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Sample records for asymptomatic postmenopausal women

  1. Vaginal flora in asymptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, J H; Coulam, C B; Washington, J A

    1976-09-01

    Four groups of 25 asymptomatic women--pregnant, premenopausal and taking oral contraceptives, premenopausal and not taking oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal--were studied for the presence in vaginal specimens of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, fungi, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, mycobacteria, and Trichomonas. No significant differences in microbial flora were found among the groups. PMID:957791

  2. Performance of calcaneus quantitative ultrasound and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the discrimination of prevalent asymptomatic osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    El Maghraoui, A; Morjane, F; Mounach, A; Ghazi, M; Nouijai, A; Achemlal, L; Bezza, A; Ghozlani, I

    2009-03-01

    Due to its low cost, portability, and nonionizing radiation, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel is an alternative to the measurement with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the evaluation of bone status. The objective of the study is to compare in asymptomatic postmenopausal women the ability of QUS and DXA to discriminate between those with and without prevalent vertebral fractures (VFs). The study cohort consists of a population of 295 postmenopausal women aged between 60 and 84 (mean age, weight and BMI of 66.3 years, 72.0 kg and 29.4 kg/m(2), respectively). Lateral VFA images and scans of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were obtained by two technologists using a GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy densitometer. VFs were defined using a combination of Genant semiquantitative (SQ) approach and morphometry. All women had a calcaneous QUS examination. The mean age of the women in our sample was 66.3 (+/-5.3) years, ranging from 60 to 84 years. Eighty-seven (29.3%) women had VFs Genant grade 2 and 3. Patients with VFs had an age and a number of years of menopause higher to those without VFs, but showed lower height, weight, and BMI. All densitometric and ultrasonometric measurements were significantly reduced in women with VFs. The intercorrelations of BMD at different sites were high, and the correlations of BUA with BMD were lower. BUA correlated weakly with total hip BMD (r = 0.36), lumbar spine BMD (r = 0.32), and much less with femur BMD (r = 0.30); all correlations were significant (P < 0.01). Analysis of the AUC for the ROC curves showed lumbar spine T-score below -2.5 to provide consistently the highest AUC (0.64). Age-adjusted ORs after correction for confounding variables (years of menopause, weight, height, and BMI) for QUS and BMD measurements showed that only lumbar spine T-score below -2.5 could predict significantly the presence of VFs (OR, 1.94; 95%CI, 1.02-3.41). Lumbar spine BMD (and not QUS) was able to discriminate asymptomatic postmenopausal

  3. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances. PMID:21917564

  4. Thyroid dysfunction in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2007-03-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common, especially among women over the age of 50. In caring for peri- and post-menopausal women, it is important to recognize the changing clinical manifestations of thyroid disease with age. Postmenopausal women are at increased risk of both osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, and untreated thyroid disease may exacerbate these risks. Screening for thyroid dysfunction in asymptomatic individuals is controversial, but aggressive case-finding should be pursued, especially in older women. Women with overt thyroid dysfunction should be treated. Therapy for women with subclinical thyroid dysfunction is more controversial, although women with levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) > or =10 mU/L should be treated, and treatment may be considered in symptomatic women with subclinical hypothyroidism and TSH values <10 mU/L, and in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism who have TSH values consistently <0.1 mU/L. In women who are treated with thyroxine, careful dose titration and monitoring are required in order to prevent the adverse consequences of iatrogenic subclinical hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Finally, caution is required in diagnosing and treating thyroid dysfunction in women who are taking oral estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators. PMID:17448261

  5. Assisted reproduction for postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Merryn Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    With increasing longevity, an ageing population and advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ART), a greater number of women are deciding to have a child and become a mother in their later years. With this social and demographic change, an important social and ethical debate has emerged over whether single and/or married postmenopausal women should have access to ARTs. The aim of this paper is to address this question and review critically the arguments that have been advanced to support or oppose the use of ART by older women. The arguments presented consider the consequences for the individual, the family and wider society. They cover the potential physical and emotional harm to the older woman, the possible impact on the welfare and wellbeing of the future child, and the impact on the norms, values, customs and traditions of society. After reviewing the evidence, and weighing the opposing arguments, this paper concludes that there is no moral justification for a restriction on the use of ART by postmenopausal women. Allowing access to ART for postmenopausal women is an extension of reproductive autonomy and procreative rights in an age where the promotion of agency, autonomy, individual choice and human rights is paramount. PMID:25116376

  6. Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Shazia; Masters-Isarilov, Alina; Salifu, Idoko; Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gupta, Ravi; Brzezinski, Amnon; McFarlane, Samy I

    2015-01-01

    One of the core symptoms of the menopausal transition is sleep disturbance. Peri-menopausal women often complain of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep with frequent nocturnal and early morning awakenings. Factors that may play a role in this type of insomnia include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle. Other common sleep problems in this age group, such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome, can also worsen the sleep quality. Exogenous melatonin use reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age and the menopausal transition. Recently, more potent melatonin analogs (selective melatonin-1 (MT1) and melatonin-2 (MT2) receptor agonists) with prolonged effects and slow-release melatonin preparations have been developed. They were found effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency as well as in reducing sleep latency in insomnia patients. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on the changes in hormonal status to sleep problems among menopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:26512337

  7. Postmenopausal symptoms among Egyptian geripausal women.

    PubMed

    Sweed, H S; Elawam, A E; Nabeel, A M; Mortagy, K

    2012-03-01

    Increases in life expectancies mean that women are spending longer periods of their life in a hypo-oestrogenic state. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the prevalence of postmenopausal symptoms among elderly Egyptian women in the geripausal phase. A sample of 400 community-dwelling elderly women aged > 65 years were recruited from 6 geriatric social clubs in Cairo. A full personal and medical history was taken from all participants. The menopause rating scale was applied to all participants after translation and linguistic validation in the Arabic language. The most prevalent postmenopausal symptoms were joint pain (90.3%), followed by sleep problems (84.0%) and physical and mental exhaustion (80.0%). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between total menopause rating scale score and age, duration of menopause and number of chronic diseases but not with age of menopause. PMID:22574473

  8. Complete molar pregnancy in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Begum, Jasmina; Palai, Pallavee; Ghose, Seetesh

    2016-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is an abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue during pregnancy. It is a disease of reproductive age, and a few cases have also been seen in women with advanced age, although it is extremely rare in postmenopausal women. Here, we describe an uncommon case of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) in a postmenopausal woman, who has presented to us with complaints of bleeding per vagina, vomiting with 22 weeks size gravid uterus. Ultrasound finding along with raised serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) 400,000 mIU/ml suggested the diagnosis of CHM. In view of postmenopausal status and future risk of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, we performed a total abdominal hysterectomy. Uterus was 20 cm × 15 cm × 15 cm filled with cystic, grapes such as vesicles. Microscopic examination demonstrated generalized trophoblastic proliferation with hydropic degenerated villi suggested of benign CHM. Follow-up showed steady fall in serum β-HCG level and no evidence of any residual disease. A suspicion of GTD should be kept in mind while evaluating a patient with peri- or post-menopausal bleeding so that it will prevent a delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27499598

  9. Complete molar pregnancy in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Jasmina; Palai, Pallavee; Ghose, Seetesh

    2016-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is an abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue during pregnancy. It is a disease of reproductive age, and a few cases have also been seen in women with advanced age, although it is extremely rare in postmenopausal women. Here, we describe an uncommon case of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) in a postmenopausal woman, who has presented to us with complaints of bleeding per vagina, vomiting with 22 weeks size gravid uterus. Ultrasound finding along with raised serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) 400,000 mIU/ml suggested the diagnosis of CHM. In view of postmenopausal status and future risk of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, we performed a total abdominal hysterectomy. Uterus was 20 cm × 15 cm × 15 cm filled with cystic, grapes such as vesicles. Microscopic examination demonstrated generalized trophoblastic proliferation with hydropic degenerated villi suggested of benign CHM. Follow-up showed steady fall in serum β-HCG level and no evidence of any residual disease. A suspicion of GTD should be kept in mind while evaluating a patient with peri- or post-menopausal bleeding so that it will prevent a delay in diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Vitamin D status among postmenopausal Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Suriah A; Chee, W S S; Yassin, Zaitun; Chan, S P

    2004-01-01

    Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) were determined in 276 (103 Malays and 173 Chinese) postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 65 years. The level of 25 (OH) D was significantly lower in the postmenopausal Malay women (44.4 +/-10.6 nmol/L) compared to the Chinese women (68.8 +/- 15.7 nmol/L) (P<0.05). There were 27% Malay women with serum 25 (OH) D in the range of 50 - 100 nmol/L (defined as lowered vitamin D status, or hypovitaminosis D) and 71% with levels in the range of 25 - 50 nmol/L (defined as vitamin D insufficiency) compared to 87% and 11% Chinese women respectively. Serum 25 (OH) D was found to significantly correlate with BMI, fat mass and PTH level. Multivariate analyses showed that race has a strong association with vitamin D status. The high prevalence of inadequate levels of serum vitamin D found in our study may have important public health consequences and warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in the older adult Malaysian population. PMID:15331337

  11. [Epidemiologic variables in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Uribe, A; Carranza-Lira, S; Martínez-Trejo, N A; Santos González, J E

    1999-10-01

    The objective was to know the characteristics of presentation, its clinical aspects and the modification in the diagnostic tools in a selected population of Mexican women with spontaneous menopause. The age at menarche, age at menopause, marital status, age at marriage, number of pregnancies and occupation of 1,099 women with spontaneous menopause were studied. In 619 women which were not receiving nor had received hormone replacement therapy the clinical, laboratory such as glucose, lipids, hormones, bone remodeling biochemistry; and X ray studies such as densitometry and mammography were analyzed. The age average of menarche presentation was at 13 years, and that of spontaneous menopause at 48.1 years 78% were married, with an age at marriage of 23 years, 66% had home duties. The screening tests showed that 30% of patients required cardiovascular evaluation, 40% showed alterations on lipids levels and at least 40% had some alteration on bone remodeling biochemistry or in densitometry. The mammography was normal in 81%. This study showed that most of the data in these group of women were similar to those of other populations, and many of them need intensive surveillance and adequate therapeutic prescriptions to diminish risk factors. PMID:10582395

  12. Doubts about oestrogen therapy in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    1976-01-01

    In postmenopausal women, the predominate steroid is estrone, and data have indicated that conversion of androgen to estrone is 2-3 times greater in women with endometrial cancer than in others. 2 studies of exogenous estrogens in postmenopausal women are summarized. In the 1st, 317 patients with adenocarcinoma were compared with matched controls with cervical, ovarian, and vulval neoplasms. 152 patients had estrogen therapy as compared with 54 controls, and calculations revealed the cancer risk as 4.5 times greater among patients than controls. The 2nd study concerned the use of conjugated estrogens. 94 patients with endometrial cancer and double that number of matched controls were examined. Conjugated estrogens had been used by 57% of patients and only 15% of controls. The data revealed an increased risk of 5.6 times in patients using estrogen for between 1 and 5 years, rising to 13.9 times greater risk after 7 or more years; and this relationship could not be explained by factors such as age, parity, obesity, or menopausal age. The chance of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women not using estrogens is 1/100,000/year. In estrogen users, the level increases to between 4 and 8/100,000/year. More information is needed on effects of estrogens; they are valuable in relieving psychological symptoms, vasomotor instability, and, perhaps, mortality, osteoporosis, fractures, and vascular diseases after oophorectomy. These advantages have to be weighed against thromboembolism, coronary diease, strokes, and possible cancer; the benefits and risks are not easily calculated. PMID:12258712

  13. Effects of Exercise on Bone Mineral Content in Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta E.; McManis, Beth G.

    1990-01-01

    Study tested the effect of exercise programs on bone mineral content (BMC) and BMC/bone width in 31 postmenopausal women. Subjects were placed in groups with aerobic exercise, aerobics plus upper-body weight training, or no exercise. Results indicate that regular exercise programs positively affect bone mineral maintenance in postmenopausal women.…

  14. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-08-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT.

  15. Vaginal oestrogen for overactive bladder in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ostle, Zoe

    This article asks the question 'Should nurses recommend vaginal oestrogen for overactive bladder in post-menopausal women?' The article will review the evidence for use of vaginal oestrogen and consider the potential side-effects and risks. The main finding is that vaginal oestrogen is effective for treatment of overactive bladder in post-menopausal women with vaginal atrophy. However, vaginal atrophy is undertreated. This article identifies some of the barriers that may prevent diagnosis and treatment, and suggests changes in practice. Nurses should take the initiative and ask post-menopausal women about symptoms. Nurses should be trained to examine women, diagnose vaginal atrophy and discuss treatment. PMID:26067792

  16. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and its relation to climacteric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Idun Berenice Villalobos

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study To compare fibromyalgia prevalence in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and its relation to the climacteric symptoms. Material and methods Two hundred and nine women were studied, who attended the gynecology consultation at the hospital. They were divided in two groups: group I (premenopausal, n = 113) and group II (postmenopausal, n = 96). In all of them, climacteric symptoms and fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria were investigated; for the latter, the evaluations were done according to the 1990 and 2010 criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. Results When groups I and II were compared, no differences were found in somatometry, medicament consumption and associated diseases. When analyzing the general group, the fibromyalgia prevalence was greater in the postmenopausal women. However, when comparing the groups according to climacteric symptoms, in group I, 29% of symptomatic women had fibromyalgia, while only 4% of asymptomatic ones (p < 0.002). In group II, 15.7% of symptomatic women, and 2.5% of asymptomatic ones had fibromyalgia (p < 0.02). In group I, the more common painful points were the lower back (45.5%), neck (35.7%), and upper back (32.1%). The more frequent symptoms were non-restful sleep (49%), followed by fatigue and cognitive symptoms (42% for each one). In group II, the more common painful points were the lower back (42%), neck (40%) and upper back (38.5%). The more frequent symptoms were fatigue (69.6%), cognitive symptoms (59.3%) and non-restful sleep (57%). Conclusions In premenopausal women, fibromyalgia was related to the presence of climacteric symptoms and in postmenopausal women – to their absence. PMID:26327850

  17. Asymptomatic Chlamydia infection in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hagley, M T; Costa, A J

    1989-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is currently among the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. A review of three textbooks of obstetrics reveals that none of them recommend routine chlamydia screening in prenatal patients, although two recommend routine screening for gonorrhea. A study was done at the Barberton Citizens Hospital Family Practice Residency Program to determine the incidence of asymptomatic chlamydia infection in pregnant women and to compare this to the incidence of asymptomatic Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in the same population. A total of 69 patients were screened for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis as part of their routine prenatal evaluations at the first prenatal visit and the visit of 36 weeks gestation. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected by growth on standard Martin-Lewis culture plates. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by positive immunofluorescence using a standardized specimen kit (Syva Company, Palo Alto, California). The data were collected over a 12-month period from July of 1987 through July of 1988. There were no positive cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (0%) in this group of patients. On the other hand, five patients tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis (7.2%). The results of this study indicate that routine screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be considered as part of the routine prenatal care. A larger, multi-centered study could be done in the future to confirm these results, as well as to determine if any regional differences exist. PMID:2601940

  18. Life Satisfaction and Morbidity among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lukkala, Pyry S.; Honkanen, Risto J.; Rauma, Päivi H.; Williams, Lana J.; Quirk, Shae E.; Kröger, Heikki; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between morbidity and global life satisfaction in postmenopausal women taking into account type and number of diseases. Materials and Methods A total of 11,084 women (age range 57–66 years) from a population-based cohort of Finnish women (OSTPRE Study) responded to a postal enquiry in 1999. Life satisfaction was measured with a 4-item scale. Self-reported diseases diagnosed by a physician and categorized according to ICD-10 main classes were used as a measure of morbidity. Enquiry data on health and lifestyle were used as covariates in the multivariate logistic models. Results Morbidity was strongly associated with life dissatisfaction. Every additional disease increased the risk of life dissatisfaction by 21.1% (p < .001). The risk of dissatisfaction was strongest among women with mental disorders (OR = 5.26; 95%CI 3.84–7.20) and neurological disorders (OR = 3.62; 95%CI 2.60–5.02) compared to the healthy (each p < .001). Smoking, physical inactivity and marital status were also associated with life dissatisfaction (each p < .001) but their introduction to the multivariate model did not attenuate the pattern of associations. Conclusions Morbidity and life dissatisfaction have a disease-specific and dose-dependent relationship. Even if women with mental and neurological disorders have the highest risk for life dissatisfaction, monitoring life satisfaction among aging women regardless of disorders should be undertaken in order to intervene the joint adverse effects of poor health and poor well-being. PMID:26799838

  19. Rate of bone loss in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women

    SciTech Connect

    Aloia, J.F.; Ross, P.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-02-01

    Regional and total bone mass were determined in three groups of women by photon absorptiometry of the distal radius (bone mineral content (BMC)) and total neutron activation analysis (total body calcium (TBCa)), respectively. There were three groups of patients: group A, osteoporotic women treated with a variety of pharmacologic agents; group B, osteoporotic women (controls) taking only calcium supplements; and group C, normal postmenopausal women. The mean TBCa and BMC were considerably higher in the postmenopausal women than in the osteoporotic women. The rate of change of bone mass in group C was -0.45%/yr and -0.9%/yr for the total skeleton and radius, respectively. Group B had no significant rate of loss, whereas group A demonstrated a significant increase in TBCa of 0.75%/yr with no change in the BMC of the radius. There were no significant between-subject correlations for the slopes (rates of change) of the two bone mineral measurements.

  20. Women with prolactinomas presented at the postmenopausal period.

    PubMed

    Shimon, Ilan; Bronstein, Marcello D; Shapiro, Jonathan; Tsvetov, Gloria; Benbassat, Carlos; Barkan, Ariel

    2014-12-01

    In women, prolactinomas (mainly microprolactinomas) are commonly diagnosed between 20-40-year old. In postmenopausal women, prolactinomas are rarely encountered and usually do not present with hyperprolactinemia-related symptoms as these are dependent on intact ovarian function. Therefore, the true incidence of prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenomas in postmenopausal woman is unknown. Our study objective was to characterize these rare and unique pituitary tumors. A retrospective study including a consecutive group of postmenopausal women followed and treated at 3 Endocrine academic clinics. Baseline clinical characteristics (PRL and gonadotropins levels, other pituitary hormones, adenoma size and invasiveness, visual fields) and response to treatment are reported. The cohort included 14 postmenopausal women with prolactinomas (mean age at diagnosis, 63.6 ± 7.1 years; range, 54-75 years). Mean adenoma size at presentation was 25.6 ± 12.4 mm (range, 8-50 mm). Six out of the 14 women had significant visual fields damage. Mean baseline PRL level was 1,783 ng/ml, and median PRL was 827 ng/ml (range, 85-6,732 ng/ml). Medical treatment with cabergoline was given to twelve of the patients. Cabergoline normalized/near-normalized PRL in eleven women; one woman was dopamine agonist-resistant. Five of the six subjects with visual disturbances normalized or improved their vision, and a pre-treatment diplopia in another patient disappeared. Two large pituitary tumors disappeared on MRI following long-term dopamine agonist therapy. All other treated prolactinomas, except the resistant adenoma, shrank following medical treatment. Prolactinomas are rarely diagnosed in postmenopausal women. These women usually harbor large and invasive macroadenomas, secreting high PRL levels, and usually respond to dopamine agonist treatment. PMID:24711223

  1. Sexuality in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokoff, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews psychological and biological aspects of effects of menopause on sexuality. Discusses population studies revealing that postmenopausal status is associated with decline in some components of sexual functioning. Notes that little research has examined psychological response to menopause and its effect on sexual functioning. Research on…

  2. Continuous tamoxifen treatment in asymptomatic, postmenopausal breast cancer patients does not cause aggravation of endometrial pathologies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I; Tepper, R; Rosen, D J; Shapira, J; Cordoba, M; Dror, Y; Altaras, M; Beyth, Y

    1994-10-01

    Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients has been found to be associated with various endometrial pathologic conditions, including endometrial cancer. This preliminary case control study evaluated whether prolonged and continuous exposure to tamoxifen in the menopause may aggravate existing endometrial pathologies. Two vaginal ultrasound evaluations of endometrial thickness and histologic findings of two endometrial biopsies, performed 18 months apart, were evaluated for 25 asymptomatic, postmenopausal breast cancer patients who were continuously treated with tamoxifen. In the first endometrial biopsy, 4 patients (16.0%) were found to have endometrial pathologies: 2 patients had proliferative endometrium, 1 had hyperplastic endometrium, and 1 had an endometrial polyp. In the second endometrial biopsy, none of these patients showed any endometrial pathologies. Another patient (4.0%) with no endometrial pathology in the first visit had endometrial hyperplasia in the second visit. None of the patients developed endometrial cancer, and generally there was no increase in ultrasonographically-measured endometrial widths. The results of this preliminary study may suggest that there is no increased risk of development of endometrial pathologies during an additional 18 months of continuous tamoxifen therapy nor is there aggravation of already existing endometrial pathologies. PMID:7959255

  3. Increased prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in osteoporotic postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mangiafico, Roberto Antonio; Russo, Enzo; Riccobene, Stefania; Pennisi, Pietra; Mangiafico, Marco; D'Amico, Ferdinando; Fiore, Carmelo Erio

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a population of osteoporotic postmenopausal women. The presence of PAD was assessed by ankle brachial index (ABI) in 345 ambulatory osteoporotic postmenopausal women, and in 360 community-based, age- and race-matched postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density (BMD) (control group). PAD was detected in 63/345 (18.2%) osteoporotic women and in 14/360 (3.8%) control subjects (P < 0.0001). The mean ABI values were significantly lower in the osteoporosis group than in the control group (0.98 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.04 +/- 0.06, P < 0.0001). No difference in cardiovascular risk factors was observed between osteoporotic patients and controls, or between osteoporotic patients with and without PAD. Osteoporotic patients with PAD had lower femoral neck BMD T scores than those without PAD (-4.2 +/- 0.7 vs. -2.3 +/- 0.7, P < 0.0001). Only 4 PAD patients (5.1%) had intermittent claudication. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with PAD within osteoporotic patients were lower femoral neck BMD T score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.05-0.70, P = 0.01) and systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.02, 95% CI, 1.00-1.03, P = 0.01). This study shows for the first time an increased prevalence of PAD among osteoporotic postmenopausal women, with a lower femoral neck BMD T score being a significant independent predictor. The findings suggest that vascular status evaluation should be done in osteoporotic postmenopausal women in order to identify candidate patients for preventive and therapeutic cardiovascular interventions. PMID:16502119

  4. Mediating Influences on Serum Lipids among Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby

    The purpose of this study was to investigate among postmenopausal women the relationship of dietary fat intake, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and body weight to total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol measures in order to assess the relative influence of each…

  5. Biochemical Changes in Postmenopausal Women Following a Muscle Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow-Harter, Christine

    1987-01-01

    Twelve postmenopausal women attending a 50 minute exercise class three times a week for eight weeks were compared with 10 controls who maintained sedentary routines. Results showed that the exercise group had higher serum alkaline phosphatase and lower serum calcium than the controls. (Author/CB)

  6. Androidal fat dominates in predicting cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive ...

  7. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia in post-menopausal women: pros.

    PubMed

    Iacovazzo, D; De Marinis, L

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of hyperprolactinemia in women peaks during the 3rd-4th decade and then greatly decreases after the menopause. Apart from the effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin can act directly on bone metabolism. Hyperprolactinemia is a recognized cause of secondary osteoporosis, and treatment with dopamine agonists can lead to improved BMD. Moreover, hyperprolactinemia has been linked to weight gain and insulin resistance, which can be ameliorated following medical treatment. Although relatively rare, prolactinomas can be observed in post-menopausal women and are frequently large and invasive; dopamine agonists appear to be as effective in these patients as in younger women to induce reduction of prolactin levels and tumour shrinkage. Here, we review data potentially favouring medical treatment with dopamine agonists in post-menopausal women diagnosed with hyperprolactinemia. PMID:25112228

  8. Plasma leptin values in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kocyigit, Hikmet; Bal, Serpil; Atay, Ayşenur; Koseoglu, Mehmet; Gurgan, Alev

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has a protective effect against osteoporosis and this effect has been attributed to a high body fat content. It has been shown that the leptin concentration is higher in obese patients. Leptin, the protein product of obesity gene, is a hormone produced in adipose tissue. Some studies suggest that endogenous leptin might influence bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated plasma leptin concentrations in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and also analyzed the relationship between plasma leptin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in order to understand the potential role of leptin in maintaining bone mass. Forty-two postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and thirty seven age and BMI-matched healthy postmenopausal women were included in the study. The mean femoral neck BMD value in the patient group was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.691±0.1 g/cm2 and 0.863±0.1 g/cm2, respectively; p<0.001). The mean plasma leptin concentration in the patient group was not significantly different from that in the control group (p>0.05). Plasma leptin levels were correlated with BMI in both groups (p<0.001 in the patient group and p=0.001 in controls). There was also a strong positive correlation between plasma leptin levels and %fat in both groups (p<0.001 in the patient group and p<0.001 in controls). But there was no correlation between plasma leptin levels and femoral neck BMD values in both groups. Our results do not support the hypothesis that leptin itself plays an important role in maintaining bone mass in postmenopausal women. PMID:23988172

  9. Vitamin D Repletion in Korean Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoon-Sok; Chung, Dong Jin; Kang, Moo-Il; Kim, In-Ju; Koh, Jung-Min; Min, Yong-Ki; Oh, Han-Jin; Park, Il Hyung; Lee, Yil-Seob; Waterhouse, Brian; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.; Nino, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Up to 71% of South Korean postmenopausal women have vitamin D deficiency {serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] level <50 nmol/L}. Data on vitamin D supplementation was collected during the screening phase of an efficacy/safety study of denosumab in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. This report describes the effect of vitamin D supplementation on repletion to 25(OH)D levels ≥50 nmol/L in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods Vitamin D levels of Korean postmenopausal women (60–90 years old) were measured by extracting 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 from serum samples via protein precipitation and using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Calibration curves were constructed from the mass chromatograms to obtain total vitamin D levels. Subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L were supplemented with 1000 IU of vitamin D tablets during the 2.5-month-long screening period. Dose, frequency, and duration were determined by the investigator. If repletion was achieved (≥50 nmol/L) on retest, subjects were eligible to be rescreened for study entry. Results Of 371 subjects screened, 191 (52%) required vitamin D supplementation, and 88% (168 of 191) were successfully repleted. More than half of the subjects (58%) who were successfully repleted received doses of 2000 IU daily. The mean time to successful repletion was 31 days (standard deviation 8.4 days; range 11–48 days). Conclusion Supplementation with daily median doses of 2000 IU vitamin D successfully repleted 88% of Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis within 48 days to a serum vitamin D level of 50 nmol/L. PMID:27189286

  10. Exercise and smoking habits among Swedish postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Frisk, J; Brynhildsen, J; Ivarsson, T; Persson, P; Hammar, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess exercise habits and their relation to smoking habits and social and medical factors in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a questionnaire to all 1324 55-56 year old women in Linköping, Sweden. RESULTS: Response rate was 85%. About a third of the women took part in some kind of quite strenuous exercise for at least one hour a week. After a quarter worked out once a week; fewer did swimming and jogging. One in four women smoked. Women who used hormone replacement therapy, who were not smoking and who had a physically light occupation more often took part in strenuous sports. Women who had been treated for malignancies or with back problems exercised to the same extent as women in the general population. CONCLUSION: About a third of the post-menopausal women exercised on a regular basis, if exercise involved in getting to and from work was not counted. Since regular physical exercise has many health benefits, more women should be encouraged to take part in regular physical exercise. Factors probably associated with level of education and general awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle positively influenced the likelihood of these women to be physically active on a regular basis. A previous malignant disease or current back problems did not prevent women from taking part in exercise on a regular basis. Images Figure 1 PMID:9298557

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Denosumab in Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hai-Feng; Gu, Ling-Jia; Wu, Yue; Zhao, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Zhe-Rong; Yang, Yun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and safety of denosumab in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until October 30, 2014 using combinations of the following search terms: osteoporosis, postmenopause, postmenopausal, women, denosumab. The primary outcome was bone mineral density (BMD) change, and secondary outcomes were change in the bone turnover markers β-isomerized carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and adverse events. Patients treated with denosumab had significantly increased BMD of the lumbar spine (7.58%), total hip (4.86%), and distal third of the radius (2.92%) than those treated with placebo (all, P < 0.001). Patients treated with denosumab had a significant decrease of CTX (−66.16%) and P1NP (−64.65%) as compared with those treated with placebo (both, P < 0.001). Adverse events were similar between the 2 groups (pooled odds ratio = 1.04, P = 0.625). Denosumab increases BMD and decreases markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and is not associated with significant side-effects. PMID:26554766

  12. Hormones and sexuality in postmenopausal women: a psychophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Laan, E; van Lunsen, R H

    1997-06-01

    Sexual function, including vaginal atrophy, and hormonal status, were studied in 42 naturally postmenopausal women. Vaginal pulse amplitude and subjective sexual responses during self-induced erotic fantasy and during erotic films were compared with responses of a small number of premenopausal women. As predicted, vaginal atrophy was related to estrogens but not to complaints of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. No significant relationship was found between hormones and sexual function. Unexpectedly, most of the few correlations that did reach significance involved prolactin. The fact that prolactin was negatively associated with sexual desire, sexual arousal and vaginal lubrication during sexual activity, suggests that psychosocial factors are more important than hormone levels in postmenopausal sexual function. Comparisons with a number of premenopausal women revealed that although postmenopausal women displayed lower vaginal pulse amplitude responses prior to erotic stimulation than the premenopausal women, this difference disappeared during subsequent erotic stimulation. We argued that this finding can be interpreted as being supportive of the notion that complaints of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia should not be attributed to vaginal atrophy associated with menopause. Rather, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia seem to reflect sexual arousal problems. PMID:9219109

  13. Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Friebely, Joan; Rako, Susan

    2004-11-01

    To determine whether a putative human sex-attractant pheromone increases specific sociosexual behaviors of postmenopausal women, we tested a chemically synthesized formula derived from research with underarm secretions from heterosexually active, fertile women that was recently tested on young women. Participants (n = 44, mean age = 57 years) were postmenopausal women who volunteered for a double-blind placebo-controlled study designed, to test an odorless pheromone, added to your preferred fragrance, to learn if it might increase the romance in your life. During the experimental 6-week period, a significantly greater proportion of participants using the pheromone formula (40.9%) than placebo (13.6%) recorded an increase over their own weekly average baseline frequency of petting, kissing, and affection (p = .02). More pheromone (68.2%) than placebo (40.9%) users experienced an increase in at least one of the four intimate sociosexual behaviors (p = .04). Sexual motivation frequency, as expressed in masturbation, was not increased in pheromone users. These results suggest that the pheromone formulation worn with perfume for a period of 6 weeks has sex-attractant effects for postmenopausal women. PMID:15765277

  14. Effects of Yogasanas on osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Motorwala, Zainab S; Kolke, Sona; Panchal, Priyanka Y; Bedekar, Nilima S; Sancheti, Parag K; Shyam, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is commonly encountered by postmenopausal women. There is an increased need for a low cost and efficient treatment alternative to address this population. Aims: To study the effects of integrated yoga on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Settings and Designs: Experimental pre-post study conducted in a community setting. Materials and Methods: 30 females in the age group of 45–62 years suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) score of ≤−2.5 underwent a 6 months fully supervised yoga session. All the participants completed the study. Pretraining and posttraining BMD was calculated. Outcome measure: DEXA score at the lumbar spine. Statistical Analysis: The study was statistically analyzed using paired t-test to see the significance of pretraining and posttraining effects of a yoga session. Results: Improvement in T-score of DEXA scan of −2.55 ± 0.25 at posttraining as compared to a pretraining score of −2.69 ± 0.17. Conclusions: Integrated yoga is a safe mode of physical activity which includes weight bearing as well as not weight bearing asanas, Pranayama, and suryanamaskar, all of which helps induce improvement in BMD in postmenopausal osteoporotic females. PMID:26865770

  15. Vitamin D status in healthy postmenopausal Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Niafar, Mitra; Bahrami, Amir; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Najafipour, Farzad; Mobasseri, Majid

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few epidemiologic studies on vitamin D status of postmenopausal women in the Middle East countries. This study aimed to investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in postmenopausal women living in the north-west of Iran. METHODS: Using the records of the local household registry, 300 cases were enrolled by simple random sampling. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined by fully automated chemiluminescent immunoassay. In addition, the study included survey questions regarding age, body weight and height, use of supplements and skin protection agents and clinical and reproductive histories. RESULTS: Our cases had the mean age of 63.41 ± 4.64 years with menopause duration of 16.79 ± 6.15 years. Median and interquartile 25-75 range of vitamin D were 14.20 ng/ml and 7-37.2 ng/ml respectively. We found hypovitaminosis D [25(OH) D < 10 ng/ml] in 38.3% of our cases. Serum 25(OH) D concentrations were not significantly correlated with age or BMI. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that 25(OH) D levels in postmenopausal women of north-west Iran are low. Studies to elucidate and assess the dietary intake of vitamin D in elderly women of this region can be of further benefit. PMID:21772879

  16. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in women requires separate guidelines.

    PubMed

    Harmanli, Oz; Yuksel, Beril

    2013-02-01

    The guidelines recently updated by the American Urological Association for the evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (AMH) are based on data derived predominantly from men. They cannot be reliably applied to females as the epidemiology of AMH is gender dependent. The research on women in this area has been limited. It is incumbent on the experts in the field of female pelvic medicine to advance the science and develop management algorithms for AMH in women. PMID:23149599

  17. [Labial fusion in postmenopausal women--a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Ganovska, A; Kovachev, S

    2016-01-01

    Labial fusion is benign genital disorder, which more frequent in children at 6 years old and less in women in reproductive and postmenopausal age. It can be congenital or acquired condition. Its etiology is unclear. The low serum estrogen concentration is the basic cause of labial fusion. As a result of physiological hypoestrogenism in the vulvar skin and mucosa come on atrophic changes, which together with the chronic inflammatory changes lead to labial adhesia with subsequent partial or total obstruction of the vagina and/or the urethra. The treatment can be conservative or surgical depending on the degree of labial fusion. We perform two clinical cases respectively of total and partial vulvarsynechiae in postmenopausal women. The clinical picture of the patient with total synechiae is represented by a difficult and prolonged micturition and urinary incontinence, while in patients with partial synechiae is represented by an inability to carry out sexual intercourse. PMID:27514170

  18. Investigation of women with postmenopausal uterine bleeding: clinical practice recommendations.

    PubMed

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal uterine bleeding is defined as uterine bleeding after permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from loss of ovarian follicular activity. Bleeding can be spontaneous or related to ovarian hormone replacement therapy or to use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (eg, tamoxifen adjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma). Because anovulatory "cycles" with episodes of multimonth amenorrhea frequently precede menopause, no consensus exists regarding the appropriate interval of amenorrhea before an episode of bleeding that allows for the definition of postmenopausal bleeding. The clinician faces the possibility that an underlying malignancy exists, knowing that most often the bleeding comes from a benign source. Formerly, the gold-standard clinical investigation of postmenopausal uterine bleeding was institution-based dilation and curettage, but there now exist office-based methods for the evaluation of women with this complaint. Strategies designed to implement these diagnostic methods must be applied in a balanced way considering the resource utilization issues of overinvestigation and the risk of missing a malignancy with underinvestigation. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations were developed to consider these issues and the diverse spectrum of practitioners who evaluate women with postmenopausal bleeding. The guideline development group determined that, for initial management of spontaneous postmenopausal bleeding, primary assessment may be with either endometrial sampling or transvaginal ultrasonography, allowing patients with an endometrial echo complex thickness of 4 mm or less to be managed expectantly. Guidelines are also provided for patients receiving selective estrogen receptor modulators or hormone replacement therapy, and for an endometrial echo complex with findings consistent with fluid in the endometrial cavity.� PMID:24377427

  19. Investigation of Women with Postmenopausal Uterine Bleeding: Clinical Practice Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal uterine bleeding is defined as uterine bleeding after permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from loss of ovarian follicular activity. Bleeding can be spontaneous or related to ovarian hormone replacement therapy or to use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (eg, tamoxifen adjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma). Because anovulatory “cycles” with episodes of multimonth amenorrhea frequently precede menopause, no consensus exists regarding the appropriate interval of amenorrhea before an episode of bleeding that allows for the definition of postmenopausal bleeding. The clinician faces the possibility that an underlying malignancy exists, knowing that most often the bleeding comes from a benign source. Formerly, the gold-standard clinical investigation of postmenopausal uterine bleeding was institution-based dilation and curettage, but there now exist office-based methods for the evaluation of women with this complaint. Strategies designed to implement these diagnostic methods must be applied in a balanced way considering the resource utilization issues of overinvestigation and the risk of missing a malignancy with underinvestigation. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations were developed to consider these issues and the diverse spectrum of practitioners who evaluate women with postmenopausal bleeding. The guideline development group determined that, for initial management of spontaneous postmenopausal bleeding, primary assessment may be with either endometrial sampling or transvaginal ultrasonography, allowing patients with an endometrial echo complex thickness of 4 mm or less to be managed expectantly. Guidelines are also provided for patients receiving selective estrogen receptor modulators or hormone replacement therapy, and for an endometrial echo complex with findings consistent with fluid in the endometrial cavity. PMID:24377427

  20. Sex steroids modulate prolactin response to naloxone in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Melis, G B; Gambacciani, M; Paoletti, A M; Mais, V; Cagnacci, A; Petacchi, F D; Fioretti, P

    1985-08-01

    To evaluate whether ovarian steroids modify the prolactin (PRL) response to opioid receptor blockade, the effects of naloxone infusion (1.6 mg/h for 4 h) on PRL secretion were studied in 5 postmenopausal women. Naloxone infusion was performed in basal conditions and after chronic oral treatment with conjugated estrogens (CE) (1.25 mg/day, for 20 days) or CE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day, for 20 days). Under basal conditions, 17 beta-estradiol, estrone, gonadotropin, and PRL plasma levels were in the normal range for postmenopausal women, and naloxone failed to affect PRL secretion. Naloxone induced a significant PRL increase after CE treatment alone (p less than 0.001) or in combination with MPA (p less than 0.001). The increase was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) after CE + MPA treatment than after CE treatment alone. These data suggest that steroids modulate the stimulatory effect of naloxone on PRL secretion in postmenopausal women. PMID:2995857

  1. Argan oil and postmenopausal Moroccan women: impact on the vitamin E profile.

    PubMed

    El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; El Hamdouchi, Asma; Labraimi, Hanane; Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Kartah, Badreddine; El Kari, Khalid; Bensouda, Yahya; Derouich, Abdelfettah; Dodin, Sylvie; Denhez, Clément; Guillaume, Dom; Agnaou, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin E supplements could be beneficial for postmenopausal women. To evaluate the effect of edible argan oil consumption on the antioxidant status of postmenopausal women, the vitamin E serum level of 151 menopausal women consuming either olive or argan oil was determined. Serum level of vitamin E was increased in the argan oil consumer group. Therefore, an argan oil-enriched diet can be recommended to help prevent some postmenopausal disorders. PMID:23472459

  2. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. ); Gutai, J.P. ); Powell, J.G. )

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  3. Fasting Serum Glucose Level in Postmenopausal Bangladeshi Women.

    PubMed

    Tajkia, T; Nessa, A; Mia, M R; Das, R K; Sufrin, S; Zannat, M R; Naznin, R; Khanam, A; Akter, R; Nasreen, S

    2016-07-01

    The study was done to find out the causes that changes the fasting serum glucose level in postmenopausal women. This was descriptive type of cross sectional study carried out over a period of one year from July 2014 to June 2015 in the department of physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Women of reproductive age (25-45 years) and clinically diagnosed 100 menopausal women (45-70 years) were included for this study. Convenience type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of fasting serum glucose was done by GOD-PAP method. Data were expressed as mean±SD and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test. The mean±SD of serum glucose in menopausal women were significant at 1% level of probability than women of reproductive age. This study revealed that postmenopausal women showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose level. Fasting blood sugar level between the study & control group were 7.69±2.37 and 4.59±0.73 and the difference was statistically significant. PMID:27612883

  4. Profiling of plasma metabolites in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Miho; Harada, Sei; Kurihara, Ayako; Fukai, Kota; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Ayano; Okamura, Tomonori; Akiyama, Miki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Asako; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Banno, Kouji; Aoki, Daisuke; Takebayashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of amino acids and other polar metabolites with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women in a lean Asian population. Methods: The participants were 1,422 female residents enrolled in a cohort study from April to August 2012. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III modified for Japanese women. Associations were examined between MetS and 78 metabolites assayed in fasting plasma samples using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Replication analysis was performed to confirm the robustness of the results in a separate population created by random allocation. Results: Analysis was performed for 877 naturally postmenopausal women, including 594 in the original population and 283 in the replication population. The average age, body mass index, and levels of high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of the entire population were 64.6 years, 23.0 kg/m2, 72.1 mg/dL, and 126.1 mg/dL, respectively. There was no significant difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between women with and without MetS. Thirteen metabolites were significantly related to MetS: multiple plasma amino acids were elevated in women with MetS, including branched-chain amino acids, alanine, glutamate, and proline; and alpha-aminoadipate, which is generated by lysine degradation, was also significantly increased. Conclusions: Our large-scale metabolomic profiling indicates that Japanese postmenopausal women with MetS have abnormal polar metabolites, suggesting altered catabolic pathways. These results may help to understand metabolic disturbance, including in persons with normal body mass index and relatively high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and may have clinical utility based on further studies. PMID:27070805

  5. Trans Fat, Aspirin, and Ischemic Stroke in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yaemsiri, Sirin; Sen, Souvik; Tinker, Lesley; Rosamond, Wayne; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; He, Ka

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between dietary fat intake and ischemic stroke among postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 87,025 generally healthy postmenopausal women (age 50–79 years) enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Repeated and validated dietary assessments were done using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of ischemic stroke based on quintiles of the cumulative average of fat intake. Results We documented 1,049 incident cases of ischemic stroke over 663,041 person-years of follow-up. Women in the highest quintile of trans fat intake had a significantly higher incidence of ischemic stroke (HR 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.79, P-trend = 0.048) compared with women in the lowest quintile, while controlling for multiple covariates. The observed association was modified by aspirin use (P-interaction=0.02). The HR was 1.66 (95% CI 1.21–2.36, P-trend<0.01) among baseline non-aspirin users (n=67,288) and 0.95 (95% CI 0.60–1.48, P-trend=0.43) among aspirin users (n=19,736). No significant associations were found between intakes of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fat and ischemic stroke or any ischemic stroke subtypes. Interpretation In this large cohort of postmenopausal women, higher intake of trans fat was associated with incident ischemic stroke independent of major lifestyle/dietary factors. Aspirin use may attenuate the potential adverse effect of trans fat intake on ischemic stroke. PMID:22383309

  6. Diabetes, Metformin Use, and Colorectal Cancer Survival in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cossor, Furha Iram; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Gunter, Marc J; Johnson, Karen; Martell, Robert E.; McTiernan, Anne; Simon, Michael S.; Rohan, Thomas; Wallace, Robert B.; Paulus, Jessica K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Observational studies have associated metformin use with lower colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence but few studies have examined metformin’s influence on CRC survival. We examined the relationships among metformin use, diabetes, and survival in postmenopausal women with CRC in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Clinical Trials and Observational Study. Methods 2,066 postmenopausal women with CRC were followed for a median of 4.1 years, with 589 deaths after CRC diagnosis from all causes and 414 deaths directly attributed to CRC. CRC-specific survival was compared among women with diabetes with metformin use (n=84); women with diabetes with no metformin use (n=128); and women without diabetes (n=1854). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate associations among metformin use, diabetes and survival after CRC. Strategies to adjust for potential confounders included: multivariate adjustment with known predictors of colorectal cancer survival and construction of a propensity score for the likelihood of receiving metformin, with model stratification by propensity score quintile. Results After adjusting for age and stage, CRC specific survival in women with diabetes with metformin use was not significantly different compared to that in women with diabetes with no metformin use (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.40 –1.38, p=0.67) and to women without diabetes (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.61 – 1.66, p=0.99). Following propensity score adjustment, the HR for CRC-specific survival in women with diabetes with metformin use compared to non-users was 0.78 (95% CI 0.38 – 1.55, p=0.47) and for overall survival was 0.86 (95% CI 0.49 – 1.52; p=0.60). Conclusions In postmenopausal women with CRC and DM, no statistically significant difference was seen in CRC specific survival in those who used metformin compared to non-users. Analyses in larger populations of colorectal cancer patients are warranted. PMID:23773299

  7. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  8. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (−6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (−0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics. PMID:25713654

  9. Ethnicity, sleep, mood, and illumination in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Klauber, Melville R; Rex, Katharine M; Tuunainen, Arja; Langer, Robert D

    2004-01-01

    Background This study examined how ethnic differences in sleep and depression were related to environmental illumination and circadian rhythms. Methods In an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, 459 postmenopausal women were recorded for one week in their homes, using wrist monitors. Sleep and illumination experience were estimated. Depression was self-rated with a brief adjective check list. Affective diagnoses were made using the SCID interview. Sleep disordered breathing was monitored with home pulse oximetry. Results Hispanic and African-American women slept less than European-American women, according to both objective recordings and their own sleep logs. Non-European-American women had more blood oxygen desaturations during sleep, which accounted for 26% of sleep duration variance associated with ethnicity. Hispanic women were much more depressed. Hispanic, African-American and Native-American women experienced less daily illumination. Less daily illumination experience was associated with poorer global functioning, longer but more disturbed sleep, and more depression. Conclusions Curtailed sleep and poor mood were related to ethnicity. Sleep disordered breathing was a factor in the curtailed sleep of minority women. Less illumination was experienced by non-European-American women, but illumination accounted for little of the contrasts between ethnic groups in sleep and mood. Social factors may be involved. PMID:15070419

  10. Dhea supplementation and cognition in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Parsons, T D; Kratz, K M; Thompson, E; Stanczyk, F Z; Buckwalter, J G

    2006-02-01

    Previous work has suggested that DHEA supplementation may have adverse cognitive effects in elderly women. This article analyzed 24-h measurements of DHEA, DHEAS, and cortisol to determine if cognitive decrease with treatment is mediated by DHEA's impact on endogenous cortisol. It was found that DHEA administration increased cortisol at several hours during the day. In the treatment group, cortisol was positively associated with cognition at study completion. An increase in negative associations between DHEA(S) levels and cognition was found at completion. Increased cortisol does not explain the cognitive deficits associated with DHEA, suggesting a direct negative effect of exogenous DHEA on cognition. PMID:16393880

  11. Micronutrient intake and breast cancer characteristics among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Few studies on micronutrients and postmenopausal breast cancer have examined the association with breast cancer characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between vitamin C, vitamin E, folate and beta-carotene from diet and supplements and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer subtypes defined by histology (ductal/lobular), estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PGR) status. In a prospective cohort study of 26,224 postmenopausal women information on diet, supplements and lifestyle was collected through questionnaires. One thousand seventy-two cases were identified during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios of total breast cancers and breast cancer subtypes related to micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazard analyses. This study found no association between overall breast cancer and any micronutrients, while some effects were shown when stratifying by breast cancer subtypes: dietary but not supplemental beta-carotene showed a protective effect against lobular breast cancer [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.91]. Dietary vitamin E was associated with decreased risk of ER and PGR positive breast cancer (IRR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.98) and dietary folate was associated with increased risk of ER and PGR positive breast cancer (IRR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03-1.95). This study found no effect of micronutrients on overall risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but indicated possible effects of micronutrients in subgroups of breast cancer, with a potential beneficial effect of dietary beta-carotene in lobular breast cancer and dietary vitamin E in ER + PGR+ breast cancer and a potential harmful effect of dietary folate in ER+ PGR+ breast cancer. PMID:20698054

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption and 24-hour urinary levels of melatonin in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for...

  13. Soy Isoflavones for Reducing Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Randomized Three Year Intervention in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has indicated that soy protein with isoflavones may attenuate bone loss in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would decrease bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women (45.8-65.0 years) by maintaining bone mineral density (BMD), and this bone-sparing effect would be g...

  14. Increase in vertebral body size in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Briot, K; Kolta, S; Fechtenbaum, J; Said-Nahal, R; Benhamou, C L; Roux, C

    2010-08-01

    Bone geometry plays a prominent role in bone strength. Cross-sectional studies have shown that advancing age is associated with increasing diameter of long bones, related to both periostal apposition and endosteal resorption. However, there are few data provided by prospective studies, especially concerning the changes in vertebral body dimensions. The objective of this prospective study was to measure the changes occurring in the vertebral body size of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Three-year data from placebo groups of the SOTI and TROPOS trials, performed in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, were used for this study. In these trials, patients underwent lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine at baseline and annually over 3 years, according to standardized procedures. Six-point digitization method was used: the four corner points of the vertebral body from T4 to L4 are marked, as well as an additional point in the middle of the upper and lower endplates. From these 6 points, the vertebral body perimeter, area and depth were measured at baseline and at 3 years. The analysis excluded all vertebrae with prevalent or incident fracture. A total of 2017 postmenopausal women (mean age 73.4+/-6.1 years) with a mean lumbar spine T score of -3.1+/-1.5, and a mean femoral neck T score of -3.0+/-0.7 are included in the analysis. Vertebral body dimensions increased over 3 years, by 2.1+/-5.5% (mean depth+/-SD), by 1.7+/-8.3% (mean area+/-SD) and by 1.5+/-4.9% (mean perimeter+/-SD) at the thoracic level (T4 to T12). At the lumbar level (L1 to L4), these dimensions increased as well: 1.4+/-3.6% (mean depth+/-SD), 1.4+/-5.7% (mean area+/-SD), 0.7+/-2.9% (mean perimeter+/-SD). A significant increase in vertebral body size was observed for each vertebral level from T5 to L4 for each of these parameters (p<0.01). These prospective results demonstrate that vertebral body dimensions increase over 3 years in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID

  15. Urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal African American women

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a reference range for urine calcium excretion (both 24-hour and fasting) for African American women compared to White women. In addition, the variables that determine urine calcium excretion were identified. Material: Data were analyzed for baseline studies of healthy postmenopausal volunteers who participated in seven separate studies conducted at one site. Methods: Some studies included fasting urine Ca/Cr and others 24-hour urine calcium excretion. 24-hour urine calcium was considered with and without correction for urinary creatinine excretion. Calcium was measured initially by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and more recently by an automated method (ADVIA 2400 Chemistry System). Results: Participants were considered healthy based on history and physical and routine laboratory studies. Those screened who had a history of nephrolithiasis were excluded. A reference range for 24-hour urine calcium and fasting urine calcium/creatinine was developed. Reference intervals of 11 – 197 mg/24-hour urine calcium excretion and of 0.007 – 0.222 of fasting Ca/Cr were found for African American women compared to 21 – 221 mg/24 hours and 0.019 – 0.264 in White women, respectively. Urine creatinine excretion was higher in African Americans consistent with their higher muscle mass. Conclusion: Urine calcium excretion is lower in postmenopausal African American than White women. The reference range developed should be considered in the diagnosis of hypocalciuric states and may also be useful in the diagnosis of hypercalciuria. PMID:26226948

  16. Postmenopausal Estrogen Therapy and Depressive Symptoms in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Whooley, Mary A; Grady, Deborah; Cauley, Jane A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence regarding the effect of postmenopausal estrogen therapy on mood is limited. METHODS To determine whether postmenopausal estrogen therapy is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in elderly women, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 6,602 white women ages 71 years or older who were recruited from population-based listings in Baltimore, Md; Minneapolis, Minn; Portland, Ore; and the Monongahela Valley, Pa. Use of estrogen and progestin was determined by interview. Participants completed the Geriatric Depression Scale short form (GDS) and were considered depressed if they reported 6 or more of 15 possible symptoms of depression. RESULTS A total of 6.3% (72/1,150) of current estrogen users, 7.2% (142/1,964) of past estrogen users, and 9.0% (313/3,488) of never users reported 6 or more symptoms of depression (P = .004). Current estrogen users had a decreased risk of reporting 6 or more depressive symptoms, compared with not current (past or never) users of estrogen (odds ratio [OR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.9; P = .01], adjusted for living alone, bilateral oophorectomy, current smoking, physical activity, social network, self-perceived health, cognitive function, functional status, and antidepressant use. However, excluding women who use estrogen or progestin alone, we were unable to find an association between current use of combined estrogen plus progestin therapy and depressive symptoms (adjusted OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.4; P = .5). CONCLUSIONS This cross-sectional study found that current use of unopposed estrogen was associated with a decreased risk of depressive symptoms in older women. Additional studies are needed to understand the effect of combined estrogen and progestin therapy on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older women. PMID:10940144

  17. Evaluation and Management of Ultrasonographically Detected Ovarian Tumors in Asymptomatic Women.

    PubMed

    van Nagell, John Rensselaer; Miller, Rachel Ware

    2016-05-01

    Data from screening trials indicate that a significant percent of asymptomatic women older than 50 years of age will develop ovarian abnormalities that are detectable by ultrasonography. Most of these abnormalities are benign, and many will resolve spontaneously. However, the risk of ovarian cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women, is of concern. The goal is to use a diagnostic and treatment algorithm that will reliably detect ovarian cancer at the earliest possible stage while limiting the number of women undergoing surgery for benign disease. The combination of morphology indexing and serum biomarker analysis can accurately predict the risk of malignancy in most ovarian tumors. Ovarian tumors with cystic or septate morphology are at minimal risk of malignancy and can be followed with serial ultrasonography evaluations, thereby avoiding the morbidity and cost of surgery. Complex or solid ovarian tumors with a high morphology index score, or those with increasing biomarker production, are at a high risk of malignancy, and patients with these tumors should be referred to a gynecologic oncologist for further evaluation and treatment. PMID:27054927

  18. Intravenous estrogens increase insulin clearance and action in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Van Pelt, R. E.; Gozansky, W. S.; Schwartz, R. S.; Kohrt, W. M.

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that estrogens alter insulin action, we evaluated the effects of intravenous conjugated estrogens (CE) on insulin-stimulated steady-state glucose infusion rate (SSGIR) and suppression of plasma glycerol in postmenopausal women (mean ± SD; 56 ± 4 yr; n = 12) not using hormone replacement. SSGIR and glycerol were measured during a two-stage (8 and 40 mU · m−2· min−1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp on 2 days, with or without a 2.5-mg intravenous CE bolus. Serum estradiol concentrations were increased ~200% on the estrogen (EST) compared with the control (CON) days. Serum insulin was reduced (P < 0.01) during stage 2 of the clamp for EST (63.3 ± 12.8 μU/ml) vs. CON (78.2 ± 15.8 μU/ml). Mean SSGIR and plasma glycerol did not differ between CON and EST days. With adjustment for differences in insulin concentration between conditions, stage 2 glucose disposals were significantly higher (8.63 vs. 7.20 mg · kg−1 · min−1) and plasma glycerol concentrations were significantly lower (29.4 vs. 35.0 μmol/l) for EST vs. CON. Our findings suggest that acute CE administration increases insulin clearance and action in postmenopausal women. PMID:12684221

  19. Integrated Model for Denosumab and Ibandronate Pharmacodynamics in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Dhananjay D.; Marathe, Anshu; Mager, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the pharmacodynamic properties of denosumab, a RANK ligand inhibitor, and ibandronate, a bisphosphonate, using an integrated bone homeostasis model in postmenopausal women. Mean temporal profiles of denosumab, serum and urine N-telopeptide (sNTX, uNTX), lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) following denosumab administration, and urine C-telopeptide (uCTX) and lumbar spine BMD upon ibandronate administration were extracted from the literature. A mechanistic model was developed that integrates denosumab pharmacokinetics with binding to RANK ligand and ibandronate inhibition of osteoclast precursor differentiation to active osteoclasts (AOC). Biomarker concentrations were linked to the AOC pool. BMD was characterized by a turnover model with stimulation of bone formation and degradation by AOB (active osteoblasts) and AOC pools. The estimated basal sNTX, uNTX and uCTX concentrations were 7.24 nM, 14.4 nmol/mmolCr, and 31 μg/mmolCr. The BMD degradation rate was 0.00161 day−1 with stimulation constants associated with AOB and AOC of 1214 and 790 pM−1. Plasma ibandronate concentration producing 50% of maximum inhibition of osteoclast differentiation was 522 ng/L. The integrated model, which incorporates multiple pathways of therapeutic intervention, quantitatively describes changes in clinical biomarkers of bone turnover and BMD after denosumab and ibandronate exposures in postmenopausal women. PMID:21953540

  20. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns. PMID:23346398

  1. Oral health after breast cancer treatment in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Amódio, Juliana; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; Carrara, Helio Humberto Angotti; Tiezzi, Daniel Guimaraes; de Andrade, Jurandyr Moreira; dos Reis, Francisco José Candido

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Oral health can affect a patient's general health and quality of life. Given the increase in breast cancer survival rates, investigations of factors influencing the quality of life of survivors have gained importance. Therefore, the objective of our study was to characterize oral health in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study. Forty-eight women who survived breast cancer (age 62.1±9.1 years) and 48 healthy controls (age 61.8±8.6 years) were included. For each case and control, a complete oral evaluation chart was completed. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic periodontal disease was 98% in breast cancer survivors and 87% in controls. The breast cancer survivors had a median of 16 remaining teeth, whereas controls had a median of 22 remaining teeth (p = 0.03). The percentage of sites with gingival bleeding was 16.05% (0-100%) in breast cancer survivors and 0% (0-72%) in controls (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Chronic periodontal disease and tooth loss were highly prevalent in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. To improve survivors' quality of life, a preventive oral health evaluation should be available prior to cancer treatment. PMID:25518024

  2. Depressive Symptoms, Bone Loss, and Fractures in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Delia; Brunner, Robert L.; Robbins, John; Reed, Susan D.; Newton, Katherine M.; Melville, Jennifer L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis and depression may be associated through common physiologic systems or risk factors. Objective To assess the associations between depressive symptoms (Burnam’s scale) or antidepressant use and bone outcomes. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants A total of 93,676 postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years old) enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Measurements Self-reported fractures (n = 14,982) (hip [adjudicated], spine, wrist, and “other”). Analyses included 82,410 women with complete information followed on average for 7.4 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip (n = 4539), spine (n = 4417), and whole body (n = 4502) was measured at baseline and 3 years in women enrolled at 3 densitometry study sites. Results Overall, there were no statistically significant associations between depressive symptoms or antidepressant therapy and 3-year change in BMD. In a subset of women not using antidepressants, there was a significant difference in whole-body BMD change between women with and without depressive symptoms (P = .05). Depressive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] 1.08; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.14) and antidepressant therapy (HR = 1.22; CI = 1.15 to 1.30) independently increased risk of any fracture, the majority of which occurred at “other” anatomic sites. Antidepressant therapy increased the risk of spine fracture (HR = 1.36; CI = 1.14 to 1.63). No associations were observed between depressive symptoms or antidepressant therapy and hip or wrist fracture. Conclusion In this study of postmenopausal women, average age 64, we observed minimal association between depressive symptoms and 3-year changes in either BMD or fracture risk. Antidepressant use was not associated with changes in BMD, but was associated with increased risk of fractures at the spine and “other ” anatomic sites. PMID:18286345

  3. Soy foods, isoflavones, and the health of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Messina, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Over the past 2 decades, soy foods have been the subject of a vast amount of research, primarily because they are uniquely rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. The phytoestrogenic effects of isoflavones have led some to view soy foods and isoflavone supplements as alternatives to conventional hormone therapy. However, clinical research shows that isoflavones and estrogen exert differing effects on a variety of health outcomes. Nevertheless, there is substantial evidence that soy foods have the potential to address several conditions and diseases associated with the menopausal transition. For example, data suggest that soy foods can potentially reduce ischemic heart disease through multiple mechanisms. Soy protein directly lowers blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, and the soybean is low in saturated fat and a source of both essential fatty acids, the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid and the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid. In addition, soflavones improve endothelial function and possibly slow the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Isoflavone supplements also consistently alleviate menopausal hot flashes provided they contain sufficient amounts of the predominant soybean isoflavone genistein. In contrast, the evidence that isoflavones reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women is unimpressive. Whether adult soy food intake reduces breast cancer risk is unclear. Considerable evidence suggests that for soy to reduce risk, consumption during childhood and/or adolescence is required. Although concerns have been raised that soy food consumption may be harmful to breast cancer patients, an analysis in 9514 breast cancer survivors who were followed for 7.4 y found that higher postdiagnosis soy intake was associated with a significant 25% reduction in tumor recurrence. In summary, the clinical and epidemiologic data indicate that adding soy foods to the

  4. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (P<0.001), LTL (P<0.05), high-density lipoprotein level (P<0.05), and CRF (P<0.001) were higher in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. The body fat percentage (P<0.05) and triglyceride concentration (P<0.05) were lower in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. There were no significant associations between LTL, CVD risk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (P<0.05). When all women were considered (i.e., both pre- and post-menopause), the BMI, percentage of fat, and waist circumference had a negative association with LTL (P<0.05), and estrogen levels were positively associated with LTL (P<0.05). Decreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors. PMID:27419121

  5. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (P<0.001), LTL (P<0.05), high-density lipoprotein level (P<0.05), and CRF (P<0.001) were higher in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. The body fat percentage (P<0.05) and triglyceride concentration (P<0.05) were lower in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. There were no significant associations between LTL, CVD risk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (P<0.05). When all women were considered (i.e., both pre- and post-menopause), the BMI, percentage of fat, and waist circumference had a negative association with LTL (P<0.05), and estrogen levels were positively associated with LTL (P<0.05). Decreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors. PMID:27419121

  6. Genital and subjective sexual arousal in postmenopausal women: influence of laboratory-induced hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2002-01-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing genital and subjective sexual arousal in pre- and postmenopausal women and exploring the effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on these parameters. Seventy-one women (25 young and premenopausal, 25 postmenopausal, and 21 age-matched premenopausal women) participated in two counterbalanced sessions consisting of genital arousal assessment with vaginal photoplethysmography and subjective arousal assessment with self-report questionnaires. SNS activity was enhanced using laboratory-induced hyperventilation. Results demonstrated no significant differences between pre- and postmenopausal women on genital and subjective measures of arousal in response to neutral and erotic films. SNS manipulation increased genital excitement only in young, premenopausal women. These data suggest that prior SNS enhancement can differentiate pre- from postmenopausal genital arousal. Data also revealed significant correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal in older pre- and postmenopausal women, but not in young premenopausal women. These data are the first to directly compare genital-subjective correlations between pre- and postmenopausal women. PMID:11898709

  7. Postmenopausal Women's Quality of Sleep and its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To asses self-reported sleep disturbance and its associated factors in 50-60-year-old Menopause women. Settings and Design: This cross sectional study included 700 healthy 50-60-year-old women volunteers who were postmenopausal for at least 1 year. The volunteers were interviewed after providing informed consent. The study questioner included two main aspects: Personal characteristics and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 14 software. Results: The mean sleep scale score was 7.84 ± 4.4. Significant correlations had seen between sleep disturbance and characteristics of occupational status, educational status, husband's occupational status, and economical status, and (P = 0.002). There were no significant correlation between sleep disturbance and other personal characteristics, such as age; partner's age; number of children; family size; consumption of tea, coffee, or cola. Conclusions: Sleep disturbance is common in menopausal women. Taking into account the sleep-related personal characteristics, suitable interventions should be taken to improve sleep quality, which is a very important for maintaining the quality of life. PMID:25861204

  8. Estrogen Therapy Has No Long-Term Effect on Cognition in Younger Postmenopausal Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk to cognitive function years after treatment. A randomized clinical trial of estrogen therapy in younger postmenopausal ... 1998 at 40 academic research centers. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: women who had ...

  9. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  10. Coffee, tea, and melanoma risk among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haotian; Reeves, Katherine W; Qian, Jing; Sturgeon, Susan R

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory research suggests that components in coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that women who consume coffee and tea have a lower risk for melanoma. We assessed coffee, tea, and melanoma risk prospectively in the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study cohort of 66,484 postmenopausal women, followed for an average of 7.7 years. Coffee and tea intakes were measured through self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at year 3 of follow-up. Self-reported incident melanomas were adjudicated using medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, with person-time accumulation until melanoma diagnosis (n=398), death, loss to follow-up, or through 2005. Daily coffee [hazard ratio (HR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.12] and tea (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31) intakes were not significantly associated with melanoma risk compared with nondaily intake of each beverage. No significant trends were observed between melanoma risk and increasing intakes of coffee (P for trend=0.38) or tea (P for trend=0.22). Women who reported daily coffee intake at both baseline and year 3 had a significantly decreased risk compared with women who reported nondaily intake at both time points (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). Consistent daily tea intake was not associated with decreased melanoma risk. Overall, there is no strong evidence that increasing coffee or tea consumption can lead to a lower melanoma risk. We observed a decrease in melanoma risk among long-term coffee drinkers, but the lack of consistency in the results by dose and type cautioned against overinterpretation of the results. PMID:25325307

  11. Breast Cancer Risk in Metabolically Healthy but Overweight Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Marc J.; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y.F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin’s mitogenic/anti-apoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e. normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity (i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile [q1]) have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N=497) and a subcohort (N=2,830) of Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared to metabolically healthy normal weight women (hazard ratio [HR]HOMA-IR=0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI],0.64-1.42). In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR=1.76; 95% CI,1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR=1.80; 95% CI,0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin=2.06; 95% CI,1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin=2.01; 95% CI,1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin=0.96; 95% CI,0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification, than adiposity per se. PMID:25593034

  12. Increased serum inhibin B levels in postmenopausal women with altered thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, N; Luisi, S; Nardo, S; Gargano, L; Franchi, A; Sibilla, R; Canettieri, G; Petraglia, F; Centanni, M

    2003-08-01

    Hyper- and hypothyroidism have significant effects on the female reproductive system. However, little in the way of data is available on the relationship between ovarian paracrine control and thyroid function. This study was aimed at characterising the serum levels of inhibin B in relation to altered thyroid function. Serum inhibin B and FSH levels were measured in 91 women (51 regularly cycling and 40 postmenopausal). The mean serum concentration of inhibin B in euthyroid cycling women (0.025 +/- 0.018 microg/l) was similar to that observed in hyper- and hypothyroid patients (0.022 +/- 0.015 and 0.018 +/- 0.014 microg/l, respectively, p=ns). Inhibin B levels were obviously reduced (-72%) in euthyroid postmenopausal women. In contrast, in hyper- and hypothyroid postmenopausal women, inhibin B levels remained substantially at the premenopausal level. So far, serum inhibin B appeared to be significantly increased in both hyperthyroid patients (0.025 +/- 0.014 microg/l; p<0.0001) and in hypothyroid patients (0.016 +/- 0.006 microg/l; p=0.0006). Altered thyroid function did not affect FSH levels at fertile age. However, a significant decrease of FSH levels was observed in hyper- and hypothyroid (-52% and -43%, respectively) postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, these FSH levels remained in the postmenopausal range. These results indicate that an altered thyroid function affects serum inhibin B levels in postmenopausal women. PMID:12953168

  13. Avenanthramide supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Ryan; Dickman, Jonathan R; Kang, Chounghun; Zhang, Tianou; Chu, Yi-Fang; Ji, Li Li

    2014-01-01

    During aging, chronic systemic inflammation increases in prevalence and antioxidant balance shifts in favor of oxidant generation. Avenanthramide (AVA) is a group of oat phenolics that have shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capability. The present study investigated whether dietary supplementation of avenanthramides (AVA) in oats would increase antioxidant protection and reduce inflammation after a bout of downhill walking (DW) in postmenopausal women. Women at age of 50-80 years (N = 16) were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion, receiving two cookies made of oat flour providing 9.2 mg AVA or 0.4 mg AVA (control, C) each day for 8 weeks. Before and after the dietary regimen, each group of subjects walked downhill on a treadmill (-9% grade) for 4 bouts of 15 minutes at a speed of 4.0 km/h with 5 minutes rest between sessions. Blood samples were collected at rest, 24 h post-DW, and 48 h post-DW pre- and post-supplementation. Both DW sessions increased plasma creatine kinase activity (P < 0.05). Before supplementation, in vitro neutrophil respiratory burst (NRB) activity was increased at 24 h post-DW (P < 0.05) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was increased 48 h post-DW (P < 0.05). AVA supplementation decreased DW-induced NRB at 24 h (P < 0.05) and CRP level 48 h (P < 0.05). Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β concentration and mononuclear cell nuclear factor (NF) κB binding were suppressed at rest and during post-DW period in AVA but not C group (P < 0.05). Plasma total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were increased in AVA vs. C (P < 0.05), whereas glutathione redox status was elevated 48 h post-DW but not affected by AVA. Thus, chronic AVA supplementation decreased systemic and DW-induced inflammation and increased blood-borne antioxidant defense in postmenopausal women. PMID:24645793

  14. Avenanthramide supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    During aging, chronic systemic inflammation increases in prevalence and antioxidant balance shifts in favor of oxidant generation. Avenanthramide (AVA) is a group of oat phenolics that have shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capability. The present study investigated whether dietary supplementation of avenanthramides (AVA) in oats would increase antioxidant protection and reduce inflammation after a bout of downhill walking (DW) in postmenopausal women. Women at age of 50–80 years (N = 16) were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion, receiving two cookies made of oat flour providing 9.2 mg AVA or 0.4 mg AVA (control, C) each day for 8 weeks. Before and after the dietary regimen, each group of subjects walked downhill on a treadmill (−9% grade) for 4 bouts of 15 minutes at a speed of 4.0 km/h with 5 minutes rest between sessions. Blood samples were collected at rest, 24 h post-DW, and 48 h post-DW pre- and post-supplementation. Both DW sessions increased plasma creatine kinase activity (P < 0.05). Before supplementation, in vitro neutrophil respiratory burst (NRB) activity was increased at 24 h post-DW (P < 0.05) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was increased 48 h post-DW (P < 0.05). AVA supplementation decreased DW-induced NRB at 24 h (P < 0.05) and CRP level 48 h (P < 0.05). Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β concentration and mononuclear cell nuclear factor (NF) κB binding were suppressed at rest and during post-DW period in AVA but not C group (P < 0.05). Plasma total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were increased in AVA vs. C (P < 0.05), whereas glutathione redox status was elevated 48 h post-DW but not affected by AVA. Thus, chronic AVA supplementation decreased systemic and DW-induced inflammation and increased blood-borne antioxidant defense in postmenopausal women. PMID:24645793

  15. Psychosocial Predictors of Coronary Artery Calcification Progression in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Low, Carissa A.; Matthews, Karen A.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Edmundowicz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Objective Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been associated with psychosocial factors in some but not all cross-sectional analyses. The goal of this study was to determine whether positive and negative psychosocial factors prospectively predict CAC progression in postmenopausal women. Methods Participants from the Healthy Women Study who also participated in the Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center protocol (n = 149) completed self-report psychosocial measures prior to two electron beam tomography scans of CAC separated by an average of 3.3 years. Results of exploratory factor analysis were used to create aggregate psychosocial indices: Psychological Risk (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, cynicism, anger-in) and Psychosocial Resources (optimism, purpose in life, mastery, self-esteem, and social support). Results The Psychological Risk index predicted significantly greater CAC progression over three years (β = .16, p = .035, ΔR2 = .03) while the Psychosocial Resources index was not predictive of CAC progression (β = -.08, p = .30, ΔR2 = .01). On individual scales, higher scores on cynicism emerged as a significant predictor of CAC progression, along with a trend linking anger-in to atherosclerosis progression. A post-hoc analysis showed a significant interaction between cynicism and anger-in (β =.20, p = .01, ΔR2 = .03), such that women reporting high levels of both cynicism and anger suppression exhibited the most CAC progression. Conclusions These findings highlight psychosocial risk factors that may accelerate the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in older women, suggest the potential importance of examining combinations of psychosocial risk factors, and represent potential targets for psychological interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:22042881

  16. Psychosocial interventions in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a systematic review of randomised and non-randomised trials and non-controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Vélez Toral, Mercedes; Godoy-Izquierdo, Débora; Padial García, Ana; Lara Moreno, Raquel; Mendoza Ladrón de Guevara, Nicolás; Salamanca Ballesteros, Alberto; de Teresa Galván, Carlos; Godoy García, Juan F

    2014-02-01

    Women's care during perimenopause and postmenopause is taking new paths to help women cope with both somatic manifestations and changes related to psychological and social factors. An updated, systematic review was conducted on non-pharmacological psychosocial interventions with regard to peri- and postmenopause. Several databases complemented with reference lists and reviews were used to perform a literature search of any relevant article. Studies were selected if they included psychoeducational programmes, health education and promotion and cognitive-behavioural techniques applied to peri- or postmenopausal women, independently of study design, main outcomes and intervention comparators. A total of 33 reports and 3 relevant reviews published between 1987 and 2013 were included. Psychosocial options are promising intervention options for self-management and self-care, as they provide multiple benefits with no side effects. Moreover, these options are recommended for women in clinical, subclinical and asymptomatic groups, as they offer women the agency and skills necessary to manage and relieve menopausal symptoms, as well as provide information and alternatives to prevent menopausal symptoms and to have a more positive experience during these life stages. These options do more than reduce distress and complaints, as they allow women in any condition to enjoy enhanced health, well-being and quality of life. Moreover, these options are accompanied by important cost reductions in pharmaceutical investment and healthcare. Nevertheless, several issues remain controversial or have scarcely been investigated, and additional high-quality research should address these issues properly in the future. Despite these limitations and the weaknesses of the review, the findings of this review are interesting and positive. Thus, we encourage women-focused institutions and policies (e.g., healthcare centres, public organisations and women's associations) to offer psychosocial

  17. An exploratory comparison of vaginal glycogen and Lactobacillus levels in pre- and post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Modur, Sharada; Burgad, Derick; Gilbert, Douglas; Golub, Elizabeth T.; French, Audrey L.; McCotter, Kerrie; Landay, Alan L.; Spear, Greg T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have suggested that glycogen expression in vaginal epithelium decreases at menopause, resulting in reduced levels of lactobacilli. However, free glycogen in genital fluids and its relationship to Lactobacillus levels has not been compared in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods 82 cervico-vaginal lavage samples were collected at different phases of the menstrual cycle from 11 pre-menopausal (4 HIV-uninfected and 7 HIV-infected) and 12 post-menopausal (7 HIV-uninfected and 5 HIV-infected) women over a 1–3 month period. Free glycogen was quantified in genital fluid. Lactobacillus levels were quantified by real time PCR. Estrogen and progesterone levels in blood were determined by ELISA. Results Free glycogen was detected in both pre- and post-menopausal women. Across all samples, those from post-menopausal women had significantly lower levels of free glycogen than those from pre-menopausal women (median 0.002 vs. 0.065 µg/µl, respectively; p = 0.03). Lactobacillus levels correlated positively with free glycogen in both pre- (Spearman r=0.68, p <0.0001) and post-menopausal women (r=0.60, p <0.002). Samples from pre-menopausal women had higher Lactobacillus levels and a lower vaginal pH (median log=8.1; median pH= 4) than those from post-menopausal women (median log=7.1; median pH=4.6) although these differences were not significant. HIV status had no significant effect on these relationships. Conclusion Free glycogen was detected in both pre- and post-menopausal women and correlated with Lactobacillus in both groups. These results point to the complexity of the relationship between menopause and vaginal microbiota and indicate that more careful studies of the role played by glycogen are warranted. PMID:25535963

  18. Over-the-counter treatments and perineal hygiene in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Martin, Deanna K.; Brousseau, E. Christine; Yip, Sallis O.; Fried, Terri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this descriptive study was to quantify the personal hygiene habits/practices and over-the-counter (OTC) products used by postmenopausal women. Specifically, we were interested in any product that would contact the vulva or vagina. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women seeking routine gynecologic care. We developed questionnaire of personal hygiene habits/practices and OTC products used by women that would contact the vulva or vagina. We recruited postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care from two separate gynecology practices. Descriptive statistics were performed as appropriate to characterize the frequency of reported treatments and practices. Results The questionnaire on OTC treatments and perineal hygiene was completed by 114 postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight women (50.9%) reported using at least one OTC vulvovaginal treatment in the last three months, including barrier treatments, topical anesthetics, powders, and antifungals. Women often used more than one OTC product. Thirty-seven women (32.5%) reported the use of two or more OTC products. Powders were used by 34 women (29.8%). Talcum powder was the most commonly used powder (76.5%, n/N = 26/34). Nine (7.9%) postmenopausal women reported douching in the last three months. Conclusions We found that over half of postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care have used an OTC product for vulvovaginal symptoms in the last three months and 1/3 of women use 2 or more products. Because the use of OTC products is so common, our study highlights the need for detailed history inquiry about OTC product use and perineal hygiene practices. PMID:23880795

  19. Identifying metabolically healthy but obese individuals in sedentary postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Messier, Virginie; Karelis, Antony D; Prud'homme, Denis; Primeau, Vanessa; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different methods to identify metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) individuals in a cohort of obese postmenopausal women. We examined the anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of 113 obese (age: 57.3 +/- 4.8 years; BMI: 34.2 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)), sedentary postmenopausal women. The following methods were used to identify MHO subjects: the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (MHO: upper quartile of glucose disposal rates); the Matsuda index (MHO: upper quartile of the Matsuda index); the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (MHO: lower quartile of the HOMA index); having 0-1 cardiometabolic abnormalities (systolic/diastolic blood pressure > or =130/85 mm Hg, triglycerides (TG) > or =1.7 mmol/l, glucose > or =5.6 mmol/l, HOMA >5.13, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) >0.1 mg/l, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <1.3 mmol/l); and meeting four out of five metabolic factors (HOMA < or =2.7, TG < or =1.7 mmol/l, HDL-C > or =1.3 mmol/l, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol < or =2.6 mmol/l, hsCRP < or =3.0 mg/l). Thereafter, we measured insulin sensitivity, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), body fat distribution (computed tomography scan), energy expenditure, plasma lipids, inflammation markers, resting blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We found significant differences in body composition (i.e., peripheral fat mass, central lean body mass (LBM)) and metabolic risk factors (i.e., HDL-C, hsCRP) between MHO and at risk individuals using the different methods to identify both groups. In addition, significant differences between MHO subjects using the different methods to identify MHO individuals were observed such as age, TG/HDL, hsCRP, and fasting insulin. However, independently of the methods used, we noted some recurrent characteristics that identify MHO subjects such as TG, apolipoprotein B, and ferritin. In conclusion, the present study shows variations in body composition

  20. Relationships Between Dog Ownership and Physical Activity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Volpe, Stella Lucia; Howard, Barbara V.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positive associations between dog ownership and physical activity in older adults have been previously reported. Purpose The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between dog ownership and physical activity measures in a well-characterized, diverse sample of postmenopausal women. Methods Analyses included 36,984 dog owners (mean age: 61.5 yrs), and 115,645 non-dog owners (mean age: 63.9 yrs) enrolled in a clinical trial or the observational study of the Women’s Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations between dog ownership and physical activity, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Owning a dog was associated with a higher likelihood of walking ≥150 min/wk (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10–1.17) and a lower likelihood of being sedentary ≥8 hr/day (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83–0.89) as compared to not owning a dog. However, dog owners were less likely to meet ≥7.5 MET-hr/wk of total physical activity as compared to non-dog owners (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.07). Conclusions Dog ownership is associated with increased physical activity in older women, particularly among women living alone. Health promotion efforts aimed at older adults should highlight the benefits of regular dog walking for both dog owners and non-dog owners. PMID:25449694

  1. Do postmenopausal women with thickened endometrium on trans-vaginal ultrasound in the absence of vaginal bleeding need hysteroscopic assessment? A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Laiyemo, R; Dudill, W; Jones, S E; Browne, H

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to determine the incidence of endometrial cancer in a cohort of postmenopausal women with thickened endometrium but no bleeding referred for hysteroscopy and determine the risk estimate of cancer using a cut-off of > 11 mm. This retrospective study of asymptomatic postmenopausal women with thickened endometrium on trans-vaginal scan referred for hysteroscopy was performed using data from 2008 to 2010. In total 63 women were identified. 2 cases of endometrial cancer were identified with an incidence of 3.17%. 22 cases had endometrial thickness (ET) > 11 mm of which 2 were malignant giving a risk estimate for endometrial cancer of 9.1%. 61 women had benign pathology, 40.98% had atrophic endometrium and 59.02% had benign polyp. In conclusion, the incidence of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women with thickened endometrium on transvaginal scan without vaginal bleeding is low and ET of 11 mm or more seems realistic to use as a cut-off for referral for hysteroscopy. PMID:26466745

  2. Factors Associated with Mammographic Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Caglayan, Kasim; Alkis, Ismet; Arslan, Ergin; Okur, Aylin; Banli, Oktay; Engin-Ustün, Yaprak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Breast density increases the risk of breast cancer, but also in the interpretation of mammography is also important. This study examine the risk factors affecting breast density in postmenopausal women. Methods Between January 2013 and January 2014, 215 patients admitted to The Clinics of Gynecology and Obstetrics with complaints of menopause were taken. According to the results of mammography, Group I (non-dense, n = 175) and Group II (dense, n = 40) were created. The informations of the caseswere analyzed retrospectively. Results In Group I, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, parity were significantly higher than group II (P < 0.05). In group II, the withdrawal period of menstruation and progesterone levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, BMI for dense breasts and number of pregnancies were found to be an independent risk factor (P < 0.05). Conclusion Increased BMI, pregnancy and parity, result of reduction in density , but longer duration of menopause and increased progesterone cause an increase in density. BMI and the number of pregnancy was found to be independent risk factors for reducing breast density. PMID:26357645

  3. Postmenopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... other options for managing hot flashes, as well: Herbal supplements: Many women have reported success in managing hot flashes with specific herbal supplements and preparations. You can learn more about herbal ...

  4. Relationship between global pulse wave velocity and diastolic dysfunction in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Palmiero, Pasquale; Maiello, Maria; Daly, David D; Zito, Annapaola; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Nanda, Navin C

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Global aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVg) is a simple, accurate, and noninvasive method to determine large artery stiffness. The goal of our study was to investigate the relationship between PWVg, LV mass, and diastolic function in postmenopausal women. Patients and method: We screened 321 consecutive women with echocardiographic examination to determine PWVg. LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and LV hypertrophy (LVH) were diagnosed according to ASE (American Society Echocardiography) Guidelines. Results: The mean age of the 321 women studied was 59.9 years of age with 20 percent of the women menstruate and 80 percent post-menopausal. Amongst the post-menopausal women, 168 patients had LVDD (66.7%), 127 had mild diastolic dysfunction, 40 had moderate diastolic dysfunction, and 1had severe diastolic dysfunction. In these post-menopausal patients with diastolic dysfunction, 89.3% had an increased PWVg while 10.7% had a normal PWVg which was highly statistically significant (p < 0.001). The patients with a normal PWVg all had mild diastolic dysfunction. Increased left atrial volume indexed for body surface area was present in only 19 women, 12 of whom had LVDD and 14 increased PWVg, but statistical analysis was not performed due to the low number of women affected. There was no statistically significant difference in age between postmenopausal women with and without increased PWVg. Conclusion: In our population of postmenopausal women, we observed a strong relationship between LVDD and LVH with PWVg. Our study supports the usefulness of assessment of aortic stiffness as a marker of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25664082

  5. The uterine choriocarcinoma in postmenopausal women: specificities of diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kaabia, Ons; Meddeb, Sawsen; Rhim, Mohamed Salah; Bibi, Mohamed; Khairi, Hedi

    2014-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a gestational trophoblastic tumor that mainly affects women of childbearing age. Cases of choriocarcinoma in postmenopausal women are exceptional. Through an observation and literature review, we propose to study the specific diagnosis and treatment features of this tumor in menopausal women. We report the observation of a pure uterine choriocarcinoma, which occurred in post-menopause. The diagnosis was made on the analysis of surgical specimens confirmed by measurement of hCG. Chemotherapy was started after a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy first. The improvement was dramatic after 3 courses of chemotherapy and the patient is in complete remission after five years of monitoring. The primitive forms of pure choriocarcinoma in postmenopausal women are exceptional. Their etiology is poorly understood and their treatment based on chemotherapy. PMID:25815097

  6. [Decrease of labor absenteeism associated with hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Blümel, J E; Sáez, L; Roncagliolo, M E; Tacla, X; Brandt, A

    1995-08-01

    Absenteeism affects efficiency and costs of health care. Most of health workers are middle age women, whose climacteric symptoms may reduce their work capacity working at a public hospital in Santiago during 1992. Fifty-eight percent were postmenopausal and 34.8% of these were receiving hormone replacement therapy. Global absenteeism rate was 17.1 days/year. These figures were 14.8 days/year for premenopausal and 17.8 days/year for postmenopausal women (NS). Among the latter, those women receiving hormone replacement therapy had a significantly lower absenteeism rate (9.4 days/year compared to 20.4 days/year among those not receiving hormones). Osteoarticular diseases were responsible for 44.3% and psychiatric diseases for 18.1% of sick leaves. No differences in absenteeism were observed between different professional levels. We conclude that hormone replacement therapy is associated with a better working capacity in postmenopausal women. PMID:8657962

  7. Weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective cohort of overweight and obese US women.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Goodman, Michael; Patel, Alpa V; Diver, W Ryan; Flanders, W Dana; Feigelson, Heather Spencer

    2011-04-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk; however, it is unclear whether losing excess weight will lower risk. Therefore, we examined the relationship between weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer among 13,055 overweight and obese, cancer-free women who enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort in 1992. During the 15 year follow-up, 816 postmenopausal breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Self-reported weight was collected before diagnosis at baseline and 10 years prior to baseline. The median weight loss was 11 lbs, but only 58% of the women maintained this weight loss through the first 5 year follow-up interval (1992-1997). Using both restricted cubic splines and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, we observed no association between weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio for 30+ pounds of weight loss compared to stable weight was 0.95 (95%: CI 0.47-1.95). An inverse association was, however, suggested among women who maintained ten or more pounds of weight loss through the next interval. There was no evidence of effect modification by postmenopausal hormone use, initial BMI, or other factors examined. In summary, weight loss was not associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in this study. Future studies should focus on sustained weight loss and whether the timing of weight loss is important. PMID:21327461

  8. Uptake of exemestane chemoprevention in postmenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Bilge; Sorkin, Mia; Pusztai, Lajos; Hofstatter, Erin W

    2016-01-01

    Despite their efficacy, uptake of selective estrogen receptor modulators for breast cancer chemoprevention remains low. Exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, has recently been identified as a potential chemopreventive option with fewer serious side effects compared with selective estrogen receptor modulators in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to assess the uptake of exemestane in a breast cancer prevention clinic. A retrospective chart review was conducted to capture chemoprevention uptake by postmenopausal women presenting to the Yale Breast Cancer Prevention Clinic between November 2011 and November 2012. Descriptive statistics of the study population have been presented. Statistical analyses were carried out using SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA) between December 2012 and February 2013. Of 90 postmenopausal women, 56 were eligible for chemoprevention. Their mean age was 56.8 years. Among the women, 39% had osteopenia or osteoporosis. Thirteen women chose to start chemoprevention medication (23%). Although 31% of the chemopreventive medication administered included exemestane, only four of 56 postmenopausal women opted for exemestane (7%). Chemoprevention uptake rates of postmenopausal women in the setting of a breast cancer prevention clinic are higher than that reported in the general population; however, they remain low overall despite the inclusion of exemestane as an option. A significant proportion of postmenopausal women have decreased bone density, which is a potential barrier to exemestane uptake. The results provide practical implications suggesting that exemestane may have limited impact on breast cancer chemoprevention uptake. Further investigations should focus on understanding the factors that influence, predict, and increase chemoprevention uptake. PMID:25642790

  9. Uptake of exemestane chemoprevention in postmenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sorkin, Mia; Pusztai, Lajos; Hofstatter, Erin W.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their efficacy, uptake of selective estrogen receptor modulators for breast cancer chemoprevention remains low. Exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, has recently been identified as a potential chemopreventive option with fewer serious side effects compared with selective estrogen receptor modulators in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to assess the uptake of exemestane in a breast cancer prevention clinic. A retrospective chart review was conducted to capture chemoprevention uptake by postmenopausal women presenting to the Yale Breast Cancer Prevention Clinic between November 2011 and November 2012. Descriptive statistics of the study population have been presented. Statistical analyses were carried out using SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA) between December 2012 and February 2013. Of 90 postmenopausal women, 56 were eligible for chemoprevention. Their mean age was 56.8 years. Among the women, 39% had osteopenia or osteoporosis. Thirteen women chose to start chemoprevention medication (23%). Although 31% of the chemopreventive medication administered included exemestane, only four of 56 postmenopausal women opted for exemestane (7%). Chemoprevention uptake rates of postmenopausal women in the setting of a breast cancer prevention clinic are higher than that reported in the general population; however, they remain low overall despite the inclusion of exemestane as an option. A significant proportion of postmenopausal women have decreased bone density, which is a potential barrier to exemestane uptake. The results provide practical implications suggesting that exemestane may have limited impact on breast cancer chemoprevention uptake. Further investigations should focus on understanding the factors that influence, predict, and increase chemoprevention uptake. PMID:25642790

  10. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption and estrogen levels in postmenopausal women: a review.

    PubMed

    Purohit, V

    1998-08-01

    This report reviews the literature to evaluate association between moderate alcohol consumption and estrogen levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Of the eight studies available in literature on postmenopausal women who were not on estrogen therapy, two analyzed urine samples and six analyzed blood samples for estrogen levels. Of the two urine sample studies, only one reported positive association (p < 0.05) between alcohol consumption and estrogen (estrone and estradiol) levels that increased by 16 to 20%. Of the six blood sample studies, only two--one in American women and one in European women--reported significant increases (p < 0.05) in estradiol levels in response to alcohol consumption. In the American women study, estradiol levels increased only with wine and not with beer or whiskey. In the European women study, estradiol levels increased in Danish and Portuguese women, but not in Spanish women. Thus, further studies are required to establish correlation between moderate alcohol consumption and estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. Of the two studies on postmenopausal women who were on estrogen replacement therapy, one administered estradiol through transdermal patch (0.15 mg) and one orally (1 mg/day). In both studies, blood estradiol levels were measured after administering a single dose of ethanol orally (0.7-0.75 g/kg of body weight). Estradiol levels were increased by 22 and 300% in the transdermal patch and oral studies, respectively. These results suggest that alcohol consumption may increase blood estradiol levels in postmenopausal women who are on estrogen replacement therapy, and this may increase the risk of breast cancer. PMID:9726268

  12. Equol production changes over time in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Franke, Adrian A; Lai, Jennifer F; Halm, Brunhild M; Pagano, Ian; Kono, Naoko; Mack, Wendy J; Hodis, Howard N

    2012-06-01

    Equol (EQ) is produced by intestinal bacteria from the soy isoflavone daidzein (DE) in 30%-60% of the population and is believed to provide benefits from soy intake. A robust EQ status definition is lacking, and it is uncertain whether EQ is formed consistently within an individual and ceases upon oral antibiotic treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled soy intervention trial with 350 postmenopausal women, DE and EQ were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and every 6 months over 2.5 years in overnight urine, spot urine and plasma. Equol production changes and status (remaining an EQ producer or nonproducer or changing towards an EQ producer or nonproducer) were assessed. Equol status was determined most dependably by overnight urine applying as cutoff a ratio of EQ/DE≥0.018 with a DE threshold ≥2 nmol/mg creatinine: the soy and placebo groups had approximately 30% consistent EQ producers during the study, but 14% and 35%, respectively, changed EQ status (mean 1.4-1.7 times), while 27% and 17%, respectively, had antibiotic treatment (P<.01 for inverse association). No significant trend in change of EQ production or status was observed when overnight urine was limited to collections closest to before and after antibiotic treatment. Similarly, antibiotic type or class, duration, dose or time between antibiotic treatment and overnight urine collection showed no consistent influence on EQ production. Equol production can markedly change intraindividually over 2.5 years, and antibiotic treatment impacts it inconsistently. Factors other than antibiotic treatment must be considered as causes for EQ production changes. PMID:21775122

  13. Construct Validation of the Dietary Inflammatory Index among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Tabung, Fred K.; Steck, Susan E.; Zhang, Jiajia; Ma, Yunsheng; Liese, Angela D.; Agalliu, Ilir; Hingle, Melanie; Hou, Lifang; Hurley, Thomas G.; Jiao, Li; Martin, Lisa W.; Millen, Amy E.; Park, Hannah L.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Shikany, James M.; Shivappa, Nitin; Ockene, Judith K.; Hebert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many dietary factors have either pro- or anti-inflammatory properties. We previously developed a dietary inflammatory index (DII) to assess the inflammatory potential of diet. In this study we conducted a construct validation of the DII based on data from a food frequency questionnaire and three inflammatory biomarkers in a subsample of 2,567 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods We used multiple linear and logistic regression models, controlling for potential confounders, to test whether baseline DII predicted concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNFα-R2), or an overall biomarker score combining all three inflammatory biomarkers. Results The DII was associated with the four biomarkers with beta estimates (95%CI) comparing the highest with lowest DII quintiles as follows: IL-6: 1.26 (1.15, 1.38), Ptrend<0.0001; TNFα-R2: 81.43 (19.15, 143.71), Ptrend=0.004; dichotomized hs-CRP (odds ratio for higher versus lower hs-CRP): 1.30 (0.97, 1.67), Ptrend=0.34); and the combined inflammatory biomarker score: 0.26 (0.12, 0.40), Ptrend=0.0001. Conclusion The DII was significantly associated with inflammatory biomarkers. Construct validity of the DII indicates its utility for assessing the inflammatory potential of diet and for expanding its use to include associations with common chronic diseases in future studies. PMID:25900255

  14. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Mammographic Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Trinh, Thang; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hall, Per; Celebioglu, Fuat

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT), little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. Methods We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI) and HRT was studied. Results Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07). This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06): increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01) but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82). A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04). No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. Conclusions Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk. PMID:24349146

  15. Isoflavone supplementation influenced levels of triglyceride and luteunizing hormone in Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyung; Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, Okhwa; Lee, Kyun-Hee; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Young, Kwon Dae; Jeong, Yang Hye; Choue, Ryowon

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of soy-derived isoflavone on blood glucose, lipid profiles, and sex hormones related to cardiovascular disease in Korean postmenopausal women. One hundred thirteen postmenopausal women were recruited from the Seoul metropolitan area. To confirm postmenopausal and gynecologic status, the subjects were clinically examined by a gynecologist using ultra sound and X-ray. Finally, 85 postmenopausal women whose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were higher than 40 IU/ml were enrolled. Subjects received either 70 mg isoflavone or placebo capsules daily for 12 weeks. As a result, the values of fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, as well as those of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and FFA, were not different between the groups after supplementation. However, triglyceride (TG) levels in the treatment group decreased significantly compared with those of the placebo group (p = 0.0215). The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) significantly decreased in the treatment group (p = 0.027); however, the levels of FSH, estrone and estradiol were not changed after intervention. In conclusion, isoflavone supplement of 70 mg/day for 12 weeks decreased blood levels of TG and LH in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:23475289

  16. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  17. Use of Oral Bisphosphonates in Primary Prevention of Fractures in Postmenopausal Women: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Real, Jordi; Galindo, Gisela; Galván, Leonardo; Lafarga, María Antonia; Rodrigo, María Dolors; Ortega, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Oral bisphosphonates are first-line drugs in the treatment of osteoporosis under most guidelines, and have been shown to decrease risk of first fracture only in asymptomatic vertebral fractures and in clinical trial populations that are generally very different from the general population. Objective To compare incidence of first osteoporotic fracture in two cohorts of postmenopausal women, one treated with bisphosphonates and the other only with calcium and vitamin D. Design Retrospective population cohort study with paired matching based on data from electronic health records. Setting Women aged 60 years and older in 2005, from 21 primary care centers in a healthcare region of Spain. Participants Two groups of women aged 60 years and older (n = 1208), prescribed either calcium and vitamin D (CalVitD) or bisphosphonates (BIPHOS) with or without calcium and vitamin D, were compared for the end point of first recorded osteoporotic-related fracture, with 5-years follow-up. Main Outcome Measure Incidence of first fracture: Vertebral fracture, osteoporosis with pathological fracture, fracture of the upper humeral epiphysis, fracture of the lower radial epiphysis, or femur fracture. Results Estimated 10-year risk of fracture was 11.4% (95% confidence interval: 9.6 to 13.2), 11.8% (9.2 to 14.3) in the BIPHOS group and 11.1% (8.6 to 13.6) in the CalVitD group. No significant differences were found between groups in total fractures (Hazard ratio = 0.934 (0.67 to 1.31)) or location (vertebral, femoral, radial or humeral). Conclusions In postmenopausal women, bisphosphonates have not been shown to better decrease risk of first fracture compared with calcium and vitamin D therapy alone. PMID:25861000

  18. High Levels of 17β-Estradiol Are Associated with Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Metalloproteinase-9 Activity in Tears of Postmenopausal Women with Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guanglin; Ma, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the serum levels of sex steroids and tear matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 concentrations in postmenopausal women with dry eye. Methods. Forty-four postmenopausal women with dry eye and 22 asymptomatic controls were enrolled. Blood was drawn and analyzed for serum levels of sex steroids and lipids. Then, the following tests were performed: tear collection, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, fluorescein tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer test, and conjunctival impression cytology. The conjunctival mRNA expression and tear concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured. Results. Serum 17β-estradiol levels were significantly higher in the dry eye subjects than in the controls (P = 0.03), whereas there were no significant differences in levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and progesterone. Tear MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations (P < 0.001), as well as the MMP-9 mRNA expression in conjunctival samples (P = 0.02), were significantly higher in dry eye subjects than in controls. Serum 17β-estradiol levels were positively correlated with tear MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations and negatively correlated with Schirmer test values. Conclusions. High levels of 17β-estradiol are associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 activity in tears of postmenopausal women with dry eye. PMID:26904272

  19. Enhanced Neuroactivation during Verbal Memory Processing in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Short Term Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Carol C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Love, Tiffany; Wang, Heng; Tkaczyk, Anne; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Using a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we showed that short-term hormone replacement therapy increases brain activation in parietal and prefrontal areas during verbal memory tasks in postmenopausal women. Objective To study the effects of hormone therapy on brain activation patterns during verbal memory in postmenopausal women. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (age range 50-60 years) were recruited from the local community. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. An fMRI was performed at the end of each 4 week treatment utilizing a verbal memory task. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo. Results Hormone therapy was associated with increased activation in left middle/superior frontal cortex (BA 6,9), medial frontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate (BA 24,32), posterior cingulate (BA 6), and left inferior parietal (BA 40) during memory encoding. All regions were significant at p ≤ 0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions Hormone therapy increased neural activation in frontal and parietal areas in postmenopausal women during a verbal memory task. PMID:18692790

  20. Type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Mahnaz; Rastegari, Zahra; Paknahad, Zamzam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The type of body fat distribution has an important role for identifying risk of diseases. One of the simple anthropometric indexes for estimating type of body fat distribution is waist circumference index. This study is aimed to determine the type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors. METHODS: This is a cross sectional descriptive analytical study. Samples were 278 postmenopausal women in Isfahan who were selected by stratified sampling and then were invited to 64 health centers of Isfahan. Data was gathered using a questionnaire and standard meter. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Results showed that in postmenopausal women the mean of waist circumference index was 93.63 (10.66) and its range was 54 to 119 cm. There was a meaningful relation between job, educational status, total pregnancies, total deliveries, age of first pregnancy, lactation history and menopausal age with waist circumference index. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that the type of body fat distribution of postmenopausal women is of android type. Considering side effects of this kind of distribution, necessary teachings about healthy eating, movement and exercises must be given to women of these ages. PMID:21589746

  1. Hormone therapy and maximal eccentric exercise alters myostatin-related gene expression in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Spektor, Tanya M; Rice, Judd C; Sattler, Fred R; Schroeder, E Todd

    2012-05-01

    We sought to evaluate baseline mRNA values and changes in gene expression of myostatin-related factors in postmenopausal women taking hormone therapy (HT) and not taking HT after eccentric exercise. Fourteen postmenopausal women participated including 6 controls not using HT (59 ± 4 years, 63 ± 17 kg) and 8 women using HT (59 ± 4 years, 89 ± 24 kg). The participants performed 10 sets of 10 maximal eccentric repetitions of single-leg extension on a dynamometer. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were obtained from the exercised leg at baseline and 4 hours after the exercise bout. Gene expression was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for myostatin, activin receptor IIb (ActRIIb), follistatin, follistatin-related gene (FLRG), follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3), and GDF serum-associated protein-1 (GASP-1). In response to the exercise bout, myostatin and ActRIIb significantly decreased (p < 0.05), and follistatin, FLRG, FSTL3, and GASP-1 significantly increased in both groups (p < 0.05). Significantly greater changes in gene expression of all genes occurred in the HT group than in the control group after the acute eccentric exercise bout (p < 0.05). These data suggest that postmenopausal women using HT express greater myostatin-related gene expression, which may reflect a mechanism by which estrogen influences the preservation of muscle mass. Further, postmenopausal women using HT experienced a profoundly greater myostatin-related response to maximal eccentric exercise. PMID:22395277

  2. Estrogen and cancers of the colorectum, breast, and lung in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Honma, Naoko; Hosoi, Takayuki; Arai, Tomio; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2015-09-01

    As estrogens play an important role in maintaining physiological function in various organs, the estrogen decrease after menopause is thought to cause various diseases frequently observed in postmenopausal or elderly women. With the aging of society and a decrease in infectious or vascular diseases, neoplasms have now become the most frequent cause of death in Japan. Cancers of the colorectum, breast, and lung have been rapidly increasing both in incidence and death, especially among postmenopausal women. Interestingly, all three of these cancers are associated with estrogens. In premenopausal women, ovarian estrogens plays major roles in the female reproductive organs through the classic estrogen receptor, ER-α. In postmenopausal women, however, estrogens produced/activated by peripherally localized estrogen-metabolizing enzymes such as aromatase, which converts androgen into estrogens, are thought to play physiologically and pathobiologically important roles in various organs through second ER, namely ER-β, distributing systemically. In this article, the association of estrogens with these cancers in postmenopausal or elderly women are reviewed, especially focusing on the role of ER-β and peripheral estrogen metabolism. The possibility of prevention or treatment of these diseases through estrogenic control is also discussed. PMID:26126901

  3. Osteoporosis and polymorphisms of osteoprotegerin gene in postmenopausal women – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Grazio, Simeon; Kosovic, Pasezada; Uremovic, Melita; Nemcic, Tomislav; Bobic, Jasminka

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has an important role in bone remodeling, and it has been proposed that the OPG gene might be a candidate gene for osteoporosis predisposition. Several studies have already assessed the connection between OPG gene polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study we wanted to analyze the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD and bone turnover markers in women with and without osteoporosis. Material and methods In 22 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (aged 65.6 ±12.6) and 59 women without osteoporosis (aged 60.8 ±8.7) we analyzed the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD, measured by dual energy absorptiometry and with bone turnover markers (crosslaps and osteoprotegerin). A163G, G209A, T245G and G1181C polymorphisms were determined. Results No significant differences in age, anthropometry, number of fractures, osteocalcin and cross-laps were found between women with and without osteoporosis. Women with osteoporosis were significantly longer in postmenopause. Significantly more women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism (p = 0.038) compared to women without osteoporosis, while no significant difference was found in prevalence of TT and GG polymorphism between patients with and without osteoporosis. No relationship was found between investigated polymorphism and bone turnover markers. A significant negative correlation between total hip BMD and crosslaps (p = 0.046) as well as between total hip T score and crosslaps (p = 0.044) was found in women without osteoporosis Conclusions Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism more frequently than women without osteoporosis. Our results indicate that A163G polymorphism could have an impact on higher bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:27407270

  4. Effects of obesity and hormone therapy on surgically-confirmed fibroids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Eva M; Balkwill, Angela; Reeves, Gillian; Green, Jane; Beral, Dame Valerie; Coffey, Kate

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between body mass index (BMI), use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), and incidence of uterine fibroids in postmenopausal women, 610,604 postmenopausal women without prior hysterectomy or diagnosis of fibroids were followed as part of a large United Kingdom prospective cohort study. We used Cox regression models to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs) of surgically-confirmed fibroids (defined as a hospital admission with uterine fibroids as a primary diagnosis with a related surgical procedure), in relation to BMI and use of HT. During an average of 11.4 years of follow-up, 3561 women were admitted to hospital with surgically-confirmed fibroids. Five-year incidence rates decreased with age, from 0.50% (1 in 200 women) at age 50-54, to 0.11% (1 in 1000 women) at age 75-79. The 5-year rate in postmenopausal women aged 50-54 was about a quarter that seen in premenopausal women of the same age (1 in 200 vs. 1 in 50). Compared with normal weight women, obese women had a RR of surgically-detected fibroids of 1.46 (95% CI 1.33-1.59; p < 0.0001). HT use was associated with a RR of 2.33 (95% CI 2.18-2.49; p < 0.0001) in ever versus never users. When we analysed HT use and BMI together, obese vs. normal weight never users had a RR of 2.00 (95% CI 1.77-2.26): the highest risks were seen in women who were obese and had ever used HT, RR = 3.30 (95% CI 2.88-3.79). Uterine fibroids continue to occur in postmenopausal women; obesity and hormone therapy use are important modifiable risk factors. PMID:25784364

  5. Longitudinal associations of the endocrine environment on fat partitioning in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Goss, AM; Darnell, BE; Brown, MA; Oster, RA; Gower, BA

    2013-01-01

    Among postmenopausal women, declining estrogen may facilitate fat partitioning from the periphery to the intra-abdominal space. Furthermore, it has been suggested that excess androgens contribute to a central fat distribution pattern in women. The objective of this longitudinal study was to identify independent associations of the hormone milieu with fat distribution in postmenopausal women. 53 healthy postmenopausal women, either using or not using hormone replacement therapy (HRT), were evaluated at baseline and 2 years. The main outcomes were intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), and total thigh fat analyzed by computed tomography (CT) scanning and leg fat and total body fat mass measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA-S, SHBG, and cortisol were assessed. On average in all women combined, IAAT increased by 10% (10.5 cm2) over two years (P<0.05). Among HRT users, estradiol was inversely associated with, and estrone was positively associated with, 2-yr gain in IAAT. Among HRT non-users, free testosterone was inversely associated with, and SHBG was positively associated with, 2-yr gain in IAAT. These results suggest that in postmenopausal women using HRT, greater circulating estradiol may play an integral role in limiting lipid deposition to the intra-abdominal cavity, a depot associated with metabolically detrimental attributes. However, a high proportion of weak estrogens may promote fat partitioning to the intra-abdominal cavity over time. Further, among postmenopausal women not using HRT, greater circulating free testosterone may limit IAAT accrual. PMID:22173571

  6. Invasive Breast Cancer Incidence in 2,305,427 Screened Asymptomatic Women: Estimated Long Term Outcomes during Menopause Using a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Earlier studies of breast cancer, screening mammography, and mortality reduction may have inflated lifetime and long-term risk estimates for invasive breast cancer due to limitations in their data collection methods and interpretation. Objective To estimate the percentage of asymptomatic peri/postmenopausal women who will be diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer over their next 25 years of life. Methods A systematic review identified peer-reviewed published studies that: 1) enrolled no study participants with a history of invasive breast cancer; 2) specified the number of women enrolled; 3) reported the number of women diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer; 4) did not overcount [count a woman multiple times]; and, 5) defined the length of follow-up. Data sources included PubMed, Cochrane Library, and an annotated library of 4,409 full-text menopause-related papers collected and reviewed by the first author from 1974 through 2008. Linear regression predicted incidence of first invasive breast cancer, based on follow-up duration in all studies that met the our inclusion criteria, and in a subset of these studies that included only women who were 1) at least 50 years old and 2) either at least 50 or less than 50 but surgically menopausal at enrollment. Results Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. They included a total of 2,305,427 peri/postmenopasual women. The mean cumulative incidence rate of first invasive breast cancer increased by 0.20% for each year of age (95% CI: 0.17, 0.23; p < 0.01; R2 = 0.90). Over 25 years of follow-up, an estimated 94.55% of women will remain breast cancer-free (95% CI: 93.97, 95.13). In the 12 studies (n = 1,711,178) that enrolled only postmenopausal women, an estimated 0.23% of women will be diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer each year (95% CI: 0.18, 0.28; p < 0.01, R2 = 0.88). Conclusion The vast majority (99.75%) of screened asymptomatic peri/postmenopasual women will not be diagnosed with

  7. Are post-menopausal women "half-a-man"?: sexual beliefs, attitudes and concerns among midlife Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Ling, Davina C Y; Wong, William C W; Ho, Suzanne C

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the concerns and issues specific to sexual behaviors and interests among postmenopausal women in a metropolitan urban city in Southern China. This was a qualitative study using semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs). Twenty-two informants aged 50 and above recruited through an ongoing research project on early post-menopausal women under the purview of the School of Public Health at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The main outcome measures were themes identified as health concerns towards sex among postmenopausal women. Contrary to prior expectations and stereotypes, we found that the respondents were very open in discussing their sexual concerns and shared extensively from their personal experiences. Our respondents perceived significant differences in sexual needs between older men and women. Many respondents identified the effects of menopause and general health problems, as well as environmental limitations and communication problems between spouses as barrier to healthy sexual relationships within their marriages. Conversely, sexual disharmony was seen as an important cause of marital strife among older couples. There is a growing need in studying health concerns among the fast-growing, Chinese middle-aged and older population. Our qualitative study revealed a wide gap in the knowledge regarding general and sexual health issues among post-menopausal Chinese women. Raising awareness among health professionals of these issues is essential in addressing health concerns regarding this traditionally taboo subject within the Chinese context. PMID:18396726

  8. Association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and coronary artery calcification in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyung; Ahn, Chul Woo; Nam, Ji Sun; MD, Shinae Kang; Park, Jong Suk; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in postmenopausal women, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been known to be associated with cardiovascular disease. However, little information regarding the relationship between NAFLD and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in postmenopausal women is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between NAFLD and CAC in postmenopausal women. Methods: Among 4,377 participants who underwent cardiac computed tomography in a health promotion center, 919 postmenopausal women were enrolled. Anthropometric profiles and multiple cardiovascular risk factors were measured. NAFLD was measured by ultrasonography, and CAC was evaluated by cardiac computed tomography. Odds ratios and 95% CI for the presence of CAC, by severity of fatty liver disease, were estimated using logistic regression. Results: Women were stratified into three groups by severity of NAFLD. There were significant differences in cardiovascular parameters among the groups, and prevalence of CAC significantly increased with severity of NAFLD. On logistic regression analysis after adjustment for multiple risk factors, the odds ratios for the prevalence of CAC were as follows (P < 0.05): no NAFLD, 1.0; mild NAFLD, 1.34 (95% CI, 0.92-2.16); moderate to severe NAFLD, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.06-3.16). However, this association was attenuated after adjustment for insulin resistance (P = 0.16). Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between NAFLD and prevalence of CAC, but NAFLD is not an independent factor for coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:26154274

  9. Simvastatin Effect on Calcium and Silicon Plasma Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Horecka, Anna; Hordyjewska, Anna; Blicharski, Tomasz; Kocot, Joanna; Żelazowska, Renata; Lewandowska, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2016-05-01

    Postmenopausal women more often suffered from knee osteoarthritis and its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Calcium and silicon are significant elements involved in bone and joint metabolism, especially in older people. Cardiovascular diseases are common worldwide and simvastatin is the most prescribed drug in such population of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin administration on calcium and silicon concentration in the plasma of postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Sixty postmenopausal mild hypercholesterolemic women (mean age 61.4 years, range 54-68) were enrolled. Thirty patients received simvastatin (20 or 40 mg/day) for at least 1 year before being enrolled (simvastatin "+" group). Control group consists of remaining 30 women (simvastatin "-"group). Silicon and calcium concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Plasma simvastatin level was determined 3 h after the drug administration using HPLC-UV-Vis. Calcium but not silicon level was significantly lower in patients receiving simvastatin in comparison with non-statin group (1.91 ± 0.32 vs. 2.33 ± 0.19 mmol/l, p < 0.05). A weak but significant positive correlation between plasma silicon and simvastatin levels (r = 0.3, p < 0.05) was observed; this may be due to the fact that simvastatin contains silicon dioxide as an inactive ingredient. The mean simvastatin concentration was 9.02 ng/ml. All hypotheses were verified at the significance level of p < 0.05. A statistically significant decrease in the plasma calcium concentration of postmenopausal women, treated with simvastatin suggests that simvastatin may play a role in calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Positive correlation of simvastatin concentration with silicon level in the plasma suggests that both might prompt the positive effect of osteoarthritis treatment. PMID:26858096

  10. Asymptomatic reproductive tract infections/sexually transmitted infections among HIV positive women.

    PubMed

    Bhattar, S; Bhalla, P; Rawat, D; Tripathi, R; Kaur, R; Sardana, K

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to highlight the importance of screening all HIV positive women for various reproductive tract infections/sexually transmitted infections (RTIs/STIs) irrespective of symptoms and to determine its occurrence in asymptomatic HIV positive women. Relevant specimens were collected for diagnosis of various RTIs/STIs. STIs were diagnosed in nearly one-third of the HIV positive asymptomatic patients which is quite high. The national strategy for STIs/RTIs control misses out large number of asymptomatic RTIs/STIs in HIV positive women which is responsible for silently transmitting these infections in the community. So this strategy should be modified to include screening of all HIV positives women irrespective of symptoms of STIs/RTIs. PMID:26068345

  11. Decreased bone mineral density is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seok Kyo; Yun, Bo Hyon; Noe, Eun Bee; Suh, Jong Wook; Choi, Young Sik

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 252 postmenopausal women who had visited a health promotion center for a routine checkup. BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and coronary atherosclerosis was assessed using 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Participants were divided into normal BMD and osteopenia-osteoporosis groups, according to the T-scores of their lumbar spine or femoral neck. Results Participants with osteopenia-osteoporosis had a significantly higher proportion of coronary atherosclerosis than did those with normal BMD at the lumbar spine (P=0.003) and femoral neck (P=0.004). Osteopenia-osteoporosis at the lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 7.27) or femoral neck (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 10.57) was associated with coronary atherosclerosis, after controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Decreased BMD is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women, independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors. Postmenopausal women with decreased BMD may have a higher risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:25798428

  12. Severity and clustering of menopausal symptoms among obese and nonobese postmenopausal women in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharanya Shre, E. S.; Trout, Kate; Singh, Sonia Pant; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: The symptoms of menopause have a negative impact on quality of life, especially in women transitioning to menopause and earlier transitions. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect of obesity on the severity of menopausal symptoms and the clustering of symptoms in postmenopausal women in India. Methodology: The Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women of Chennai, visiting Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2013 in Chennai, India. Sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure level, menopausal history, personal health history, and hormonal disorder issues were investigated. Results: The results have shown that 24% of the participants had complaint of mild to severe hot flushes, half of them had reported heart ailments (49%; n = 74), and disturbed sleep (48%; n = 72). The proportion of overweight/obese participants was higher in married (64%) than widows (41%), and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in MRS scores of obese and nonobese postmenopausal participants. Conclusion: There is a need of developing interactive, user friendly, technology based education module for addressing the chronic ailments of postmenopausal women. PMID:27134461

  13. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and 24-Hour Urinary Levels of Melatonin in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, S.; Baer, D. J.; Stevens, R. G.; Albert, P. S.; Dorgan, J. F.; Kesner, J. S.; Meadows, J. W.; Shields, R.; Taylor, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for breast cancer including serum and urinary levels of hormones and other biomarkers. Previously, we observed significant increases in concentrations of serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in participants after consumption of 15 or 30 g (one or two drinks) of alcohol per day. Objective: In the present analysis, we evaluated the relationship of alcohol consumption with 24-h urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) concentration (micrograms per 24 h). Design and Participants: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed a controlled diet plus each of three treatments (a nonalcoholic placebo beverage or 15 or 30 g alcohol/d) during three 8-wk periods in random order under conditions of weight maintenance. Measures: 6-SMT was measured in 24-h urine samples that were collected at entry into the study (baseline) and at the midpoint (4 wk) and end (8 wk) of each of the three diet periods. Results: Concentration of 6-SMT was not significantly modified by the alcohol treatment after adjustment for body mass index, hours of sleep, daylight hours, and baseline level of 6-SMT. Conclusions: These results suggest that low to moderate daily alcohol consumption does not significantly affect 24-h urinary levels of melatonin among healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:22013099

  14. Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women in Iran: A Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdi; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Menopause can have psychological, physical, and vasomotor symptoms along with sexual dysfunction and these symptoms can affect the quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this research was to determine and association the effective factors on QOL among postmenopausal Iranian women. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on 300 postmenopausal women in Hamadan, Iran. We used the Menopause-Specific QOL questionnaire (MENQOL) for measuring QOL in postmenopausal women. SPSS version 16 was used for data analysis. Results The mean scores of QOL for vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual domains were 11.65 ± 5.93, 19.36 ± 1.20, 39.12 ± 1.95 and 11.02 ± 5.66, respectively. Higher scores had worse QOL. Using MENQOL scores, our study showed significant differences in QOL based on age, education level, financial status, number of children, employment, and body mass index (BMI). Conclusion Menopause causes a decrease in QOL, which is dependent to age, work, BMI, financial status and number of children variables. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective intervention programs to improve QOL in postmenopausal women. PMID:27152311

  15. Association of Lipid Accumulation Product with Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Namazi Shabestari, Alireza; Asadi, Mojgan; Jouyandeh, Zahra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-06-01

    The lipid accumulation product is a novel, safe and inexpensive index of central lipid over accumulation based on waist circumference and fasting concentration of circulating triglycerides. This study was designed to investigate the ability of lipid accumulation product to predict Cardio-metabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women. In this Cross-sectional study, 264 postmenopausal women by using convenience sampling method were selected from menopause clinic in Tehran. Cardio-metabolic risk factors were measured, and lipid accumulation product (waist-58×triglycerides [nmol/L]) was calculated. Optimal cut-off point of lipid accumulation product for predicting metabolic syndrome was estimated by ROC (Receiver-operating characteristic) curve analysis. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 41.2% of subjects. Optimal cut-off point of lipid accumulation product for predicting metabolic syndrome was 47.63 (sensitivity:75%; specificity:77.9%). High lipid accumulation product increases risk of all Cardio-metabolic risk factors except overweight, high Total Cholesterol, high Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and high Fasting Blood Sugar in postmenopausal women. Our findings show that lipid accumulation product is associated with metabolic syndrome and some Cardio-metabolic risk factors Also lipid accumulation product may have been a useful tool for predicting cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:27306343

  16. Anemia in postmenopausal women: dietary inadequacy or non-dietary factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postmenopausal women are disproportionately affected by anemia, and the prevalence in females > 65 years of age in the United States is approximately 10%. The manifestation of anemia in older populations is associated with dietary inadequacy, blood loss, genetics, alterations in bioavailability, ren...

  17. Relationship of Circulating Total Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein to Trabecular Bone in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homocysteine (Hcy) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are novel risk factors for osteoporosis. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the relationship of Hcy and CRP to volumetric trabecular bone, but also to assess their relationship to areal composite bone in healthy postmenopausal women (N=184)....

  18. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  19. Weight Lifted in Strength Training Predicts Bone Change in Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, Ellen C.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.; Houtkooper, Linda B.; Metcalfe, Lauve L.; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G.; Harris, Robin B.; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between weight lifted in one year of progressive strength training and change in bone mineral density (BMD) among calcium-supplemented, postmenopausal women. BMD was measured at baseline and after one year. Evidence of a linear relationship between BMD change and total and exercise-specific weight lifted during the 1-year…

  20. ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY REDUCES TOTAL PLASMA HOMOCYSTEINE AND CONCURRENTLY ENHANCES GENOMIC DNA METHYLATION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), which can affect the risk of major cancers, has been known to reduce total plasma homocysteine concentrations in postmenopausal women, the mechanisms and subsequent molecular changes have not yet been defined. To investigate the effect of ERT on homocyste...

  1. Behavior of temporal parameters of the ground reactive forces for the walking of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    DE Sousa, Adriana Leite; Calçadas Dias Gabriel, Ronaldo Eugênio; Faria, Aurélio Marques; Aragão, Florbela R; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Helena

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the influence of body composition and menopause characteristics on certain temporal parameters of the behavior of vertical and anteroposterior components of ground reactive forces, as well as the vertical and anteroposterior rates on the walking of postmenopausal women. The sample consisted of 67 postmenopausal women, average age 59 years. Body composition was assessed by octapolar bioimpedance and ground reactive force by the Kistler force platform. Vertical loading rate correlated positively with age (r = 0.02) and negatively with weight (r = -0.33). The relationship between the rates of vertical loading and unloading associated positively with menopause time (r = 0.27) but negatively with weight (r = -0.27). Vertical unloading rate showed a negative association with abdominal visceral adiposity (r = -0.27). The relationship between the times of the intermediate and final phases of the support correlated significantly with abdominal visceral adiposity (r = 0.25) and fat mass (r = 0.24). The study suggests that fat mass and abdominal visceral adiposity affect the support time, and increased abdominal visceral adiposity implies a slower pre-suspension phase during the walking of postmenopausal women. Hormone replacement therapy was shown to be an enhancer of steeper vertical loading and anteroposterior unloading and longer time in the double support phase, indicating a greater stability of postmenopausal women when walking. PMID:26686563

  2. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and mammographic density in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ahn, Jiin; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Yun, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Min-Jung; Suh, Byung-Seong; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR) with mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to evaluate these associations in pre- and postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was performed in 73,974 adult women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination that included a mammogram between 2011 and 2013 (mean age 42.6 years). MetS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. IR was assessed with the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dense breast were estimated using logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders. In premenopausal women, MetS and all its components except waist circumference were associated with dense breast. After adjustment for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) for dense breast in women with MetS compared with those without MetS was 1.22 (1.06-1.39). In postmenopausal women, however, there was positive but non-significant association between MetS and dense breast. In both pre- and postmenopausal women, high blood glucose and IR were positively associated with dense breast. The OR (95% CI) for dense breast between the highest and lowest quartiles of HOMA-IR was 1.29 (1.20-1.39) for premenopausal women and 1.44 (1.05-1.97) for postmenopausal women. In a large sample of Korean women, MetS and IR were associated with mammographic dense breast, demonstrating that IR, a potentially modifiable risk factor, may increase breast cancer risk, possibly through high mammographic density. PMID:26277917

  3. Screening for osteoporosis among post-menopausal women in community pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Barris Blundell, Damià; Rodríguez Zarzuelo, Carmen; Sabio Sánchez, Belén; Gutiérrez álvarez, José Luis; Navarro Visa, Elena; Muñoz Valdés, Oscar; Garrido Jiménez, Belén; Gómez, Rocío Sánchez

    Objectives To identify postmenopausal women with risk of osteoporosis through quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUI) and to value the medical intervention after the determination of the bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study developed in a community pharmacy. During the month of June of 2005 the community pharmacy enrolled postmenopausal women into the study. Women in treatment with calcium, vitamin D, hormone replacement therapy, estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin or biphosphonates were considered criteria for exclusion. To all the women that consent to participate, the pharmacist measured BMD with the device Sahara Hologic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer at right calcaneus. Following the World Health Organization, women were classified as osteoporotic if their T-Score was less than -2.5 and as osteopenic if their T-Score ranged between -2.5 and -1.0. Results Of the 100 women screened, 11 (11%) presented risk of osteoporosis and 61 (61%) of osteopenia. The 18.5% postmenopausal women with body mass index lesser than 30 presented risk of osteoporosis and the 63.0% osteopenia. Conclusions The QUI constitutes a useful tool in community pharmacy for the screening of osteoporosis and it supposes a greater integration of the community pharmacy within the health care. PMID:25247006

  4. Metabolic syndrome affects breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: National Cancer Institute of Naples experience.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Immacolata; Esposito, Emanuela; Pentimalli, Francesca; Crispo, Anna; Montella, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Maria; De Marco, MariaRosaria; Cavalcanti, Ernestina; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Fucito, Alfredo; Frasci, Giuseppe; Maurea, Nicola; Esposito, Giuseppe; Pedicini, Tonino; Vecchione, Aldo; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Giordano, Antonio

    2010-12-15

    Postmenopausal women show the highest incidence of breast cancer in the female population and are often affected by metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome (MS)--characterized by central adiposity, insulin resistance, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high serum triglyceride and high blood pressure--seems to be strictly correlated to breast carcinogenesis. We enrolled 777 healthy women and women with breast cancer in our nested case-control study to evaluate the association between MS and breast cancer, analyzing anthropometric parameters (weight, height, BMI, waist and hip circumference), blood pressure, serum HDL-C, triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, testosterone and uric acid levels and administering a questionnaire about physical activity, food intake, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, personal and familial history of disease. We found an higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (30%) in postmenopausal breast cancer patients compared to healthy women (19%). None of the individual MS features was strong enough to be considered responsible for breast carcinogenesis alone. However, of the 63 postmenopausal breast cancer cases associated to MS, 30% presented three or more MS features, suggesting that the activation of multiple molecular pathways underlying MS might contribute to tumorigenesis. Our data support the hypothesis that MS may be an indicator of breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. The unsettlement of the hormonal arrangement in postmenopausal, along with an increase in visceral adiposity, probably favour the hormone-dependent cell proliferation, which drives tumorigenesis. Adjustments in lifestyle with physical activity intensification and healthy diet could represent modifiable factors for the primary prevention of sporadic breast cancer. PMID:20935521

  5. Baseline observations from the POSSIBLE EU® study: characteristics of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Cyrus; Roux, Christian; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Guillemin, Francis; Jonsson, Bengt; Ortolani, Sergio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Horne, Rob; Kakad, Shilpa; Shepherd, Susan; Möller, Gerd; Marciniak, Anne; Martinez, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Summary Prospective Observational Scientific Study Investigating Bone Loss Experience in Europe (POSSIBLE EU®) is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study that utilises physician- and patient-reported measures to describe the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women on bone loss therapies. We report the study design and baseline characteristics of 3,402 women recruited from general practice across five European countries. Purpose The POSSIBLE EU® is a study describing the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications. Methods Between 2005 and 2008, general practitioners enrolled postmenopausal women initiating, switching or continuing treatment with bone loss treatment in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Patients and physicians completed questionnaires at study entry and at 3-month intervals, for 1 year. Results Of 3,402 women enrolled (mean age 68.2 years [SD] 9.83), 96% were diagnosed with low bone mass; 55% of these using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Most women (92%) had comorbidities. Mean minimum T score (hip or spine) at diagnosis was −2.7 (SD 0.89; median −2.7 [interquartile range, −3.2, −2.2]) indicating low bone mineral density. Almost 40% of the women had prior fractures in adulthood, mostly non-vertebral, non-hip in nature, 30% of whom had at least two fractures and more than half experienced moderate/severe pain or fatigue. Bisphosphonates were the most common type of bone loss treatment prescribed in the 12 months preceding the study. Conclusions POSSIBLE EU® characterises postmenopausal women with low bone mass, exhibiting a high rate of prevalent fracture, substantial bone fragility and overall comorbidity burden. Clinical strategies for managing osteoporosis in this population varied across the five participating European countries, reflecting their different guidelines, regulations and standards of care. PMID:21258637

  6. The Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Pre- and Postmenopausal Korean Women: KNHANES 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Chon, Seung Joo; Jung, Yeon Soo; Kim, Bo Ok; Noe, Eun Bee; Yun, Bo Hyon; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum ferritin levels increase in postmenopausal women, and they are reported to be linked to major health problems. Here, we investigated the association between serum ferritin levels and insulin resistance (IR) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 6632 healthy Korean women (4357 premenopausal and 2275 postmenopausal) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2007–2010 were enrolled in the study. Serum ferritin values were divided into six groups for the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. IR and obesity indices were evaluated according to the six serum ferritin groups. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS software, version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Results The association between the IR indices and ferritin groups had a higher level of statistical significance in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group. In addition, for the postmenopausal group, the estimates increased significantly in the sixth ferritin group compared to those in the first ferritin group. However, the association between the obesity indices and ferritin levels was not significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Conclusion Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. PMID:27337113

  7. Acupuncture to Treat Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, A. G.; Pires, G. N.; Andersen, M. L.; Tufik, S.; Hachul, H.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders are commonly observed among postmenopausal women, with negative effects on their quality of life. The search for complementary therapies for sleep disorders during postmenopausal period is of high importance, and acupuncture stands out as an appropriate possibility. The present review intended to systematically evaluate the available literature, compiling studies that have employed acupuncture as treatment to sleep disorders in postmenopausal women. A bibliographic search was performed in PubMed/Medline and Scopus. Articles which had acupuncture as intervention, sleep related measurements as outcomes, and postmenopausal women as target population were included and evaluated according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool and to the STRICTA guidelines. Out of 89 search results, 12 articles composed our final sample. A high heterogeneity was observed among these articles, which prevented us from performing a meta-analysis. Selected articles did not present high risk of bias and had a satisfactory compliance rate with STRICTA guidelines. In general, these studies presented improvements in sleep-related variables. Despite the overall positive effects, acupuncture still cannot be stated as a reliable treatment for sleep-related complaints, not due to inefficacy, but rather limited evidence. Nevertheless, results are promising and new comprehensive and controlled studies in the field are encouraged. PMID:26366181

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Denosumab in Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hai-Feng; Gu, Ling-Jia; Wu, Yue; Zhao, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Zhe-Rong; Yang, Yun-Mei

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and safety of denosumab in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until October 30, 2014 using combinations of the following search terms: osteoporosis, postmenopause, postmenopausal, women, denosumab. The primary outcome was bone mineral density (BMD) change, and secondary outcomes were change in the bone turnover markers β-isomerized carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and adverse events.Patients treated with denosumab had significantly increased BMD of the lumbar spine (7.58%), total hip (4.86%), and distal third of the radius (2.92%) than those treated with placebo (all, P < 0.001). Patients treated with denosumab had a significant decrease of CTX (-66.16%) and P1NP (-64.65%) as compared with those treated with placebo (both, P < 0.001). Adverse events were similar between the 2 groups (pooled odds ratio = 1.04, P = 0.625).Denosumab increases BMD and decreases markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and is not associated with significant side-effects. PMID:26554766

  9. Can progestin be limited to every third month only in postmenopausal women taking estrogen?

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, E; Salmi, T; Puolakka, J; Heikkinen, J; Granfors, E; Hulkko, S; Mäkäräinen, L; Nummi, S; Pekonen, F; Rautio, A M

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated whether a progestin, added for 14 days every 3 months to estrogen replacement therapy, is capable of preventing the development of endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal women during a treatment period of 2 years. Postmenopausal women (263) in 10 hospitals and medical centers in Finland participated in this non-randomized prospective multicenter trial. The women received estradiol valerate 2 mg daily for 84 days and 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate daily for days 71-84 followed by seven drug-free tablets. This regimen was repeated four times per year. The first year of treatment was completed by 227 (86%) women and the second year by 143 out of 146 women. The incidence of unscheduled and heavy bleedings was higher in women who were postmenopausal for less than 3 years. Endometrial biopsies demonstrated progestational response in 64% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. The 3 month regimen prevented development of endometrial hyperplasia but was not able to restore a hyperplastic endometrium to normal. PMID:7731382

  10. Low vitamin D, and bone mineral density with depressive symptoms burden in menopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Saleh, Najah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The reported association between vitamin D level and loss of Bone mineral densitometry measurements (BMD) has been controversial. Objective: The objectıve of the current study was to determine whether low vitamin D level and BMD are associated with depresive symptoms as burden in Arab women during the menopausal and postmenopausal period. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used at the Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers in Qatar. Subjects: A multi-stage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1436 women aged 45-65 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013 and 1106 women agreed to participate (77.2%) and responded to the study. Materials and Methods: BMD (g/m2) was assessed at the BMD unit using a Lunar Prodigy DXA system (Lunar Corp., Madison, WI). The antero-posterior lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the mean of the proximal right and left femur were be measured by two technician and then reviewed by one radiologist. Data on body mass index (BMI), clinical biochemistry variables including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were collected. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered for depression purposes. Results: Of the 1436 women living in urban and rural areas, 1106 women agreed to participate (77.0%) and responded to the study. The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 53.8 ± 3.2. The median age of natural menopausal in the present study was 49 years (mean and standard deviation 49.5 ± 3.1 and postmenopausal was 58.1 ± 3.3). There were statistically significant differences between menopausal stages with regards to ethnicity, education level, systolic and dialostic blood pressure, parity, sheesha smoking and depressive symptoms. Overall 30.4% of women were affected with osteopenia/osteoporosis in premenopausal and postmenopausal (24.4% vs 35.7%; P = 0.0442). Osteopenia in premenopausal and postmenopausal (18.7% vs 29.3%; P = 0.030) and Osteoporosis (9.9% vs 15.9%; P = 0.049) were

  11. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders. The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors. Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  12. Prediction of metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal Ghanaian women using obesity and atherogenic markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important health problem which puts individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes as well as obesity-related cancers such as colon and renal cell in men, and endometrial and oesophageal in women. Objective This study was aimed at examining how obesity indicators and related determinants influence metabolic syndrome, and how the factors can be used to predict the syndrome and its cut-offs in postmenopausal Ghanaian women. Methods Two hundred and fifty (250) Ghanaian subjects were involved in the study with one hundred and forty-three (143) being premenopausal women and one hundred and seven (107) postmenopausal women. The influence of traditional metabolic risk factors including high blood pressure, dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance on obesity and atherogenic indices i.e. body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), Waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), high density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol ratio (HDL-C/TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol to low density lipoprotein ratio (HDL-C/LDL-C) and triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) were identified according to the Harmonization (H_MS) criterion. Results The predominant anthropometric marker that significantly influence metabolic risk factors among the pre- and postmenopausal women was waist-to-hip ratio (premenopausal: p- 0.004, 0.026 and 0.002 for systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HDL-C; postmenopausal: p-0.012, 0.048, 0.007 and 0.0061 for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), FBG, triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) respectively). Using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve for WC, WHR, TG/HDL-C and HDL-C/TC among postmenopausal women were estimated at 0.6, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.8 respectively. The appropriate cut-off values for WC, WHR, TG/HDL-C and HDL

  13. Effects of aerobic exercise on blood pressure and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Menopause may increase risk of hypertension and abnormal lipid profile. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of morning and afternoon aerobic exercises on hypertension and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. Forty five women aged from 49 to 60 years were randomly assigned into three groups. Group (A) 15 patients received medicine, (B) 15 patients performed morning aerobic exercises and received medicine, and group (C) 15 patients performed afternoon aerobic exercises and received medicine. Blood pressure measurement and lipid profile tests were performed before and after the study. The results showed that there was a statistical significant difference among all groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, favoring group C. Also there was a statistical significant difference among all groups in lipid levels, favoring group C. Therefore, it can be concluded that morning aerobic exercises were more effective in reducing the blood pressure and lipids than afternoon exercises in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. PMID:26171380

  14. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women and the percentage of women who had low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was higher (p < 0.01) among premenopausal women. In addition, negative correlations were found between WC and HDL-C (r = −0.148, p < 0.05) and BMI and HDL-C (r = −0.258, p < 0.01) for all subjects indicating that increases in weight and abdominal fat have a deleterious effect on plasma HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that although HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age. PMID:27417608

  15. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women and the percentage of women who had low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was higher (p < 0.01) among premenopausal women. In addition, negative correlations were found between WC and HDL-C (r = -0.148, p < 0.05) and BMI and HDL-C (r = -0.258, p < 0.01) for all subjects indicating that increases in weight and abdominal fat have a deleterious effect on plasma HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that although HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age. PMID:27417608

  16. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data collection. The QOL questionnaire includes 41 items which measure the QOL in five dimensions: socioeconomic, mental health, religiousness, physical health and future imagining. Data analyzed was carried out in IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 using descriptive statistic, χ2 test, and Fisher test. A P value of 0.01 or less was considered significant. Results Overall 211 eligible participants were studied. Some participants obtained full score on socioeconomic, religiousness, physical health and future imagining dimensions of QOL but none on the mental health dimension of the QOL. Only, 6.6% of study participants have a good QOL. There was a significant relationship between age and financial provider whit status of QOL. Conclusion Most Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period have poor or moderate QOL. Therefore, improving the QOL among these women should be considered. PMID:27617245

  17. Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women and Their Spouses: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadalizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh; Rezaei, Nazanin; Hakimi, Sevil; Montazeri, Ali; Taheri, Safoura; Taghinejad, Hamid; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most women spend more than one-third of their lives after menopause. Due to physiologic changes in that period, menopause can cause a series of symptoms such as vasomotor symptoms, psychologic problems, and sexual dysfunction, which can affect the women’s quality of life (QoL) and other family members, especially their spouse. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the association between the QoL of postmenopausal women and their husbands. Patients and Methods: This descriptive-inferential cross-sectional study was conducted according to the census of 2006 in Iran. A total of 400 postmenopausal women aging 50 to 59 years and their spouses in 80 cluster heads of Ilam City residents were selected and studied in collaboration with the Statistical Center of Iran. The required data were gathered using the short-form health survey (SF-36) questionnaire and demographic questionnaire developed by the researcher-trained interviewers. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 through Kruskal Wallis test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and correlation. Results: The participants’ mean age was 54.2 ± 2.8 years for women and 61.1 ± 6.1 years for their spouses. More than half of the women (57%) and about one-third of men (32.8%) were illiterate. The employed educated women aging 50 to 54 years had a higher mean score of SF-36 domains. The difference in education was significant in all domains except for mental health. There was a significant difference in age in all domains except in general health. The mean score of all domains of QoL was significantly less in the illiterate men than in the literate ones (P < 0.05). The results of the present study showed a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between the couples’ QoL, vasomotor symptoms, and aging. Spearman test showed a significant positive correlation in all domains of QoL between postmenopausal women and their spouses (correlation coefficient, 0.48-0.63). Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study

  18. Denosumab: a review of its use in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2014-07-01

    Subcutaneous denosumab (Prolia(®) [USA, Europe]; Pralia(®) [Japan]) once every 6 months is indicated in several countries for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at increased or high risk for fractures (featured indication). In some countries, it is also indicated for use in postmenopausal women who have failed or are intolerant to other osteoporosis treatments. In several international, phase III trials (≤3 years' duration) involving more than 12,000 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or low bone mineral density (BMD), including Asian studies, denosumab was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment. Relative to placebo, denosumab treatment significantly reduced the risk of vertebral, nonvertebral and hip fractures and increased BMD at all skeletal sites evaluated, including the lumbar spine and total hip. Furthermore, the benefits of denosumab treatment were generally evident after the first dose and were maintained during up to 8 years of treatment in an ongoing extension study. The tolerability profile of denosumab during this extension phase was consistent with that observed during the initial 3-year FREEDOM trial. At 12 months, denosumab treatment increased BMD at the total hip, lumbar spine and/or femoral neck and reduced markers of bone turnover to a significantly greater extent than oral bisphosphonates in women who were essentially bisphosphonate-naive and in those who had switched from alendronate to denosumab treatment. Further clinical experience, including an ongoing postmarketing safety study, will more fully define the long-term safety of denosumab. In the meantime, denosumab is an important option for the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis at increased or high-risk of fractures, including in women at increased risk of fracture who are unable to take other osteoporosis treatments. PMID:24935243

  19. Adiponectin as a Protective Factor Against the Progression Toward Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Darabi, Hossein; Raeisi, Alireza; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Ostovar, Afshin; Assadi, Majid; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Vahdat, Katayoun; Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serum adiponectin levels have been suggested to be predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in diverse populations. However, the relationship between circulating adiponectin levels and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women has not been investigated. A total of 382 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in a prospective cohort study were followed for 5.8 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to the criteria set out by the American Diabetes Association. Adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA. Of 195 women who did not have diabetes at baseline and who were reexamined in the second phase of the study for diabetic status, 35 subjects (17.9%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus during the 5.8 years follow-up period. The women with type 2 diabetes had lower adiponectin levels than the healthy postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analysis showed that, after adjustments were made for age, cardiovascular risk factors, OPG, and hs-CRP levels, higher baseline adiponectin levels were associated with a lower relative risk (RR) of having type 2 (RR = 0.07, confidence interval [CI]: 0.01–0.66, P = 0.021). Higher baseline adiponectin levels functioned as a predictor of a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus among postmenopausal women during a 5.8 years follow-up study. Therefore, it is suggested that elevated adiponectin levels may offer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus after the menopause. PMID:26287420

  20. Evaluation of decision rules for identifying low bone density in postmenopausal African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Ballard, Joyce E.; Holiday, David; Turner, Lori W.; Keenum, Amy J.; Pearman, Cynthia M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While African-American women tend to have greater bone mineral density (BMD) than caucasian women, they are still at risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. Clinical decision rules (i.e., algorithms) have been developed to assist clinicians identify women at greatest risk of low BMD. However, such tools have only been validated in caucasian and Asian populations. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of five clinical decision rules in identifying postmenopausal African-American women at greatest risk for low femoral BMD. METHODOLOGY: One hundred-seventy-four (n=174) postmenopausal African-American women completed a valid and reliable oral questionnaire to assess lifestyle characteristics, and completed height and weight measures. BMD at the femoral neck was measured via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for identifying African-American women with low BMD (T-Score < or = -2.0 SD) using five clinical decision rules: Age, Body Size, No Estrogen (ABONE), Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST), Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE), and body weight less than 70 kg. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of African-American women had low BMD, half of whom had osteoporosis (BMD T-Score < or = -2.5 SD). Sensitivity for identifying women with a low BMD (T-Score < or = -2.0 SD) ranged from 65.57-83.61%, while specificity ranged from 53.85-78.85%. Positive predictive values ranged from 80.95-87.91%, while negative predictive values ranged from 48.44-58.33%. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the clinical decision rules analyzed in this study have some usefulness for identifying postmenopausal African-American women with low BMD. However, there is a need to establish cut-points for these clinical decision rules in a larger, more diverse sample of African-American women

  1. Does the effect of soy phytoestrogens on bone in postmenopausal women depend on the equol-producing phenotype?

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2007-06-01

    Plant-derived phytoestrogens are considered to be an alternative therapy for the prevention and control of bone loss in postmenopausal women. However, there are contradictory findings among clinical studies in the efficacy of soy isoflavones on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. Inter-individual differences in gut bacteria metabolism of isoflavones to produce equol (the equol-producing phenotype) might partly explain these discrepancies. Among several trials in this area of research, few studies took the equol-producing phenotype into consideration, and those studies support the importance of this phenotype in the effect of soy isoflavones on bone health among post-menopausal women. Greater consideration of the equol-producing phenotype in the design of studies investigating the effect of soy isoflavones on bone health of postmenopausal women may provide more useful information. PMID:17605306

  2. Serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese postmenopausal women: the Shanghai Changfeng Study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Lin, Huandong; Hu, Yu; Li, Xiaoming; He, Wanyuan; Jin, Xuejuan; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Naiqing; Song, Binbin; Pan, Boshen; Gao, Xin

    2015-10-14

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk of CVD: the increased serum ferritin level may be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship of ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. A total of 1178 postmenopausal women (mean age, 60·8 years) were enrolled from the Changfeng Study. A standard interview, anthropometric measurements and laboratory analyses were performed for each participant. Bilateral CIMT (carotid intima-media thickness) were measured using ultrasonography, and the presence of carotid plaques was assessed. Serum ferritin was measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The results showed that serum ferritin was 181·9 (sd 65·8) ng/ml in the postmenopausal women. Multivariate, linear, stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that age (standardised β = 0·233, P< 0·001), alanine transaminase (standardised β = 0·194, P< 0·001), log homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (standardised β = 0·181, P< 0·001), TAG (standardised β = 0·083, P= 0·003), Hb (standardised β = 0·080, P= 0·004) and PPG (2-h glucose levels following a 75-g oral glucose challenge) (standardised β = 0·079, P= 0·004) were independently associated with serum ferritin. Compared with the ferritin level of subjects in the first quartile, that in the fourth quartile had greater CIMT, and higher prevalence of carotid plaque. After adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors, Hb, leucocytes, log urine albumin:creatinine ratio and liver function, the ferritin level of postmenopausal women in the fourth quartile had a 1·587-fold increased risk of carotid plaques relative to those in the lowest quartile. In conclusion, these results suggest that serum ferritin is independently and positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women and that ferritin may be implicated in atherosclerosis. PMID:26395322

  3. Paraoxonase 1 activity and phenotype distribution in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Butorac, Dražan; Ćelap, Ivana; Kačkov, Sanja; Robić, Vera; Miletić, Tomislav; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Hulina, Andrea; Kuna, Krunoslav; Grubišić, Tihana Žanić; Rajković, Marija Grdić

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postmenopausal women have higher risk of cardiovascular disease. One of the contributing factors could be reduced activity of anti-atherogenic enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1). The aim of this study was to examine differences in the lipid status, paraoxonase and arylesterase PON1 activities and PON1 phenotype in women with regular menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: The study included 51 women in reproductive age (25 in follicular and 26 in luteal phase of the menstrual cycle) and 23 women in postmenopause. Lipid parameters in sera were determined using original reagents and according to manufacturer protocol. PON1 activity in serum was assessed by spectrophotometric method with substrates: paraoxon and phenylacetate. PON1 phenotype was determined by double substrate method. Results: Compared to the women in follicular and luteal phase, postmenopausal women have significantly higher concentration of triglyceride [0.9 (0.7–1.3), 0.7 (0.6–1.0) vs. 1.5 (0.9–1.7) mmol/L; P = 0.002], cholesterol [5.10 (4.78–6.10), 5.05 (4.70–5.40) vs. 6.30 (5.73–7.23) mmol/L; P < 0.001], LDL [3.00 (2.56–3.63), 3.00 (2.70–3.70) vs. 3.90 (3.23–4.50) mmol/L; P < 0.001], and apolipoprotein B [0.88 (0.75–1.00), 0.79 (0.68–1.00) vs. 1.07 (0.90–1.24) mmol/L; P = 0.002]. PON1 basal [104 (66–260), 106 (63–250) vs. 93 (71–165) U/L; P = 0.847] and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activity [210 (131–462), 211 (120–442) vs. 180 (139–296) U/L; P = 0.857] as well as arylesterase activity [74 (63–82), 70 (54–91) vs. 70 (60–81) kU/L; P = 0.906] and PON1 phenotype (P = 0.810) were not different in the study groups. Conclusion: There are no differences in PON1 activity and PON1 phenotype between women with regular menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women. PMID:24969921

  4. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Nourozi, Mansoreh; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Hanachi, Parichehr

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG) and control (CG). Individuals in the SG (n = 34) received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl) and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl) per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23) received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3). The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month) using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL) questionnaire. Results: A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05) years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031), while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical). Conclusion: Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms. PMID:26175764

  5. Resistance training improves isokinetic strength and metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Pedro Ferreira Alves; Gadelha, André Bonadias; Gauche, Rafael; Paiva, Flávio Macedo Lahud; Bottaro, Martim; Vianna, Lauro C; Lima, Ricardo Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of resistance training (RT) on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. Patients and methods Twenty-two postmenopausal women (65.0±4.2 years) underwent 12 weeks of whole body progressive training with intensity prescribed based on rating of perceived exertion. Dominant knee extension strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer before and after the intervention. Moreover, all volunteers had blood samples collected for lipid profile, glycemic control, and C-reactive protein analyses. Waist circumference and arterial blood pressure were also measured at baseline and after the training period. Student’s t-tests for paired samples and repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare dependent variables, and statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results Isokinetic muscle strength significantly increased (P<0.01) with training. It was observed that waist circumference as well as total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly decreased with training (P<0.01). Total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, an important marker of cardiovascular disease incidence, was also significantly reduced (from 3.91±0.91 to 3.60±0.74; P<0.01) after the program. Blood glucose, basal insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were also significantly reduced (P<0.01). No significant alterations were observed for resting blood pressure, triglycerides, or C-reactive protein. Conclusion Based on the observed results, it can be concluded that a 12-week progressive RT program, besides increasing isokinetic muscle strength, induces beneficial alterations on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. These findings highlight this mode of exercise as an important component of public health promotion programs for aged women. RT improves isokinetic strength and metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. PMID:26300634

  6. The Relationship Between Bilateral Oophorectomy and Plasma Hormone Levels in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Shafrir, Amy L.; Rice, Megan; Hankinson, Susan E.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Narod, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oophorectomy prior to natural menopause reduces breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether timing of oophorectomy (during premenopause vs. postmenopause) or hysterectomy was associated with hormone levels, specifically estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and prolactin, using data from the Nurses’ Health Study. Methods We included 2,251 postmenopausal women not using hormones who provided blood samples in 1989–1990 and/or 2000–2002, and who were controls in various nested case-control studies. We used multivariate linear mixed effects models to assess geometric mean hormone levels by surgery status. Results Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with 25% lower testosterone levels vs. women with natural menopause (20.8 vs. 15.5 ng/dL)(P<0.0001) with no effect of timing of surgery (P=0.80). SHBG levels were lower among women with a premenopausal oophorectomy (52.2 nmol/L) vs. those with natural menopause (58.1 nmol/L) or a postmenopausal oophorectomy (62.0 nmol/L)(P = 0.02). There was no significant association of oophorectomy with estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, DHEAS, or prolactin levels (P ≥ 0.23). A simple hysterectomy was associated with a significant 8% lower testosterone (P=0.03) and 14% lower DHEAS (P=0.02) levels compared to women with natural menopause, but not with other hormone levels. Conclusion Although limited by small numbers, our findings suggest no differential influence of timing of surgery on sex hormone levels. The reduction in testosterone levels women with oophorectomy or hysterectomy suggests a possible role of this hormone in postmenopausal breast cancer development. PMID:25523946

  7. The relationship between bilateral oophorectomy and plasma hormone levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Shafrir, Amy L; Rice, Megan; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather; Tworoger, Shelley S; Narod, Steven A

    2015-02-01

    Oophorectomy prior to natural menopause reduces breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether timing of oophorectomy (during premenopause vs. postmenopause) or hysterectomy was associated with hormone levels, specifically estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and prolactin, using data from the Nurses' Health Study. We included 2,251 postmenopausal women not using hormones who provided blood samples in 1989-1990 and/or 2000-2002, and who were controls in various nested case-control studies. We used multivariate linear mixed-effects models to assess geometric mean hormone levels by surgery status. Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with 25% lower testosterone levels versus women with natural menopause (20.8 vs. 15.5 ng/dL) (P < 0.0001) with no effect of timing of surgery (P = 0.80). SHBG levels were lower among women with a premenopausal oophorectomy (52.2 nmol/L) versus those with natural menopause (58.1 nmol/L) or a postmenopausal oophorectomy (62.0 nmol/L) (P = 0.02). There was no significant association of oophorectomy with estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, DHEAS, or prolactin levels (P ≥ 0.23). A simple hysterectomy was associated with a significant 8% lower testosterone (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower DHEAS (P = 0.02) levels compared with women with natural menopause but not with other hormone levels. Although limited by small numbers, our findings suggest no differential influence of timing of surgery on sex hormone levels. The reduction of testosterone levels in women with oophorectomy or hysterectomy suggests a possible role of this hormone in postmenopausal breast cancer development. PMID:25523946

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TUBERCULOSIS AND FEMALE HORMONE LEVELS IN POST-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Gulru; Senol, Gunes; Anar, Ceyda; Meral, Ali Riza; Tuzel, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infection controlled by T-lymphocyte. After menopause, T-lymphocyte cells counts increase suggesting a possible link between T-lymphocyte cell counts and estrogen and progesterone levels. In this study we compared post-menopausal women with and without TB to determine any differences in estrogen and progesterone levels between the two groups. The study group consisted of 38 post-menapausal women hospitalized for TB at Dr Suat Seren Chest Diseases and Surgery Training and Research Hospital for Tuberculosis, in Izmir, Turkey. The control group consisted of 30 post-menopausal women without TB. Both groups were selected from patients without immunosuppressive diseases or malignancies in whom PPD testing was not contraindicated. The mean progesterone level in the control group was 0.3896 ± 0.2014 ng/ml and in the study group was 0.3607 ± 0.3006 ng/ml (p = 0.638). The mean estrogen level in the control group was 18.9873 ± 6.5332 pg/ml and in the study group was 26.2768 ± 14.3418 pg/ml; the difference was significant (p = 0.007). The body mass index in the study group was significantly (p = 0.034) lower than in the study group. In post-menopausal women, the mean estrogen level was significantly higher in participants with TB than those without TB. PMID:27086428

  9. Fall prevention in postmenopausal women: the role of Pilates exercise training.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Amat, A; Cruz-Díaz, D; Pérez-López, F R

    2016-06-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a major public health concern for postmenopausal women. Fear of falling, impairments in gait and postural control, and changes in body composition have been identified as important risk factors for falling. Physical exercise is an important tool in fall prevention and management. The Pilates method is a non-impact activity that can be adapted to different physical conditions and health status and is recommended for various populations. In postmenopausal women, it has been deemed an effective way to improve some fall-related physical and psychological aspects, such as postural and dynamic balance. In addition, some physical capacities, such as flexibility, personal autonomy, mobility, and functional ability have also shown to benefit from Pilates interventions involving women in their second half of life, as well as certain psychological aspects including fear of falling, depressive status, and quality of life. Pilates exercise has shown effectively to prevent falls in postmenopausal women by improving their balance, physical and psychological functioning, and independence. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations. PMID:26849849

  10. Multidisciplinary Overview of Vaginal Atrophy and Associated Genitourinary Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Irwin; Dicks, Brian; Kim, Noel N; Hartzell, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal atrophy, which may affect up to 45% of postmenopausal women, is often associated with one or more urinary symptoms, including urgency, increased frequency, nocturia, dysuria, incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infection. Aims To provide an overview of the current literature regarding cellular and clinical aspects of vaginal atrophy and response to treatment with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Methods PubMed searches through February 2012 were conducted using the terms “vaginal atrophy,” “atrophic vaginitis,” and “vulvovaginal atrophy.” Expert opinion was based on review of the relevant scientific and medical literature. Main Outcome Measure Genitourinary symptoms and treatment of vaginal atrophy from peer-reviewed published literature. Results Typically, a diagnosis of vaginal atrophy is made based on patient-reported symptoms, including genitourinary symptoms, and an examination that reveals signs of the disorder; however, many women are hesitant to report vaginal-related symptoms, primarily because of embarrassment. Conclusions Physicians in various disciplines are encouraged to initiate open discussions about vulvovaginal health with postmenopausal women, including recommended treatment options. Goldstein I, Dicks B, Kim NN, and Hartzell R. Multidisciplinary overview of vaginal atrophy and associated genitourinary symptoms in postmenopausal women. Sex Med 2013;1:44–53. PMID:25356287

  11. Serum sex hormone levels are related to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, J F; Longcope, C; Stephenson, H E; Falk, R T; Miller, R; Franz, C; Kahle, L; Campbell, W S; Tangrea, J A; Schatzkin, A

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a nested case-control study to prospectively evaluate the relationship of serum estrogens and androgens to risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. From 1977 to 1987, 3375 postmenopausal women free of cancer and not taking replacement estrogens donated blood to the Breast Cancer Serum Bank in Columbia, Missouri. Of these, 72 were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer. For each case, two controls matched on age and date and time of day of blood collection were selected using incidence density matching. The median age of subjects at blood collection was 62 years; the time from blood collection to diagnosis ranged from less than 1 to 9.5 years with a median of 2.9 years. Risk of breast cancer was positively and significantly associated with serum levels of estrogens and androgens. Compared to women in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile for non-sex hormone-binding globulin (non-SHBG) bound (bioavailable) estradiol had a relative risk of 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-18.5) and those in the highest quartile for testosterone had a relative risk of 6.2 (95% CI = 2.0-19.0). Our results lend considerable support to the hypothesis that serum concentrations of estrogens and androgens are related to the subsequent diagnosis of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. PMID:9167999

  12. Relation of skinfold thickness and visceral fat with the endothelial function in Mexican postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Ana Mirna Fino; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between skinfolds and visceral fat with vascular reactivity according to body weight, fat distribution and time since menopause in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In postmenopausal women, tricipital, suprailiac and subscapular skinfolds as well as blood pressure were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Brachial artery Doppler ultrasound at baseline and after the hyperemic stimulus was done and Doppler parameters were assessed. For statistical analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis, as well as Student t were used. Results Sixty-six postmenopausal women were studied; age was 54.5 ± 7.4 years. Skinfold thickness was related with subcutaneous and visceral fat. In all groups, the arterial diameter increased after the hyperemic stimulus among 6.5% and 9% of women. The pulsatility index decreased in the whole group and in those with BMI ≤ 27, WHR ≤ 0.85 and time since menopause ≤ 10 years. Negative correlations were observed between the percentage of change in arterial dilatation and the subscapular skinfold and subcutaneous fat in the whole group and in the subgroups with BMI > 27 and WHR > 0.85. Conclusions Skinfolds are indirectly related with visceral fat, and skinfold thickness permit to conclude about impact in endothelial environment. PMID:26327895

  13. Memory Decline in Peri- and Post-menopausal Women: The Potential of Mind–Body Medicine to Improve Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Jim R; Johnson, Aimee K; Elkins, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a frequent complaint during the menopause transition and among post-menopausal women. Changes in memory correspond with diminished estrogen production. Further, many peri- and post-menopausal women report sleep concerns, depression, and hot flashes, and these factors may contribute to cognitive decline. Hormone therapy can increase estrogen but is contraindicated for many women. Mind–body medicine has been shown to have beneficial effects on sleep, mood, and hot flashes, among post-menopausal women. Further, mind–body medicine holds potential in addressing symptoms of cognitive decline post-menopause. This study proposes an initial framework for how mind–body interventions may improve cognitive performance and inform future research seeking to identify the common and specific factors associated with mind–body medicine for addressing memory decline in peri- and post-menopausal women. It is our hope that this article will eventually lead to a more holistic and integrative approach to the treatment of cognitive deficits in peri- and post-menopausal women. PMID:25125972

  14. Asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care. PMID:26510270

  15. Premenstrual Assessment Form Typological Categories: Classification of Self-Defined Premenstrually Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youdale, J. Valda M.; Freeman, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated use of newly developed assessment instrument for premenstrual syndrome, the Premenstrual Assessment Form (PAF), as a retrospective assessment instrument, and the PAF subtypes as accurate reflectors of subjective premenstrual symptomatology. Severely premenstrually symptomatic and asymptomatic women completed the PAF. Results partially…

  16. Genotypes and clinical aspects associated with bone mineral density in Argentine postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Adriana; Ulla, María; García, Beatriz; Lavezzo, María; Elías, Eliana; Binci, Miriam; Rivoira, María; Centeno, Viviana; Alisio, Arturo; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine genotypes and clinical aspects associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women from Córdoba, Argentina. Polymorphisms were assessed by RFLP-PCR technique using BsmI and FokI for vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and XbaI and PvuII for estrogen receptor-alpha gene (ERalpha) as restrictases. Sixty-eight healthy, 54 osteopenic, and 64 osteoporotic postmenopausal women were recruited. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD were inversely correlated with age in the entire analyzed population. Height was lower in osteopenic and osteoporotic women as compared to healthy women (P < 0.05). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were the lowest in osteoporotic women (P < 0.01 versus healthy group). Serum procollagen type I Nterminal propeptide (PINP) was higher in osteoporotic women as compared to the other groups. Distribution of VDR and ERalpha genotypes was similar in the three groups. Genotype bb (VDR) was associated with low values of lumbar BMD in the healthy group (P < 0.05 versus genotype Bb), and with low values of femoral BMD (P < 0.05 versus genotype BB) in osteoporotic women. BB*Pp interaction was associated with the highest femoral neck BMD (P < 0.05), whereas the bb*xx interaction was associated with the lowest femoral neck BMD in the total population analyzed (P < 0.05). In conclusion, parameters such as age, height, weight, BMI, serum PINP, VDR genotypes, and interactions between VDR and ERalpha genotypes could be useful to predict a decrease in BMD in Argentine postmenopausal women. PMID:18600402

  17. Physical activity and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, A R; Kushi, L H; Hong, C P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether the incidence of diabetes is reduced among physically active older women. METHODS: We assessed physical activity by mailed questionnaire and 12-year incidence of diabetes (ostensibly type 2 diabetes) in a cohort of 34257 women aged 55 to 69 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, estrogen use, dietary variables, and family history of diabetes, women who reported any physical activity had a relative risk of diabetes of 0.69 (95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.77) compared with sedentary women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that physical activity is important for type 2 diabetes prevention among older women. PMID:10630154

  18. Chronic l-citrulline supplementation improves cardiac sympathovagal balance in obese postmenopausal women: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexei; Chernykh, Oksana; Figueroa, Arturo

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of chronic l-citrulline (L-cit) supplementation on resting heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure (BP) in obese postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assign to either an L-cit group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). HRV and BP were measured before and after 8weeks. There were significant decreases (P<0.05) in nLF (sympathetic activity), LnLF/LnHF (sympathovagal balance), and BP as well as a significant increase (P<0.05) in nHF (vagal tone) following L-cit compared with no changes after control. Our findings indicate that L-cit supplementation improves sympathovagal balance in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:27356482

  19. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Luminal B Subtype Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sanggeun; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Sanghwa; Kim, Jee Ye; Kim, Seung Il

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, there is limited information on the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with insulin resistance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between insulin resistance and clinicopathological factors in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients without diabetes. We assessed 760 patients with breast cancer treated between 2012 and 2014. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics between patients with and without insulin resistance using univariate and multivariate analyses, including after stratification by menopausal status. Insulin resistance was defined according to the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Of 760 patients, 26.4% had insulin resistance. Age, menopausal status, body mass index, tumor size, histologic grade, Ki-67 expression, and breast cancer subtype significantly differed according to the presence of insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis revealed that postmenopausal status and obesity were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In postmenopausal women, older age, obesity, larger tumor size, advanced stage, and high proliferative luminal B subtype were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In contrast, in premenopausal patients, only obesity was related to insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis indicated that insulin resistance was independently correlated with obesity, larger tumor size, and the luminal B/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative subtype in postmenopausal but not premenopausal patients. Insulin resistance was significantly associated with larger tumors and proliferative luminal B subtype breast cancer in postmenopausal women only. These findings suggest that insulin resistance could mechanistically induce tumor progression and might be a good prognostic factor, and that it could represent a therapeutic target in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. PMID:26945364

  20. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Luminal B Subtype Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sanggeun; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Sanghwa; Kim, Jee Ye; Kim, Seung Il

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there is limited information on the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with insulin resistance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between insulin resistance and clinicopathological factors in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients without diabetes. We assessed 760 patients with breast cancer treated between 2012 and 2014. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics between patients with and without insulin resistance using univariate and multivariate analyses, including after stratification by menopausal status. Insulin resistance was defined according to the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Of 760 patients, 26.4% had insulin resistance. Age, menopausal status, body mass index, tumor size, histologic grade, Ki-67 expression, and breast cancer subtype significantly differed according to the presence of insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis revealed that postmenopausal status and obesity were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In postmenopausal women, older age, obesity, larger tumor size, advanced stage, and high proliferative luminal B subtype were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In contrast, in premenopausal patients, only obesity was related to insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis indicated that insulin resistance was independently correlated with obesity, larger tumor size, and the luminal B/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative subtype in postmenopausal but not premenopausal patients. Insulin resistance was significantly associated with larger tumors and proliferative luminal B subtype breast cancer in postmenopausal women only. These findings suggest that insulin resistance could mechanistically induce tumor progression and might be a good prognostic factor, and that it could represent a therapeutic target in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. PMID:26945364

  1. The VSQ: a questionnaire to measure vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Yip, Sallis O.; Wedderburn, Terri S.; Martin, Deanna K.; Li, Fang-Yong; Choi, Jennifer N.; Kenton, Kimberly S.; Fried, Terri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a vulvovaginal symptoms questionnaire (VSQ) to study symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual-impact of vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods We developed questionnaire focused on vulvovaginal symptoms based on modifications to the Skindex-16, a validated questionnaire to measure the impact of skin disease. We then recruited postmenopausal women seeking routine gynecologic care to test the psychometric properties of the VSQ. Test-retest reliability was assessed 2 to 4 weeks after their initial recruitment and measured utilizing intra-class coefficients. Four distinct a priori scales of the VSQ were developed: symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual-impact. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the four a priori scales by evaluating the goodness-of-fit of a final confirmatory factor analysis model. The internal consistency of the scales was assessed through the calculation of Cronbach’s α coefficient. Results The VSQ is a 21-item written questionnaire with four scales, symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual impact. One hundred twenty postmenopausal women participated in the psychometric validation of the VSQ. The test-retest reliability the four scales measured by intra-class coefficients were 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.65 for symptoms, emotions, life-impact and sexual-impact. The goodness-of –fit of the confirmatory factor response model was confirmed. Cronbach’s α coefficients were 0.76, 0.87, 0.83, and 0.82 for the scales. Conclusion The VSQ is a reliable and internal consistent instrument to measure vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. PMID:23481118

  2. Genetic Background, Adipocytokines, and Metabolic Disorders in Postmenopausal Overweight and Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Mosor, Maria; Przysławski, Juliusz; Bogacz, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between the genetic background, adipocytokines, and metabolic state in postmenopausal women has not yet been fully described. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PPAR gamma-2 (Pro12Ala, C1431T) and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) polymorphisms and serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, visfatin, and resistin) and metabolic disorders in 176 postmenopausal women with increased body mass (BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2)). The distributions of selected alleles and genotype frequencies were determined with the PCR-RFLP method. The bioimpedance method was used to determine nutritional status, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were applied to determine serum concentrations of adipocytokines. Viscerally obese postmenopausal women had higher body mass, body fat content, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, uric acid, and HOMA-IR and a higher prevalence of the Ala12 allele. In models based on cytokine concentration, higher body mass and glucose concentration (visfatin model, p = 0.008) and higher insulin and triglyceride levels (resistin model, p = 0.002) were observed in visceral fat deposition and this was potentiated by the presence of the T1431 allele. In resistin models, co-existence of Ala12/X polymorphisms with the T1431 allele was associated with higher resistin and triglyceride concentrations (p = 0.045). In postmenopausal women, metabolic parameters are mainly determined by the distribution of body fat, but Ala12/X polymorphism may increase the metabolic disorders and this effect can be enhanced by the T1431 allele. PMID:27246401

  3. Moderate alcohol consumption and changes in postprandial lipoproteins of premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a diet-controlled, randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, M S; Sierksma, A; Schaafsma, G; van Tol, A; Geelhoed-Mieras, T; Bakker, M; Hendriks, H F

    2000-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Earlier studies in men have shown that moderate alcohol consumption affects lipoprotein metabolism and hemostasis. In this diet-controlled, randomized, crossover trial, we investigated the effect on lipoprotein metabolism of moderate consumption of red wine or red grape juice with evening dinner for 3 weeks in premenopausal women using oral contraceptives and in postmenopausal women. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected 1 hour before dinner up to 19 hours after starting dinner at 2-hour or 4-hour intervals. Plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels peaked 3 hours after dinner with wine in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. After wine consumption, the overall high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was increased in postmenopausal women (mean increase 0.17 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.03), and the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was reduced in premenopausal women (mean reduction 0.35 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.01) as compared with grape juice consumption. The findings suggest that postprandial lipoprotein metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption differs between oral contraceptive-using premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. The response of postmenopausal women to alcohol resembled the response found in earlier studies in men. PMID:10957749

  4. Autonomic control of cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Irina W.; Kiselev, Anton R.; Karavaev, Antoly S.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.; Gridnev, Vladimir I.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Bezruchko, Boris P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the features of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women. Material and Methods We studied 185 postmenopausal women aged 59.3±8.5 years (mean±SD) and 104 premenopausal women aged 45.1±5.8 years. Standard indices of heart rate variability (HRV) (mean heart rate, coefficient of variation, standard deviation of the NN interval (the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram with normal sinus rhythm) (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), proportion derived by dividing RR50, the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms, by the total number of NN intervals (PNN50), and power of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands in absolute values and percentages of total spectral power) and index S of synchronization between the 0.1-Hz rhythms in heart rate and photoplethysmogram were compared between these two groups at rest. We assessed the following sex hormones: estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone. Results Mean heart rate and power of LF and HF bands were significantly different (p<0.05) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The autonomic indices were similar in women with natural and surgical menopause. Some indices (coefficient of variation, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50, and power of LF and HF bands) showed weak correlation with menopause time in women with natural menopause. In women with surgical menopause, a moderate statistically significant correlation was observed only between menopause time and S index (r=−0.41, p=0.039). In premenopausal women, only testosterone correlated weakly with coefficient of variation, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, and power of HF band. In postmenopausal women, no correlations were found. We did not find any significant relationship between autonomic indices and hot flashes, assessed by hot

  5. Osteoporosis in otherwise healthy perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women: physical and biochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pouillès, Jean-Michel; Trémollieres, Florence A; Ribot, Claude

    2006-02-01

    Population studies have shown that about 3-5% of perimenopausal women already have osteoporosis according to the WHO definition of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women ( t -scorewomen, with no identifiable cause of bone loss. This group has so far been little studied. We prospectively evaluated a group of 60 perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women (mean age 52.2+/-2.5 years) who were found to have apparently unexplained low bone mass, and we compared them to 120 controls matched for age and menopausal status. These women were extensively investigated, including by detailed questionnaire and laboratory testing. Of the 60 women with osteoporosis, only three were found to have previously undiagnosed disorders (two with subclinical hyperthyroidism and one with elevated serum PTH levels) that might have contributed to their low bone mass. On the other hand, osteoporotic patients were characterized by a significantly lower body weight, higher prevalence of personal and parental histories of fractures and a higher level of bone turnover as assessed by increased serum osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase levels and urinary type I collagen C-telopeptide (CTX) excretion, as compared to controls. These findings support theories of a genetic contribution to osteoporosis and underline the predictive value of a previous history of personal and familial fracture in the identification of osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women. PMID:16021526

  6. DXA-derived abdominal fat mass, waist circumference, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Little, Jonathan P; Paus-Jenssen, Lisa S; Case, Allison M; Biem, H Jay

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived fat mass indices for predicting blood lipid profile in postmenopausal women. A secondary purpose was to determine whether waist circumference is comparable with DXA-derived measurements in predicting blood lipid profile. Subjects were 423 postmenopausal women (age 58.1 +/- 6.3 years). Fat mass was assessed at abdomen, trunk, and total body using DXA. Anthropometric measurements included BMI and waist circumference. Blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TAG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and cholesterol/HDL ratio. Of the DXA-derived measures, abdominal-fat mass was the best predictor of blood lipid profiles. DXA-derived abdominal fat mass and waist girth explained 20 and 16.5% of variation in TC/HDL ratio, respectively, in univariate analysis, with no difference between the slopes of the regression coefficients. Eighty-four percent of subjects were common to the top quartiles of waist circumference and abdominal fat mass, and blood lipid profiles generally worsened across increasing quartiles. DXA-derived abdominal fat mass and waist circumference are of equivalent utility for predicting alterations in blood lipids. Waist circumference is, therefore, ideal as an inexpensive means in primary health-care services for predicting risk of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. PMID:19343013

  7. Associations between frequency of coffee consumption and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei; Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Keqin; Tang, Zihui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed at estimating the associations between coffee intake and osteoporosis (OP) in Chinese postmenopausal women. Methods: We conducted a large-scale, community-based, cross-sectional study to investigate the associations by using self-report questionnaire to access frequency of coffee intake. The total of 1817 participants was available to data analysis in this study. Multiple regression models controlling for confounding factors to include frequency of coffee intake variable were performed to investigate the relationships for OP. Results: Positive correlations between frequency of meat food intake and T-score were reported (β = 0.216, P value < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the frequency of meat food intake was significantly associated with OP (P < 0.05 for model 1 and model 2). The postmenopausal women with high frequency of meat food intake had a lower prevalence of OP. Conclusion: The findings indicated that frequency of coffee intake was independently and significantly associated with OP. The prevalence of OP was more frequent in Chinese postmenopausal women not preferring coffee habits. PMID:26629099

  8. Psychological reactivity to laboratory stress is associated with hormonal responses in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Manzur, Angelica M.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Spiegel, David; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study examined associations between psychological reactivity and hormonal responses to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) in postmenopausal women. METHODS Forty postmenopausal women ages 50–74 completed anxiety and mood assessments prior to and following the TSST. Blood samples were drawn across multiple time points for assessment of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and DHEA. RESULTS As expected, significant increases in anxiety and negative affect and decreases in positive affect were observed from pre- to post-TSST; however, the magnitude of change in anxiety and mood varied considerably across individuals. Analyses indicated that greater increases in anxiety and negative affect from pre- to post-TSST were associated with higher levels of cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA, controlling for race, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Changes in positive affect were not associated with cortisol, ACTH, or DHEA. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that enhanced reactivity to stress is associated with higher hormone levels among postmenopausal women, which could have potential implications for health. PMID:24595153

  9. Influences of teriparatide administration on marrow fat content in postmenopausal osteopenic women using MR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Luo, X; Xie, X; Yan, F; Chen, G; Zhao, W; Jiang, Z; Fang, C; Shen, J

    2016-06-01

    Objective Teriparatide could induce osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells while inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. However, there are significant differences between ex vivo and in vivo models. We aimed to evaluate the impact of teriparatide on marrow and abdominal fat accumulation in postmenopausal osteopenic women. Methods Postmenopausal osteopenic women were randomly assigned to receive teriparatide or placebo for 12 months. Subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), marrow fat fraction (MFF), bone density (BMD) and bone biomarkers were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Results At 12 months, mean percentage changes in BMD from baseline were 3.51%, 2.21% and 1.80% at lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck for the teriparatide group, respectively. Relative to baseline conditions, teriparatide reduced MFF (-3.54% at 6 months; -5.87% at 12 months, all p < 0.01). A significant difference in MFF, but not BMD, was first detected at 6 months (p = 0.012) between groups. MFF was negatively associated with SAT (r = -0.479) and positively associated with VAT (r = 0.531) and VAT/SAT (r = 0.415, all p < 0.05). Teriparatide treatment did not alter abdominal fat composition. Conclusion Teriparatide effectively lowers marrow adiposity but not abdominal fat accumulation in postmenopausal osteopenic women. PMID:26744910

  10. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie; Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Halldin, Krister; Åkesson, Agneta

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  11. Update on the effect of estradiol in postmenopause women with Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yu-Long; Zou, Shuang; Zhang, Changfu; Li, Jun; Xu, Yinghui; Li, Shao

    2016-09-01

    Estradiol (E2) has been used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) for many years but with various responses. Evidence from clinical studies, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), and observational studies further underscores the importance of E2 in postmenopause women diagnosed with AD. The purpose of this article is to review all clinical trials to date focusing on the E2 in AD patients to explore the evidence regarding use of E2 in AD treatments. To achieve this objective, clinical studies regarding E2 levels in AD patients and RCTs assessing AD treatment in postmenopause women were identified through searches of MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, Ovid, and Google Scholar. E2 has demonstrated good therapeutic effectiveness in AD patients, however, further larger scale, double-blind RCTs are required before a definitive conclusion can be reached and the results need to be compared with other drugs. This update reviews the newest clinical information regarding the role of E2 in postmenopause women with AD. To our knowledge, this is the only systematic review of this area. PMID:26931740

  12. Selenium Intake in Hypertensive and Normotensive Post-Menopausal Indonesian Women.

    PubMed

    Adriani, Merryana; Diarry, Vella I P; Abdulah, Rizky; Wirjatmadi, Bambang

    2015-01-01

    The Indonesian Ministry of Health has predicted that the national prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia may reach 26.5% in 2013. Increasing age, stress, lack of physical activity, obesity and passive smoking are known to be risk factors of hypertension. In women over 50 y, hormonal changes that occur post-menopause may also increase the risk of hypertension and other vascular diseases. Antioxidant precursors, such as selenium, however, are known to provide protection against the development of several oxidative stress-related diseases, including hypertension. To prove the hypothesis, we compared the levels of consumption of selenium in hypertensive and normotensive post-menopausal women. An observational comparative study with cross-sectional design was conducted in groups of post-menopausal women with hypertension and those who are normotensive. Structured interviews and food recall of 2×24 h were used to determine the level of consumption, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) questionnaire was used to measure the level of stress. The result suggests a significant difference in the levels of selenium intake between the normotensive and hypertensive groups (p=0.008). Furthermore, the passive smoking and stress levels of the hypertensive group were significantly higher than those of the normotensive group. These result support the hypothesis that selenium may play a protective role in vascular disease. PMID:26440639

  13. Health Characteristics of Postmenopausal Women with Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, J. Peter; Landfair, Angela Song; Shestak, Kenneth; Lane, Dorothy; Valoski, Alice; Chang, Yuefang; Tindle, Hilary A.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Implant breast augmentation has long been a subject of controversy in both the plastic surgery and mainstream media. Methods We evaluated characteristics of women who had breast implant surgery in the Women's Health Initiative observational study (WHI OS) between 1993 and 1998. Most women in this study cohort had breast implant surgery 20 or more years prior to recruitment into the WHI OS. The women who were in the WHI OS who had not undergone breast implant surgery served as the comparison group. There were 86,686 women in the WHI OS who did not have breast implant surgery and an absent history of breast cancer, and 1,257 women who had breast implant surgery and no prior breast cancer. Results Total mortality rates were substantially lower among women with breast implant as was incidence of coronary heart disease. Women with breast implants in this study had a lower BMI throughout adult life and were more physically active than control subjects. After adjustment for these variables, differences in total mortality were no longer statistically significant. Women who had breast implants reported overall poorer quality of life and emotional well-being. Among women with breast implant surgery, 7% of deaths were due to suicide (n=3) versus 0.4% (n=20) in controls. Conclusion Significant differences in health characteristics and quality of life measures are seen in a cohort of women with breast implants decades following implant surgery. Further longitudinal studies need to focus on both physical and psychological health among women undergoing breast implant surgery. PMID:20195108

  14. Prevalence of asymptomatic genital infection among pregnant women in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akerele, John; Abhulimen, Philip; Okonofua, Friday

    2002-12-01

    The prevalence of asymptomatic genital infection among pregnant women and their susceptibility to antibacterial agents was investigated to provide baseline data on common asymptomatic genital microorganisms and identify potentials for development of clinical disease among this cohort of patients. High vaginal swabs were obtained from five hundred consecutive and consenting pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) and the Central Hospital, both in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of three hundred specimens showed significant microbial growth, giving a prevalence rate of 60% for asymptomatic genital infections. Candida albicans (65%), Staphylococcus aureus (51.8%) and Enterobacteriacae (E. coli and Klebsiella species) were predominantly isolated, followed by Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoea. Most of the bacterial isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cotrimoxazole, norfloxacin and augmentin. All the isolates except Streptococcus faecalis were resistant to ampicillin. These results show a high rate of asymptomatic genital tract infections among pregnant women in Benin City, which have implications for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:12685413

  15. Effects of Isoflavones on the Skin of Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Accorsi-Neto, Alfeu; Haidar, Mauro; Simões, Ricardo; Simões, Manuel; Soares-Jr, José; Baracat, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of isoflavones on the skin of postmenopausal women. DESIGN: A prospective study was performed with 30 postmenopausal women before and immediately after the end of treatment with 100 mg/day of an isoflavones-rich, concentrated soy extract for six months. A skin punch was performed in the gluteal region for sample collection before and immediately after the treatment program. Morphometric determination of epidermal thickness, the papillary index (wrinkling), and the amount of dermal elastic and collagen fibers was assessed. In addition, the number of blood vessels in the sample was also evaluated. The paired Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: Isoflavone treatment resulted in a 9.46% increase in the thickness of the epidermis in 23 patients. In addition, the papillary index was reduced in 21 women. The papillary index was inversely proportional to skin wrinkling, i.e., there were a large number of papillae after treatment. The amount of collagen in the dermis was increased in 25 women (86.2%). In 22 women (75.8%) we observed that the number of elastic fibers increased. The number of dermal blood vessels was significantly increased in 21 women. CONCLUSION: Our data show that the use of a concentrated, isoflavone-rich soy extract during six consecutive months caused significant increases in epithelial thickness, the number of elastic and collagen fibers, as well as the blood vessels. PMID:19578653

  16. Are patterns of bone loss in anorexic and postmenopausal women similar? Preliminary results using high resolution peripheral computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Milos, Gabriella; Häuselmann, Hans-Jörg; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Rüegsegger, Peter; Gallo, Luigi M

    2014-01-01

    This study intended to compare bone density and architecture in three groups of women: young women with anorexia nervosa (AN), an age-matched control group of young women, and healthy late postmenopausal women. Three-dimensional peripheral quantitative high resolution computed-tomography (HR-pQCT) at the ultradistal radius, a technology providing measures of cortical and trabecular bone density and microarchitecture, was performed in the three cohorts. Thirty-six women with AN aged 18-30 years (mean duration of AN: 5.8 years), 83 healthy late postmenopausal women aged 70-81 as well as 30 age-matched healthy young women were assessed. The overall cortical and trabecular bone density (D100), the absolute thickness of the cortical bone (CTh), and the absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) were significantly lower in AN patients compared with healthy young women. The absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) in AN and postmenopausal women was similar, but significantly lower than in healthy young women. The comparison between AN patients and post-menopausal women is of interest because the latter reach bone peak mass around the middle of the fertile age span whereas the former usually lose bone before reaching optimal bone density and structure. This study shows that bone mineral density and bone compacta thickness in AN are lower than those in controls but still higher than those in postmenopause. Bone compacta density in AN is similar as in controls. However, bone inner structure in AN is degraded to a similar extent as in postmenopause. This last finding is particularly troubling. PMID:24084384

  17. Potential implications of adjuvant endocrine therapy for the oral health of postmenopausal women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, L. Susan; Havens, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Current adjuvant treatment modalities for breast cancer that express the estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor include adjuvant anti-estrogen therapies, and tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Bone, including the jaw, is an endocrine-sensitive organ, as are other oral structures. This review examines the potential links between adjuvant anti-estrogen treatments in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer and oral health. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the Web of Knowledge was conducted using combinations of key terms “breast,” “cancer,” “neoplasm,” “Tamoxifen,” “Aromatase Inhibitor,” “chemotherapy,” “hormone therapy,” “alveolar bone loss,” “postmenopausal bone loss,” “estrogen,” “SERM,” “hormone replacement therapy,” and “quality of life.” We selected articles published in peer-reviewed journals in the English. The authors found no studies reporting on periodontal diseases, alveolar bone loss, oral health, or oral health-related quality of life in association with anti-estrogen breast cancer treatments in postmenopausal women. Periodontal diseases, alveolar bone density, tooth loss, and conditions of the soft tissues of the mouth have all been associated with menopausal status supporting the hypothesis that the soft tissues and bone of the oral cavity could be negatively affected by anti-estrogen therapy. As a conclusion, the impact of adjuvant endocrine breast cancer therapy on the oral health of postmenopausal women is undefined. The structures of the oral cavity are influenced by estrogen; therefore, anti-estrogen therapies may carry the risk of oral toxicities. Oral health care for breast cancer patients is an important but understudied aspect of cancer survivorship. PMID:22986813

  18. VITAMIN D–BINDING PROTEIN IN HEALTHY PRE- AND POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: RELATIONSHIP WITH ESTRADIOL CONCENTRATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Pop, L. Claudia; Shapses, Sue A.; Chang, Brian; Sun, Wei; Wang, Xiangbing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between endogenous serum estradiol and vitamin D–binding protein (DBP) and total, free, and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods In 165 healthy women (ages, 26 to 75 years) not taking any form of exogenous estrogen, the serum concentrations of estradiol, 25OHD, DBP, parathyroid hormone, and albumin were measured. Free and bioavailable 25OHD (free + albumin-bound) levels were calculated from total 25OHD, DBP, and serum albumin levels. Results Premenopausal women had higher serum 25OHD (31.5 ± 7.9 ng/mL), DBP (45.3 ± 6.2 mg/dL), and estradiol (52.8 ± 35.0 pg/mL) levels than postmenopausal women (26.5 ± 4.9 ng/mL, 41.7 ± 5.7 mg/dL, and 12.9 ± 4.9 pg/mL), respectively. In addition, the calculated free and bioavailable 25OHD levels were higher in pre- than postmenopausal women (P<.05). Serum estradiol correlated with DBP (r = 0.22; P<.01) and total 25OHD (r = 0.27; P<.01). In multivariate regression models (with or without serum 25OHD), estradiol was independently associated with DBP (P<.05). Conclusion Lower estradiol level is one of the factors that contribute to lower DBP levels in older women. Our data indicate that besides well-known factors such as age, gender, and race, serum estradiol concentrations are also a physiologic predictor of DBP concentration. PMID:26121448

  19. Risk of Mortality According to Body Mass Index and Body Composition Among Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Bea, Jennifer W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wertheim, Betsy C; Nicholas, J Skye; Ernst, Kacey C; Hu, Chengcheng; Jackson, Rebecca D; Cauley, Jane A; Lewis, Cora E; Caan, Bette; Roe, Denise J; Chen, Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Obesity, often defined as a body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of 30 or higher, has been associated with mortality, but age-related body composition changes can be masked by stable BMI. A subset of Women's Health Initiative participants (postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years) enrolled between 1993 and 1998 who had received dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans for estimation of total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM) (n = 10,525) were followed for 13.6 (standard deviation, 4.6) years to test associations between BMI, body composition, and incident mortality. Overall, BMI ≥35 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.82), while TBF and LBM were not. However, an interaction between age and body composition (P < 0.001) necessitated age stratification. Among women aged 50-59 years, higher %TBF increased risk of death (HR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.38, 4.34) and higher %LBM decreased risk of death (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.74), despite broad-ranging BMIs (16.4-69.1). However, the relationships were reversed among women aged 70-79 years (P < 0.05). BMI did not adequately capture mortality risk in this sample of postmenopausal women. Our data suggest the clinical utility of evaluating body composition by age group to more robustly assess mortality risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:26350478

  20. Sexual Function and Exercise in Postmenopausal Women Residing in Chalous and Nowshahr, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masomeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The sexual function of menopausal women is influenced by several factors. Objectives We aimed to investigate the association between exercise and sexual function among postmenopausal women residing in Northern Iran. Patients and Methods Using a multistage, randomized sampling method, 405 postmenopausal women, aged 40 to 65 years, were recruited to participate in this population-based, cross-sectional study. The female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire and a researcher-designed questionnaire were completed by every subject. Results Overall, 61% of the women reported having experienced sexual dysfunction, and 53.6% reported that they had not performed any kind of exercise within the last 6 months; among those who did exercise, the most common form was walking (79.8%). The FSFI total scores (P = 0.013), as well as the scores in the lubrication (P = 0.007) and pain (P < 0.001) domains, were significantly lower for the women who performed exercises other than walking compared to those who only walked or who did not exercise at all. The frequency of weekly exercise had a positive correlation with the scores in the lubrication (r = 0.18, P = 0.014) and orgasm (r = 0.146, P = 0.045) domains. The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the chances of reduced sexual desire were decreased by 80.2% (P = 0.044) with every unit increase in the frequency of weekly exercise. Conclusions More frequent exercise will improve the sexual function of post-menopausal women. PMID:27437131

  1. Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Dobek, Aleksandra; Garczynski, Wojciech; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial. PMID:24591772

  2. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Results Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254–3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007–1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. Conclusion The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose

  3. Evaluation of activity of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in postmenopausal women suffering from severe acute illness

    PubMed Central

    Raj, M. Neelima; Suresh, V.; Mukka, Arun; Reddy, Amaresh; Sachan, Alok; Mohan, Alladi; Vengamma, B.; Rao, P.V.L.N. Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Postmenopausal women constitute an ideal model for studying the extent of hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis suppression in critical illness as the gonadotropins are normally high and non-cyclical in them. The objective was to assess the impact of acute severe illness in postmenopausal women on the HPG axis and the activities of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), the hypothalamo- pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axes; and levels of serum prolactin, by comparison between critically ill postmenopausal women and otherwise healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: Thirty five consecutive postmenopausal women older than 60 yr admitted to medical intensive care with a Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) more than 30 were included. On day five of their in-hospital stay, blood samples were collected for oestradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), cortisol, androstenedione, prolactin and thyroid profile. Thirty five apparently healthy postmenopausal women were selected as controls. Results: Levels of LH, FSH, thyrotropin, free thyroxin (fT4) and free tri-iodothyronine (fT3) were lower while oestradiol, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were higher among patients in comparison to healthy controls. Prolactin levels were similar in patients and controls. Among sick patients both FSH and fT4 showed a negative correlation (P<0.05) with the SAPS II score. Interpretation & conclusions: In critically ill postmenopausal women, paradoxically elevated oestrogen levels despite gonadotropin suppression suggests a non-ovarian origin. Prolactin remained unaltered in patients despite their illness, possibly reflecting atrophy of lactotrophs in menopause. PMID:26997016

  4. Pharmacy-based care for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Janet E; Bopp, Janice

    2002-01-01

    Perimenopause and menopause represent a major physiologic and, often, psychosocial transition in the lives of women. During this time, women often experience disturbing new symptoms and develop an increased awareness of their risks for major chronic illnesses. Women in this stage of life are often highly motivated to improve their health and can benefit greatly from pharmacy-based preventive health care services. Although perimenopausal and menopausal women represent an important target market, some pharmacists may wish to offer more focused services within the broader arena of women's health. For example, a number of community pharmacies have developed niche services for these patients, such as osteoporosis screening, (46) breast cancer risk assessment, (50) or bioidentical HRT consulting and compounding. (59) Other pharmacy care services that may be targeted to women in midlife include smoking cessation, weight management, and dietary supplement consulting. Based on the experiences of the Mar-Main Pharmacy staff, a practical approach is to implement new services gradually, while focusing on providing high-quality, individualized service to a small number of patients. Using this strategy, Mar-Main Pharmacy has experienced tremendous growth in its bioidentical HRT services. This increase in demand for pharmacy services has arisen from word-of-mouth referrals from patients and physicians rather than formal marketing. Perimenopausal and menopausal women represent a growing and increasingly knowledgeable group of patients. Many of these women are seeking care that is individualized, responsive to their health beliefs, and designed to help them maintain a high quality of life. Providing pharmacy-based consulting services for these patients can be extremely rewarding, both professionally and personally. PMID:12269705

  5. Factors associated with decreased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ying; Huang, Jian; Tian, Jing-bin; Cao, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Guo-ling; Wang, Chun-gang; Cao, Ying; Li, Jian-rong

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the risk factors for decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia. Methods Cluster sampling method was adopted in this large-sample, cross-sectional study. A total of 219 postmenopausal female inpatients with schizophrenia were selected and interviewed in Beijing. The average age of the patients was 60.4±7.0 years. Clinical assessment instruments included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and a questionnaire with detailed general information and disease-related investigations. Laboratory measurements included prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone, thyroid stimulating hormone, FT3, and FT4. BMD testing was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis or osteopenia was 66.2% (n=145). Decreased BMD was associated with age, illness duration, therapeutic dose (equivalent chlorpromazine dose), treatment duration, PANSS-negative scores, body mass index (BMI), daily exercises (min/d), drinking (unit/wk), PRL, and estradiol. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, treatment duration, PANSS-negative score, BMI, and PRL were significantly associated with decreased BMD. Conclusion Prevalence of BMD loss was higher in Chinese postmenopausal women with schizophrenia compared to the normal BMD group. A combination of demographic and clinical factors play important roles in determining decreased BMD, including older age, longer treatment duration, more PANSS-negative scores, higher BMI, and higher PRL level. PMID:26937181

  6. Evidence of improved serum fatty acid profile of postmenopausal women receiving atorvastatin and raloxifene.

    PubMed

    Piperi, C; Zisaki, K; Skenderi, K; Kalofoutis, C; Kalofoutis, A

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene and atorvastatin have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with postmenopausal status and it has been postulated that their effects may be partly mediated by favourable changes in serum lipids and fatty acid composition. In the present study, individual administration of either raloxifene (Group A) or atorvastatin (Group B) or both (Group C) was compared for a period of 3 months and their effects on total lipids and fatty acids composition was evaluated. Postmenopausal women receiving both raloxifene and atorvastatin showed significant changes in the majority of serum lipids with important reductions in total cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), LDL-C (p < 0.001) and Apo B levels (p < 0.001). Phospholipids concentrations (p < 0.01) as well as Apo A-I were also significantly raised (p < 0.001). Furthermore, oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2) levels were significantly increased (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively) followed by a marked reduction in palmitic acid (16:0) and arachidonic acid (20:4) concentrations (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively). The results of the study indicate that the serum lipid and fatty acid composition in postmenopausal women is influenced by the combined treatment of raloxifene and atorvastatin and a further attempt to evaluate the significance of these results is discussed. PMID:16183584

  7. Micronutrients and superoxide dismutase in postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis: a pilot interventional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The study was aimed at investigating changes in periodontal parameters and superoxide dismutase activity triggered by root surface debridement with and without micronutrient supplementation in postmenopausal women. Methods Forty-three postmenopausal chronic periodontitis patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=22) were provided periodontal treatment in the form of scaling and root planing (SRP) and group 2 (n=21) patients received SRP along with systemic administration of micronutrient antioxidants. Patients in both groups were subjected to root surface debridement. Group 2 patients also received adjunctive micronutrient antioxidant supplementation. Serum and salivary superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity along with periodontal parameters were recorded at baseline and 3 months after therapy. Results Salivary and serum SOD values significantly (P<0.05) improved with periodontal treatment. Improvement in systemic enzymatic antioxidant status along with reduction in gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing (%) sites was significantly greater in group 2 as compared to group 1. Conclusions Adjunctive micronutrient supplements reduce periodontal inflammation and improve the status of systemic enzymatic antioxidants in postmenopausal women. Graphical Abstract PMID:25177523

  8. Effects of raloxifene on carotid blood flow resistance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ceresini, Graziano; Marchini, Lorenzo; Rebecchi, Isabella; Morganti, Simonetta; Bertone, Luca; Montanari, Ilaria; Bacchi-Modena, Alberto; Sgarabotto, Maria; Baldini, Monica; Denti, Licia; Ablondi, Fabrizio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Valenti, Giorgio

    2003-03-01

    Raloxifene is one of the most important selective estrogen receptor modulators currently employed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, it has also been suggested that this compound affects the vascular system. We evaluated both carotid blood flow resistance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in 50 healthy postmenopausal women randomly assigned to receive, in a double blind design, either raloxifene (60 mg per day; N=25 subjects) or placebo (N=25 subjects) for 4 months. Indices of carotid blood flow resistance, such as the pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI), as well as the flow-mediated brachial artery dilation were measured both at baseline and at the end of treatment. Changes in PI were -1.86+/-2.24 and -2.15+/-2.22% after placebo and raloxifene treatment, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. Changes in RI were -0.77+/-1.72 and -1.81+/-1.54% after placebo and raloxifene treatment, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. At the end of the treatment period, the increments in artery diameter measured after the flow stimulus were 10.79+/-2.39 and 6.70+/-1.23% for placebo and raloxifene, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. These results demonstrate no significant effects of raloxifene on either carotid blood flow resistance or brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in postmenopausal women. PMID:12618276

  9. Dietary patterns and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Teresa T.; Feskanich, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the association between predominant dietary patterns and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years. Methods We used data from 74,540 women in the Nurses’ Health Study followed between 1980 and 2010, and 35,451 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed between 1986 and 2012 for this analysis. Health and lifestyle information was assessed every two years. Diet was assessed approximately every four years with a food frequency questionnaire. Two major dietary patterns were previously derived using principal component analysis. The Prudent pattern is characterized by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and poultry, and the Western pattern is characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meats, sweets, and refined grains. We computed relative risks (RR) for hip fracture by dietary pattern scores using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. Results During follow-up, there were 1891 hip fractures in women and 596 in men. No association was observed between the Prudent or Western pattern and risk of hip fractures in either men or women. We also did not find an association among lean (BMI<25) or overweight (BMI >=25) individuals or among those with higher or lower levels of physical activity. Conclusion Neither the Prudent nor the Western dietary pattern was associated with risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women or men over 50 years of age. PMID:25731807

  10. Sexual function and help seeking for urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pakgohar, Minoo; Sabetghadam, Shadi; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common condition, especially in middle-aged and older women. UI is known to affect sexual function. Many women with UI do not consult a doctor about their condition. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of sexual function and help seeking in postmenopausal women with urinary incontinence. This cross-sectional correlation study took place from March to May 2012. The subjects were selected by a clustered sampling method from various zones of Rasht (North of Iran). The data were collected using personal data forms, Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis, Incontinence Severity Index, and Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS17 at the significant level of P < .05 and then were compared by parametric and nonparametric tests. A total of 313 menopausal women aged 45 to 60 years (mean 52.9) were recruited for the study. The mean sexual function score was 31.07 ± 7.52. Only 27.3% of subjects seek care for urinary incontinence. There was a significant correlation between sexual function and help seeking. The results of this study indicate that there is a significant correlation between sexual function and help seeking in postmenopausal women who participated in the present study. Health-care professionals should pay more attention to sexual symptoms of UI and make patients aware of available treatments. PMID:26882204

  11. Postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting among pre- and postmenopausal women undergoing cystocele and rectocele repair surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abaszadeh, Abolfazl; Yari, Fatemeh; Yousefi, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and postoperative pain are among the most common side-effects of surgery. Many factors, such as a change in the level of sex hormones, are reported to affect these complications. This study aimed to evaluate the probable effects of the menopause on PONV and postoperative pain. Methods Prospective study, in which a total number of 144 female patients undergoing cystocele or rectocele repair surgery under standardized spinal anesthesia were included. Patients were divided into two equally sized sample groups of pre- and postmenopausal women (n = 72). The occurrence of PONV, the severity of pain as assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, and the quantity of morphine and metoclopramide required were recorded at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h after surgery. Results The mean VAS pain score and the mean quantity of morphine required was higher among premenopausal women (P = 0.006). Moreover, these patients required more morphine for their pain management during the first 24 h after surgery compared to postmenopausal women (P < 0.0001). No difference was observed between the two groups regarding the incidence of PONV (P = 0.09 and P = 1.00 for nausea and vomiting, respectively) and the mean amount of metoclopramide required (P = 0.38). Conclusions Premenopausal women are more likely to suffer from postoperative pain after cystocele and rectocele repair surgery. Further studies regarding the measurement of hormonal changes among surgical patients in both pre- and postmenopausal women are recommended to evaluate the effects on PONV and postoperative pain. PMID:26634082

  12. Association of LRP5 genotypes with osteoporosis in Tunisian post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a highly heritable trait. Among the genes associated with bone mineral density (BMD), the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene (LRP5) has been consistently identified in Caucasians. However LRP5 contribution to osteoporosis in populations of other ethnicities remains poorly known. Methods To determine whether LRP5 polymorphisms Ala1330Val and Val667Met are associated with BMD in North Africans, these genotypes were analyzed in 566 post-menopausal Tunisian women with mean age of 59.5 ± 7.7 years, of which 59.1% have low bone mass (T-score < −1 at spine or hip). Results In post-menopausal Tunisian women, 1330Val was weakly associated with reduced BMD T-score at lumbar spine (p = 0.047) but not femur neck. Moreover, the TT/TC genotypes tended to be more frequent in women with osteopenia and osteoporosis than in women with normal BMD (p = 0.066). Adjusting for body size and other potential confounders, LRP5 genotypes were no longer significantly associated with aBMD at any site. Conclusions The less common Val667Met polymorphism showed no association with osteoporosis. The Ala1330Val polymorphism is weakly associated with lower lumbar spine bone density and osteopenia/osteoporosis in postmenopausal Tunisian women. These observations expand our knowledge about the contribution of LRP5 genetic variation to osteoporosis risk in populations of diverse ethnic origin. PMID:24885293

  13. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal, physically inactive South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Lesser, I A; Dick, T J M; Guenette, J A; Hoogbruin, A; Mackey, D C; Singer, J; Lear, S A

    2015-01-01

    In South Asians, a unique obesity phenotype of high abdominal fat is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with abdominal fat and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether CRF as assessed by VO2 peak, in post-menopausal South Asian women, was associated with body fat distribution and abdominal fat. Physically inactive post-menopausal South Asian women (n = 55) from the Greater Vancouver area were recruited and assessed from January to August 2014. At baseline, VO2 peak was measured with the Bruce Protocol, abdominal fat with CT imaging, and body composition with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to assess differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) between tertiles of CRF. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses explored the association between VO2 peak with SAAT, VAT, TAAT and body composition. Models were further adjusted for body fat and body mass index (BMI). Compared to women in the lowest tertile of VO2 peak (13.8-21.8 mL/kg/min), women in the highest tertile (25.0-27.7 mL/kg/min) had significantly lower waist circumference, BMI, total body fat, body fat percentage, lean mass, SAAT, VAT and TAAT (p < 0.05). We found VO2 peak to be negatively associated with SAAT, VAT and TAAT, independent of age and body fatness but not independent of BMI. Further research is necessary to assess whether exercise and therefore improvements in CRF would alter SAAT, VAT and TAAT in post-menopausal South Asian women. PMID:26844150

  14. Vegan diet and blood lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study of pre and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vegan diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, partly due to its effects on serum lipid profiles. Lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] have not been fully elucidated either in pre and postmenopausal vegans or in ovo-lacto vegetarians. This study aimed to compare lipid profiles among vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores. Methods Demographic data and lipid profiles were obtained from the 2002 Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine factors significantly and independently associated with different categories of veganism and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles in the dietary types. Results A total of 2397 premenopausal and 1154 postmenopausal participants who did not receive lipid lowering drugs were enrolled. Premenopausal vegans had significantly lower HDL-C and higher TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C compared with omnivores. For postmenopausal women, vegans had lower TC while ovo-lacto vegetarians were observed with low HDL-C when compared with omnivores. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets decreased HDL-C levels in premenopausal women (β = -7.63, p = 0.001 and β = -4.87, p = 0.001, respectively). There were significant associations between lower LDL-C and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (β = -7.14, p = 0.008) and also between TG and vegan diet (β = 23.37, p = 0.008), compared with omnivorous diet. Post-menopausal women reported to have consumed either a vegan or an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet were at the risk of having low HDL-C unlike those that consumed omnivorous diets (β = -4.88, p = 0.015 and β = -4.48, p = 0.047). There were no significant changes in LDL-C in both pre and postmenopausal

  15. Cost effectiveness of testing for chlamydial infections in asymptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Buhaug, H; Skjeldestad, F E; Backe, B; Dalen, A

    1989-08-01

    Routine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis during gynecological visits, as well as treatment of those found positive, has been suggested as a preventive measure against the serious consequences of chlamydial genital infections, e.g., pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. This article examines the cost and effectiveness of this practice. The study is based on a model that predicts how routine testing and treatment will affect the future number of cases of PID, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. The costs of test and treatment are estimated, as are the savings resulting from prevention. Results indicate that although routine testing was not effective in reducing the overall morbidity caused by chlamydial infections, for women 18-22 years of age routine testing during regular gynecologic sessions can be a cost-effective personal health service. PMID:2502694

  16. The Effect of Asymptomatic Urethral Caruncle on Micturition in Women with Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Levend; Tarcan, Tufan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of asymptomatic urethral caruncle (UC) on micturition in women suffering from urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods A total of 232 patients participated in the study. UC was diagnosed in 50 of 232 patients with urinary incontinence during a physical examination in our clinic. All cases were divided into 2 groups: UC combined with urinary incontinence (group 1) and urinary incontinence only (group 2). Urodynamic evaluations were performed according to the International Continence Society standards. Results Both groups were similar in terms of voiding diary, pad test and residual urine volume. Urodynamic studies revealed no significant difference between group 1 and 2 (infravesical obstruction: 6% vs. 4.4%; overactive detrusor: 44% vs. 42.9% respectively). The rates of severe IPSS (37.8% vs. 20.9%) and severe cystocele (20.9% vs. 13.8%) were numerically higher in group 1 with no statistically significant difference. Conclusions Our results suggest that there is no effect of asymptomatic UC on lower urinary tract symptoms in women with urinary incontinence. Therefore, treating asymptomatic UC is unnecessary in these patients. However, during incontinence surgery, it is the surgeon's decision whether to treat asymptomatic UC. PMID:20428428

  17. BFH-OST, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Lin, JiSheng; Zhang, XiaoDong; Meng, Qian; Wang, BingQiang; Fei, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in a Han Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST). Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST) based on age, body weight, height, and history of fracture after the age of 45 years. The BFH-OST index (cutoff =9.1), which performed better than OSTA, had a sensitivity of 73.6% and a specificity of 72.7% for identifying osteoporosis, with an area under the receiver operating

  18. Soy isoflavone supplementation and breast density in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy isoflavones may protect against breast cancer. Breast density, a marker for breast cancer risk, increases as a result of hormone replacement therapy. We examined the relation between isoflavone supplementation and breast density using the mammograms from 358 women who participated in the multi-s...

  19. Effects of strontium ranelate on markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Atteritano, Marco; Catalano, Antonino; Santoro, Domenico; Lasco, Antonino; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    Recent pooled analyses have shown that strontium ranelate increases the incidence of venous thromboembolism and non-fatal myocardial infarction, but no explanations were given. The aim of our study was to assess the effects a 12-month treatment with strontium ranelate on hemostasis factors and markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Forty osteoporotic postmenopausal women received orally strontium ranelate 2 g daily, plus calcium and colecalcipherol for 12 months. Forty postmenopausal osteopenic women matched for age, menopausal age, and body mass index served as controls and received orally calcium and colecalcipherol for 12 months. Biochemical cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic indices were assayed prior to treatment, and after 3, 6, and 12 months of therapy. These indices included fibrinogen, fasting glucose, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma levels of D-dimer, homocysteine, partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time. In addition, we evaluated possible changes in blood pressure and occurrence of venous thromboembolic events. At baseline, no statistically significance was observed between the two groups except for bone mineral density at lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur, which was lower in strontium ranelate group. After 12 months of treatment, there was no statistically significant change in cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic parameters. None of the 40 women developed any clinical venous thromboembolic event. A 12-month treatment with strontium ranelate did not alter hemostasis factors or markers of cardiovascular risk, suggesting that reported increased risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction with strontium is mediated by other factors. PMID:26304851

  20. Ascorbic acid attenuates the pressor response to voluntary apnea in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Brittney J; Patel, Hardikkumar M; Muller, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that postmenopausal women have an augmented blood pressure response to voluntary apnea compared to premenopausal women. Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy aging are associated with increased oxidative stress, which may impair cardiovascular function. Restoring physiological responses could have clinical relevance since transient surges in blood pressure are thought to be an important stimulus for end-organ damage in aging and disease. We tested the hypothesis that acute antioxidant infusion improves physiological responses to voluntary apnea in healthy postmenopausal women (n = 8, 64 ± 2 year). We measured beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and brachial artery blood flow velocity (BBFV, Doppler ultrasound) following intravenous infusion of normal saline and ascorbic acid (∼3500 mg). Subjects performed maximal voluntary end-expiratory apneas and changes (Δ) from baseline were compared between infusions. The breath hold duration and oxygen saturation nadir were similar between saline (29 ± 6 sec, 94 ± 1%) and ascorbic acid (29 ± 5 sec, 94 ± 1%). Ascorbic acid attenuated the pressor response to voluntary apnea (ΔMAP: 6 ± 2 mmHg) as compared to saline (ΔMAP: 12 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.034) and also attenuated forearm vasoconstriction (ΔBBFV: 4 ± 9 vs. −12 ± 7%, P = 0.049) but did not affect ΔHR. We conclude that ascorbic acid lowers the blood pressure response to voluntary apnea in postmenopausal women by inhibiting vasoconstriction in the limb vasculature. Whether ascorbic acid has similar effects in OSA patients remains to be prospectively tested. PMID:25907792

  1. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  2. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women.

    PubMed

    Compston, Juliet E; Wyman, Allison; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D; Chapurlat, Roland D; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; March, Lyn; Netelenbos, J Coen; Nieves, Jeri W; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B; Anderson, Frederick A

    2016-07-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women, but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years after weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years after weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years after weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is found as early as 1 year after weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26861139

  3. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Oxidative Stress in Postmenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Castrejón-Delgado, Lizett; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana Karen; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral hormone therapy (HT) on oxidative stress (OS) in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out. We formed four groups of 25 women each; healthy (HW) and MetS women (MSW) were assigned to HT (1 mg/day of estradiol valerate plus 5 mg/10 day of medroxiprogesterone) or placebo. We measured plasma lipoperoxides, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, total plasma antioxidant status and uric acid, as OS markers. Alternative cut-off values of each parameter were defined and a stress score (SS) ranging from 0 to 7 was used as total OS. MetS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Participants were seen at baseline, 3 and 6 months. After 6 months, MetS decreased in MSW-HT (48%), their triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) improved; in the other groups no difference was found. SS in MSW-HT decreased (3.8 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.3, p < 0.05) and OS was also reduced (44%), this effect was evident since 3 mo. HW-HT with high OS also decreased (40%). In placebo groups there was no change. Our findings suggest that HT improve lipids and OS associated to MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:27563883

  4. Serum Carotenoid Concentrations in Postmenopausal Women from the United States with and without Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhifang; Zhang, Zhumin; Penniston, Kristina L.; Binkley, Neil; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant defenses may be compromised in osteoporotic women. Little is known about fruit and vegetable or carotenoid consumption among postmenopausal women. The primary carotenoids in human serum are α- and β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. This study investigated the interrelationships among serum carotenoid concentrations, fruit and vegetable intake, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (n = 59, 62.7 ± 8.8 y). Bone density was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and osteoporosis diagnosis was based upon T-scores. Serum samples (n = 53) and 3-day diet records (n = 49) were analyzed. Logistic regression analyzed differences between carotenoids after adjusting for serum retinol; supplement usage; milk, yogurt, fruit, and vegetable intake; and BMI. Pearson statistics correlated carotenoids with specific fruit or vegetable intake. Serum lycopene concentrations were lower in the osteoporosis group than controls (p = 0.03). β-Cryptoxanthin intake was higher in the osteoporosis group (p = 0.0046). Total fruit and vegetable intakes were correlated with serum lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin (p = 0.03, 0.006, respectively). Serum α-carotene concentration was associated with carrot intake, and zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin with lettuce intake. Carotenoids that may have beneficial skeletal effects are lower in women with osteoporosis. Research is needed to identify potential protective mechanisms or utilization of carotenoids during osteoporosis. PMID:19003732

  5. Enhanced MRI and MRI-Guided Interventional Procedures in Women with Asymptomatic Silicone-Injected Breasts

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Yun-Chung; Chen, Shin-Chih; Lo, Yung-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Asymptomatic women who have received silicone injection for breast augmentation have a risk of underestimating breast cancer by palpation, mammography, or breast sonography. Enhanced breast MRI is sensitive to display certain nonspecific enhanced lesions or suspicious lesions. Such nonspecific MRI-detected lesions could be managed by American College Radiology BI-RADS lexicon and selectively with MRI-guided techniques biopsy to prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:22536144

  6. Isolation of quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae from asymptomatic Korean women.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hye Ran; Lee, Hak Mee; Lee, Yeonhee

    2008-02-01

    Seven Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were obtained from the vagina of 80 asymptomatic women. Three of these isolates showed multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes: two isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline; and one isolate was resistant to clarithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. There was no clonal relationship among the MDR isolates. This is the first report of quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant S. agalactiae. PMID:18337702

  7. Evaluation of Trabecular Micro-Architecture in Non-Osteoporotic Post-Menopausal Women With and Without Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Kruger, Diane; Del Rio, Alejandro Munoz; Kleerekoper, Michael; Binkley, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) parameters of trabecular micro-architecture between postmenopausal women with and without fracture who have normal or osteopenic bone mineral density (BMD) on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods The study included 36 post-menopausal Caucasian women 50 years of age and older with normal or osteopenic BMD (T-scores better than −2.5 at the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and one-third radius on DXA). Eighteen women had a history of low-energy fracture, while 18 women had no history of fracture and served as an age, race, and ultra-distal radius BMD-matched control group. A three-dimensional fast large-angle spin-echo (FLASE) sequence with 137 μm × 137 μm × 400 μm resolution was performed through the non-dominant wrist of all 36 women using the same 1.5T scanner. The high resolution images were used to measure trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, surface-to-curve ratio, and erosion index. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare differences in BMD and μMRI parameters between post-menopausal women with and without fracture. Results Post-menopausal women with fracture had significantly lower (p<0.05) trabecular bone volume fraction and surface-to-curve ratio and significantly higher (p<0.05) erosion index than post-menopausal women without fracture. There was no significant difference between post-menopausal women with and without fracture in trabecular thickness (p=0.80) and BMD of the spine (p=0.21), proximal femur (p=0.19), one-third radius (p=0.47), and ultra-distal radius (p=0.90). Conclusions Post-menopausal women with normal or osteopenic BMD who had a history of low energy fracture had significantly different (p<0.05) μMRI parameters than an age, race, and ultra-distal radius BMD-matched control group of postmenopausal women with no history of fracture. Our study suggests that μMRI can be used to identify individuals without a DXA-based diagnosis of

  8. Risedronate slows or partly reverses cortical and trabecular microarchitectural deterioration in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bala, Yohann; Chapurlat, Roland; Cheung, Angela M; Felsenberg, Dieter; LaRoche, Michel; Morris, Edward; Reeve, Jonathan; Thomas, Thierry; Zanchetta, Jose; Bock, Oliver; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Djoumessi, Roger Martin Zebaze; Seeman, Ego; Rizzoli, René

    2014-02-01

    During early menopause, steady-state bone remodeling is perturbed; the number of basic multicellular units (BMUs) excavating cavities upon the endosteal surface exceeds the number (generated before menopause) concurrently refilling. Later in menopause, steady-state is restored; the many BMUs generated in early menopause refill as similarly large numbers of BMUs concurrently excavate new cavities. We hypothesized that risedronate reduces the number of cavities excavated. However, in younger postmenopausal women, the fewer cavities excavated will still exceed the fewer BMUs now refilling, so net porosity increases, but less than in controls. In older postmenopausal women, the fewer cavities excavated during treatment will be less than the many (generated during early menopause) now refilling, so net porosity decreases and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) increases. We recruited 324 postmenopausal women in two similarly designed double-blind placebo-controlled studies that included 161 younger (Group 1, ≤ 55 years) and 163 older (Group 2, ≥ 55 years) women randomized 2:1 to risedronate 35 mg/week or placebo. High-resolution peripheral computed tomography was used to image the distal radius and tibia. Cortical porosity was quantified using the StrAx1.0 software. Risedronate reduced serum carboxyterminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 bone collagen (CTX-1) and serum amino-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP) by ∼50%. In the younger group, distal radius compact-appearing cortex porosity increased by 4.2% ± 1.6% (p = 0.01) in controls. This was prevented by risedronate. Trabecular vBMD decreased by 3.6% ± 1.4% (p = 0.02) in controls and decreased by 1.6% ± 0.6% (p = 0.005) in the risedronate-treated group. In the older group, changes did not achieve significance apart from a reduction in compact-appearing cortex porosity in the risedronate-treated group (0.9% ± 0.4%, p = 0.047). No between

  9. The Effects of Tualang Honey on Bone Metabolism of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Effendy, Nadia; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamad, Isa Naina; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration with a consequent increase in bone fragility can be associated with various stimuli such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Postmenopausal women are more prone to osteoporosis due to reduction in estrogen which may further lead to elevation of oxidative stress and lipid accumulation which will promote osteoblasts apoptosis. Proinflammatory cytokines are elevated following estrogen deficiency. These cytokines are important determinants of osteoclasts differentiation and its bone resorption activity. The main treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis is estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Despite its effectiveness, ERT, however, can cause many adverse effects. Therefore, alternative treatment that is rich in antioxidant and can exert an anti-inflammatory effect can be given to replace the conventional ERT. Tualang honey is one of the best options available as it contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as a free radical scavenger, reducing the oxidative stress level as well as inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine. This will result in survival of osteoblasts, reduced osteoclastogenic activity, and consequently, reduce bone loss. Hence, Tualang honey can be used as an alternative treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with minimal side effects. PMID:22973408

  10. Prevalence of Calcified Carotid Artery on Panoramic Radiographs in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Jamileh Beigom; Moshfeghi, Mahkameh

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of calcified carotid artery in 50 year-old and older postmenopausal dental outpatients for early diagnosis of individuals at risk of stroke. Materials and methods This is a descriptive study of 200 panoramic radiographs. These radiographs included post-menopausal women referring to the Department of Oral Medicine at Shahid Beheshti Faculty of Dentistry during 2006-2007. The x-ray machine, developer and film type were the same for all the radiographs. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test. Results We found 22 calcified carotid arteries. The left and right carotid arteries were involved in 7 and 9 cases, respec-tively. In 6 cases both carotid arteries were calcified. Four individuals had no vascular risk factor excluding age and others had at least one risk factor. We found significant statistical correlation between hypertension, past history of myocardial infarction, and hypercholesterolemia with calcified carotid artery on panoramic radiographs. Conclusion Under the limitations of the present study, prevalence of calcified carotid arteries is 11.0 % in 50 year-old and older postmenopausal dental outpatients. PMID:23230481

  11. Odanacatib: a review of its potential in the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chapurlat, Roland D

    2015-06-01

    Odanacatib is a cathepsin K inhibitor developed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is a bone resorption inhibitor, but which preserves bone formation to some extent. It can be administered once a week, in tablets also containing vitamin D. In a large clinical development program, it has been shown that odanacatib reduces bone resorption, with a reduction of about 60-70% in biochemical markers of resorption, while bone formation decreases to a lesser magnitude. Odanacatib continuously increases bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and lumbar spine over 5 years. Once it is stopped, a complete resolution of effect is observed, with declining BMD and increased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture and bone strength have also been improved in clinical trials using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at the lumbar spine and hip, and high resolution peripheral QCT at the distal radius and tibia. In a phase III trial involving 16,713 postmenopausal women ⩾65 years of age with low BMD, the risk of fragility fracture was significantly reduced at the spine, hip and other nonvertebral sites compared with the placebo group. Odanacatib has been generally well tolerated, with no observation of osteonecrosis of the jaw so far, but with exceptional observations of subtrochanteric atypical fracture and morphea-like lesions. Odanacatib appears a useful new option in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26029271

  12. Odanacatib: a review of its potential in the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Odanacatib is a cathepsin K inhibitor developed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is a bone resorption inhibitor, but which preserves bone formation to some extent. It can be administered once a week, in tablets also containing vitamin D. In a large clinical development program, it has been shown that odanacatib reduces bone resorption, with a reduction of about 60–70% in biochemical markers of resorption, while bone formation decreases to a lesser magnitude. Odanacatib continuously increases bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and lumbar spine over 5 years. Once it is stopped, a complete resolution of effect is observed, with declining BMD and increased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture and bone strength have also been improved in clinical trials using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at the lumbar spine and hip, and high resolution peripheral QCT at the distal radius and tibia. In a phase III trial involving 16,713 postmenopausal women ⩾65 years of age with low BMD, the risk of fragility fracture was significantly reduced at the spine, hip and other nonvertebral sites compared with the placebo group. Odanacatib has been generally well tolerated, with no observation of osteonecrosis of the jaw so far, but with exceptional observations of subtrochanteric atypical fracture and morphea-like lesions. Odanacatib appears a useful new option in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26029271

  13. Religion and healthy lifestyle behaviors among postmenopausal women: the women's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Fitchett, George; Ockene, Judy K; Schnall, Eliezer; Crawford, Sybil; Granek, Iris; Manson, JoAnn; Ockene, Ira; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Powell, Lynda; Rapp, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Worship attendance has been associated with longer survival in prospective cohort studies. A possible explanation is that religious involvement may promote healthier lifestyle choices. Therefore, we examined whether attendance is associated with healthy behaviors, i.e. use of preventive medicine services, non-smoking, moderate drinking, exercising regularly, and with healthy dietary habits. The population included 71,689 post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative observational study free of chronic diseases at baseline. Attendance and lifestyle behaviors information was collected at baseline using self-administered questionnaires. Healthy behaviors were modeled as a function of attendance using logistic regression. After adjustment for confounders, worship attendance (less than weekly, weekly, and more than weekly vs. never) was positively associated with use of preventive services [OR for mammograms: 1.34 (1.19, 1.51), 1.41 (1.26, 1.57), 1.33 (1.17, 1.52); breast self exams: 1.14 (1.02, 1.27), 1.33 (1.21, 1.48), 1.25 (1.1, 1.43); PAP smears: 1.22 (1.01, 1.47-weekly vs. none)]; non-smoking: [1.41 (1.35, 1.48), 1.76 (1.69, 1.84), 2.27 (2.15, 2.39)]; moderate drinking [1.35 (1.27, 1.45), 1.60 (1.52, 1.7), 2.19 (2.0, 2.4)]; and fiber intake [1.08 (1.03, 1.14), 1.16 (1.11, 1.22), 1.31 (1.23, 1.39), respectively], but not with regular exercise or with lower saturated fat and caloric intake. These findings suggest that worship attendance is associated with certain, but not all, healthy behaviors. Further research is needed to get a deeper understanding of the relationship between religious involvement and healthy lifestyle behaviors and of the inconsistent patterns in this association. PMID:21301947

  14. Physical Activity Level of Post-menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Dallanezi, Glauber; Freire, Beatriz Funayama Alvarenga; Nahás, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahás-Neto, Jorge; Corrente, José Eduardo; Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Proper physical activity is related to the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. Purpose To assess the level of physical activity (PA) in post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional clinical study included 123 post-menopausal women. The inclusion criteria were: age of ≥ 45 years with last menses at least 12 months prior to the initiation of the study, and bone density scan (BDS) values measured over the preceding 12 months. Women with severe osteoarthritis were excluded. Women were allocated into three groups, according to BMD measured by BDS [osteoporosis (OP; 54 women), osteopenia (35 women), and normal bone density (NBD; 35 women)], and compared for general, clinical, and anthropometric data, and for PA level. The latter was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) units. Participants were classified as sedentary, active or very active. Quantitative variables were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Associations between qualitative variables were tested by Chi-square (χ2) or Fisher's exact test. In order to check for differences among groups and IPAQ domains, a generalized linear model with Gamma distribution was adjusted for values in METs. Results The OP group differed from the NBD group regarding age (61.8 ± 10.1 and 52.9 ± 5.4 years), percentage of participants with self-declared white ethnicity (43.9 and 28.0%), body mass index (BMI - 25.7 ± 5.4 and 30.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2)), and time since menopause (15.5 ± 7.5 and 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Smoking rates were higher in the OP (55.6%) and NBD groups (33.3%) than in the osteopenia group (11.1%). Within the OP group, the rate of subjects with sedentary lifestyles was higher (42.6%), and time spent sitting was greater (344.3 ± 204.8 METs) than in the groups with osteopenia (20.0% and 300.9 ± 230.6 METs) and NBD (17.7% and 303

  15. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its predominant components among pre-and postmenopausal Ghanaian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a clump of risk factors for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Menopause and age are thought to predispose women to the development of metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MetS and identify its predominant components among pre-and postmenopausal women in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. Two hundred and fifty (250) Ghanaian women were randomly selected for the study. They were evaluated for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome using the World Health Organization (WHO), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Harmonization (H_MS) criteria. Results Out of the total subjects, 143 (57.2%) were premenopausal and 107 (42.8%) menopausal. The study population was between the ages of 20–78 years. The overall percentage prevalence of MetS were 14.4%, 25.6%, 29.2% and 30.4% according to the WHO, NCEP-ATP III, IDF and H_MS criteria, respectively. The prevalence was found to increase with age, irrespective of criterion used. Generally, MetS was significantly higher among postmenopausal women (p < 0.05 by all criteria) compared to their premenopausal cohort, but with marked inter-criteria variations. Abdominal obesity, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride-high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were significantly (p < 0.05) different among the two groups of women. Central obesity, higher blood pressure and raised fasting blood glucose were the predominant components that contributed to the syndrome in Ghanaian women. Conclusion The higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women is an indication that they are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Therefore women in that group should be monitored for the two conditions and also be advised to adopt healthy

  16. Effects of fluoxetine and melatonin on mood, sleep quality and body mass index in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chojnacki, C; Walecka-Kapica, E; Klupinska, G; Pawlowicz, M; Blonska, A; Chojnacki, J

    2015-10-01

    Frequent mood and sleep disorders and increased appetite leading to obesity are observed in postmenopausal women. Due to the limitations of hormone replacement therapy the researchers look for other treatment regimes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluoxetine and melatonin in the treatment of these disorders. The study included 64 overweight postmenopausal women, aged 54 - 65 years, with increased appetite. They were randomly assigned in 2 groups. In group I (n = 30) fluoxetine (20 mg in the morning) and placebo (in the evening) were administered for 24 weeks. Group II (n = 34) received fluoxetine (20 mg in the morning) and melatonin (5 mg in the evening) in the same period of time. Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HARS), Beck depression scale (BDI), the insomnia severity index (ISI) and body mass index (BMI) were used to assess the health status and the treatment efficacy. After 24 weeks, comparable and statistically significant reduction in the level of anxiety and depression was obtained in both groups. In group I, the ISI decreased from 14.9 ± 2.5 points to 10.9 ± 1.9 points (P < 0.05) and in group II from 15.8 ± 2.4 points to 7.7 ± 1.5 points (P < 0.001). In group I no reduction in BMI was achieved whereas in group II this index decreased from 30.9 ± 3.1 to 26.3 ± 3.2 (P < 0.05). We conclude that combined administration of fluoxetine and melatonin was useful option to treat mood, sleep and appetite disorders in postmenopausal women. PMID:26579572

  17. Association Between Serum Levels of Testosterone and Estradiol With Meibomian Gland Assessments in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Ablamowicz, Anna F.; Nichols, Jason J.; Nichols, Kelly K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this analysis were to determine if there is an association between serum levels of testosterone and estradiol with meibomian gland (MG) morphology and lipid layer thickness. Methods The data used for this analysis were collected from postmenopausal women with and without dry eye disease. Meibography was used to assess MG dropout on the central two-thirds of the eyelid and biomicroscopy was used for assessing MG expressibility and meibum quality. Venous blood samples were drawn for serum hormone level analysis. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlations were used for statistical analysis. Results One hundred ninety-eight postmenopausal women with an average age of 61.2 (±9.1) years were included in this analysis. Testosterone levels showed significant differences between MG dropout grades 1 and 4 (P = 0.002) and grades 2 and 4 (P = 0.01), whereas estradiol levels were different based on MG dropout (P = 0.53). No significant correlations were found between testosterone (r = 0.10, P = 0.17) or estradiol (r = 0.05, P = 0.45) and lipid layer thickness. Conclusions Testosterone levels were increased with MG dropout, which was significant between the mild and severe dropout groups, whereas no significant differences were found with estradiol and any MG assessment. Although the literature suggests an association of serum hormone levels and pathogenesis of dry eye disease in postmenopausal women, analysis of active sex steroid precursors and local tissue hormone levels may prove more useful. PMID:26830366

  18. Cost-effectiveness of bazedoxifene versus raloxifene in the treatment of postmenopausal women in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Darbà, Josep; Pérez-Álvarez, Nuria; Kaskens, Lisette; Holgado-Pérez, Susana; Racketa, Jill; Rejas, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of bazedoxifene and raloxifene for prevention of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures among postmenopausal Spanish women aged 55–82 years with established osteoporosis and a high fracture risk. Methods A Markov model was developed to represent the transition of a cohort of postmenopausal osteoporotic women through different health states, ie, patients free of fractures, patients with vertebral or nonvertebral fractures, and patients recovered from a fracture. Efficacy data for bazedoxifene were obtained from the Osteoporosis Study. The perspective of the Spanish National Health Service was chosen with a time horizon of 27 years. Costs were reported in 2010 Euros. Deterministic results were presented as expected cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), and probabilistic results were represented in cost-effectiveness planes. Results In deterministic analysis, the expected cost per patient was higher in the raloxifene cohort (€13,881) than in the bazedoxifene cohort (€13,436). QALYs gained were slightly higher in the bazedoxifene cohort (14.56 versus 14.54). Results from probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that bazedoxifene has a slightly higher probability of being cost-effective for all threshold values independent of the maximum that the National Health Service is willing to pay per additional QALY. Conclusion Bazedoxifene was shown to be a cost-effective treatment option for the prevention of fractures in Spanish women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and a high fracture risk. When comparing bazedoxifene with raloxifene, it may be concluded that the former is the dominant strategy. PMID:23882153

  19. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Jones, Rena R; Anderson, Kristin E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cerhan, James R; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Weyer, Peter J; Ward, Mary H

    2015-07-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potential human carcinogens. We evaluated the association of nitrate and nitrite ingestion with postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Among 28,555 postmenopausal women, we identified 315 incident epithelial ovarian cancers from 1986 to 2010. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using food frequency questionnaire data. Drinking water source at home was obtained in a 1989 follow-up survey. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels for Iowa public water utilities were linked to residences and average levels were computed based on each woman's duration at the residence. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested interactions of nitrate with TTHMs and dietary factors known to influence NOC formation. Ovarian cancer risk was 2.03 times higher (CI = 1.22-3.38, ptrend  = 0.003) in the highest quartile (≥2.98 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤0.47 mg/L; reference) of NO3 -N in public water, regardless of TTHM levels. Risk among private well users was also elevated (HR = 1.53, CI = 0.93-2.54) compared with the same reference group. Associations were stronger when vitamin C intake was postmenopausal women. PMID:25430487

  20. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lomax, Anna J.; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J.; Yeow, Elaine G.; Bell, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. Results All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (−5.4%) and hip (−4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. Conclusion In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic. PMID:26909285

  1. Effect of Transdermal Teriparatide Administration on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cosman, Felicia; Lane, Nancy E.; Bolognese, Michael A.; Zanchetta, Jose R.; Garcia-Hernandez, Pedro A.; Sees, Karen; Matriano, James A.; Gaumer, Kim; Daddona, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Treatment of osteoporosis with an anabolic agent, teriparatide [human PTH 1-34 (TPTD)], is effective in reducing incident fractures, but patient resistance to daily sc injections has limited its use. A novel transdermal patch, providing a rapid, pulse delivery of TPTD, may provide a desirable alternative. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a novel transdermal TPTD patch compared to placebo patch and sc TPTD 20-μg injection in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Design: Our study consisted of 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, positive control, multidose daily administration. Patients: We enrolled 165 postmenopausal women (mean age, 64 yr) with osteoporosis. Interventions: A TPTD patch with a 20-, 30-, or 40-μg dose or a placebo patch was self-administered daily for 30-min wear time, or 20 μg of TPTD was injected daily. Outcomes: The primary efficacy measure was mean percentage change in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) from baseline at 6 months. Results: TPTD delivered by transdermal patch significantly increased lumbar spine BMD vs. placebo patch in a dose-dependent manner at 6 months (P < 0.001). TPTD 40-μg patch increased total hip BMD compared to both placebo patch and TPTD injection (P < 0.05). Bone turnover markers (procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen) increased from baseline in a dose-dependent manner in all treatment groups and were all significantly different from placebo patch (P < 0.001). All treatments were well tolerated, and no prolonged hypercalcemia was observed. Conclusion: Transdermal patch delivery of TPTD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis for 6 months is safe and effective in increasing lumbar spine and total hip BMD. PMID:19858319

  2. Influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Torres, Vanessa Braga; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse Melo; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Matias de Barros, Alef Cavalcanti; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho; Micussi, Maria Thereza de Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study with a sample of 100 postmenopausal women, aged between 45 and 65 years, divided into three groups according to menopausal stage: hysterectomized and early and late postmenopause. Patients were assessed for sociodemographic and gyneco-obstetric factors and subjected to a muscle strength test and perineometry. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and multiple regression were applied. [Results] The results showed homogeneity in sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. There was no difference in pelvic floor muscle function among the three groups. Type of delivery, parity and physical activity level showed no influence on muscle function. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level had no influence on pelvic floor muscle pressure in postmenopausal women. One hypothesis to explain these results is the fact that the decline in muscle function in postmenopausal women is related to the female aging process. PMID:27134366

  3. Influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Torres, Vanessa Braga; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse Melo; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Matias de Barros, Alef Cavalcanti; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho; Micussi, Maria Thereza de Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study with a sample of 100 postmenopausal women, aged between 45 and 65 years, divided into three groups according to menopausal stage: hysterectomized and early and late postmenopause. Patients were assessed for sociodemographic and gyneco-obstetric factors and subjected to a muscle strength test and perineometry. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and multiple regression were applied. [Results] The results showed homogeneity in sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. There was no difference in pelvic floor muscle function among the three groups. Type of delivery, parity and physical activity level showed no influence on muscle function. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level had no influence on pelvic floor muscle pressure in postmenopausal women. One hypothesis to explain these results is the fact that the decline in muscle function in postmenopausal women is related to the female aging process. PMID:27134366

  4. The Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Iranian Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghafari, Mahin; Baigi, Vali; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine without having signs and symptoms. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Iranian pregnant women. Methods Major national and international databases were searched up to November 2015, including Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and Ovid. The checklist of the STROBE statement was used for evaluating the quality of reporting. The extracted data were analyzed and the results were reported using a random-effects model with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results From 3709 obtained studies, 20 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 15108 pregnant women. The overall prevalence of ASB was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17). The prevalence of ASB in the northern and southern regions of Iran was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.18) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16), respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of ASB among Iranian pregnant women is considerable. Due to the complications of ASB for pregnant women and their children, preventative planning and control of ASB among pregnant women in Iran is necessary. PMID:27336476

  5. Pharmacologic management of bone-related complications and bone metastases in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Denise A

    2016-01-01

    There is a high risk for bone loss and skeletal-related events, including bone metastases, in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Both the disease itself and its therapeutic treatments can negatively impact bone, resulting in decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone loss. These negative effects on the bone can significantly impact morbidity and mortality. Effective management and minimization of bone-related complications in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remain essential. This review discusses the current understanding of molecular and biological mechanisms involved in bone turnover and metastases, increased risk for bone-related complications from breast cancer and breast cancer therapy, and current and emerging treatment strategies for managing bone metastases and bone turnover in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. PMID:27217795

  6. What is the influence of hormone therapy on homocysteine and crp levels in postmenopausal women?

    PubMed Central

    Lakryc, Eli Marcelo; Machado, Rogério Bonassi; Soares, José Maria; Fernandes, César Eduardo; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of estrogen therapy and estrogen-progestin therapy on homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In total, 99 postmenopausal women were included in this double-blind, randomized clinical trial and divided into three groups: Group A used estrogen therapy alone (2.0 mg of 17β-estradiol), Group B received estrogen-progestin therapy (2.0 mg of 17 β-estradiol +1.0 mg of norethisterone acetate) and Group C received a placebo (control). The length of treatment was six months. Serum measurements of homocysteine and C-reactive protein were carried out prior to the onset of treatment and following six months of therapy. RESULTS: After six months of treatment, there was a 20.7% reduction in homocysteine levels and a 100.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels in the group of women who used estrogen therapy. With respect to the estrogen-progestin group, there was a 12.2% decrease in homocysteine levels and a 93.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that hormone therapy (unopposed estrogen or estrogen associated with progestin) may have a positive influence on decreasing cardiovascular risk due to a significant reduction in homocysteine levels. PMID:25789519

  7. Short-term Hormone Treatment Modulates Emotion Response Circuitry in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Love, Tiffany; Smith, Yolanda R.; Persad, Carol C.; Tkaczyk, Anne; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of combination hormone therapy (HT) on emotional processing in postmenopausal women using functional neuroimaging. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 56.9 years, S.D. = 1.4) were recruited. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. Subjects participated in an fMRI emotional processing task, where they were asked to rate emotional pictures as positive, negative, or neutral. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo conditions within subjects. Results During negative emotional presentations, after subtracting the effect of neutral images, areas of significant differences between HT and placebo conditions were identified in the orbital, frontal, cingulate and occipital cortices. During positive emotional image presentation there were significant differences between placebo and HT conditions within the medial frontal cortex. Conclusions Short-term menopausal treatment with combination hormone therapy affects regional brain activity within areas implicated in emotional processing. PMID:19243753

  8. Effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Insulin Resistance in Postmenopausal Diabetic Women

    PubMed Central

    Bitoska, Iskra; Krstevska, Branka; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Subeska-Stratrova, Slavica; Petrovski, Goran; Mishevska, Sasha Jovanovska; Ahmeti, Irfan; Todorova, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is closely associated with diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, increased visceral fat in menopause is also associated with IR, which makes postmenopausal diabetic women in a big risk for cardiovascular diseases. There are conflicting reports about the effects on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on IR. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of HRT on IR. METHODS: A total of 40 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and followed for 12 months. Half of them were assigned to take HRT, while the other half made the control group. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulinemia were measured in both groups at baseline and after 12 months. IR was represented by Homeostatic model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: HRT was associated with significant decrease in HOMA-IR, FPG and insulinemia in the examined group. There was no significant reduction in FPG and no significant increase in insulinemia levels and HOMA-IR values in control group after 12 months. CONCLUSION: HRT was associated with statistically signifficant increase of insulin sensitivity. Larger clinical trials will be necessary to understand whether HRT may improve insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in women with diabetes, especially when given shortly after entering menopause.

  9. Efficacy and safety of Labisia pumila var alata water extract among pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; George, Annie; Hazlina, Nik Hussain Nik; Azidah, Abdul Kadir; Idiana, Hassan Intan; Law, Kim Sooi; Bahari, Ismail Shaiful; Zahiruddin, Wan Mohamed Wan; Liske, Eckehard; Azreena, Abas

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Labisia pumila var alata (L. pumila) water extract for improving quality of life, cardiovascular and hormonal balance. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 16-week study in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. The subjects were randomized to 400 mg propriety extract of L. pumila or placebo. A Women's Health Questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data. A total of 197 subjects (L. pumila: n=102 and placebo: n=95) were analyzed. Subjects in the herbal group showed improved memory/concentration, vasomotor symptoms, menstrual symptoms, and sleep problems by 8.3%, 15.9%, 11.8%, and 31.0%, respectively. The greatest improvement was observed for the question: "I get frightened or panic feelings for apparently no reason at all" with a 53% decrease as compared with placebo. Improvements were also seen in the cardiovascular parameters, and the safety profiles were normal. Postmenopausal women supplemented with L. pumila showed no changes in gynecological relevant hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 17β-Estradiol. Water extract of L. pumila was shown to be safe and effective for improving several parameters of quality of life and cardiovascular risks factors (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]). PMID:25000151

  10. Identification of B cells participated in the mechanism of postmenopausal women osteoporosis using microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Bing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    To further understand the molecular mechanism of lymphocytes B cells in postmenopausal women osteoporosis. Microarray data (GSE7429) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, in which B cells were separated from the whole blood of postmenopausal women, including 10 with high bone mineral density (BMD) and 10 with low BMD. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between high and low BMD women were identified by Student’s t-test, and P < 0.01 was used as the significant criterion. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for up- and down-regulated DEGs using KEGG, REACTOME, and Gene Ontology (GO) databases. Protein-protein interaction network (PPI) of up- and down-regulated DEGs was respectively constructed by Cytoscape software using the STRING data. Total of 169 up-regulated and 69 down-regulated DEGs were identified. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that the genes (ITPA, ATIC, UMPS, HPRT1, COX10 and COX15) might participate in metabolic pathways, MAP3K10 and MAP3K9 might participate in the activation of JNKK activity, COX10 and COX15 might involve in mitochondrial electron transport, and ATIC, UMPS and HPRT1 might involve in transferase activity. MAPK3, ITPA, ATIC, UMPS and HPRT1 with a higher degree in PPI network were identified. MAPK3, MAP3K10, MAP3K9, COX10, COX15, ATIC, UMPS and HPRT1 might participate in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. PMID:25785089

  11. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Morillas-Ruiz, J. M.; Delgado-Alarcon, J. M.; Rubio-Perez, J. M.; Albaladejo Oton, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil) separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD. PMID:25136625

  12. Simplified Tai Chi Resistance Training versus Traditional Tai Chi in Slowing Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiru; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Dinghai

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study examined whether simplified Tai Chi resistance training is superior to traditional Tai Chi in slowing bone loss in postmenopausal women. Methods. This prospective trial included 119 postmenopausal women (age: 52–65 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to participate in a traditional Tai Chi program (TTC, n = 40), a simplified Tai Chi resistance training program (TCRT, n = 40), or a blank control group (routine activity, n = 39). The TTC involved traditional Yang Style Tai Chi. The primary outcome was the change of lumbar bone mass density (L2–L4) at 12 months over the baseline. Femoral neck and Ward's triangle were also measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. The L2–L4 density was significantly lower at 12 months in comparison to the baseline in the blank control group. In both the TCRT and TTC groups, the L2–L4 density was comparable to the baseline. There was a trend for less bone loss in the TCRT than in the TTC group. Similar findings were observed with femoral neck and Ward's triangle. Conclusion. Simplified Tai Chi resistance training could slow bone loss in menopausal women. The results also suggested, but did not confirm, superiority to traditional Tai Chi. PMID:26136808

  13. Does Probability Guided Hysteroscopy Reduce Costs in Women Investigated for Postmenopausal Bleeding?

    PubMed Central

    Breijer, M. C.; van Hanegem, N.; Visser, N. C. M.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pijnenborg, J. M. A.; Opmeer, B. C.; Timmermans, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate whether a model to predict a failed endometrial biopsy in women with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) and a thickened endometrium can reduce costs without compromising diagnostic accuracy. Design, Setting, and Population. Model based cost-minimization analysis. Methods. A decision analytic model was designed to compare two diagnostic strategies for women with PMB: (I) attempting office endometrial biopsy and performing outpatient hysteroscopy after failed biopsy and (II) predicted probability of a failed endometrial biopsy based on patient characteristics to guide the decision for endometrial biopsy or immediate hysteroscopy. Robustness of assumptions regarding costs was evaluated in sensitivity analyses. Main Outcome Measures. Costs for the different strategies. Results. At different cut-offs for the predicted probability of failure of an endometrial biopsy, strategy I was generally less expensive than strategy II. The costs for strategy I were always € 460; the costs for strategy II varied between € 457 and € 475. At a 65% cut-off, a possible saving of € 3 per woman could be achieved. Conclusions. Individualizing the decision to perform an endometrial biopsy or immediate hysteroscopy in women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding based on patient characteristics does not increase the efficiency of the diagnostic work-up. PMID:25785283

  14. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on hemodynamic responses of postmenopausal women to passive heating.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, S L; Kenney, W L

    2000-07-01

    To examine the influence of chronic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the central and peripheral cardiovascular responses of postmenopausal women to direct passive heating, seven women taking estrogen replacement therapy, seven women taking estrogen and progesterone therapy, and seven women not taking HRT were passively heated with water-perfused suits to their individual limit of thermal tolerance. Measurements included heart rate (HR), cardiac output, blood pressure, skin blood flow, splanchnic blood flow, renal blood flow, esophageal temperature, and mean skin temperature. Cardiac output was higher in women taking estrogen and progesterone therapy than in women not taking HRT (7.12 +/- 0.70 vs. 5.02 +/- 0. 57 l/min at the limit of thermal tolerance, respectively; P < 0.05) because of a higher HR. However, when the HR data were plotted as a percentage of the maximum HR or percentage of HR reserve, there were no differences among the three groups of women. Neither splanchnic nor renal blood flow differed among the groups of women. These data suggest that HRT has little effect on the cardiovascular responses to direct passive heating. PMID:10904040

  15. High Levels of Serum DPP-4 Activity Are Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase 4/CD26 (DPP-4) is a widely expressed cell surface serine protease. DPP-4 inhibitors, one of common anti-diabetic agents play a protective role in bone metabolism in recent studies. A soluble form of DPP-4 is found in serum, and exhibits DPP-4 enzymatic activity. However, the physiological role of serum or soluble DPP-4 and its relationship with DPP-4 enzymatic function remain poorly understood. The aims of current study were to determine the association between serum DPP-4 activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Methods We recruited data and serum samples from 124 consecutive healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. We divided study subjects into obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m2) postmenopausal women and examined the correlation between serum DPP-4 activity and clinical variables in each groups. Results A total of 124 postmenopausal women was enrolled, with a mean age of 59.9±7.1 years. The mean BMI of the study patients was 24.4±2.8 kg/m2. Regarding bone turnover markers, serum DPP-4 activity was positively correlated with serum calcium concentrations, intact parathyroid hormone, and serum C-telopeptide levels in all of the study subjects. However, there was no association between serum DPP-4 activity and BMD in the spine or femoral neck in all of the study subjects. Serum DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated (R=−0.288, P=0.038) with BMD of the spine in obese postmenopausal women. Conclusion This study demonstrated for the first time that serum soluble DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated with BMD in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26676330

  16. Impact of Estrogen Therapy on Lymphocyte Homeostasis and the Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Flora; Rivera, Andrea; Park, Byung; Messerle-Forbes, Marci; Jensen, Jeffrey T.; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that changes in levels of ovarian steroids modulate severity of autoimmune disease and immune function in young adult women. These observations suggest that the loss of ovarian steroids associated with menopause could affect the age-related decline in immune function, known as immune senescence. Therefore, in this study, we determined the impact of menopause and estrogen therapy (ET) on lymphocyte subset frequency as well as the immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine in three different groups: 1) young adult women (regular menstrual cycles, not on hormonal contraception); 2) post-menopausal (at least 2 years) women who are not receiving any form of hormone therapy (HT) and 3) post-menopausal hysterectomized women receiving ET. Although the numbers of circulating CD4 and CD20 B cells were reduced in the post-menopausal group receiving ET, we also detected a better preservation of naïve B cells, decreased CD4 T cell inflammatory cytokine production, and slightly lower circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Following vaccination, young adult women generated more robust antibody and T cell responses than both post-menopausal groups. Despite similar vaccine responses between the two post-menopausal groups, we observed a direct correlation between plasma 17β estradiol (E2) levels and fold increase in IgG titers within the ET group. These findings suggest that ET affects immune homeostasis and that higher plasma E2 levels may enhance humoral responses in post-menopausal women. PMID:26859566

  17. Vaginal Microbiome and Epithelial Gene Array in Post-Menopausal Women with Moderate to Severe Dryness

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jo-Anne; McMillan, Amy; Vongsa, Rebecca; Koenig, David; Gloor, Gregory B.; Reid, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    After menopause, many women experience vaginal dryness and atrophy of tissue, often attributed to the loss of estrogen. An understudied aspect of vaginal health in women who experience dryness due to atrophy is the role of the resident microbes. It is known that the microbiota has an important role in healthy vaginal homeostasis, including maintaining the pH balance and excluding pathogens. The objectives of this study were twofold: first to identify the microbiome of post-menopausal women with and without vaginal dryness and symptoms of atrophy; and secondly to examine any differences in epithelial gene expression associated with atrophy. The vaginal microbiome of 32 post-menopausal women was profiled using Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Sixteen subjects were selected for follow-up sampling every two weeks for 10 weeks. In addition, 10 epithelial RNA samples (6 healthy and 4 experiencing vaginal dryness) were acquired for gene expression analysis by Affymetrix Human Gene array. The microbiota abundance profiles were relatively stable over 10 weeks compared to previously published data on premenopausal women. There was an inverse correlation between Lactobacillus ratio and dryness and an increased bacterial diversity in women experiencing moderate to severe vaginal dryness. In healthy participants, Lactobacillus iners and L. crispatus were generally the most abundant, countering the long-held view that lactobacilli are absent or depleted in menopause. Vaginal dryness and atrophy were associated with down-regulation of human genes involved in maintenance of epithelial structure and barrier function, while those associated with inflammation were up-regulated consistent with the adverse clinical presentation. PMID:22073175

  18. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) as a criterion for the identification of the healthy obesity phenotype in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lwow, Felicja; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Milewicz, Andrzej; Szmigiero, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and its complications constitute a major health problem in postmenopausal women. The identification of the obesity phenotype, especially that of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) patients, is a necessary part of obesity treatment protocols. There are several methods to define MHO, but unfortunately, all of them are arbitrary and inconsistent. The aim of this work was to determine whether lipid accumulation product (LAP) could be used as a marker of the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. A sample of 345 Polish postmenopausal women aged 50-60years old participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese when their BMI was >27. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to estimate the best cutoff for the LAP index value to identify postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome components. We found that the best cutoff value was LAP ≤29.9, and this value was used to define MHO individuals. With this definition, the identification of MHO individuals could be made when both of the following criteria were met: LAP index ≤29.9 and no arterial hypertension (SBP<130mmHg, DBP<85mmHg). The anthropometric and body fat distribution measurements, as well as the metabolic characteristics of MHO women identified according to the above definition, were compared with those of MHO women identified by two other methods in the literature. These methods and our definition identified similar proportions of MHO women ranging from 11.6% to 16.9%. We found that MHO women identified by all of the definitions used in this study possessed a similar metabolic status, and they did not differ in anthropometric indices or body fat distribution measurements. We concluded that the combination of LAP estimation and arterial blood pressure measurement appear to constitute a useful method for identifying the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. PMID:27329927

  19. Altered Lung Function Test in Asymptomatic Women Using Biomass Fuel for Cooking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: One third of the world’s population use biomass fuel like wood, dung or charcoal for cooking. The smoke from these organic materials increases the incidence of respiratory illness including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Aim: To evaluate forced expiratory lung volumes in asymptomatic women previously exposed to biomass fuel smoke. Materials and Methods: The study was done in 74 healthy asymptomatic women divided into two age matched groups of 37 each. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were assessed by computerised spirometry and statistical comparisons done on women using biomass fuel (study group) and women using other sources of fuel (LPG/ electric stove) for cooking (control group). Results: The PFT results showed significant reduction in forced expiratory lung volumes like Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st sec (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Flow between 25-75% (FEF 25-75%) and Forced Expiratory Volume percentage (FEV1%) in biomass fuel users as compared to those not exposed to biomass fuel smoke. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that biomass fuel smoke may produce definite impairment in lung function, especially with regard to the smaller airways. PMID:25478331

  20. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Jones, Rena R.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cerhan, James R.; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Weyer, Peter J.; Ward, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potential human carcinogens. We evaluated the association of nitrate and nitrite ingestion with postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Among 28,555 postmenopausal women, we identified 315 incident epithelial ovarian cancers from 1986 to 2010. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using food frequency questionnaire data. Drinking water source at home was obtained in a 1989 follow-up survey. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels for Iowa public water utilities were linked to residences and average levels were computed based on each woman’s duration at the residence. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested interactions of nitrate with TTHMs and dietary factors known to influence NOC formation. Ovarian cancer risk was 2.03 times higher (CI=1.22–3.38, ptrend=0.003) in the highest quartile (≥2.98 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤0.47 mg/L; reference) of NO3-N in public water, regardless of TTHM levels. Risk among private well users was also elevated (HR=1.53, CI=0.93–2.54) compared with the same reference group. Associations were stronger when vitamin C intake was postmenopausal women. PMID:25430487

  1. Serum biomarker profile associated with high bone turnover and BMD in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Siegel, Eric R; Achenbach, Sara J; Khosla, Sundeep; Suva, Larry J

    2008-07-01

    Early diagnosis of the onset of osteoporosis is key to the delivery of effective therapy. Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide a means of evaluating skeletal dynamics that complements static measurements of BMD by DXA. Conventional clinical measurements of bone turnover, primarily the estimation of collagen and its breakdown products in the blood or urine, lack both sensitivity and specificity as a reliable diagnostic tool. As a result, improved tests are needed to augment the use of BMD measurements as the principle diagnostic modality. In this study, the serum proteome of 58 postmenopausal women with high or low/normal bone turnover (training set) was analyzed by surface enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and a diagnostic fingerprint was identified using a variety of statistical and machine learning tools. The diagnostic fingerprint was validated in a separate distinct test set, consisting of serum samples from an additional 59 postmenopausal women obtained from the same Mayo cohort, with a gap of 2 yr. Specific protein peaks that discriminate between postmenopausal patients with high or low/normal bone turnover were identified and validated. Multiple supervised learning approaches were able to classify the level of bone turnover in the training set with 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In addition, the individual protein peaks were also significantly correlated with BMD measurements in these patients. Four of the major discriminatory peaks in the diagnostic profile were identified as fragments of interalpha-trypsin-inhibitor heavy chain H4 precursor (ITIH4), a plasma kallikrein-sensitive glycoprotein that is a component of the host response system. These data suggest that these serum protein fragments are the serum-borne reflection of the increased osteoclast activity, leading to the increased bone turnover that is associated with decreasing BMD and presumably an increased risk of fracture. In conjunction with the

  2. Excretion balance and metabolism of the progestagen Org 30659 in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, C H; Gloudemans, R H; Groothuis, G M; Rietjens, I M; Vos, R M

    2000-05-01

    Metabolism of Org 30659 ((17alpha)-17-hydroxy-11-methylene-19-norpregna-4, 15-dien-20-yn-3-one), a new potent progestagen currently under clinical development by NV Organon for use in oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy, was studied in vivo after oral administration to healthy postmenopausal women. After oral administration of [14C]-Org 30659 to postmenopausal women, the compound was extensively metabolized. The dosed radioactivity was predominantly excreted via urine. Org 30659 was to a large extent metabolized at the C3- and the C17-positions. Phase II metabolism, and in particular conjugation with glucuronic acid at the 17beta-hydroxy group, is the major metabolic route for Org 30659 in vivo. Not only phase II metabolism was observed for Org 30659 after oral administration to postmenopausal volunteers, but also metabolism in the A-ring occurred, especially reduction of the 3-keto-Delta(4) moiety to give 3alpha-hydroxy, 5alpha(beta)-dihydro and 3beta-hydroxy, 5alpha-dihydro derivatives. Oxidative metabolism (6beta-hydroxylation) observed in human liver preparations in vitro, was not observed to a significant extent in vivo. So, in vitro human metabolism is different from the in vivo metabolism, indicating that the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation is far from straightforward, at least when only liver preparations are used. The proper choice of the in vitro system (e.g., microsomes, hepatocytes, slices or individually expressed enzymes) and the substrate concentration can be very important determinative factors for the predictability of the in vitro system for the in vivo situation. Species comparison of the metabolic routes of Org 30659 after oral administration indicated that the monkey seems to be a better representative species than the rat for the metabolism of Org 30659 in humans. PMID:10822023

  3. Lifelong bound feet in China: a quantitative ultrasound and lifestyle questionnaire study in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Ming; Xu, Mian; Lao, Hanchang; O'Laughlin, Michael C; Tong, Shan; Zhao, Yanling; Hung, VWY; Cheng, JCY; Guo, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The phenomenon of foot binding, also known as ‘lotus feet’, has an enduring and influential history in China. To achieve a man-made smaller foot size, lifelong foot binding may have had adverse effects on the skeleton. We investigated bone properties in postmenopausal women with bound feet, which may provide new information for developing countermeasures for prevention of fragility fractures. Design Population-based cohort study. Participants This study involved 254 postmenopausal women aged 65–80, including 172 with bound feet and 82 age- and gender-matched control subjects, living in a remote region of China. Outcomes Anthropometric, SF-36 Lifestyle Questionnaire and heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) data were collected for the whole study population. A small subset of two cases was also invited for assessment of bone mineral density and microarchitecture at the distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) and gait and balance tests. Results Women with bound feet had significantly lower QUS values than age-matched women with normal feet; this was supported by HR-pQCT data. However, SF-36 Questionnaire results did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any categorical responses, including physical functioning, general health vitality and physical component summary score, and number of previous fractures. No impairment of body balance was found in the small subset. Conclusions The man-made changes caused by foot binding led to reduced physical activity, making the subjects prone to osteoporosis. Women with bound feet and osteoporosis did not have a higher incidence of fragility fractures than controls. This might be explained by compensation in physical activity to improve body balance, implying the importance of improving or maintaining body balance in overall prevention strategies against fragility fractures. PMID:25783423

  4. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Candida among Postmenopausal Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    You, Hannah M.; Hedberg, E. C.; Jordan, Jeanne A.; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Candida among community-dwelling postmenopausal women in the United States and determine their change with age, using estimates based on Waves 1 and 2 of the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP). Method : Self-administered vaginal swabs were collected in-home from women aged 57–85 (n = 1,016) in Wave 1 and again 5 years later in Wave 2 (n = 883). Gram-stained specimens were evaluated for BV using the Nugent score as well as presence of Candida. Results: BV was prevalent in 23% and 38% of postmenopausal women in Waves 1 and 2 and increased with age. Women initially categorized with BV in Wave 1 were more than 10 times as likely to be categorized with BV in Wave 2, relative risk ratio (RRR) = 10.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) (4.45–24.7); p < .001, whereas women initially categorized as intermediate in Wave 1 were five times more likely to have a BV categorization, RRR = 5.0; 95% CI (2.56–9.75); p < .001. Although the presence of Candida was similar in both waves (6% and 5%), its relationship with age only became evident in Wave 2, with odds of detecting Candida decreasing by 7% with each year of age, OR = 0.93, 95% CI (0.88, 0.98); p = .010. Discussion: In Wave 2, the prevalence of BV was higher and increased with age while the prevalence of Candida was low and declined with age. A 5-year age increase contributed to the prevalence change across waves. Methods refinements in Wave 2 improved the detection of BV and Candida and clarified their relationship with age. PMID:25360022

  5. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Ponikowska, Irena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24971341

  6. A-FABP concentration is more strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and the occurrence of metabolic syndrome in premenopausal than in postmenopausal middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Stefanska, Anna; Ponikowska, Irena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24971341

  7. Hip cortical thickness assessment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and strontium ranelate effect on hip geometry.

    PubMed

    Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude Laurent; Roux, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the relationship between hip geometry and the 5-yr risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and the effects of strontium ranelate on these parameters. Using the 5-yr data of a randomized placebo-controlled trial of strontium ranelate (Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis Study [TROPOS]), we reanalyzed the hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to determine the role of hip geometry in the risk of hip fractures (placebo group, n=636) and to analyze the effects of strontium ranelate (n=483). The outcomes included the hip structure analysis (HSA) parameters: cross-sectional area (CSA), section modulus, cortical thickness, and buckling ratio, measured at femoral neck, intertrochanteric (IT) region, and proximal shaft. The geometric parameters associated with an increased risk of hip fracture over 5yr were IT CSA and femoral shaft cortical thickness independent of age and total-hip bone mineral density (BMD). Using Bonferroni adjustment, IT cortical thickness was associated with the risk of hip fracture. Over 5yr, significant decreases in some femoral dimensions of the placebo group contrast with significant increases in strontium ranelate group after adjustment for age and BMD. Using Bonferroni adjustment, differences between placebo and strontium ranelate groups were no longer significant after adjustment on 5-yr BMD changes. Some HSA parameters have predictive value for hip fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Strontium ranelate improves some HSA parameters, through the BMD increase. PMID:22321661

  8. Effects of Tai Chi Training on Antioxidant Capacity in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Margaritis, Irène; Soogarun, Suphan; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC) training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session) would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n = 8) and postmenopausal (n = 7) sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1) increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity—an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme—and plasma total antioxidant status and (2) decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention. PMID:21584229

  9. Clinical performance of seven prescreening tools for osteoporosis in Iranian postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Keshtkar, Abbas; Tabatabaie, Omidreza; Matin, Nassim; Mohammadi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Khashayar, Patricia; Asadi, Mojgan

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate seven prescreening osteoporosis models in postmenopausal Iranian women. This study was performed on 8644 postmenopausal women who have been referred for bone mineral densitometry (BMD) in BMD center of Shariati hospital in Tehran between 2001 and 2011. Diagnostic properties of seven prescreening instruments were evaluated. With regard to area under curve (AUC), these models have low accuracy (AUC ≤ 0.65). Considering only femoral neck or total femur area, these models had low accuracy but were more sensitive. Except for three models with sensitivities of ≤65 % in both osteoporosis and fracture threshold, other models were around 70 % sensitive. However, these models were not considered clinically useful regarding their positive predictive values (PPV) especially in BMDs ≤02.5. With regard to different measures of diagnostic property, none of these models were good screening tools for osteoporosis or fracture threshold. Although some of them are sensitive, considering other measures such as PPV indicates that they are not completely useful for clinical use. Attempts should be made for developing newer prescreening methods and calibration of the existing models with regard to the studied population. PMID:25980683

  10. Evidence that estrogens inhibit LH secretion through opioids in postmenopausal women using naloxone.

    PubMed

    Melis, G B; Paoletti, A M; Gambacciani, M; Mais, V; Fioretti, P

    1984-07-01

    To evaluate whether ovarian steroid environment may modify endogenous opioid activity at hypothalamic-pituitary level, the effects of naloxone infusion (1.2 mg/h for 4 h) on gonadotropin secretion were studied in 5 postmenopausal women who had natural menopause 3-5 years before the study. In addition, naloxone infusion was repeated in the same subjects after chronic oral treatment with conjugated estrogens (1.25 mg/day in two divided doses for 20 days). Before treatment, both the circulating levels of estrogens and plasma gonadotropins were in the normal range for postmenopausal women and naloxone infusion did not induce any significant modification of gonadotropin secretion. In contrast, after estrogen therapy, and the consequent rise in estrogen plasma levels, naloxone infusion induced a significant LH increase (p less than 0.01) starting during the last hour of treatment. These findings seem to confirm that endogenous opioid peptides may modulate the inhibitory effect exerted by estrogens on LH secretion, in humans. PMID:6087184