandrasekhar mass of a gravitating electron crystal D. Engelhardt and I. Bues; 34. Coulomb corrections in the nuclear statistical equilibrium regime D. García and E. Bravo; 35. Molecular opacities T. Guillot, D. Gautier and G. Chabrier; 36. On radiative transfer near the plasma frequency at strong coupling Yu. K. Kurilenkov and H. M. Van Horn; 37. Effects of superfluidity on spheroidal oscillations of neutron stars Umin Lee, T. J. B. Collins, R. I. Epstein and H. M. Van Horn; 38. Magnetic field decay in the non-superfluid regions of neutron star cores A. G. Muslimov and H. M. Van Horn; 39. On the equation of state in Jovian seismology J. Provost, B. Mosser and G. Chabrier; 40. Analysis of the screening formalisms in solar and stellar conditions H. Dzitko, S. Turck-Chiéze, P. Delbourgo-Salvador and Ch. Lagrange; 41. Theoretical description of the Coulomb interaction by Padé-Jacobi approximants W. Stolzmann and T. Blöcker; 42. New model sequences from the white dwarf evolution code M. Wood; 43. Low temperature opacities C. Neuforge.

  3. In-flight calibration/validation of the ENVISAT/MWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, N.; Obligis, E.; Eymard, L.

    2003-04-01

    Retrieval algorithms for wet tropospheric correction, integrated vapor and liquid water contents, atmospheric attenuations of backscattering coefficients in Ku and S band, have been developed using a database of geophysical parameters from global analyses from a meteorological model and corresponding simulated brightness temperatures and backscattering cross-sections by a radiative transfer model. Meteorological data correspond to 12 hours predictions from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. Relationships between satellite measurements and geophysical parameters are determined using a statistical method. The quality of the retrieval algorithms depends therefore on the representativity of the database, the accuracy of the radiative transfer model used for the simulations and finally on the quality of the inversion model. The database has been built using the latest version of the ECMWF forecast model, which has been operationally run since November 2000. The 60 levels in the model allow a complete description of the troposphere/stratosphere profiles and the horizontal resolution is now half of a degree. The radiative transfer model is the emissivity model developed at the Université Catholique de Louvain [Lemaire, 1998], coupled to an atmospheric model [Liebe et al, 1993] for gaseous absorption. For the inversion, we have replaced the classical log-linear regression with a neural networks inversion. For Envisat, the backscattering coefficient in Ku band is used in the different algorithms to take into account the surface roughness as it is done with the 18 GHz channel for the TOPEX algorithms or an additional term in wind speed for ERS2 algorithms. The in-flight calibration/validation of the Envisat radiometer has been performed with the tuning of 3 internal parameters (the transmission coefficient of the reflector, the sky horn feed transmission coefficient and the main antenna transmission coefficient). First an adjustment of the

  4. Orbiting observatory SOHO finds source of high-speed "wind" blowing from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    ranging from 30,000 km/h at the surface to over 3 million km/h, the solar wind "grows" much faster than grass". "Looking at the spot where the solar wind actually appears is extremely important", says co-author Dr. Philippe Lemaire of the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France. The Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer on SOHO detected the solar wind by observing the ultraviolet spectrum over a large area of the solar north polar region. The SUMER instrument was built under the leadership of Dr. Klaus Wilhelm at the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie in Lindau, Germany, with key contributions from the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the University of California at Berkeley, with financial support from German, French, US and Swiss national agencies. "Identification of the detailed structure of the source region of the fast solar wind is an important step in solving the solar wind acceleration problem. We can now focus our attention on the plasma conditions and the dynamic processes seen in the corners of the magnetic field structures", says Dr. Wilhelm, also co-author of the Science paper. A spectrum results from the separation of light into its component colours, which correspond to different wavelengths. Blue light has a shorter wavelength and is more energetic than red. A spectrum is similar to what is seen when a prism separates white light into a rainbow of distinct colours. By analysing light this way, astronomers learn a great deal about the object emitting the light, such as its temperature, chemical composition, and motion. The ultraviolet light observed by SUMER is actually invisible to the human eye and cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. The hot gas in the solar wind source region emits light at certain ultraviolet wavelengths. When the hot gas flows towards Earth, as it does in the solar wind, the wavelengths of the

  5. Seeing Is Believing. Or Is It?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-08-01

    Occasionally I get time to read something other than a scientific journal, book, or manuscript. On one such foray I discovered Kenneth Brower's "Photography in the Age of Falsification", which appeared in The Atlantic Monthly in May 1998. Brower described how an editor, who might never have experienced the wildness of nature, could conceive a photograph and assign a photographer to create it. Whether the scene depicted was actually possible often seemed relatively unimportant. The main thing was whether the image would interest viewers. Brower argued that today's vast array of software for manipulating digital versions of photographic images enables what he calls "photofakery" on an unprecedented scale. He described how editors at National Geographic decided to pull an ad that depicted a polar bear in Antarctica (where there are no bears); the ad had been created by digitally superimposing a photograph of a bear in a Cincinnati zoo and a photograph of the Lemaire Channel in Antarctica. According to Brower, "Too few photographers, I think, appreciate how directly the new technology aims at the heart of the credibility that distinguishes this art form from others." Credibility is also one of the hallmarks of science. Science progresses as a result of consensus on what results can be expected from carefully designed and carefully executed experiments and observations. As teachers of chemistry, we have a duty not to fall into the same kinds of traps that have made some photographers uneasy about their profession. And we need to help our students learn to avoid these traps. But it is not that easy, because we also need to capture students' attention and try to make our subject interesting by telling stories or showing phenomena or models that appeal to the imagination. As in the case of photography, defining where imagination begins to usurp reality is difficult. It is therefore a very important issue to wrestle with.

  6. Seeing Is Believing. Or Is It?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-08-01

    Occasionally I get time to read something other than a scientific journal, book, or manuscript. On one such foray I discovered Kenneth Brower's "Photography in the Age of Falsification", which appeared in The Atlantic Monthly in May 1998. Brower described how an editor, who might never have experienced the wildness of nature, could conceive a photograph and assign a photographer to create it. Whether the scene depicted was actually possible often seemed relatively unimportant. The main thing was whether the image would interest viewers. Brower argued that today's vast array of software for manipulating digital versions of photographic images enables what he calls "photofakery" on an unprecedented scale. He described how editors at National Geographic decided to pull an ad that depicted a polar bear in Antarctica (where there are no bears); the ad had been created by digitally superimposing a photograph of a bear in a Cincinnati zoo and a photograph of the Lemaire Channel in Antarctica. According to Brower, "Too few photographers, I think, appreciate how directly the new technology aims at the heart of the credibility that distinguishes this art form from others." Credibility is also one of the hallmarks of science. Science progresses as a result of consensus on what results can be expected from carefully designed and carefully executed experiments and observations. As teachers of chemistry, we have a duty not to fall into the same kinds of traps that have made some photographers uneasy about their profession. And we need to help our students learn to avoid these traps. But it is not that easy, because we also need to capture students' attention and try to make our subject interesting by telling stories or showing phenomena or models that appeal to the imagination. As in the case of photography, defining where imagination begins to usurp reality is difficult. It is therefore a very important issue to wrestle with.