Reflection-asymmetric rotor model of odd Aapprox. 219--229 nuclei
Leander, G.A.; Chen, Y.S.
1988-06-01
The low-energy spectroscopy of odd-A nuclei in the mass region Aapprox.219--229 is modeled by coupling states of a deformed shell model including octupole deformation to a reflection-asymmetric rotor core. Theory and experiment are compared for the nuclei in which data are available: /sup 219,221,223,225/Rn, /sup 221,223,225,227/Fr, /sup 219,221,223,225,227/Ra, /sup 219,223,225,227,229/Ac /sup 221,223,225,227,229/Th, and /sup 229/Pa. Overall agreement requires an octupole deformation ..beta../sub 3/approx.0.1. The results throughout the region are synthesized to evaluate the model.
Modelling and experimental verification of an asymmetric Jeffcott rotor with radial clearance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Páez Chávez, Joseph; Vaziri Hamaneh, Vahid; Wiercigroch, Marian
2015-01-01
This paper presents a new mathematical model of a Jeffcott rotor within a snubber ring with anisotropic support. The derivation and validation of the model are based on an experimental rig designed and developed in Aberdeen University. Special attention is given to the estimation of the physical parameters of the snubber ring support, which reveals the presence of damping effects that are incorporated in the mathematical model. Furthermore, the numerical implementation of the model is described and mathematically justified in detail. The experimental investigation shows a sequence of different dynamical scenarios obtained under variation of the rotational speed, which in turn is satisfactorily reproduced by the theoretical model. The experimental and numerical results demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the model around the onset of impacts between the rotor and the snubber ring, which is one of the most common unwanted phenomena encountered in industrial applications of rotating machinery.
Modified transfer matrix method for asymmetric rotor-bearing systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Yuan; Lee, An-Chen; Shih, Yuan-Pin
1994-07-01
A modified transfer matrix method (MTMM) is developed to analyze rotor-bearing systems with an asymmetric shaft and asymmetric disks. The rotating shaft is modeled by a Rayleigh-Euler beam considering the effects of the rotary inertia and gyroscopic moments. Specifically, a transfer matrix of the asymmetric shaft segments is derived in a continuous-system sense to give accurate solutions. The harmonic balance method is incorporated in the transfer matrix equations, so that steady-state responses of synchronous and superharmonic whirls can be determined. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Qinkai; Chu, Fulei
2012-12-01
It is well known that either the asymmetric disk or transverse crack brings parametric inertia (or stiffness) excitation to the rotor-bearing system. When both of them appear in a rotor system, the parametric instability behaviors have not gained sufficient attentions. Thus, the effect of transverse crack upon parametric instability of a rotor-bearing system with an asymmetric disk is studied. First, the finite element equations of motion are established for the asymmetric rotor system. Both the open and breathing transverse cracks are taken into account in the model. Then, the discrete state transition matrix (DSTM) method is introduced for numerically acquiring the instability regions. Based upon these, some computations for a practical asymmetric rotor system with open or breathing transverse crack are conducted, respectively. Variations of the primary and combination instability regions induced by the asymmetric disk with the crack depth are observed, and the effect of the orientation angle between the crack and asymmetric disk on various instability regions are discussed in detail. It is shown that for the asymmetric angle around 0, the existence of transverse (either open or breathing) crack has attenuation effect upon the instability regions. Under certain crack depth, the instability regions could be vanished by the transverse crack. When the asymmetric angle is around π/2, increasing the crack depth would enhance the instability regions.
Methods and apparatus for reduction of asymmetric rotor loads in wind turbines
Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee
2006-10-10
A method for reducing load and providing yaw alignment in a wind turbine includes measuring displacements or moments resulting from asymmetric loads on the wind turbine. These measured displacements or moments are used to determine a pitch for each rotor blade to reduce or counter asymmetric rotor loading and a favorable yaw orientation to reduce pitch activity. Yaw alignment of the wind turbine is adjusted in accordance with the favorable yaw orientation and the pitch of each rotor blade is adjusted in accordance with the determined pitch to reduce or counter asymmetric rotor loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varney, Philip; Green, Itzhak
2015-02-01
The efficiency of rotating machines can be improved via precisely manufactured bearings with reduced clearances; consequently, the proclivity for rotor-stator contact is increased. A common model used to investigate rotor-stator contact in previous studies is the two degree-of-freedom (DOF) rotor with symmetric support stiffness, where the contact assumes a linear elastic normal restoring force proportional to the rotor-stator interference and a tangential dry Coulomb friction force. Switching between the contacting and non-contacting states creates strong nonlinearity in the equations of motion, and the dynamic response displays a rich profile of behaviors including periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic responses via period-doubling, sudden transitions, quasiperiodicity, and intermittency. For the first time, this work emphasizes an asymmetric support stiffness matrix with cross-coupling between the x and y direction stiffnesses. The influence of support asymmetry on the nonlinear rotor response is shown using rotor orbits, frequency spectra, Poincaré sections, and bifurcation diagrams. It is found that the cross-coupling stiffness coefficient kxy has negligible effect on the dynamic response until its magnitude is on the same order as the direct stiffness coefficients. Direct stiffness coefficient asymmetry is shown to affect the rotor's response, where even small asymmetries can qualitatively change the response. Additionally, the importance of including gravity is investigated, and a method is provided for determining the threshold shaft speed above which gravity can be ignored. The dominant route to chaos is period-doubling for the parameters considered here, though other routes to chaos are seen such as a direct transition from periodic to chaotic motion. Finally, observations pertaining to rotor modeling, design, and fault diagnostics are discussed.
Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Envia, Edmane
2012-01-01
Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.
Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Envia, Edmane
2012-01-01
Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.
Macroscopic balance model for wave rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Gerard E.
1996-01-01
A mathematical model for multi-port wave rotors is described. The wave processes that effect energy exchange within the rotor passage are modeled using one-dimensional gas dynamics. Macroscopic mass and energy balances relate volume-averaged thermodynamic properties in the rotor passage control volume to the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes at the ports. Loss models account for entropy production in boundary layers and in separating flows caused by blade-blockage, incidence, and gradual opening and closing of rotor passages. The mathematical model provides a basis for predicting design-point wave rotor performance, port timing, and machine size. Model predictions are evaluated through comparisons with CFD calculations and three-port wave rotor experimental data. A four-port wave rotor design example is provided to demonstrate model applicability. The modeling approach is amenable to wave rotor optimization studies and rapid assessment of the trade-offs associated with integrating wave rotors into gas turbine engine systems.
Collisional excitation of an asymmetric rotor, silicon dicarbide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palma, Amedeo; Green, Sheldon
1987-01-01
Rotational excitation rates have been computed for the asymmetric top molecule SiC2 in collisions with low-energy He atoms. The intermolecular forces were obtained from an electron gas model, and collision dynamics were treated within the infinite-order sudden approximation. Total excitation rates, i.e., summed over final levels, are expected to be accurate to about 50 percent, and the larger state-to-state rates are likely to be within a factor of about 2 of the correct values, although some of the smaller (and less important) rates may be less accurate. These rates are also thought to reflect, within this level of accuracy, rates for excitation by collisions with H2 molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Sungjin; Shin, Hyeondeok; Kwon, Yongkyung
2012-08-01
The recently-proposed fourth-order propagator based on the multi-product expansion has been applied to path-integral Monte Carlo calculations for asymmetric quantum quadruploar rotors fixed at face-centered cubic lattice sites. The rotors are observed to undergo an orientational orderdisorder phase transition at a low temperature when the electric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction is strong enough. At intermediate interaction strength, a further decrease of temperature after the first transition to the ordered phase results in a reentrant transition back to the disordered phase. The theoretical phase diagram of these asymmetric rotors determined by using fourth-order path-integral Monte Carlo calculations is found to be in good quantitative agreement with the experimental one for solid hydrogen deuteride. This leads us to conclude that the fourth-order propagator can be effectively implemented for an accurate path-integral Monte Carlo calculation of a quantum many-body system with rotational degrees of freedom.
Models for asymmetric hybrid brane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazeia, D.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.
2015-10-01
We deal with relativistic models described by a single real scalar field, searching for topological structures that behave asymmetrically, connecting minima with a distinct profile. We use such features to build a new braneworld scenario, in which the source scalar field contributes to generate asymmetric hybrid brane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Sunil K.
2013-04-01
Loss of a blade from a running turbofan rotor introduces not only huge imbalance into the dynamical system rather it makes the entire rotor asymmetric as well. In a nonsymmetric rotor, the various terms of mass, gyroscopic and stiffness matrices also become time-dependent. In this paper, all the dynamical equations include the effect of the rotary inertia and gyroscopic moments as a result of both shaft bending as well as staggered blades flexing in-and-out of the plane of the disk. The governing equations also account for internal material damping in the shaft and the external damping in the support bearing system. In addition to the unbalance load at the disk location, the shaft may also be subjected to a torque and axial forces. Here, the fan blades are modeled as pre-twisted thin shallow shells. They have coupled flexural-torsional motion in the lateral out-of-plane direction as well as extensional degrees-of-freedom in the longitudinal spanwise direction of the blade airfoil. The effect of blade tip rub forces being transmitted to the shaft are analyzed in terms of the dynamic stability of the rotor, especially during windmilling.
Theoretical models of helicopter rotor noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hawkings, D. L.
1978-01-01
For low speed rotors, it is shown that unsteady load models are only partially successful in predicting experimental levels. A theoretical model is presented which leads to the concept of unsteady thickness noise. This gives better agreement with test results. For high speed rotors, it is argued that present models are incomplete and that other mechanisms are at work. Some possibilities are briefly discussed.
Rotor systems research aircraft simulation mathematical model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houck, J. A.; Moore, F. L.; Howlett, J. J.; Pollock, K. S.; Browne, M. M.
1977-01-01
An analytical model developed for evaluating and verifying advanced rotor concepts is discussed. The model was used during in both open loop and real time man-in-the-loop simulation during the rotor systems research aircraft design. Future applications include: pilot training, preflight of test programs, and the evaluation of promising concepts before their implementation on the flight vehicle.
Identification of helicopter rotor dynamic models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Molusis, J. A.; Bar-Shalom, Y.; Warmbrodt, W.
1983-01-01
A recursive, extended Kalman-filter approach is applied to the identifiction of rotor damping levels of representative helicopter dynamic systems. The general formulation of the approach is presented in the context of a typically posed stochastic estimation problem, and the method is analytically applied to determining the damping levels of a coupled rotor-body system. The identified damping covergence characteristics are studied for sensitivity to both constant-coefficient and periodic-coefficient measurement models, process-noise covariance levels, and specified initial estimates of the rotor-system damping. A second application of the method to identifying the plant model for a highly damped, isolated flapping blade with a constant-coefficient state model (hover) and a periodic-coefficient state model (forward flight) is also investigated. The parameter-identification capability is evaluated for the effect of periodicity on the plant model coefficients and the influence of different measurement noise levels.
Simple theoretical models for composite rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Valisetty, R. R.; Rehfield, L. W.
1984-01-01
The development of theoretical rotor blade structural models for designs based upon composite construction is discussed. Care was exercised to include a member of nonclassical effects that previous experience indicated would be potentially important to account for. A model, representative of the size of a main rotor blade, is analyzed in order to assess the importance of various influences. The findings of this model study suggest that for the slenderness and closed cell construction considered, the refinements are of little importance and a classical type theory is adequate. The potential of elastic tailoring is dramatically demonstrated, so the generality of arbitrary ply layup in the cell wall is needed to exploit this opportunity.
Modeling Aerodynamically Generated Sound of Helicopter Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.
2002-01-01
A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound of rotors over the past decade. Although the modeling effort has focused on helicopter main rotors, the theory is generally valid for a wide range of rotor configurations. The Ffowcs Williams Hawkings (FW-H) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. The monopole and dipole source terms of the FW-H equation account for the thickness and loading noise, respectively. Bladevortex-interaction noise and broadband noise are important types of loading noise, hence much research has been directed toward the accurate modeling of these noise mechanisms. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H equation has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparisons of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems. Finally, significant progress has been made incorporating the rotor noise models into full vehicle noise prediction tools.
HARP model rotor test at the DNW. [Hughes Advanced Rotor Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawson, Seth; Jordan, David; Smith, Charles; Ekins, James; Silverthorn, Lou
1989-01-01
Data from a test of a dynamically scaled model of the Hughes Advanced Rotor Program (HARP) bearingless model main rotor and 369K tail rotor are reported. The history of the HARP program and its goals are reviewed, and the main and tail rotor models are described. The test facilities and instrumentation are described, and wind tunnel test data are presented on hover, forward flight performance, and blade-vortex interaction. Performance data, acoustic data, and dynamic data from near field/far field and shear layer studies are presented.
Important Scaling Parameters for Testing Model-Scale Helicopter Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Yeager, William T., Jr.
1998-01-01
An investigation into the effects of aerodynamic and aeroelastic scaling parameters on model scale helicopter rotors has been conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The effect of varying Reynolds number, blade Lock number, and structural elasticity on rotor performance has been studied and the performance results are discussed herein for two different rotor blade sets at two rotor advance ratios. One set of rotor blades were rigid and the other set of blades were dynamically scaled to be representative of a main rotor design for a utility class helicopter. The investigation was con-densities permits the acquisition of data for several Reynolds and Lock number combinations.
Development of a rotor wake-vortex model, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majjigi, R. K.; Gliebe, P. R.
1984-01-01
Certain empirical rotor wake and turbulence relationships were developed using existing low speed rotor wave data. A tip vortex model was developed by replacing the annulus wall with a row of image vortices. An axisymmetric turbulence spectrum model, developed in the context of rotor inflow turbulence, was adapted to predicting the turbulence spectrum of the stator gust upwash.
Full Scale Rotor Aeroacoustic Predictions and the Link to Model Scale Rotor Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.; Conner, David A.
2004-01-01
The NASA Aeroacoustic Prediction System (NAPS) is used to establish a link between model-scale and full-scale rotor predictions and is partially validated against measured wind tunnel and flight aeroacoustic data. The prediction approach of NAPS couples a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis with acoustic source noise and propagation codes. The comprehensive analysis selected for this study is CAMRAD-II, which provides the performance/trim/wake solution for a given rotor or flight condition. The post-trim capabilities of CAMRAD-II are used to compute high-resolution sectional airloads for the acoustic tone noise analysis, WOPMOD. The tone noise is propagated to observers on the ground with the propagation code, RNM (Rotor Noise Model). Aeroacoustic predictions are made with NAPS for an isolated rotor and compared to results of the second Harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART-II) program, which tested a 40% dynamically and Mach-scaled BO-105 main rotor at the DNW. The NAPS is validated with comparisons for three rotor conditions: a baseline condition and two Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) conditions. To establish a link between model and full-scale rotor predictions, a full-scale BO-105 main rotor input deck for NAPS is created from the 40% scale rotor input deck. The full-scale isolated rotor predictions are then compared to the model predictions. The comparisons include aerodynamic loading, acoustic levels, and acoustic pressure time histories for each of the three conditions. With this link established, full-scale predictions are made for a range of descent flight conditions and compared with measured trends from the recent Rotorcraft Operational Noise Abatement Procedures (RONAP) flight test conducted by DLR and ONERA. Additionally, the effectiveness of two HHC conditions from the HART-II program is demonstrated for the full-scale rotor in flight.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McAlister, K. W.; Huang, S. S.; Abrego, A. I.
2001-01-01
A model rotor was mounted horizontally in the settling chamber of a wind tunnel to obtain performance and wake structure data under low climb conditions. The immediate wake of the rotor was carefully surveyed using 3-component particle image velocimetry to define the velocity and vortical content of the flow, and used in a subsequent study to validate a theory for the separate determination of induced and profile drag. Measurements were obtained for two collective pitch angles intended to render a predominately induced drag state and another with a marked increase in profile drag. A majority of the azimuthally directed vorticity in the wake was found to be concentrated in the tip vortices. However, adjacent layers of inboard vorticity with opposite sense were clearly present. At low collective, the close proximity of the tip vortex from the previous blade caused the wake from the most recent blade passage to be distorted. The deficit velocity component that was directed along the azimuth of the rotor blade was never more that 15 percent of the rotor tip speed, and except for the region of the tip vortex, appeared to have totally disappeared form the wake left by the previous blade.
Coupled transport in rotor models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iubini, S.; Lepri, S.; Livi, R.; Politi, A.
2016-08-01
Steady nonequilibrium states are investigated in a one-dimensional setup in the presence of two thermodynamic currents. Two paradigmatic nonlinear oscillators models are investigated: an XY chain and the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Their distinctive feature is that the relevant variable is an angle in both cases. We point out the importance of clearly distinguishing between energy and heat flux. In fact, even in the presence of a vanishing Seebeck coefficient, a coupling between (angular) momentum and energy arises, mediated by the unavoidable presence of a coherent energy flux. Such a contribution is the result of the ‘advection’ induced by the position-dependent angular velocity. As a result, in the XY model, the knowledge of the two diagonal elements of the Onsager matrix suffices to reconstruct its transport properties. The analysis of the nonequilibrium steady states finally allows to strengthen the connection between the two models.
Icing research tunnel test of a model helicopter rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Thomas L.; Bond, Thomas H.
1989-01-01
An experimental program has been conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in which an OH-58 tail rotor assembly was operated in a horizontal plane to simulate the action of a typical main rotor. Ice was accreted on the blades in a variety of rotor and tunnel operating conditions and documentation of the resulting shapes was performed. Rotor torque and vibration are presented as functions of time for several representative test runs, and the effects of various parametric variations on the blade ice shapes are shown. This OH-58 test was the first of its kind in the United States and will encourage additional model rotor icing tunnel testing. Although not a scaled representative of any actual full-scale main rotor system, this rig has produced torque and vibration data which will be useful in assessing the quality of existing rotor icing analyses.
Icing Research Tunnel test of a model helicopter rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Thomas L.; Bond, Thomas H.
1989-01-01
An experimental program has been conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in which an OH-58 tail rotor assembly was operated in a horizontal plane to simulate the action of a typical main rotor. Ice was accreted on the blades in a variety of rotor and tunnel operating conditions and documentation of the resulting shapes was performed. Rotor torque and vibration are presented as functions of time for several representative test runs, and the effects of various parametric variations on the blade ice shapes are shown. This OH-58 test was the first of its kind in the United States and will encourage additional model rotor icing tunnel testing. Although not a scaled representative of any actual full-scale main rotor system, this rig has produced torque and vibration data which will be useful in assessing the quality of existing rotor icing analyses.
Modeling Asymmetric Rolling Process of Mg alloys
Cho, Jaehyung; Kim, Hyung-Wuk; Kang, Suk-Bong
2010-06-15
Asymmetric deformation during rolling can arise in various ways: difference in the radii, speeds, frictions of the top and bottom rolls. Asymmetric warm rolling processes of magnesium alloys were modeled using a lagrangian incremental approach. A constitutive equation representing flow behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloys during warm deformation was implemented to the modeling. Various roll speed ratios were introduced to investigate deformation behaviors of the magnesium alloys. Bending and texturing of the strips were examined.
Results of a sub-scale model rotor icing test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flemming, Robert J.; Bond, Thomas H.; Britton, Randall K.
1991-01-01
A heavily instrumented sub-scale model of a helicopter main rotor was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in September and November 1989. The four-bladed main rotor had a diameter of 1.83 m (6.00 ft) and the 0.124 m (4.9 in) chord rotor blades were specially fabricated for this experiment. The instrumented rotor was mounted on a Sikorsky Aircraft Powered Force Model, which enclosed a rotor balance and other measurement systems. The model rotor was exposed to a range of icing conditions that included variations in temperature, liquid water content, and median droplet diameter, and was operated over ranges of advance ratio, shaft angle, tip Mach number (rotor speed) and weight coefficient to determine the effect of these parameters on ice accretion. In addition to strain gage and balance data, the test was documented with still, video, and high speed photography, ice profile tracings, and ice molds. The sensitivity of the model rotor to the test parameters is given, and the result to theoretical predictions are compared. Test data quality was excellent, and ice accretion prediction methods and rotor performance prediction methods (using published icing lift and drag relationships) reproduced the performance trends observed in the test. Adjustments to the correlation coefficients to improve the level of correlation are suggested.
Results of a sub-scale model rotor icing test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flemming, Robert J.; Bond, Thomas H.; Britton, Randall K.
1991-01-01
A heavily instrumented sub-scale model of a helicopter main rotor was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in September and November 1989. The four-bladed main rotor had a diameter of 1.83 m (6.00 ft) and the 0.124 m (4.9 in) chord rotor blades were specially fabricated for this experiment. The instrumented rotor was mounted on a Sikorsky Aircraft Powered Force Model, which enclosed a rotor balance and other measurement systems. The model rotor was exposed to a range of icing conditions that included variations in temperature, liquid water content, and median droplet diameter, and was operated over ranges of advance ratio, shaft angle, tip Mach number (rotor speed) and weight coefficient to determine the effect of these parameters on ice accretion. In addition to strain gage and balance data, the test was documented with still, video, and high speed photography, ice profile tracings, and ice molds. The sensitivity of the model rotor to the test parameters, is given, and the result to theoretical predictions are compared. Test data quality was excellent, and ice accretion prediction methods and rotor performance prediction methods (using published icing lift and drag relationships) reproduced the performance trends observed in the test. Adjustments to the correlation coefficients to improve the level of correlation are suggested.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.
1973-01-01
The rotor system designed for the Boeing Model 222 tilt rotor aircraft is a soft-in-plane hingeless rotor design, 26 feet in diameter. This rotor has completed two test programs in the NASA Ames 40' X 80' wind tunnel. The first test was a windmilling rotor test on two dynamic wing test stands. The rotor was tested up to an advance ratio equivalence of 400 knots. The second test used the NASA powered propeller test rig and data were obtained in hover, transition and low speed cruise flight. Test data were obtained in the areas of wing-rotor dynamics, rotor loads, stability and control, feedback controls, and performance to meet the test objectives. These data are presented.
Effect of Rotor Diameter on the Thermal Stresses of a Turbine Rotor Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dávalos, J. O.; García, J. C.; Urquiza, G.; Castro-Gómez, L. L.; Rodríguez, J. A.; De Santiago, O.
2016-04-01
Thermal stresses in a simplified steam turbine rotor model during a cold startup are analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA). In order to validate the numerical model, an experimental array is developed in which a hollow cylinder is heated with hot air in the external surface. At the thick wall of the cylinder, temperature distribution is measured in real time, while at the same time an algorithm computes thermal stresses. Additional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations are made to obtain magnitudes of velocity and pressure in order to compute convective heat transfer coefficient. The experimental results show good agreement with the FEA computations. To evaluate the effect of rotor diameter size, FEA computations with variation in external and internal diameters are performed. Results show that thermal stresses are proportional to rotor diameter size. Also, zones of higher stress concentration are found in the external and internal surfaces of the rotor.
Two-Dimensional Computational Model for Wave Rotor Flow Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Gerard E.
1996-01-01
A two-dimensional (theta,z) Navier-Stokes solver for multi-port wave rotor flow simulation is described. The finite-volume form of the unsteady thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are integrated in time on multi-block grids that represent the stationary inlet and outlet ports and the moving rotor passages of the wave rotor. Computed results are compared with three-port wave rotor experimental data. The model is applied to predict the performance of a planned four-port wave rotor experiment. Two-dimensional flow features that reduce machine performance and influence rotor blade and duct wall thermal loads are identified. The performance impact of rounding the inlet port wall, to inhibit separation during passage gradual opening, is assessed.
Structural modeling for multicell composite rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Atilgan, Ali R.
1987-01-01
Composite material systems are currently good candidates for aerospace structures, primarily for the design flexibility they offer, i.e., it is possible to tailor the material and manufacturing approach to the application. A working definition of elastic or structural tailoring is the use of structural concept, fiber orientation, ply stacking sequence, and a blend of materials to achieve specific performance goals. In the design process, choices of materials and dimensions are made which produce specific response characteristics, and which permit the selected goals to be achieved. Common choices for tailoring goals are preventing instabilities or vibration resonances or enhancing damage tolerance. An essential, enabling factor in the design of tailored composite structures is structural modeling that accurately, but simply, characterizes response. The objective of this paper is to present a new multicell beam model for composite rotor blades and to validate predictions based on the new model by comparison with a finite element simulation in three benchmark static load cases.
An improved numerical model for wave rotor design and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, Daniel E.; Wilson, Jack
1992-01-01
A numerical model has been developed which can predict both the unsteady flows within a wave rotor and the steady averaged flows in the ports. The model is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional, unsteady, and perfect gas flow. Besides the dominant wave behavior, it is also capable of predicting the effects of finite tube opening time, leakage from the tube ends, and viscosity. The relative simplicity of the model makes it useful for design, optimization, and analysis of wave rotor cycles for any application. This paper discusses some details of the model and presents comparisons between the model and two laboratory wave rotor experiments.
Quiet mode for nonlinear rotor models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfarland, R. E.
1990-01-01
High frequency harmonics are generated by helicopter rotor systems, and nonlinear blade-element models of these systems create the same harmonics. In discrete real-time rotorcraft simulation, however, especially for handling qualities research, they are more of a nuisance than a benefit. The cycle times required to adequately represent them are rarely obtainable. The result is that distinct frequencies alias into the pilot and simulator bandwidths, thereby decreasing simulation fidelity. However, use of an interpolation procedure permits the observation of harmonics at their proper frequency locations, and an accompanying notch filter may then be used to attenuate the harmonics prior to decimation. Rotorcraft simulations using these techniques are not contaminated with the spurious frequencies that create variable trim points, produce erroneous stability and control derivative data, and obscure time histories.
Model helicopter rotor low frequency broadband noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Humbad, N. G.; Harris, W. L.
1982-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of low frequency broadband noise (LFBN) radiated from model helicopter rotors are presented. The results up to tip Mach number of 0.50 suggest that the peak sound pressure level (SPL) of LFBN appears to follow tip Mach number to a fourth power law and rms velocity of turbulence to a second power law. The experimental results on the effect of tip speed and advance ratio on the peak SPL of LFBN can be explained on the basis of a simple scaling law. However, the experimental results on the effect of blade loading on the peak SPL of LFBN is still not clearly understood. A simple peak SPL scaling law for noise from a helicopter in forward flight encountering a sinusoidal gust is also developed. The trends predicted by the scaling law with the experimental results are found satisfactory for the cases of variation of the peak SPL of LFBN with tip speed and advance ratio.
Active control rotor model testing at Princeton's Rotorcraft Dynamics Laboratory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckillip, Robert M., Jr.
1988-01-01
A description of the model helicopter rotor tests currently in progress at Princeton's Rotorcraft Dynamics Laboratory is presented. The tests are designed to provide data for rotor dynamic modeling for use with active control system design. The model rotor to be used incoporates the capability for Individual Blade Control (IBC) or Higher Harmonic Control through the use of a standard swashplate on a three bladed hub. Sample results from the first series of tests are presented, along with the methodology used for state and parameter identification. Finally, pending experiments and possible research directions using this model and test facility are outlined.
Development of a rotor wake/vortex model. Volume 2: User's manual for computer program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majjigi, R. K.; Gliebe, P. R.
1984-01-01
The principal objective was to establish a verified rotor wake/vortex model for specific application to fan and compressor rotor-stator interaction and resulting noise generation. A description and flow chart of the Rotor Wake/Vortex Model computer program, a listing of the program, definitions of the input/output parameters, a sample input/output case, and input files for Rotor 55, the JT15D rotor, and Rotor 67, Stage 1 are provided.
Experimental verification of Jeffcott rotor model with preloaded snubber ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karpenko, E. V.; Wiercigroch, M.; Pavlovskaia, E. E.; Neilson, R. D.
2006-12-01
This paper describes the experimental verification of a nonlinear Jeffcott rotor model with a preloaded snubber ring. The nonlinearity, in the form of a discontinuous stiffness, is caused by the radial clearance between rotor and the snubber ring. The rotor is placed eccentrically within the snubber ring and the eccentricity can be varied. For purpose of clarity the mathematical model of the rotor system with the preloaded snubber ring developed in Pavlovskaia et al. [Nonlinear dynamics of a Jeffcott rotor with a preloaded snubber ring, Journal of Sound and Vibration 276 (2004) 361-379] is presented briefly. Theoretical results obtained from analytical approximate solutions and numerical simulations of the model are verified by the experimental study. A detailed description of the experimental rig and the data acquisition system developed are presented, along with the experimental procedures used to investigate the dynamical responses of the system. The results concentrate on the dynamic responses caused by interactions between the whirling rotor and the massless snubber ring, which has much higher support stiffness than the rotor. Bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré maps and phase plane diagrams are used to compare the results obtained from the experiment and the theory. Good correlation between the experimental and theoretical results is found.
Two-dimensional CFD modeling of wave rotor flow dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Gerard E.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1994-01-01
A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver developed for detailed study of wave rotor flow dynamics is described. The CFD model is helping characterize important loss mechanisms within the wave rotor. The wave rotor stationary ports and the moving rotor passages are resolved on multiple computational grid blocks. The finite-volume form of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with laminar viscosity are integrated in time using a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme. Roe's approximate Riemann solution scheme or the computationally less expensive advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) flux-splitting scheme is used to effect upwind-differencing of the inviscid flux terms, using cell interface primitive variables set by MUSCL-type interpolation. The diffusion terms are central-differenced. The solver is validated using a steady shock/laminar boundary layer interaction problem and an unsteady, inviscid wave rotor passage gradual opening problem. A model inlet port/passage charging problem is simulated and key features of the unsteady wave rotor flow field are identified. Lastly, the medium pressure inlet port and high pressure outlet port portion of the NASA Lewis Research Center experimental divider cycle is simulated and computed results are compared with experimental measurements. The model accurately predicts the wave timing within the rotor passages and the distribution of flow variables in the stationary inlet port region.
Two-dimensional CFD modeling of wave rotor flow dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Gerard E.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1993-01-01
A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver developed for detailed study of wave rotor flow dynamics is described. The CFD model is helping characterize important loss mechanisms within the wave rotor. The wave rotor stationary ports and the moving rotor passages are resolved on multiple computational grid blocks. The finite-volume form of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with laminar viscosity are integrated in time using a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme. The Roe approximate Riemann solution scheme or the computationally less expensive Advection Upstream Splitting Method (AUSM) flux-splitting scheme are used to effect upwind-differencing of the inviscid flux terms, using cell interface primitive variables set by MUSCL-type interpolation. The diffusion terms are central-differenced. The solver is validated using a steady shock/laminar boundary layer interaction problem and an unsteady, inviscid wave rotor passage gradual opening problem. A model inlet port/passage charging problem is simulated and key features of the unsteady wave rotor flow field are identified. Lastly, the medium pressure inlet port and high pressure outlet port portion of the NASA Lewis Research Center experimental divider cycle is simulated and computed results are compared with experimental measurements. The model accurately predicts the wave timing within the rotor passage and the distribution of flow variables in the stationary inlet port region.
Wind tunnel test on a 1/4.622 Froude scale, hingeless rotor, tilt rotor model, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.
1976-01-01
Wing tunnel test data on a 1/4.622 Froude scale, hingeless rotor, tilt rotor mode are reported for all potential flight conditions through hover and a wide envelope of transitions. A mathematical model was used to describe the rotor system in real time simulation by means of regression analyses. Details of the model, test program and data system are provided together with four data files for hover and transition.
Technology Investigations With the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Larry A.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Booth, Earl; Johnson, Jeff L.; Derby, Michael R.; Sullivan, Ken; Ralston, Scott; Shockey, Gerald; Dawson, Seth; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
This paper introduces the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) project. The TRAM project is a key infrastructure investment for NASA tiltrotor research. The TRAM project consists of the development and testing of two modular, hardware-compatible, test stands: an isolated rotor configuration and a fullspan model (dual rotors with a complete airframe representation). These two test stands are inclusively called the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The baseline proprotors and airframe of the TRAM test stands are nominally 1/4-scale representative of the V-22 Osprey aircraft. The research objectives of the project, the TRAM hardware design features and capabilities, illustrative examples of the type and quality of data that can be acquired with the TRAM, and the current status of the overall project will be discussed in this paper.
Low-frequency broadband noise generated by a model rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aravamudan, K. S.; Harris, W. L.
1979-01-01
Low-frequency broadband noise generated by model rotors is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The influence of free-stream turbulence in the low-frequency broadband noise radiation from model rotors has been experimentally investigated. The turbulence was generated in the M.I.T. anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of bipolar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the low-frequency broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of helicopter performance parameters. The location of the peak intensity was observed to be strongly dependent on the rotor-tip velocity and on the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence. The size scale of turbulence had negligible effect on the intensity of low-frequency broadband noise. The experimental data show good agreement with an ad hoc model based on unsteady aerodynamics.
Flow diagnostics downstream of a tribladed rotor model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naumov, I. V.; Rahmanov, V. V.; Okulov, V. L.; Velte, C. M.; Meyer, K. E.; Mikkelsen, R. F.
2012-06-01
This paper presents results of a study of vortex wake structures and measurements of instantaneous 3D velocity fields downstream of a triblade turbine model. Two operation modes of flow around the rotor with different tip speed ratios were tested. Initially the wake structures were visualized and subsequently quantitative data were recorded through velocity field restoration from particle tracks using a stereo PIV system. The study supplied flow diagnostics and recovered the instantaneous 3D velocity fields in the longitudinal cross section behind a tribladed rotor at different values of tip speed ratio. This set of data provided a basis for testing and validating assumptions and hypothesis regarding classical theories of rotors.
Reference Model 2: %22Rev 0%22 Rotor Design.
Barone, Matthew F.; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Griffith, Daniel
2011-12-01
The preliminary design for a three-bladed cross-flow rotor for a reference marine hydrokinetic turbine is presented. A rotor performance design code is described, along with modifications to the code to allow prediction of blade support strut drag as well as interference between two counter-rotating rotors. The rotor is designed to operate in a reference site corresponding to a riverine environment. Basic rotor performance and rigid-body loads calculations are performed to size the rotor elements and select the operating speed range. The preliminary design is verified with a simple finite element model that provides estimates of bending stresses during operation. A concept for joining the blades and support struts is developed and analyzed with a separate finite element analysis. Rotor mass, production costs, and annual energy capture are estimated in order to allow calculations of system cost-of-energy. Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd
Linear Time Invariant Models for Integrated Flight and Rotor Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olcer, Fahri Ersel
2011-12-01
Recent developments on individual blade control (IBC) and physics based reduced order models of various on-blade control (OBC) actuation concepts are opening up opportunities to explore innovative rotor control strategies for improved rotor aerodynamic performance, reduced vibration and BVI noise, and improved rotor stability, etc. Further, recent developments in computationally efficient algorithms for the extraction of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) models are providing a convenient framework for exploring integrated flight and rotor control, while accounting for the important couplings that exist between body and low frequency rotor response and high frequency rotor response. Formulation of linear time invariant (LTI) models of a nonlinear system about a periodic equilibrium using the harmonic domain representation of LTI model states has been studied in the literature. This thesis presents an alternative method and a computationally efficient scheme for implementation of the developed method for extraction of linear time invariant (LTI) models from a helicopter nonlinear model in forward flight. The fidelity of the extracted LTI models is evaluated using response comparisons between the extracted LTI models and the nonlinear model in both time and frequency domains. Moreover, the fidelity of stability properties is studied through the eigenvalue and eigenvector comparisons between LTI and LTP models by making use of the Floquet Transition Matrix. For time domain evaluations, individual blade control (IBC) and On-Blade Control (OBC) inputs that have been tried in the literature for vibration and noise control studies are used. For frequency domain evaluations, frequency sweep inputs are used to obtain frequency responses of fixed system hub loads to a single blade IBC input. The evaluation results demonstrate the fidelity of the extracted LTI models, and thus, establish the validity of the LTI model extraction process for use in integrated flight and rotor control
A general numerical model for wave rotor analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, Daniel W.
1992-01-01
Wave rotors represent one of the promising technologies for achieving very high core temperatures and pressures in future gas turbine engines. Their operation depends upon unsteady gas dynamics and as such, their analysis is quite difficult. This report describes a numerical model which has been developed to perform such an analysis. Following a brief introduction, a summary of the wave rotor concept is given. The governing equations are then presented, along with a summary of the assumptions used to obtain them. Next, the numerical integration technique is described. This is an explicit finite volume technique based on the method of Roe. The discussion then focuses on the implementation of appropriate boundary conditions. Following this, some results are presented which first compare the numerical approximation to the governing differential equations and then compare the overall model to an actual wave rotor experiment. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented concerning the limitations of the simplifying assumptions and areas where the model may be improved.
Finite state aeroelastic model for use in rotor design optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
He, Chengjian; Peters, David A.
1993-01-01
In this article, a rotor aeroelastic model based on a newly developed finite state dynamic wake, coupled with blade finite element analysis, is described. The analysis is intended for application in rotor blade design optimization. A coupled simultaneous system of differential equations combining blade structural dynamics and aerodynamics is established in a formulation well-suited for design sensitivity computation. Each blade is assumed to be an elastic beam undergoing flap bending, lead-lag bending, elastic twist, and axial deflections. Aerodynamic loads are computed from unsteady blade element theory where the rotor three-dimensional unsteady wake is described by a generalized dynamic wake model. Correlation of results obtained from the analysis with flight test data is provided to assess model accuracy.
Effects of different rub models on simulated rotor dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kascak, A. F.; Tomko, J. J.
1984-01-01
Using a direct integration, transient response rotor dynamics computer code, the response of turbine engine rotors to two different blade tip - seal interference rub models was studied. The first model, an abradable seal rub model, is based on an energy-loss-per-unit-volume theory (applicable to a ceramic turbine blade tip seal). The second, a smearin model, is based on viscous hydrodynamic theory (applicable to a metallic blade tip seal). The results from these two models were compared with those from a previously studied model based on dry friction theory. The abradable model was very senitive to small changes in the energy per unit volume, and once a threshold was exceeded, the rotor went into a backward whirl. The amplitude seemed to grow without limit. This was similar to the dry friction model when the coefficient of friction exceeded a particular threshold. The smearing model was not as sensitive to small changes in the viscosity, but a threshold viscosity was found. When it was exceeded, the rotor went into backward whirl, but the amplitude seemed to grow to a finite limit.
Rotor Broadband Noise Prediction with Comparison to Model Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.
2001-01-01
This paper reports an analysis and prediction development of rotor broadband noise. The two primary components of this noise are Blade-Wake Interaction (BWI) noise, due to the blades' interaction with the turbulent wakes of the preceding blades, and "Self" noise, due to the development and shedding of turbulence within the blades' boundary layers. Emphasized in this report is the new code development for Self noise. The analysis and validation employs data from the HART program, a model BO-105 rotor wind tunnel test conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). The BWI noise predictions are based on measured pressure response coherence functions using cross-spectral methods. The Self noise predictions are based on previously reported semiempirical modeling of Self noise obtained from isolated airfoil sections and the use of CAMRAD.Modl to define rotor performance and local blade segment flow conditions. Both BWI and Self noise from individual blade segments are Doppler shifted and summed at the observer positions. Prediction comparisons with measurements show good agreement for a range of rotor operating conditions from climb to steep descent. The broadband noise predictions, along with those of harmonic and impulsive Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise predictions, demonstrate a significant advance in predictive capability for main rotor noise.
A mathematical model for the doubly fed wound rotor generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brady, F. J.
1983-01-01
A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor machine used as a constant frequency generator is presented. The purpose of this analysis is to derive a consistent set of circuit equations which produce constant stator frequency and constant stator voltage. Starting with instantaneous circuit equations, the necessary rotor voltages and currents are derived. The model, thus obtained, is assumed to be valid, since the resulting relationships between mechanical power and active volt-amperes agrees with the results of others. In addition, the model allows for a new interpretation of the power flow in the doubly-fed generator.
Advance finite element modeling of rotor blade aeroelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Straub, F. K.; Sangha, K. B.; Panda, B.
1994-01-01
An advanced beam finite element has been developed for modeling rotor blade dynamics and aeroelasticity. This element is part of the Element Library of the Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS). The element allows modeling of arbitrary rotor systems, including bearingless rotors. It accounts for moderately large elastic deflections, anisotropic properties, large frame motion for maneuver simulation, and allows for variable order shape functions. The effects of gravity, mechanically applied and aerodynamic loads are included. All kinematic quantities required to compute airloads are provided. In this paper, the fundamental assumptions and derivation of the element matrices are presented. Numerical results are shown to verify the formulation and illustrate several features of the element.
A new dynamic model of rotor-blade systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Hui; Lu, Yang; Wu, Zhiyuan; Tai, Xingyu; Li, Hui; Wen, Bangchun
2015-11-01
A new dynamic model of rotor-blade systems is developed in this paper considering the lateral and torsional deformations of the shaft, gyroscopic effects of the rotor which consists of shaft and disk, and the centrifugal stiffening, spin softening and Coriolis force of the blades. In this model, the rotating flexible blades are represented by Timoshenko beams. The shaft and rigid disk are described by multiple lumped mass points (LMPs), and these points are connected by massless springs which have both lateral and torsional stiffness. LMPs are represented by the corresponding masses and mass moments of inertia in lateral and rotational directions, where each point has five degrees of freedom (dofs) excluding axial dof. Equations of motion of the rotor-blade system are derived using Hamilton's principle in conjunction with the assumed modes method to describe blade deformation. The proposed model is compared with both finite element (FE) model and real experiments. The proposed model is first validated by comparing the model natural frequencies and vibration responses with those obtained from an FE model. A further verification of the model is then performed by comparing the model natural frequencies at zero rotational speed with those obtained from experimental studies. The results shown a good agreement between the model predicted system characteristics and those obtained from the FE model and experimental tests. Moreover, the following interesting phenomena have been revealed from the new model based analysis: The torsional natural frequency of the system decreases with the increase of rotational speed, and the frequency veering phenomenon has been observed at high rotational speed; The complicated coupling modes, such as the blade-blade coupling mode (BB), the coupling mode between the rotor lateral vibration and blade bending (RBL), and the coupling mode between the rotor torsional vibration and blade bending (RBT), have also been observed when the number of
Wake model for helicopter rotors in high speed flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Wayne R.
1988-01-01
Two alternative approaches are developed to calculate blade-vortex interaction airloads on helicopter rotors: second order lifting-line theory, and a lifting surface theory correction. The common approach of using a larger vortex core radius to account for lifting-surface effects is quantified. The second order lifting-line theory also improves the modeling of yawed flow and swept tips. Calculated results are compared with wind tunnel measurements of lateral flapping, and with flight test measurements of blade section lift on SA349/2 and H-34 helicopter rotors. The tip vortex core radius required for good correlation with the flight test data is about 20 percent chord, which is within the range of measured viscous core sizes for helicopter rotors.
Modeling and simulation of coaxial helicopter rotor aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gecgel, Murat
A framework is developed for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of a series of helicopter rotor flowfields in hover and in forward flight. The methodology is based on the unsteady solutions of the three-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations recast in a rotating frame of reference. The simulations are carried out by solving the developed mathematical model on hybrid meshes that aim to optimally exploit the benefits of both the structured and the unstructured grids around complex configurations. The computer code is prepared for parallel processing with distributed memory utilization in order to significantly reduce the computational time and the memory requirements. The developed model and the simulation methodology are validated for single-rotor-in-hover flowfields by comparing the present results with the published experimental data. The predictive merit of different turbulence models for complex helicopter aerodynamics are tested extensively. All but the kappa-o and LES results demonstrate acceptable agreement with the experimental data. It was deemed best to use the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for the subsequent rotor flowfield computations. First, the flowfield around a single rotor in forward flight is simulated. These time---accurate computations help to analyze an adverse effect of increasing the forward flight speed. A dissymmetry of the lift on the advancing and the retreating blades is observed for six different advance ratios. Since the coaxial rotor is proposed to mitigate the dissymmetry, it is selected as the next logical step of the present investigation. The time---accurate simulations are successfully obtained for the flowfields generated by first a hovering then a forward-flying coaxial rotor. The results for the coaxial rotor in forward flight verify the aerodynamic balance proposed by the previously published advancing blade concept. The final set of analyses aims to investigate if the gap between the
Modelling and control of a rotor supported by magnetic bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gurumoorthy, R.; Pradeep, A. K.
1994-01-01
In this paper we develop a dynamical model of a rotor and the active magnetic bearings used to support the rotor. We use this model to develop a stable state feedback control of the magnetic bearing system. We present the development of a rigid body model of the rotor, utilizing both Rotation Matrices (Euler Angles) and Euler Parameters (Quaternions). In the latter half of the paper we develop a stable state feedback control of the actively controlled magnetic bearing to control the rotor position under inbalances. The control law developed takes into account the variation of the model with rotational speed. We show stability over the whole operating range of speeds for the magnetic bearing system. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the closed loop system performance. We develop the model of the magnetic bearing, and present two schemes for the excitation of the poles of the actively controlled magnetic bearing. We also present a scheme for averaging multiple sensor measurements and splitting the actuation forces amongst redundant actuators.
A numerical model for dynamic wave rotor analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, D. E.
1995-01-01
A numerical model has been developed which can predict the dynamic (and steady state) performance of a wave rotor, given the geometry and time dependent boundary conditions. The one-dimensional, perfect gas, CFD based code tracks the gasdynamics in each of the wave rotor passages as they rotate past the various ducts. The model can operate both on and off-design, allowing dynamic behavior to be studied throughout the operating range of the wave rotor. The model accounts for several major loss mechanisms including finite passage opening time, fluid friction, heat transfer to and from the passage walls, and leakage to and from the passage ends. In addition, it can calculate the amount of work transferred to and from the fluid when the flow in the ducts is not aligned with the passages such as occurs in off-design operation. Since it is one-dimensional, the model runs reasonably fast on a typical workstation. This paper will describe the model and present the results of some transient calculations for a conceptual four port wave rotor designed as a topping cycle for a small gas turbine engine.
Using a collision model to design safer wind turbine rotors for birds
Tucker, V.A.
1996-11-01
A mathematical model for collisions between birds and propeller-type turbine rotors identifies the variables that can be manipulated to reduce the probability that birds will collide with the rotor. This study defines a safety index--the clearance power density--that allows rotors of different sizes and designs to be compared in terms of the amount of wind energy converted to electrical energy per bird collision. The collision model accounts for variations in wind speed during the year and shows that for model rotors with simple, one-dimensional blades, the safety index increases in proportion to rotor diameter, and variable speed rotors have higher safety indexes than constant speed rotors. The safety index can also be increased by enlarging the region near the center of the rotor hub where the blades move slowly enough for birds to avoid them. Painting the blades to make them more visible might have this effect. Model rotors with practical designs can have safety indexes an order of magnitude higher than those for model rotors typical of the constant speeds rotors in common use today. This finding suggests that redesigned rotors could have collision rates with birds perhaps an order of magnitude lower than today`s rotors, with no reduction in the production of wind power. The empirical data that exist for collisions between raptors, such as hawks and eagles, and rotors are consistent with the model: the numbers of raptor carcasses found beneath large variable speed rotors, relative to the numbers found under small constant speed rotors, are in the proportions predicted by the collision model rather than in proportion to the areas swept by the rotor blades. However, uncontrolled variables associated with these data prevent a stronger claim of support for the model.
Wong, Bryan M; Raman, Sumathy
2007-03-01
We present quantum mechanical partition functions, free energies, entropies, and heat capacities of 1,3-butadiene derived from ab initio calculations. Our technique makes use of a reaction path-like Hamiltonian to couple all 23 vibrational modes to the large-amplitude torsion, which involves heavy asymmetric functional groups. Ab initio calculations were performed at the B3LYP, MP2, and CCSD(T) levels of theory and compared with experimental values as a reference case. By using the ab initio potentials and projected frequencies, simple perturbative expressions are presented for computing the couplings of all the vibrational modes to the large-amplitude torsion. The expressions are particularly suited for programming in the new STAR-P software platform which automatically parallelizes our codes with distributed memory via a familiar MATLAB interface. Using the efficient parallelization scheme of STAR-P, we obtain thermodynamic properties of 1,3-butadiene for temperatures ranging from 50 to 500 K. The free energies, entropies, and heat capacities obtained from our perturbative formulas are compared with conventional approximations and experimental values found in thermodynamic tables. PMID:17226834
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harendra, P. B.; Joglekar, M. J.; Gaffey, T. M.; Marr, R. L.
1973-01-01
A mathematical model for real-time flight simulation of a tilt rotor research aircraft was developed. The mathematical model was used to support the aircraft design, pilot training, and proof-of-concept aspects of the development program. The structure of the mathematical model is indicated by a block diagram. The mathematical model differs from that for a conventional fixed wing aircraft principally in the added requirement to represent the dynamics and aerodynamics of the rotors, the interaction of the rotor wake with the airframe, and the rotor control and drive systems. The constraints imposed on the mathematical model are defined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenstein, H.; Mcveigh, M. A.; Mollenkof, P. A.
1973-01-01
A mathematical model for a real time simulation of a tilt rotor aircraft was developed. The mathematical model is used for evaluating aircraft performance and handling qualities. The model is based on an eleven degree of freedom total force representation. The rotor is treated as a point source of forces and moments with appropriate response time lags and actuator dynamics. The aerodynamics of the wing, tail, rotors, landing gear, and fuselage are included.
General model and control of an n rotor helicopter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidea, A. G.; Yding Brogaard, R.; Andersen, N. A.; Ravn, O.
2014-12-01
The purpose of this study was to create a dynamic, nonlinear mathematical model of a multirotor that would be valid for different numbers of rotors. Furthermore, a set of Single Input Single Output (SISO) controllers were implemented for attitude control. Both model and controllers were tested experimentally on a quadcopter. Using the combined model and controllers, simple system simulation and control is possible, by replacing the physical values for the individual systems.
Wind tunnel investigations of model rotor noise at low tip speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aravamudan, K. S.; Lee, A.; Harris, W. L.
1978-01-01
Experimental and related analytical results on model rotor rotational and broadband noise obtained in the anechoic wind tunnel and rotor facility are summarized. Factors studied include various noise sources, effects of helicopter performance parameters on noise generated by a model main rotor, appropriate scaling laws for the various types of main rotor noise, and the effects of intensity and size scales of injected turbulence on the intensity and spectra of broadband noise.
A three-dimensional asymmetric magnetopause model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, R. L.; Zhang, X. X.; Liu, S. Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Gong, J. C.
2010-04-01
A new three-dimensional asymmetric magnetopause model has been developed for corrected GSM coordinates and parameterized by the solar wind dynamic and magnetic pressures (Pd + Pm), the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz, and the dipole tilt angle. On the basis of the magnetopause crossings from Geotail, IMP 8, Interball, TC1, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), Wind, Cluster, Polar, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), GOES, and Hawkeye, and the corresponding upstream solar wind parameters from ACE, Wind, or OMNI, this model is constructed by the Levenberg-Marquardt method for nonlinear multiparameter fitting step-by-step over the divided regions. The asymmetries of the magnetopause and the indentations near the cusps are appropriately described in this new model. In addition, the saturation effect of IMF Bz on the subsolar distance and the extrapolation for the distant tail magnetopause are also considered. On the basis of this model, the power law index for the subsolar distance versus Pd + Pm is a bit less than -1/6, the northward IMF Bz almost does not influence the magnetopause, and the dipole tilt angle is very important to the north-south asymmetry and the location of indentations. In comparison with the previous empirical magnetopause models based on our database, the new model improves prediction capability to describe the three-dimensional structure of the magnetopause. It is shown that this new model can be used to quantitatively study how Pd + Pm compresses the magnetopause, how the southward IMF Bz erodes the magnetopause, and how the dipole tilt angle influences the north-south asymmetry and the indentations.
An investigation of rotor harmonic noise by the use of small scale wind tunnel models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Schaffer, E. G.
1982-01-01
Noise measurements of small scale helicopter rotor models were compared with noise measurements of full scale helicopters to determine what information about the full scale helicopters could be derived from noise measurements of small scale helicopter models. Comparisons were made of the discrete frequency (rotational) noise for 4 pairs of tests. Areas covered were tip speed effects, isolated rotor, tandem rotor, and main rotor/tail rotor interaction. Results show good comparison of noise trends with configuration and test condition changes, and good comparison of absolute noise measurements with the corrections used except for the isolated rotor case. Noise measurements of the isolated rotor show a great deal of scatter reflecting the fact that the rotor in hover is basically unstable.
Theory and Modeling of Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions.
Lam, Yu-Hong; Grayson, Matthew N; Holland, Mareike C; Simon, Adam; Houk, K N
2016-04-19
Modern density functional theory and powerful contemporary computers have made it possible to explore complex reactions of value in organic synthesis. We describe recent explorations of mechanisms and origins of stereoselectivities with density functional theory calculations. The specific functionals and basis sets that are routinely used in computational studies of stereoselectivities of organic and organometallic reactions in our group are described, followed by our recent studies that uncovered the origins of stereocontrol in reactions catalyzed by (1) vicinal diamines, including cinchona alkaloid-derived primary amines, (2) vicinal amidophosphines, and (3) organo-transition-metal complexes. Two common cyclic models account for the stereoselectivity of aldol reactions of metal enolates (Zimmerman-Traxler) or those catalyzed by the organocatalyst proline (Houk-List). Three other models were derived from computational studies described in this Account. Cinchona alkaloid-derived primary amines and other vicinal diamines are venerable asymmetric organocatalysts. For α-fluorinations and a variety of aldol reactions, vicinal diamines form enamines at one terminal amine and activate electrophilically with NH(+) or NF(+) at the other. We found that the stereocontrolling transition states are cyclic and that their conformational preferences are responsible for the observed stereoselectivity. In fluorinations, the chair seven-membered cyclic transition states is highly favored, just as the Zimmerman-Traxler chair six-membered aldol transition state controls stereoselectivity. In aldol reactions with vicinal diamine catalysts, the crown transition states are favored, both in the prototype and in an experimental example, shown in the graphic. We found that low-energy conformations of cyclic transition states occur and control stereoselectivities in these reactions. Another class of bifunctional organocatalysts, the vicinal amidophosphines, catalyzes the (3 + 2) annulation
Helicopter rotor dynamic inflow modeling for maneuvering flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krothapalli, Krishnamohan Rao
Finite-state dynamic inflow models for the wake of a helicopter rotor are necessary for the implementation of real-time flight simulation models. There has been a discrepancy between helicopter simulation model response and true vehicle response that has perplexed researchers for many years. This "off-axis problem" is believed to be caused by inaccurate representation of the inflow at the rotor disk during pitching or rolling maneuvers. Current simulation models predict an initial off-axis response to cyclic stick inputs that are opposite in sign to responses of the corresponding flight tests. This study addresses this problem by modifying existing inflow models to account for variations in the rotor wake during maneuvering flight. It is shown that only compact modifications to finite-state inflow models are needed to capture these effects in the inflow dynamics. Vortex and momentum theories are used to model the effect of wake curvature expected in maneuvering flight. It is believed that the curvature of the wake results in inflow gradients that affect the flapping dynamics, mainly in the off-axis channel. While this effect is greatest in hover, where the inflow is largest, it is also significant for low speed conditions where the inflow is still plays a major role. The curvature and contraction of the wake vary greatly in the flight envelope, so it is necessary to construct a unified model (for the inflow coupling due to wake curvature) that is applicable in all flight conditions. The final result is a modified, Peters-He generalized dynamic wake model with curvature augmentation. Specifically, the L-matrix of the Peters-He model is modified by extending a general vortex tube result for arbitrary load distributions. This extended wake model is then coupled with a rotor flapping model, and the flap and hub moment responses are studied in hover and forward flight. Comparisons are made between the simulation model and the Sikorsky Bearingless Main Rotor (SBMR) at 40
Wind tunnel investigation of helicopter-rotor wake effects on three helicopter fuselage models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, J. C.; Mineck, R. E.
1975-01-01
The effects of rotor wake on helicopter fuselage aerodynamic characteristics were investigated in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. Force, moment, and pressure data were obtained on three fuselage models at various combinations of windspeed, sideslip angle, and pitch angle. The data show that the influence of rotor wake on the helicopter fuselage yawing moment imposes a significant additional thrust requirement on the tail rotor of a single-rotor helicopter at high sideslip angles.
Correlation of full-scale helicopter rotor performance in air with model-scale Freon data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeager, W. T., Jr.; Mantay, W. R.
1976-01-01
An investigation was conducted in a transonic dynamics tunnel to measure the performance of a 1/5 scale model helicopter rotor in a Freon atmosphere. Comparisons were made between these data and full scale data obtained in air. Both the model and full scale tests were conducted at advance ratios between 0.30 and 0.40 and advancing tip Mach numbers between 0.79 and 0.95. Results show that correlation of model scale rotor performance data obtained in Freon with full scale rotor performance data in air is good with regard to data trends. Mach number effects were found to be essentially the same for the model rotor performance data obtained in Freon and the full scale rotor performance data obtained in air. It was determined that Reynolds number effects may be of the same magnitude or smaller than rotor solidity effects or blade elastic modeling in rotor aerodynamic performance testing.
Rigid reflection-asymmetric rotor description of the nucleus /sup 227/Ac
Leander, G.A.; Chen, Y.S.
1987-03-01
A model based on a static quadrupole and octupole deformation of the intrinsic nuclear shape gives an accurate description of the low-energy level spectrum and wave functions in /sup 227/Ac. Major discrepancies between strong-coupling theory and experiment are removed by taking into account the nonadiabaticity of the nucleonic motion.
Centrifuge Rotor Models: A Comparison of the Euler-Lagrange and the Bond Graph Modeling Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Granda, Jose J.; Ramakrishnan, Jayant; Nguyen, Louis H.
2006-01-01
A viewgraph presentation on centrifuge rotor models with a comparison using Euler-Lagrange and bond graph methods is shown. The topics include: 1) Objectives; 2) MOdeling Approach Comparisons; 3) Model Structures; and 4) Application.
Up- and down-wind rotor half interference model for VAWT
Mccoy, H.; Loth, J.L.
1981-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical aerodynamic performance optimization for two dimensional vertical axis wind turbines. A momentum type wake model is introduced with separate cosine type interference coefficients for the up and downwind half of the rotor. The cosine type loading permits the rotor blades to become unloaded near the junction of the upwind and downwind rotor halves. Both the optimum and the off design magnitude of the interference coefficients are obtained by equating the drag on each of the rotor halves to that on each of two cosine loaded actuator discs in series. The values for the optimum rotor efficiency, solidity and corresponding interference coefficients have been obtained in a closed form analytic solution by maximizing the power extracted from the downwind rotor half as well as from the entire rotor. A numerical solution was required when viscous effects were incorporated in the rotor optimization.
A mathematical model of bird collisions with wind turbine rotors
Tucker, V.A.
1996-11-01
When a bird flies through the disk swept out by the blades of a wind turbine rotor, the probability of collision depends on the motions and dimensions of the bird and the blades. The collision model in this paper predicts the probability for birds that glide upwind, downwind, an across the wind past simple one-dimensional blades represented by straight lines, and upwind and downwind past more realistic three-dimensional blades with chord and twist. Probabilities vary over the surface of the disk, and in most cases, the tip of the blade is less likely to collide with a bird than parts of the blade nearer the hub. The mean probability may be found by integration over the disk area. The collision model identifies the rotor characteristics that could be altered to make turbines safer for birds.
Rotor stability estimation with competing tilting pad bearing models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cloud, C. Hunter; Maslen, Eric H.; Barrett, Lloyd E.
2012-05-01
When predicting the stability of rotors supported by tilting pad journal bearings, it is currently debated whether or not the bearings should be represented with frequency dependent dynamics. Using an experimental apparatus, measurements of pad temperatures, unbalance response and stability are compared with modeling predictions for two tilting pad bearing designs. Predictions based on frequency dependent tilting pad bearing dynamics exhibited significantly better correlation with the stability measurements than those assuming frequency independent dynamics.
Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.
2000-01-01
Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.
Analytical model of rotor wake aerodynamics in ground effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saberi, H. A.
1983-01-01
The model and the computer program developed provides the velocity, location, and circulation of the tip vortices of a two-blade helicopter in and out of the ground effect. Comparison of the theoretical results with some experimental measurements for the location of the wake indicate that there is excellent accuracy in the vicinity of the rotor and fair amount of accuracy far from it. Having the location of the wake at all times enables us to compute the history of the velocity and the location of any point in the flow. The main goal of out study, induced velocity at the rotor, can also be calculated in addition to stream lines and streak lines. Since the wake location close to the rotor is known more accurately than at other places, the calculated induced velocity over the disc should be a good estimate of the real induced velocity, with the exception of the blade location, because each blade was replaced only by a vortex line. Because no experimental measurements of the wake close to the ground were available to us, quantitative evaluation of the theoretical wake was not possible. But qualitatively we have been able to show excellent agreement. Comparison of flow visualization with out results has indicated the location of the ground vortex is estimated excellently. Also the flow field in hover is well represented.
Model rotor low frequency broadband noise at moderate tip speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Humbad, N. G.; Harris, W. L.
1980-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of low frequency broadband noise (LFBN) radiated from model helicopter rotors are presented. The results are for a range of tip Mach numbers (Mt) up to 0.50. The effect of rotor blade loading, advance ratio, tip speed, number of blades and free stream turbulence on the sound pressure level (SPL) and the spectrum of LFBN have been investigated. The peak SPL of LFBN appears to follow an M(4) law if the effect of rms turbulence velocity is removed. The peak SPL of LFBN seems to saturate with increases in advance ratio and with blade loading, and is proportional to the square of the turbulence integral scale when the effect of rms turbulence velocity and Mt are removed. Also, a simple peak SPL scaling law for noise from a helicopter rotor in forward flight due to convected sinusoidal gust is developed. The trend predicted by this scaling law is found to be satisfactory for the variation of the peak SPL of LFBN with tip speed.
Model helicopter rotor high-speed impulsive noise: Measured acoustics and blade pressures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.
1983-01-01
A 1/17-scale research model of the AH-1 series helicopter main rotor was tested. Model-rotor acoustic and simultaneous blade pressure data were recorded at high speeds where full-scale helicopter high-speed impulsive noise levels are known to be dominant. Model-rotor measurements of the peak acoustic pressure levels, waveform shapes, and directively patterns are directly compared with full-scale investigations, using an equivalent in-flight technique. Model acoustic data are shown to scale remarkably well in shape and in amplitude with full-scale results. Model rotor-blade pressures are presented for rotor operating conditions both with and without shock-like discontinuities in the radiated acoustic waveform. Acoustically, both model and full-scale measurements support current evidence that above certain high subsonic advancing-tip Mach numbers, local shock waves that exist on the rotor blades ""delocalize'' and radiate to the acoustic far-field.
Acoustic predictions using measured pressures from a model rotor in the DNW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Visintainer, Joseph A.; Burley, Casey L.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Liu, Sandy R.
1991-01-01
A contemporary design, 4-bladed United Technologies model rotor with pressure-instrumented blades was tested in the Duits-Nederslandse Windtunnel. Simultaneous acoustic and pressure measurements were made for a wide range of operating conditions. Microphones were optimally positioned at a number of locations in the flow forward of the rotor to measure rotor thickness noise, high-speed impulsive noise (both in the rotor plane), and blade-vortex interaction noise (forward and 25 deg below the rotor plane). The blade surface pressure data are used as aerodynamic input to WOPWOP, which is a state-of-the-art rotor noise prediction program that predicts rotor thickness and loading noise. The predicted results using WOPWOP are compared to the measured noise levels for cases where either thickness noise, blade-vortex interaction noise, or high-speed impulsive noise is the dominant noise mechanism. The comparisons show regions of good agreement, as well as areas where further improvement is necessary.
Comparing Test Data on Scale-Model Helicopter Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kitaplioglu, Cahit; Shinoda, Patrick
1987-01-01
Hovering data correlate well, but forward-flight data do not. Report compares acoustics and performance of small-scale helicopter rotor with those of full-scale rotor in both hovering and forward flight.
Asymmetric optimal-velocity car-following model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xihua; Pang, John; Monterola, Christopher
2015-10-01
Taking the asymmetric characteristic of the velocity differences of vehicles into account, we present an asymmetric optimal velocity model for a car-following theory. The asymmetry between the acceleration and the deceleration is represented by the exponential function with an asymmetrical factor, which agrees with the published experiment. This model avoids the disadvantage of the unrealistically high acceleration appearing in previous models when the velocity difference becomes large. This model is simple and only has two independent parameters. The linear stability condition is derived and the phase transition of the traffic flow appears beyond the critical density. The strength of interaction between clusters is shown to increase with the asymmetry factor in our model.
Flap motion of helicopter rotors with novel, dynamic stall model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Wei; Liu, Jie; Liu, Chun; Chen, Lei; Su, Xichao; Zhao, Peng
2016-07-01
In this paper, a nonlinear flapping equation for large inflow angles and flap angles is established by analyzing the aerodynamics of helicopter blade elements. In order to obtain a generalized flap equation, the Snel stall model was first applied to determine the lift coefficient of the helicopter rotor. A simulation experiment for specific airfoils was then conducted to verify the effectiveness of the Snel stall model as it applies to helicopters. Results show that the model requires no extraneous parameters compared to the traditional stall model and is highly accurate and practically applicable. Based on the model, the relationship between the flapping angle and the angle of attack was analyzed, as well as the advance ratio under the dynamic stall state.
Wind-tunnel acoustic results of two rotor models with several tip designs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, R. M.; Connor, A. B.
1986-01-01
A three-phase research program has been undertaken to study the acoustic signals due to the aerodynamic interaction of rotorcraft main rotors and tail rotors. During the first phase, two different rotor models with several interchangeable tips were tested in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel on the U.S. Army rotor model system. An extensive acoustic data base was acquired, with special emphasis on blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. The details of the experimental procedure, acoustic data acquisition, and reduction are documented. The overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of the high-twist rotor systems is relatively insensitive to flight speed but generally increases with rotor tip-path-plane angle. The OASPL of the high-twist rotors is dominated by acoustic energy in the low-frequency harmonics. The OASPL of the low-twist rotor systems shows more dependence on flight speed than the high-twist rotors, in addition to being quite sensitive to tip-path-plane angle. An integrated band-limited sound pressure level, limited by 500 to 3000 Hz, is a useful metric to quantify the occurrence of BVI noise. The OASPL of the low-twist rotors is strongly influenced by the band-limited sound levels, indicating that the blade-vortex impulsive noise is a dominant noise source for this rotor design. The midfrequency acoustic levels for both rotors show a very strong dependence on rotor tip-path-plane angle. The tip-path-plane angle at which the maximum midfrequency sound level occurs consistently decreases with increasing flight speed. The maximum midfrequency sound level measured at a given location is constant regardless of the flight speed.
A mathematical model of a single main rotor helicopter for piloted simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Talbot, P. D.; Tinling, B. E.; Decker, W. A.; Chen, R. T. N.
1982-01-01
A mathematical model, suitable for piloted simulation of the flying qualities of helicopters, is a nonlinear, total force and moment model of a single main rotor helicopter. The model has ten degrees of freedom: six rigid body, three rotor flapping, and the rotor rotational degrees of freedom. The rotor model assumes rigid blades with rotor forces and moments radially integrated and summed about the azimuth. The fuselage aerodynamic model uses a detailed representation over a nominal angle of attack and sideslip range of + or - 15 deg., as well as a simplified curve fit at large angles of attack or sideslip. Stabilizing surface aerodynamics are modeled with a lift curve slope between stall limits and a general curve fit for large angles of attack. A generalized stability and control augmentation system is described. Additional computer subroutines provide options for a simplified engine/governor model, atmospheric turbulence, and a linearized six degree of freedom dynamic model for stability and control analysis.
Approximations for inclusion of rotor lag dynamics in helicopter flight dynamics models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckillip, Robert, Jr.; Curtiss, Howard C., Jr.
1991-01-01
Approximate forms are suggested for augmenting linear rotor/body response models to include rotor lag dynamics. Use of an analytically linearized rotor/body model has shown that the primary effect comes from the additional angular rate contributions of the lag inertial response. Addition of lag dynamics may be made assuming these dynamics are represented by an isolated rotor with no shaft motion. Implications of such an approximation are indicated through comparison with flight test data and sensitivity of stability levels with body rate feedback.
Acoustic characteristics of 1/20-scale model helicopter rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shenoy, Rajarama K.; Kohlhepp, Fred W.; Leighton, Kenneth P.
1986-01-01
A wind tunnel test to study the effects of geometric scale on acoustics and to investigate the applicability of very small scale models for the study of acoustic characteristics of helicopter rotors was conducted in the United Technologies Research Center Acoustic Research Tunnel. The results show that the Reynolds number effects significantly alter the Blade-Vortex-Interaction (BVI) Noise characteristics by enhancing the lower frequency content and suppressing the higher frequency content. In the time domain this is observed as an inverted thickness noise impulse rather than the typical positive-negative impulse of BVI noise. At higher advance ratio conditions, in the absence of BVI, the 1/20 scale model acoustic trends with Mach number follow those of larger scale models. However, the 1/20 scale model acoustic trends appear to indicate stall at higher thrust and advance ratio conditions.
Modeling Disk Cracks in Rotors by Utilizing Speed Dependent Eccentricity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Haase, Wayne C.
2010-03-01
This paper discusses the feasibility of vibration-based structural health monitoring for detecting disk cracks in rotor systems. The approach of interest assumes that a crack located on a rotating disk causes a minute change in the system’s center of mass due to the centrifugal force induced opening of the crack. The center of mass shift is expected to reveal itself in the vibration vector (i.e., whirl response; plotted as amplitude and phase versus speed) gathered during a spin-up and/or spin-down test. Here, analysis is accomplished by modeling a Jeffcott rotor that is characterized by analytical, numerical, and experimental data. The model, which has speed dependent eccentricity, is employed in order to better understand the sensitivity of the approach. For the experimental set-up emulated here (i.e., a single disk located mid-span on a flexible shaft), it appears that a rather sizable flaw in the form of a through-thickness notch could be detected by monitoring the damage-induced shift in center of mass. Although, identifying actual disk cracks in complex “real world” environments, where noncritical crack lengths are small and excessive mechanical and/or electrical noise are present, would prove to be rather challenging. Further research is needed in this regard.
A structural model for composite rotor blades and lifting surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Atilgan, Ali R.
1987-01-01
Composite material systems are currently candidates for aerospace structures, primarily for the design flexibiity they offer i.e., it is possible to tailor the material and manufacturing approach to the application. Two notable examples are the wing of the Grumman/USAF/DARPA X-29 and rotor blades under development by the U.S.A. Aerostructures Directorate (AVSCOM), Langley Research Center. A working definition of elastic or structural tailoring is the use of structural concept, fiber orientation, ply stacking sequence, and a blend of materials to achieve specific performance goals. In the design process, choices of materials and dimensions are made which produce specific response characteristics which permit the selected goals to be achieved. Common choices for tailoring goals are preventing instabilities or vibration resonances or enhancing damage tolerance. An essential, enabling factor in the design of tailored composite structures is structural modeling that accurately, but simply, characterizes response. The objective of this paper is to improve the single-cell beam model for composite rotor blades or lifting surfaces and to demonstrate its usefullness in applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marr, R. L.; Sambell, K. W.; Neal, G. T.
1973-01-01
Stability and control tests of a scale model of a tilt rotor research aircraft were conducted. The characteristics of the model for hover, low speed, and conversion flight were analyzed. Hover tests were conducted in a rotor whirl cage. Helicopter and conversion tests were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel. Data obtained from the tests are presented as tables and graphs. Diagrams and illustrations of the test equipment are provided.
Reduction of high-speed impulsive noise by blade planform modification of a model helicopter rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conner, D. A.; Hoad, D. R.
1982-01-01
The reduction of high speed impulsive noise for the UH-1H helicopter was investigated by using an advanced main rotor system. The advanced rotor system had a tapered blade planform compared with the rectangular planform of the standard rotor system. Models of both the advanced main rotor system and the UH-1H standard main rotor system were tested at 1/4 scale in the 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel. In plane acoustic measurements of the high speed impulsive noise demonstrated that the advanced rotor system on the UH-1H helicopter reduced the high speed impulsive noise by up to 20 dB, with a reduction in overall sound pressure level of up to 5 dB.
Numerical Modeling of Dependence of Separative Power of the Gas Centrifuge on the Length of Rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogovalov, S. V.; Borisevich, V. D.; Borman, V. D.; Tronin, I. V.; Tronin, V. N.
Numerical modelling and optimization of the gas flow and isotope separation in the Iguasu gas centrifuge (GC) for uranium enrichment have been performed for different lengths of the rotor. The calculations show that the specific separative power of the GC reduces with the length of the rotor. We show that the reduction of the specific separative power is connected with the growth of the pressure in the optimal regime and corresponding growth of temperature to prevent the working gas sublimation. The specific separative power remains constant with the growth of the rotor length provided that the temperature of the rotor is taken to be constant.
Performance degradation of a model helicopter rotor with a generic ice shape
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korkan, K. D.; Cross, E. J., Jr.; Miller, T. L.
1984-01-01
An experimental program using a commercially available remotely controlled model helicopter in the Texas A&M University (TAMU) subsonic wind tunnel has been conducted to investigate the performance degradation resulting from the simulated formation of ice on the leading edge of the main rotor blades in both hover and forward flight. The rotor blades utilized a NACA 0012 airfoil with a 2.5-in. constant chord. A generic ice shape derived from a predetermined natural ice condition was applied to the 53.375-in.-diameter main rotor, and thrust and torque coefficients were measured for the main rotor as functions of velocity, main rotor rpm, fuselage angle of incidence, collective pitch angle, and spanwise extent of icing. The model helicopter test exhibited significant performance degradation of the main rotor when generic ice was added. An increase of approximately 150 percent in torque coefficient to maintain a constant thrust coefficient was noted when generic ice had been applied to the 85 percent rotor radial location. Also, considerable additional degradation occurred when generic ice was applied to the 100 percent rotor radial location, as compared with the 85 percent simulated ice performance values, indicating the sensitivity of the rotor tip region.
Vibration model of rolling element bearings in a rotor-bearing system for fault diagnosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cong, Feiyun; Chen, Jin; Dong, Guangming; Pecht, Michael
2013-04-01
Rolling element bearing faults are among the main causes of breakdown in rotating machines. In this paper, a rolling bearing fault model is proposed based on the dynamic load analysis of a rotor-bearing system. The rotor impact factor is taken into consideration in the rolling bearing fault signal model. The defect load on the surface of the bearing is divided into two parts, the alternate load and the determinate load. The vibration response of the proposed fault signal model is investigated and the fault signal calculating equation is derived through dynamic and kinematic analysis. Outer race and inner race fault simulations are realized in the paper. The simulation process includes consideration of several parameters, such as the gravity of the rotor-bearing system, the imbalance of the rotor, and the location of the defect on the surface. The simulation results show that different amplitude contributions of the alternate load and determinate load will cause different envelope spectrum expressions. The rotating frequency sidebands will occur in the envelope spectrum in addition to the fault characteristic frequency. This appearance of sidebands will increase the difficulty of fault recognition in intelligent fault diagnosis. The experiments given in the paper have successfully verified the proposed signal model simulation results. The test rig design of the rotor bearing system simulated several operating conditions: (1) rotor bearing only; (2) rotor bearing with loader added; (3) rotor bearing with loader and rotor disk; and (4) bearing fault simulation without rotor influence. The results of the experiments have verified that the proposed rolling bearing signal model is important to the rolling bearing fault diagnosis of rotor-bearing systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vishwakarma, Vinod
Modified Modal Domain Analysis (MMDA) is a novel method for the development of a reduced-order model (ROM) of a bladed rotor. This method utilizes proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) data of blades' geometries and sector analyses using ANSYS. For the first time ROM of a geometrically mistuned industrial scale rotor (Transonic rotor) with large size of Finite Element (FE) model is generated using MMDA. Two methods for estimating mass and stiffness mistuning matrices are used a) exact computation from sector FE analysis, b) estimates based on POD mistuning parameters. Modal characteristics such as mistuned natural frequencies, mode shapes and forced harmonic response are obtained from ROM for various cases, and results are compared with full rotor ANSYS analysis and other ROM methods such as Subset of Nominal Modes (SNM) and Fundamental Model of Mistuning (FMM). Accuracy of MMDA ROM is demonstrated with variations in number of POD features and geometric mistuning parameters. It is shown for the aforementioned case b) that the high accuracy of ROM studied in previous work with Academic rotor does not directly translate to the Transonic rotor. Reasons for such mismatch in results are investigated and attributed to higher mistuning in Transonic rotor. Alternate solutions such as estimation of sensitivities via least squares, and interpolation of mass and stiffness matrices on manifolds are developed, and their results are discussed. Statistics such as mean and standard deviations of forced harmonic response peak amplitude are obtained from random permutations, and are shown to have similar results as those of Monte Carlo simulations. These statistics are obtained and compared for 3 degree of freedom (DOF) lumped parameter model (LPM) of rotor, Academic rotor and Transonic rotor. A state -- estimator based on MMDA ROM and Kalman filter is also developed for offline or online estimation of harmonic forcing function from
Whirl and whip instabilities in rotor-bearing system considering a nonlinear force model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Castro, Helio Fiori; Cavalca, Katia Lucchesi; Nordmann, Rainer
2008-10-01
Linear models and synchronous response are generally adequate to describe and analyze rotors supported by hydrodynamic bearings. Hence, stiffness and damping coefficients can provide a good model for a wide range of situations. However, in some cases, this approach does not suffice to describe the dynamic behavior of the rotor-bearing system. Moreover, unstable motion occurs due to precessional orbits in the rotor-bearing system. This instability is called "oil whirl" or "oil whip". The oil whirl phenomenon occurs when the journal bearings are lightly loaded and the shaft is whirling at a frequency close to one-half of rotor angular speed. When the angular speed of the rotor reaches approximately twice the natural frequency (first critical speed), the oil whip phenomenon occurs and remains even if the rotor angular speed increases. Its frequency and vibration mode correspond to the first critical speed. The main purpose of this paper is to validate a complete nonlinear solution to simulate the fluid-induced instability during run-up and run-down. A flexible rotor with a central disk under unbalanced excitation is modeled. A nonlinear hydrodynamic model is considered for short bearing and laminar flow. The effects of unbalance, journal-bearing parameters and rotor arrangement (vertical or horizontal) on the instability threshold are verified. The model simulations are compared with measurements at a real vertical power plant and a horizontal test rig.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Y. C.; Hsiao, Yi-Feng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; To, Kiwing
2016-02-01
The rotation of the γ subunit of F1-ATPase is stochastic, processive, unidirectional, reversible through an external torque, and stepwise with a slow rotation. We propose a mechanism that can explain these properties of the rotary molecular motor, and that can determine the direction of rotation. The asymmetric structures of the γ subunit, both at the tip of the shaft (C and N termini) and at the part (ɛ subunit) protruding from the α3β3 subunits, are critical. The torque required for stochastic rotation is generated from the impulsive reactive force due to the random collisions between the γ subunit and the quasihexagonal α3β3 subunits. The rotation is the result of the random motion of the confined asymmetric γ subunit. The steps originate from the chemical reactions of the γ subunit and physical interaction between the γ subunit and the flexible protrusions of the α3β3 subunits. An external torque as well as a configurational modification in the γ subunit (the central rotor) can reverse the rotational direction. We demonstrate the applicability of the mechanism to a macroscopic simulation system, which has the essential ingredients of the F1-ATPase structure, by reproducing the dynamic properties of the rotation.
Dynamic model of neural networks with asymmetric diluted couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, M. Y.; Choi, Meekyoung
1990-06-01
We study an asymmetric diluted version of the dynamic model for neural networks proposed recently, which explicitly takes into account the existence of several time scales without discretizing the time. The dynamics is neither totally synchronous nor totally asynchronous, and the couplings in the neural networks are asymmetric. These considerations may be regarded as more biologically realistic. We obtain the phase diagram as a function of the temperature ɛ-1, the capacity α, and the ratio a of the refractory period to the action potential duration.
Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads with a constant vorticity contour free wake model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quackenbush, Todd R.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.
1991-01-01
An analytical method is presented which facilitates the study of isolated rotors with an improved approach to wake simulation. Vortex filaments are simulated along contours of constant sheet strength for the sheet of vorticity resulting from each rotor blade. Curved vortex elements comprise the filaments which can be distorted by the local velocity field. Called the Constant Vorticity Contour wake model, the approach permits the simulation of the blades' wakes corresponding to the full span of the rotor blade. The discretization of the wake of the rotor blade produces spacing and structure that are consistent with the spatial and temporal variations in the loading. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the blade is also included which introduces a finite-element structural model of the blade and consideration of the force and moment trim analysis. Results of the present version of the simulation, called RotorCRAFT, are found to correlate well with H-34 flight-test data.
Modelling Aerodynamically Generated Sound: Recent Advances in Rotor Noise Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brentner, Kenneth S.
2000-01-01
A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound for rotors over the past decade. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H ) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparison of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems.
Model rotor icing tests in the NASA Lewis icing research tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flemming, Robert J.; Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.
1991-01-01
Tests of a lightly instrumented two-bladed teetering rotor and a heavily instrumented sub-scale articulated main rotor were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in August 1988 and September and November 1989. The first was an OH-58 tail rotor which had a diameter of 1.575 m and a blade chord of 0.133 m, and was mounted on a NASA designed test rig. The second, a four bladed articulated rotor, had a diameter of 1.83 m with 0.124 m chord blades specially fabricated for the experiment. This rotor was mounted on a Sikorsky Aircraft Powered Force Model, which enclosed a rotor balance and other measurement systems. The models were exposed to variations in temperature, liquid water content, and medium droplet diameter, and were operated over ranges of advance ratio, shaft angle, tip Mach number (rotor speed), and weight coefficient to determine the effect of these parameters on ice accretion. In addition to strain gage and balance data, the test was documented with still, video, and high speed photography, ice profile tracing, and ice molds. Presented here are the sensitivity of the model rotors to the test parameters and a comparison of the results to theoretical predictions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, R. K., Jr.; Tompkins, J. E.; Bobo, C. J.; Child, R. F.
1971-01-01
A wind tunnel test program was conducted on an eight foot diameter model rotor system to determine blade element airloads characteristics in the unstalled and stalled flight regimes. The fully articulated model rotor system utilized three blades with a Vertol 23010-1.58 airfoil section, the blades being 1/7.5 scale models of the Ch-47C rotor blades. Instrumentation was incorporated at the blade 75% radial station to measure pressure and skin friction distributions, surface streamline directions and local angle of attack. The test program was conducted in three phases; non-rotating, hover and forward flight at advance ratios of 0.15, 0.35 and 0.60. Test data were analyzed with respect to providing insight to the mechanisms affecting blade stall, particularly retreating blade stall during forward flight conditions. From such data, an assessment was made as to the applicability of current theoretical analyses used for the prediction of blade element airloads in the stall regime.
Acoustical Tests Of A Scale-Model Helicopter Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kitaplioglu, Cahit; Kinney, Christopher
1988-01-01
Data obtained in simulated hovering flight in open environment. Report discusses measurements of sound generated in outdoor hoovering tests of 1/6-scale, four bladed helicopter rotor. Information of delineation between accoustic near field and far field and on effect of simple boundary-layer-tripping device. Also covers rotor accoustics at low thrust and at high thrust.
Recent developments in rotor wake modeling for helicopter noise prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poling, D.; Dadone, L.; Althoff, S.
1991-01-01
A preliminary test/theory correlation evaluation is conducted for wake measurement test results obtained by LDV for a B360 helicopter rotor, at conditions critical to the understanding of wake-rollup and blade-vortex interaction phenomena. The LDV data were complemented by acoustic, blade pressure, rotor performance, and blade/control load measurements.
Analysis of the wind tunnel test of a tilt rotor power force model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marr, R. L.; Ford, D. G.; Ferguson, S. W.
1974-01-01
Two series of wind tunnel tests were made to determine performance, stability and control, and rotor wake interaction on the airframe, using a one-tenth scale powered force model of a tilt rotor aircraft. Testing covered hover (IGE/OCE), helicopter, conversion, and airplane flight configurations. Forces and moments were recorded for the model from predetermined trim attitudes. Control positions were adjusted to trim flight (one-g lift, pitching moment and drag zero) within the uncorrected test data balance accuracy. Pitch and yaw sweeps were made about the trim attitudes with the control held at the trimmed settings to determine the static stability characteristics. Tail on, tail off, rotors on, and rotors off configurations were testes to determine the rotor wake effects on the empennage. Results are presented and discussed.
Prediction and measurement of low-frequency harmonic noise of a hovering model helicopter rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aggarawal, H. R.; Schmitz, F. H.; Boxwell, D. A.
1989-01-01
Far-field acoustic data for a model helicopter rotor have been gathered in a large open-jet, acoustically treated wind tunnel with the rotor operating in hover and out of ground-effect. The four-bladed Boeing 360 model rotor with advanced airfoils, planform, and tip shape was run over a range of conditions typical of today's modern helicopter main rotor. Near in-plane acoustic measurements were compared with two independent implementations of classical linear theory. Measured steady thrust and torque were used together with a free-wake analysis (to predict the thrust and drag distributions along the rotor radius) as input to this first-principles theoretical approach. Good agreement between theory and experiment was shown for both amplitude and phase for measurements made in those positions that minimized distortion of the radiated acoustic signature at low-frequencies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bousman, William G.
1988-01-01
Three cases were selected for correlation from an experiment that examined the aeromechanical stability of a small-scale model of a hingeless rotor and fuselage in hover. The first case examined the stability of a configuration with 0 degree blade pitch so that coupling between dynamic modes was minimized. The second case was identical to the first except the blade pitch was set to 9 degrees which provides flap-lag coupling of the rotor modes. The third case had 9 degrees of blade pitch and also included negative pitch-lag coupling, and therefore was the most highly coupled configuration. Analytical calculations were made by Bell Helicopter Textron, Boeing Vertol, Hughes Helicopters, Sikorsky Aircraft, the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory, and NASA Ames Research Center and compared to some or all of the experimental cases. Overall, the correlation ranged from very poor-to-poor to good.
Wind-Tunnel Survey of an Oscillating Flow Field for Application to Model Helicopter Rotor Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mirick, Paul H.; Hamouda, M-Nabil H.; Yeager, William T., Jr.
1990-01-01
A survey was conducted of the flow field produced by the Airstream Oscillator System (AOS) in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The magnitude of a simulated gust field was measured at 15 locations in the plane of a typical model helicopter rotor when tested in the TDT using the Aeroelastic Rotor Experimental System (ARES) model. These measurements were made over a range of tunnel dynamic pressures typical of those used for an ARES test. The data indicate that the gust field produced by the AOS is non-uniform across the tunnel test section, but should be sufficient to excite a model rotor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laiho, Antti; Holopainen, Timo P.; Klinge, Paul; Arkkio, Antero
2007-05-01
In this work the effects of the electromechanical interaction on rotordynamics and vibration characteristics of cage rotor electrical machines were considered. An eccentric rotor motion distorts the electromagnetic field in the air-gap between the stator and rotor inducing a total force, the unbalanced magnetic pull, exerted on the rotor. In this paper a low-order parametric model for the unbalanced magnetic pull is coupled with a three-dimensional finite element structural model of the electrical machine. The main contribution of the work is to present a computationally efficient electromechanical model for vibration analysis of cage rotor machines. In this model, the interaction between the mechanical and electromagnetic systems is distributed over the air gap of the machine. This enables the inclusion of rotor and stator deflections into the analysis and, thus, yields more realistic prediction for the effects of electromechanical interaction. The model was tested by implementing it for two electrical machines with nominal speeds close to one of the rotor bending critical speeds. Rated machine data was used in order to predict the effects of the electromechanical interaction on vibration characteristics of the example machines.
Vibratory Loads Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Structurally Tailored Model Helicopter Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeager, William T., Jr.; Hamouda, M-Nabil H.; Idol, Robert F.; Mirick, Paul H.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.
1991-01-01
An experimental study was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to investigate the use of a Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) rotor structural tailoring concept, known as rotor nodalization, in conjunction with advanced blade aerodynamics as well as to evaluate rotor blade aerodynamic design methodologies. A 1/5-size, four-bladed bearingless hub, three sets of Mach-scaled model rotor blades were tested in forward flight from transition up to an advance ratio of 0.35. The data presented pertain only to the evaluation of the structural tailoring concept and consist of fixed-system and rotating system vibratory loads. These data will be useful for evaluating the effects of tailoring blade structural properties on fixed-system vibratory loads, as well as validating analyses used in the design of advanced rotor systems.
Takeoff/approach noise for a model counterrotation propeller with a forward-swept upstream rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodward, Richard P.; Hall, David G.; Podboy, Gary G.; Jeracki, Robert J.
1993-01-01
A scale model of a counterrotating propeller with forward-swept blades in the forward rotor and aft-swept blades in the aft rotor (designated F39/A31) has been tested in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. This paper presents aeroacoustic results at a takeoff/approach condition of Mach 0.20. Laser Doppler Velocimeter results taken in a plane between the two rotors are also included to quantify the interaction flow field. The intention of the forward-swept design is to reduce the magnitude of the forward rotor tip vortex and/or wakes which impinge on the aft rotor, thus lowering the interaction tone levels.
Effect of planform taper on hover performance of an advanced AH-64 model rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, Henry L.
1987-01-01
The hover performance of a 27 percent scale model baseline rotor and advanced rotor with a 3:1 tapered tip (TR3) for the AH-64 attack helicopter was investigated and compared. Hover results from a previously tested advanced rotor with a 5:1 tapered tip (TR5) were also compared. Rotor thrust was varied over a range for two tip Mach numbers. The results indicated that the TR3 blades had improved performance compared with the TR5 blades, and both the TR3 and TR5 blades were superior to the baseline rotor. The additional margin in performance for the TR3 blades was likely due to an increase in blade area and Reynolds number in the tip region of the blades.
Model updating of rotor systems by using Nonlinear least square optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, A. K.; Dewangan, P.; Sarangi, M.
2016-07-01
Mathematical models of structure or machineries are always different from the existing physical system, because the approach of numerical predictions to the behavior of a physical system is limited by the assumptions used in the development of the mathematical model. Model updating is, therefore necessary so that updated model should replicate the physical system. This work focuses on the model updating of rotor systems at various speeds as well as at different modes of vibration. Support bearing characteristics severely influence the dynamics of rotor systems like turbines, compressors, pumps, electrical machines, machine tool spindles etc. Therefore bearing parameters (stiffness and damping) are considered to be updating parameters. A finite element model of rotor systems is developed using Timoshenko beam element. Unbalance response in time domain and frequency response function have been calculated by numerical techniques, and compared with the experimental data to update the FE-model of rotor systems. An algorithm, based on unbalance response in time domain is proposed for updating the rotor systems at different running speeds of rotor. An attempt has been made to define Unbalance response assurance criterion (URAC) to check the degree of correlation between updated FE model and physical model.
Asymmetric dark matter models and the LHC diphoton excess
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.
2016-05-01
The existence of dark matter (DM) and the origin of the baryon asymmetry are persistent indications that the SM is incomplete. More recently, the ATLAS and CMS experiments have observed an excess of diphoton events with invariant mass of about 750 GeV. One interpretation of this excess is decays of a new spin-0 particle with a sizable diphoton partial width, e.g. induced by new heavy weakly charged particles. These are also key ingredients in models cogenerating asymmetric DM and baryons via sphaleron interactions and an initial particle asymmetry. We explore what consequences the new scalar may have for models of asymmetric DM that attempt to account for the similarity of the dark and visible matter abundances.
CFD modeling and analysis of rotor wake in hover interacting with a ground plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalra, Tarandeep Singh
The action of the rotor wake on loose sediment on the ground is primarily responsible for inducing the rotorcraft brownout phenomenon. Therefore, any simulation of brownout must be capable of accurately predicting the velocity field induced by the rotor when it is operating in ground effect. This work attempts to use a compressible, structured, overset Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based solver to simulate hovering rotors in ground effect (IGE) to demonstrate the capability of the code to provide accurate tip vortex flow field predictions, and provide a good understanding of the ground-wake interactions. The computations are performed for a micro-scale rotor (0.086m radius, aspect ratio of 4.387 operating at a tip Mach number of 0.08 and Reynolds number of 32,500) and a sub-scale rotor (0.408m radius, aspect ratio of 9.132 operating at a tip Mach number of 0.24 and Reynolds number of 250,000) in order to compare to experimental measurements. The micro-scale rotor has a rectangular tip shape and is simulated three rotor heights: 1.5R, 1.0R and 0.5R above ground (R = Rotor radius). The sub-scale rotor is simulated at one particular rotor height (i.e. 1R) but with four different tip shapes: rectangular, swept, BERP-like and slotted tip. Various mesh placement strategies are devised to efficiently capture the path of the tip vortices for both regimes. The micro-scale rotor simulations are performed using the Spalart Allmaras (S-A) turbulence model. The examination of the IGE tip vortex flow field suggests high degree of instabilities close to the ground. In addition, the induced velocities arising from the proximity of the rotor tip vortices causes flow separation at the ground. The sub-scale rotor simulations show a smeared out flow field even at early wake ages due to excessive turbulence levels. The distance function in the S-A turbulence model is modified using the Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) approach and a correction to length scaling is
A theoretical model of asymmetric wave ripples
Blondeaux, P.; Foti, E.; Vittori, G.
2015-01-01
The time development of ripples under sea waves is investigated by means of the weakly nonlinear stability analysis of a flat sandy bottom subjected to the viscous oscillatory flow that is present in the boundary layer at the bottom of propagating sea waves. Second-order effects in the wave steepness are considered, to take into account the presence of the steady drift generated by the surface waves. Hence, the work of Vittori & Blondeaux (1990 J. Fluid Mech. 218, 19–39 (doi:10.1017/S002211209000091X)) is extended by considering steeper waves and/or less deep waters. As shown by the linear analysis of Blondeaux et al. (2000 Eur. J. Mech. B 19, 285–301 (doi:10.1016/S0997-7546(90)00106-I)), because of the presence of a steady velocity component in the direction of wave propagation, ripples migrate at a constant rate that depends on sediment and wave characteristics. The weakly nonlinear analysis shows that the ripple profile is no longer symmetric with respect to ripple crests and troughs and the symmetry index is computed as a function of the parameters of the problem. In particular, a relationship is determined between the symmetry index and the strength of the steady drift. A fair agreement between model results and laboratory data is obtained, albeit further data and analyses are necessary to determine the behaviour of vortex ripples and to be conclusive. PMID:25512587
A theoretical model of asymmetric wave ripples.
Blondeaux, P; Foti, E; Vittori, G
2015-01-28
The time development of ripples under sea waves is investigated by means of the weakly nonlinear stability analysis of a flat sandy bottom subjected to the viscous oscillatory flow that is present in the boundary layer at the bottom of propagating sea waves. Second-order effects in the wave steepness are considered, to take into account the presence of the steady drift generated by the surface waves. Hence, the work of Vittori & Blondeaux (1990 J. Fluid Mech. 218, 19-39 (doi:10.1017/S002211209000091X)) is extended by considering steeper waves and/or less deep waters. As shown by the linear analysis of Blondeaux et al. (2000 Eur. J. Mech. B 19, 285-301 (doi:10.1016/S0997-7546(90)00106-I)), because of the presence of a steady velocity component in the direction of wave propagation, ripples migrate at a constant rate that depends on sediment and wave characteristics. The weakly nonlinear analysis shows that the ripple profile is no longer symmetric with respect to ripple crests and troughs and the symmetry index is computed as a function of the parameters of the problem. In particular, a relationship is determined between the symmetry index and the strength of the steady drift. A fair agreement between model results and laboratory data is obtained, albeit further data and analyses are necessary to determine the behaviour of vortex ripples and to be conclusive. PMID:25512587
A Linear City Model with Asymmetric Consumer Distribution
Azar, Ofer H.
2015-01-01
The article analyzes a linear-city model where the consumer distribution can be asymmetric, which is important because in real markets this distribution is often asymmetric. The model yields equilibrium price differences, even though the firms’ costs are equal and their locations are symmetric (at the two endpoints of the city). The equilibrium price difference is proportional to the transportation cost parameter and does not depend on the good's cost. The firms' markups are also proportional to the transportation cost. The two firms’ prices will be equal in equilibrium if and only if half of the consumers are located to the left of the city’s midpoint, even if other characteristics of the consumer distribution are highly asymmetric. An extension analyzes what happens when the firms have different costs and how the two sources of asymmetry – the consumer distribution and the cost per unit – interact together. The model can be useful as a tool for further development by other researchers interested in applying this simple yet flexible framework for the analysis of various topics. PMID:26034984
Numerical Study of a Jeffcott Rotor Model with a Snubber Ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Páez Chávez, J.; Wiercigroch, M.; Demrdash, H.
2012-08-01
In this article we study a two-degrees-of-freedom model of a rotor system with a bearing clearance. During operation the rotor makes intermittent contact with an outer snubber ring, which results in complex dynamical behaviour. Specifically, the system will be analyzed numerically by a path following method, where we will use the toolbox TC-HAT, which is a module for modeling non-smooth systems by AUTO 97.
Unsteady heat transfer in stator-rotor interaction by two-equation turbulence model
Michelassi, V.; Martelli, F,; Denos, R.; Arts, T.; Sieverding, C.H.
1999-07-01
A transonic turbine stage is computed by means of an unsteady Navier-Stokes solver. A two-equation turbulence model is coupled to a transition model based on integral parameters and an extra transport equation. The transonic stage is modeled in two dimensions with a variable span height for the rotor row. The analysis of the transonic turbine stage with stator trailing edge coolant ejection is carried out to compute the unsteady pressure and heat transfer distribution on the rotor blade under variable operating conditions. The stator coolant ejection allows the total pressure losses to be reduced, although no significant effects on the rotor heat transfer are found both in the computer simulation and the measurements. The results compare favorable with experiments in terms of both pressure distribution and heat transfer around the rotor blade.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesnik, C. E. S.; Opoku, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.; Cheng, T.
2004-06-01
An active aeroelastic and aeroacoustic analysis of helicopter rotor systems is presented in this paper. It is a tightly coupled computational aeroelastic code that interfaces a particle-wake panel method code with an active nonlinear mixed variational intrinsic beam element code. In addition, a Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings equation-based acoustic component is incorporated to complete the numerical implementation. The theory behind each component is summarized here as well as the method for coupling the aerodynamic and structural components. Sample acoustic and aeroelastic results are given for different model-scale rotors. Comparisons with available (passive) results show very good agreement. Preliminary study with an active twist rotor is also shown.
Influence of Reynolds number on performance modeling of horizontal axis wind rotors
Musial, W.D.; Cromack, D.E.
1988-05-01
This paper investigates the influence of Reynolds number on performance modeling of horizontal axis wind rotors. A procedure for accounting for Reynolds number effects on airfoil section models was developed and implemented for NACA 0012 and NACA 4415 profiles; both of these models is valid through angles of attack up to 90 deg and for Reynolds numbers ranging from 4 x 10/sup 4/ to 3 x 10/sup 6/. These models were incorporated into both a lifting line computer code, LL200R, adapted for this report. This enabled greater uncertainty to be obtained in evaluating theoretical performance codes with respect to actual data, as well as providing a means by which a parametric analysis of the relative effects of Re changes on rotor performance to be performed. The use of low Reynolds number section data was found to significantly lower the predicted values of power coefficient, particularly at off-design tip speed-ratios. For symmetrical airfoils, this effect on performance was only significant for low tip-speed- ratios, while cambered airfoils were affected more uniformly at all operating conditions. Changes in performance were induced by parametric variations of wind speed, rotor scale, and rotor generating mode using the Reynolds number dependent section models. Results show that wind speed variations are more significant for smaller rotors at lower wind-speeds, and section models represented at only a single Reynolds number are more suitable for the analysis of constant RPM rotors.
Matrix product states and the non-Abelian rotor model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milsted, Ashley
2016-04-01
We use uniform matrix product states to study the (1 +1 )D O (2 ) and O (4 ) rotor models, which are equivalent to the Kogut-Susskind formulation of matter-free non-Abelian lattice gauge theory on a "Hawaiian earring" graph for U (1 ) and S U (2 ), respectively. Applying tangent space methods to obtain ground states and determine the mass gap and the β function, we find excellent agreement with known results, locating the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition for O (2 ) and successfully entering the asymptotic weak-coupling regime for O (4 ). To obtain a finite local Hilbert space, we truncate in the space of generalized Fourier modes of the gauge group, comparing the effects of different cutoff values. We find that higher modes become important in the crossover and weak-coupling regimes of the non-Abelian theory, where entanglement also suddenly increases. This could have important consequences for tensor network state studies of Yang-Mills on higher-dimensional graphs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, H.; Chandraker, S.; Dutt, J. K.; Roy, T.
2016-05-01
Inherent material damping plays a very significant role on dynamic behaviour of rotors. The material damping in a spinning rotor produces a tangential force along the whirl direction and its magnitude being proportional to spin speed. After certain value of spin speed, decided by the characteristic of the system, the tangential force becomes strong enough to throw the rotor centre out of the whirl orbit by inflating it progressively. This leads to destabilization of the system and corresponding speed is known as stability limit of spin speed. Stability limit of spin speed for Jeffcott rotor, by using viscous form of material damping model is straight forward and has been reported by several researchers, however the same analysis for viscoelastic material characteristics is not reported much. This analysis is very relevant for industrial requirements to replace bulky and heavy metal rotor by light but strong rotors. This is achieved either by reinforcing fibre or multi layering arrangements. Both of which are represented by viscoelastic constitutive behaviour. This paper gives mathematical derivation of equations of motion for multi-disc, multi-layered rotor-shaft-system. Both lumped mass and discretized approach (finite element) are presented here mathematically and numerical simulation results are compared. The lumped mass approach gives a concise yet acceptable accuracy of the results.
Noise of a model helicopter rotor due to ingestion of turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paterson, R. W.; Amiet, R. K.
1979-01-01
A theoretical and experimental investigation of the noise of a model helicoper rotor due to ingestion of turbulence was conducted. Experiments were performed with a 0.76 m dia, articulated model rotor for a range of inflow turbulence and rotor operating conditions. Inflow turbulence levels varied from approximately 2 to 19 percent and tip Mach number was varied from 0.3 to 0.52. Test conditions included ingestion of a atmospheric turbulence in outdoor hover as well as ingestion of grid generated isotropic turbulence in the wind tunnel airstream. In wind tunnel testing, both forward flight and vertical ascent (climb) were simulated. Far field noise spectra and directivity were measured in addition to incident turbulence intensities, length scales, and spectra. Results indicate that ingestion of atmospheric turbulence is the dominant helicopter rotor hover noise mechanism at the moderate to high frequencies which determine perceived noise level.
Evaluation of a load cell model for dynamic calibration of the rotor systems research aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, H.; Wellman, B.
1985-01-01
The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission system from the fuselage. An analytical model of the relationship between applied rotor loads and the resulting load cell measurements is derived by applying a force-and-moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is then used to estimate the applied loads from measured load cell data, as obtained from a ground-based shake test. Using nominal design values for the parameters, the estimation errors, for the case of lateral forcing, were shown to be on the order of the sensor measurement noise in all but the roll axis. An unmodeled external load appears to be the source of the error in this axis.
Effect of advanced rotorcraft airfoil sections on the hover performance of a small-scale rotor model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Althoff, Susan L.
1988-01-01
A hover test was conducted on a small scale rotor model for two sets of tapered rotor blades. The baseline rotor blade set used a NACA 0012 airfoil section, whereas the second rotor blade set had advanced rotorcraft airfoils distributed along the radius. The experiment was conducted for a range of thrust coefficients and tip speeds, and the data were compared to the predictions of three analytical methods. The data show the advantage of the advanced airfoils at the higher rotor thrust levels; two of the analyses predicted the correct data trends.
Asymmetric biclustering with constrained von Mises-Fisher models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Kazuho; Wu, Hsiang-Yun; Takahashi, Shigeo; Fujishiro, Issei
2016-03-01
As a probability distribution on the high-dimensional sphere, the von Mises-Fisher (vMF) distribution is widely used for directional statistics and data analysis methods based on correlation. We consider a constrained vMF distribution for block modeling, which provides a probabilistic model of an asymmetric biclustering method that uses correlation as the similarity measure of data features. We derive the variational Bayesian inference algorithm for the mixture of the constrained vMF distributions. It is applied to a multivariate data visualization method implemented with enhanced parallel coordinate plots.
Crystallization of asymmetric patchy models for globular proteins in solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fusco, Diana; Charbonneau, Patrick
2013-07-01
Asymmetric patchy particle models have recently been shown to describe the crystallization of small globular proteins with near-quantitative accuracy. Here, we investigate how asymmetry in patch geometry and bond energy generally impacts the phase diagram and nucleation dynamics of this family of soft matter models. We find the role of the geometry asymmetry to be weak, but the energy asymmetry to markedly interfere with the crystallization thermodynamics and kinetics. These results provide a rationale for the success and occasional failure of the proposal of George and Wilson for protein crystallization conditions as well as physical guidance for developing more effective protein crystallization strategies.
Recent improvements to and validation of the one dimensional NASA wave rotor model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, Daniel E.; Wilson, Jack
1995-01-01
A numerical model has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center which can predict both the unsteady flow quantities within a wave rotor passage and the steady averaged flows in the ports. The model is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional, unsteady, perfect gas flow. The model assesses not only the dominant wave behavior, but the loss effects of finite passage opening time, leakage from the passage ends, viscosity, and heat transfer to and from the passages. The model operates in the rotor reference frame; however, until recently no account was made for the often significant effect of the rotor circumferential velocity component. The present model accounts for this by modifying the passage boundary conditions, allowing the internal computational scheme to remain the rotor reference frame, while quantities such as inlet duct stagnation properties may be specified in the fixed or absolute reference frame. Accurate modeling of this effect is critical to successful wave rotor analysis and design, particularly in off-design predictions where the flows in the inlet ducts are mismatched with the rotor passages and significant turning may take place (i.e., work is done on the gas). The relative simplicity of the model makes it useful for design and optimization, as well as analysis, of wave rotor cycles for many applications. This report, building on several earlier papers, describes the most recent modifications to the model. These include accounting for the relative/absolute transition at the passage boundaries and refinements to the viscous source term correlation which resulted from this accounting. Comparison of model predictions with measured data is then presented and discussed.
A synchronous strobed laser light sheet for helicopter model rotor flow visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leighty, Bradley D.; Rhodes, David B.; Jones, Stephen B.; Franke, John M.
1990-01-01
A synchronous, strobed laser light sheet has been developed for use in flow visualization of a helicopter rotor model. The light sheet strobe circuit included selectable blade position, strobe duration, and multiple pulses per revolution for rotors having 2 to 9 blades. The flow was seeded with propylene glycol. Between runs, a calibration grid board was placed in the plane of the laser sheet and recorded with the video camera at the position used to record the flow field. A slip-sync mode permitted slow motion visualization of the flow field over complete rotations of the rotor. The system was used to make two-dimensional flow field cuts of a four-bladed rotor operating at advance ratio of 0.37 at wind tunnel speeds up to 79.25 meters per second (260 feet per second).
MRAC Control with Prior Model Knowledge for Asymmetric Damaged Aircraft
Xu, Xieyu; Yang, Lingyu; Zhang, Jing
2015-01-01
This paper develops a novel state-tracking multivariable model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique utilizing prior knowledge of plant models to recover control performance of an asymmetric structural damaged aircraft. A modification of linear model representation is given. With prior knowledge on structural damage, a polytope linear parameter varying (LPV) model is derived to cover all concerned damage conditions. An MRAC method is developed for the polytope model, of which the stability and asymptotic error convergence are theoretically proved. The proposed technique reduces the number of parameters to be adapted and thus decreases computational cost and requires less input information. The method is validated by simulations on NASA generic transport model (GTM) with damage. PMID:26180839
Calculation of the Aerodynamic Behavior of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) in the DNW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Wayne
2001-01-01
Comparisons of measured and calculated aerodynamic behavior of a tiltrotor model are presented. The test of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) with a single, 1/4-scale V- 22 rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) provides an extensive set of aeroacoustic, performance, and structural loads data. The calculations were performed using the rotorcraft comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. Presented are comparisons of measured and calculated performance and airloads for helicopter mode operation, as well as calculated induced and profile power. An aerodynamic and wake model and calculation procedure that reflects the unique geometry and phenomena of tiltrotors has been developed. There are major differences between this model and the corresponding aerodynamic and wake model that has been established for helicopter rotors. In general, good correlation between measured and calculated performance and airloads behavior has been shown. Two aspects of the analysis that clearly need improvement are the stall delay model and the trailed vortex formation model.
A three-dimensional shock loss model applied to an aft-swept, transonic compressor rotor
Puterbaugh, S.L.; Copenhaver, W.W.; Hah, C.; Wennerstrom, A.J.
1997-07-01
An analysis of the effectiveness of a three-dimensional shock loss model used in transonic compressor rotor design is presented. The model was used during the design of an aft-swept, transonic compressor rotor. The demonstrated performance of the swept rotor, in combination with numerical results, is used to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the model. The numerical results were obtained from a fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver. The shock loss model was developed to account for the benefit gained with three-dimensional shock sweep. Comparisons with the experimental and numerical results demonstrated that shock loss reductions predicted by the model due to the swept shock induced by the swept leading edge of the rotor were exceeded. However, near the tip the loss model underpredicts the loss because the shock geometry assumed by the model remains swept in this region while the numerical results show a more normal shock orientation. The design methods and the demonstrated performance of the swept rotor are also presented. Comparisons are made between the design intent and measured performance parameters. The aft-swept rotor was designed using an inviscid axisymmetric streamline curvature design system utilizing arbitrary airfoil blading geometry. The design goal specific flow rate was 214.7 kg/s/m{sup 2} (43.98 lbm/sec/ft{sup 2}), the design pressure ratio goal was 2.042, and the predicted design point efficiency was 94.0. The rotor tip speed was 457.2 m/s (1,500 ft/sec). The design flow rate was achieved while the pressure ratio fell short by 0.07. Efficiency was 3 points below prediction, though at a very high 91%. At this operating condition the stall margin was 11%.
Takeoff/approach noise for a model counterrotation propeller with a forward-swept upstream rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodward, Richard P.; Hall, David G.; Podboy, Gary G.; Jeracki, Robert J.
1993-01-01
A scale model of a counterrotating propeller with forward-swept blades in the forward rotor and aft-swept blades in the aft rotor (designated F39/A31) has been tested in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. This paper presents aeroacoustic results at a takeoff/approach condition of Mach 0.20. Laser Doppler velocimeter results taken in a plane between the two rotors are also included to quantify the interaction flow field. The intention of the forward-swept design is to reduce the magnitude of the forward rotor tip vortex and/or wakes which impinge on the aft rotor, thus lowering the interaction tone levels. A reference model propeller (designated F31/A31), having aft-swept blades in both rotors, was also tested. Aeroelastic performance of the F39/A31 propeller was disappointing. The forward rotor tip region tended to untwist toward higher effective blade angles under load. The forward rotor also exhibited steady state blade flutter at speeds and loadings well below the design condition. The noise results, based on sideline acoustic data, show that the interaction tone levels were up to 8 dB higher with the forward-swept design compared to those for the reference propeller at similar operating conditions, with these tone level differences extending down to lower propeller speeds where flutter did not occur. These acoustic results are for a poorly-performing forward-swept propeller. It is quite possible that a properly-designed forward-swept propeller would exhibit substantial interaction tone level reductions.
Asymmetric mass models of disk galaxies. I. Messier 99
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chemin, Laurent; Huré, Jean-Marc; Soubiran, Caroline; Zibetti, Stefano; Charlot, Stéphane; Kawata, Daisuke
2016-04-01
Mass models of galactic disks traditionally rely on axisymmetric density and rotation curves, paradoxically acting as if their most remarkable asymmetric features, such as lopsidedness or spiral arms, were not important. In this article, we relax the axisymmetry approximation and introduce a methodology that derives 3D gravitational potentials of disk-like objects and robustly estimates the impacts of asymmetries on circular velocities in the disk midplane. Mass distribution models can then be directly fitted to asymmetric line-of-sight velocity fields. Applied to the grand-design spiral M 99, the new strategy shows that circular velocities are highly nonuniform, particularly in the inner disk of the galaxy, as a natural response to the perturbed gravitational potential of luminous matter. A cuspy inner density profile of dark matter is found in M 99, in the usual case where luminous and dark matter share the same center. The impact of the velocity nonuniformity is to make the inner profile less steep, although the density remains cuspy. On another hand, a model where the halo is core dominated and shifted by 2.2-2.5 kpc from the luminous mass center is more appropriate to explain most of the kinematical lopsidedness evidenced in the velocity field of M 99. However, the gravitational potential of luminous baryons is not asymmetric enough to explain the kinematical lopsidedness of the innermost regions, irrespective of the density shape of dark matter. This discrepancy points out the necessity of an additional dynamical process in these regions: possibly a lopsided distribution of dark matter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadler, S. G.
1971-01-01
Rotor wake geometries are predicted by a process similar to the startup of a rotor in a free stream. An array of discrete trailing and shed vortices is generated with vortex strengths corresponding to stepwise radial and azimuthal blade circulations. The array of shed and trailing vortices is limited to an arbitrary number of azimuthal steps behind each blade. The remainder of the wake model of each blade is an arbitrary number of trailing vortices. Vortex element end points were allowed to be transported by the resultant velocity of the free stream and vortex-induced velocities. Wake geometry, wake flow, and wake-induced velocity influence coefficients are generated by this program for use in the blade loads portion of the calculations. Blade loads computations include the effects of nonuniform inflow due to a free wake, nonlinear airfoil characteristics, and response of flexible blades to the applied loads. Computed wake flows and blade loads are compared with experimentally measured data. Predicted blade loads, response and shears and moments are obtained for a model rotor system having two independent rotors. The effects of advance ratio, vertical separation of rotors, different blade radius ratios, and different azimuthal spacing of the blades of one rotor with respect to the other are investigated.
A flight-dynamic helicopter mathematical model with a single flap-lag-torsion main rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takahashi, Marc D.
1990-01-01
A mathematical model of a helicopter system with a single main rotor that includes rigid, hinge-restrained rotor blades with flap, lag, and torsion degrees of freedom is described. The model allows several hinge sequences and two offsets in the hinges. Quasi-steady Greenberg theory is used to calculate the blade-section aerodynamic forces, and inflow effects are accounted for by using three-state nonlinear dynamic inflow model. The motion of the rigid fuselage is defined by six degrees of freedom, and an optional rotor rpm degree of freedom is available. Empennage surfaces and the tail rotor are modeled, and the effect of main-rotor downwash on these elements is included. Model trim linearization, and time-integration operations are described and can be applied to a subset of the model in the rotating or nonrotating coordinate frame. A preliminary validation of the model is made by comparing its results with those of other analytical and experimental studies. This publication presents the results of research compiled in November 1989.
A mathematical simulation model of a 1985-era tilt-rotor passenger aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcveigh, M. A.; Widdison, C. A.
1976-01-01
A mathematical model for use in real-time piloted simulation of a 1985-era tilt rotor passenger aircraft is presented. The model comprises the basic six degrees-of-freedom equations of motion, and a large angle of attack representation of the airframe and rotor aerodynamics, together with equations and functions used to model turbine engine performance, aircraft control system and stability augmentation system. A complete derivation of the primary equations is given together with a description of the modeling techniques used. Data for the model is included in an appendix.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mirick, Paul H.
1988-01-01
Seven cases were selected for correlation from a 1/5.86 Froude-scale experiment that examined several rotor designs which were being considered for full-scale flight testing as part of the Bearingless Main Rotor (BMR) program. The model rotor hub used in these tests consisted of back-to-back C-beams as flexbeam elements with a torque tube for pitch control. The first four cases selected from the experiment were hover tests which examined the effects on rotor stability of variations in hub-to-flexbeam coning, hub-to-flexbeam pitch, flexbeam-to-blade coning, and flexbeam-to-blade pitch. The final three cases were selected from the forward flight tests of optimum rotor configuration as defined during the hover test. The selected cases examined the effects of variations in forward speed, rotor speed, and shaft angle. Analytical results from Bell Helicopter Textron, Boeing Vertol, Sikorsky Aircraft, and the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory were compared with the data and the correlations ranged from poor-to-fair to fair-to-good.
A simplified model for unstable temperature field calculation of gas turbine rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guangxin
1989-06-01
A simplified model is presented for calculating the unstable temperature field of a cooled turbine rotor by the finite element method. In the simplified model, an outer radius for calculating has been chosen which is smaller than the radius of the fir-tree root groove's bottom. And an equivalent heat release coefficient has been introduced. Thus, the calculation can be treated as an axial symmetrical problem and carried out on a microcomputer. The simplified model has been used to calculate the unstable temperature field during the start-up of a rotor. A comparison with the three-dimensional calculated result shows that the simplified model is satisfactory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halminen, Oskari; Kärkkäinen, Antti; Sopanen, Jussi; Mikkola, Aki
2015-01-01
Active magnetic bearings (AMB) offer considerable benefits compared to regular mechanical bearings. On the other hand, they require backup bearings to avoid damage resulting from a failure in the component itself, or in the power or control system. During a rotor-bearing contact event - when the magnetic field has disappeared and the rotor drops on the backup bearings - the structure of the backup bearings has an impact on the dynamic actions of the rotor. In this paper, the dynamics of an active magnetic bearing-supported rotor during contact with backup bearings is studied with a simulation model. Modeling of the backup bearings is done using a comprehensive cageless ball bearing model. The elasticity of the rotor is described using the finite element method (FEM) and the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the system are reduced using component mode synthesis. Verification of the misaligned cageless backup bearings model is done by comparing the simulation results against the measurement results. The verified model with misaligned cageless backup bearings is found to correspond to the features of a real system.
Thermal Modeling of Disc Brake Rotor in Frictional Contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Belhocine; Ghazaly, Nouby Mahdi
2013-01-01
Safety aspect in automotive engineering has been considered as a number one priority in development of new vehicle. Each single system has been studied and developed in order to meet safety requirement. Instead of having air bag, good suspension systems, good handling and safe cornering, there is one most critical system in the vehicle which is brake systems. The objective of this work is to investigate and analyze the temperature distribution of rotor disc during braking operation using ANSYS Multiphysics. The work uses the finite element analysis techniques to predict the temperature distribution on the full and ventilated brake disc and to identify the critical temperature of the rotor. The analysis also gives us, the heat flux distribution for the two discs.
Development of an Open Rotor Cycle Model in NPSS Using a Multi-Design Point Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, Eric S.
2011-01-01
NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and Subsonic Fixed Wing Project are focused on developing concepts and technologies which may enable dramatic reductions to the environmental impact of future generation subsonic aircraft (Refs. 1 and 2). The open rotor concept (also referred to as the Unducted Fan or advanced turboprop) may allow the achievement of this objective by reducing engine emissions and fuel consumption. To evaluate its potential impact, an open rotor cycle modeling capability is needed. This paper presents the initial development of an open rotor cycle model in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) computer program which can then be used to evaluate the potential benefit of this engine. The development of this open rotor model necessitated addressing two modeling needs within NPSS. First, a method for evaluating the performance of counter-rotating propellers was needed. Therefore, a new counter-rotating propeller NPSS component was created. This component uses propeller performance maps developed from historic counter-rotating propeller experiments to determine the thrust delivered and power required. Second, several methods for modeling a counter-rotating power turbine within NPSS were explored. These techniques used several combinations of turbine components within NPSS to provide the necessary power to the propellers. Ultimately, a single turbine component with a conventional turbine map was selected. Using these modeling enhancements, an open rotor cycle model was developed in NPSS using a multi-design point approach. The multi-design point (MDP) approach improves the engine cycle analysis process by making it easier to properly size the engine to meet a variety of thrust targets throughout the flight envelope. A number of design points are considered including an aerodynamic design point, sea-level static, takeoff and top of climb. The development of this MDP model was also enabled by the selection of a simple power
An asymmetric inhibition model of hemispheric differences in emotional processing
Grimshaw, Gina M.; Carmel, David
2014-01-01
Two relatively independent lines of research have addressed the role of the prefrontal cortex in emotional processing. The first examines hemispheric asymmetries in frontal function; the second focuses on prefrontal interactions between cognition and emotion. We briefly review each perspective and highlight inconsistencies between them. We go on to describe an alternative model that integrates approaches by focusing on hemispheric asymmetry in inhibitory executive control processes. The asymmetric inhibition model proposes that right-lateralized executive control inhibits processing of positive or approach-related distractors, and left-lateralized control inhibits negative or withdrawal-related distractors. These complementary processes allow us to maintain and achieve current goals in the face of emotional distraction. We conclude with a research agenda that uses the model to generate novel experiments that will advance our understanding of both hemispheric asymmetries and cognition-emotion interactions. PMID:24904502
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brentner, Kenneth S.
1987-01-01
A new computer program which uses Farassat's most advanced subsonic time domain formulation has been written to predict helicopter rotor discrete frequency noise. A brief description of the program, WOPWOP, is followed by a comparison of predicted and experimentally measured acoustic pressure and spectra for a 1/4 scale UH-1 model rotor blade and a 1/7 scale OLS (AH-1G) model rotor blade. The C81 computer program was used to predict the spanwise loading on the rotor for aerodynamic input into the acoustic prediction. Comparisons are made for different flight conditions and microphone locations with good results. In general the acoustic pressure is underpredicted. The acoustic predictions for a tapered rotor blade and predictions for microphones well below the tip path plane show less underprediction. Finally, in-plane motion of the rotor blade is shown to significantly affect the peak-to-peak amplitude of the acoustic pressure for high advancing tip Mach numbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Lewy, S.
1986-01-01
Two aeroacoustic facilities - the CEPRA 19 in France and the DNW in the Netherlands - are compared. The two facilities have unique acoustic characteristics that make them appropriate for acoustic testing of model-scale helicopter rotors. An identical pressure-instrumented model-scale rotor was tested in each facility and acoustic test results are compared with full-scale-rotor test results. Blade surface pressures measured in both tunnels were used to correlated nominal rotor operating conditions in each tunnel, and also used to assess the steadiness of the rotor in each tunnel's flow. In-the-flow rotor acoustic signatures at moderate forward speeds (35-50 m/sec) are presented for each facility and discussed in relation to the differences in tunnel geometries and aeroacoustic characteristics. Both reports are presented in appendices to this paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Lewy, S.; Caplot, M.
1986-01-01
Two aeroacoustic facilities--the CEPRA 19 in France and the DNW in the Netherlands--are compared. The two facilities have unique acoustic characteristics that make them appropriate for acoustic testing of model-scale helicopter rotors. An identical pressure-instrumented model-scale rotor was tested in each facility and acoustic test results are compared with full-scale-rotor test results. Blade surface pressures measured in both tunnels were used to correlated nominal rotor operating conditions in each tunnel, and also used to assess the steadiness of the rotor in each tunnel's flow. In-the-flow rotor acoustic signatures at moderate forward speeds (35-50 m/sec) are presented for each facility and discussed in relation to the differences in tunnel geometries and aeroacoustic characteristics. Both reports are presented in appendices to this paper. ;.);
Validation of a Model for a Two-Bladed Flexible Rotor System: Progress to Date
Wright, A. D.; Kelley, N. D.; Osgood, R. M.
1998-11-19
At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, we tested a very flexible wind turbine. This machine, the Cannon Wind Eagle turbine, exhibited an ability to significantly reduce the rotor flap-wise bending moments through a unique combination of a flexible rotor and hub design. In parallel to this testing effort, we developed analytical models of this machine using our simulation codes. The goal of this work was to validate the analytical models of this machine by comparing analytical predictions to measured results from the real machine. We first describe briefly the simulation codes used in this study. We then describe the wind turbine we analyzed. We then describe analytical model validation progress for this flexible rotor and show preliminary validation results. Finally, we make conclusions and state our plans for future studies.
Modelling and gait evaluation of asymmetrical-keel foot prosthesis.
Allard, P; Trudeau, F; Prince, F; Dansereau, J; Labelle, H; Duhaime, M
1995-01-01
The paper documents a new concept in prosthetic foot design. It is based on the capacity of a flexible keel to allow a greater medio-lateral function than previously available. The heel has a complex curvature consisting of a medially concave shape that joins the mid-foot. There a hump acting as a leaf-spring ends at the metatarsal break, with an inwardly curved toe extremity. These curvatures contribute to increased medio-lateral control at heel-strike and propulsion for weight transfer and push-off. Results from finite-element modelling indicate that the asymmetrically shaped keel is at least twice as active in storing energy compared with a completely symmetrical one. A preliminary gait study is carried out for a 24-year-old below-knee amputee fitted with the new design, the SPACE foot and a dynamic elastic response foot with a symmetrical keel. With the SPACE foot, there is a 14% increase in walking speed combined with a reduction in the phasic asymmetries. The absolute difference between the initial and terminal double support is 1.4% for the asymmetrical keel design compared with 4.4% for the symmetrical keel foot prosthesis. The peak ankle power generation burst indicates that the SPACE foot behaves as a dynamic elastic response foot. PMID:7616775
Simplified rotor load models and fatigue damage estimates for offshore wind turbines.
Muskulus, M
2015-02-28
The aim of rotor load models is to characterize and generate the thrust loads acting on an offshore wind turbine. Ideally, the rotor simulation can be replaced by time series from a model with a few parameters and state variables only. Such models are used extensively in control system design and, as a potentially new application area, structural optimization of support structures. Different rotor load models are here evaluated for a jacket support structure in terms of fatigue lifetimes of relevant structural variables. All models were found to be lacking in accuracy, with differences of more than 20% in fatigue load estimates. The most accurate models were the use of an effective thrust coefficient determined from a regression analysis of dynamic thrust loads, and a novel stochastic model in state-space form. The stochastic model explicitly models the quasi-periodic components obtained from rotational sampling of turbulent fluctuations. Its state variables follow a mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Although promising, more work is needed on how to determine the parameters of the stochastic model and before accurate lifetime predictions can be obtained without comprehensive rotor simulations. PMID:25583872
An overview of a model rotor icing test in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.; Flemming, Robert J.
1994-01-01
During two entries in late 1989, a heavily instrumented sub-scale model of a helicopter main rotor was tested in the NASA LeRC Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The results of this series of tunnel tests were published previously. After studying the results from the 1989 test and comparing them to predictions, it became clear that certain test conditions still needed investigation. Therefore, a re-entry of the Sikorsky Aircraft Powered Force Model (PFM) in the IRT was instituted in order to expand upon the current rotor craft sub-scale model experimental database. The major areas of interest included expansion of the test matrix to include a larger number of points in the FAA AC 29-2 icing envelope, inclusion of a number of high power rotor performance points, close examination of warm temperature operations, operation of the model in constant lift mode, and testing for conditions for icing test points in the full scale helicopter database. The expanded database will allow further and more detailed examination and comparison with analytical models. Participants in the test were NASA LeRC, the U.S. Army Vehicle Propulsion Directorate based at LeRC, and Sikorsky Aircraft. The model rotor was exposed to a range of icing conditions (temperature, liquid water content, median droplet diameter) and was operated over ranges of shaft angle, rotor tip speed, advance ratio, and rotor lift. The data taken included blade strain gage and balance data, as well as still photography, video, ice profile tracings, and ice molds. A discussion of the details of the test is given herein. Also, a brief examination of a subset of the data taken is also given.
Helicopter main-rotor noise: Determination of source contributions using scaled model data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Thomas F.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.
1988-08-01
Acoustic data from a test of a 40 percent model MBB BO-105 helicopter main rotor are scaled to equivalent full-scale flyover cases. The test was conducted in the anechoic open test section of the German-Dutch Windtunnel (DNW). The measured data are in the form of acoustic pressure time histories and spectra from two out-of-flow microphones underneath and foward of the model. These are scaled to correspond to measurements made at locations 150 m below the flight path of a full-scale rotor. For the scaled data, a detailed analysis is given for the identification in the data of the noise contributions from different rotor noise sources. Key results include a component breakdown of the noise contributions, in terms of noise criteria calculations of a weighted sound pressure level (dBA) and perceived noise level (PNL), as functions of rotor advance ratio and descent angle. It is shown for the scaled rotor that, during descent, impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is the dominant contributor to the noise. In level flight and mild climb, broadband blade-turbulent wake interaction (BWI) noise is dominant due to the absence of BVI activity. At high climb angles, BWI is reduced and self-noise from blade boundary-layer turbulence becomes the most prominent.
Helicopter main-rotor noise: Determination of source contributions using scaled model data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brooks, Thomas F.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.
1988-01-01
Acoustic data from a test of a 40 percent model MBB BO-105 helicopter main rotor are scaled to equivalent full-scale flyover cases. The test was conducted in the anechoic open test section of the German-Dutch Windtunnel (DNW). The measured data are in the form of acoustic pressure time histories and spectra from two out-of-flow microphones underneath and foward of the model. These are scaled to correspond to measurements made at locations 150 m below the flight path of a full-scale rotor. For the scaled data, a detailed analysis is given for the identification in the data of the noise contributions from different rotor noise sources. Key results include a component breakdown of the noise contributions, in terms of noise criteria calculations of a weighted sound pressure level (dBA) and perceived noise level (PNL), as functions of rotor advance ratio and descent angle. It is shown for the scaled rotor that, during descent, impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is the dominant contributor to the noise. In level flight and mild climb, broadband blade-turbulent wake interaction (BWI) noise is dominant due to the absence of BVI activity. At high climb angles, BWI is reduced and self-noise from blade boundary-layer turbulence becomes the most prominent.
Comparison of model helicopter rotor primary and secondary blade/vortex interaction blade slap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hubbard, J. E., Jr.; Leighton, K. P.
1984-05-01
A study of the relative importance of blade/vortex interactions which occur on the retreating side of a model helicopter rotor disk is described. Some of the salient characteristics of this phenomenon are presented and discussed. It is shown that the resulting Secondary blade slap may be of equal or greater intensity than the advancing side (Primary) blade slap. Instrumented model helicopter rotor data is presented which reveals the nature of the retreating blade/vortex interaction. The importance of Secondary blade slap as it applies to predictive techniques or approaches is discussed. When Secondary blade slap occurs it acts to enlarge the window of operating conditions for which blade slap exists.
A comparison of model helicopter rotor Primary and Secondary blade/vortex interaction blade slap
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hubbard, J. E., Jr.; Leighton, K. P.
1983-01-01
A study of the relative importance of blade/vortex interactions which occur on the retreating side of a model helicopter rotor disk is described. Some of the salient characteristics of this phenomenon are presented and discussed. It is shown that the resulting Secondary blade slap may be of equal or greater intensity than the advancing side (Primary) blade slap. Instrumented model helicopter rotor data is presented which reveals the nature of the retreating blade/vortex interaction. The importance of Secondary blade slap as it applies to predictive techniques or approaches is discussed. When Secondary blade slap occurs it acts to enlarge the window of operating conditions for which blade slap exists.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.
1993-01-01
Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotor-dynamic model and assess the dynamic behavior of a magnetic bearing rotor system which includes the effects of auxiliary bearings. Of particular interest is the effects of introducing sideloading into such a system during failure of the magnetic bearing. A model is developed from an experimental test facility and a number of simulation studies are performed. These results are presented and discussed.
Rotating Shake Test and Modal Analysis of a Model Helicopter Rotor Blade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilkie, W. Keats; Mirick, Paul H.; Langston, Chester W.
1997-01-01
Rotating blade frequencies for a model generic helicopter rotor blade mounted on an articulated hub were experimentally determined. Testing was conducted using the Aeroelastic Rotor Experimental System (ARES) testbed in the Helicopter Hover Facility (HBF) at Langley Research Center. The measured data were compared to pretest analytical predictions of the rotating blade frequencies made using the MSC/NASTRAN finite-element computer code. The MSC/NASTRAN solution sequences used to analyze the model were modified to account for differential stiffening effects caused by the centrifugal force acting on the blade and rotating system dynamic effects. The correlation of the MSC/NASTRAN-derived frequencies with the experimental data is, in general, very good although discrepancies in the blade torsional frequency trends and magnitudes were observed. The procedures necessary to perform a rotating system modal analysis of a helicopter rotor blade with MSC/NASTRAN are outlined, and complete sample data deck listings are provided.
Destructive interference of E2 matrix elements in a triaxial rotor model
Allmond, James M; Wood, J. L.; Kulp, W. D.
2010-01-01
A triaxial rotor model with independent inertia and electric quadrupole tensors is applied to nuclei that have certain E2 matrix elements equal to zero. It is shown that such vanishing E2 matrix elements are explained by the model as a destructive interference effect. The example of 196Pt is considered.
An analytic modeling and system identification study of rotor/fuselage dynamics at hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, Steven W.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.
1993-01-01
A combination of analytic modeling and system identification methods have been used to develop an improved dynamic model describing the response of articulated rotor helicopters to control inputs. A high-order linearized model of coupled rotor/body dynamics including flap and lag degrees of freedom and inflow dynamics with literal coefficients is compared to flight test data from single rotor helicopters in the near hover trim condition. The identification problem was formulated using the maximum likelihood function in the time domain. The dynamic model with literal coefficients was used to generate the model states, and the model was parametrized in terms of physical constants of the aircraft rather than the stability derivatives, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of quantities to be identified. The likelihood function was optimized using the genetic algorithm approach. This method proved highly effective in producing an estimated model from flight test data which included coupled fuselage/rotor dynamics. Using this approach it has been shown that blade flexibility is a significant contributing factor to the discrepancies between theory and experiment shown in previous studies. Addition of flexible modes, properly incorporating the constraint due to the lag dampers, results in excellent agreement between flight test and theory, especially in the high frequency range.
An analytic modeling and system identification study of rotor/fuselage dynamics at hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, Steven W.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.
1993-01-01
A combination of analytic modeling and system identification methods have been used to develop an improved dynamic model describing the response of articulated rotor helicopters to control inputs. A high-order linearized model of coupled rotor/body dynamics including flap and lag degrees of freedom and inflow dynamics with literal coefficients is compared to flight test data from single rotor helicopters in the near hover trim condition. The identification problem was formulated using the maximum likelihood function in the time domain. The dynamic model with literal coefficients was used to generate the model states, and the model was parametrized in terms of physical constants of the aircraft rather than the stability derivatives resulting in a significant reduction in the number of quantities to be identified. The likelihood function was optimized using the genetic algorithm approach. This method proved highly effective in producing an estimated model from flight test data which included coupled fuselage/rotor dynamics. Using this approach it has been shown that blade flexibility is a significant contributing factor to the discrepancies between theory and experiment shown in previous studies. Addition of flexible modes, properly incorporating the constraint due to the lag dampers, results in excellent agreement between flight test and theory, especially in the high frequency range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, R. M.; Elliott, J. W.; Hoad, D. R.
1984-01-01
Helicopter blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is studied using a model scale rotor acoustic data base and an analytical rotor wake prediction method. The variation of BVI acoustic levels with vehicle flight conditions (forward speed and disk attitude) is presented. Calculations of probable BVI locations on the rotor disk are made for a range of operating conditions using the measured acoustic signals and an acoustic ray tracing technique. Analytical predictions of possible BVI locations on the rotor disk are made using a generalized distorted wake analysis program. Comparisons of the interaction locations are made with the results of both the analytic approach and the acoustic ray tracing technique.
Wake Geometry Measurements and Analytical Calculations on a Small-Scale Rotor Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghee, Terence A.; Berry, John D.; Zori, Laith A. J.; Elliott, Joe W.
1996-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to quantify the rotor wake behind a scale model helicopter rotor in forward level flight at one thrust level. The rotor system in this test consisted of a four-bladed fully articulated hub with blades of rectangular planform and an NACA 0012 airfoil section. A laser light sheet, seeded with propylene glycol smoke, was used to visualize the vortex geometry in the flow in planes parallel and perpendicular to the free-stream flow. Quantitative measurements of wake geometric proper- ties, such as vortex location, vertical skew angle, and vortex particle void radius, were obtained as well as convective velocities for blade tip vortices. Comparisons were made between experimental data and four computational method predictions of experimental tip vortex locations, vortex vertical skew angles, and wake geometries. The results of these comparisons highlight difficulties of accurate wake geometry predictions.
Loads and Performance Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Generic Model Helicopter Rotor Blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.
2005-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to acquire data for use in assessing the ability of current and future comprehensive analyses to predict helicopter rotating-system and fixed-system vibratory loads. The investigation was conducted with a generic model helicopter rotor system using blades with rectangular planform, no built-in twist, uniform radial distribution of mass and stiffnesses, and a NACA 0012 airfoil section. Rotor performance data, as well as mean and vibratory components of blade bending and torsion moments, fixed-system forces and moments, and pitch link loads were obtained at advance ratios up to 0.35 for various combinations of rotor shaft angle-of-attack and collective pitch. The data are presented without analysis.
The acoustic results of a United Techologies scale model helicopter rotor tested at DNW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Sandy R.; Marcolini, Michael A.
1990-01-01
An initial summary is presented of the acoustic measurements acquired for some of the different configurations of a 1/6 geometrically and aeroelastically scaled UTC model helicopter rotor which was tested in the open-jet anechoic test section of the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel in the Netherlands. Of particular interest are high-speed impulsive noise and blade-vortex interaction. An analysis is provided of baseline swept tip rotor acoustic characteristics in the regimes of high-speed forward flight, where high-speed impulsive noise dominates, and low-speed descent, where severe blade vortex interaction noise occurs. Also discussed are more recent studies of data which involve the animation of the acoustic field upstream of the rotor to evaluate the detailed radiation patters caused by BVI and HSI noise sources. The trends of these primary noise sources are examined as the first step in validating the data for release and application.
Asymmetric rolling textures of aluminium studied with crystalline model implemented into FEM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wronski, M.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Bacroix, B.; Lipinski, P.
2015-04-01
The goal of this work was to study the asymmetric rolling process using the Finite Element Method (FEM) coupled with the deformation model of polycrystalline material. The Leffers-Wierzbanowski (LW) model was selected to be implemented into FEM. This implementation enables a study of heterogeneous plastic deformation process, like asymmetric rolling, taking into account its crystallographic nature. Our aim was to examine the crystallographic texture and mechanical properties of asymmetrically rolled aluminium 6061. The simulation results are compared with experimental textures determined by X-ray diffraction. The advantages of asymmetrical rolling over symmetrical rolling are reduced rolling normal forces and rolling torques, improvement of microstructure and producing the homogeneous crystallographic texture.
Bifurcation analysis of periodic orbits of a non-smooth Jeffcott rotor model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Páez Chávez, Joseph; Wiercigroch, Marian
2013-09-01
We investigate complex dynamics occurring in a non-smooth model of a Jeffcott rotor with a bearing clearance. A bifurcation analysis of the rotor system is carried out by means of the software TC-HAT [25], a toolbox of AUTO 97 [6] allowing path-following and detection of bifurcations of periodic trajectories of non-smooth dynamical systems. The study reveals a rich variety of dynamics, which includes grazing-induced fold and period-doubling bifurcations, as well as hysteresis loops produced by a cusp singularity. Furthermore, an analytical expression predicting grazing incidences is derived.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Robert V.; Nixon, Mark W.; Rehfield, Lawrence W.
1987-01-01
A methodology was developed for the structural analysis of composite rotor blades. This coupled-beam analysis is relatively simple to use compared with alternative analysis techniques. The beam analysis was developed for thin-wall single-cell rotor structures and includes the effects of elastic coupling. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the new composite-beam analysis method through comparison of its results with those of an established baseline analysis technique. The baseline analysis is an MSC/NASTRAN finite-element model built up from anisotropic shell elements. Deformations are compared for three linear static load cases of centrifugal force at design rotor speed, applied torque, and lift for an ideal rotor in hover. A D-spar designed to twist under axial loading is the subject of the analysis. Results indicate the coupled-beam analysis is well within engineering accuracy.
Housing flexibility effects on rotor stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, L. B.; Wolfe, E. A.; Beatty, R. F.
1985-01-01
Preliminary rotordynamic evaluations are performed with a housing stiffness assumption that is typically determined only after the hardware is built. In addressing rotor stability, a rigid housing assumption was shown to predict an instability at a lower spin speed than a comparable flexible housing analysis. This rigid housing assumption therefore provides a conservative estimate of the stability threshold speed. A flexible housing appears to act as an energy absorber and dissipated some of the destabilizing force. The fact that a flexible housing is usually asymmetric and considerably heavier than the rotor was related to this apparent increase in rotor stability. Rigid housing analysis is proposed as a valuable screening criteria and may save time and money in construction of elaborate housing finite element models for linear stability analyses.
Stress analysis of 27% scale model of AH-64 main rotor hub
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, R. V.
1985-01-01
Stress analysis of an AH-64 27% scale model rotor hub was performed. Component loads and stresses were calculated based upon blade root loads and motions. The static and fatigue analysis indicates positive margins of safety in all components checked. Using the format developed here, the hub can be stress checked for future application.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghee, Terence A.; Elliott, Joe W.
1992-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted in the 14 by 22 ft subsonic tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center to quantify the rotor wake behind a scale model helicopter rotor in forward flight (mu = 0.15 and 0.23) at one thrust level (C sub T = 0.0064). The rotor system used in the present test consisted of a four-bladed, fully articulated hub and utilized blades of rectangular planform with a NACA-0012 airfoil section. A laser light sheet, seeded with propylene glycol smoke, was used to visualize the flow in planes parallel and perpendicular to the freestream flow. Quantitative measurements of vortex location, vertical skew angle, and vortex particle void radius were obtained for vortices in the flow; convective velocities were obtained for blade tip vortices. Comparisons were made between the experimental results and the wake geometry generated by computational predictions. The results of these comparisons show that the interaction between wake vortex structures is an important consideration for correctly predicting the wake geometry.
Dynamic modelling and analysis of a magnetically suspended flexible rotor. M.S. Thesis, 1988
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccallum, Duncan C.
1991-01-01
A 12-state lumped-element model is presented for a flexible rotor supported by two attractive force electromagnetic journal bearings. The rotor is modeled as a rigid disk with radial mass unbalance mounted on a flexible, massless shaft with internal damping (Jeffcott rotor). The disk is offset axially from the midspan of the shaft. Bearing dynamics in each radial direction are modeled as a parallel combination of a negative (unstable) spring and a linear current-to-force actuator. The model includes translation and rotation of the rigid mass and the first and second bending models of the flexible shaft, and it simultaneously includes internal shaft damping, gyroscopic effects, and the unstable nature of the attractive force magnetic bearings. The model is used to analyze the dependence of the system transmission zeros and open-loop poles on system parameters. The dominant open-loop poles occur in stable/unstable pairs with bandwidth dependent on the ratios of bearing (unstable) stiffnesses to rotor mass and damping dependent on the shaft spin rate. The zeros occur in complex conjugate pairs with bandwidth dependent on the ratios of shaft stiffness to rotor mass and damping dependent on the shaft spin rate. Some of the transmission zeros are non-minimum phase when the spin rate exceeds the shaft critical speed. The transmission zeros and open-loop poles impact the design of magnetic bearing control systems. The minimum loop cross-over frequency of the closed-loop system is the speed of the unstable open-loop poles. For the supercritical shaft spin rates, the presence of non-minimum phase zeros limits the distribution rejection achievable at frequencies near or above the shaft critical speed. Since non-minimum phase transmission zeros can only be changed by changing the system inputs and/or outputs, closed-loop performance is limited for supercritical spin rates unless additional force or torque actuators are added.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mchugh, F. J.; Eason, W.; Alexander, H. R.; Mutter, H.
1973-01-01
Wind tunnel test data obtained from a 1/4.622 Froude scale Boeing Model 222 with a full span, two prop, tilt rotor, powered model in the Boeing V/STOL wind tunnel are reported. Data were taken in transition and cruise flight conditions and include performance, stability and control and blade loads information. The effects of the rotors, tail surfaces and airframe on the performance and stability are isolated as are the effects of the airframe on the rotors.
Unified continuum damage model for matrix cracking in composite rotor blades
Pollayi, Hemaraju; Harursampath, Dineshkumar
2015-03-10
This paper deals with modeling of the first damage mode, matrix micro-cracking, in helicopter rotor/wind turbine blades and how this effects the overall cross-sectional stiffness. The helicopter/wind turbine rotor system operates in a highly dynamic and unsteady environment leading to severe vibratory loads present in the system. Repeated exposure to this loading condition can induce damage in the composite rotor blades. These rotor/turbine blades are generally made of fiber-reinforced laminated composites and exhibit various competing modes of damage such as matrix micro-cracking, delamination, and fiber breakage. There is a need to study the behavior of the composite rotor system under various key damage modes in composite materials for developing Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. Each blade is modeled as a beam based on geometrically non-linear 3-D elasticity theory. Each blade thus splits into 2-D analyzes of cross-sections and non-linear 1-D analyzes along the beam reference curves. Two different tools are used here for complete 3-D analysis: VABS for 2-D cross-sectional analysis and GEBT for 1-D beam analysis. The physically-based failure models for matrix in compression and tension loading are used in the present work. Matrix cracking is detected using two failure criterion: Matrix Failure in Compression and Matrix Failure in Tension which are based on the recovered field. A strain variable is set which drives the damage variable for matrix cracking and this damage variable is used to estimate the reduced cross-sectional stiffness. The matrix micro-cracking is performed in two different approaches: (i) Element-wise, and (ii) Node-wise. The procedure presented in this paper is implemented in VABS as matrix micro-cracking modeling module. Three examples are presented to investigate the matrix failure model which illustrate the effect of matrix cracking on cross-sectional stiffness by varying the applied cyclic load.
A Comparison Between Numerically Modelled and Experimentally Measured Loss Mechanisms in Wave Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, Daniel E.
1993-01-01
A numerical model has been developed which is capable of predicting the performance of a wave rotor (pressure exchanger) of specified geometry over a wide range of operating conditions. The model can account for the major loss mechanisms of leakage from the tube ends, fluid viscosity, heat transfer to the tube walls, finite tube opening time, shock waves, and non-uniform port flows. It is a one dimensional flow model which follows a single tube as it rotates past the various stationary ports. Since the model is relatively simple (i.e. one dimensional) it uses little computer time. This makes it suitable for design as well as analytical purposes. This paper will present a brief description of the model then discuss a comparison between the model predictions and several wave rotor experiments.
Application of a High-Fidelity Icing Analysis Method to a Model-Scale Rotor in Forward Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narducci, Robert; Orr, Stanley; Kreeger, Richard E.
2012-01-01
An icing analysis process involving the loose coupling of OVERFLOW-RCAS for rotor performance prediction and with LEWICE3D for thermal analysis and ice accretion is applied to a model-scale rotor for validation. The process offers high-fidelity rotor analysis for the noniced and iced rotor performance evaluation that accounts for the interaction of nonlinear aerodynamics with blade elastic deformations. Ice accumulation prediction also involves loosely coupled data exchanges between OVERFLOW and LEWICE3D to produce accurate ice shapes. Validation of the process uses data collected in the 1993 icing test involving Sikorsky's Powered Force Model. Non-iced and iced rotor performance predictions are compared to experimental measurements as are predicted ice shapes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hohenemser, K. H.; Banerjee, D.
1977-01-01
An introduction to aircraft state and parameter identification methods is presented. A simplified form of the maximum likelihood method is selected to extract analytical aeroelastic rotor models from simulated and dynamic wind tunnel test results for accelerated cyclic pitch stirring excitation. The dynamic inflow characteristics for forward flight conditions from the blade flapping responses without direct inflow measurements were examined. The rotor blades are essentially rigid for inplane bending and for torsion within the frequency range of study, but flexible in out-of-plane bending. Reverse flow effects are considered for high rotor advance ratios. Two inflow models are studied; the first is based on an equivalent blade Lock number, the second is based on a time delayed momentum inflow. In addition to the inflow parameters, basic rotor parameters like the blade natural frequency and the actual blade Lock number are identified together with measurement bias values. The effect of the theoretical dynamic inflow on the rotor eigenvalues is evaluated.
Statistics of a neuron model driven by asymmetric colored noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller-Hansen, Finn; Droste, Felix; Lindner, Benjamin
2015-02-01
Irregular firing of neurons can be modeled as a stochastic process. Here we study the perfect integrate-and-fire neuron driven by dichotomous noise, a Markovian process that jumps between two states (i.e., possesses a non-Gaussian statistics) and exhibits nonvanishing temporal correlations (i.e., represents a colored noise). Specifically, we consider asymmetric dichotomous noise with two different transition rates. Using a first-passage-time formulation, we derive exact expressions for the probability density and the serial correlation coefficient of the interspike interval (time interval between two subsequent neural action potentials) and the power spectrum of the spike train. Furthermore, we extend the model by including additional Gaussian white noise, and we give approximations for the interspike interval (ISI) statistics in this case. Numerical simulations are used to validate the exact analytical results for pure dichotomous noise, and to test the approximations of the ISI statistics when Gaussian white noise is included. The results may help to understand how correlations and asymmetry of noise and signals in nerve cells shape neuronal firing statistics.
Critical Differences of Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection from Standard Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitta, S.; Wada, T.; Fuchida, T.; Kondoh, K.
2016-09-01
We have clarified the structure of asymmetric magnetic reconnection in detail as the result of the spontaneous evolutionary process. The asymmetry is imposed as ratio k of the magnetic field strength in both sides of the initial current sheet (CS) in the isothermal equilibrium. The MHD simulation is carried out by the HLLD code for the long-term temporal evolution with very high spatial resolution. The resultant structure is drastically different from the symmetric case (e.g., the Petschek model) even for slight asymmetry k = 2. (1) The velocity distribution in the reconnection jet clearly shows a two-layered structure, i.e., the high-speed sub-layer in which the flow is almost field aligned and the acceleration sub-layer. (2) Higher beta side (HBS) plasma is caught in a lower beta side plasmoid. This suggests a new plasma mixing process in the reconnection events. (3) A new large strong fast shock in front of the plasmoid forms in the HBS. This can be a new particle acceleration site in the reconnection system. These critical properties that have not been reported in previous works suggest that we contribute to a better and more detailed knowledge of the reconnection of the standard model for the symmetric magnetic reconnection system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward; Gainer, Thomas G.
1989-01-01
The boundary value problem for vortex separation at zero sideslip on cones and tangent ogives is set up by means of a discrete vortex model. The nonlinear algebraic equations for the boundary value problem admit multiple, physically feasible solutions, including the symmetric and asymmetric vortex solutions. Multiple solutions are proposed as an alternative explanation of the existence of asymmetric vortex separation at zero sideslip.
Modelling crystal growth: Convection in an asymmetrically heated ampoule
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz; Pulicani, J. P.; Krukowski, S.; Ouazzani, Jalil
1990-01-01
The objective was to develop and implement a numerical method capable of solving the nonlinear partial differential equations governing heat, mass, and momentum transfer in a 3-D cylindrical geometry in order to examine the character of convection in an asymmetrically heated cylindrical ampoule. The details of the numerical method, including verification tests involving comparison with results obtained from other methods, are presented. The results of the study of 3-D convection in an asymmetrically heated cylinder are described.
Ice accretion modeling for wind turbine rotor blades
Chocron, D.; Brahimi, T.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Bombardier, J.A.
1997-12-31
The increasing application of wind energy in northern climates implies operation of wind turbines under severe atmospheric icing conditions. Such conditions are well known in the Scandinavian countries, Canada and most of Eastern European countries. An extensive study to develop a procedure for the prediction of ice accretion on wind turbines rotor blades appears to be essential for the safe and economic operation of wind turbines in these cold regions. The objective of the present paper is to develop a computer code capable of simulating the shape and amount of ice which may accumulate on horizontal axis wind turbine blades when operating in icing conditions. The resulting code is capable to predict and simulate the formation of ice in rime and glaze conditions, calculate the flow field and particle trajectories and to perform thermodynamic analysis. It also gives the possibility of studying the effect of different parameters that influence ice formation such as temperature, liquid water content, droplet diameter and accretion time. The analysis has been conducted on different typical airfoils as well as on NASA/DOE Mod-0 wind turbine. Results showed that ice accretion on wind turbines may reduce the power output by more than 20%.
Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Contra-Rotating Open Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sree, Dave; Stephens, David B.
2014-01-01
Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.
Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Counter-Rotating Open Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sree, David; Stephens, David B.
2014-01-01
Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.
Arima, T.; Sonoda, T.; Shirotori, M.; Tamura, A.; Kikuchi, K.
1999-01-01
The authors have developed a computer simulation code for three-dimensional viscous flow in turbomachinery based on the time-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations and a low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model. It is described in detail in this paper. The code is used to compute the flow fields for two types of rotor (a transonic fan NASA Rotor 67 and a transonic axial compressor NASA rotor 37), and numerical results are compared to experimental data based on aerodynamic probe and laser anemometer measurements. In the case of Rotor 67, calculated and experimental results are compared under the design speed to validate the code. The calculated results show good agreement with the experimental data, such as the rotor performance map and the spanwise distribution of total pressure, total temperature, and flow angle downstream of the rotor. In the case of Rotor 37, detailed comparisons between the numerical results and the experimental data are made under the design speed condition to assess the overall quality of the numerical solution. Furthermore, comparisons under the part-speed condition are used to investigate a flow field without passage shock. The results are well predicted qualitatively. However, considerable quantitative discrepancies remain in predicting the flow near the tip. In order to assess the predictive capabilities of the developed code, computed flow structures are presented with the experimental data for each rotor and the cause of the discrepancies is discussed.
Noise Benefits of Rotor Trailing Edge Blowing for a Model Turbofan
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodward, Richard P.; Fite, E. Brian; Podboy, Gary G.
2007-01-01
An advanced model turbofan was tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) to explore far field acoustic effects associated with rotor Trailing-Edge-Blowing (TEB) for a modern, 1.294 stage pressure ratio turbofan model. The TEB rotor (Fan9) was designed to be aerodynamically similar to the previously tested Fan1, and used the same stator and nacelle hardware. Fan9 was designed with trailing edge blowing slots using an external air supply directed through the rotor hub. The TEB flow was heated to approximate the average fan exit temperature at each fan test speed. Rotor root blockage inserts were used to block TEB to all but the outer 40 and 20% span in addition to full-span blowing. A configuration with full-span TEB on alternate rotor blades was also tested. Far field acoustic data were taken at takeoff/approach conditions at 0.10 tunnel Mach. Far-field acoustic results showed that full-span blowing near 2.0% of the total flow could reduce the overall sound power level by about 2 dB. This noise reduction was observed in both the rotor-stator interaction tones and for the spectral broadband noise levels. Blowing only the outer span region was not very effective for lowering noise, and actually increased the far field noise level in some instances. Full-span blowing of alternate blades at 1.0% of the overall flow rate (equivalent to full-span blowing of all blades at 2.0% flow) showed a more modest noise decrease relative to full-span blowing of all blades. Detailed hot film measurements of the TEB rotor wake at 2.0% flow showed that TEB was not every effective for filling in the wake defect at approach fan speed toward the tip region, but did result in overfilling the wake toward the hub. Downstream turbulence measurements supported this finding, and support the observed reduction in spectral broadband noise.
Rotor Wake Development During the First Revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McAlister, Kenneth W.
2003-01-01
The wake behind a two-bladed model rotor in light climb was measured using particle image velocimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of the trailing vortex during the first revolution of the rotor. The distribution of vorticity was distinguished from the slightly elliptical swirl pattern. Peculiar dynamics within the void region may explain why the peak vorticity appeared to shift away from the center as the vortex aged, suggesting the onset of instability. The swirl and axial velocities (which reached 44 and 12 percent of the rotor-tip speed, respectively) were found to be asymmetric relative to the vortex center. In particular, the axial flow was composed of two concentrated zones moving in opposite directions. The radial distribution of the circulation rapidly increased in magnitude until reaching a point just beyond the core radius, after which the rate of growth decreased significantly. The core-radius circulation increased slightly with wake age, but the large-radius circulation appeared to remain relatively constant. The radial distributions of swirl velocity and vorticity exhibit self-similar behaviors, especially within the core. The diameter of the vortex core was initially about 10 percent of the rotor-blade chord, but more than doubled its size after one revolution of the rotor. According to vortex models that approximate the measured data, the core-radius circulation was about 79 percent of the large-radius circulation, and the large-radius circulation was about 67 percent of the maximum bound circulation on the rotor blade. On average, about 53 percent of the maximum bound circulation resides within the vortex core during the first revolution of the rotor.
Identification and verification of frequency-domain models for XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tischler, M. B.; Leung, J. G. M.; Dugan, D. C.
1984-01-01
Frequency-domain methods are used to extract the open-loop dynamics of the XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft from flight test data for the cruise condition (V = 170 knots). The frequency responses are numerically fitted with transfer-function forms to identify equivalent model characteristics. The associated handling quality parameters meet or exceed Level 2, Category A, requirements for fixed-wing military aircraft. Step response matching is used to verify the time-domain fidelity of the transfer-function models for the cruise and hover flight conditions. The transient responses of the model and aircraft are in close agreement in all cases, except for the normal acceleration response to elevator deflection in cruise. This discrepancy is probably due to the unmodeled rotor rpm dynamics. The utility of the frequency-domain approach for dynamics identification and analysis is clearly demonstrated.
Rotordynamic Modelling and Response Characteristics of an Active Magnetic Bearing Rotor System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.
1996-01-01
Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotordynamic model which describes the dynamic behavior of a flexible rotor system with magnetic bearings including auxiliary bearings. The model is based upon an experimental test facility. Some simulation studies are presented to illustrate the behavior of the model. In particular, the effects of introducing sideloading from the magnetic bearing when one coil fails is studied. These results are presented and discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.
1995-01-01
Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotordynamic model which describes the dynamic behavior of a flexible rotor system with magnetic bearings including auxiliary bearings. The model is based upon an experimental test facility. Some simulation studies are presented to illustrate the behavior of the model. In particular, the effects of introducing sideloading from the magnetic bearing when one coil fails is studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.
1987-01-01
Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model-scale data were compared with averaged full-scale, in-flight acoustic data under similar non-dimensional test conditions using an improved data analysis technique. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 - 0.194), the BVI impulsive noise data scale remarkably well in level, waveform, and directivity patterns. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 - 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model-scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full-scale BVI noise. Presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Measured BVI noise radiation is highly sensitive to all of the four governing nondimensional parameters--hover tip Mach number, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient.
The Asymmetric Vascular Stent: Efficacy in a rabbit aneurysm model
Ionita, Ciprian N; Paciorek, Ann M; Dohatcu, Andreea; Hoffmann, Kenneth R; Bednarek, Daniel R; Kolega, John; Levy, Elad I; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Rudin, Stephen; Mocco, J.
2009-01-01
Background and Purpose Development of hemodynamic modifying devices to treat intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is an active area of research. The asymmetric vascular stent (AVS), a stent containing a low porosity patch, is such device. We evaluate AVS efficacy in an in vivo IA model. Methods We created twenty-four elastase rabbit model aneurysms: thirteen treated with the AVS, five treated with standard coronary stents, and six untreated controls. Four weeks following treatment, aneurysms underwent follow-up angiography, cone-beam micro-CT, histologic evaluation, and selective electron microscopy scanning. Results Four rabbits died early in the study: three during AVS treatment and one control (secondary to intra-procedural vessel injury and an unrelated tumor, respectively). AVS-treated aneurysms exhibited very weak or no aneurysm flow immediately after treatment and no flow in all aneurysms at follow-up. Stent-treated aneurysms showed flow both after treatment (5/5) and at follow-up (3/5). All control aneurysms remained patent during the study. Micro-CT scans showed: 9/9 of scanned AVS aneurysms were occluded, (6/9) AVSs were ideally placed and (3/9) the low porosity region partially covered the aneurysm neck; stent-treated aneurysms were 1/5 occluded, 2/5 patent, and 2/5 partially-patent. Histology results demonstrated: for AVS-treated aneurysms, advanced thrombus organization in the (9/9); for stent-treated aneurysms (1/4) no thrombus, (2/4) partially-thrombosed and (1/4) fully-thrombosed; for control aneurysms (4/4) no thrombus. Conclusion The use of AVSs shows promise as a viable new therapeutic in intracranial aneurysm treatment. These data encourage further investigation and provide substantial support to the AVS concept. PMID:19131663
Review and analysis of the DNW/Model 360 rotor acoustic data base
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zinner, R. A.; Boxwell, D. A.; Spencer, R. H.
1989-01-01
A comprehensive model rotor aeroacoustic data base was collected in a large anechoic wind tunnel in 1986. Twenty-six microphones were positioned around the azimuth to collect acoustic data for approximately 150 different test conditions. A dynamically scaled, blade-pressure-instrumented model of the forward rotor of the BH360 helicopter simultaneously provided blade pressures for correlation with the acoustic data. High-speed impulsive noise, blade-vortex interaction noise, low-frequency noise, and broadband noise were all captured in this extensive data base. Trends are presentes for each noise source, with important parametric variations. The purpose of this paper is to introduce this data base and illustrate its potential for predictive code validation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hohenemser, K. H.; Yin, S. K.
1974-01-01
System identification methods which can extract model rotor paramenters with reasonable accuracy from noise polluted blade flapping transient measurements were developed. Usually parameter identification requires data on the state variables, that is on deflections and on rate of deflections. The small size of rotor models makes it, however, difficult to measure more than the blade flapping deflections. For the computer experiments it was, therefore, assumed that only noisy deflection measurements are available. Parameter identifications were performed for one and two unknown parameters. Both rotating coordinates and multiblade coordinates were used. It was found that data processing with a digital filter allowed by numerical differentiation a sufficiently accurate determination of the rates of deflection and of the accelerations to obtain reasonable parameter estimates with a simple linear estimator.
Simulation and experimental validation of the dynamical model of a dual-rotor vibrotactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miklós, Á.; Szabó, Z.
2015-01-01
In this work, a novel design for small vibrotactors called the Dual Excenter is presented, which makes it possible to produce vibrations with independently adjustable frequency and amplitude. This feature has been realized using two coaxially aligned eccentric rotors, which are driven by DC motors independently. The prototype of the device has been built, where mechanical components are integrated on a frame with two optical sensors for the measurement of angular velocity and phase angle. The system is equipped with a digital controller. Simulations confirm the results of analytical investigations and they allow us to model the sampling method of the signals of the angular velocity and the phase angle between the rotors. Furthermore, we model the discrete behavior of the controller, which is a PI controller for the angular velocities and a PID controller for the phase angle. Finally, simulation results are compared to experimental ones, which show that the Dual Excenter concept is feasible.
Experimental and analytical studies of a model helicopter rotor in hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caradonna, F. X.; Tung, C.
1981-01-01
A benchmark test to aid the development of various rotor performance codes was conducted. Simultaneous blade pressure measurements and tip vortex surveys were made for a wide range of tip Mach numbers including the transonic flow regime. The measured tip vortex strength and geometry permit effective blade loading predictions when used as input to a prescribed wake lifting surface code. It is also shown that with proper inflow and boundary layer modeling, the supercritical flow regime can be accurately predicted.
Prediction of aeroelastic response of a model X-wing rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dopher, Robert; Duh, James E.
1987-01-01
The rotorcraft dynamics analysis was used to predict the aeroelastic responses of a representative X-wing model with a 10 ft diameter rotor. The aeroelastic methodology used and the tests and assumptions involved are reviewed. Results are reported on the findings concerning control power and higher harmonic control in hover, transition flight, vibratory loads at forward speed, and responses in conversion. It is concluded that the analysis can give satisfactory predictions of X-wing behavior.
Multidisciplinary Optimization of Tilt Rotor Blades Using Comprehensive Composite Modeling Technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chattopadhyay, Aditi; McCarthy, Thomas R.; Rajadas, John N.
1997-01-01
An optimization procedure is developed for addressing the design of composite tilt rotor blades. A comprehensive technique, based on a higher-order laminate theory, is developed for the analysis of the thick composite load-carrying sections, modeled as box beams, in the blade. The theory, which is based on a refined displacement field, is a three-dimensional model which approximates the elasticity solution so that the beam cross-sectional properties are not reduced to one-dimensional beam parameters. Both inplane and out-of-plane warping are included automatically in the formulation. The model can accurately capture the transverse shear stresses through the thickness of each wall while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the inner and outer surfaces of the beam. The aerodynamic loads on the blade are calculated using the classical blade element momentum theory. Analytical expressions for the lift and drag are obtained based on the blade planform with corrections for the high lift capability of rotor blades. The aerodynamic analysis is coupled with the structural model to formulate the complete coupled equations of motion for aeroelastic analyses. Finally, a multidisciplinary optimization procedure is developed to improve the aerodynamic, structural and aeroelastic performance of the tilt rotor aircraft. The objective functions include the figure of merit in hover and the high speed cruise propulsive efficiency. Structural, aerodynamic and aeroelastic stability criteria are imposed as constraints on the problem. The Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser function is used to formulate the multiobjective function problem. The search direction is determined by the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. The optimum results are compared with the baseline values and show significant improvements in the overall performance of the tilt rotor blade.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bousman, William G.
1988-01-01
Two cases were selected for correlation from an experiment that examined the aeromechanical stability of a small-scale model rotor that used tantalum rods instead of blades to simulate vacuum conditions. The first case involved body roll freedom only while the second case included body pitch and roll degrees of freedom together. Analyses from Hughes Helicopters and the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory were compared with the data and the correlations ranged from poor to good.
Strong coupling and quasispinor representations of the SU(3) rotor model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowe, D. J.; de Guise, H.
1992-06-01
We define a coupling scheme, in close parallel to the coupling scheme of Elliott and Wilsdon, in which nucleonic intrinsic spins are strongly coupled to SU(3) spatial wave functions. The scheme is proposed for shell-model calculations in strongly deformed nuclei and for semimicroscopic analyses of rotations in odd-mass nuclei and other nuclei for which the spin-orbit interaction is believed to play an important role. The coupling scheme extends the domain of utility of the SU(3) model, and the symplectic model, to heavy nuclei and odd-mass nuclei. It is based on the observation that the low angular-momentum states of an SU(3) irrep have properties that mimic those of a corresponding irrep of the rotor algebra. Thus, we show that strongly coupled spin-SU(3) bands behave like strongly coupled rotor bands with properties that approach those of irreducible representations of the rigid-rotor algebra in the limit of large SU(3) quantum numbers. Moreover, we determine that the low angular-momentum states of a strongly coupled band of states of half-odd integer angular momentum behave to a high degree of accuracy as if they belonged to an SU(3) irrep. These are the quasispinor SU(3) irreps referred to in the title.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogovalov, S. V.; Borisevich, V. D.; Borman, V. D.; Tronin, I. V.; Tronin, V. N.
2016-06-01
Numerical modelling and optimization of the gas flow and isotope separation in the Iguasu gas centrifuge (GC) for uranium enrichment have been performed for different lengths of the rotor. The calculations show that the specific separative power of the GC reduces with the length of the rotor. We show that the reduction of the specific separative power is connected with the growth of the pressure in the optimal regime and corresponding growth of temperature to prevent the working gas sublimation. The specific separative power remains constant with the growth of the rotor length provided that the temperature of the gas is taken to be constant.
Tilt Rotor Aircraft Aeroacoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
George, Albert R.
1996-01-01
A fleet of civil tilt rotor transports offers a means of reducing airport congestion and point-to-point travel time. The speed, range, and fuel economy of these aircraft, along with their efficient use of vertiport area, make them good candidates for short-to-medium range civil transport. However, to be successfully integrated into the civilian community, the tilt rotor must be perceived as a quiet, safe, and economical mode of transportation that does not harm the environment. In particular, noise impact has been identified as a possible barrier to the civil tilt rotor. Along with rotor conversion-mode flight, and blade-vortex interaction noise during descent, hover mode is a noise problem for tilt rotor operations. In the present research, tilt rotor hover aeroacoustics have been studied analytically, experimentally, and computationally. Various papers on the subject were published as noted in the list of publications. More recently, experimental measurements were made on a 1/12.5 scale model of the XV-15 in hover and analyses of this data and extrapolations to full scale were also carried out. A dimensional analysis showed that the model was a good aeroacoustic approximation to the full-scale aircraft, and scale factors were derived to extrapolate the model measurements to the full-scale XV-15. The experimental measurements included helium bubble flow visualization, silk tuft flow visualization, 2-component hot wire anemometry, 7-hole pressure probe measurements, vorticity measurements, and outdoor far field acoustic measurements. The hot wire measurements were used to estimate the turbulence statistics of the flow field into the rotors, such as length scales, velocity scales, dissipation, and turbulence intermittency. Several different configurations of the model were tested: (1) standard configurations (single isolated rotor, two rotors without the aircraft, standard tilt rotor configuration); (2) flow control devices (the 'plate', the 'diagonal fences'); (3
The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Rotor Source Noise Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitz, Frederic H.; Greenwood, Eric
2011-01-01
A new physics-based method called Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) is used to demonstrate the change in rotor harmonic noise of a helicopter operating at different ambient conditions. FRAME is based upon a non-dimensional representation of the governing acoustic and performance equations of a single rotor helicopter. Measured external noise is used together with parameter identification techniques to develop a model of helicopter external noise that is a hybrid between theory and experiment. The FRAME method is used to evaluate the main rotor harmonic noise of a Bell 206B3 helicopter operating at different altitudes. The variation with altitude of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise, known to be a strong function of the helicopter s advance ratio, is dependent upon which definition of airspeed is flown by the pilot. If normal flight procedures are followed and indicated airspeed (IAS) is held constant, the true airspeed (TAS) of the helicopter increases with altitude. This causes an increase in advance ratio and a decrease in the speed of sound which results in large changes to BVI noise levels. Results also show that thickness noise on this helicopter becomes more intense at high altitudes where advancing tip Mach number increases because the speed of sound is decreasing and advance ratio increasing for the same indicated airspeed. These results suggest that existing measurement-based empirically derived helicopter rotor noise source models may give incorrect noise estimates when they are used at conditions where data were not measured and may need to be corrected for mission land-use planning purposes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stringer, David Blake
The overarching objective in this research is the development of a robust, rotor dynamic, physics based model of a helicopter drive train as a foundation for the prognostic modeling for rotary-wing transmissions. Rotorcrafts rely on the integrity of their drive trains for their airworthiness. Drive trains rely on gear technology for their integrity and function. Gears alter the vibration characteristics of a mechanical system and significantly contribute to noise, component fatigue, and personal discomfort prevalent in rotorcraft. This research effort develops methodologies for generating a rotor dynamic model of a rotary-wing transmission based on first principles, through (i) development of a three-dimensional gear-mesh stiffness model for helical and spur gears and integration of this model in a finite element rotor dynamic model, (ii) linear and nonlinear analyses of a geared system for comparison and validation of the gear-mesh model, (iii) development of a modal synthesis technique for potentially providing model reduction and faster analysis capabilities for geared systems, and (iv) extension of the gear-mesh model to bevel and epicyclic configurations. In addition to model construction and validation, faults indigenous to geared systems are presented and discussed. Two faults are selected for analysis and seeded into the transmission model. Diagnostic vibration parameters are presented and used as damage indicators in the analysis. The fault models produce results consistent with damage experienced during experimental testing. The results of this research demonstrate the robustness of the physics-based approach in simulating multiple normal and abnormal conditions. The advantages of this physics-based approach, when combined with contemporary probabilistic and time-series techniques, provide a useful method for improving health monitoring technologies in mechanical systems.
Surface pressure measurements at two tips of a model helicopter rotor in hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, R. B.; Mcmahon, H. M.; Shenoy, K. R.; Hammer, M. L.
1980-01-01
Surface pressures were measured near the tip of a hovering single-bladed model helicopter rotor with two tip shapes. The rotor had a constant-chord, untwisted blade with a square, flat tip which could be modified to a body-of-revolution tip. Pressure measurements were made on the blade surface along the chordwise direction at six radial stations outboard of the 94 percent blade radius. Data for each blade tip configuration were taken at blade collective pitch angles of 0, 6.18 and 11.4 degrees at a Reynolds number of 736,000 and a Mach number of 0.25 both based on tip speed. Chordwise pressure distributions and constant surface pressure contours are presented and discussed.
The acoustic results of a United Technologies scale model helicopter rotor tested at DNW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Sandy R.; Marcolini, Michael A.
1990-01-01
In a major cooperative program between U.S. Government agencies (represented by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate and NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers) and United Technologies Corp., a 1/6 geometrically and aeroelastically scaled UTC model helicopter rotor was tested in the open-jet anechoic test section of the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel in the Netherlands. As the fourth entry under the Aerodynamic and Acoustic Testing of Model Rotors Program, several comprehensive acoustic and aerodynamic databases were obtained relating the important aerodynamic phenomena to both the near- and far-field acoustic radiation. In particular, high speed impulsive noise and blade-vortex interaction are of primary interest. This paper provides an initial summary of the acoustic measurements acquired for some of the different configurations tested. A review of the baseline swept tip rotor acoustic characteristics in the regimes of high speed forward flight, where high speed impulsive noise dominates, and low speed descent, where severe blade vortex interaction noise occurs, is presented. The trends of these primary noise sources are studied as the first step in validating the data for release and application.
Hwang, Minki; Song, Jun-Seop; Lee, Young-Seon; Li, Changyong; Shim, Eun Bo; Pak, Hui-Nam
2016-01-01
Background Although rotors have been considered among the drivers of atrial fibrillation (AF), the rotor definition is inconsistent. We evaluated the nature of rotors in 2D and 3D in- silico models of persistent AF (PeAF) by analyzing phase singularity (PS), dominant frequency (DF), Shannon entropy (ShEn), and complex fractionated atrial electrogram cycle length (CFAE-CL) and their ablation. Methods Mother rotor was spatiotemporally defined as stationary reentries with a meandering tip remaining within half the wavelength and lasting longer than 5 s. We generated 2D- and 3D-maps of the PS, DF, ShEn, and CFAE-CL during AF. The spatial correlations and ablation outcomes targeting each parameter were analyzed. Results 1. In the 2D PeAF model, we observed a mother rotor that matched relatively well with DF (>9 Hz, 71.0%, p<0.001), ShEn (upper 2.5%, 33.2%, p<0.001), and CFAE-CL (lower 2.5%, 23.7%, p<0.001). 2. The 3D-PeAF model also showed mother rotors that had spatial correlations with DF (>5.5 Hz, 39.7%, p<0.001), ShEn (upper 8.5%, 15.1%, p <0.001), and CFAE (lower 8.5%, 8.0%, p = 0.002). 3. In both the 2D and 3D models, virtual ablation targeting the upper 5% of the DF terminated AF within 20 s, but not the ablations based on long-lasting PS, high ShEn area, or lower CFAE-CL area. Conclusion Mother rotors were observed in both 2D and 3D human AF models. Rotor locations were well represented by DF, and their virtual ablation altered wave dynamics and terminated AF. PMID:26909492
Model building on asymmetric Z3 orbifolds: Non-supersymmetric models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, T. R.
1988-07-01
Four-dimensional string models arising in the asymmetric Z3 orbifold compactifications of the heterotic string are studied. A mechanism for supersymmetry breaking that gives rise to chiral models in four dimensions is presented, and some typical models are discussed. A formalism for calculating one-loop partition functions in Z3 models is developed. One partition function is constructed that may correspond to a non-supersymmetric, tachyon-free theory, with a vanishing cosmological constant as a consequence of Atkin-Lehner symmetry. The negative result of a search for the model corresponding to this partition function is reported.
Vortex modeling for rotor aerodynamics - The 1991 Alexander A. Nikolsky Lecture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, Robin B.
1992-01-01
The efforts toward realistic vortex modeling for rotary wings which began under the guidance of professor A. A. Nikolsky of Princeton University in 1955-1956 are discussed. Attention is given to Nikolsky's flow-visualization studies and major theoretical considerations for vortex modeling. More recent efforts by other researchers have led to models of increasing complexity. The neglect of compressibility and viscous effects in the classical approach is noted to be a major limiting factor in full-scale rotor applications of the classical vortex theory; it has nevertheless been valuable for the delineation of problem areas and the guiding of both experimental and theoretical investigations.
Stochastic modeling of cell growth with symmetric or asymmetric division
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marantan, Andrew; Amir, Ariel
2016-07-01
We consider a class of biologically motivated stochastic processes in which a unicellular organism divides its resources (volume or damaged proteins, in particular) symmetrically or asymmetrically between its progeny. Assuming the final amount of the resource is controlled by a growth policy and subject to additive and multiplicative noise, we derive the recursive integral equation describing the evolution of the resource distribution over subsequent generations and use it to study the properties of stable resource distributions. We find conditions under which a unique stable resource distribution exists and calculate its moments for the class of affine linear growth policies. Moreover, we apply an asymptotic analysis to elucidate the conditions under which the stable distribution (when it exists) has a power-law tail. Finally, we use the results of this asymptotic analysis along with the moment equations to draw a stability phase diagram for the system that reveals the counterintuitive result that asymmetry serves to increase stability while at the same time widening the stable distribution. We also briefly discuss how cells can divide damaged proteins asymmetrically between their progeny as a form of damage control. In the appendixes, motivated by the asymmetric division of cell volume in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we extend our results to the case wherein mother and daughter cells follow different growth policies.
Stochastic modeling of cell growth with symmetric or asymmetric division.
Marantan, Andrew; Amir, Ariel
2016-07-01
We consider a class of biologically motivated stochastic processes in which a unicellular organism divides its resources (volume or damaged proteins, in particular) symmetrically or asymmetrically between its progeny. Assuming the final amount of the resource is controlled by a growth policy and subject to additive and multiplicative noise, we derive the recursive integral equation describing the evolution of the resource distribution over subsequent generations and use it to study the properties of stable resource distributions. We find conditions under which a unique stable resource distribution exists and calculate its moments for the class of affine linear growth policies. Moreover, we apply an asymptotic analysis to elucidate the conditions under which the stable distribution (when it exists) has a power-law tail. Finally, we use the results of this asymptotic analysis along with the moment equations to draw a stability phase diagram for the system that reveals the counterintuitive result that asymmetry serves to increase stability while at the same time widening the stable distribution. We also briefly discuss how cells can divide damaged proteins asymmetrically between their progeny as a form of damage control. In the appendixes, motivated by the asymmetric division of cell volume in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we extend our results to the case wherein mother and daughter cells follow different growth policies. PMID:27575162
Metallic Rotor Sizing and Performance Model for Flywheel Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, Camille J.; Kraft, Thomas G.
2012-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing flywheel system requirements and designs for terrestrial and spacecraft applications. Several generations of flywheels have been designed and tested at GRC using in-house expertise in motors, magnetic bearings, controls, materials and power electronics. The maturation of a flywheel system from the concept phase to the preliminary design phase is accompanied by maturation of the Integrated Systems Performance model, where estimating relationships are replaced by physics based analytical techniques. The modeling can incorporate results from engineering model testing and emerging detail from the design process.
Rigid rotor equilibria with non-neutral plasma: analytical relativistic two fluid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braga, Filipe L.; Soares, Diego N.; Lourenço, Weslley A.
2016-07-01
The analysis of non-neutral plasmas using fluid models in general implies on the resolutions of coupled differential equations, in particular the so-called rigid-rotor plasma equilibrium involves the solution of the Poisson-Ampère and moment equations. The present work shows an analytical solution for this model at a relativistic cold adiabatic plasma approximation considering a two species plasma where electric field gives an important contribution for the plasma confinement. According to the present study the most important plasma parameters responsible for confinement are the particles angular velocities, as expected, and mass ratio between the species.
Dynamic stall modeling and correlation with experimental data on airfoils and rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, R. G.; Blackwell, R. H.; Commerford, G. L.; Mirick, P. H.
1974-01-01
Two methods for modeling dynamic stall have been developed. The alpha, A, B method generates lift and pitching moments as functions of angle of attack and its first two time derivatives. The coefficients are derived from experimental data for oscillating airfoils. The Time Delay Method generates the coefficients from steady state airfoil characteristics and an associated time delay in stall beyond the steady state stall angle. Correlation with three types of test data shows that the alpha, A, B method is somewhat better for use in predicting helicopter rotor response in forward flight. Correlation with lift and moment hysteresis loops generated for oscillating airfoils was good for both models.
Asymmetric Stochastic Transport Models with {{U}}_q({su}(1,1)) Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carinci, Gioia; Giardinà, Cristian; Redig, Frank; Sasamoto, Tomohiro
2016-04-01
By using the algebraic construction outlined in Carinci et al. (arXiv:1407.3367, 2014), we introduce several Markov processes related to the {{U}}_q({su}(1,1)) quantum Lie algebra. These processes serve as asymmetric transport models and their algebraic structure easily allows to deduce duality properties of the systems. The results include: (a) the asymmetric version of the Inclusion Process, which is self-dual; (b) the diffusion limit of this process, which is a natural asymmetric analogue of the and which turns out to have the Symmetric Inclusion Process as a dual process; (c) the asymmetric analogue of the KMP Process, which also turns out to have a symmetric dual process. We give applications of the various duality relations by computing exponential moments of the current.
Parameterized reduced order modeling of misaligned stacked disks rotor assemblies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganine, Vladislav; Laxalde, Denis; Michalska, Hannah; Pierre, Christophe
2011-01-01
Light and flexible rotating parts of modern turbine engines operating at supercritical speeds necessitate application of more accurate but rather computationally expensive 3D FE modeling techniques. Stacked disks misalignment due to manufacturing variability in the geometry of individual components constitutes a particularly important aspect to be included in the analysis because of its impact on system dynamics. A new parametric model order reduction algorithm is presented to achieve this goal at affordable computational costs. It is shown that the disks misalignment leads to significant changes in nominal system properties that manifest themselves as additional blocks coupling neighboring spatial harmonics in Fourier space. Consequently, the misalignment effects can no longer be accurately modeled as equivalent forces applied to a nominal unperturbed system. The fact that the mode shapes become heavily distorted by extra harmonic content renders the nominal modal projection-based methods inaccurate and thus numerically ineffective in the context of repeated analysis of multiple misalignment realizations. The significant numerical bottleneck is removed by employing an orthogonal projection onto the subspace spanned by first few Fourier harmonic basis vectors. The projected highly sparse systems are shown to accurately approximate the specific misalignment effects, to be inexpensive to solve using direct sparse methods and easy to parameterize with a small set of measurable eccentricity and tilt angle parameters. Selected numerical examples on an industrial scale model are presented to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm implementation.
Dynamic analysis of rotor flex-structure based on nonlinear anisotropic shell models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauchau, Olivier A.; Chiang, Wuying
1991-05-01
In this paper an anisotropic shallow shell model is developed that accommodates transverse shearing deformations and arbitrarily large displacements and rotations, but strains are assumed to remain small. Two kinematic models are developed, the first using two DOF to locate the direction of the normal to the shell's midplane, the second using three. The latter model allows for an automatic compatibility of the shell model with beam models. The shell model is validated by comparing its predictions with several benchmark problems. In actual helicopter rotor blade problems, the shell model of the flex structure is shown to give very different results shown compared to beam models. The lead-lag and torsion modes in particular are strongly affected, whereas flapping modes seem to be less affected.
Rotor-vortex interaction noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.
1983-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to develop a validated first principles analysis for predicting noise generated by helicopter main-rotor shed vortices interacting with the tail rotor. The generalized prediction procedure requires a knowledge of the incident vortex velocity field, rotor geometry, and rotor operating conditions. The analysis includes compressibility effects, chordwise and spanwise noncompactness, and treats oblique intersections with the blade planform. Assessment of the theory involved conducting a model rotor experiment which isolated the blade-vortex interaction noise from other rotor noise mechanisms. An isolated tip vortex, generated by an upstream semispan airfoil, was convected into the model tail rotor. Acoustic spectra, pressure signatures, and directivity were measured. Since assessment of the acoustic prediction required a knowledge of the vortex properties, blade-vortes intersection angle, intersection station, vortex stength, and vortex core radius were documented. Ingestion of the vortex by the rotor was experimentally observed to generate harmonic noise and impulsive waveforms.
Finite difference modeling of rotor flows including wake effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caradonna, F. X.; Desopper, A.; Tung, C.
1982-01-01
Rotary wing finite difference methods are investigated. The main concern is the specification of boundary conditions to properly account for the effect of the wake on the blade. Examples are given of an approach where wake effects are introduced by specifying an equivalent angle of attack. An alternate approach is also given where discrete vortices are introduced into the finite difference grid. The resulting computations of hovering and high advance ratio cases compare well with experiment. Some consideration is also given to the modeling of low to moderate advance ratio flows.
Modeling the Overalternating Bias with an Asymmetric Entropy Measure.
Gronchi, Giorgio; Raglianti, Marco; Noventa, Stefano; Lazzeri, Alessandro; Guazzini, Andrea
2016-01-01
Psychological research has found that human perception of randomness is biased. In particular, people consistently show the overalternating bias: they rate binary sequences of symbols (such as Heads and Tails in coin flipping) with an excess of alternation as more random than prescribed by the normative criteria of Shannon's entropy. Within data mining for medical applications, Marcellin proposed an asymmetric measure of entropy that can be ideal to account for such bias and to quantify subjective randomness. We fitted Marcellin's entropy and Renyi's entropy (a generalized form of uncertainty measure comprising many different kinds of entropies) to experimental data found in the literature with the Differential Evolution algorithm. We observed a better fit for Marcellin's entropy compared to Renyi's entropy. The fitted asymmetric entropy measure also showed good predictive properties when applied to different datasets of randomness-related tasks. We concluded that Marcellin's entropy can be a parsimonious and effective measure of subjective randomness that can be useful in psychological research about randomness perception. PMID:27458418
Modeling the Overalternating Bias with an Asymmetric Entropy Measure
Gronchi, Giorgio; Raglianti, Marco; Noventa, Stefano; Lazzeri, Alessandro; Guazzini, Andrea
2016-01-01
Psychological research has found that human perception of randomness is biased. In particular, people consistently show the overalternating bias: they rate binary sequences of symbols (such as Heads and Tails in coin flipping) with an excess of alternation as more random than prescribed by the normative criteria of Shannon's entropy. Within data mining for medical applications, Marcellin proposed an asymmetric measure of entropy that can be ideal to account for such bias and to quantify subjective randomness. We fitted Marcellin's entropy and Renyi's entropy (a generalized form of uncertainty measure comprising many different kinds of entropies) to experimental data found in the literature with the Differential Evolution algorithm. We observed a better fit for Marcellin's entropy compared to Renyi's entropy. The fitted asymmetric entropy measure also showed good predictive properties when applied to different datasets of randomness-related tasks. We concluded that Marcellin's entropy can be a parsimonious and effective measure of subjective randomness that can be useful in psychological research about randomness perception. PMID:27458418
Nearfield Unsteady Pressures at Cruise Mach Numbers for a Model Scale Counter-Rotation Open Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stephens, David B.
2012-01-01
An open rotor experiment was conducted at cruise Mach numbers and the unsteady pressure in the nearfield was measured. The system included extensive performance measurements, which can help provide insight into the noise generating mechanisms in the absence of flow measurements. A set of data acquired at a constant blade pitch angle but various rotor speeds was examined. The tone levels generated by the front and rear rotor were found to be nearly equal when the thrust was evenly balanced between rotors.
Casimir force in the rotor model with twisted boundary conditions.
Bergknoff, Jonathan; Dantchev, Daniel; Rudnick, Joseph
2011-10-01
We investigate the three-dimensional lattice XY model with nearest neighbor interaction. The vector order parameter of this system lies on the vertices of a cubic lattice, which is embedded in a system with a film geometry. The orientations of the vectors are fixed at the two opposite sides of the film. The angle between the vectors at the two boundaries is α where 0≤α≤π. We make use of the mean field approximation to study the mean length and orientation of the vector order parameter throughout the film--and the Casimir force it generates--as a function of the temperature T, the angle α, and the thickness L of the system. Among the results of that calculation are a Casimir force that depends in a continuous way on both the parameter α and the temperature and that can be attractive or repulsive. In particular, by varying α and/or T one controls both the sign and the magnitude of the Casimir force in a reversible way. Furthermore, for the case α=π, we discover an additional phase transition occurring only in the finite system associated with the variation of the orientations of the vectors. PMID:22181114
Dynamic behavior of dissymmetric rotor bearings modelled with a periodic coefficient large system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guilhen, P. M.; Berthier, P.; Ferraris, G.; Lalanne, M.
1987-01-01
The instability and unbalance response of dissymmetric rotor-bearing systems containing periodic coefficients when modeling produces matrices with a large number of degrees of freedom are discussed. It is important to solve the equations and then predict the dynamic behavior of the system. This can be done knowing the instability areas and the unbalance response in the stable areas. One deals here with a large number of equations and a reduction of the number of degrees of freedom of the system is achieved through a pseudo modal method. This method is shown to give satisfactory results.
Tip geometry effects on the model helicopter rotor low frequency broadband noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Humbad, N. G.; Harris, W. L.
1981-01-01
The effect of rotor blade tip shapes and performance parameters on the low frequency broadband noise (LFBN) is investigated experimentally. The experimental results show 2 to 5 dB reductions for swept geometries compared with square tip blades at constant blade loading. A theoretical model is formulated which includes a detailed lift response function. For the square tip blades, theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. While the effects of advance ratio and tip speed on the LFBN are explicable, those of blade loading are not clearly understood.
Enhanced rotor modeling tailored for rub dynamic stability analysis and simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, R. R.
1989-01-01
New methods are presented that allow straightforward application of complex nonlinearities to finite element based rotor dynamic analyses. The key features are: (1) the methods can be implemented with existing finite element or dynamic simulation programs, (2) formulation is general for simple application to a wide range of problems, and (3) implementation is simplified because nonlinear aspects are separated from the linear part of the model. The new techniques are illustrated with examples of inertial nonlinearity and torquewhirl which can be important in rubbing turbomachinery. The sample analyses provide new understanding of these nonlinearities which are discussed.
Some observations on the behavior of the Langley model rotor blade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rehfield, L. W.; Atilgan, A. R.
1986-01-01
The design of the model rotor and the comparative study of coupled beam theory and the finite element analysis performed earlier at the Aerostructures Directorate by Robert Hodges and Mark Nixon is examined. Attention is focused upon two matters: (1) an examination of the small discrepancies between twist angle predictions under pure torque and radial loading, and (2) an assessment of nonclassical effects in bending behavior. The primary objective is understanding, particularly with regard to cause and effect relationships. Understanding, together with the simple, affordable nature of the coupled beam analysis, provides a sound basis for design.
A short model excitation of an asymmetric force free superconducting transmission line magnet
Wake, M.; Sato, H.; Carcagno, R.; Foster, W.; Hays, S.; Kashikhin, V.; Oleck, A.; Piekarz, H.; Rabehl, R,; /Fermilab
2005-09-01
A short model of asymmetric force free magnet with single beam aperture was tested at Fermilab together with the excitation test of VLHC transmission line magnet. The design concept of asymmetric force free superconducting magnet was verified by the test. The testing reached up to 104 kA current and no indication of force imbalance was observed. Since the model magnet length was only 10cm, A 0.75m model was constructed and tested at KEK with low current to ensure the validity of the design. The cool down and the excitation at KEK were also successful finding very small thermal contraction of the conductor and reasonable field homogeneity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castles, Walter, Jr; Gray, Robin B
1951-01-01
The empirical relation between the induced velocity, thrust, and rate of vertical descent of a helicopter rotor was calculated from wind tunnel force tests on four model rotors by the application of blade-element theory to the measured values of the thrust, torque, blade angle, and equivalent free-stream rate of descent. The model tests covered the useful range of C(sub t)/sigma(sub e) (where C(sub t) is the thrust coefficient and sigma(sub e) is the effective solidity) and the range of vertical descent from hovering to descent velocities slightly greater than those for autorotation. The three bladed models, each of which had an effective solidity of 0.05 and NACA 0015 blade airfoil sections, were as follows: (1) constant-chord, untwisted blades of 3-ft radius; (2) untwisted blades of 3-ft radius having a 3/1 taper; (3) constant-chord blades of 3-ft radius having a linear twist of 12 degrees (washout) from axis of rotation to tip; and (4) constant-chord, untwisted blades of 2-ft radius. Because of the incorporation of a correction for blade dynamic twist and the use of a method of measuring the approximate equivalent free-stream velocity, it is believed that the data obtained from this program are more applicable to free-flight calculations than the data from previous model tests.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castles, Walter, Jr.; Gray, Robin B.
1951-01-01
The empirical relation between the induced velocity, thrust, and rate of vertical descent of a helicopter rotor was calculated from wind tunnel force tests on four model rotors by the application of blade-element theory to the measured values of the thrust, torque, blade angle, and equivalent free-stream rate of descent. The model tests covered the useful range of C(sub t)/sigma(sub e) (where C(sub t) is the thrust coefficient and sigma(sub e) is the effective solidity) and the range of vertical descent from hovering to descent velocities slightly greater than those for autorotation. The three bladed models, each of which had an effective solidity of 0.05 and NACA 0015 blade airfoil sections, were as follows: (1) constant-chord, untwisted blades of 3-ft radius; (2) untwisted blades of 3-ft radius having a 3/1 taper; (3) constant-chord blades of 3-ft radius having a linear twist of 12 degrees (washout) from axis of rotation to tip; and (4) constant-chord, untwisted blades of 2-ft radius. Because of the incorporation of a correction for blade dynamic twist and the use of a method of measuring the approximate equivalent free-stream velocity, it is believed that the data obtained from this program are more applicable to free-flight calculations than the data from previous model tests.
Triaxial rotor model description of E2 properties in {sup 186,188,190,192}Os
Allmond, J. M.; Zaballa, R.; Oros-Peusquens, A. M.; Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.
2008-07-15
The triaxial rotor model with independent inertia and electric quadrupole tensors is applied to the description of the extensive set of E2 matrix elements available for {sup 186,188,190,192}Os. Most large and medium transition E2 matrix elements can be reproduced to within {approx}10%, and most diagonal elements to within {approx}30%. Most small transition matrix elements can be reproduced to within {approx}30%, and they support the interference effect exhibited by the model between the inertia and E2 tensors: this is a new feature of quantum rotor models. The diagonal E2 matrix elements at higher spins in the K=2 band are extremely sensitive to admixtures of higher K values: the low experimental values in {sup 190,192}Os indicate significant admixtures of K=4 components. Attention is given to the K{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} bands in these nuclei and the controversial issue of whether they are of quadrupole or hexadecapole nature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.
1984-01-01
Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.
1985-01-01
Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scalig deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, Henry L.
1990-01-01
Performance of a 27 percent scale model rotor designed for the AH-64 helicopter (alternate rotor) was measured in hover and forward flight and compared against and AH-64 baseline rotor model. Thrust, rotor tip Mach number, advance ratio, and ground proximity were varied. In hover, at a nominal thrust coefficient of 0.0064, the power savings was about 6.4 percent for the alternate rotor compared to the baseline. The corresponding thrust increase at this condition was approx. 4.5 percent which represents an equivalent full scale increase in lift capability of about 660 lbs. Comparable results were noted in forward flight except for the high thrust, high speed cases investigated where the baseline rotor was slightly superior. Reduced performance at the higher thrusts and speeds was likely due to Reynolds number effects and blade elasticity differences.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mineck, Raymond E.; Gorton, Susan A.
2000-01-01
A wind tunnel test of a generic helicopter fuselage model with an independently mounted rotor has been conducted to obtain steady and periodic pressure data on the helicopter body. The model was tested at four advance ratios and three thrust coefficients. The periodic unsteady pressure coefficients are marked by four peaks associated with the passage of the four rotor blades. Blade passage effects are largest on the nose and tail boom of the model. The magnitude of the pulse increases with rotor thrust coefficient. Tabular listings of the unsteady pressure data are included to permit independent analysis. A CD-rom containing the steady and unsteady pressure data presented in the report is available from the authors.
An Update on Phased Array Results Obtained on the GE Counter-Rotating Open Rotor Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Podboy, Gary; Horvath, Csaba; Envia, Edmane
2013-01-01
Beamform maps have been generated from 1) simulated data generated by the LINPROP code and 2) actual experimental phased array data obtained on the GE Counter-rotating open rotor model. The beamform maps show that many of the tones in the experimental data come from their corresponding Mach radius. If the phased array points to the Mach radius associated with a tone then it is likely that the tone is a result of the loading and thickness noise on the blades. In this case, the phased array correctly points to where the noise is coming from and indicates the axial location of the loudest source in the image but not necessarily the correct vertical location. If the phased array does not point to the Mach radius associated with a tone then some mechanism other than loading and thickness noise may control the amplitude of the tone. In this case, the phased array may or may not point to the actual source. If the source is not rotating it is likely that the phased array points to the source. If the source is rotating it is likely that the phased array indicates the axial location of the loudest source but not necessarily the correct vertical location. These results indicate that you have to be careful in how you interpret phased array data obtained on an open rotor since they may show the tones coming from a location other than the source location. With a subsonic tip speed open rotor the tones can come form locations outboard of the blade tips. This has implications regarding noise shielding.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holms, A. G.
1977-01-01
A statistical decision procedure called chain pooling had been developed for model selection in fitting the results of a two-level fixed-effects full or fractional factorial experiment not having replication. The basic strategy included the use of one nominal level of significance for a preliminary test and a second nominal level of significance for the final test. The subject has been reexamined from the point of view of using as many as three successive statistical model deletion procedures in fitting the results of a single experiment. The investigation consisted of random number studies intended to simulate the results of a proposed aircraft turbine-engine rotor-burst-protection experiment. As a conservative approach, population model coefficients were chosen to represent a saturated 2 to the 4th power experiment with a distribution of parameter values unfavorable to the decision procedures. Three model selection strategies were developed.
3D CFD Modeling and Simulation of NREL Phase VI Rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahu, R.; Popescu, F.; Frunzulicǎ, F.; Dumitrache, Al.
2011-09-01
Numerical modeling and simulation of the NREL Phase VI Rotor operation was attempted using a commercial CFD code (ANSYS FLUENT® v12.1). The extensive experimental data that was collected at the NASA Ames Research Center 80'×120' Wind Tunnel allowed a detailed evaluation of the numerical result, in order to asses the accuracy of the numerical modeling approach. Computations were performed only for the axial operating conditions, at constant RPM and variable wind speed. The SST k-omega turbulence model was applied for its reasonably accurate prediction of boundary layer separation under adverse pressure gradient. Results indicate that the model captures very well the occurrence of blade stall. The turbine torque is well predicted for lower wind speeds (pre-stall) but under predicted at higher wind speeds (deep blade stall).
A new aeroelastic model for composite rotor blades with straight and swept tips
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, Kuo-An; Friedmann, Peretz P.; Venkatesan, Comandur
1992-01-01
An analytical model for predicting the aeroelastic behavior of composite rotor blades with straight and swept tips is presented. The blade is modeled by beam type finite elements along the elastic axis. A single finite element is used to model the swept tip. The nonlinear equations of motion for the finite element model are derived using Hamilton's principle and based on a moderate deflection theory and accounts for: arbitrary cross-sectional shape, pretwist, generally anisotropic material behavior, transverse shears and out-of-plane warping. Numerical results illustrating the effects of tip sweep, anhedral and composite ply orientation on blade aeroelastic behavior are presented. Tip sweep can induce aeroelastic instability by flap-twist coupling. Tip anhedral causes lag-torsion and flap-axial couplings, however, its effects on blade stability is less pronounced than the effect due to sweep. Composite ply orientation has a substantial effect on blade stability.
Numerical Simulation and Wake Modeling of Wind Turbine Rotor as AN Actuator Disk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Xiang; Wang, Tongguang; Zhong, Wei
Numerical simulations of flow fields around the wind turbine rotor simplified as an actuator disk (AD) with zero thickness have been made to investigate the flow structure and wake development in different operation states. A N-S solver has been used and the energy extracted by the rotor is represented by a discontinuous pressure jump through the actuator disk. Axial pressure and velocity development from far upstream to far downstream is fully described by the simulations, which could never be obtained by the momentum theory. It is showed that there are significant differences in wake development between inviscid and viscous conditions. In inviscid simulations, the axial velocity keeps decreasing along the oncoming flow direction, which is consistent with the momentum theory. In viscous simulations, however, the axial velocity first decreases but then gradually recovers approaching to the undisturbed velocity, due to momentum transport from outer flow to wake flow by viscous shear effect. Based on the numerical analysis, the work of this paper is also focused on wake modeling. A new two-dimensional models based on nonlinear wake development has been developed, which is capable to describe the far wake more accurately.
Aeroelastic modeling of composite rotor blades with straight and swept tips
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, Kuo-An; Friedmann, Peretz P.; Venkatesan, Comandur
1992-01-01
This paper presents an analytical study of the aeroelastic behavior of composite rotor blades with straight and swept tips. The blade is modeled by beam type finite elements. A single finite element is used to model the swept tip. The nonlinear equations of motion for the FEM are derived using Hamilton's principle and based on a moderate deflection theory and accounts for: arbitrary cross-sectional shape, pretwist, generally anisotropic material behavior, transverse shears and out-of-plane warping. Numerical results illustrating the effects of tip sweep, anhedral and composite ply orientation on blade aeroelastic behavior are presented. It is shown that composite ply orientation has a substantial effect on blade stability. At low thrust conditions, certain ply orientations can cause instability in the lag mode. The flap-torsion coupling associated with tip sweep can also induce aeroelastic instability in the blade. This instability can be removed by appropriate ply orientation in the composite construction. These results illustrate the inherent potential for aeroelastic tailoring present in composite rotor blades with swept tips, which still remains to be exploited in the design process.
Study Of Helicopter-Tail-Rotor Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmadi, Ali R.; Beranek, Bolt
1988-01-01
Report describes findings of experiment in generation of impulsive noise and fluctuating blade loads by helicopter tail rotor interacting with vortexes from main rotor. Experiment used model rotor and isolated vortex and designed to isolate blade/vortex interaction noise from other types of rotor noise.
A numerical modelling of stator rotor interaction in a turbine stage with oscillating blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnesin, V. I.; Kolodyazhnaya, L. V.; Rzadkowski, R.
2004-11-01
In real flows unsteady phenomena connected with the circumferential non-uniformity of the main flow and those caused by oscillations of blades are observed only jointly. An understanding of the physics of the mutual interaction between gas flow and oscillating blades and the development of predictive capabilities are essential for improved overall efficiency, durability and reliability. In the study presented, the algorithm proposed involves the coupled solution of 3D unsteady flow through a turbine stage and the dynamics problem for rotor-blade motion by the action of aerodynamic forces, without separating the outer and inner flow fluctuations. The partially integrated method involves the solution of the fluid and structural equations separately, but information is exchanged at each time step, so that solution from one domain is used as a boundary condition for the other domain. 3-D transonic gas flow through the stator and rotor blades in relative motion with periodicity on the whole annulus is described by the unsteady Euler conservation equations, which are integrated using the explicit monotonous finite volume difference scheme of Godunov Kolgan. The structural analysis uses the modal approach and a 3-D finite element model of a blade. The blade motion is assumed to be constituted as a linear combination of the first natural modes of blade oscillations, with the modal coefficients depending on time. A calculation has been done for the last stage of the steam turbine, under design and off-design regimes. The numerical results for unsteady aerodynamic forces due to stator rotor interaction are compared with results obtained while taking into account blade oscillations. The mutual influence of both outer flow non-uniformity and blade oscillations has been investigated. It is shown that the amplitude-frequency spectrum of blade oscillations contains the high-frequency harmonics, corresponding to the rotor moving past one stator blade pitch, and low
Shen, Chen
2014-04-01
The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W.
1976-01-01
A mathematical model is developed for the dynamics of a wind tunnel support system consisting of a balance frame, struts, and an aircraft or test module. Data are given for several rotor test modules in the Ames 40 by 80 ft wind tunnel. A model for ground resonance calculations is also described.
Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.
1986-01-01
A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.
Modeling XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft dynamics by frequency and time-domain identification techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tischler, Mark B.; Kaletka, Juergen
1987-01-01
Models of the open-loop hover dynamics of the XV-15 Tilt-Rotor Aircraft are extracted from flight data using two approaches: frequency domain and time-domain identification. Both approaches are reviewed and the identification results are presented and compared in detail. The extracted models are compared favorably, with the differences associated mostly with the inherent weighing of each technique. Step responses are used to show that the predictive capability of the models from both techniques is excellent. Based on the results of this study, the relative strengths and weaknesses of the frequency and time-domain techniques are summarized and a proposal for a coordinated parameter identification approach is presented.
A blind deconvolution method for attenuative materials based on asymmetrical Gaussian model.
Jin, Haoran; Chen, Jian; Yang, Keji
2016-08-01
During propagation in attenuative materials, ultrasonic waves are distorted by frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation. As a result, reference signals for blind deconvolution in attenuative materials are asymmetrical and should be accurately estimated by considering attenuation. In this study, an asymmetrical Gaussian model is established to estimate the reference signals from these materials, and a blind deconvolution method based on this model is proposed. Based on the symmetrical Gaussian model, the asymmetrical one is formulated by adding an asymmetrical coefficient. Upon establishing the model, the reference signal for blind deconvolution is determined via maximum likelihood estimation, and the blind deconvolution is implemented with an orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm. To verify the feasibility of the established model, spectra of ultrasonic signals from attenuative polyethylene plates with different thicknesses are measured and estimated. The proposed blind deconvolution method is applied to the A-scan signal and B-scan image from attenuative materials. Results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of separating overlapping echoes and therefore achieves a high temporal resolution. PMID:27586747
A Petal-type Chiral NADH Model: Design, Synthesis and its Asymmetric Reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Nai-Xing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Xing, Yalan; Zhang, Wei; Lan, Xing-Wang
2015-12-01
A new type of NADH model compound has been synthesized by an efficient and convenient method. This model compound exhibits high reactivity and enantioselectivity in asymmetric reduction reactions. The results show that chiral NADH model S could be effectively combined with Mg2+ to form ternary complexes. This novel C3 symmetrical NADH model is capable of fluorescence emission at 460 nm when excited at 377 nm.
A Petal-type Chiral NADH Model: Design, Synthesis and its Asymmetric Reduction
Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Nai-Xing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Xing, Yalan; Zhang, Wei; Lan, Xing-Wang
2015-01-01
A new type of NADH model compound has been synthesized by an efficient and convenient method. This model compound exhibits high reactivity and enantioselectivity in asymmetric reduction reactions. The results show that chiral NADH model S could be effectively combined with Mg2+ to form ternary complexes. This novel C3 symmetrical NADH model is capable of fluorescence emission at 460 nm when excited at 377 nm. PMID:26648413
A review of ice accretion data from a model rotor icing test and comparison with theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.
1991-01-01
An experiment was conducted by the Helicopter Icing Consortium (HIC) in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in which a 1/6 scale fuselage model of a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter with a generic rotor was subjected to a wide range of icing conditions. The HIC consists of members from NASA, Bell Helicopter, Boeing Helicopter, McDonnell Douglas Helicopters, Sikorsky Aircraft, and Texas A&M University. Data was taken in the form of rotor torque, internal force balance measurements, blade strain gage loading, and two dimensional ice shape tracings. A review of the ice shape data is performed with special attention given to repeatability and correctness of trends in terms of radial variation, rotational speed, icing time, temperature, liquid water content, and volumetric median droplet size. Moreover, an indepth comparison between the experimental data and the analysis of NASA's ice accretion code LEWICE is given. Finally, conclusions are drawn as to the quality of the ice accretion data and the predictability of the data base as a whole. Recommendations are also given for improving data taking technique as well as potential future work.
A review of ice accretion data from a model rotor icing test and comparison with theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.
1991-01-01
An experiment was conducted by the Helicopter Icing Consortium (HIC) in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in which a 1/6 scale fuselage model of a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter with a generic rotor was subjected to a wide range of icing conditions. The HIC consists of members from NASA, Bell Helicopter, Boeing Helicopter, McDonnell Douglas Helicopters, Sikorsky Aircraft, and Texas A&M University. Data was taken in the form of rotor torque, internal force balance measurements, blade strain gage loading, and two dimensional ice shape tracings. A review of the ice shape data is performed with special attention given to repeatability and correctness of trends in terms of radial variation, rotational speed, icing time, temperature, liquid water content, and volumetric median droplet size. Moreover, an indepth comparison between the experimental data and the analysis of NASA's ice accretion code LEWICE is given. Finally, conclusions are shown as to the quality of the ice accretion data and the predictability of the data base as a whole. Recommendations are also given for improving data taking technique as well as potential future work.
Asymmetric magnetic reconnection with out-of-plane shear flows in a two dimensional hybrid model
Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Xian-Qu; Liu, Yue
2015-05-15
Effects of out-of-plane shear flows on asymmetric magnetic reconnect are investigated in a two-dimensional (2D) hybrid model with an initial Harris sheet equilibrium. It is found that the out-of-plane flow with an in-plane shear can significantly change the asymmetric reconnection process as well as the related geometry. The magnetic flux, out-of-plane magnetic field, in-plane flow vorticity, plasma density, and the reconnection rate are discussed in detail. The results are in comparison with the cases without the shear flows to further understand the effect.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, R. M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.
1988-01-01
Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the four-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, tested in a large aerodynamic wind tunnel. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low-speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. Acoustic results presented are used to assess the acoustic far field of BVI noise, to map the directivity and temporal characteristics of BVI impulsive noise, and to show the existence of retreating-side BVI signals. The characterics of the acoustic radiation patterns, which can often be strongly focused, are found to be very dependent on rotor operating condition. The acoustic signals exhibit multiple blade-vortex interactions per blade with broad impulsive content at lower speeds, while at higher speeds, they exhibit fewer interactions per blade, with much sharper, higher amplitude acoustic signals. Moderate-amplitude BVI acoustic signals measured under the aft retreating quadrant of the rotor are shown to originate from the retreating side of the rotor.
Improving Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging by a Direct Inverse Asymmetric PI Hysteresis Model
Wang, Dong; Yu, Peng; Wang, Feifei; Chan, Ho-Yin; Zhou, Lei; Dong, Zaili; Liu, Lianqing; Li, Wen Jung
2015-01-01
A modified Prandtl–Ishlinskii (PI) model, referred to as a direct inverse asymmetric PI (DIAPI) model in this paper, was implemented to reduce the displacement error between a predicted model and the actual trajectory of a piezoelectric actuator which is commonly found in AFM systems. Due to the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator, the standard symmetric PI model cannot precisely describe the asymmetric motion of the actuator. In order to improve the accuracy of AFM scans, two series of slope parameters were introduced in the PI model to describe both the voltage-increase-loop (trace) and voltage-decrease-loop (retrace). A feedforward controller based on the DIAPI model was implemented to compensate hysteresis. Performance of the DIAPI model and the feedforward controller were validated by scanning micro-lenses and standard silicon grating using a custom-built AFM. PMID:25654719
Model-size reduction for the analysis of symmetric structures with asymmetric boundary conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Whitworth, Sandra L.
1987-01-01
A simple computational procedure is presented for reducing the size of the analysis model for a symmetric structure with asymmetric boundary conditions to that of the corresponding structure with symmetric boundary conditions. The procedure is based on approximating the asymmetric response of the structure by a linear combination of symmetric and antisymmetric global approximation vectors (or modes). The key elements of the procedure are (1) restructuring the governing finite-element equations to delineate the contributions to the symmetric and antisymmetric components of the asymmetric response, (2) successive application of the finite element method and the classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The finite-element method is first used to generate a few global approximation vectors (or modes). Then the amplitudes of these modes are computed by using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by means of numerical examples of linear static problems of shells, and its potential for solving nonlinear problems is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, Alexander; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Babikov, Dmitri
2014-09-01
The mixed quantum/classical theory (MQCT) for inelastic molecule-atom scattering developed recently [A. Semenov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174108 (2013)] is extended to treat a general case of an asymmetric-top-rotor molecule in the body-fixed reference frame. This complements a similar theory formulated in the space-fixed reference-frame [M. Ivanov, M.-L. Dubernet, and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 134301 (2014)]. Here, the goal was to develop an approximate computationally affordable treatment of the rotationally inelastic scattering and apply it to H2O + He. We found that MQCT is somewhat less accurate at lower scattering energies. For example, below E = 1000 cm-1 the typical errors in the values of inelastic scattering cross sections are on the order of 10%. However, at higher scattering energies MQCT method appears to be rather accurate. Thus, at scattering energies above 2000 cm-1 the errors are consistently in the range of 1%-2%, which is basically our convergence criterion with respect to the number of trajectories. At these conditions our MQCT method remains computationally affordable. We found that computational cost of the fully-coupled MQCT calculations scales as n2, where n is the number of channels. This is more favorable than the full-quantum inelastic scattering calculations that scale as n3. Our conclusion is that for complex systems (heavy collision partners with many internal states) and at higher scattering energies MQCT may offer significant computational advantages.
Comparison of Asymmetric and Ice-cream Cone Models for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Na, H.; Moon, Y.
2011-12-01
Halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) are major cause of the geomagnetic storms. To minimize the projection effect by coronagraph observation, several cone models have been suggested: an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model etc. These models allow us to determine the three dimensional parameters of HCMEs such as radial speed, angular width, and the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone. In this study, we compare these parameters obtained from different models using 48 well-observed HCMEs from 2001 to 2002. And we obtain the root mean square error (RMS error) between measured projection speeds and calculated projection speeds for both cone models. As a result, we find that the radial speeds obtained from the models are well correlated with each other (R = 0.86), and the correlation coefficient of angular width is 0.6. The correlation coefficient of the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone is 0.31, which is much smaller than expected. The reason may be due to the fact that the source locations of the asymmetric cone model are distributed near the center, while those of the ice-cream cone model are located in a wide range. The average RMS error of the asymmetric cone model (85.6km/s) is slightly smaller than that of the ice-cream cone model (87.8km/s).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, L. A.; Lillie, D.; McCluer, M.; Yamauchi, G. K.; Derby, M. R.
2001-01-01
A recent experimental investigation into tiltrotor aerodynamics and acoustics has resulted in the acquisition of a set of data related to tiltrotor airframe aerodynamics and rotor and wing interactional aerodynamics. This work was conducted in the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex's (NFAC) 40-by-80 Foot Wind Tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, on the Full-Span Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The full-span TRAM wind tunnel test stand is nominally based on a quarter-scale representation of the V-22 aircraft. The data acquired will enable the refinement of analytical tools for the prediction of tiltrotor aeromechanics and aeroacoustics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Louis H.; Ramakrishnan, Jayant; Granda, Jose J.
2006-01-01
The assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) require extensive testing and engineering analysis to verify that the Space Station system of systems would work together without any adverse interactions. Since the dynamic behavior of an entire Space Station cannot be tested on earth, math models of the Space Station structures and mechanical systems have to be built and integrated in computer simulations and analysis tools to analyze and predict what will happen in space. The ISS Centrifuge Rotor (CR) is one of many mechanical systems that need to be modeled and analyzed to verify the ISS integrated system performance on-orbit. This study investigates using Bond Graph modeling techniques as quick and simplified ways to generate models of the ISS Centrifuge Rotor. This paper outlines the steps used to generate simple and more complex models of the CR using Bond Graph Computer Aided Modeling Program with Graphical Input (CAMP-G). Comparisons of the Bond Graph CR models with those derived from Euler-Lagrange equations in MATLAB and those developed using multibody dynamic simulation at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the Bond Graph modeling approach for aeronautics and space applications.
Tilt rotor hover aeroacoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coffen, Charles David
1992-01-01
The methodology, results, and conclusions of a study of tilt rotor hover aeroacoustics and aerodynamics are presented. Flow visualization and hot wire velocity measurement were performed on a 1/12-scale model of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft in hover. The wing and fuselage below the rotor cause a complex recirculating flow. Results indicate the physical dimensions and details of the flow including the relative unsteadiness and turbulence characteristics of the flow. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and the loading noise mechanism were predicted using WOPWOP for the standard metal blades and the Advanced Technology Blades. The recirculating flow created by the wing below the rotor is a primary sound mechanism for a hovering tilt rotor. The effects of dynamic blade response should be included for fountain flow conditions which produce impulsive blade loading. Broadband noise mechanisms were studied using Amiet's method with azimuthally varying turbulence characteristics derived from the measurements. The recirculating fountain flow with high turbulence levels in the recirculating zone is the dominant source of broadband noise for a hovering rotor. It is shown that tilt rotor hover aeroacoustic noise mechanisms are now understood. Noise predictions can be made based on reasonably accurate aerodynamic models developed here.
Coupled escape probability for an asymmetric spherical case: Modeling optically thick comets
Gersch, Alan M.; A'Hearn, Michael F.
2014-05-20
We have adapted Coupled Escape Probability, a new exact method of solving radiative transfer problems, for use in asymmetrical spherical situations. Our model is intended specifically for use in modeling optically thick cometary comae, although not limited to such use. This method enables the accurate modeling of comets' spectra even in the potentially optically thick regions nearest the nucleus, such as those seen in Deep Impact observations of 9P/Tempel 1 and EPOXI observations of 103P/Hartley 2.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitz, F. H.
1991-01-01
The physical characteristics and sources of rotorcraft noise as they exist today are presented. Emphasis is on helicopter-like vehicles, that is, on rotorcraft in nonaxial flight. The mechanisms of rotor noise are reviewed in a simple physical manner for the most dominant sources of rotorcraft noise. With simple models, the characteristic time- and frequency-domain features of these noise sources are presented for idealized cases. Full-scale data on several rotorcraft are then reviewed to allow for the easy identification of the type and extent of the radiating noise. Methods and limitations of using scaled models to test for several noise sources are subsequently presented. Theoretical prediction methods are then discussed and compared with experimental data taken under very controlled conditions. Finally, some promising noise reduction technology is reviewed.
Kumar, Jason
2014-06-24
We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.
Research investigation of helicopter main rotor/tail rotor interaction noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fitzgerald, J.; Kohlhepp, F.
1988-01-01
Acoustic measurements were obtained in a Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study the aeroacoustic interaction of 1/5th scale main rotor, tail rotor, and fuselage models. An extensive aeroacoustic data base was acquired for main rotor, tail rotor, fuselage aerodynamic interaction for moderate forward speed flight conditions. The details of the rotor models, experimental design and procedure, aerodynamic and acoustic data acquisition and reduction are presented. The model was initially operated in trim for selected fuselage angle of attack, main rotor tip-path-plane angle, and main rotor thrust combinations. The effects of repositioning the tail rotor in the main rotor wake and the corresponding tail rotor countertorque requirements were determined. Each rotor was subsequently tested in isolation at the thrust and angle of attack combinations for trim. The acoustic data indicated that the noise was primarily dominated by the main rotor, especially for moderate speed main rotor blade-vortex interaction conditions. The tail rotor noise increased when the main rotor was removed indicating that tail rotor inflow was improved with the main rotor present.
A guide to the use of the pressure disk rotor model as implemented in INS3D-UP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaffin, Mark S.
1995-01-01
This is a guide for the use of the pressure disk rotor model that has been placed in the incompressible Navier-Stokes code INS3D-UP. The pressure disk rotor model approximates a helicopter rotor or propeller in a time averaged manner and is intended to simulate the effect of a rotor in forward flight on the fuselage or the effect of a propeller on other aerodynamic components. The model uses a modified actuator disk that allows the pressure jump across the disk to vary with radius and azimuth. The cyclic and collective blade pitch angles needed to achieve a specified thrust coefficient and zero moment about the hub are predicted. The method has been validated with experimentally measured mean induced inflow velocities as well as surface pressures on a generic fuselage. Overset grids, sometimes referred to as Chimera grids, are used to simplify the grid generation process. The pressure disk model is applied to a cylindrical grid which is embedded in the grid or grids used for the rest of the configuration. This document will outline the development of the method, and present input and results for a sample case.
Chen, J.E.
1995-12-31
This paper describes non-linear models of a 2-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor drive in brushless DC and microstepping modes. The models account for everything from the main power bus up to and including the mechanical load and velocity feedback loop. In particular, the models include the power electronics for each phase complete with their internal feedback loops. Classical state space averaged power electronics models are transformed to the rotor reference frame along with the usual electromechanical variables. Since SPICE linearizes the rotor reference frame model about shaft velocity, instead of shaft angle, frequency domain methods apply. The frequency domain analysis detects unstable interactions between torque angle and deliberate feedback within the drives. Time domain simulations using stator reference frame models confirm the results. All models are SPICE-compatible but were developed on Cadence`s Analog Workbench.
Aeroacoustic flowfield and acoustics of a model helicopter tail rotor at high advance ratio
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shenoy, Rajarama K.
1989-01-01
Some results, relevant to rotorcraft noise generation process at high advance ratio, are presented in this paper from schlieren flow visualization and acoustic tests of a model tail rotor. The measured in-plane noise trends are consistent with the growth of the tip supersonic region seen in the schlieren visuals. Schlieren flow visuals reveal a propagating pressure wave in the second quadrant. Simultaneously measured acoustic data and the results of two-dimensional transonic Blade-Vortex Interaction analysis code ATRAN-2 indicate that this pressure wave is attributable to BVI activity in the first quadrant. This paper establishes that the transonic Blade-Vortex Interactions contribute to noise at high advance ratio level flight conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tangler, J. L.; Wohlfeld, R. M.; Miley, S. J.
1973-01-01
Schlieren methods of flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry for velocity measurements were used to investigate the wakes generated by hovering model propellers and rotors. The research program was directed toward investigating (1) the stability of the tip vortex, (2) the effects produced by various tip shapes on performance and tip vortex characteristics, and (3) the shock formation and noise characteristics associated with various tip shapes. A free-wake analysis was also conducted for comparison with the vortex stability experimental results. Schlieren photographs showing wake asymmetry, interaction, and instability are presented along with a discussion of the effects produced by the number of blades, collective pitch, and tip speed. Two hot-wire anemometer techniques, used to measure the maximum circumferential velocity in the tip vortex, are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xuening; Han, Qinkai; Peng, Zhike; Chu, Fulei
2016-03-01
In this paper, a comprehensive dynamic model is proposed to analyze the dynamic behaviors of the rotor-bearing system. Three types of excitation including the bearing waviness, the unbalanced force and the finite number of balls (varying compliance effect) are considered. Based on the extended Jones-Harris model with five degrees of freedom, the load distribution and then the stiffness of the angular contact ball bearing are obtained theoretically. After introducing the three types of excitation into the model, the bearing stiffness matrix becomes time-varying and many parametric frequencies are found due to the multiple excitations. Then, the stability problems of the parametrically excited rotor-bearing system are investigated utilizing the discrete state transition matrix method (DSTM). The simple instability regions arising from the translational and the angular motions are analyzed respectively. The effects of the amplitude and the initial phase angle of the bearing waviness, the rotor eccentricity, the bearing preload and the damping of the rotating system on the instability regions are discussed thoroughly. It is shown that the waviness amplitudes have significant influences on the instability regions, while the initial phase angles of the waviness almost have no effect on the instability regions. The rotor eccentricity just affects the widths of the instability regions. The increasing of the bearing preload only shifts the positions of the instability regions. Damping could reduce the instability regions but it could not diminish the regions completely.
Asymmetric Lipid Membranes: Towards More Realistic Model Systems
Marquardt, Drew; Geier, Barbara; Pabst, Georg
2015-01-01
Despite the ubiquity of transbilayer asymmetry in natural cell membranes, the vast majority of existing research has utilized chemically well-defined symmetric liposomes, where the inner and outer bilayer leaflets have the same composition. Here, we review various aspects of asymmetry in nature and in model systems in anticipation for the next phase of model membrane studies. PMID:25955841
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hankin, D.; Graham, J. M. R.
2014-12-01
An unsteady formulation of the vortex lattice method, VLM, is presented that uses a force- free representation of the wake behind a horizontal axis wind turbine, HAWT, to calculate the aerodynamic loading on a turbine operating in the wake of an upstream rotor. A Cartesian velocity grid is superimposed over the computational domain to facilitate the representation of the atmospheric turbulence surrounding the turbine and wind shear. The wake of an upstream rotor is modelled using two methods: a mean velocity deficit with superimposed turbulence, based on experimental observations, and a purely numeric periodic boundary condition. Both methods are treated as frozen and propagated with the velocity grid. Measurements of the mean thrust and blade root bending moment on a three bladed horizontal axis rotor modelling a 5 MW HAWT at 1:250 scale were carried out in a wind tunnel. Comparisons are made between operation in uniform flow and in the wake of a similarly loaded rotor approximately 6.5 diameters upstream. The measurements were used to validate the output from the VLM simulations, assuming a completely rigid rotor. The trends in the simulation thrust predictions are found to compare well with the uniform flow case, except at low tip speed ratios where there are losses due to stall which are yet to be included in the model. The simple wake model predicts the mean deficit, whilst the periodic boundary condition captures more of the frequency content of the loading in an upstream wake. However, all the thrust loads are over-predicted. The simulation results severely overestimate the bending moment, which needs addressing. However, the reduction in bending due to the simple wake model is found to reflect the experimental data reasonably well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeSmidt, Hans A.; Smith, Edward C.; Bill, Robert C.; Wang, Kon-Well
2013-01-01
This project develops comprehensive modeling and simulation tools for analysis of variable rotor speed helicopter propulsion system dynamics. The Comprehensive Variable-Speed Rotorcraft Propulsion Modeling (CVSRPM) tool developed in this research is used to investigate coupled rotor/engine/fuel control/gearbox/shaft/clutch/flight control system dynamic interactions for several variable rotor speed mission scenarios. In this investigation, a prototypical two-speed Dual-Clutch Transmission (DCT) is proposed and designed to achieve 50 percent rotor speed variation. The comprehensive modeling tool developed in this study is utilized to analyze the two-speed shift response of both a conventional single rotor helicopter and a tiltrotor drive system. In the tiltrotor system, both a Parallel Shift Control (PSC) strategy and a Sequential Shift Control (SSC) strategy for constant and variable forward speed mission profiles are analyzed. Under the PSC strategy, selecting clutch shift-rate results in a design tradeoff between transient engine surge margins and clutch frictional power dissipation. In the case of SSC, clutch power dissipation is drastically reduced in exchange for the necessity to disengage one engine at a time which requires a multi-DCT drive system topology. In addition to comprehensive simulations, several sections are dedicated to detailed analysis of driveline subsystem components under variable speed operation. In particular an aeroelastic simulation of a stiff in-plane rotor using nonlinear quasi-steady blade element theory was conducted to investigate variable speed rotor dynamics. It was found that 2/rev and 4/rev flap and lag vibrations were significant during resonance crossings with 4/rev lagwise loads being directly transferred into drive-system torque disturbances. To capture the clutch engagement dynamics, a nonlinear stick-slip clutch torque model is developed. Also, a transient gas-turbine engine model based on first principles mean
Rotor-to-stator Partial Rubbing and Its Effects on Rotor Dynamic Response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muszynska, Agnes; Franklin, Wesley D.; Hayashida, Robert D.
1991-01-01
Results from experimental and analytical studies on rotor to stationary element partial rubbings at several locations and their effects on rotor dynamic responses are presented. The mathematical model of a rubbing rotor is given. The computer program provides numerical results which agree with experimentally obtained rotor responses.
Wind Tunnel Testing of a 120th Scale Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Theodore, Colin R.; Willink, Gina C.; Russell, Carl R.; Amy, Alexander R.; Pete, Ashley E.
2014-01-01
In April 2012 and October 2013, NASA and the U.S. Army jointly conducted a wind tunnel test program examining two notional large tilt rotor designs: NASA's Large Civil Tilt Rotor and the Army's High Efficiency Tilt Rotor. The approximately 6%-scale airframe models (unpowered) were tested without rotors in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Measurements of all six forces and moments acting on the airframe were taken using the wind tunnel scale system. In addition to force and moment measurements, flow visualization using tufts, infrared thermography and oil flow were used to identify flow trajectories, boundary layer transition and areas of flow separation. The purpose of this test was to collect data for the validation of computational fluid dynamics tools, for the development of flight dynamics simulation models, and to validate performance predictions made during conceptual design. This paper focuses on the results for the Large Civil Tilt Rotor model in an airplane mode configuration up to 200 knots of wind tunnel speed. Results are presented with the full airframe model with various wing tip and nacelle configurations, and for a wing-only case also with various wing tip and nacelle configurations. Key results show that the addition of a wing extension outboard of the nacelles produces a significant increase in the lift-to-drag ratio, and interestingly decreases the drag compared to the case where the wing extension is not present. The drag decrease is likely due to complex aerodynamic interactions between the nacelle and wing extension that results in a significant drag benefit.
Behavior of Bilayer Leaflets in Asymmetric Model Membranes: Atomistic Simulation Studies.
Tian, Jianhui; Nickels, Jonathan; Katsaras, John; Cheng, Xiaolin
2016-08-25
Spatial organization within lipid bilayers is an important feature for a range of biological processes. Leaflet compositional asymmetry and lateral lipid organization are just two of the ways in which membrane structure appears to be more complex than initially postulated by the fluid mosaic model. This raises the question of how the phase behavior in one bilayer leaflet may affect the apposing leaflet and how one begins to construct asymmetric model systems to investigate these interleaflet interactions. Here we report on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (a total of 4.1 μs) of symmetric and asymmetric bilayer systems composed of liquid-ordered (Lo) or liquid-disordered (Ld) leaflets, based on the nanodomain-forming POPC/DSPC/cholesterol system. We begin by analyzing an asymmetric bilayer with leaflets derived from simulations of symmetric Lo and Ld bilayers. In this system, we observe that the properties of the Lo and Ld leaflets are similar to those of the Lo and Ld leaflets in corresponding symmetric systems. However, it is not obvious that mixing the equilibrium structures of their symmetric counterparts is the most appropriate way to construct asymmetric bilayers nor that these structures will manifest interleaflet couplings that lead to domain registry/antiregistry. We therefore constructed and simulated four additional asymmetric bilayer systems by systematically adding or removing lipids in the Ld leaflet to mimic potential density fluctuations. We find that the number of lipids in the Ld leaflet affects its own properties, as well as those of the apposing Lo leaflet. Collectively, the simulations reveal the presence of weak acyl chain interdigitation across bilayer leaflets, suggesting that interdigitation alone does not contribute significantly to the interleaflet coupling in nonphase-separated bilayers of this chemical composition. However, the properties of both leaflets appear to be sensitive to changes in in-plane lipid packing, possibly
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, I.-C.; Tung, C.
1985-01-01
A three-dimensional, full-potential, quasi-steady code TFAR1 is proposed for calculating the transonic flow past a lifting helicopter rotor blade and oblique wing. The TFAR1 uses a two-dimensional nonlinear wake-model that allows a jump in velocity potential to propagate with the local fluid flow in the wake. Rotor calculations were made for a single blade at an advance ratio of 0.3, a rotational tip Mach number of 0.7, and at 0-degree incidence. A 1/7-scale model of the Cobra Operational Load Survey (OLS) rotor blade is calculated, and the pressure distributions are compared to the measurements for azimuth angles 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 degrees at the 95 percent spanwise station of the OLS blade. Furthermore, an oblique wing with Korn airfoil was calculated at the high transonic free-stream Mach number of 0.9791, zero incidence, and yaw angle of 40 degrees. The TFAR1, coupled with a helicopter performance code CAMRAD (Johnson, 1981), provides a full-potential code for calculating the entire flow field for a multiple-bladed rotor in transonic lifting forward flight.
Influence of an asymmetric ring on the modeling of an orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rastogi, Naveen; Johnson, Eric R.
1994-01-01
Structural models are examined for the influence of a ring with an asymmetrical cross section on the linear elastic response of an orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shell subjected to internal pressure. The first structural model employs classical theory for the shell and stiffeners. The second model employs transverse shear deformation theories for the shell and stringer and classical theory for the ring. Closed-end pressure vessel effects are included. Interacting line load intensities are computed in the stiffener-to-skin joints for an example problem having the dimensions of the fuselage of a large transport aircraft. Classical structural theory is found to exaggerate the asymmetric response compared to the transverse shear deformation theory.
Baryogenesis and asymmetric dark matter from the left-right mirror symmetric model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Wei-Min
2014-08-01
The paper suggests a left-right mirror symmetric model to account for the baryogenesis and asymmetric dark matter. The model can simultaneously accommodate the standard model, neutrino physics, matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter. In particular, it naturally and elegantly explains the origin of the baryon and dark matter asymmetries, and clearly gives the close interrelations of them. In addition, the model predicts a number of interesting results, e.g. that the cold dark matter neutrino mass is 3.1 times the proton mass. It is also feasible and promising to test the model in future experiments.
On the Asymmetric Longitudinal Oscillations of a Pikelner's Model Prominence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraśkiewicz, J.; Murawski, K.; Solov'ev, A.; Srivastava, A. K.
2016-02-01
We present analytical and numerical models of a normal-polarity quiescent prominence that are based on the model of Pikelner (Solar Phys. 17, 44, 1971). We derive the general analytical expressions for the two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium plasma quantities such as the mass density and gas pressure, and we specify magnetic-field components for the prominence, which corresponds to a dense and cold plasma residing in the dip of curved magnetic-field lines. Adapting of these expressions, we numerically solve the 2D, nonlinear, ideal MHD equations for the Pikelner model of a prominence that is initially perturbed by reducing the gas pressure at the dip of magnetic-field lines. Our findings reveal that as a result of pressure perturbations, the prominence plasma starts evolving in time. This leads to antisymmetric magnetoacoustic-gravity oscillations and to the mass-density growth at the magnetic dip, and the magnetic-field lines subside there. This growth depends on the depth of the magnetic dip. For a shallower dip, less plasma is condensed, and vice versa. We conjecture that the observed long-period magnetoacoustic-gravity oscillations in various prominence systems are in general the consequence of the internal-pressure perturbations of the plasma residing in equilibrium at the prominence dip.
TH-C-BRD-02: Analytical Modeling and Dose Calculation Method for Asymmetric Proton Pencil Beams
Gelover, E; Wang, D; Hill, P; Flynn, R; Hyer, D
2014-06-15
Purpose: A dynamic collimation system (DCS), which consists of two pairs of orthogonal trimmer blades driven by linear motors has been proposed to decrease the lateral penumbra in pencil beam scanning proton therapy. The DCS reduces lateral penumbra by intercepting the proton pencil beam near the lateral boundary of the target in the beam's eye view. The resultant trimmed pencil beams are asymmetric and laterally shifted, and therefore existing pencil beam dose calculation algorithms are not capable of trimmed beam dose calculations. This work develops a method to model and compute dose from trimmed pencil beams when using the DCS. Methods: MCNPX simulations were used to determine the dose distributions expected from various trimmer configurations using the DCS. Using these data, the lateral distribution for individual beamlets was modeled with a 2D asymmetric Gaussian function. The integral depth dose (IDD) of each configuration was also modeled by combining the IDD of an untrimmed pencil beam with a linear correction factor. The convolution of these two terms, along with the Highland approximation to account for lateral growth of the beam along the depth direction, allows a trimmed pencil beam dose distribution to be analytically generated. The algorithm was validated by computing dose for a single energy layer 5×5 cm{sup 2} treatment field, defined by the trimmers, using both the proposed method and MCNPX beamlets. Results: The Gaussian modeled asymmetric lateral profiles along the principal axes match the MCNPX data very well (R{sup 2}≥0.95 at the depth of the Bragg peak). For the 5×5 cm{sup 2} treatment plan created with both the modeled and MCNPX pencil beams, the passing rate of the 3D gamma test was 98% using a standard threshold of 3%/3 mm. Conclusion: An analytical method capable of accurately computing asymmetric pencil beam dose when using the DCS has been developed.
Modeling of recrystallization texture of aluminium: symmetric and asymmetric rolling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wierzbanowski, K.; Kotra, M.; Wronski, M.; Sztwiertnia, K.; Wronski, S.; Lodini, A.
2015-04-01
In some metallic materials the dominating recrystallization mechanism can be described by the oriented growth behaviour. Phenomenological laws state that in selected materials only these nuclei grow intensively which have a given misorientation relation with the deformed matrix. This description is frequently verified in f.c.c. metals and generally reported misorientations correspond approximately to 400 rotation around the <111> axis. Basing on the above ideas the recrystallization model, including the compromise condition, was formulated and applied to the study of recrystallization textures of rolled polycrystalline aluminium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arévalo, Germán. V.; Hincapié, Roberto C.; Sierra, Javier E.
2015-09-01
UDWDM PON is a leading technology oriented to provide ultra-high bandwidth to final users while profiting the physical channels' capability. One of the main drawbacks of UDWDM technique is the fact that the nonlinear effects, like FWM, become stronger due to the close spectral proximity among channels. This work proposes a model for the optimal deployment of this type of networks taking into account the fiber length limitations imposed by physical restrictions related with the fiber's data transmission as well as the users' asymmetric distribution in a provided region. The proposed model employs the data transmission related effects in UDWDM PON as restrictions in the optimization problem and also considers the user's asymmetric clustering and the subdivision of the users region though a Voronoi geometric partition technique. Here it is considered de Voronoi dual graph, it is the Delaunay Triangulation, as the planar graph for resolving the problem related with the minimum weight of the fiber links.
Modeling bee swarming behavior through diffusion adaptation with asymmetric information sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jinchao; Sayed, Ali H.
2012-12-01
Honeybees swarm when they move to a new site for their hive. During the process of swarming, their behavior can be analyzed by classifying them as informed bees or uninformed bees, where the informed bees have some information about the destination while the uninformed bees follow the informed bees. The swarm's movement can be viewed as a network of mobile nodes with asymmetric information exchange about their destination. In these networks, adaptive and mobile agents share information on the fly and adapt their estimates in response to local measurements and data shared with neighbors. Diffusion adaptation is used to model the adaptation process in the presence of asymmetric nodes and noisy data. The simulations indicate that the models are able to emulate the swarming behavior of bees under varied conditions such as a small number of informed bees, sharing of target location, sharing of target direction, and noisy measurements.
Asymmetric dynamics and critical behavior in the Bak-Sneppen model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Dickman, Ronald
2004-11-01
We investigate, using mean-field theory and simulation, the effect of asymmetry on the critical behavior and probability density of Bak-Sneppen models. Two kinds of anisotropy are investigated: (i) different numbers of sites to the left and right of the central (minimum) site are updated and (ii) sites to the left and right of the central site are renewed in different ways. Of particular interest is the crossover from symmetric to asymmetric scaling for weakly asymmetric dynamics, and the collapse of data with different numbers of updated sites but the same degree of asymmetry. All non-symmetric rules studied fall, independent of the degree of asymmetry, in the same universality class. Conversely, symmetric variants reproduce the exponents of the original model. Our results confirm the existence of two symmetry-based universality classes for extremal dynamics.
Semenov, Alexander; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Babikov, Dmitri
2014-09-21
The mixed quantum/classical theory (MQCT) for inelastic molecule-atom scattering developed recently [A. Semenov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174108 (2013)] is extended to treat a general case of an asymmetric-top-rotor molecule in the body-fixed reference frame. This complements a similar theory formulated in the space-fixed reference-frame [M. Ivanov, M.-L. Dubernet, and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 134301 (2014)]. Here, the goal was to develop an approximate computationally affordable treatment of the rotationally inelastic scattering and apply it to H{sub 2}O + He. We found that MQCT is somewhat less accurate at lower scattering energies. For example, below E = 1000 cm{sup −1} the typical errors in the values of inelastic scattering cross sections are on the order of 10%. However, at higher scattering energies MQCT method appears to be rather accurate. Thus, at scattering energies above 2000 cm{sup −1} the errors are consistently in the range of 1%–2%, which is basically our convergence criterion with respect to the number of trajectories. At these conditions our MQCT method remains computationally affordable. We found that computational cost of the fully-coupled MQCT calculations scales as n{sup 2}, where n is the number of channels. This is more favorable than the full-quantum inelastic scattering calculations that scale as n{sup 3}. Our conclusion is that for complex systems (heavy collision partners with many internal states) and at higher scattering energies MQCT may offer significant computational advantages.
An asymmetric dizinc phosphodiesterase model with phenolate and carboxylate bridges.
Chen, Jingwen; Wang, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Yangguang; Lin, Jun; Yang, Xiaoliang; Li, Yizhi; Lu, Yi; Guo, Zijian
2005-05-16
A phosphodiesterase model with two zinc centers has been synthesized and characterized. The compound, [Zn(2)(L(-)(2H))(AcO)(H(2)O)](PF(6)).2H(2)O (Zn(2)L'), was formed using an "end-off" type compartmental ligand, 2,6-bis{[(2-pyridylmethyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]methyl}-4-methylphenol (L), and zinc acetate dihydrate. The X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that Zn(2)L' contains a mu-acetato-mu-cresolato-dizinc(II) core comprised of a quasi-trigonal bipyramidal Zn and a distorted octahedral Zn, and the distance between them is 3.421 Angstroms which is close to the dizinc distance in related natural metalloenzymes. Phosphodiesterase activity of Zn(2)L' was investigated using bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP) as the substrate. The pH dependence of the BNPP cleavage in aqueous buffer media shows a sigmoid-shaped pH-k(obs) profile with an inflection point around pH 7.13 which is close to the first pK(a) value of 7.20 for Zn(2)L' obtained from the potentiometric titration. The catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) is 4.60 x 10(-6) s(-1) at pH 7.20 and 50 degrees C which is ca. 10(5)-fold higher than that of the uncatalyzed reaction. The deprotonated alcoholic group appended on Zn(2)L' is responsible for the cleavage reaction. The possible mechanism for the BNPP cleavage promoted by Zn(2)L' is proposed on the basis of kinetic and spectral analysis. The dizinc complex formed in situ in anhydrous DMSO exhibits a similar ability to cleave BNPP. This study provides a less common example for the phosphodiesterase model in which the metal-bound alkoxide is the nucleophile. PMID:15877422
Critical behavior near the Mott transition in the half-filled asymmetric Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoang, Anh-Tuan; Le, Duc-Anh
2016-03-01
We study the half-filled asymmetric Hubbard model within the two-site dynamical mean field theory. At zero temperature, explicit expressions of the critical interaction Uc for the Mott transition and the local self-energy are analytically derived. Critical behavior of the quasiparticle weights and the double occupancy are obtained analytically as functions of the on-site interaction U and the hopping asymmetry r. Our results are in good agreement with the ones obtained by much more sophisticated theory.
Active patterning and asymmetric transport in a model actomyosin network
Wang, Shenshen; Wolynes, Peter G.
2013-12-21
Cytoskeletal networks, which are essentially motor-filament assemblies, play a major role in many developmental processes involving structural remodeling and shape changes. These are achieved by nonequilibrium self-organization processes that generate functional patterns and drive intracellular transport. We construct a minimal physical model that incorporates the coupling between nonlinear elastic responses of individual filaments and force-dependent motor action. By performing stochastic simulations we show that the interplay of motor processes, described as driving anti-correlated motion of the network vertices, and the network connectivity, which determines the percolation character of the structure, can indeed capture the dynamical and structural cooperativity which gives rise to diverse patterns observed experimentally. The buckling instability of individual filaments is found to play a key role in localizing collapse events due to local force imbalance. Motor-driven buckling-induced node aggregation provides a dynamic mechanism that stabilizes the two-dimensional patterns below the apparent static percolation limit. Coordinated motor action is also shown to suppress random thermal noise on large time scales, the two-dimensional configuration that the system starts with thus remaining planar during the structural development. By carrying out similar simulations on a three-dimensional anchored network, we find that the myosin-driven isotropic contraction of a well-connected actin network, when combined with mechanical anchoring that confers directionality to the collective motion, may represent a novel mechanism of intracellular transport, as revealed by chromosome translocation in the starfish oocyte.
Active patterning and asymmetric transport in a model actomyosin network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shenshen; Wolynes, Peter G.
2013-12-01
Cytoskeletal networks, which are essentially motor-filament assemblies, play a major role in many developmental processes involving structural remodeling and shape changes. These are achieved by nonequilibrium self-organization processes that generate functional patterns and drive intracellular transport. We construct a minimal physical model that incorporates the coupling between nonlinear elastic responses of individual filaments and force-dependent motor action. By performing stochastic simulations we show that the interplay of motor processes, described as driving anti-correlated motion of the network vertices, and the network connectivity, which determines the percolation character of the structure, can indeed capture the dynamical and structural cooperativity which gives rise to diverse patterns observed experimentally. The buckling instability of individual filaments is found to play a key role in localizing collapse events due to local force imbalance. Motor-driven buckling-induced node aggregation provides a dynamic mechanism that stabilizes the two-dimensional patterns below the apparent static percolation limit. Coordinated motor action is also shown to suppress random thermal noise on large time scales, the two-dimensional configuration that the system starts with thus remaining planar during the structural development. By carrying out similar simulations on a three-dimensional anchored network, we find that the myosin-driven isotropic contraction of a well-connected actin network, when combined with mechanical anchoring that confers directionality to the collective motion, may represent a novel mechanism of intracellular transport, as revealed by chromosome translocation in the starfish oocyte.
Modeling asymmetric cavity collapse with plasma equations of state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tully, Brett; Hawker, Nicholas; Ventikos, Yiannis
2016-05-01
We explore the effect that equation of state (EOS) thermodynamics has on shock-driven cavity-collapse processes. We account for full, multidimensional, unsteady hydrodynamics and incorporate a range of relevant EOSs (polytropic, QEOS-type, and SESAME). In doing so, we show that simplified analytic EOSs, like ideal gas, capture certain critical parameters of the collapse such as velocity of the main transverse jet and pressure at jet strike, while also providing a good representation of overall trends. However, more sophisticated EOSs yield different and more relevant estimates of temperature and density, especially for higher incident shock strengths. We model incident shocks ranging from 0.1 to 1000 GPa, the latter being of interest in investigating the warm dense matter regime for which experimental and theoretical EOS data are difficult to obtain. At certain shock strengths, there is a factor of two difference in predicted density between QEOS-type and SESAME EOS, indicating cavity collapse as an experimental method for exploring EOS in this range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menger, R. P.; Wood, T. L.; Brieger, J. T.
1983-01-01
A model test was conducted to determine the effects of aerodynamic interaction between main rotor, tail rotor, and vertical fin on helicopter performance and noise in hover out of ground effect. The experimental data were obtained from hover tests performed with a .151 scale Model 222 main rotor, tail rotor and vertical fin. Of primary interest was the effect of location of the tail rotor with respect to the main rotor. Penalties on main rotor power due to interaction with the tail rotor ranged up to 3% depending upon tail rotor location and orientation. Penalties on tail rotor power due to fin blockage alone ranged up to 10% for pusher tail rotors and up to 50% for tractor tail rotors. The main rotor wake had only a second order effect on these tail rotor/fin interactions. Design charts are presented showing the penalties on main rotor power as a function of the relative location of the tail rotor.
A mathematical model for the doubly-fed wound rotor generator, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brady, F. J.
1984-01-01
A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor generator is presented. The constraints of constant stator voltage and frequency to the circuit equations were applied and expressions for the currents and voltages in the machine obtained. The derived variables are redefined as direct and quadrature components. In addition, the apparent (complex) power for both the rotor and the stator are derived in terms of these redefined components.
A mathematical model for the doubly-fed wound rotor generator. II
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brady, F. J.
1986-01-01
A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor generator is presented. The constraints of constant stator voltage and frequency to the circuit equations were applied and expressions for the currents and voltages in the machine obtained. The derived variables are redefined as direct and quadrature components. In addition, the apparent (complex) power for both the rotor and the stator are derived in terms of these redefined components.
Asymmetric dark matter and CP violating scatterings in a UV complete model
Baldes, Iason; Bell, Nicole F.; Millar, Alexander J.; Volkas, Raymond R.
2015-10-21
We explore possible asymmetric dark matter models using CP violating scatterings to generate an asymmetry. In particular, we introduce a new model, based on DM fields coupling to the SM Higgs and lepton doublets, a neutrino portal, and explore its UV completions. We study the CP violation and asymmetry formation of this model, to demonstrate that it is capable of producing the correct abundance of dark matter and the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. Crucial to achieving this is the introduction of interactions which violate CP with a T{sup 2} dependence.
2016-01-01
Cell membranes possess a complex three-dimensional architecture, including nonrandom lipid lateral organization within the plane of a bilayer leaflet, and compositional asymmetry between the two leaflets. As a result, delineating the membrane structure–function relationship has been a highly challenging task. Even in simplified model systems, the interactions between bilayer leaflets are poorly understood, due in part to the difficulty of preparing asymmetric model membranes that are free from the effects of residual organic solvent or osmotic stress. To address these problems, we have modified a technique for preparing asymmetric large unilamellar vesicles (aLUVs) via cyclodextrin-mediated lipid exchange in order to produce tensionless, solvent-free aLUVs suitable for a range of biophysical studies. Leaflet composition and structure were characterized using isotopic labeling strategies, which allowed us to avoid the use of bulky labels. NMR and gas chromatography provided precise quantification of the extent of lipid exchange and bilayer asymmetry, while small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to resolve bilayer structural features with subnanometer resolution. Isotopically asymmetric POPC vesicles were found to have the same bilayer thickness and area per lipid as symmetric POPC vesicles, demonstrating that the modified exchange protocol preserves native bilayer structure. Partial exchange of DPPC into the outer leaflet of POPC vesicles produced chemically asymmetric vesicles with a gel/fluid phase-separated outer leaflet and a uniform, POPC-rich inner leaflet. SANS was able to separately resolve the thicknesses and areas per lipid of coexisting domains, revealing reduced lipid packing density of the outer leaflet DPPC-rich phase compared to typical gel phases. Our finding that a disordered inner leaflet can partially fluidize ordered outer leaflet domains indicates some degree of interleaflet coupling, and invites speculation on a role for bilayer
Heberle, Frederick A; Marquardt, Drew; Doktorova, Milka; Geier, Barbara; Standaert, Robert F; Heftberger, Peter; Kollmitzer, Benjamin; Nickels, Jonathan D; Dick, Robert A; Feigenson, Gerald W; Katsaras, John; London, Erwin; Pabst, Georg
2016-05-24
Cell membranes possess a complex three-dimensional architecture, including nonrandom lipid lateral organization within the plane of a bilayer leaflet, and compositional asymmetry between the two leaflets. As a result, delineating the membrane structure-function relationship has been a highly challenging task. Even in simplified model systems, the interactions between bilayer leaflets are poorly understood, due in part to the difficulty of preparing asymmetric model membranes that are free from the effects of residual organic solvent or osmotic stress. To address these problems, we have modified a technique for preparing asymmetric large unilamellar vesicles (aLUVs) via cyclodextrin-mediated lipid exchange in order to produce tensionless, solvent-free aLUVs suitable for a range of biophysical studies. Leaflet composition and structure were characterized using isotopic labeling strategies, which allowed us to avoid the use of bulky labels. NMR and gas chromatography provided precise quantification of the extent of lipid exchange and bilayer asymmetry, while small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to resolve bilayer structural features with subnanometer resolution. Isotopically asymmetric POPC vesicles were found to have the same bilayer thickness and area per lipid as symmetric POPC vesicles, demonstrating that the modified exchange protocol preserves native bilayer structure. Partial exchange of DPPC into the outer leaflet of POPC vesicles produced chemically asymmetric vesicles with a gel/fluid phase-separated outer leaflet and a uniform, POPC-rich inner leaflet. SANS was able to separately resolve the thicknesses and areas per lipid of coexisting domains, revealing reduced lipid packing density of the outer leaflet DPPC-rich phase compared to typical gel phases. Our finding that a disordered inner leaflet can partially fluidize ordered outer leaflet domains indicates some degree of interleaflet coupling, and invites speculation on a role for bilayer
Tunneling of electrons via rotor-stator molecular interfaces: Combined ab initio and model study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petreska, Irina; Ohanesjan, Vladimir; Pejov, Ljupčo; Kocarev, Ljupčo
2016-07-01
Tunneling of electrons through rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecular interfaces is studied with a combined ab initio and model approach. Molecular electronic structure calculated from first principles is utilized to model different shapes of tunneling barriers. Together with a rectangular barrier, we also consider a sinusoidal shape that captures the effects of the molecular internal structure more realistically. Quasiclassical approach with the Simmons' formula for current density is implemented. Special attention is paid on conformational dependence of the tunneling current. Our results confirm that the presence of the side aldehyde group enhances the interesting electronic properties of the pure anthracene molecule, making it a bistable system with geometry dependent transport properties. We also investigate the transition voltage and we show that conformation-dependent field emission could be observed in these molecular interfaces at realistically low voltages. The present study accompanies our previous work where we investigated the coherent transport via strongly coupled delocalized orbital by application of Non-equilibrium Green's Function Formalism.
Vortex Wake Geometry of a Model Tilt Rotor in Forward Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wadcock, Alan J.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A full-span 0.25-scale V-22 tiltrotor was tested in the NASA Ames 40-by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel in November 2000. The main objective of the test was to acquire a comprehensive database to validate tiltrotor analyses. Figure 1 shows the model installed in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. Rotor and vehicle performance measurements were taken in addition to wing pressures, acoustics, and flow visualization. A dual acoustic traverse system was installed to measure blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise levels and directivity. Test conditions included hover and forward flight in helicopter mode. Angle-of-attack and thrust sweeps for three tunnel speeds were acquired before model problems caused the premature conclusion of the test. The test will resume in the Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel in late 2001. This paper will focus on the wake geometry measurements that were acquired during the test. The wake geometry measurements were a small subset of a larger matrix of planned measurements designed to study the development and structure of the dual vortex system generated during BVI conditions. The present paper will provide wake geometry data for four test conditions. In addition, the data will be compared with previously acquired wake measurements from an isolated tiltrotor
Modelling of asymmetrical interconnect T-tree laminated on flexible substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravelo, Blaise
2015-11-01
A fast and accurate behavioral modelling of asymmetrical microstrip tree printed on plastic substrate is investigated. The methodology for extracting the asymmetrical tree transfer responses based on the ABCD-matrix analysis is presented. The elements of the interconnect T-tree are constituted by transmission lines (TLs) defined by their characteristic impedance and physical length. The distributed tree network can be assumed as a single input multiple output (SIMO) topology. By considering the circuit equivalent between the electrical path from the tree input and output, the single input single output (SISO) simplified circuit can be established. In order to determine the frequency response of the interconnect tree system, the elementary TLs constituting the tree branches are modelled with their equivalent frequency dependent RLCG network. The novelty of the present paper is the application of the model to the microstrip structure printed on the plastic substrate by analyzing the influence of the metallization conductivity. As proof of concept (POC), a single input and three output distributed interconnect T-tree having branches presented physical lengths from 3 cm to 20 cm was designed. The POC was printed on the Cu metal deposited plastic Kapton substrate. Then, the frequency dependent per unit length resistance, inductance, capacitance and conductance of the elementary branches of the T-tree from DC to 10 GHz were extracted. By implementing the behavioral model of the circuit, the frequency- and time-domain responses of the proposed asymmetrical T-tree are computed. Then, the analyses of the asymmetrical T-tree responses in function of the thin film conductivity of the microstrip interconnect lines were discussed. In addition, time domain analysis enabling to predict the influence of the deposited metallic ink conductivity on the signal integrity is realized by considering a mixed signal corresponding to the digital data "010110000" having 0.5 Gbps rate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kazin, S. B.; Paas, J. E.; Minzner, W. R.
1973-01-01
A scale model of the bypass flow region of a 1.5 pressure ratio, single stage, low tip speed fan was tested with a serrated rotor leading edge to determine its effects on noise generation. The serrated rotor was produced by cutting teeth into the leading edge of the nominal rotor blades. The effects of speed and exhaust nozzle area on the scale models noise characteristics were investigated with both the nominal rotor and serrated rotor. Acoustic results indicate the serrations reduced front quadrant PNL's at takeoff power. In particular, the 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline noise was reduced from 3 to 4 PNdb at 40 deg for nominal and large nozzle operation. However, the rear quadrant maximum sideline PNL's were increased 1.5 to 3 PNdb at approach thust and up to 2 PNdb at takeoff thust with these serrated rotor blades. The configuration with the serrated rotor produced the lowest maximum 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline PNL for any given thust when the large nozzle (116% of design area) was employed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Sunghwan
1997-08-01
One of the most prominent features of helicopter rotor dynamics in forward flight is the periodic coefficients in the equations of motion introduced by the rotor rotation. The frequency response characteristics of such a linear time periodic system exhibits sideband behavior, which is not the case for linear time invariant systems. Therefore, a frequency domain identification methodology for linear systems with time periodic coefficients was developed, because the linear time invariant theory cannot account for sideband behavior. The modulated complex Fourier series was introduced to eliminate the smearing effect of Fourier series expansions of exponentially modulated periodic signals. A system identification theory was then developed using modulated complex Fourier series expansion. Correlation and spectral density functions were derived using the modulated complex Fourier series expansion for linear time periodic systems. Expressions of the identified harmonic transfer function were then formulated using the spectral density functions both with and without additive noise processes at input and/or output. A procedure was developed to identify parameters of a model to match the frequency response characteristics between measured and estimated harmonic transfer functions by minimizing an objective function defined in terms of the trace of the squared frequency response error matrix. Feasibility was demonstrated by the identification of the harmonic transfer function and parameters for helicopter rigid blade flapping dynamics in forward flight. This technique is envisioned to satisfy the needs of system identification in the rotating frame, especially in the context of individual blade control. The technique was applied to the coupled flap-lag-inflow dynamics of a rigid blade excited by an active pitch link. The linear time periodic technique results were compared with the linear time invariant technique results. Also, the effect of noise processes and initial
A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation
Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Hill, Patrick M.; Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark
2015-03-15
Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σ{sub x1},σ{sub x2},σ{sub y1},σ{sub y2}) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μ{sub x},μ{sub y}). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meinert, Cornelia; de Marcellus, Pierre; Le Sergeant D'Hendecourt, Louis; Nahon, Laurent; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren V.; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.
2011-10-01
Proteins of all living organisms including plants, animals, and humans are made up of amino acid monomers that show identical stereochemical L-configuration. Hypotheses for the origin of this symmetry breaking in biomolecules include the absolute asymmetric photochemistry model by which interstellar ultraviolet (UV) circularly polarized light (CPL) induces an enantiomeric excess in chiral organic molecules in the interstellar/circumstellar media. This scenario is supported by a) the detection of amino acids in the organic residues of UV-photo-processed interstellar ice analogues, b) the occurrence of L-enantiomer-enriched amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites, and c) the observation of CPL of the same helicity over large distance scales in the massive star-forming region of Orion. These topics are of high importance in topical biophysical research and will be discussed in this review. Further evidence that amino acids and other molecules of prebiotic interest are asymmetrically formed in space comes from studies on the enantioselective photolysis of amino acids by UV-CPL. Also, experiments have been performed on the absolute asymmetric photochemical synthesis of enantiomer-enriched amino acids from mixtures of astrophysically relevant achiral precursor molecules using UV-circularly polarized photons. Both approaches are based on circular dichroic transitions of amino acids that will be highlighted here as well. These results have strong implications on our current understanding of how life's precursor molecules were possibly built and how life selected the left-handed form of proteinogenic amino acids.
Transonic Rotor/Stator Interaction Using a 3-D Linearised Unsteady Viscous Flow Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sbardella, L.; Imregun, M.
The paper first summarizes the forced response problem in turbomachinery and reviews various numerical methods for the simulation of unsteady flows. A particular technique, based on the linearisation of the unsteady Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on three-dimensional mixed-element grids of tetrahedra, hexahedra and wedges, is described in some detail. The methodology was applied to a NGV/rotor interaction benchmark case for which detailed steady and unsteady flow measurements are available. The steady-state flow, calculated using a non-linear viscous representation, was described in detail with emphasis on features such as separation, horseshoe and passage vortices, tip leakage and shock structure since these are likely to influence the unsteady flow. The sources of unsteadiness on the rotor passage were evaluated from the steady-state solution at the NGV outlet. The disturbances were split into vortical, entropic and potential waves, the Fourier components of which were considered separately. The summation of the vortical and entropic waves was used as a rotor inlet boundary condition in order to assess the wake/rotor unsteady interaction. Similarly, potential waves were used to study the potential/rotor interaction. The results obtained from these two types of unsteady interactions were superimposed and compared with experimental data. Good qualitative and, in most cases, quantitative agreement was obtained, a finding which suggests that the unsteady flowfield generated by the relative blade motion can be considered to be a quasi-linear phenomenon for the particular HP turbine studied. Finally, the mechanisms of wake/rotor and potential/rotor interactions were studied in some detail and it was concluded that the former was strong in the crown of the blade while the latter was dominant in the leading edge region.
A preliminary investigation of finite-element modeling for composite rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lake, Renee C.; Nixon, Mark W.
1988-01-01
The results from an initial phase of an in-house study aimed at improving the dynamic and aerodynamic characteristics of composite rotor blades through the use of elastic couplings are presented. Large degree of freedom shell finite element models of an extension twist coupled composite tube were developed and analyzed using MSC/NASTRAN. An analysis employing a simplified beam finite element representation of the specimen with the equivalent engineering stiffness was additionally performed. Results from the shell finite element normal modes and frequency analysis were compared to those obtained experimentally, showing an agreement within 13 percent. There was appreciable degradation in the frequency prediction for the torsional mode, which is elastically coupled. This was due to the absence of off-diagonal coupling terms in the formulation of the equivalent engineering stiffness. Parametric studies of frequency variation due to small changes in ply orientation angle and ply thickness were also performed. Results showed linear frequency variations less than 2 percent per 1 degree variation in the ply orientation angle, and 1 percent per 0.0001 inch variation in the ply thickness.
The triaxial particle plus rotor model and wobbling mode: A semiclassical view
Gupta, Rajiv; Malik, S. S.; Jain, A. K.; Jain, S. R.
2010-11-24
A systematic analysis of the triaxial particle rotor model with single-j shell configuration is carried out to explain the prominent features of observed wobbling excitations in odd A nuclei. The equations of motion for the angular momentum vectors I-vector and j-vector generate two types of equilibrium (i.e., (i) the axes aligned and (ii) the planar) states. The planar equilibrium states involve mainly the orientation degree of freedom {gamma} and their Jacobian matrix J gives purely imaginary eigenvalues in conjugate pairs. Also, our dynamical results show a substantial projection of angular momentum vectors on all the three principal axes, which implies that the resultant angular momentum lies outside the planes of three axes. Both these signatures confirm the spontaneous breakdown of time reversal (T) plus rotation by 180 deg. (R{sub {pi}}) i.e., R{sub {pi}T} symmetry and as a result nearly two identical bands consisting of even and odd spins emerge. We have tested our dynamical formalism for the wobbling mode observed in {sup 163}Lu.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawson, Seth
1988-01-01
Three cases were selected for correlation from an experiment that examined the aeroelastic stability of a small-scale bearingless motor rotor in hover. The 1.8 m diameter model rotor included flap, lead-lag, and torsional degrees of freedom, but no body degrees of freedom. The first case looked at a configuration with a single pitch link on the leading edge, the second case examined a configuration with a single pitch link on the trailing edge, and the third case examined a configuration with pitch links on the leading and trailing edges to simulate a pitch link with shear restraint. Analyses from Bell Helicopter Textron, Boeing Vertol, Hughes Helicopters, Sikorsky Aircraft, and the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory were compared with the data, and the correlation ranged from poor to fair.
Rotor/Wing Interactions in Hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Larry A.; Derby, Michael R.
2002-01-01
Hover predictions of tiltrotor aircraft are hampered by the lack of accurate and computationally efficient models for rotor/wing interactional aerodynamics. This paper summarizes the development of an approximate, potential flow solution for the rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This analysis is based on actuator disk and vortex theory and the method of images. The analysis is applicable for out-of-ground-effect predictions. The analysis is particularly suited for aircraft preliminary design studies. Flow field predictions from this simple analytical model are validated against experimental data from previous studies. The paper concludes with an analytical assessment of the influence of rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This assessment examines the effect of rotor-to-wing offset distance, wing sweep, wing span, and flaperon incidence angle on tiltrotor inflow and performance.
A four degrees-of-freedom model for a misaligned electrical rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xueping; Han, Qinkai; Chu, Fulei
2015-12-01
The eccentricity is one of the most common trouble sources in the rotor of electrical machine. This paper aims to investigate the vibration characteristics of an inclined rotor with both the static displacement eccentricity and the static angle eccentricity in the three-dimensional space. The air-gap length of an eccentric rotor is derived and the electromagnetic excitation which consists of the unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) and the electromagnetic torque is obtained. The gyroscopic effect is taken into consideration and dynamic equations of the rotor system with four degrees of freedom are established. The static displacement eccentricity, static angle eccentricity, coexistence of static displacement and angle eccentricity, rotor location, unbalanced mass eccentricity and the rotating frequency are investigated for their effects on the dynamic responses in both the time domain and the frequency domain, respectively. Simulation results illustrate that both the static displacement eccentricity and the static angle eccentricity can lead to the increase in amplitudes of the dynamic displacement response and the angle response. The displacement and angle parameters are interactive in both the time domain and the frequency domain. The frequency components contained in the dynamic responses are related to multiples of the supply frequency and the rotating frequency. High integer multiples of rotating frequency are found when amplitudes of dynamic responses increase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohara, Masaki; Noguchi, Toshihiko
This paper describes a new method for a rotor position sensorless control of a surface permanent magnet synchronous motor based on a model reference adaptive system (MRAS). This method features the MRAS in a current control loop to estimate a rotor speed and position by using only current sensors. This method as well as almost all the conventional methods incorporates a mathematical model of the motor, which consists of parameters such as winding resistances, inductances, and an induced voltage constant. Hence, the important thing is to investigate how the deviation of these parameters affects the estimated rotor position. First, this paper proposes a structure of the sensorless control applied in the current control loop. Next, it proves the stability of the proposed method when motor parameters deviate from the nominal values, and derives the relationship between the estimated position and the deviation of the parameters in a steady state. Finally, some experimental results are presented to show performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Pickup, B.A.; Thomson, S.L.
2012-01-01
The influence of asymmetric vocal fold stiffness on voice production was evaluated using life-sized, self-oscillating vocal fold models with an idealized geometry based on the human vocal folds. The models were fabricated using flexible, materially-linear silicone compounds with Young’s modulus values comparable to that of vocal fold tissue. The models included a two-layer design to simulate the vocal fold layered structure. The respective Young’s moduli of elasticity of the “left” and “right” vocal fold models were varied to create asymmetric conditions. High-speed videokymography was used to measure maximum vocal fold excursion, vibration frequency, and left-right phase shift, all of which were significantly influenced by asymmetry. Onset pressure, a measure of vocal effort, increased with asymmetry. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis showed significantly greater skewing of the glottal jet in the direction of the stiffer vocal fold model. Potential applications to various clinical conditions are mentioned, and suggestions for future related studies are presented. PMID:19664777
Investigation of rotor blade element airloads for a teetering rotor in the blade stall regime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dadone, L. U.; Fukushima, T.
1974-01-01
A model of a teetering rotor was tested in a low speed wind tunnel. Blade element airloads measured on an articulated model rotor were compared with the teetering rotor and showed that the teetering rotor is subjected to less extensive flow separation. Retreating blade stall was studied. Results show that stall, under the influence of unsteady aerodynamic effects, consists of four separate stall events, each associated with a vortex shed from the leading edge and sweeping over the upper surface of the rotor blade. Current rotor performance prediction methodology was evaluated through computer simulation.
Effect of breathing pattern on gas mixing in a model with asymmetrical alveolar ducts.
Bowes, C L; Richardson, J D; Cumming, G; Horsfield, K
1985-01-01
A model of the pulmonary airways was used to study three single-breath indices of gas mixing, dead space (VD), slope of the alveolar plateau, and alveolar mixing inefficiency (AMI). In the model, discrete elements of airway volume were represented by nodes. Using a finite difference technique the differential equation for simultaneous convection and diffusion was solved for the nodal network. Conducting airways and respiratory bronchioles were modeled symmetrically, but alveolar ducts asymmetrically, permitting interaction between convection and diffusion. VD, alveolar slope, and AMI increased with increasing flow. Similar trends were seen with inspired volume, although slope decreased at high inspired volumes with constant flow. VD was affected most by inspiratory flow and AMI and alveolar slope by expiratory time. VD fell approximately exponentially with time of breath holding. Eight different breathing patterns were compared. They had a small effect on alveolar slope and AMI and a greater effect on VD. The model shows how series and parallel inhomogeneity occur together and interact in asymmetrical systems: the old argument as to which is the more important should be abandoned. PMID:3968008
Bidirectional transport in a multispecies totally asymmetric exclusion-process model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muhuri, Sudipto; Shagolsem, Lenin; Rao, Madan
2011-09-01
We study a minimal lattice model which describes bidirectional transport of “particles” driven along a one-dimensional track, as is observed in microtubule based, motor protein driven bidirectional transport of cargo vesicles, lipid bodies, and organelles such as mitochondria. This minimal model, a multispecies totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with directional switching, can provide a framework for understanding the interplay between the switching dynamics of individual particles and the collective movement of particles in one dimension. When switching is much faster than translocation, the steady-state density and current profiles of the particles are homogeneous in the bulk and are well described by mean-field (MF) theory, as determined by comparison to a Monte Carlo simulation. In this limit, we can map this model to the exactly solvable partially asymmetric exclusion-process (PASEP) model. Away from this fast switching regime the MF theory fails, although the average bulk density profile still remains homogeneous. We study the steady-state behavior as a function of the ratio of the translocation and net switching rates Q and find a unique first-order phase transition at a finite Q associated with a discontinuous change of the bulk density. When the switching rate is decreased further (keeping translocation rate fixed), the system approaches a jammed phase with a net current that tends to zero as J˜1/Q. We numerically construct the phase diagram for finite Q.
Kajala, Kaisa; Ramakrishna, Priya; Fisher, Adam; C. Bergmann, Dominique; De Smet, Ive; Sozzani, Rosangela; Weijers, Dolf; Brady, Siobhan M.
2014-01-01
Background Asymmetric cell divisions are formative divisions that generate daughter cells of distinct identity. These divisions are coordinated by either extrinsic (‘niche-controlled’) or intrinsic regulatory mechanisms and are fundamentally important in plant development. Scope This review describes how asymmetric cell divisions are regulated during development and in different cell types in both the root and the shoot of plants. It further highlights ways in which omics and modelling approaches have been used to elucidate these regulatory mechanisms. For example, the regulation of embryonic asymmetric divisions is described, including the first divisions of the zygote, formative vascular divisions and divisions that give rise to the root stem cell niche. Asymmetric divisions of the root cortex endodermis initial, pericycle cells that give rise to the lateral root primordium, procambium, cambium and stomatal cells are also discussed. Finally, a perspective is provided regarding the role of other hormones or regulatory molecules in asymmetric divisions, the presence of segregated determinants and the usefulness of modelling approaches in understanding network dynamics within these very special cells. Conclusions Asymmetric cell divisions define plant development. High-throughput genomic and modelling approaches can elucidate their regulation, which in turn could enable the engineering of plant traits such as stomatal density, lateral root development and wood formation. PMID:24825294
Bosonization study of quantum phase transitions in the one-dimensional asymmetric Hubbard model
Wang, Z. G.; Chen, Y. G.; Gu, S. J.
2007-04-15
The quantum phase transitions in the one-dimensional asymmetric Hubbard model are investigated with the bosonization approach. The conditions for the phase transition from density wave to phase separation, the correlation functions, and their exponents are obtained analytically. Our results show that the difference between the hopping integrals for up- and down-spin electrons is crucial for the occurrence of the phase separation. When the difference is large enough, the phase separation will appear even if the on-site interaction is small.
Series Expansion Method for Asymmetrical Percolation Models with Two Connection Probabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inui, Norio; Komatsu, Genichi; Kameoka, Koichi
2000-01-01
In order to study the solvability of the percolation model based on Guttmann and Enting's conjecture, the power series for the percolation probability in the form of ∑nHn(q)pn is examined. Although the power series is given by calculating inverse of the transfer-matrix in principle, it is very hard to obtain the inverse matrix containing many complex polynomials as elements. We introduce a new series expansion technique which does not necessitate inverse operation for the transfer-matrix.By using the new procedure, we derive the series of the asymmetrical percolation probability including the isotropic percolation probability as a special case.
Optical asymmetric cryptography using a three-dimensional space-based model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong
2011-07-01
In this paper, we present optical asymmetric cryptography combined with a three-dimensional (3D) space-based model. An optical multiple-random-phase-mask encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain, and one random phase-only mask and the plaintext are combined as a series of particles. Subsequently, the series of particles is translated along an axial direction, and is distributed in a 3D space. During image decryption, the robustness and security of the proposed method are further analyzed. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optical image encryption method.
Acoustic Shielding for a Model Scale Counter-rotation Open Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stephens, David B.; Edmane, Envia
2012-01-01
The noise shielding benefit of installing an open rotor above a simplified wing or tail is explored experimentally. The test results provide both a benchmark data set for validating shielding prediction tools and an opportunity for a system level evaluation of the noise reduction potential of propulsion noise shielding by an airframe component. A short barrier near the open rotor was found to provide up to 8.5 dB of attenuation at some directivity angles, with tonal sound particularly well shielded. Predictions from two simple shielding theories were found to overestimate the shielding benefit.
A comparison of theory and experiment for aeroelastic stability of a hingeless rotor model in hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharpe, David L.
1988-01-01
Theoretical predictions of aeroelastic stability are compared with experimental, isolated, hingeless-rotor data. The six cases selected represent a torsionally soft rotor having either a stiff or soft pitch-control system in combination with zero precone and droop, 5 degree precone, or -5 degree droop. Analyses from Bell Helicopter Textron, Boeing Vertol, Hughes Helicopters, Sikorsky Aircraft, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory were compared with the experimental data. The correlation ranged from poor to fair.
Linear stability analysis for an optimum Glauert rotor modelled by an actuator disc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, D. M.; Blackburn, H. M.; Sheridan, J.
2014-06-01
We approximate a wind turbine using the Actuator Disc methodology with loading for an optimum Glauert rotor, and vary blade length and tip speed ratio, to determine base flows for linear stability computations at a Reynolds number of 100. Results from such computations suggest that the least stable mode is axisymmetric and insensitive to changes in tip speed operation, suggesting that the stability properties in the farfield wake for an optimised rotor are independent of the chosen tip speed optimization point. Higher azimuthal modes promote greater variation in velocities and may be relevant to cases at higher Reynolds numbers.
Modeling and Simulation of a Lithium Manganese Oxide/Activated Carbon Asymmetric Supercapacitor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yin, Yajiang; You, Zheng
2016-01-01
Asymmetric supercapacitors are expected to represent the future of energy storage devices because of their good performance concerning both energy density and power density. This paper first presents a mathematical model of an asymmetric supercapacitor, which consists of a LiMn2O4 electrode and an activated carbon (AC) electrode. Including electrical and concentration fields, the dynamic model is used to investigate the effect of the thickness of the AC electrode on supercapacitor performance in COMSOL Multiphysics. Surprisingly, a distinctive effect of relaxation is found in the supercapacitor for the first time by simulating the production, consumption, and transport of Li ions. Relaxation is shown to play a key role in capacity recovery and lifetime extension. The relative error of energy densities and power densities in the Ragone plots is less than 10% compared with experimental results when the current density is below 200 A/m2. The present model is conclusively verified to be effective and successfully provides a methodology to optimize the cell size in various applications.
Cui, Peiling; Yan, Ning
2012-01-01
The magnetically suspended Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) has the advantages of long-life, micro-vibration and being non-lubricating, and is the ideal actuator for agile maneuver satellite attitude control. However, the stability of the rotor in magnetic bearing and the precision of the output torque of a magnetically suspended CMG are affected by the rapid maneuvers of satellites. In this paper, a dynamic model of the agile satellite including a magnetically suspended single gimbal control moment gyroscope is built and the equivalent disturbance torque effected on the rotor is obtained. The feedforward compensation control method is used to depress the disturbance on the rotor. Simulation results are given to show that the rotor displacement is obviously reduced. PMID:23235442
Cui, Peiling; Yan, Ning
2012-01-01
The magnetically suspended Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) has the advantages of long-life, micro-vibration and being non-lubricating, and is the ideal actuator for agile maneuver satellite attitude control. However, the stability of the rotor in magnetic bearing and the precision of the output torque of a magnetically suspended CMG are affected by the rapid maneuvers of satellites. In this paper, a dynamic model of the agile satellite including a magnetically suspended single gimbal control moment gyroscope is built and the equivalent disturbance torque effected on the rotor is obtained. The feedforward compensation control method is used to depress the disturbance on the rotor. Simulation results are given to show that the rotor displacement is obviously reduced. PMID:23235442
Flight Acoustic Testing and Data Acquisition For the Rotor Noise Model (RNM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conner, David A.; Burley, Casey L.; Smith, Charles D.
2006-01-01
Two acoustic flight tests have been conducted on a remote test range at Eglin Air Force Base in the panhandle of Florida. The first was the Acoustics Week flight test conducted in September 2003. The second was the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Acoustics Flight Test conducted in October-November 2005. Benchmark acoustic databases were obtained for a number of rotorcraft and limited fixed wing vehicles for a variety of flight conditions. The databases are important for validation of acoustic prediction programs such as the Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM), as well as for the development of low noise flight procedures and for environmental impact assessments. An overview of RNM capabilities and a detailed description of the RNM/ART (Acoustic Repropagation Technique) process are presented. The RNM/ART process is demonstrated using measured acoustic data for the MD600N. The RNM predictions for a level flyover speed sweep show the highest SEL noise levels on the flight track centerline occurred at the slowest vehicle speeds. At these slower speeds, broadband noise content is elevated compared to noise levels obtained at the higher speeds. A descent angle sweep shows that, in general, ground noise levels increased with increasing descent rates. Vehicle orientation in addition to vehicle position was found to significantly affect the RNM/ART creation of source noise semi-spheres for vehicles with highly directional noise characteristics and only mildly affect those with weak acoustic directionality. Based on these findings, modifications are proposed for RNM/ART to more accurately define vehicle and rotor orientation.
Blade tip, finite aspect ratio, and dynamic stall effects on the Darrieus rotor
Paraschivoiu, I.; Desy, P.; Masson, C.
1988-02-01
The objective of the work described in this paper was to apply the Boeing-Vertol dynamic stall model in an asymmetric manner to account for the asymmetry of the flow between the left and right sides of the rotor. This phenomenon has been observed by the flow visualization of a two-straight-bladed Darrieus rotor in the IMST water tunnel. Also introduced into the aerodynamic model are the effects of the blade tip and finite aspect ratio on the aerodynamic performance of the Darrieus wind turbine. These improvements are compatible with the double-multiple-streamtube model and have been included in the CARDAAV computer code for predicting the aerodynamic performance. Very good agreement has been observed between the test data (Sandia 17 m) and theoretical predictions; a significant improvement over the previous dynamic stall model was obtained for the rotor power at low tip speed ratios, while the inclusion of the finite aspect ratio effects enhances the prediction of the rotor power for high tip speed ratios. The tip losses and finite aspect ratio effects were also calculated for a small-scale vertical-axis wind turbine, with a two-straight-bladed (NACA 0015) rotor. 15 references.
The NASA modern technology rotors program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watts, M. E.; Cross, J. L.
1986-01-01
Existing data bases regarding helicopters are based on work conducted on 'old-technology' rotor systems. The Modern Technology Rotors (MTR) Program is to provide extensive data bases on rotor systems using present and emerging technology. The MTR is concerned with modern, four-bladed, rotor systems presently being manufactured or under development. Aspects of MTR philosophy are considered along with instrumentation, the MTR test program, the BV 360 Rotor, and the UH-60 Black Hawk. The program phases include computer modelling, shake test, model-scale test, minimally instrumented flight test, extensively pressure-instrumented-blade flight test, and full-scale wind tunnel test.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenstein, H.; Mcveigh, M. A.; Mollenkof, P. A.
1973-01-01
The results of a real time piloted simulation to investigate the handling qualities and performance of a tilting rotor aircraft design are presented. The aerodynamic configuration of the aircraft is described. The procedures for conducting the simulator evaluation are reported. Pilot comments of the aircraft handling qualities under various simulated flight conditions are included. The time histories of selected pilot maneuvers are shown.
Agent-Based Model with Asymmetric Trading and Herding for Complex Financial Systems
Chen, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Bo; Tan, Lei
2013-01-01
Background For complex financial systems, the negative and positive return-volatility correlations, i.e., the so-called leverage and anti-leverage effects, are particularly important for the understanding of the price dynamics. However, the microscopic origination of the leverage and anti-leverage effects is still not understood, and how to produce these effects in agent-based modeling remains open. On the other hand, in constructing microscopic models, it is a promising conception to determine model parameters from empirical data rather than from statistical fitting of the results. Methods To study the microscopic origination of the return-volatility correlation in financial systems, we take into account the individual and collective behaviors of investors in real markets, and construct an agent-based model. The agents are linked with each other and trade in groups, and particularly, two novel microscopic mechanisms, i.e., investors’ asymmetric trading and herding in bull and bear markets, are introduced. Further, we propose effective methods to determine the key parameters in our model from historical market data. Results With the model parameters determined for six representative stock-market indices in the world, respectively, we obtain the corresponding leverage or anti-leverage effect from the simulation, and the effect is in agreement with the empirical one on amplitude and duration. At the same time, our model produces other features of the real markets, such as the fat-tail distribution of returns and the long-term correlation of volatilities. Conclusions We reveal that for the leverage and anti-leverage effects, both the investors’ asymmetric trading and herding are essential generation mechanisms. Among the six markets, however, the investors’ trading is approximately symmetric for the five markets which exhibit the leverage effect, thus contributing very little. These two microscopic mechanisms and the methods for the determination of the key
Separators for flywheel rotors
Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas C.
1998-01-01
A separator forms a connection between the rotors of a concentric rotor assembly. This separator allows for the relatively free expansion of outer rotors away from inner rotors while providing a connection between the rotors that is strong enough to prevent disassembly. The rotor assembly includes at least two rotors referred to as inner and outer flywheel rings or rotors. This combination of inner flywheel ring, separator, and outer flywheel ring may be nested to include an arbitrary number of concentric rings. The separator may be a segmented or continuous ring that abuts the ends of the inner rotor and the inner bore of the outer rotor. It is supported against centrifugal loads by the outer rotor and is affixed to the outer rotor. The separator is allowed to slide with respect to the inner rotor. It is made of a material that has a modulus of elasticity that is lower than that of the rotors.
Separators for flywheel rotors
Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.C.
1998-07-07
A separator forms a connection between the rotors of a concentric rotor assembly. This separator allows for the relatively free expansion of outer rotors away from inner rotors while providing a connection between the rotors that is strong enough to prevent disassembly. The rotor assembly includes at least two rotors referred to as inner and outer flywheel rings or rotors. This combination of inner flywheel ring, separator, and outer flywheel ring may be nested to include an arbitrary number of concentric rings. The separator may be a segmented or continuous ring that abuts the ends of the inner rotor and the inner bore of the outer rotor. It is supported against centrifugal loads by the outer rotor and is affixed to the outer rotor. The separator is allowed to slide with respect to the inner rotor. It is made of a material that has a modulus of elasticity that is lower than that of the rotors. 10 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Knepley, Matthew G.
2014-10-01
We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory after replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for: (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley "bracelet" and "rod" test problems [D. L. Mobley, A. E. Barber II, C. J. Fennell, and K. A. Dill, "Charge asymmetries in hydration of polar solutes," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 2405-2414 (2008)]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry.
Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Knepley, Matthew G.
2014-10-07
We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory after replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for: (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley “bracelet” and “rod” test problems [D. L. Mobley, A. E. Barber II, C. J. Fennell, and K. A. Dill, “Charge asymmetries in hydration of polar solutes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 2405–2414 (2008)]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry.
An asymmetric dimer in a periodic potential: a minimal model for friction of graphene flakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hens, Remco; Fasolino, Annalisa
2016-07-01
We discuss the friction and motion of a model of a dimer with asymmetric interactions with a substrate potential. Starting from the consideration that a rigid dimer with spacing equal to half of the period of the potential has exactly zero static friction like the infinite incommensurate Frenkel Kontorova model, we show how stick-slip behaviour and friction arise as a function of asymmetry. We argue that this model can yield a simple yet insightful description of the frictional behaviour of graphene flakes on graphite and of superlubricity. The results can also be of interest for diatomic molecules on surfaces. Supplementary material in the form of three mp4 files available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70273-5
Meta-Boolean models of asymmetric division patterns in the C. elegans intestinal lineage
Pettersson, Sofia; Forchheimer, Robert; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2013-01-01
The intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans is derived from 20 cells that are organized into nine intestinal rings. During embryogenesis, three of the rings rotate approximately 90 degrees in a process known as intestinal twist. The underlying mechanisms for this morphological event are not fully known, but it has been demonstrated that both left-right and anterior-posterior asymmetry is required for intestinal twist to occur. We have recently presented a rule-based meta-Boolean tree model intended to describe complex lineages. In this report we apply this model to the E lineage of C. elegans, specifically targeting the asymmetric anterior-posterior division patterns within the lineage. The resulting model indicates that cells with the same factor concentration are located next to each other in the intestine regardless of lineage origin. In addition, the shift in factor concentrations coincides with the boundary for intestinal twist. When modeling lit-1 mutant data according to the same principle, the factor distributions in each cell are altered, yet the concurrence between the shift in concentration and intestinal twist remains. This pattern suggests that intestinal twist is controlled by a threshold mechanism. In the current paper we present the factor concentrations for all possible combinations of symmetric and asymmetric divisions in the E lineage and relate these to the potential threshold by studying existing data for wild-type and mutant embryos. Finally, we discuss how the resulting models can serve as a basis for experimental design in order to reveal the underlying mechanisms of intestinal twist. PMID:24058861
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valera, J.; Negredo, A. M.; Billen, M.
2008-12-01
Recent studies provide compelling evidence for an event of removal of lithospheric mantle in southern -and possibly central- Sierra Nevada (SN) mountains, California (Zandt et al., Nature, 431, 2004). A sequential history of foundering of the ultramafic root of the Sierra Nevada batholith, with a pronounced asymmetric flow, is proposed to explain a number of geophysical and geological observations, including a fast seismic velocity in the mantle located to the west of the SN crest, a gap in the Moho, recent subsidence and tilting of the Sierra Nevada, and a change in mineralogy of the xenolith population recorded at the surface. In the present study we focus on the quantitative evaluation of this conceptual model. We apply new thermo- mechanical algorithms, developed in MATLAB code, suitable to study the temporal evolution of laterally migrating lithospheric delamination. The motion equation, formulated in terms of the stream function, and the coupled thermal equation are solved applying finite difference techniques. Our physical modeling is shown to properly reproduce the first order features of the conceptual model for lithospheric delamination in the Sierra Nevada. We investigate the evolution of a dense ultramafic root, which brings about a Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability. Following our preliminary results, the presence of a fluid-weakened lithosphere, located just east of Sierra Nevada, is required to reproduce the asymmetric development of this instability, as previously proposed by Zandt et al. (2004). This weak rheology zone, which is modeled by means of a reduced viscosity, is shown to enable the ascent of asthenospheric material and westward propagation of delamination. Our predictions are also consistent with the previous inference of the V-shaped cone of crust being dragged down into the downwelling mantle (i.e., the Moho gap). Present results highlight that viscous drag is also likely responsible for present-day surface subsidence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roback, Richard J.; Dring, Robert P.
1992-01-01
Experimental documentation and analytical correlations demonstrating the effects of hot streak accumulation and phantom cooling on turbine rotor airfoil surface temperature are presented. Results are shown which quantify the impact of a nonuniform temperature profile at the entrance of a turbine due to combustor-generated hot and cold streaks, and cooling air discharged from the trailing edge of the upstream stator. Experimental results are shown for a range of controlling variables to identify where streak accumulation and phantom cooling were most likely to be strongest. These variables include streak-to-free stream density ratio, streak injection location, and coolant-to-free stream density and velocity ratios. Experimental results are shown for the combined effects of hot streak and stator coolant on the adiabatic recovery temperature of the rotor.
The results of a wind tunnel investigation of a model rotor with a free tip
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stroub, Robert H.; Young, Larry A.
1985-01-01
The results of a wind-tunnel test of the free tip rotor are presented. The free tip extended over the outer 10% of the rotor blade and included a simple, passive controller mechanism. Wind-tunnel test hardware is described. The free-tip assembly, which includes the controller, functioned flawlessly throughout the test. The tip pitched freely and responded to airflow perturbation in a sharp, quick, and stable manner. Tip pitch-angle responses are presented for an advance ratio range of 0.1 to 0.397 and for a thrust coefficient range of 0.038 to 0.092. The free tip reduced power requirements, loads going into the control system, and some flatwise blade-bending moments. Chordwise loads were not reduced by the free tip.
Computer considerations for real time simulation of a generalized rotor model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howe, R. M.; Fogarty, L. E.
1977-01-01
Scaled equations were developed to meet requirements for real time computer simulation of the rotor system research aircraft. These equations form the basis for consideration of both digital and hybrid mechanization for real time simulation. For all digital simulation estimates of the required speed in terms of equivalent operations per second are developed based on the complexity of the equations and the required intergration frame rates. For both conventional hybrid simulation and hybrid simulation using time-shared analog elements the amount of required equipment is estimated along with a consideration of the dynamic errors. Conventional hybrid mechanization using analog simulation of those rotor equations which involve rotor-spin frequencies (this consititutes the bulk of the equations) requires too much analog equipment. Hybrid simulation using time-sharing techniques for the analog elements appears possible with a reasonable amount of analog equipment. All-digital simulation with affordable general-purpose computers is not possible because of speed limitations, but specially configured digital computers do have the required speed and consitute the recommended approach.
An extension of the local momentum theory to a distorted wake model of a hovering rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kawachi, K.
1981-01-01
The local momentum theory is based on the instantaneous balance between the fluid momentum and the blade elemental lift at a local station in the rotor rotational plane. Therefore, the theory has the capability of evaluating time wise variations of air loading and induced velocity distributions along a helicopter blade span. Unlike a complex vortex theory, this theory was developed to analyze the instantaneous induced velocity distribution effectively. The boundaries of this theory and a computer program using this theory are discussed. A concept introduced into the theory is the effect of the rotor wake contraction in hovering flight. A comparison of this extended local momentum theory with a prescribed wake vortex theory is also presented. The results indicate that the extended local momentum theory has the capability of achieving a level of accuracy similar to that of the prescribed wake vortex theory over wide range variations of rotor geometrical parameters. It is also shown that the analytical results obtained using either theory are in reasonable agreement with experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muszynska, Agnes; Bently, Donald E.
1991-01-01
Perturbation techniques used for identification of rotating system dynamic characteristics are described. A comparison between two periodic frequency-swept perturbation methods applied in identification of fluid forces of rotating machines is presented. The description of the fluid force model identified by inputting circular periodic frequency-swept force is given. This model is based on the existence and strength of the circumferential flow, most often generated by the shaft rotation. The application of the fluid force model in rotor dynamic analysis is presented. It is shown that the rotor stability is an entire rotating system property. Some areas for further research are discussed.
Chao, Lin; Rang, Camilla Ulla; Proenca, Audrey Menegaz; Chao, Jasper Ubirajara
2016-01-01
Non-genetic phenotypic variation is common in biological organisms. The variation is potentially beneficial if the environment is changing. If the benefit is large, selection can favor the evolution of genetic assimilation, the process by which the expression of a trait is transferred from environmental to genetic control. Genetic assimilation is an important evolutionary transition, but it is poorly understood because the fitness costs and benefits of variation are often unknown. Here we show that the partitioning of damage by a mother bacterium to its two daughters can evolve through genetic assimilation. Bacterial phenotypes are also highly variable. Because gene-regulating elements can have low copy numbers, the variation is attributed to stochastic sampling. Extant Escherichia coli partition asymmetrically and deterministically more damage to the old daughter, the one receiving the mother’s old pole. By modeling in silico damage partitioning in a population, we show that deterministic asymmetry is advantageous because it increases fitness variance and hence the efficiency of natural selection. However, we find that symmetrical but stochastic partitioning can be similarly beneficial. To examine why bacteria evolved deterministic asymmetry, we modeled the effect of damage anchored to the mother’s old pole. While anchored damage strengthens selection for asymmetry by creating additional fitness variance, it has the opposite effect on symmetry. The difference results because anchored damage reinforces the polarization of partitioning in asymmetric bacteria. In symmetric bacteria, it dilutes the polarization. Thus, stochasticity alone may have protected early bacteria from damage, but deterministic asymmetry has evolved to be equally important in extant bacteria. We estimate that 47% of damage partitioning is deterministic in E. coli. We suggest that the evolution of deterministic asymmetry from stochasticity offers an example of Waddington’s genetic
Chao, Lin; Rang, Camilla Ulla; Proenca, Audrey Menegaz; Chao, Jasper Ubirajara
2016-01-01
Non-genetic phenotypic variation is common in biological organisms. The variation is potentially beneficial if the environment is changing. If the benefit is large, selection can favor the evolution of genetic assimilation, the process by which the expression of a trait is transferred from environmental to genetic control. Genetic assimilation is an important evolutionary transition, but it is poorly understood because the fitness costs and benefits of variation are often unknown. Here we show that the partitioning of damage by a mother bacterium to its two daughters can evolve through genetic assimilation. Bacterial phenotypes are also highly variable. Because gene-regulating elements can have low copy numbers, the variation is attributed to stochastic sampling. Extant Escherichia coli partition asymmetrically and deterministically more damage to the old daughter, the one receiving the mother's old pole. By modeling in silico damage partitioning in a population, we show that deterministic asymmetry is advantageous because it increases fitness variance and hence the efficiency of natural selection. However, we find that symmetrical but stochastic partitioning can be similarly beneficial. To examine why bacteria evolved deterministic asymmetry, we modeled the effect of damage anchored to the mother's old pole. While anchored damage strengthens selection for asymmetry by creating additional fitness variance, it has the opposite effect on symmetry. The difference results because anchored damage reinforces the polarization of partitioning in asymmetric bacteria. In symmetric bacteria, it dilutes the polarization. Thus, stochasticity alone may have protected early bacteria from damage, but deterministic asymmetry has evolved to be equally important in extant bacteria. We estimate that 47% of damage partitioning is deterministic in E. coli. We suggest that the evolution of deterministic asymmetry from stochasticity offers an example of Waddington's genetic assimilation
Richardson, Robin A; Papachristos, Konstantinos; Read, Daniel J; Harlen, Oliver G; Harrison, Michael; Paci, Emanuele; Muench, Stephen P; Harris, Sarah A
2014-12-01
Advances in structural biology, such as cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have allowed for a number of sophisticated protein complexes to be characterized. However, often only a static snapshot of a protein complex is visualized despite the fact that conformational change is frequently inherent to biological function, as is the case for molecular motors. Computer simulations provide valuable insights into the different conformations available to a particular system that are not accessible using conventional structural techniques. For larger proteins and protein complexes, where a fully atomistic description would be computationally prohibitive, coarse-grained simulation techniques such as Elastic Network Modeling (ENM) are often employed, whereby each atom or group of atoms is linked by a set of springs whose properties can be customized according to the system of interest. Here we compare ENM with a recently proposed continuum model known as Fluctuating Finite Element Analysis (FFEA), which represents the biomolecule as a viscoelastic solid subject to thermal fluctuations. These two complementary computational techniques are used to answer a critical question in the rotary ATPase family; implicit within these motors is the need for a rotor axle and proton pump to rotate freely of the motor domain and stator structures. However, current single particle cryo-EM reconstructions have shown an apparent connection between the stators and rotor axle or pump region, hindering rotation. Both modeling approaches show a possible role for this connection and how it would significantly constrain the mobility of the rotary ATPase family. PMID:25174610
Rotor damage detection by using piezoelectric impedance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Y.; Tao, Y.; Mao, Y. F.
2016-04-01
Rotor is a core component of rotary machinery. Once the rotor has the damage, it may lead to a major accident. Thus the quantitative rotor damage detection method based on piezoelectric impedance is studied in this paper. With the governing equation of piezoelectric transducer (PZT) in a cylindrical coordinate, the displacement along the radius direction is derived. The charge of PZT is calculated by the electric displacement. Then, by the use of the obtained displacement and charge, an analytic piezoelectric impedance model of the rotor is built. Given the circular boundary condition of a rotor, annular elements are used as the analyzed objects and spectral element method is used to set up the damage detection model. The Electro-Mechanical (E/M) coupled impedance expression of an undamaged rotor is deduced with the application of a low-cost impedance test circuit. A Taylor expansion method is used to obtain the approximate E/M coupled impedance expression for the damaged rotor. After obtaining the difference between the undamaged and damaged rotor impedance, a rotor damage detection method is proposed. This method can directly calculate the change of bending stiffness of the structural elements, it follows that the rotor damage can be effectively detected. Finally, a preset damage configuration is used for the numerical simulation. The result shows that the quantitative damage detection algorithm based on spectral element method and piezoelectric impedance proposed in this paper can identify the location and the severity of the damaged rotor accurately.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer, David; Erath, Byron D.; Zanartu, Matias; Peterson, Sean D.
2011-11-01
Voiced speech is produced by dynamic fluid-structure interactions in the larynx. Traditionally, reduced order models of speech have relied upon simplified inviscid flow solvers to prescribe the fluid loadings that drive vocal fold motion, neglecting viscous flow effects that occur naturally in voiced speech. Viscous phenomena, such as skewing of the intraglottal jet, have the most pronounced effect on voiced speech in cases of vocal fold paralysis where one vocal fold loses some, or all, muscular control. The impact of asymmetric intraglottal flow in pathological speech is captured in a reduced order two-mass model of speech by coupling a boundary-layer estimation of the asymmetric pressures with asymmetric tissue parameters that are representative of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Nonlinear analysis identifies the emergence of irregular and chaotic vocal fold dynamics at values representative of pathological speech conditions.
Simulation of the equatorially asymmetric mode of the Hadley circulation in CMIP5 models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Juan; Li, Jianping; Zhu, Jianlei; Li, Fei; Sun, Cheng
2015-08-01
The tropical Hadley circulation (HC) plays an important role in influencing the climate in the tropics and extra-tropics. The realism of the climatological characteristics, spatial structure, and temporal evolution of the long-term variation of the principal mode of the annual mean HC (i.e., the equatorially asymmetric mode, EAM) was examined in model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The results showed that all the models are moderately successful in capturing the HC's climatological features, including the spatial pattern, meridional extent, and intensity, but not the spatial or temporal variation of the EAM. The possible reasons for the poor simulation of the long-term variability of the EAM were explored. None of the models can successfully capture the differences in the warming rate between the tropical Southern Hemisphere (SH) and Northern Hemisphere (NH), which is considered to be an important driver for the variation of the AM. Most of the models produce a faster warming in the NH than in the SH, which is the reverse of the observed trend. This leads to a reversed trend in the meridional gradient between the SH and NH, and contributes to the poor simulation of EAM variability. Thus, this aspect of the models should be improved to provide better simulations of the variability of the HC. This study suggests a possible reason for the poor simulation of the HC, which may be helpful for improving the skill of the CMIP5 models in the future.
Asymmetric Dispersal Can Maintain Larval Polymorphism: A Model Motivated by Streblospio benedicti
Zakas, Christina; Hall, David W.
2012-01-01
Polymorphism in traits affecting dispersal occurs in a diverse variety of taxa. Typically, the maintenance of a dispersal polymorphism is attributed to environmental heterogeneity where parental bet-hedging can be favored. There are, however, examples of dispersal polymorphisms that occur across similar environments. For example, the estuarine polychaete Streblospio benedicti has a highly heritable offspring dimorphism that affects larval dispersal potential. We use analytical models of dispersal to determine the conditions necessary for a stable dispersal polymorphism to exist. We show that in asexual haploids, sexual haploids, and in sexual diploids in the absence of overdominance, asymmetric dispersal is required in order to maintain a dispersal polymorphism when patches do not vary in intrinsic quality. Our study adds an additional factor, dispersal asymmetry, to the short list of mechanisms that can maintain polymorphism in nature. The region of the parameter space in which polymorphism is possible is limited, suggesting why dispersal polymorphisms within species are rare. PMID:22576818
Gravity perception and asymmetric growth in plants - A model derived from the grass pulvinus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dayanandan, P.; Franklin, C. I.; Kaufman, P. B.
1982-01-01
It is pointed out that gravitropic responses in plants involve asymmetric growth. On the basis of the geometry of growth response in grass leaf sheath pulvinus, a general model is proposed for gravitropism in multicellular plant organs. The negative gravitropic response of a pulvinus is a result of cell elongation involving all but the uppermost region of a horizontally placed organ. Whereas the uppermost region does not grow, the lowermost region elongates maximally. The regions between elongate to intermediate extents. An expression is given relating the angle of curvature of the organ to the diameter and initial and final lengths of the organ. It is shown that the response of the individual cells can be expressed as inherent sensitivity to gravitational stimulus according to a particular equation.
Fuselage upwash effects on RSRA rotor systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cowan, J.; Dadone, L.
1985-01-01
The effects of RSRA fuselage configurations on rotor performance and loads have been quantified analytically by means of currently available potential flow and rotor analysis. Four configurations of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) were considered in this study. They were: (1) fuselage alone (conventional helicopter); (2) fuselage with auxiliary propulsion; (3) fuselage with wings (auxiliary lift); and (4) fuselage with both auxiliary lift propulsion. The rotor system investigated was identical to a CH-47D front rotor except that it had four instead of three blades. Two scaled-down versions of the same rotor were also analyzed to determine the effect of rotor scale on the fuselage upwash effects. The flight conditions considered for the upwash study are discussed. The potential flow models for the RSRA configuration, with and without the wings and the auxiliary propulsion system, are presented. The results of fuselage/wing/propulsion system upwash on performance and loads are also presented.
Asymmetric intraseasonal events in the stochastic skeleton MJO model with seasonal cycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thual, Sulian; Majda, Andrew J.; Stechmann, Samuel N.
2015-08-01
The stochastic skeleton model is a simplified model for the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and intraseasonal-planetary variability in general involving coupling of planetary-scale dry dynamics, moisture, and a stochastic parametrization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity. The model captures the fundamental features of the MJO such as the intermittent growth and demise of MJO wave trains, the MJO propagation speed, peculiar dispersion relation, quadrupole vortex structure, etc. We analyze here the solutions of a stochastic skeleton model with an idealized seasonal cycle, namely a background warm pool state of heating/moistening displacing meridionally during the year. The present model considers both equatorial and off-equatorial components of the envelope of synoptic scale convective activity, which allows for a large diversity of meridionally symmetric and asymmetric intraseasonal events found in nature. These include examples of symmetric events with MJO quadrupole vortex structure, half-quadrupole events with off-equatorial convective heating structure, as well as tilted events with convective heating structure oriented north-westward and associated northward propagation that is reminiscent of the summer monsoon intraseasonal oscillation. The model also reproduces qualitatively the meridional migration of intraseasonal variability during the year, that approximatively follows the meridional migration of the background warm pool.
Adaptation of a multi-resolution adversarial model for asymmetric warfare
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, Brad; Gonsalves, Paul G.
2006-05-01
Recent military operations have demonstrated the use by adversaries of non-traditional or asymmetric military tactics to offset US military might. Rogue nations with links to trans-national terrorists have created a highly unpredictable and potential dangerous environment for US military operations. Several characteristics of these threats include extremism in beliefs, global in nature, non-state oriented, and highly networked and adaptive, thus making these adversaries less vulnerable to conventional military approaches. Additionally, US forces must also contend with more traditional state-based threats that are further evolving their military fighting strategies and capabilities. What are needed are solutions to assist our forces in the prosecution of operations against these diverse threat types and their atypical strategies and tactics. To address this issue, we present a system that allows for the adaptation of a multi-resolution adversarial model. The developed model can then be used to support both training and simulation based acquisition requirements to effectively respond to such an adversary. The described system produces a combined adversarial model by merging behavior modeling at the individual level with aspects at the group and organizational level via network analysis. Adaptation of this adversarial model is performed by means of an evolutionary algorithm to build a suitable model for the chosen adversary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yu; Zi, Yanyang; Li, Bing; He, Zhengjia
2015-10-01
A novel reduced-order modeling method is presented in this paper for dynamics analysis of rotating impeller-shaft-bearing assembly with cracked impellers. Based on three-dimensional finite element model, the complex component mode synthesis (CMS) method is employed to generate an efficient reduced-order model (ROM) for studying the effects of crack on the global vibration of the rotating assembly. First, a modeling framework for impeller-shaft-bearing systems in rotating frame is presented. Rotational effects, including Coriolis matrix and centrifugal softening, have been taken into account. Then, the governing equation of motion of the damped gyroscopic system is reduced by the complex CMS method. Finally, the obtained ROM is employed to study the effects of crack on assembly's vibration. During the steady-state response analysis, external excitations on the impeller due to rotor-stator interactions have been taken into account, which was however neglected in previous investigations on rotordynamics. Numerical results show that the lower-order eigenvalues and the unbalance response of the assembly are not sensitive to the local crack on impeller. Nevertheless, the flexible coupling between impeller and shaft becomes more complex when the air flow-induced excitations are considered. Under EO1 traveling wave excitations, a crack leads to slight changes in the assembly's response. In contrast, the effect of crack becomes significant when the assembly is excited by EO2 and higher EO excitations. Moreover, the nonlinear crack breathing effects affect the assembly's response obviously. Finally, a potential technique for detecting the crack on impeller during operation is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, Gary; Duval, Ronald W.; Green, John A.; Huynh, Loc C.
1991-01-01
A piloted comparison of rigid and aeroelastic blade-element rotor models was conducted at the Crew Station Research and Development Facility (CSRDF) at Ames Research Center. A simulation development and analysis tool, FLIGHTLAB, was used to implement these models in real time using parallel processing technology. Pilot comments and quantitative analysis performed both on-line and off-line confirmed that elastic degrees of freedom significantly affect perceived handling qualities. Trim comparisons show improved correlation with flight test data when elastic modes are modeled. The results demonstrate the efficiency with which the mathematical modeling sophistication of existing simulation facilities can be upgraded using parallel processing, and the importance of these upgrades to simulation fidelity.
Broadband rotor noise analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.
1984-01-01
The various mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors studied include load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent boundary layers passing the blades' trailing edges, and due to tip vortex formation. Existing analyses are used and extensions to them are developed to make more accurate predictions of rotor noise spectra and to determine which mechanisms are important in which circumstances. Calculations based on the various prediction methods in existing experiments were compared. The present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, full scale and model scale helicopter rotors, wind turbines, and propellers to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Results indicate that inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge noise and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise, important, for large sized rotors, increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex noise.
Broadband rotor noise analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.
1984-04-01
The various mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors studied include load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent boundary layers passing the blades' trailing edges, and due to tip vortex formation. Existing analyses are used and extensions to them are developed to make more accurate predictions of rotor noise spectra and to determine which mechanisms are important in which circumstances. Calculations based on the various prediction methods in existing experiments were compared. The present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, full scale and model scale helicopter rotors, wind turbines, and propellers to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Results indicate that inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge noise and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise, important, for large sized rotors, increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex noise.
Measurements of the Early Development of Trailing Vorticity from a Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McAlister, Kenneth W.; Heineck, James T.
2002-01-01
The wake behind a two-bladed model rotor in light climb was measured using particle image velocimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of the trailing vortex during the first revolution of the rotor. The distribution of vorticity was distinguished from the slightly elliptical swirl pattern. Peculiar dynamics within the "void" region may explain why the peak vorticity appeared to shift away from the center as the vortex aged, suggesting the onset of instability. The swirl and axial velocities (which reached 44% and 12% of the rotor tip speed, respectively) were found to be asymmetric relative to the vortex center. In particular, the axial flow was composed of two concentrated zones moving in opposite directions. The radial distribution of the circulation rapidly increased in magnitude until reaching a point just beyond the core radius, after which the rate of growth decreased significantly. The core-radius circulation increased slightly with wake age, but the large-radius circulation appeared to remain relatively constant. The radial distributions of swirl velocity and vorticity exhibit self-similar behaviors, especially within the core. The diameter of the vortex core was initially about 10% of the rotor-blade chord, but more than doubled its size after one revolution of the rotor.
2010-01-01
Background Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is one of the major techniques for the quantification of metabolites in complex biological samples. Peak modeling is one of the key components in LC-MS data pre-processing. Results To quantify asymmetric peaks with high noise level, we developed an estimation procedure using the bi-Gaussian function. In addition, to accurately quantify partially overlapping peaks, we developed a deconvolution method using the bi-Gaussian mixture model combined with statistical model selection. Conclusions Using extensive simulations and real data, we demonstrated the advantage of the bi-Gaussian mixture model over the Gaussian mixture model and the method of kernel smoothing combined with signal summation in peak quantification and deconvolution. The method is implemented in the R package apLCMS: http://www.sph.emory.edu/apLCMS/. PMID:21073736
Nonlinear vocal fold dynamics resulting from asymmetric fluid loading on a two-mass model of speech
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erath, Byron D.; Zañartu, Matías; Peterson, Sean D.; Plesniak, Michael W.
2011-09-01
Nonlinear vocal fold dynamics arising from asymmetric flow formations within the glottis are investigated using a two-mass model of speech with asymmetric vocal fold tensioning, representative of unilateral vocal fold paralysis. A refined theoretical boundary-layer flow solver is implemented to compute the intraglottal pressures, providing a more realistic description of the flow than the standard one-dimensional, inviscid Bernoulli flow solution. Vocal fold dynamics are investigated for subglottal pressures of 0.6 < ps < 1.5 kPa and tension asymmetries of 0.5 < Q < 0.8. As tension asymmetries become pronounced the asymmetric flow incites nonlinear behavior in the vocal fold dynamics at subglottal pressures that are associated with normal speech, behavior that is not captured with standard Bernoulli flow solvers. Regions of bifurcation, coexistence of solutions, and chaos are identified.
Dorn, Jonas F; Zhang, Li; Phi, Tan-Trao; Lacroix, Benjamin; Maddox, Paul S; Liu, Jian; Maddox, Amy Shaub
2016-04-15
During cytokinesis, the cell undergoes a dramatic shape change as it divides into two daughter cells. Cell shape changes in cytokinesis are driven by a cortical ring rich in actin filaments and nonmuscle myosin II. The ring closes via actomyosin contraction coupled with actin depolymerization. Of interest, ring closure and hence the furrow ingression are nonconcentric (asymmetric) within the division plane across Metazoa. This nonconcentricity can occur and persist even without preexisting asymmetric cues, such as spindle placement or cellular adhesions. Cell-autonomous asymmetry is not explained by current models. We combined quantitative high-resolution live-cell microscopy with theoretical modeling to explore the mechanistic basis for asymmetric cytokinesis in theCaenorhabditis eleganszygote, with the goal of uncovering basic principles of ring closure. Our theoretical model suggests that feedback among membrane curvature, cytoskeletal alignment, and contractility is responsible for asymmetric cytokinetic furrowing. It also accurately predicts experimental perturbations of conserved ring proteins. The model further suggests that curvature-mediated filament alignment speeds up furrow closure while promoting energy efficiency. Collectively our work underscores the importance of membrane-cytoskeletal anchoring and suggests conserved molecular mechanisms for this activity. PMID:26912796
Dorn, Jonas F.; Zhang, Li; Phi, Tan-Trao; Lacroix, Benjamin; Maddox, Paul S.; Liu, Jian; Maddox, Amy Shaub
2016-01-01
During cytokinesis, the cell undergoes a dramatic shape change as it divides into two daughter cells. Cell shape changes in cytokinesis are driven by a cortical ring rich in actin filaments and nonmuscle myosin II. The ring closes via actomyosin contraction coupled with actin depolymerization. Of interest, ring closure and hence the furrow ingression are nonconcentric (asymmetric) within the division plane across Metazoa. This nonconcentricity can occur and persist even without preexisting asymmetric cues, such as spindle placement or cellular adhesions. Cell-autonomous asymmetry is not explained by current models. We combined quantitative high-resolution live-cell microscopy with theoretical modeling to explore the mechanistic basis for asymmetric cytokinesis in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote, with the goal of uncovering basic principles of ring closure. Our theoretical model suggests that feedback among membrane curvature, cytoskeletal alignment, and contractility is responsible for asymmetric cytokinetic furrowing. It also accurately predicts experimental perturbations of conserved ring proteins. The model further suggests that curvature-mediated filament alignment speeds up furrow closure while promoting energy efficiency. Collectively our work underscores the importance of membrane–cytoskeletal anchoring and suggests conserved molecular mechanisms for this activity. PMID:26912796
Sensitivity analysis of an asymmetric Monte Carlo beam model of a Siemens Primus accelerator.
Schreiber, Eric C; Sawkey, Daren L; Faddegon, Bruce A
2012-01-01
The assumption of cylindrical symmetry in radiotherapy accelerator models can pose a challenge for precise Monte Carlo modeling. This assumption makes it difficult to account for measured asymmetries in clinical dose distributions. We have performed a sensitivity study examining the effect of varying symmetric and asymmetric beam and geometric parameters of a Monte Carlo model for a Siemens PRIMUS accelerator. The accelerator and dose output were simulated using modified versions of BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc that allow lateral offsets of accelerator components and lateral and angular offsets for the incident electron beam. Dose distributions were studied for 40 × 40 cm² fields. The resulting dose distributions were analyzed for changes in flatness, symmetry, and off-axis ratio (OAR). The electron beam parameters having the greatest effect on the resulting dose distributions were found to be electron energy and angle of incidence, as high as 5% for a 0.25° deflection. Electron spot size and lateral offset of the electron beam were found to have a smaller impact. Variations in photon target thickness were found to have a small effect. Small lateral offsets of the flattening filter caused significant variation to the OAR. In general, the greatest sensitivity to accelerator parameters could be observed for higher energies and off-axis ratios closer to the central axis. Lateral and angular offsets of beam and accelerator components have strong effects on dose distributions, and should be included in any high-accuracy beam model. PMID:22402376
Dynamic analysis of rotor blade undergoing rotor power shutdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Khanh Quoc
1990-01-01
A rigid flap-lag blade analysis was developed to simulate a rotor in a wind tunnel undergoing an emergency power shutdown. Results show that for a rotor at a nonzero shaft tilt angle undergoing an emergency power shutdown, the oscillatory lag response is divergent. The mean lag response is large when tested at high collective pitch angles. Reducing the collective pitch during the emergency shutdown reduces the steady lag response. Increasing the rotor shaft tilt angle increases the oscillatory lag response component. The blade lag response obtained by incorporating a nonlinear lag damper model indicates that in this case the equivalent linear viscous damping is lower than originally expected. Simulation results indicate that large oscillatory lag motions can be suppressed if the rotor shaft is returned to the fully vertical position during the emergency power shutdown.
Wang, Hailong; Ho, Derek Y H; Lawton, Wayne; Wang, Jiao; Gong, Jiangbin
2013-11-01
Recent studies have established that, in addition to the well-known kicked-Harper model (KHM), an on-resonance double-kicked rotor (ORDKR) model also has Hofstadter's butterfly Floquet spectrum, with strong resemblance to the standard Hofstadter spectrum that is a paradigm in studies of the integer quantum Hall effect. Earlier it was shown that the quasienergy spectra of these two dynamical models (i) can exactly overlap with each other if an effective Planck constant takes irrational multiples of 2π and (ii) will be different if the same parameter takes rational multiples of 2π. This work makes detailed comparisons between these two models, with an effective Planck constant given by 2πM/N, where M and N are coprime and odd integers. It is found that the ORDKR spectrum (with two periodic kicking sequences having the same kick strength) has one flat band and N-1 nonflat bands with the largest bandwidth decaying in a power law as ~K(N+2), where K is a kick strength parameter. The existence of a flat band is strictly proven and the power-law scaling, numerically checked for a number of cases, is also analytically proven for a three-band case. By contrast, the KHM does not have any flat band and its bandwidths scale linearly with K. This is shown to result in dramatic differences in dynamical behavior, such as transient (but extremely long) dynamical localization in ORDKR, which is absent in the KHM. Finally, we show that despite these differences, there exist simple extensions of the KHM and ORDKR model (upon introducing an additional periodic phase parameter) such that the resulting extended KHM and ORDKR model are actually topologically equivalent, i.e., they yield exactly the same Floquet-band Chern numbers and display topological phase transitions at the same kick strengths. A theoretical derivation of this topological equivalence is provided. These results are also of interest to our current understanding of quantum-classical correspondence considering that
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Callahan, Cynthia B.; Bassett, Duane E.
1988-01-01
A model of the AH-64A helicopter was generated in a Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD) in an effort to validate its analytical capabilities for modeling a current advanced Army helicopter. The initial phase of the effort involved the generation of CAMRAD input files necessary for the complete aerodynamic, structural, and dynamic definition of the production AH-64A helicopter. The input files were checked by making comparisons of CAMRAD full helicopter trim and main rotor blade natural frequency predictions with those of full helicopter trim program, Blade Element Trim (BETRIM), and dynamic analysis code, Dynamic Analysis Research Tool (DART), respectively. The main thrust concerned the application of the AH-64A CAMRAD model thus developed and verified for main rotor blade structural loads predictions and comparison with DART analytical results. The investigation provided insight not only into the usefulness of CAMRAD for the AH-64A performance and dynamics prediction, but also into the limitations of the program for modeling advanced rotor and fuselage systems. The model development effort is discussed, the results of the CAMRAD correlation studies presented, and some general conclusions are offered on the applicability of CAMRAD for rotor aeroelastic loads prediction for current and future rotorcraft configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.
2006-11-01
Pulsatile two-dimensional flow through asymmetric static divergent models of the human vocal folds is investigated. Included glottal divergence angles are varied between 10° and 30°, with asymmetry angles between the vocal fold pairs ranging from 5° to 15°. The model glottal configurations represent asymmetries that arise during a phonatory cycle due to voice disorders. The flow is scaled to physiological values of Reynolds, Strouhal, and Euler numbers. Data are acquired in the anterior posterior mid-plane of the vocal fold models using phase-averaged Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) acquired at ten discrete locations in a phonatory cycle. Glottal jet stability arising from the vocal fold asymmetries is investigated and compared to previously reported work for symmetric vocal fold passages. Jet stability is enhanced with an increase in the included divergence angle, and the glottal asymmetry. Concurrently, the bi-modal jet trajectory and flow unsteadiness diminishes. Consistent with previous findings, the flow attachment due to the Coanda effect occurs when the acceleration of the forcing function is zero.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leighton, K. P.; Harris, W. L.
1984-01-01
An investigation of blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) has been conducted. This investigation consisted of an examination of BVI blade slap for two, three, and four-bladed model rotors at tip Mach numbers ranging from 0.20 to 0.50. Blade slap contours have been obtained for each configuration tested. Differences in blade slap contours, peak sound pressure level, and directivity for each configuration tested are noted. Additional fundamental differences, such as multiple interaction BVI, are observed and occur for only specific rotor blade configurations. The effect of increasing the Mach number on the BVI blade slap for various rotor blade combinations has been quantified. A peak blade slap Mach number scaling law is proposed. Comparison of measured BVI blade slap with theory is made.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bielawa, Richard L.
1988-01-01
In response to a systematic methodology assessment program directed to the aeroelastic stability of hingeless helicopter rotor blades, improved basic aeroelastic reformulations and new formulations relating to structural sweep were achieved. Correlational results are presented showing the substantially improved performance of the G400 aeroelastic analysis incorporating these new formulations. The formulations pertain partly to sundry solutions to classic problem areas, relating to dynamic inflow with vortex-ring state operation and basic blade kinematics, but mostly to improved physical modeling of elastic axis offset (structural sweep) in the presence of nonlinear structural twist. Specific issues addressed are an alternate modeling of the delta EI torsional excitation due to compound bending using a force integration approach, and the detailed kinematic representation of an elastically deflected point mass of a beam with both structural sweep and nonlinear twist.
Analysis of rotor vibratory loads using higher harmonic pitch control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Wachspress, Daniel A.
1992-01-01
Experimental studies of isolated rotors in forward flight have indicated that higher harmonic pitch control can reduce rotor noise. These tests also show that such pitch inputs can generate substantial vibratory loads. The modification is summarized of the RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward flighT) analysis of isolated rotors to study the vibratory loading generated by high frequency pitch inputs. The original RotorCRAFT code was developed for use in the computation of such loading, and uses a highly refined rotor wake model to facilitate this task. The extended version of RotorCRAFT incorporates a variety of new features including: arbitrary periodic root pitch control; computation of blade stresses and hub loads; improved modeling of near wake unsteady effects; and preliminary implementation of a coupled prediction of rotor airloads and noise. Correlation studies are carried out with existing blade stress and vibratory hub load data to assess the performance of the extended code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A. R.; Liao, W. H.
2016-07-01
The aim of this article is to develop a robust macroscopic bi-axial model to capture self-accommodation, martensitic transformation/orientation/reorientation, normal–shear deformation coupling and asymmetric/anisotropic strain generation in polycrystalline shape memory alloys. By considering the volume fraction of martensite and its preferred direction as scalar and directional internal variables, constitutive relations are derived to describe basic mechanisms of accommodation, transformation and orientation/reorientation of martensite variants. A new definition is introduced for maximum recoverable strain, which allows the model to capture the effects of tension–compression asymmetry and transformation anisotropy. Furthermore, the coupling effects between normal and shear deformation modes are considered by merging inelastic strain components together. By introducing a calibration approach, material and kinetic parameters of the model are recast in terms of common quantities that characterize a uniaxial phase kinetic diagram. The solution algorithm of the model is presented based on an elastic-predictor inelastic-corrector return mapping process. In order to explore and demonstrate capabilities of the proposed model, theoretical predictions are first compared with existing experimental results on uniaxial tension, compression, torsion and combined tension–torsion tests. Afterwards, experimental results of uniaxial tension, compression, pure bending and buckling tests on {{NiTi}} rods and tubes are replicated by implementing a finite element method along with the Newton–Raphson and Riks techniques to trace non-linear equilibrium path. A good qualitative and quantitative correlation is observed between numerical and experimental results, which verifies the accuracy of the model and the solution procedure.
Analytical Model of an Asymmetric Sunspot with a Steady Plasma Flow in its Penumbra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solov'ev, A. A.; Kirichek, E. A.
2016-08-01
A new exact analytical solution to the stationary problem of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is derived for an unipolar asymmetric sunspot immersed in a realistic solar atmosphere. The radial and vertical profiles of pressure, plasma density, and temperature in the visible layers of the sunspot are calculated. The reduction in plasma density in the magnetic funnel of the sunspot, corresponding to the Wilson depression, is also obtained. The magnetic structure of the sunspot is given analytically in a realistic way: a part of the magnetic flux of the sunspot approaches the surrounding photosphere at the outer edge of the penumbra. The magnetic field of the sunspot is not assumed to be axially symmetric. For the first time, the angular dependence of the physical variables in this model allows us to simulate not only a deviation from the circular shape of the sunspot, but also a fine filamentary structure of the sunspot penumbra. The Alfvén Mach number (the ratio of the plasma speed to the Alfvén speed) is zero at the center of the sunspot and rises slowly toward the periphery of the sunspot; this corresponds to the structure of the Evershed flow in the penumbra. The Evershed flow in our model is mainly concentrated in dark penumbral filaments, as is observed.
Ammunét, Tea; Klemola, Tero; Parvinen, Kalle
2014-03-01
Invasive species can have profound effects on a resident community via indirect interactions among community members. While long periodic cycles in population dynamics can make the experimental observation of the indirect effects difficult, modelling the possible effects on an evolutionary time scale may provide the much needed information on the potential threats of the invasive species on the ecosystem. Using empirical data from a recent invasion in northernmost Fennoscandia, we applied adaptive dynamics theory and modelled the long term consequences of the invasion by the winter moth into the resident community. Specifically, we investigated the outcome of the observed short-term asymmetric preferences of generalist predators and specialist parasitoids on the long term population dynamics of the invasive winter moth and resident autumnal moth sharing these natural enemies. Our results indicate that coexistence after the invasion is possible. However, the outcome of the indirect interaction on the population dynamics of the moth species was variable and the dynamics might not be persistent on an evolutionary time scale. In addition, the indirect interactions between the two moth species via shared natural enemies were able to cause asynchrony in the population cycles corresponding to field observations from previous sympatric outbreak areas. Therefore, the invasion may cause drastic changes in the resident community, for example by prolonging outbreak periods of birch-feeding moths, increasing the average population densities of the moths or, alternatively, leading to extinction of the resident moth species or to equilibrium densities of the two, formerly cyclic, herbivores. PMID:24380810
Westendorff, Stephanie; Kuang, Shenbing; Taghizadeh, Bahareh; Donchin, Opher; Gail, Alexander
2015-04-01
Different error signals can induce sensorimotor adaptation during visually guided reaching, possibly evoking different neural adaptation mechanisms. Here we investigate reach adaptation induced by visual target errors without perturbing the actual or sensed hand position. We analyzed the spatial generalization of adaptation to target error to compare it with other known generalization patterns and simulated our results with a neural network model trained to minimize target error independent of prediction errors. Subjects reached to different peripheral visual targets and had to adapt to a sudden fixed-amplitude displacement ("jump") consistently occurring for only one of the reach targets. Subjects simultaneously had to perform contralateral unperturbed saccades, which rendered the reach target jump unnoticeable. As a result, subjects adapted by gradually decreasing reach errors and showed negative aftereffects for the perturbed reach target. Reach errors generalized to unperturbed targets according to a translational rather than rotational generalization pattern, but locally, not globally. More importantly, reach errors generalized asymmetrically with a skewed generalization function in the direction of the target jump. Our neural network model reproduced the skewed generalization after adaptation to target jump without having been explicitly trained to produce a specific generalization pattern. Our combined psychophysical and simulation results suggest that target jump adaptation in reaching can be explained by gradual updating of spatial motor goal representations in sensorimotor association networks, independent of learning induced by a prediction-error about the hand position. The simulations make testable predictions about the underlying changes in the tuning of sensorimotor neurons during target jump adaptation. PMID:25609106
Analytical Model of an Asymmetric Sunspot with a Steady Plasma Flow in its Penumbra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solov'ev, A. A.; Kirichek, E. A.
2016-06-01
A new exact analytical solution to the stationary problem of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is derived for an unipolar asymmetric sunspot immersed in a realistic solar atmosphere. The radial and vertical profiles of pressure, plasma density, and temperature in the visible layers of the sunspot are calculated. The reduction in plasma density in the magnetic funnel of the sunspot, corresponding to the Wilson depression, is also obtained. The magnetic structure of the sunspot is given analytically in a realistic way: a part of the magnetic flux of the sunspot approaches the surrounding photosphere at the outer edge of the penumbra. The magnetic field of the sunspot is not assumed to be axially symmetric. For the first time, the angular dependence of the physical variables in this model allows us to simulate not only a deviation from the circular shape of the sunspot, but also a fine filamentary structure of the sunspot penumbra. The Alfvén Mach number (the ratio of the plasma speed to the Alfvén speed) is zero at the center of the sunspot and rises slowly toward the periphery of the sunspot; this corresponds to the structure of the Evershed flow in the penumbra. The Evershed flow in our model is mainly concentrated in dark penumbral filaments, as is observed.
Functional-integral study of the asymmetric Anderson model for dilute fluctuating-valence systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xianxi, Dai; Ting, Chin-Sen
1983-11-01
The functional-integral method in the harmonic approximation which was developed by Amit and Keiter has been extended to study the asymmetric Anderson model. This model gives a valid description of dilute rare-earth ions in metal. The magnetic susceptibility and the occupation number of the localized or f electrons are expressed in terms of some series of double integrals. These double integrals are evaluated numerically by an integration method in number theory. Our results for the temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility agree quite well with those of renormalization-group calculation by Krishna-Murthy et al. for the f level lying above the Fermi level. However, when the f level lies below the Fermi level, the result of the present approximation loses its agreement with that of the renormalization-group calculation at low temperatures. The f-electron occupation number has also been calculated as a function of temperature and as a function of the energy level of f electrons.
Vibration response of misaligned rotors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Tejas H.; Darpe, Ashish K.
2009-08-01
Misalignment is one of the common faults observed in rotors. Effect of misalignment on vibration response of coupled rotors is investigated in the present study. The coupled rotor system is modelled using Timoshenko beam elements with all six dof. An experimental approach is proposed for the first time for determination of magnitude and harmonic nature of the misalignment excitation. Misalignment effect at coupling location of rotor FE model is simulated using nodal force vector. The force vector is found using misalignment coupling stiffness matrix, derived from experimental data and applied misalignment between the two rotors. Steady-state vibration response is studied for sub-critical speeds. Effect of the types of misalignment (parallel and angular) on the vibration behaviour of the coupled rotor is examined. Along with lateral vibrations, axial and torsional vibrations are also investigated and nature of the vibration response is also examined. It has been found that the misalignment couples vibrations in bending, longitudinal and torsional modes. Some diagnostic features in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of torsional and longitudinal response related to parallel and angular misalignment have been revealed. Full spectra and orbit plots are effectively used to reveal the unique nature of misalignment fault leading to reliable misalignment diagnostic information, not clearly brought out by earlier studies.
Parametric study of the noise produced by the interaction of the main rotor wake with the tail rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balcerak, J. C.
1976-01-01
A model was designed, fabricated and wind tunnel tested to identify some of the parameters which were pertinent to the noise produced by the interaction of the main rotor wake with the tail rotor. The model provided for variations in many geometric and operating parameters. The initial set of tests indicated that the noise produced by the tail rotor was, in general, sensitive to the location of the vortex interaction on the tail rotor disk, direction of rotation, lateral rotor fin spacing, tip speed and the operating mode of the tail rotor; and generally insensitive to main rotor thrust coefficient, longitudinal spacing and tail rotor to main rotor rotational speed ratios. Refinements in the analyses to adequately predict the noise phenomenon have been outlined to complement further experimental investigations.
2012-01-01
Background If the geographical displacement of one species by another is accompanied by hybridization, mitochondrial DNA can introgress asymmetrically, from the outcompeted species into the invading species, over a large area. We explore this phenomenon using the two parapatric crested newt species, Triturus macedonicus and T. karelinii, distributed on the Balkan Peninsula in south-eastern Europe, as a model. Results We first delimit a ca. 54,000 km2 area in which T. macedonicus contains T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA. This introgression zone bisects the range of T. karelinii, cutting off a T. karelinii enclave. The high similarity of introgressed mitochondrial DNA haplotypes with those found in T. karelinii suggests a recent transfer across the species boundary. We then use ecological niche modeling to explore habitat suitability of the location of the present day introgression zone under current, mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum conditions. This area was inhospitable during the Last Glacial Maximum for both species, but would have been habitable at the mid-Holocene. Since the mid-Holocene, habitat suitability generally increased for T. macedonicus, whereas it decreased for T. karelinii. Conclusion The presence of a T. karelinii enclave suggests that T. karelinii was the first to colonize the area where the present day introgression zone is positioned after the Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequently, we propose T. karelinii was outcompeted by T. macedonicus, which captured T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA via introgressive hybridization in the process. Ecological niche modeling suggests that this replacement was likely facilitated by a shift in climate since the mid-Holocene. We suggest that the northwestern part of the current introgression zone was probably never inhabited by T. karelinii itself, and that T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA spread there through T. macedonicus exclusively. Considering the spatial distribution of the introgressed mitochondrial DNA and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vansteenkiste, P.; Van Neck, D.; Van Speybroeck, V.; Waroquier, M.
2006-01-01
Large-amplitude motions, particularly internal rotations, are known to affect substantially thermodynamic functions and rate constants of reactions in which flexible molecules are involved. Up to now all methods for computing the partition functions of these motions rely on the Pitzer approximation of more than 50 years ago, in which the large-amplitude motion is treated in complete independence of the other (vibrational) degrees of freedom. In this paper an extended hindered-rotor model (EHR) is developed in which the vibrational modes, treated harmonically, are correctly separated from the large-amplitude motion and in which relaxation effects (the changes in the kinetic-energy matrix and potential curvature) are taken into account as one moves along the large-amplitude path. The model also relies on a specific coordinate system in which the Coriolis terms vanish at all times in the Hamiltonian. In this way an increased level of consistency between the various internal modes is achieved, as compared with the more usual hindered-rotor (HR) description. The method is illustrated by calculating the entropies and heat capacities on 1,3-butadiene and 1-butene (with, respectively, one and two internal rotors) and the rate constant for the addition reaction of a vinyl radical to ethene. We also discuss various variants of the one-dimensional hindered-rotor scheme existing in the literature and its relation with the EHR model. It is argued why in most cases the HR approach is already quite successful.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Anthony G.; Craggs, Anthony
1995-09-01
A finite element model of a rotor-bearing system with non-axisymmetric stiffness and mass properties was analyzed in a previous study. In this paper the model is extended to include the effects of external damping due to symmetrical tilting-pad bearings. The same instability mechanisms, due to the lack of axisymmetry and shear deflection occurred in the damped case as for the undamped case, but within the normal operating speed of typical industrial rotor systems, a quite high degree of asymmetry is necessary. A ratio of the difference in a diametral second moments of area to mean diametral second moment of area, greater than 0.3 is necessary for instability for the configuration modelled. The instabilities involving antisymmetric modes in the undamped case are not present in the damped case. The first backward mode is involved in the instabilities of most practical interest. The effect of internal damping is also examined for an axisymmetric rotor and the behaviour, involving instability of the first forward mode, compares well with purely analytical methods for simple rotors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sree, Dave
2015-01-01
Near-field acoustic power level analysis of F31A31 open rotor model has been performed to determine its noise characteristics at simulated cruise flight conditions. The non-proprietary parts of the test data obtained from experiments in the 8x6 supersonic wind tunnel were provided by NASA-Glenn Research Center. The tone and broadband components of total noise have been separated from raw test data by using a new data analysis tool. Results in terms of sound pressure levels, acoustic power levels, and their variations with rotor speed, freestream Mach number, and input shaft power, with different blade-pitch setting angles at simulated cruise flight conditions, are presented and discussed. Empirical equations relating models acoustic power level and input shaft power have been developed. The near-field acoustic efficiency of the model at simulated cruise conditions is also determined. It is hoped that the results presented in this work will serve as a database for comparison and improvement of other open rotor blade designs and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes.
Prediction of the Aero-Acoustic Performance of Open Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane
2014-01-01
The rising cost of jet fuel has renewed interest in contrarotating open rotor propulsion systems. Contemporary design methods offer the potential to maintain the inherently high aerodynamic efficiency of open rotors while greatly reducing their noise output, something that was not feasible in the 1980's designs. The primary source mechanisms of open rotor noise generation are thought to be the front rotor wake and tip vortex interacting with the aft rotor. In this paper, advanced measurement techniques and high-fidelity prediction tools are used to gain insight into the relative importance of the contributions to the open rotor noise signature of the front rotor wake and rotor tip vortex. The measurements include three-dimensional particle image velocimetry of the intra-rotor flowfield and the acoustic field of a model-scale open rotor. The predictions provide the unsteady flowfield and the associated acoustic field. The results suggest that while the front rotor tip vortex can have a significant influence on the blade passing tone noise produced by the aft rotor, the front rotor wake plays the decisive role in the generation of the interaction noise produced as a result of the unsteady aerodynamic interaction of the two rotors. At operating conditions typical of takeoff and landing operations, the interaction noise level is easily on par with that generated by the individual rotors, and in some cases is even higher. This suggests that a comprehensive approach to reducing open rotor noise should include techniques for mitigating the wake of the front rotor as well as eliminating the interaction of the front rotor tip vortex with the aft rotor blade tip.
Full-scale tilt-rotor hover performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Felker, F. F.; Maisel, M. D.; Betzina, M. D.
1986-01-01
The hover performance of three full-scale rotors was measured at the Ames Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility. The rotors, all designed for tilt-rotor aircraft, were the original metal blades for the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft, a set of composite, advanced technology blades for the XV-15, and a 0.658-scale model of the proposed V-22A Osprey (JVX) rotor. The composite advanced technology blades for the XV-15 were tested with several alternate blade root and blade tip configurations. This paper presents the performance of these three rotors, shows the effects of tip Mach number and root and tip configuration changes on rotor performance, and presents data on rotor wake velocity distributions and tip vortex geometry. Measured rotor performance is compared with theoretical predictions, and the discrepancies are discussed.
An asymmetric jet-launching model for the protoplanetary nebula CRL 618
Velázquez, Pablo F.; Raga, Alejandro C.; Toledo-Roy, Juan C.; Riera, Angels
2014-10-20
We propose an asymmetrical jet-ejection mechanism in order to model the mirror symmetry observed in the lobe distribution of some protoplanetary nebulae (pPNs), such as the pPN CRL 618. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of a precessing jet launched from an orbiting source were carried out, including an alternation in the ejections of the two outflow lobes, depending on which side of the precessing accretion disk is hit by the accretion column from a Roche lobe-filling binary companion. Both synthetic optical emission maps and position-velocity diagrams were obtained from the numerical results with the purpose of carrying out a direct comparison with observations. Depending on the observer's point of view, multipolar morphologies are obtained that exhibit a mirror symmetry at large distances from the central source. The obtained lobe sizes and their spatial distributions are in good agreement with the observed morphology of the pPN CRL 618. We also obtain that the kinematic ages of the fingers are similar to those obtained in the observations.
Can hydro-economic river basin models simulate water shadow prices under asymmetric access?
Kuhn, A; Britz, W
2012-01-01
Hydro-economic river basin models (HERBM) based on mathematical programming are conventionally formulated as explicit 'aggregate optimization' problems with a single, aggregate objective function. Often unintended, this format implicitly assumes that decisions on water allocation are made via central planning or functioning markets such as to maximize social welfare. In the absence of perfect water markets, however, individually optimal decisions by water users will differ from the social optimum. Classical aggregate HERBMs cannot simulate that situation and thus might be unable to describe existing institutions governing access to water and might produce biased results for alternative ones. We propose a new solution format for HERBMs, based on the format of the mixed complementarity problem (MCP), where modified shadow price relations express spatial externalities resulting from asymmetric access to water use. This new problem format, as opposed to commonly used linear (LP) or non-linear programming (NLP) approaches, enables the simultaneous simulation of numerous 'independent optimization' decisions by multiple water users while maintaining physical interdependences based on water use and flow in the river basin. We show that the alternative problem format allows the formulation HERBMs that yield more realistic results when comparing different water management institutions. PMID:22766881
An IST Model of the Formation of Magnetic Depressions from Rotationally Asymmetric Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, R.; Jovanovich, P.
2014-12-01
Magnetic holes have been observed in the solar wind from 0.3 AU to 17 AU, in the magnetosheath of comet Halley, in the heliosheath and also at high heliocentric latitudes. It has been reported that only about 30% of magnetic holes have a small change in the direction of the magnetic field across them. This case had previously been modeled [DOI: 10.1029/2008JA013582] using the 1D-DNLS equation including the effects of dissipation which showed that any profile with a nonlinear component will inevitably lead to the formation of a train of so-called one-parameter dark solitons with a corresponding decrease in field strength. We report on an extension of this earlier work to the rotationally asymmetric case. The magnetic field structure for 'solitons' in this case has not been developed in the literature, but we have found that the direct scattering problem shows the same dynamics as the symmetric case. Connections between these results and magnetic decreases observed in our numerical simulations will be presented.
An Asymmetric Jet-launching Model for the Protoplanetary Nebula CRL 618
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velázquez, Pablo F.; Riera, Angels; Raga, Alejandro C.; Toledo-Roy, Juan C.
2014-10-01
We propose an asymmetrical jet-ejection mechanism in order to model the mirror symmetry observed in the lobe distribution of some protoplanetary nebulae (pPNs), such as the pPN CRL 618. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of a precessing jet launched from an orbiting source were carried out, including an alternation in the ejections of the two outflow lobes, depending on which side of the precessing accretion disk is hit by the accretion column from a Roche lobe-filling binary companion. Both synthetic optical emission maps and position-velocity diagrams were obtained from the numerical results with the purpose of carrying out a direct comparison with observations. Depending on the observer's point of view, multipolar morphologies are obtained that exhibit a mirror symmetry at large distances from the central source. The obtained lobe sizes and their spatial distributions are in good agreement with the observed morphology of the pPN CRL 618. We also obtain that the kinematic ages of the fingers are similar to those obtained in the observations.
Synthesis of rotor test data for real-time simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcveigh, M. A.
1979-01-01
A mathematical model of a hingeless tilting rotor is presented. The model was obtained by a systematic curve fit procedure applied to an extensive set of model scale wind tunnel data. The math model equations were used in a real time flight simulation model of a hingeless tilt rotor XV-15 to assess changes in flying qualities compared to those obtained using a previous rotor model. Extensive plots of the rotor derivatives are given. Discussions of attempts to apply multivariable linear regression technqiues to the data and the use of an analytical rotor representation are included.
Aeroelastic considerations for torsionally soft rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mantay, W. R.; Yeager, W. T., Jr.
1985-01-01
A research study was initiated to systematically determine the impact of selected blade tip geometric parameters on conformable rotor performance and loads characteristics. The model articulated rotors included baseline and torsionally soft blades with interchangeable tips. Seven blade tip designs were evaluated on the baseline rotor and six tip designs were tested on the torsionally soft blades. The designs incorporated a systemmatic variation in geometric parameters including sweep, taper, and anhedral. The rotors were evaluated in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at several advance ratios, lift and propulsive force values, and tip Mach numbers. A track sensitivity study was also conducted at several advance ratios for both rotors. Based on the test results, tip parameter variations generated significant rotor performance and loads differences for both baseline and torsionally soft blades.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suarez Mullins, Astrid
Terrain-induced gravity waves and rotor circulations have been hypothesized to enhance the generation of submeso motions (i.e., nonstationary shear events with spatial and temporal scales greater than the turbulence scale and smaller than the meso-gamma scale) and to modulate low-level intermittency in the stable boundary layer (SBL). Intermittent turbulence, generated by submeso motions and/or the waves, can affect the atmospheric transport and dispersion of pollutants and hazardous materials. Thus, the study of these motions and the mechanisms through which they impact the weakly to very stable SBL is crucial for improving air quality modeling and hazard predictions. In this thesis, the effects of waves and rotor circulations on submeso and turbulence variability within the SBL is investigated over the moderate terrain of central Pennsylvania using special observations from a network deployed at Rock Springs, PA and high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model forecasts. The investigation of waves and rotors over central PA is important because 1) the moderate topography of this region is common to most of the eastern US and thus the knowledge acquired from this study can be of significance to a large population, 2) there have been little evidence of complex wave structures and rotors reported for this region, and 3) little is known about the waves and rotors generated by smaller and more moderate topographies. Six case studies exhibiting an array of wave and rotor structures are analyzed. Observational evidence of the presence of complex wave structures, resembling nonstationary trapped gravity waves and downslope windstorms, and complex rotor circulations, resembling trapped and jump-type rotors, is presented. These motions and the mechanisms through which they modulate the SBL are further investigated using high-resolution WRF forecasts. First, the efficacy of the 0.444-km horizontal grid spacing WRF model to reproduce submeso and meso
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suarez Mullins, Astrid
Terrain-induced gravity waves and rotor circulations have been hypothesized to enhance the generation of submeso motions (i.e., nonstationary shear events with spatial and temporal scales greater than the turbulence scale and smaller than the meso-gamma scale) and to modulate low-level intermittency in the stable boundary layer (SBL). Intermittent turbulence, generated by submeso motions and/or the waves, can affect the atmospheric transport and dispersion of pollutants and hazardous materials. Thus, the study of these motions and the mechanisms through which they impact the weakly to very stable SBL is crucial for improving air quality modeling and hazard predictions. In this thesis, the effects of waves and rotor circulations on submeso and turbulence variability within the SBL is investigated over the moderate terrain of central Pennsylvania using special observations from a network deployed at Rock Springs, PA and high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model forecasts. The investigation of waves and rotors over central PA is important because 1) the moderate topography of this region is common to most of the eastern US and thus the knowledge acquired from this study can be of significance to a large population, 2) there have been little evidence of complex wave structures and rotors reported for this region, and 3) little is known about the waves and rotors generated by smaller and more moderate topographies. Six case studies exhibiting an array of wave and rotor structures are analyzed. Observational evidence of the presence of complex wave structures, resembling nonstationary trapped gravity waves and downslope windstorms, and complex rotor circulations, resembling trapped and jump-type rotors, is presented. These motions and the mechanisms through which they modulate the SBL are further investigated using high-resolution WRF forecasts. First, the efficacy of the 0.444-km horizontal grid spacing WRF model to reproduce submeso and meso
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shibing; Yang, Bingen
2015-08-01
Flexible multistage rotating systems that are supported or guided by long water-lubricated rubber bearings (WLRBs) have a variety of engineering applications. Vibration analysis of this type of machinery for performance and duality requires accurate modeling of WLRBs and related rotor-bearing assemblies. This work presents a new model of WLRBs, with attention given to the determination of bearing dynamic coefficients. Due to its large length-to-diameter ratio, a WLRB cannot be described by conventional pointwise bearing models with good fidelity. The bearing model proposed in this paper considers spatially distributed bearing forces. For the first time in the literature, the current study addresses the issue of mixed lubrication in the operation of WLRBs, which involves interactions of shaft vibration, elastic deformation of rubber material and fluid film pressure, and validates the WLRB model in experiments. Additionally, with the new bearing model, vibration analysis of WLRB-supported flexible multistage rotating systems is performed through use of a distributed transfer function method, which delivers accurate and closed-form analytical solutions of steady-state responses without discretization.
Aeroelastic characteristics of composite bearingless rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bielawa, R. L.
1976-01-01
Owing to the inherent unique structural features of composite bearingless rotors, various assumptions upon which conventional rotor aeroelastic analyses are formulated, are violated. Three such features identified are highly nonlinear and time-varying structural twist, structural redundancy in bending and torsion, and for certain configurations a strongly coupled low frequency bending-torsion mode. An examination of these aeroelastic considerations and appropriate formulations required for accurate analyses of such rotor systems is presented. Also presented are test results from a dynamically scaled model rotor and complementary analytic results obtained with the appropriately reformulated aeroelastic analysis.
Tao, Chao; Zhang, Yu; Hottinger, Daniel G; Jiang, Jack J
2007-10-01
A model constructed from Navier-Stokes equations and a two-mass vocal fold description is proposed in this study. The composite model not only has the capability to describe the aerodynamics in a vibratory glottis but also can be used to study the vocal fold vibration under the driving of the complex airflow in the glottis. Numerical simulations show that this model can predict self-oscillations of the coupled glottal aerodynamics and vocal fold system. The Coanda effect could occur in the vibratory glottis even though the vocal folds have left-right symmetric prephonatory shape and tissue properties. The Coanda effect causes the asymmetric flow in the glottis and the difference in the driving force on the left and right vocal folds. The different pressures applied to the left and right vocal folds induce their displacement asymmetry. By using various lung pressures (0.6-2.0 kPa) to drive the composite model, it was found that the asymmetry of the vocal fold displacement is increased from 1.87% to 11.2%. These simulation results provide numerical evidence for the presence of asymmetric flow in the vibratory glottis; moreover, they indicate that glottal aerodynamics is an important factor in inducing the asymmetric vibration of the vocal folds. PMID:17902863
Magné, Joëlle; Huneau, Jean-François; Borderie, Didier; Mathé, Véronique; Bos, Cécile; Mariotti, François
2015-09-01
Hyperhomocysteinemia induces vascular endothelial dysfunction, an early hallmark of atherogenesis. While higher levels of circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethyl arginine (SDMA), endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis, have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the role that ADMA and SDMA play in the initiation of hyperhomocysteinemia-induced endothelial dysfunction remains still controversial. In the present study, we studied the changes of circulating ADMA and SDMA in a rat model of acutely hyperhomocysteinemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In healthy rats, endothelium-related vascular reactivity (measured as acetylcholine-induced transient decrease in mean arterial blood pressure), plasma ADMA and SDMA, total plasma homocysteine (tHcy), cysteine and glutathione were measured before and 2, 4 and 6 h after methionine loading or vehicle. mRNA expression of hepatic dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1), a key protein responsible for ADMA metabolism, was measured 6 h after the methionine loading or the vehicle. Expectedly, methionine load induced a sustained increase in tHcy (up to 54.9 ± 1.9 µM) and a 30 % decrease in vascular reactivity compared to the baseline values. Plasma ADMA and SDMA decreased transiently after the methionine load. Hepatic mRNA expression of DDAH1, cathepsin D, and ubiquitin were significantly lower 6 h after the methionine load than after the vehicle. The absence of an elevation of circulating ADMA and SDMA in this model suggests that endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperhomocysteinemia cannot be explained by an up-regulation of protein arginine methyltransferases or a down-regulation of DDAH1. In experimental endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperhomocysteinemia, down-regulation of the proteasome is likely to dampen the release of ADMA and SDMA in the circulation. PMID:25792109
Westendorff, Stephanie; Kuang, Shenbing; Taghizadeh, Bahareh; Donchin, Opher
2015-01-01
Different error signals can induce sensorimotor adaptation during visually guided reaching, possibly evoking different neural adaptation mechanisms. Here we investigate reach adaptation induced by visual target errors without perturbing the actual or sensed hand position. We analyzed the spatial generalization of adaptation to target error to compare it with other known generalization patterns and simulated our results with a neural network model trained to minimize target error independent of prediction errors. Subjects reached to different peripheral visual targets and had to adapt to a sudden fixed-amplitude displacement (“jump”) consistently occurring for only one of the reach targets. Subjects simultaneously had to perform contralateral unperturbed saccades, which rendered the reach target jump unnoticeable. As a result, subjects adapted by gradually decreasing reach errors and showed negative aftereffects for the perturbed reach target. Reach errors generalized to unperturbed targets according to a translational rather than rotational generalization pattern, but locally, not globally. More importantly, reach errors generalized asymmetrically with a skewed generalization function in the direction of the target jump. Our neural network model reproduced the skewed generalization after adaptation to target jump without having been explicitly trained to produce a specific generalization pattern. Our combined psychophysical and simulation results suggest that target jump adaptation in reaching can be explained by gradual updating of spatial motor goal representations in sensorimotor association networks, independent of learning induced by a prediction-error about the hand position. The simulations make testable predictions about the underlying changes in the tuning of sensorimotor neurons during target jump adaptation. PMID:25609106
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Links, Jon; Moghaddam, Amir; Zhang, Yao-Zhong
2013-08-01
We demonstrate the occurrence of free quasi-particle excitations obeying generalized exclusion statistics in a BCS model with asymmetric pair scattering. The results are derived from an exact solution of the Hamiltonian, which was obtained via the algebraic Bethe ansatz utilizing the representation theory of an underlying Yangian algebra. The free quasi-particle excitations are associated with highest weight states of the Yangian algebra, corresponding to a class of analytic solutions of the Bethe ansatz equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saltzman, Barry; Maasch, Kirk A.
1988-01-01
A dynamical model of the Pleistocene ice ages is presented, which incorporates many of the qualitative ideas advanced recently regarding the possible role of ocean circulation, chemistry, temperature, and productivity in regulating long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide variations. This model involves one additional term (and free parameter) beyond that included in a previous model (Saltzman and Sutera, 1987), providing the capacity for an asymmetric response. It is shown that many of the main features exhibited by the delta(O-18)-derived ice record and the Vostok core/delta(C-13)-derived carbon dioxide record in the late Pleistocene can be deduced as a free oscillatory solution of the model.
Resolution of tower shadow models for downwind mounted rotors and its effects on the blade fatigue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiso, M.; Muskulus, M.
2014-12-01
A simulation study on the wind field resolution in computer load simulations has been conducted, both in transversal/vertical and longitudinal direction, to determine the effect on blade fatigue loading. Increasing the transversal/vertical resolution decreased the loading significantly, while only small changes to the load, at very low frequencies were found for increased longitudinal resolution. Next the influence of the tower shadow for a downwind mounted rotor was investigated, with respect to blade fatigue loading. The influence of different components to the total tower shadow effect was studied, both for a monopile and a truss tower, latter at inclination 0 and 22.5 degrees with respect to the incoming wind direction. Four components were considered, both individually and in combinations: mean wind speed, mean velocity deficit, unsteady motions from vortex shedding, and turbulence. The mean velocity deficit and turbulence were the main contributors to blade fatigue loading, and the unsteady motions can be neglected for the truss tower. For the monopile, neglecting the unsteady motions resulted in an underestimation of fatigue loading in the order of 3 percent.
Simulation of Asymmetric Destabilization of Mine-void Rock Masses Using a Large 3D Physical Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, X. P.; Shan, P. F.; Cao, J. T.; Cui, F.; Sun, H.
2016-02-01
When mechanized sub-horizontal section top coal caving (SSTCC) is used as an underground mining method for exploiting extremely steep and thick coal seams (ESTCS), a large-scale surrounding rock caving may be violently created and have the potential to induce asymmetric destabilization from mine voids. In this study, a methodology for assessing the destabilization was developed to simulate the Weihuliang coal mine in the Urumchi coal field, China. Coal-rock mass and geological structure characterization were integrated with rock mechanics testing for assessment of the methodology and factors influencing asymmetric destabilization. The porous rock-like composite material ensured accuracy for building a 3D geological physical model of mechanized SSTCC by combining multi-mean timely track monitoring including acoustic emission, crack optical acquirement, roof separation observation, and close-field photogrammetry. An asymmetric 3D modeling analysis for destabilization characteristics was completed. Data from the simulated hydraulic support and buried pressure sensor provided effective information that was linked with stress-strain relationship of the working face in ESTCS. The results of the 3D physical model experiments combined with hybrid statistical methods were effective for predicting dynamic hazards in ESTCS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myrtle, Timothy Fitzgerald
1998-12-01
This dissertation describes the development of an aeroelastic model of a helicopter rotor incorporating partial span trailing edge flaps on the blade and its application to the investigation of vibration reduction using active control. A new two-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic model for an airfoil/flap combination is described that includes compressibility and unsteady freestream effects. This new aerodynamic model is based on a rational function approximation (RFA) approach. In this approach, oscillatory response data obtained for a selected set of generalized airfoil and flap motions is used to generate an approximate aerodynamic transfer function which can be transformed to the time domain to form a state space aerodynamic model. In this dissertation, a method is described for adapting the conventional RFA approach to include unsteady freestream effects. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between the response of the new aerodynamic model and an exact incompressible solution to the unsteady freestream case. This model provides a complete description of the unsteady flap hinge moments due to airfoil and flap motion, allowing a complete and accurate characterization of control actuation requirements. The structural model utilizes an elastic blade model which includes fully coupled flap-lag-torsional dynamics and includes the effects of moderate deflections. The aeroelastic model is formulated in the time domain, with the coupled trim/response solution obtained using direct numerical integration in combination with autopilot type controller. A conventional higher harmonic control approach is used to investigate vibration reduction. Vibration control studies are performed which compare results using the new aerodynamic model and incompressible quasisteady Theodorsen aerodynamics. Significant differences were observed in the required deflections and control moments, indicating that compressibility and unsteady effects are necessary to properly characterize the
Hoi, Yiemeng; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Tranquebar, Rekha V.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Woodward, Scott, H.; Taulbee, Dale B.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen
2011-01-01
An asymmetric stent with low porosity patch across the intracranial aneurysm neck and high porosity elsewhere is designed to modify the flow to result in thrombogenesis and occlusion of the aneurysm and yet to reduce the possibility of also occluding adjacent perforator vessels. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the flow field induced by an asymmetric stent using both numerical and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) methods and to quantify the flow dynamics of an asymmetric stent in an in vivo aneurysm model. We created a vein-pouch aneurysm model on the canine carotid artery. An asymmetric stent was implanted at the aneurysm, with 25% porosity across the aneurysm neck and 80% porosity elsewhere. The aneurysm geometry, before and after stent implantation, was acquired using cone beam CT and reconstructed for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Both steady-state and pulsatile flow conditions using the measured waveforms from the aneurysm model were studied. To reduce computational costs, we modeled the asymmetric stent effect by specifying a pressure drop over the layer across the aneurysm orifice where the low porosity patch was located. From the CFD results, we found the asymmetric stent reduced the inflow into the aneurysm by 51%, and appeared to create a stasis-like environment which favors thrombus formation. The DSA sequences also showed substantial flow reduction into the aneurysm. Asymmetric stents may be a viable image guided intervention for treating intracranial aneurysms with desired flow modification features. PMID:21666881
Wang, Hainan; Thiele, Alexander; Pilon, Laurent
2013-11-15
This paper presents a generalized modified Poisson–Nernst–Planck (MPNP) model derived from first principles based on excess chemical potential and Langmuir activity coefficient to simulate electric double-layer dynamics in asymmetric electrolytes. The model accounts simultaneously for (1) asymmetric electrolytes with (2) multiple ion species, (3) finite ion sizes, and (4) Stern and diffuse layers along with Ohmic potential drop in the electrode. It was used to simulate cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements for binary asymmetric electrolytes. The results demonstrated that the current density increased significantly with decreasing ion diameter and/or increasing valency |z_{i}| of either ion species. By contrast, the ion diffusion coefficients affected the CV curves and capacitance only at large scan rates. Dimensional analysis was also performed, and 11 dimensionless numbers were identified to govern the CV measurements of the electric double layer in binary asymmetric electrolytes between two identical planar electrodes of finite thickness. A self-similar behavior was identified for the electric double-layer integral capacitance estimated from CV measurement simulations. Two regimes were identified by comparing the half cycle period τ_{CV} and the “RC time scale” τ_{RC} corresponding to the characteristic time of ions’ electrodiffusion. For τ_{RC} ← τ_{CV}, quasi-equilibrium conditions prevailed and the capacitance was diffusion-independent while for τ_{RC} → τ_{CV}, the capacitance was diffusion-limited. The effect of the electrode was captured by the dimensionless electrode electrical conductivity representing the ratio of characteristic times associated with charge transport in the electrolyte and that in the electrode. The model developed here will be useful for simulating and designing various practical electrochemical, colloidal, and biological systems for a wide range of applications.
Conduction block and chaotic dynamics in an asymmetrical model of coupled cardiac cells.
Landau, M; Lorente, P
1997-05-01
The initiation and propagation of the cardiac impulse depends on intrinsic properties of cells, geometrical arrangements, and intercellular coupling resistances. To address the issue of the interplay between these factors in a simple way, we have used a system, based on the van Capelle and Dürrer model, including a pacemaker and a non-pacemaker cell linked by an ohmic coupling resistance. The influence of asymmetrical cell sizes and electronic load was investigated by using numerical simulations and continuation-bifurcation techniques. The loading of a small pacemaker cell by a large non-pacemaker one (pacemaker: non-pacemaker size ratio = 0.3) was expressed as a pronounced early repolarization in the pacemaker cell and a quite long latency for the impulse propagation. Using coupling resistance as the continuation parameter, three behavioral zones were detected from low to high coupling resistance values: a zone of total quiescence (0:0), a zone of effective entertainment (1:1), and a zone of total block (1:0 pattern). At the boundary between 1:1 and 1:0 patterns, for relatively high coupling resistance values, a cascade of period doubling bifurcations emerged, corresponding to discrete changes of propagation patterns leading into irregular dynamics. Another route to irregular dynamics was also observed in the parameter space. The high sensitivity of the detected irregular dynamics to initial conditions and the positive value of the maximum Lyapunov exponent allowed us to identify these dynamics as being chaotic. Since neither intermediate block patterns nor irregular dynamics were observed with larger size ratios, we suggest that the interplay between resting membrane conductance of the non-pacemaker cell and intercellular coupling may bring about these rhythmic disturbances. PMID:9176640
Tip Vortex and Wake Characteristics of a Counterrotating Open Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanZante, Dale E.; Wernet, Mark P.
2012-01-01
One of the primary noise sources for Open Rotor systems is the interaction of the forward rotor tip vortex and blade wake with the aft rotor. NASA has collaborated with General Electric on the testing of a new generation of low noise, counterrotating Open Rotor systems. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired in the intra-rotor gap of the Historical Baseline blade set. The velocity measurements are of sufficient resolution to characterize the tip vortex size and trajectory as well as the rotor wake decay and turbulence character. The tip clearance vortex trajectory is compared to results from previously developed models. Forward rotor wake velocity profiles are shown. Results are presented in a form as to assist numerical modeling of Open Rotor system aerodynamics and acoustics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chin, S.; Lan, C. Edward
1988-01-01
An inviscid discrete vortex model, with newly derived expressions for the tangential velocity imposed at the separation points, is used to investigate the symmetric and asymmetric vortex separation on cones and tangent ogives. The circumferential locations of separation are taken from experimental data. Based on a slender body theory, the resulting simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations in a cross-flow plane are solved with Broyden's modified Newton-Raphson method. Total force coefficients are obtained through momentum principle with new expressions for nonconical flow. It is shown through the method of function deflation that multiple solutions exist at large enough angles of attack, even with symmetric separation points. These additional solutions are asymmetric in vortex separation and produce side force coefficients which agree well with data for cones and tangent ogives.
Algebraic Realization of the Triaxial Rotor Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Li, Q. Y.; Zuo, Y.; Wang, X. X.
A mapping from the triaxial rotor to the SU(3) limit description in the interacting boson model is established. A comparison between the triaxial dynamics generated from the triaxial rotor and those from the IBM image has been made through a numerical example, and the results indicate that the mapping scheme works very well.
2015-01-01
Background Mass Spectrometry (MS) is a ubiquitous analytical tool in biological research and is used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of bio-molecules. Peak detection is the essential first step in MS data analysis. Precise estimation of peak parameters such as peak summit location and peak area are critical to identify underlying bio-molecules and to estimate their abundances accurately. We propose a new method to detect and quantify peaks in mass spectra. It uses dual-tree complex wavelet transformation along with Stein's unbiased risk estimator for spectra smoothing. Then, a new method, based on the modified Asymmetric Pseudo-Voigt (mAPV) model and hierarchical particle swarm optimization, is used for peak parameter estimation. Results Using simulated data, we demonstrated the benefit of using the mAPV model over Gaussian, Lorentz and Bi-Gaussian functions for MS peak modelling. The proposed mAPV model achieved the best fitting accuracy for asymmetric peaks, with lower percentage errors in peak summit location estimation, which were 0.17% to 4.46% less than that of the other models. It also outperformed the other models in peak area estimation, delivering lower percentage errors, which were about 0.7% less than its closest competitor - the Bi-Gaussian model. In addition, using data generated from a MALDI-TOF computer model, we showed that the proposed overall algorithm outperformed the existing methods mainly in terms of sensitivity. It achieved a sensitivity of 85%, compared to 77% and 71% of the two benchmark algorithms, continuous wavelet transformation based method and Cromwell respectively. Conclusions The proposed algorithm is particularly useful for peak detection and parameter estimation in MS data with overlapping peak distributions and asymmetric peaks. The algorithm is implemented using MATLAB and the source code is freely available at http://mapv.sourceforge.net. PMID:26680279
Melin, Alexander M; Kisner, Roger A; Fugate, David L; Holcomb, David Eugene
2015-01-01
Embedding instrumentation and control Embedding instrumentation and control (I\\&C) at the component level in nuclear power plants can improve component performance, lifetime, and resilience by optimizing operation, reducing the constraints on physical design, and providing on-board prognostics and diagnostics. However, the extreme environments that many nuclear power plant components operate in makes embedding instrumentation and control at the component level difficult. Successfully utilizing embedded I\\&C requires developing a deep understanding of the system's dynamics and using that knowledge to overcome material and physical limitations imposed by the environment. In this paper, we will develop a coupled dynamic model of a high temperature (700 $^\\circ$C) canned rotor pump that incorporates rotordynamics, hydrodynamics, and active magnetic bearing dynamics. Then we will compare two control design methods, one that uses a simplified decoupled model of the system and another that utilizes the full coupled system model. It will be seen that utilizing all the available knowledge of the system dynamics in the controller design yield an order of magnitude improvement in the magnitude of the magnetic bearing response to disturbances at the same level of control effort, a large reduction in the settling time of the system, and a smoother control action.
Wang, Zhou; Ionita, Ciprian; Rudin, Stephen; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Paxton, Adam B.; Bednarek, Daniel R.
2011-01-01
We have built new asymmetric stents for minimally invasive endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Each asymmetric stent consists of a commercial stent with a micro-welded circular mesh patch. The blood flow modification in aneurysm-vessel phantoms due to these stents was evaluated using x-ray angiographic analysis. However, the density difference between the radiographic contrast and the blood gives rise to a gravity effect, which was evaluated using an initial optical dye-dilution experiment. For the radiographic evaluations, curved-vessel phantoms instead of simple straight side-wall aneurysm phantoms were used in the characterization of meshes/stents. Six phantoms (one untreated, one treated with a commercial stent, and four treated with different asymmetric stents) with similar morphologies were used for comparison. We calculated time-density curves of the aneurysm region and then calculated the peak value (Pk) and washout rate (1/τ) after analytical curve fitting. Flow patterns in the angiograms showed reduction of vortex flow and slow washout in the dense mesh patch treated aneurysms. The meshes reduced Pk down to 21% and 1/τ down to 12% of the values for the untreated case. In summary, new asymmetric stents were constructed and their evaluation demonstrates that they may be useful in the endovascular treatment of aneurysms. PMID:21886414
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hii, King Kuok; Rzepa, Henry S.; Smith, Edward H.
2015-01-01
The coupling of a student experiment involving the preparation and use of a catalyst for the asymmetric epoxidation of an alkene with computational simulations of various properties of the resulting epoxide is set out in the form of a software toolbox from which students select appropriate components. At the core of these are the computational…
On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics
Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio
2012-01-01
The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638
Preliminary simulation of an advanced, hingless rotor XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcveigh, M. A.
1976-01-01
The feasibility of the tilt-rotor concept was verified through investigation of the performance, stability and handling qualities of the XV-15 tilt rotor. The rotors were replaced by advanced-technology fiberglass/composite hingless rotors of larger diameter, combined with an advanced integrated fly-by-wire control system. A parametric simulation model of the HRXV-15 was developed, model was used to define acceptable preliminary ranges of primary and secondary control schedules as functions of the flight parameters, to evaluate performance, flying qualities and structural loads, and to have a Boeing-Vertol pilot conduct a simulated flight test evaluation of the aircraft.
Wind Tunnel Evaluation of a Model Helicopter Main-Rotor Blade With Slotted Airfoils at the Tip
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noonan, Kevin W.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Mirick, Paul H.
2001-01-01
Data for rotors using unconventional airfoils are of interest to permit an evaluation of this technology's capability to meet the U.S. Army's need for increased helicopter mission effectiveness and improved safety and survivability. Thus, an experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) to evaluate the effect of using slotted airfoils in the rotor blade tip region (85 to 100 percent radius) on rotor aerodynamic performance and loads. Four rotor configurations were tested in forward flight at advance ratios from 0.15 to 0.45 and in hover in-ground effect. The hover tip Mach number was 0.627, which is representative of a design point of 4000-ft geometric altitude and a temperature of 95 F. The baseline rotor configuration had a conventional single-element airfoil in the tip region. A second rotor configuration had a forward-slotted airfoil with a -6 deg slat, a third configuration had a forward-slotted airfoil with a -10 slat, and a fourth configuration had an aft-slotted airfoil with a 3 deg flap (trailing edge down). The results of this investigation indicate that the -6 deg slat configuration offers some performance and loads benefits over the other three configurations.
Halbach Magnetic Rotor Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gallo, Christopher A.
2008-01-01
The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center has a wealth of experience in Halbach array technology through the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The goals of the program include improving aircraft efficiency, reliability, and safety. The concept of a Halbach magnetically levitated electric aircraft motor will help reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels, increase efficiency and reliability, reduce maintenance and decrease operating noise levels. Experimental hardware systems were developed in the GRC Engineering Development Division to validate the basic principles described herein and the theoretical work that was performed. A number of Halbach Magnetic rotors have been developed and tested under this program. A separate test hardware setup was developed to characterize each of the rotors. A second hardware setup was developed to test the levitation characteristics of the rotors. Each system focused around a unique Halbach array rotor. Each rotor required original design and fabrication techniques. A 4 in. diameter rotor was developed to test the radial levitation effects for use as a magnetic bearing. To show scalability from the 4 in. rotor, a 1 in. rotor was developed to also test radial levitation effects. The next rotor to be developed was 20 in. in diameter again to show scalability from the 4 in. rotor. An axial rotor was developed to determine the force that could be generated to position the rotor axially while it is rotating. With both radial and axial magnetic bearings, the rotor would be completely suspended magnetically. The purpose of this report is to document the development of a series of Halbach magnetic rotors to be used in testing. The design, fabrication and assembly of the rotors will be discussed as well as the hardware developed to test the rotors.
Internal rotor friction instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.
1990-01-01
The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Robert T. N.
1992-01-01
This paper presents the results of an analytical study conducted to investigate airframe/engine interface dynamics, and the influence of rotor speed variations on the flight dynamics of the helicopter in hover, and to explore the potential benefits of using rotor states as additional feedback signals in the flight control system. The analytical investigation required the development of a parametric high-order helicopter hover model, which included heave/yaw body motion, the rotor speed degree of freedom, rotor blade motion in flapping and lead-lag, inflow dynamics, a drive train model with a flexible rotor shaft, and an engine/rpm governor. First, the model was used to gain insight into the engine/drive train/rotor system dynamics and to obtain an improved simple formula for easy estimation of the dominant first torsional mode, which is important in the dynamic integration of the engine and airframe system. Then, a linearized version of the model was used to investigate the effects of rotor speed variations and rotor state feedback on helicopter flight dynamics. Results show that, by including rotor speed variations, the effective vertical damping decreases significantly from that calculated with a constant speed assumption, thereby providing a better correlation with flight test data. Higher closed-loop bandwidths appear to be more readily achievable with rotor state feedback. The results also indicate that both aircraft and rotor flapping responses to gust disturbance are significantly attenuated when rotor state feedback is used.
Interaction between rotors of a counter rotating propeller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, Jin-Deog; Hough, Joseph; Nagel, Robert T.
1990-01-01
Thermal anemometer measurements were obtained from a stationary hot film probe mounted between the forward and aft rotors of a model CRP. Data were obtained at several locations between rotors. To establish the rotor-rotor interaction flow mechanism, a method of conditional sampling has been developed which effectively fixes the forward rotor position in time or space and permits averaging the mean wake at any fixed rotor angular location. By 'fixing' the position of the forward blades, one can track the disturbance of the forward rotor as the rear rotor moves by. The decay and spreading of the forward blade wakes and the upstream propagation of the rear blade disturbance are shown along with the interaction of the flow disturbances from the two sets of blades.
Pinzon-Morales, Ruben-Dario; Hirata, Yutaka
2014-01-01
To acquire and maintain precise movement controls over a lifespan, changes in the physical and physiological characteristics of muscles must be compensated for adaptively. The cerebellum plays a crucial role in such adaptation. Changes in muscle characteristics are not always symmetrical. For example, it is unlikely that muscles that bend and straighten a joint will change to the same degree. Thus, different (i.e., asymmetrical) adaptation is required for bending and straightening motions. To date, little is known about the role of the cerebellum in asymmetrical adaptation. Here, we investigate the cerebellar mechanisms required for asymmetrical adaptation using a bi-hemispheric cerebellar neuronal network model (biCNN). The bi-hemispheric structure is inspired by the observation that lesioning one hemisphere reduces motor performance asymmetrically. The biCNN model was constructed to run in real-time and used to control an unstable two-wheeled balancing robot. The load of the robot and its environment were modified to create asymmetrical perturbations. Plasticity at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses in the biCNN model was driven by error signal in the climbing fiber (cf) input. This cf input was configured to increase and decrease its firing rate from its spontaneous firing rate (approximately 1 Hz) with sensory errors in the preferred and non-preferred direction of each hemisphere, as demonstrated in the monkey cerebellum. Our results showed that asymmetrical conditions were successfully handled by the biCNN model, in contrast to a single hemisphere model or a classical non-adaptive proportional and derivative controller. Further, the spontaneous activity of the cf, while relatively small, was critical for balancing the contribution of each cerebellar hemisphere to the overall motor command sent to the robot. Eliminating the spontaneous activity compromised the asymmetrical learning capabilities of the biCNN model. Thus, we conclude that a bi
Pinzon-Morales, Ruben-Dario; Hirata, Yutaka
2014-01-01
To acquire and maintain precise movement controls over a lifespan, changes in the physical and physiological characteristics of muscles must be compensated for adaptively. The cerebellum plays a crucial role in such adaptation. Changes in muscle characteristics are not always symmetrical. For example, it is unlikely that muscles that bend and straighten a joint will change to the same degree. Thus, different (i.e., asymmetrical) adaptation is required for bending and straightening motions. To date, little is known about the role of the cerebellum in asymmetrical adaptation. Here, we investigate the cerebellar mechanisms required for asymmetrical adaptation using a bi-hemispheric cerebellar neuronal network model (biCNN). The bi-hemispheric structure is inspired by the observation that lesioning one hemisphere reduces motor performance asymmetrically. The biCNN model was constructed to run in real-time and used to control an unstable two-wheeled balancing robot. The load of the robot and its environment were modified to create asymmetrical perturbations. Plasticity at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses in the biCNN model was driven by error signal in the climbing fiber (cf) input. This cf input was configured to increase and decrease its firing rate from its spontaneous firing rate (approximately 1 Hz) with sensory errors in the preferred and non-preferred direction of each hemisphere, as demonstrated in the monkey cerebellum. Our results showed that asymmetrical conditions were successfully handled by the biCNN model, in contrast to a single hemisphere model or a classical non-adaptive proportional and derivative controller. Further, the spontaneous activity of the cf, while relatively small, was critical for balancing the contribution of each cerebellar hemisphere to the overall motor command sent to the robot. Eliminating the spontaneous activity compromised the asymmetrical learning capabilities of the biCNN model. Thus, we conclude that a bi
The inclusion of rotor dynamics in controller design for helicopters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, W. E., Jr.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.
1972-01-01
State-feedback-controllers and state-estimators (filters) are designed for the roll-pitch-horizontal motions of a helicopter near hover, using a new quadratic synthesis technique. One model (tenth order) uses a dynamic model of the rotor, whereas the other model (sixth order) assumes the rotor can be tilted instantaneously. It is shown that, for tight control, neglecting the rotor dynamics in designing the autopilot can produce unstable closed-loop response on the model that includes rotor dynamics. Two filters are designed to use only fuselage sensors and two are designed to use both fuselage and rotor sensors. It is shown that rotor states can be estimated with sufficient accuracy using only fuselage sensors so that it does not seem worthwhile to use rotor sensors. The mean square response of the vehicle to a gusty, random wind, using several different filter/state-feedback compensators, is shown to be satisfactory.
Quantum rotor in nanostructured superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shi-Hsin; Milošević, M. V.; Covaci, L.; Jankó, B.; Peeters, F. M.
2014-04-01
Despite its apparent simplicity, the idealized model of a particle constrained to move on a circle has intriguing dynamic properties and immediate experimental relevance. While a rotor is rather easy to set up classically, the quantum regime is harder to realize and investigate. Here we demonstrate that the quantum dynamics of quasiparticles in certain classes of nanostructured superconductors can be mapped onto a quantum rotor. Furthermore, we provide a straightforward experimental procedure to convert this nanoscale superconducting rotor into a regular or inverted quantum pendulum with tunable gravitational field, inertia, and drive. We detail how these novel states can be detected via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The proposed experiments will provide insights into quantum dynamics and quantum chaos.
Quantum rotor in nanostructured superconductors.
Lin, Shi-Hsin; Milošević, M V; Covaci, L; Jankó, B; Peeters, F M
2014-01-01
Despite its apparent simplicity, the idealized model of a particle constrained to move on a circle has intriguing dynamic properties and immediate experimental relevance. While a rotor is rather easy to set up classically, the quantum regime is harder to realize and investigate. Here we demonstrate that the quantum dynamics of quasiparticles in certain classes of nanostructured superconductors can be mapped onto a quantum rotor. Furthermore, we provide a straightforward experimental procedure to convert this nanoscale superconducting rotor into a regular or inverted quantum pendulum with tunable gravitational field, inertia, and drive. We detail how these novel states can be detected via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The proposed experiments will provide insights into quantum dynamics and quantum chaos. PMID:24686241
Quantum rotor in nanostructured superconductors
Lin, Shi-Hsin; Milošević, M. V.; Covaci, L.; Jankó, B.; Peeters, F. M.
2014-01-01
Despite its apparent simplicity, the idealized model of a particle constrained to move on a circle has intriguing dynamic properties and immediate experimental relevance. While a rotor is rather easy to set up classically, the quantum regime is harder to realize and investigate. Here we demonstrate that the quantum dynamics of quasiparticles in certain classes of nanostructured superconductors can be mapped onto a quantum rotor. Furthermore, we provide a straightforward experimental procedure to convert this nanoscale superconducting rotor into a regular or inverted quantum pendulum with tunable gravitational field, inertia, and drive. We detail how these novel states can be detected via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The proposed experiments will provide insights into quantum dynamics and quantum chaos. PMID:24686241
Computational Analysis of Multi-Rotor Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
Interactional aerodynamics of multi-rotor flows has been studied for a quadcopter representing a generic quad tilt-rotor aircraft in hover. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of the separation distances between rotors, and also fuselage and wings on the performance and efficiency of multirotor systems. Three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a spatially 5th order accurate scheme, dual-time stepping, and the Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence model. The results show that the separation distances as well as the wings have significant effects on the vertical forces of quadroror systems in hover. Understanding interactions in multi-rotor flows would help improve the design of next generation multi-rotor drones.
Application of the wide-field shadowgraph technique to rotor wake visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norman, Thomas R.; Light, Jeffrey S.
1989-01-01
The wide field shadowgraph technique is reviewed along with its application to the visualization of rotor wakes. In particular, current experimental methods and data reduction requirements are discussed. Sample shadowgraphs are presented. These include shadowgraphs of model-scale helicopter main rotors and tilt rotors, and full scale tail rotors, both in hover and in forward flight.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackwell, Mark W.; Tutty, Owen R.; Rogers, Eric; Sandberg, Richard D.
2016-01-01
The inclusion of smart devices in wind turbine rotor blades could, in conjunction with collective and individual pitch control, improve the aerodynamic performance of the rotors. This is currently an active area of research with the primary objective of reducing the fatigue loads but mitigating the effects of extreme loads is also of interest. The aerodynamic loads on a wind turbine blade contain periodic and non-periodic components and one approach is to consider the application of iterative learning control algorithms. In this paper, the control design is based on a simple, in relative terms, computational fluid dynamics model that uses non-linear wake effects to represent flow past an airfoil. A representation for the actuator dynamics is included to undertake a detailed investigation into the level of control possible and on how performance can be effectively measured.
Open rotor broadband interaction noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kingan, Michael J.
2013-08-01
A theoretical model is presented for calculating the broadband noise produced by the interaction of an open rotor with the wake from either an upstream contra-rotating rotor or a stationary pylon. The model is used to investigate the dependence of the radiated noise on parameters such as pylon-rotor gap and the polar and azimuthal directivity of the noise field. A simple model is also presented which assumes that the unsteady loading on adjacent blades is uncorrelated. It is shown that the simple model can be used to calculate broadband interaction noise for most practical open rotor geometries. The errors in Ref. [3] are listed in this footnote. (1) The effect of wake skew on the 'mean wake profile' was not properly accounted for (see Eqs. (38 and 39) of this paper). (2) The final formulation contained an extra factor of 2π due to an inconsistent Fourier transform convention. (3) There was an error in the wavenumber contained in the blade response function g (see Appendix 1 of this paper). (4) There were a number of errors in the 'acoustically weighted lift function', ΨL, which is defined in Appendix 1 of this paper.
Aguirre, R. M.; Paoli, A. L. de
2007-04-15
We study the properties of cold asymmetric nuclear matter at high density, applying the quark meson coupling model with excluded volume corrections in the framework of the Landau theory of relativistic Fermi liquids. We discuss the role of the finite spatial extension of composite baryons on dynamical and statistical properties such as the Landau parameters, the compressibility, and the symmetry energy. We have also calculated the low-lying collective eigenfrequencies arising from the collisionless quasiparticle transport equation, considering both unstable and stable modes. An overall analysis of the excluded volume correlations on the collective properties is performed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khouli, F.
An aeroelastic phenomenon, known as blade sailing, encountered during maritime operation of helicopters is identified as being a factor that limits the tactical flexibility of helicopter operation in some sea conditions. The hazards associated with this phenomenon and its complexity, owing to the number of factors contributing to its occurrence, led previous investigators to conclude that advanced and validated simulation tools are best suited to investigate it. A research gap is identified in terms of scaled experimental investigation of this phenomenon and practical engineering solutions to alleviate its negative impact on maritime helicopter operation. The feasibility of a proposed strategy to alleviate it required addressing a gap in modelling thin-walled composite active beams/rotor blades. The modelling is performed by extending a mathematically-consistent and asymptotic reduction strategy of the 3-D elastic problem to account for embedded active materials. The derived active cross-sectional theory is validated using 2-D finite element results for closed and open cross-sections. The geometrically-exact intrinsic formulation of active maritime rotor systems is demonstrated to yield compact and symbolic governing equations. The intrinsic feature is shown to allow a classical and proven solution scheme to be successfully applied to obtain time history solutions. A Froude-scaled experimental rotor was designed, built, and tested in a scaled ship airwake environment and representative ship motion. Based on experimental and simulations data, conclusions are drawn regarding the influence of the maritime operation environment and the rotor operation parameters on the blade sailing phenomenon. The experimental data is also used to successfully validate the developed simulation tools. The feasibility of an open-loop control strategy based on the integral active twist concept to counter blade sailing is established in a Mach-scaled maritime operation environment
Free Wake Techniques for Rotor Aerodynamic Analylis. Volume 2: Vortex Sheet Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanuwidjaja, A.
1982-01-01
Results of computations are presented using vortex sheets to model the wake and test the sensitivity of the solutions to various assumptions used in the development of the models. The complete codings are included.
Helicopter tail rotor blade-vortex interaction noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
George, Albert R.; Chou, S.-T.
1987-01-01
A study is made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to the interactions with main rotor tip vortices. Summarized here are present analysis, the computer codes, and the results of several test cases. Amiet's unsteady thin airfoil theory is used to calculate the acoustics of blade-vortex interaction. The noise source is modelled as a force dipole resulting from an airfoil of infinite span chopping through a skewed line vortex. To analyze the interactions between helicopter tail rotor and main rotor tip vortices, we developed a two-step approach: (1) the main rotor tip vortex system is obtained through a free wake geometry calculation of the main rotor using CAMRAD code; (2) acoustic analysis takes the results from the aerodynamic interaction analysis and calculates the farfield pressure signatures for the interactions. It is found that under a wide range of helicopter flight conditions, acoustic pressure fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly on the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors. fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly upon the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors.
On the flow field around a Savonius rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeles, G.; Athanassiadis, N.
A model of a two-bucket Savonius rotor windmill was constructed and tested in a wind tunnel. The flow field around the rotor was examined visually and also quantitatively with the use of a hot wire. The flow visualization revealed an upstream influence on the flow field up to 3 rotor diameters away and a strong downwash downstream. Hot wire measurements showed a large velocity deficit behind the rotor and a quick velocity recovery downstream due to strong mixing; the latter was associated with high levels of turbulence. Energy spectra revealed that all turbulence was concentrated in a single harmonic corresponding to twice the rotational speed of the rotor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frew, D. A.; Scheffer, C.
2008-01-01
Accurate rotordynamic analysis is critical in the achievement of efficient rotary machine design, however the majority of models concern flexible shafts with concentrated supports. The modified Euler equations of motion are used in a numerical model to calculate the natural frequencies and whirl amplitudes of a rigid rotor supported by a single-aerostatic bearing. The bearing is modelled with a non-constant stiffness distribution along its length and a non-symmetric centre of gravity. The results are compared with experimental modal analysis (EMA).
Saltzman, B.; Maasch, K.A. )
1988-06-01
A dynamical model of the Pleistocene ice ages is presented, which incorporates many of the qualitative ideas advanced recently regarding the possible role of ocean circulation, chemistry, temperature, and productivity in regulating long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide variations. This model involves one additional term (and free parameter) beyond that included in a previous model (Saltzman and Sutera, 1987), providing the capacity for an asymmetric response. It is shown that many of the main features exhibited by the delta(O-18)-derived ice record and the Vostok core/delta(C-13)-derived carbon dioxide record in the late Pleistocene can be deduced as a free oscillatory solution of the model. 35 refs.
Alignment of asymmetric-top molecules using multiple-pulse trains
Pabst, Stefan; Santra, Robin
2010-06-15
We theoretically analyze the effectiveness of multiple-pulse laser alignment methods for asymmetric-top molecules. As an example, we choose SO{sub 2} and investigate the alignment dynamics induced by two different sequences, each consisting of four identical laser pulses. Each sequence differs only in the time delay between the pulses. Equally spaced pulses matching the alignment revival of the symmetrized SO{sub 2} rotor model are exploited in the first sequence. The pulse separations in the second sequence are short compared to the rotation dynamics of the molecule and monotonically increase the degree of alignment until the maximum alignment is reached. We point out the significant differences between the alignment dynamics of SO{sub 2} treated as an asymmetric-top and a symmetric-top rotor, respectively. We also explain why the fast sequence of laser pulses creates considerably stronger one-dimensional molecular alignment for asymmetric-top molecules. In addition, we show that multiple-pulse trains with elliptically polarized pulses do not enhance one-dimensional alignment or create three-dimensional alignment.
Coaxial rotor hover power reduction using dissimilarity between upper and lower rotor design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wicha, Jan
The present work investigates the power reductions that can be achieved through the use of dissimilar rotors in a coaxial rotor system. The aerodynamic interactions of the coaxial system are modeled using an adapted Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT). A representative model of the Sikorsky XH-59A technology demonstrator is used as a baseline helicopter model to examine the benefits of dissimilarity in a rotor system that is intended for full-scale flight. Initially, parametric studies are conducted to explore the effects of differential radii, RPM, twist and chord distributions. It was shown that the coaxial system can indeed benefit if a unique design is used for the upper and lower rotor. The parametric studies revealed that the largest power reduction is achieved through the use of differential radii. By using a smaller radius for the upper rotor and a larger radius for the lower rotor while maintaining total rotor area, a 5.5% power reduction is achieved. A formal optimization study was then performed to explore the power reductions that can be achieved if multiple design variables are considered for each rotor. When all variables are considered, a power reduction of 15% is achieved. At the optimal design, the thrust share between the upper and lower rotor is 60% and 40%, respectively. A similar sharing of power is also observed indicating that at the optimum state the rotors operate at close to equivalent power loading. Out of the variables considered it has been shown that the optimized coaxial system is least sensitive to twist distributions and similar power reductions can be achieved if only rotor radii, RPM, and chord distributions are considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, Norbert
1988-01-01
The fluid-induced forces, both steady and unsteady, acting upon an impeller of a centrifugal pump, and impeller blade-diffuser vane interaction in centrifugal pumps with vaned radial diffusers were evaluated experimentally and theoretically. Knowledge of the steady and unsteady forces, and the associated rotordynamic coefficients are required to effectively model the rotor dynamics of the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). These forces and rotordynamic coefficients were investigated using different impellers in combination with volutes and vaned diffusers, and axial inducers. These rotor forces are global. Local forces and pressures are also important in impeller-diffuser interaction, for they may cause cavitation damage and even vane failures. Thus, in a separate investigation, impeller wake, and impeller blade and diffuser vane pressure measurements were made. The nature of the rotordynamic forces is discussed, the experimental facility is described, and the measurements of unsteady forces and pressure are reported together with a brief and incomplete attempt to calculate these flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holms, A. G.
1977-01-01
As many as three iterated statistical model deletion procedures were considered for an experiment. Population model coefficients were chosen to simulate a saturated 2 to the 4th power experiment having an unfavorable distribution of parameter values. Using random number studies, three model selection strategies were developed, namely, (1) a strategy to be used in anticipation of large coefficients of variation, approximately 65 percent, (2) a strategy to be sued in anticipation of small coefficients of variation, 4 percent or less, and (3) a security regret strategy to be used in the absence of such prior knowledge.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balch, D. T.; Lombardi, J.
1985-01-01
A model scale hover test was conducted in the Sikorsky Aircraft Model Rotor hover Facility to identify and quantify the impact of the tail rotor on the demonstrated advantages of advanced geometry tip configurations. The existence of mutual interference between hovering main rotor and a tail rotor was acknowledged in the test. The test was conducted using the Basic Model Test Rig and two scaled main rotor systems, one representing a 1/5.727 scale UH-60A BLACK HAWK and the others a 1/4.71 scale S-76. Eight alternate rotor tip configurations were tested, 3 on the BLACK HAWK rotor and 6 on the S-76 rotor. Four of these tips were then selected for testing in close proximity to an operating tail rotor (operating in both tractor and pusher modes) to determine if the performance advantages that could be obtained from the use of advanced geometry tips in a main rotor only environment would still exist in the more complex flow field involving a tail rotor. This volume contains the test run log and tabulated data.
Stochastic and empirical models of the absolute asymmetric synthesis by the Soai-autocatalysis.
Barabás, Béla; Zucchi, Claudia; Maioli, Marco; Micskei, Károly; Pályi, Gyula
2015-02-01
Absolute asymmetric synthesis (AAS) is the preparation of pure (or excess of one) enantiomer of a chiral compound from achiral precursor(s) by a chemical reaction, without enantiopure chiral additive and/or without applied asymmetric physical field. Only one well-characterized example of AAS is known today: the Soai-autocatalysis. In an attempt at clarification of the mechanism of this particular reaction we have undertaken empirical and stochastic analysis of several parallel AAS experiments. Our results show that the initial steps of the reaction might be controlled by simple normal distribution ("coin tossing") formalism. Advanced stages of the reaction, however, appear to be of a more complicated nature. Symmetric beta distribution formalism could not be brought into correspondence with the experimental observations. A bimodal beta distribution algorithm provided suitable agreement with the experimental data. The parameters of this bimodal beta function were determined by a Pólya-urn experiment (simulated by computer). Interestingly, parameters of the resulting bimodal beta function give a golden section ratio. These results show, that in this highly interesting autocatalysis two or even perhaps three catalytic cycles are cooperating. An attempt at constructing a "designed" Soai-type reaction system has also been made. PMID:25644371
Asymmetric tunneling model of forward leakage current in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhi, Ting; Tao, Tao; Liu, Bin; Li, Yi; Zhuang, Zhe; Zhang, Guogang; Xie, Zili; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou
2015-08-01
Through investigating the temperature dependent current-voltage (T-I-V) properties of GaN based blue and green LEDs in this study, we propose an asymmetric tunneling model to understand the leakage current below turn-on voltage (V < 3.2 V): At the forward bias within 1.5 V ˜ 2.1 V (region 1), the leakage current is main attributed to electrons tunneling from the conduction band of n-type GaN layer to the valence band of p-type GaN layer via defect states in space-charge region (SCR); While, at the forward bias within 2 V ˜ 2.4 V (region 2), heavy holes tunneling gradually becomes dominant at low temperature (T < 200K) as long as they can overcome the energy barrier height. The tunneling barrier for heavy holes is estimated to be lower than that for electrons, indicating the heavy holes might only tunnel to the defect states. This asymmetric tunneling model shows a novel carrier transport process, which provides better understanding of the leakage characteristics and is vital for future device improvements.
Asymmetric tunneling model of forward leakage current in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes
Zhi, Ting; Tao, Tao; Liu, Bin E-mail: rzhang@nju.edu.cn; Li, Yi; Zhuang, Zhe; Zhang, Guogang; Xie, Zili; Zhang, Rong E-mail: rzhang@nju.edu.cn; Zheng, Youdou
2015-08-15
Through investigating the temperature dependent current-voltage (T-I-V) properties of GaN based blue and green LEDs in this study, we propose an asymmetric tunneling model to understand the leakage current below turn-on voltage (V < 3.2 V): At the forward bias within 1.5 V ∼ 2.1 V (region 1), the leakage current is main attributed to electrons tunneling from the conduction band of n-type GaN layer to the valence band of p-type GaN layer via defect states in space-charge region (SCR); While, at the forward bias within 2 V ∼ 2.4 V (region 2), heavy holes tunneling gradually becomes dominant at low temperature (T < 200K) as long as they can overcome the energy barrier height. The tunneling barrier for heavy holes is estimated to be lower than that for electrons, indicating the heavy holes might only tunnel to the defect states. This asymmetric tunneling model shows a novel carrier transport process, which provides better understanding of the leakage characteristics and is vital for future device improvements.
Transition State Models for Understanding the Origin of Chiral Induction in Asymmetric Catalysis.
Sunoj, Raghavan B
2016-05-17
In asymmetric catalysis, a chiral catalyst bearing chiral center(s) is employed to impart chirality to developing stereogenic center(s). A rich and diverse set of chiral catalysts is now available in the repertoire of synthetic organic chemistry. The most recent trends point to the emergence of axially chiral catalysts based on binaphthyl motifs, in particular, BINOL-derived phosphoric acids and phosphoramidites. More fascinating ideas took shape in the form of cooperative multicatalysis wherein organo- and transition-metal catalysts are made to work in concert. At the heart of all such manifestations of asymmetric catalysis, classical or contemporary, is the stereodetermining transition state, which holds a perennial control over the stereochemical outcome of the catalytic process. Delving one step deeper, one would find that the origin of the stereoselectivity is delicately dependent on the relative stabilization of one transition state, responsible for the formation of the predominant stereoisomer, over the other transition state for the minor stereoisomer. The most frequently used working hypothesis to rationalize the experimentally observed stereoselectivity places an undue emphasis on steric factors and tends to regard the same as the origin of facial discrimination between the prochiral faces of the reacting partners. In light of the increasing number of asymmetric catalysts that rely on hydrogen bonding as well as other weak non-covalent interactions, it is important to take cognizance of the involvement of such interactions in the sterocontrolling transition states. Modern density functional theories offer a pragmatic and effective way to capture non-covalent interactions in transition states. Aided by the availability of such improved computational tools, it is quite timely that the molecular origin of stereoselectivity is subjected to more intelligible analysis. In this Account, we describe interesting molecular insights into the stereocontrolling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Hai; Shuai, J. W.
2010-04-01
A stochastic spatial model based on the Monte Carlo approach is developed to study the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We aim to propose a more detailed and realistic simulation frame by incorporating many important features of HIV dynamics, which include infections, replications and mutations of viruses, antigen recognitions, activations and proliferations of lymphocytes, and diffusions, encounters and interactions of virions and lymphocytes. Our model successfully reproduces the three-phase pattern observed in HIV infection, and the simulation results for the time distribution from infection to AIDS onset are also in good agreement with the clinical data. The interactions of viruses and the immune system in all the three phases are investigated. We assess the relative importance of various immune system components in the acute phase. The dynamics of how the two important factors, namely the viral diversity and the asymmetric battle between HIV and the immune system, result in AIDS are investigated in detail with the model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harter, Andrew K.; Lee, Tony E.; Joglekar, Yogesh N.
2016-06-01
Aubry-André-Harper lattice models, characterized by a reflection-asymmetric sinusoidally varying nearest-neighbor tunneling profile, are well known for their topological properties. We consider the fate of such models in the presence of balanced gain and loss potentials ±i γ located at reflection-symmetric sites. We predict that these models have a finite PT -breaking threshold only for specific locations of the gain-loss potential and uncover a hidden symmetry that is instrumental to the finite threshold strength. We also show that the topological edge states remain robust in the PT -symmetry-broken phase. Our predictions substantially broaden the possible experimental realizations of a PT -symmetric system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezin, Y. A.; Trofimov, V. M.
1995-12-01
A critical review of hydrodynamical models with asymmetric stress tensor is given. Particular attention is focused on the balance law of angular momentum as the necessary element for a correct description of the internal motions of turbulent oriented eddies. On the basis of this analysis a non-equilibrium turbulence model is proposed that is shown to be close to the hydrodynamic equations with intrinsic rotation and helical turbulence. We employ this model in the study of the initial stage of thermal convection in a horizontal layer of a rotating non-equilibrium turbulent fluid that is heated from below. Linearizing the balance equations of mass, momentum, angular momentum and energy yields the boundary value problem, from which the general properties of the spectrum are determined. In the case of the horizontal layer with equilibrium boundary conditions on free boundaries we study the influence of the rotation and turbulent motion on the convective instability.
User's guide for a personal computer model of turbulence at a wind turbine rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connell, J. R.; Powell, D. C.; Gower, G. L.
1989-08-01
This document is primarily: (1) a user's guide for the personal computer (PC) version of the code for the PNL computational model of the rotationally sampled wind speed (RODASIM11), and (2) a brief guide to the growing literature on the subject of rotationally sampled turbulence, from which the model is derived. The model generates values of turbulence experienced by single points fixed in the rotating frame of reference of an arbitrary wind turbine blade. The character of the turbulence depends on the specification of mean wind speed, the variance of turbulence, the crosswind and along-wind integral scales of turbulence, mean wind shear, and the hub height, radius, and angular speed of rotation of any point at which wind fluctuation is to be calculated.
User's guide for a personal computer model of turbulence at a wind turbine rotor
Connell, J.R.; Powell, D.C.; Gower, G.L.
1989-08-01
This document is primarily (1) a user's guide for the personal computer (PC) version of the code for the PNL computational model of the rotationally sampled wind speed (RODASIM11) and (2) a brief guide to the growing literature on the subject of rotationally sampled turbulence, from which the model is derived. The model generates values of turbulence experienced by single points fixed in the rotating frame of reference of an arbitrary wind turbine blade. The character of the turbulence depends on the specification of mean wind speed, the variance of turbulence, the crosswind and along-wind integral scales of turbulence, mean wind shear, and the hub height, radius, and angular speed of rotation of any point at which wind fluctuation is to be calculated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balch, D. T.; Saccullo, A.; Sheehy, T. W.
1983-01-01
To assist in identifying and quantifying the relevant parameters associated with the complex topic of main rotor/fuselage/tail rotor interference, a model scale hover test was conducted in the Model Rotor Hover Facility. The test was conducted using the basic model test rig, fuselage skins to represent a UH-60A BLACK HAWK helicopter, 4 sets of rotor blades of varying geometry (i.e., twist, airfoils and solidity) and a model tail rotor that could be relocated to give changes in rotor clearance (axially, laterally, and vertically), can't angle and operating model (pusher or tractor). The description of the models and the tests, data analysis and summary (including plots) are included. The customary system of units gas used for principal measurements and calculations. Expressions in both SI units and customary units are used with the SI units stated first and the customary units afterwords, in parenthesis.
Direct integration of transient rotor dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kascak, A. F.
1980-01-01
An implicit method was developed for integrating the equations of motion for a lumped mass model of a rotor dynamics system. As an aside, a closed form solution to the short bearing theory was also developed for a damper with arbitrary motion. The major conclusions are that the method is numerically stable and that the computation time is proportional to the number of elements in the rotor dynamics model rather than to the cube of the number. This computer code allowed the simulation of a complex rotor bearing system experiencing nonlinear transient motion and displayed the vast amount of results in an easily understood motion picture format - a 10 minute, 16 millimeter, color, sound motion picture supplement. An example problem with 19 mass elements in the rotor dynamics model took 0.7 second of central processing unit time per time step on an IBM 360-67 computer in a time sharing mode.
Performance investigation of the S-Rotors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhayo, B. A.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Yahaya, N. Z.
2015-12-01
This paper presents and discusses results from an experimental investigation of three models of wind S-rotors. Models 1 is modified from conventional Savonius rotor with a single stage and zero offsets zero overlaps; model 2 is three blade single stage wind rotor; and model 3 is double stage conventional Savonius rotor. The three models were designed, fabricated and characterized in terms of their coefficient of performance and dynamic torque coefficient. A special open wind simulator was designed for the test. The optimum parameters for the models were based on previous studies. The results showed that the model 1, model 2 and model 3 has the maximum power coefficient of 0.26, 0.17, and 0.21 at the correspondence tip speed ratio (TSR) of 0.42, 0.39 and 0.46, respectively. Model 1 is further optimized in terms of the aspect ratio resulting in improved power coefficient by 24%. The maximum dynamic torque coefficient of model 1, model 2 and model 3 was found as 0.81, 0.56 and 0.67 at the correspondence minimum TSR of 0.28, 0.21 and 0.17, respectively. It was noted that the all three models have high torque coefficient because the models were tested at higher applied torque on the rotors.
Internal Friction And Instabilities Of Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.
1992-01-01
Report describes study of effects of internal friction on dynamics of rotors prompted by concern over instabilities in rotors of turbomachines. Theoretical and experimental studies described. Theoretical involved development of nonlinear mathematical models of internal friction in three joints found in turbomachinery - axial splines, Curvic(TM) splines, and interference fits between smooth cylindrical surfaces. Experimental included traction tests to determine the coefficients of friction of rotor alloys at various temperatures, bending-mode-vibration tests of shafts equipped with various joints and rotordynamic tests of shafts with axial-spline and interference-fit joints.
Hydraulic Actuator System for Rotor Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, Heinz; Althaus, Josef
1991-01-01
In the last ten years, several different types of actuators were developed and fabricated for active control of rotors. A special hydraulic actuator system capable of generating high forces to rotating shafts via conventional bearings is addressed. The actively controlled hydraulic force actuator features an electrohydraulic servo valve which can produce amplitudes and forces at high frequencies necessary for influencing rotor vibrations. The mathematical description will be given in detail. The experimental results verify the theoretical model. Simulations already indicate the usefulness of this compact device for application to a real rotor system.
Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung
2014-01-01
Bile duct ligation (BDL)-treated rats exhibit cholestasis, increased systemic oxidative stress, and liver fibrosis, which ultimately lead to liver cirrhosis. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that can decrease the synthesis of nitric oxide. BDL rats have higher plasma and hepatic ADMA levels, which may be due to increased hepatic protein arginine methyltransferase-1 and decreased dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase expression. BDL rats also exhibit renal and brain damage characterized by increased tissue ADMA concentrations. The increased plasma ADMA levels and multiple organ damages seen here are also observed following multiple organ failures associated with critical illness. This review discusses the dysregulation of ADMA in major organs in BDL rats and the role of increased ADMA in multiple organ damages. PMID:24603538
Asymmetric glottal jet deflection: differences of two- and three-dimensional models.
Mattheus, Willy; Brücker, Christoph
2011-12-01
Flow is studied through a channel with an oscillating orifice mimicking the motion of the glottal-gap during phonation. Simulations with prescribed flow and wall-motion are carried out for different orifice geometries, a 2D slit-like and a 3D lens-like one. Although the jet emerges from a symmetric orifice a significant deflection occurs in case of the slit-like geometry, contrary to the 3D lens-like one. The results demonstrate the dependency of jet entrainment and vortex dynamics on the orifice geometry and the interpretation of asymmetric jet deflection with regard to the relevance of the Coanda effect in the process of human phonation. PMID:22225129
Asymmetric adsorption by quartz - A model for the prebiotic origin of optical activity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonner, W. M.; Kavasmaneck, P. R.; Martin, F. S.; Flores, J. J.
1975-01-01
One mechanism previously proposed for the abiotic accumulation of molecules of one chirality in nature is asymmetric adsorption on the chiral surfaces of optically active quartz crystals. Earlier literature in this field is reviewed, with the conclusion that previous investigations of this phenomenon, using optical rotation criteria, have afforded ambiguous results. We now have studied the adsorption of radioactive D- and L-alanine on powdered d- and l-quartz, using change in radioactivity level as a criterion for both gross and differential adsorption, d-Quartz preferentially adsorbed D-alanine from anhydrous dimethyl-formamide solution, and l-quartz L-alanine. The differential adsorption varied between 1.0 and 1.8%. The implications of these observations are discussed from the viewpoint of early chemical evolution and the origin of optically active organic compounds in nature.
Topological dynamics in supramolecular rotors.
Palma, Carlos-Andres; Björk, Jonas; Rao, Francesco; Kühne, Dirk; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V
2014-08-13
Artificial molecular switches, rotors, and machines are set to establish design rules and applications beyond their biological counterparts. Herein we exemplify the role of noncovalent interactions and transient rearrangements in the complex behavior of supramolecular rotors caged in a 2D metal-organic coordination network. Combined scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and molecular dynamics modeling of a supramolecular rotor with respective rotation rates matching with 0.2 kcal mol(-1) (9 meV) precision, identify key steps in collective rotation events and reconfigurations. We notably reveal that stereoisomerization of the chiral trimeric units entails topological isomerization whereas rotation occurs in a topology conserving, two-step asynchronous process. In supramolecular constructs, distinct displacements of subunits occur inducing a markedly lower rotation barrier as compared to synchronous mechanisms of rigid rotors. Moreover, the chemical environment can be instructed to control the system dynamics. Our observations allow for a definition of mechanical cooperativity based on a significant reduction of free energy barriers in supramolecules compared to rigid molecules. PMID:25078022
Grayson, Matthew N; Houk, K N
2016-07-27
The cinchona alkaloid-derived urea-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition of aromatic thiols to cycloalkenones was studied using density functional theory (DFT). Deprotonation of the thiol gives a protonated amine that activates the electrophile by Brønsted acid catalysis, while the urea group binds the nucleophilic thiolate by hydrogen bonding. These results demonstrate the generality of the Brønsted acid-hydrogen bonding transition state (TS) model for cinchona alkaloid catalysis that we recently showed to be favored over Wynberg's widely accepted ion pair-hydrogen bonding model and represent the first detailed mechanistic study of a cinchona urea-catalyzed reaction. The conformation of the catalyst methoxy group has a strong effect on the TS, an effect overlooked in previous mechanistic studies of reactions catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids. PMID:27396591
A review of research in rotor loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bousman, William G.; Mantay, Wayne R.
1988-01-01
The research accomplished in the area of rotor loads over the last 13 to 14 years is reviewed. The start of the period examined is defined by the 1973 AGARD Milan conference and the 1974 hypothetical rotor comparison. The major emphasis of the review is research performed by the U.S. Army and NASA at their laboratories and/or by the industry under government contract. For the purpose of this review, two main topics are addressed: rotor loads prediction and means of rotor loads reduction. A limited discussion of research in gust loads and maneuver loads is included. In the area of rotor loads predictions, the major problem areas are reviewed including dynamic stall, wake induced flows, blade tip effects, fuselage induced effects, blade structural modeling, hub impedance, and solution methods. It is concluded that the capability to predict rotor loads has not significantly improved in this time frame. Future progress will require more extensive correlation of measurements and predictions to better understand the causes of the problems, and a recognition that differences between theory and measurement have multiple sources, yet must be treated as a whole. There is a need for high-quality data to support future research in rotor loads, but the resulting data base must not be seen as an end in itself. It will be useful only if it is integrated into firm long-range plans for the use of the data.
Exploratory flow visualization investigation of mast-mounted sights in presence of a rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghee, Terence A.; Kelley, Henry L.
1995-01-01
A flow visualization investigation with a laser light sheet system was conducted on a 27-percent-scale AH-64 attack helicopter model fitted with two mast-mounted sights in the langley 14- by 22-foot subsonic tunnel. The investigation was conducted to identify aerodynamic phenomena that may have contributed to adverse vibration encountered during full-scale flight of the AH-64D apache/longbow helicopter with an asymmetric mast-mounted sight. Symmetric and asymmetric mast-mounted sights oriented at several skew angles were tested at simulated forward and rearward flight speeds of 30 and 45 knots. A laser light sheet system was used to visualize the flow in planes parallel to and perpendicular to the free-stream flow. Analysis of these flow visualization data identified frequencies of flow patterns in the wake shed from the sight, the streamline angle at the sight, and the location where the shed wake crossed the rotor plane. Differences in wake structure were observed between the sight configurations and various skew angles. Analysis of lateral light sheet plane data implied significant vortex structure in the wake of the asymmetric mast-mounted sight in the configuration that produced maximum in-flight vibration. The data showed no significant vortex structure in the wake of the asymmetric and symmetric configurations that produced no increase in in-flight adverse vibration.
Active interrogation of helicopter main rotor faults using trailing edge flap actuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevens, Patricia Lynn
Over the past decade, the helicopter community has become increasingly interested in health monitoring. The rotor system, however, is not sufficiently covered in the current Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS). This dissertation describes the development and evaluation of a new approach for detecting helicopter rotor faults in which active trailing edge flaps are used to interrogate the system. This work is based on the presumption that trailing edge flaps would be installed for the primary purpose of vibration and/or noise control; health monitoring is a secondary use. Using this approach, the blade is excited by an interrogation signal, which is a low amplitude oscillation at a few discrete frequencies. The blade response is measured and the health of the system is determined using a frequency domain damage identification algorithm. Damage detection and location are achieved via the residual force vector. The residual force vector, coupled with an understanding of the system physics, also provides nature characterization. Quantification of damage extent is achieved via a frequency domain adaptation of the Asymmetric Minimum Rank Perturbation Theory. The active interrogation system is evaluated using an aeroelastic finite element model of the rotor system in hover, including an advanced unsteady aerodynamic model to predict the trailing edge flap loads. Realistic damage models, including distributed bending stiffness damage, torsional stiffness damage, control system stiffness damage, cracks and ballistic damage, are seeded in the rotor system model. Results demonstrate detection, location and quantification of extent of all of the faults tested. The effects of noise and modeling errors are discussed and mitigation techniques are developed. Additionally, a measurability study is included. Benefits of this work include both improved health monitoring for rotorcraft as well as insights into the application of structural damage detection algorithms to a
Computational Study of Flow Interactions in Coaxial Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
account for multiple real-world constraints up front in design nor possible to know what performance is possible with a given design. Since unmanned vehicles are sized and optimized for the particular mission, a modern low-fidelity conceptual design and sizing tool that has been used for the design of large helicopters can be used for design of small coaxial rotorcraft. However, unlike most helicopters with single main rotor, the interactions between the upper and lower rotors emerge as an important factor to consider in design because an increase in performance of a multi-rotor system is not proportional to the number of rotors. Interference losses and differences in thrusts between the upper and lower rotors were investigated by theoretical methods as well as a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In this work, hybrid turbulence models are used to investigate the physics of interactions between coaxial rotors and a fuselage that are not well understood. Present study covers not only small-scale drones but also large-scale coaxial rotors for heavy-lifting missions. Considering the recently proposed FAA drone rules that require the flight only in visual line-of-sight, a large multirotor might be used as an airborne carrier for launch and recovery of unmanned aircraft systems with a human operator onboard. For applications to civil operations, their aerodynamic performance and noise levels need to be assessed. Noise is one of the largest limiting factors to rotorcraft operations in urban area. Since the high-frequency noise of multi-rotors may increase the annoyance, noise may turn out to be a key issue that must be addressed for market acceptability. One of the objectives of the present work is to study the effects of inter-rotor spacing and collectives on the performance, efficiency, and acoustics of coaxial rotor systems.
Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber; Jason Detar; John A. Sweka
2013-01-01
Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.
Dorville, Nicolas Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence
2015-09-15
Finding kinetic equilibria for non-collisional/collisionless tangential current layers is a key issue as well for their theoretical modeling as for our understanding of the processes that disturb them, such as tearing or Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities. The famous Harris equilibrium [E. Harris, Il Nuovo Cimento Ser. 10 23, 115–121 (1962)] assumes drifting Maxwellian distributions for ions and electrons, with constant temperatures and flow velocities; these assumptions lead to symmetric layers surrounded by vacuum. This strongly particular kind of layer is not suited for the general case: asymmetric boundaries between two media with different plasmas and different magnetic fields. The standard method for constructing more general kinetic equilibria consists in using Jeans theorem, which says that any function depending only on the Hamiltonian constants of motion is a solution to the steady Vlasov equation [P. J. Channell, Phys. Fluids (1958–1988) 19, 1541 (1976); M. Roth et al., Space Sci. Rev. 76, 251–317 (1996); and F. Mottez, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1541–1545 (2003)]. The inverse implication is however not true: when using the motion invariants as variables instead of the velocity components, the general stationary particle distributions keep on depending explicitly of the position, in addition to the implicit dependence introduced by these invariants. The standard approach therefore strongly restricts the class of solutions to the problem and probably does not select the most physically reasonable. The BAS (Belmont-Aunai-Smets) model [G. Belmont et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 022108 (2012)] used for the first time the concept of particle accessibility to find new solutions: considering the case of a coplanar-antiparallel magnetic field configuration without electric field, asymmetric solutions could be found while the standard method can only lead to symmetric ones. These solutions were validated in a hybrid simulation [N. Aunai et al., Phys. Plasmas (1994-present
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorville, Nicolas; Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence
2015-09-01
Finding kinetic equilibria for non-collisional/collisionless tangential current layers is a key issue as well for their theoretical modeling as for our understanding of the processes that disturb them, such as tearing or Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities. The famous Harris equilibrium [E. Harris, Il Nuovo Cimento Ser. 10 23, 115-121 (1962)] assumes drifting Maxwellian distributions for ions and electrons, with constant temperatures and flow velocities; these assumptions lead to symmetric layers surrounded by vacuum. This strongly particular kind of layer is not suited for the general case: asymmetric boundaries between two media with different plasmas and different magnetic fields. The standard method for constructing more general kinetic equilibria consists in using Jeans theorem, which says that any function depending only on the Hamiltonian constants of motion is a solution to the steady Vlasov equation [P. J. Channell, Phys. Fluids (1958-1988) 19, 1541 (1976); M. Roth et al., Space Sci. Rev. 76, 251-317 (1996); and F. Mottez, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1541-1545 (2003)]. The inverse implication is however not true: when using the motion invariants as variables instead of the velocity components, the general stationary particle distributions keep on depending explicitly of the position, in addition to the implicit dependence introduced by these invariants. The standard approach therefore strongly restricts the class of solutions to the problem and probably does not select the most physically reasonable. The BAS (Belmont-Aunai-Smets) model [G. Belmont et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 022108 (2012)] used for the first time the concept of particle accessibility to find new solutions: considering the case of a coplanar-antiparallel magnetic field configuration without electric field, asymmetric solutions could be found while the standard method can only lead to symmetric ones. These solutions were validated in a hybrid simulation [N. Aunai et al., Phys. Plasmas (1994-present) 20
Centrifuge rotor integrated analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohtomi, Koichi; Kanzawa, Takuya; Hampton, Roy; Kawamoto, Osamu
2004-09-01
The Centrifuge Rotor (CR) is a large life science experiment facility which will be installed in the International Space Station (ISS). It will provide artificial gravity of 2g or less by rotating up to 4 science habitats, and it will be the first such machinery to be used in space. To prevent vibration disturbance exchanges between the CR and the ISS, a soft 5 dof vibration isolation mechanism is used which cannot support the CR weight on the ground. Therefore, the CR on-orbit performance must be predicted by integrated analysis which must model all of the equipment including sensors, actuators, flexible structure, gyroscopic effects, and controllers. Here, we introduce the CR mechatronics, a verification procedure, and examples of the application of the integrated analysis which is based on the general-purpose mechanism analysis software ADAMS.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, M.
1985-01-01
The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission systm from the fuselage. A mathematical model relating applied rotor loads and inertial loads of the rotor/transmission system to the load cell response is required to allow the load cells to be used to estimate rotor loads from flight data. Such a model is derived analytically by applying a force and moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is tested by comparing its estimated values of applied rotor loads with measured values obtained from a ground based shake test. Discrepancies in the comparison are used to isolate sources of unmodeled external loads. Once the structure of the mathematical model has been validated by comparison with experimental data, the parameters must be identified. Since the parameters may vary with flight condition it is desirable to identify the parameters directly from the flight data. A Maximum Likelihood identification algorithm is derived for this purpose and tested using a computer simulation of load cell data. The identification is found to converge within 10 samples. The rapid convergence facilitates tracking of time varying parameters of the load cell model in flight.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hudák, Peter; Hrabovcová, Valéria
2010-11-01
The paper provides an analysis of reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with asymmetrical rotor cage. Its performances during its starting up is investigated. A mathematical model is created on the basis of detailed investigation of model parameters. The RSM starting up by switching it directly across the line was simulated and verified by measurements.
Effects of planform geometry on hover performance of a 2-meter-diameter model of a four-bladed rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phelps, A. E., III; Althoff, S. L.
1986-01-01
Hover tests were conducted on three small scale rotors to evaluate the effects of blade planform taper on rotor hover performance. Tests were conducted on a rectangular swept-tip configuration, on a configuration with a 3 to 1 taper over the outboard 20 percent of the span, and on a configuration with a 5 to 1 taper over the outboard 20 percent of the blade span. The investigation covered a range of thrust coefficients from 0 to 0.0075 and a range of tip speeds from 300 to 600 ft/sec. The tests showed that both tapered configurations had better hover performance than the swept-tip rectangular configuration and that the 3 to 1 taper configuration was better than the 5 to 1 taper configuration. The test results were compared with predictions made with a prescribed wake analysis, a momentum analysis, and a simplified free wake analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balch, D. T.; Lombardi, J.
1985-01-01
A model scale hover test was conducted in the Sikorsky Aircraft Model rotor hover Facility to identify and quantify the impact of the tail rotor on the demonstrated advantages of advanced geometry tip configurations. The test was conducted using the Basic Model Test Rig and two scaled main rotor systems, one representing a 1/5.727 scale UH-60A BLACK HAWK and the others a 1/4.71 scale S-76. Eight alternate rotor tip configurations were tested, 3 on the BLACK HAWK rotor and 6 on the S-76 rotor. Four of these tips were then selected for testing in close proximity to an operating tail rotor (operating in both tractor and pusher modes) to determine if the performance advantages that could be obtained from the use of advanced geometry tips in a main rotor only environment would still exist in the more complex flow field involving a tail rotor. The test showed that overall the tail rotor effects on the advanced tip configurations tested are not substantially different from the effects on conventional tips.
Flexible rotor dynamics analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, F. A.
1973-01-01
A digital computer program was developed to analyze the general nonaxisymmetric and nonsynchronous transient and steady-state rotor dynamic performance of a bending- and shear-wise flexible rotor-bearing system under various operating conditions. The effects of rotor material mechanical hysteresis, rotor torsion flexibility, transverse effects of rotor axial and torsional loading and the anisotropic, in-phase and out-of-phase bearing stiffness and damping force and moment coefficients were included in the program to broaden its capability. An optimum solution method was found and incorporated in the computer program. Computer simulation of experimental data was made and qualitative agreements observed. The mathematical formulations, computer program verification, test data simulation, and user instruction was presented and discussed.
Methanol: The Simplest C3V Internal Rotor and Ubiquitous Interstellar Weed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearson, J. C.; Drouin, B. J.; Yu, S.; Brown, L. R.; Brauer, C. S.; Gupta, H.; Sung, K.; Xu, L.-H.; Wang, S.; Bergin, E. A.
2011-05-01
Methanol is the simplest three-fold internal rotor by virtue of the internal rotation of the CH3 top with respect to the OH frame. Without the internal rotation methanol would be a relatively benign nearly prolate asymmetric top molecule. The internal rotation results in an A-state that acts as an asymmetric top and two symmetric top like E-states. The ground state is best described as rotation problem perturbed by internal rotation, but by the time the second excited torsional state is reached a more apt description would be of a free-rotor perturbed by a rotation problem. Herschel observations have detected methanol through at least the second excited torsional state and with J > 30 including many levels above the range of transitions included in the latest analysis. A number of new laboratory spectra have made it possible to assess the ability of the ρ-axis method methanol Hamiltonian models to be used in extrapolation. The validity of using the permanent electric dipole moment in calculation of torsional line strengths has also been assessed through FTIR intensities. We report the extension of methanol data to J = 45 and K = 16 in the lowest 3 torsional states and compare the results with Herschel observations.
Rotor-Fuselage Interaction: Analysis and Validation with Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, John D.; Bettschart, Nicolas
1997-01-01
The problem of rotor-fuselage aerodynamic interaction has to be considered in industry applications from various aspects. First, in order to increase helicopter speed and reduce operational costs, rotorcraft tend to be more and more compact, with a main rotor closer to the fuselage surface. This creates significant perturbations both on the main rotor and on the fuselage, including steady and unsteady effects due to blade and wake passage and perturbed inflow at the rotor disk. Furthermore,the main rotor wake affects the tail boom, empennage and anti-torque system. This has important consequences for helicopter control and vibrations at low speeds and also on tail rotor acoustics (main rotor wake-tail rotor interactions). This report describes the US Army-France MOD cooperative work on this problem from both the theoretical and experimental aspects. Using experimental 3D velocity field and fuselage surface pressure measurements, three codes that model the interactions of a helicopter rotor with a fuselage are compared. These comparisons demonstrate some of the strengths and weaknesses of current models for the combined rotor-fuselage analysis.
Labyrinth seal forces on a whirling rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, D. V.
1983-01-01
An experimental investigation of air labyrinth seal forces on a subsynchronously whirling model rotor is described and test results are given for diverging, converging, and straight two-strip seals. The effects of pressure drop, provide basic experimental data needed in the development of design methods for predicting and preventing self-excited whirl of turbine rotors and other machines having labyrinth seals. The total dynamic seal forces on the whirling model rotor are measured accurately by means of an active damping and stiffness system that is adjusted to obtain neutral whirl stability of the model rotor system. In addition, the whirling pressure pattern in the seal annulus is measured for a few test conditions and the corresponding pressure forces on the rotor are compared with the total measured forces. This comparison shows that either radial and axial pressure gradients in the seal annulus or drag forces on the rotor are significant. Comparisons made between the measured seal forces and theoretical results show that present theory is inadequate.
Labyrinth seal forces on a whirling rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, D. V.
1983-01-01
An experimental investigation of air labyrinth seal forces on a subsynchronously whirling model rotor is described and test results are given for diverging, converging, and straight two-strip seals. The effects of pressure drop, back pressure, whirl direction, and whirl frequency are shown. These results provide basic experimental data needed in the development of design methods for predicting and preventing self-excited whirl of turbine rotors and other machines having labyrinth seals. The total dynamic seal forces on the whirling model rotor are measured accurately by means of a novel active damping and stiffness system that is adjusted to obtain neutral whirl stability of the model rotor system. In addition, the whirling pressure pattern in the seal annulus is measured for a few test conditions and the corresponding pressure forces on the rotor are compared with the total measured forces. This comparison shows that either radial and axial pressure gradients in the seal annulus or drag forces on the rotor are significant.
Wind tunnel investigation of rotor lift and propulsive force at high speed: Data analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mchugh, F.; Clark, R.; Soloman, M.
1977-01-01
The basic test data obtained during the lift-propulsive force limit wind tunnel test conducted on a scale model CH-47b rotor are analyzed. Included are the rotor control positions, blade loads and six components of rotor force and moment, corrected for hub tares. Performance and blade loads are presented as the rotor lift limit is approached at fixed levels of rotor propulsive force coefficients and rotor tip speeds. Performance and blade load trends are documented for fixed levels of rotor lift coefficient as propulsive force is increased to the maximum obtainable by the model rotor. Test data is also included that defines the effect of stall proximity on rotor control power. The basic test data plots are presented in volumes 2 and 3.
Potential acoustic benefits of circulation control rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, R. M.; Cheeseman, I. C.
1978-01-01
The fundamental aeroacoustic mechanisms responsible for noise generation on a rotating blade are theoretically examined. Their contribution to the overall rotor sound pressure level is predicted. Results from a theory for airfoil trailing edge noise are presented. Modifications and extensions to other source theories are described where it is necessary to account for unique aspects of circulation control (CC) aerodynamics. The circulation control rotor (CCR), as embodied on an X-wing vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, is used as an example for computational purposes, although many of the theoretical results presented are generally applicable to other CC applications (such as low speed rotors, propellers, compressors, and fixed wing aircraft). Using the analytical models, it is shown that the utilization CC aerodynamics theoretically makes possible unprecedented advances in rotor noise reduction. For the X-wing VTOL these reductions appear to be feasible without incurring significant attendant performance and weight penalties.
Effect of AFT Rotor on the Inter-Rotor Flow of an Open Rotor Propulsion System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slaboch, Paul E.; Stephens, David B.; Van Zante, Dale E.
2016-01-01
The effects of the aft rotor on the inter-rotor flow field of an open rotor propulsion rig were examined. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) dataset that was acquired phase locked to the front rotor position has been phase averaged based on the relative phase angle between the forward and aft rotors. The aft rotor phase was determined by feature tracking in raw PIV images through an image processing algorithm. The effect of the aft rotor potential field on the inter-rotor flow were analyzed and shown to be in good agreement with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. It was shown that the aft rotor had no substantial effect on the position of the forward rotor tip vortex but did have a small effect on the circulation strength of the vortex when the rotors were highly loaded.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciandrini, L.; Stansfield, I.; Romano, M. C.
2010-05-01
Messenger RNA translation is often studied by means of statistical-mechanical models based on the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP), which considers hopping particles (the ribosomes) on a lattice (the polynucleotide chain). In this work we extend this class of models and consider the two fundamental steps of the ribosome’s biochemical cycle following a coarse-grained perspective. In order to achieve a better understanding of the underlying biological processes and compare the theoretical predictions with experimental results, we provide a description lying between the minimal ASEP-like models and the more detailed models, which are analytically hard to treat. We use a mean-field approach to study the dynamics of particles associated with an internal stepping cycle. In this framework it is possible to characterize analytically different phases of the system (high density, low density or maximal current phase). Crucially, we show that the transitions between these different phases occur at different parameter values than the equivalent transitions in a standard ASEP, indicating the importance of including the two fundamental steps of the ribosome’s biochemical cycle into the model.
Ciandrini, L; Stansfield, I; Romano, M C
2010-05-01
Messenger RNA translation is often studied by means of statistical-mechanical models based on the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP), which considers hopping particles (the ribosomes) on a lattice (the polynucleotide chain). In this work we extend this class of models and consider the two fundamental steps of the ribosome's biochemical cycle following a coarse-grained perspective. In order to achieve a better understanding of the underlying biological processes and compare the theoretical predictions with experimental results, we provide a description lying between the minimal ASEP-like models and the more detailed models, which are analytically hard to treat. We use a mean-field approach to study the dynamics of particles associated with an internal stepping cycle. In this framework it is possible to characterize analytically different phases of the system (high density, low density or maximal current phase). Crucially, we show that the transitions between these different phases occur at different parameter values than the equivalent transitions in a standard ASEP, indicating the importance of including the two fundamental steps of the ribosome's biochemical cycle into the model. PMID:20866258
Aerodynamic Interaction Effects of a Helicopter Rotor and Fuselage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyd, David D., Jr.
1999-01-01
A three year Cooperative Research Agreements made in each of the three years between the Subsonic Aerodynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Va. Tech) has been completed. This document presents results from this three year endeavor. The goal of creating an efficient method to compute unsteady interactional effects between a helicopter rotor and fuselage has been accomplished. This paper also includes appendices to support these findings. The topics are: 1) Rotor-Fuselage Interactions Aerodynamics: An Unsteady Rotor Model; and 2) Rotor/Fuselage Unsteady Interactional Aerodynamics: A New Computational Model.
Helicopter rotor dynamics and aeroelasticity - Some key ideas and insights
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedmann, Peretz P.
1990-01-01
Four important current topics in helicopter rotor dynamics and aeroelasticity are discussed: (1) the role of geometric nonlinearities in rotary-wing aeroelasticity; (2) structural modeling, free vibration, and aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades; (3) modeling of coupled rotor/fuselage areomechanical problems and their active control; and (4) use of higher-harmonic control for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors in forward flight. The discussion attempts to provide an improved fundamental understanding of the current state of the art. In this way, future research can be focused on problems which remain to be solved instead of producing marginal improvements on problems which are already understood.
Balancing techniques for high-speed flexible rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smalley, A. J.
1978-01-01
Ideal and non-ideal conditions for multiplane balancing are addressed. Methodology and procedures for identifying optimum balancing configurations and for assessing, quantitatively, the penalties associated with non-optimum configurations were developed and demonstrated. The problems introduced when vibration sensors are supported on flexible mounts were assessed experimentally, and the effects of flexural asymmetry in the rotor on balancing were investigated. A general purpose method for predicting the threshold of instability of an asymmetric rotor was developed, and its predictions are compared with measurements under different degrees of asymmetry.
Psychoacoustic Testing of Modulated Blade Spacing for Main Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, Bryan; Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Psychoacoustic testing of simulated helicopter main rotor noise is described, and the subjective results are presented. The objective of these tests was to evaluate the potential acoustic benefits of main rotors with modulated (uneven) blade spacing. Sound simulations were prepared for six main rotor configurations. A baseline 4-blade main rotor with regular blade spacing was based on the Bell Model 427 helicopter. A 5-blade main rotor with regular spacing was designed to approximate the performance of the 427, but at reduced tipspeed. Four modulated rotors - one with "optimum" spacing and three alternate configurations - were derived from the 5 bladed regular spacing rotor. The sounds were played to 2 subjects at a time, with care being taken in the speaker selection and placement to ensure that the sounds were identical for each subject. A total of 40 subjects participated. For each rotor configuration, the listeners were asked to evaluate the sounds in terms of noisiness. The test results indicate little to no "annoyance" benefit for the modulated blade spacing. In general, the subjects preferred the sound of the 5-blade regular spaced rotor over any of the modulated ones. A conclusion is that modulated blade spacing is not a promising design feature to reduce the annoyance for helicopter main rotors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pogorzelski, Ronald J.; Cable, Vaughn P.
2001-01-01
This effort was directed toward demonstration of the efficacy of a concept for mitigation of the rotor blade modulation problem in helicopter communications. An antenna is envisioned with radiating elements mounted on the rotor and rotating with it. The rf signals are coupled to the radio stationary with respect to the airframe via a coupler of unique design. The coupler has an rf cavity within which a mode is established and the field distribution of this mode is sampled by probes rotating with the radiating elements. In this manner the radiated pattern is "despun" with respect to the rotor. Theoretical analysis has indicated that this arrangement will be less susceptible to rotor blade modulation that would be a conventional fixed mounted antenna. A small coupler operating at S-band was designed, fabricated, and mounted on a mockup representative of a helicopter body. A small electric motor was installed to rotate the rotor portion of the coupler along with a set of radiating elements during testing. This test article was be evaluated using the JPL Mesa Antenna Measurement Facility to establish its ability to mitigate rotor blade modulation. It was found that indeed such a coupler will result in a despun pattern and that such a pattern can be effective in mitigation of rotor blade modulation.
Open Rotor Noise Shielding by Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guo, Yueping; Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.
2015-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of open rotor noise shielding by Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft by using model scale test data acquired in the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF) with a legacy F7/A7 rotor model and a simplified BWB platform. The objective of the analysis is the understanding of the shielding features of the BWB and the method of application of the shielding data for noise studies of BWB aircraft with open rotor propulsion. By studying the directivity patterns of individual tones, it is shown that though the tonal energy distribution and the spectral content of the wind tunnel test model, and thus its total noise, may differ from those of more advanced rotor designs, the individual tones follow directivity patterns that characterize far field radiations of modern open rotors, ensuring the validity of the use of this shielding data. Thus, open rotor tonal noise shielding should be categorized into front rotor tones, aft rotor tones and interaction tones, not only because of the different directivities of the three groups of tones, but also due to the differences in their source locations and coherence features, which make the respective shielding characteristics of the three groups of tones distinctly different from each other. To reveal the parametric trends of the BWB shielding effects, results are presented with variations in frequency, far field emission angle, rotor operational condition, engine installation geometry, and local airframe features. These results prepare the way for the development of parametric models for the shielding effects in prediction tools.
Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Gorti, Sarma B; Stoica, Grigoreta M; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Wang, Xun-Li; Specht, Eliot D; Kenik, Edward A; Muth, Thomas R
2012-01-01
The focus of the present research is to develop an integrated deformation and recrystallization model for magnesium alloys at the microstructural length scale. It is known that in magnesium alloys nucleation of recrystallized grains occurs at various microstructural inhomogeneities such as twins and localized deformation bands. However, there is a need to develop models that can predict the evolution of the grain structure and texture developed during recrystallization and grain growth, especially when the deformation process follows a complicated deformation path such as in asymmetric rolling. The deformation model is based on a crystal plasticity approach implemented at the length scale of the microstructure that includes deformation mechanisms based on dislocation slip and twinning. The recrystallization simulation is based on a Monte Carlo technique that operates on the output of the deformation simulations. The nucleation criterion during recrystallization is based on the local stored energy and the Monte Carlo technique is used to simulate the growth of the nuclei due to local stored energy differences and curvature. The model predictions are compared with experimental data obtained through electron backscatter analysis and neutron diffraction.
Fast Fourier transform analysis of rotor-bearing systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choy, K. C.; Gunter, E. J.; Allaire, P. E.
1978-01-01
Nonlinear transient analysis of rotor-bearing systems is becoming increasingly important in the analysis of modern-day rotating machinery to model such phenomena as oil film whirl. This paper develops an analysis technique incorporating modal analysis and fast Fourier transform techniques to analyze rotors with residual shaft bow and realistic nonlinear bearings. The technique is demonstrated on single-mass and three-mass rotor examples. Comparisons of the theoretical results with experimental data give excellent agreement.
McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph
2015-01-01
Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326
Asymmetrical Capacitors for Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canning, Francis X.; Melcher, Cory; Winet, Edwin
2004-01-01
Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters have been proposed as a source of propulsion. For over eighty years, it has been known that a thrust results when a high voltage is placed across an asymmetrical capacitor, when that voltage causes a leakage current to flow. However, there is surprisingly little experimental or theoretical data explaining this effect. This paper reports on the results of tests of several Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters (ACTs). The thrust they produce has been measured for various voltages, polarities, and ground configurations and their radiation in the VHF range has been recorded. These tests were performed at atmospheric pressure and at various reduced pressures. A simple model for the thrust was developed. The model assumed the thrust was due to electrostatic forces on the leakage current flowing across the capacitor. It was further assumed that this current involves charged ions which undergo multiple collisions with air. These collisions transfer momentum. All of the measured data was consistent with this model. Many configurations were tested, and the results suggest general design principles for ACTs to be used for a variety of purposes.
Development of an on-line diagnosis system for rotor vibration via model-based intelligent inference
Bai; Hsiao; Tsai; Lin
2000-01-01
An on-line fault detection and isolation technique is proposed for the diagnosis of rotating machinery. The architecture of the system consists of a feature generation module and a fault inference module. Lateral vibration data are used for calculating the system features. Both continuous-time and discrete-time parameter estimation algorithms are employed for generating the features. A neural fuzzy network is exploited for intelligent inference of faults based on the extracted features. The proposed method is implemented on a digital signal processor. Experiments carried out for a rotor kit and a centrifugal fan indicate the potential of the proposed techniques in predictive maintenance. PMID:10641641
Gord, Alexander; Holmes, William R.; Dai, Xing; Nie, Qing
2014-01-01
Skin is a complex organ tasked with, among other functions, protecting the body from the outside world. Its outermost protective layer, the epidermis, is comprised of multiple cell layers that are derived from a single-layered ectoderm during development. Using a new stochastic, multi-scale computational modelling framework, the anisotropic subcellular element method, we investigate the role of cell morphology and biophysical cell–cell interactions in the formation of this layered structure. This three-dimensional framework describes interactions between collections of hundreds to thousands of cells and (i) accounts for intracellular structure and morphology, (ii) easily incorporates complex cell–cell interactions and (iii) can be efficiently implemented on parallel architectures. We use this approach to construct a model of the developing epidermis that accounts for the internal polarity of ectodermal cells and their columnar morphology. Using this model, we show that cell detachment, which has been previously suggested to have a role in this process, leads to unpredictable, randomized stratification and that this cannot be abrogated by adjustment of cell–cell adhesion interaction strength. Polarized distribution of cell adhesion proteins, motivated by epithelial polarization, can however eliminate this detachment, and in conjunction with asymmetric cell division lead to robust and predictable development. PMID:25100322
Performance of Savonius Rotor for Environmentally Friendly Hydraulic Turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, Miyoshi; Iio, Shouichiro; Ikeda, Toshihiko
The aim of this investigation was to develop an environmentally friendly nano-hydraulic turbine. A model of a two-bucket Savonius type hydraulic turbine was constructed and tested in a water tunnel to arrive at an optimum installation condition. Effects of two installation parameters, namely a distance between a rotor and a bottom wall of the tunnel, a rotation direction of the rotor, on the power performance were studied. A flow field around the rotor was examined visually to clarify influences of installation conditions on the flow field. The flow visualization showed differences of flow pattern around the rotor by the change of these parameters. From this study it was found that the power performances of Savonius hydraulic turbine were changed with the distance between the rotor and the bottom wall of the tunnel and with a rotation direction of the rotor.
Analysis and correlation with theory of rotor lift-limit test data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheffler, M.
1979-01-01
A wind tunnel test program to define the cruise performance and determine any limitations to lift and propulsive force of a conventional helicopter rotor is described. A 2.96 foot radius model rotor was used. The maximum lift and propulsive force obtainable from an articulated rotor for advance ratios of 0.4 to 0.67, and the blade load growth as the lift approaches the limit are determined. Cruise rotor performance for advance ratios of 0.4 to 0.67 and the sensitivity of the rotor forces and moments to rotor control inputs as the lift limit is approached are established.
Rotor performance characteristics from an aeroacoustic helicopter wind-tunnel test program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoad, D. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Orie, N. M.
1986-01-01
An investigation of helicopter rotor noise at model scale was conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 meter tunnel. The program described was the first of a planned three-phase project whose purpose was to examine the characteristic noise mechanism involved in main rotor/tail rotor interaction noise. This first phase was conducted with a main rotor only, in order to identify the characteristic noise generated by only the main rotor. The aerodynamic operating conditions of the rotor system were defined during the test. The acoustic data were properly referenced.
An open rotor, also known as a high-speed propeller, is tested in a wind tunnel. The propeller moves much more quickly than a standard propeller, and the blades of the propeller are shaped differen...
Platts, David A.
2004-10-26
A rotor for use in turbine applications has a centrifugal compressor having axially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and an axial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the centrifugal compressor flows.
Cheney, M.C.
1997-12-31
The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.