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Distribution coefficients of atenolol and sotalol.  


The distribution coefficient (D) of atenolol is lower than that of sotalol, despite the latter's lower partition coefficient (P). Since D is the relevant quantity under physiological conditions, it is re-established that atenolol is in practice the more hydrophilic. Because of the common confusion between P and D which this case exemplifies, the relation between them is set out. PMID:6143796

Taylor, P J; Cruickshank, J M



Atenolol, methyldopa, and chlorthalidone in moderate hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined treatment with low doses of different drugs is widely used for moderate hypertension. The effects of atenolol and methyldopa at two dose levels and in combination at the lower doses were studied in patients with moderate hypertension on continuous treatment with moderate hypertension on continuous treatment with chlorthalidone. The mean reduction in standing blood pressures obtained with atenolol 150

J Webster; T A Jeffers; D B Galloway; J C Petrie; N P Barker



Case report: Atenolol overdose successfully treated with hemodialysis.  


Owing to the drug's favorable hydrophilic and pharmacokinetic characteristics, a number of case reports have demonstrated effective treatment of atenolol overdose with hemodialysis. However, the efficiency of atenolol clearance throughout hemodialysis treatments has not previously been examined. In this report, a patient with impaired renal function was successfully treated with two 5-hour intermittent high-flux high-efficiency hemodialysis therapies after atenolol overdose. Serial atenolol levels were measured during his hemodialysis treatments. We observed an over 50% plasma atenolol concentration reduction after each 5-hour hemodialysis therapy. Hemodialysis therapy is an effective treatment for atenolol overdose, especially in patients with impaired renal function. PMID:23347063

Huang, Shih-Han S; Tirona, Rommel G; Ross, Cameron; Suri, Rita S



Formulation and stability evaluation of extemporaneously prepared atenolol capsules from crushed atenolol tablets.  


The purpose of this study was to formulate a 25-mg atenolol capsule starting from a commercial 100-mg atenolol tablet, given the fact that this strength is not available in Palestine and also because 50-mg atenolol tablets failed the splitting uniformity test of the European Pharmacopoeia, and to evaluate the chemical stability and dissolution behavior of the obtained capsules so as to ensure a high-quality product. A high-performance liquid chromatographic system was used for the analysis and quantification of atenolol in the samples studied. Samples of atenoIol for analysis were prepared as reported by the United States Pharmacopeia monograph. Disintegration and dissolution tests were performed according to the United States Pharmacopeia. The high-performance liquid chromatography assay indicated that the 25-mg atenolol capsules were stable for four months when stored at ambient temperature conditions. The disintegration time for all atenolol capsules was within the United States Pharmacopeia limits of 15 minutes. Atenolol release profile showed that approximately 90% of atenolol dissolved after 10 minutes. This study is important for patients who need to take one half of a 50-mg tablet, but for whom the splitting process doesn't give equal halves, and also for modifying the dose for patients with renal or hepatic problems. Therefore, it is possible for the community pharmacist to crush atenolol 100-mg tablets and refill them in new capsules with each containing a precise amount of atenolol, calculated according to body surface area and kidney and liver functions without affecting the chemical stability of the active ingredient nor its dissolution profile and also have a cost effective dosage form. PMID:23050394

Zaid, Abdel Naser; Malkieh, Numan; Kharoaf, Maher; Abu Ghoush, Abeer; Al-Ramahi, Rowa'


Social Phobia: A Comparison of Behavior Therapy and Atenolol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Randomly assigned 72 social phobics to behavioral (flooding) or drug treatment with atenolol or placebo. Found that flooding consistently was superior to placebo, whereas atenolol was not. Flooding also was superior to atenolol on behavioral measures and composite indexes. Subjects who improved during treatment maintained gains at six-month…

Turner, Samuel M.; And Others



Atenolol-nifedipine combinations compared to atenolol alone in hypertension: efficacy and tolerability.  

PubMed Central

1. In a double-blind, randomised, three-way-crossover study, 25 patients with sitting diastolic blood pressure between 95 and 120 mm Hg (Phase V) after 4 weeks' run-in on atenolol 50 mg twice daily, received atenolol 50 mg twice daily alone, atenolol 50 mg plus nifedipine 20 mg each twice daily and atenolol 50 mg plus nifedipine 40 mg each twice daily in three treatment periods each lasting 4 weeks. 'Washout' periods were not included. 2. The two combination treatment regimes lowered the 12 h post-dose blood pressure more effectively than did atenolol alone, but the high dose nifedipine combination was no more effective than the low dose nifedipine combination. Sitting systolic BP (+/- s.e. mean) at the end of each period was 174 +/- 5 mm Hg after the atenolol run-in, 170 +/- 5 mm Hg with atenolol alone, 156 +/- 5 mm Hg with the low dose combination and 158 +/- 4 mm Hg with the high dose combination. Corresponding diastolic BP readings were 106 +/- 2 mm Hg, 106 +/- 2 mm Hg, 97 +/- 2 mm Hg and 99 +/- 2 mm Hg respectively. 3. Side-effects tended to occur less commonly with the low dose of the fixed combination than with atenolol alone. An increased number of side-effects occurred with the 40 mg twice daily doses of nifedipine, particularly flushing/erythema, oedema of the ankles/feet, and a hot feeling in the legs. These differences did not reach significance. 4. Overall compliance was good (98 +/- 0.7 s.e. mean %) and was similar within the different treatment regimes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Maclean, D; Mitchell, E T; Coulson, R R; Fitzsimons, T J; McDevitt, D G



Atenolol and ischaemic heart disease: an overview.  


Data generated to date on the use of beta-blockers, especially atenolol, in ischaemic heart disease are reviewed and compared with the results available with the calcium antagonists. Atenolol appears to be effective as an anti-ischaemic agent in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease when reduction in myocardial oxygen supply (ischaemia not preceded by an increase in heart rate and due presumably to functional coronary stenosis) or increase in demand are the likely causes. Based on current concepts and available data, there is convincing evidence to support the use of atenolol across the spectrum of ischaemic heart disease. In contrast, results with the calcium antagonists have been disappointing and variable. Atenolol, to date, is the only beta-blocker which has been demonstrated to have a life-saving benefit in acute intervention (within 12 hours of onset) in myocardial infarction. This cardioprotective aspect of the drug is likely to be applicable to other areas of ischaemic heart disease, including silent ischaemia. PMID:1764953

Cruickshank, J M; McAinsh, J



Cardioselectivity of atenolol in asthmatic patients.  


This double-blind, randomised, within patient, placebo-controlled study set out to investigate the effect of a cardioselective beta-blocker, atenolol, at different oral doses (50, 100 and 200 mg) and a non-selective agent, propranolol (40 mg), upon 1. airways resistance (forced expiratory volume at one second = FEV1) and 2. the bronchodilator action of increasing doses of inhaled isoprenaline, in patients with co-existent hypertension and reversible airways obstruction. In 10 patients, two hours after drug administration, the 3 doses of atenolol caused a significantly greater (P less than 0.05) degree of B1-blockade than propranolol. In contrast the 3 doses of atenolol caused significantly less (P less than 0.05 to 0.01) B2-blockade as evidenced by a smaller fall in FEV1. The isoprenaline FEV1 dose response curves were displaced progressively to the right of the placebo curve with increasing doses of atenolol, but the greatest displacement was with propranolol. It was concluded that patients with reversible airways obstruction who require beta-blockade should be given a low dose of a cardioselective agent in conjunction with, if required, a beta 2 stimulant such as isoprenaline. Such a treatment will be less likely to cause a troublesome increase in airways resistance and the bronchodilator action of the beta 2 stimulant will be almost fully preserved. PMID:7032947

Ellis, M E; Sahay, J N; Chatterjee, S S; Cruickshank, J M; Ellis, S H



Exercise performance during captopril and atenolol treatment in hypertensive patients.  

PubMed Central

1. Maximal aerobic exercise capacity, submaximal endurance exercise performance, and exercise haemodynamics have been studied in sixteen patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension during treatment with captopril and atenolol. 2. Administration of atenolol (1 x 100 mg day-1) or captopril (1 x 100 mg day-1) for 6 weeks resulted in similar supine and erect systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Heart rate was significantly lower during atenolol treatment. 3. Exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure were significantly lower during atenolol than during captopril treatment, exercise diastolic blood pressure (at 100W) did not differ significantly. With atenolol exercise cardiac output was significantly lower and exercise stroke volume significantly higher than with captopril. 4. Maximal work rate, maximal oxygen consumption and maximal heart rate were significantly lower during atenolol than during captopril treatment (respectively 6%, 8% and 25%). Maximal respiratory exchange ratio and lactate concentration did not differ. 5. No statistically significant difference in submaximal endurance time between atenolol and captopril was found. Endurance time was reduced by 19% during atenolol and by 13% during captopril as compared with placebo. No difference in rating of perceived exertion between atenolol and captopril was present. 6. The results indicate that atenolol will reduce blood pressure during exercise more effectively than captopril in patients with hypertension. The limitation of submaximal endurance exercise performance by both agents is of similar magnitude. This may be regarded as an unwanted side effect in certain physically active patients with hypertension.

Van Baak, M A; Koene, F M; Verstappen, F T; Tan, E S



Infrared spectroscopy of racemic and enantiomeric forms of atenolol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular structure of conformational isomorphs given by X-ray diffraction for racemic and enantiomeric atenolol were optimized at the HF/6-31G* level of theory and the infrared spectra of the structure were calculated. These spectra are used to characterize the differences between the various atenolol conformers. The spectra of the ( R, S)- and S-atenolol solid forms were recorded and the bands corresponding to the functional groups identified with the aid of the calculated spectra, fitting analysis, temperature effect and H/D isotopic exchange. Particular attention was paid to the stretch vibration modes of the functional groups present in the atenolol.

de Castro, R. A. Esteves; Canotilho, João; Barbosa, Rui M.; Redinha, J. Simões



Assistência de enfermagem ao paciente em pulsoterapia com corticosteróide Nursing care of patients on corticosteroid pulse therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResUMo introdução: A pulsoterapia com corticosteróide endovenoso consiste na administração de corticosteróides em altas doses (a partir de 1 g\\/ dia), por três dias ou mais, ou em dias alternados. A necessidade de hospitalização ocorre devido aos possíveis efeitos colaterais que o paciente pode apresentar durante a infusão da droga; para tanto a monitorização dos parâmetros vitais, além de identificar

Deborah Rozencwajg; Carla Fátima; Paixão Nunes; Luciane Midory Sakuma; Cláudia Regina Laselva; Bartira Aguiar Roza


Valsartan and atenolol in patients with severe essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of valsartan, a new angiotensin II receptor antagonist, versus atenolol in the treatment of severe primary hypertension. A total of 103 adult out-patients were randomised to receive either valsartan 160 mg or atenolol 100 mg once daily for 6 weeks. If necessary, additional blood pressure (BP) control could

R Cifkova; J Peleška; J Hradec; H Rosolová; E Pintérová; K Zeman; P Oddou-Stock; J Thirlwell; F Botteri



[Atenolol in the treatment of patients with airway obstruction].  


Tachycardia in the asthmatics and bronchitis patients is very frequently observed. Atenolol-beta 1 selective beta-blockers, have little lipophilicity and intrinsic sympathetic activity and relatively long acting. It is known that atenolol more then other beta-adrenergics decreases frequency of cardiac rhythm even in a doses which have not antiarrhythmic nor hypotensive action. Atenolol effect on airways resistance was studied in patients with chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma determining the heart rate, pulse and atrial blood pressure and the vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume (FEV1%VC), value of maximal expiratory flow at 50% of VC(MEF50) thoracic gas volume (TGV) and bronchial resistance (Rt). A statistically significant difference in the measurements of heart rate and pulse but no rise of the airways resistance after 25-50 mg atenolol per day was observed. PMID:9591440

Chazan, R



A randomized, comparative, multicentric evaluation of atenolol/amlodipine combination with atenolol alone in essential hypertensive patients.  


As there is a strong, positive, and continuous correlation between blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular diseases; improved control of blood pressure is necessary to produce maximum reduction in clinical cardiovascular endpoints. The primary objective was to demonstrate that atenolol/amlodipine combination therapy is superior to atenolol monotherapy with respect to mean fall in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. The secondary objective was to compare the response rate and to evaluate the tolerability of study medications. This randomized, comparative, multicentric, 12-week study consisted of screening visit followed by baseline visit 48-hours postscreening. All enrolled patients received 7-day placebo washout. Eligible patients were randomized to receive either atenolol 25 mg/amlodipine 2.5 mg or atenolol 25 mg alone. Nonresponders after 4 weeks of therapy were escalated to atenolol 50 mg/amlodipine 5 mg or atenolol 50 mg, respectively. Out of 190 enrolled patients (94: combination group; 96: monotherapy group), 174 patients (84: combination therapy, 90: monotherapy) completed the study. After 4 weeks of therapy, low-dose combination group was superior to low-dose monotherapy with respect to mean fall in SBP (P = 0.008) and DBP (P = 0.021) and response rate (P = 0.012). Also high-dose combination therapy was superior to high-dose monotherapy with respect to mean SBP (P = 0.001), DBP (P = 0.011), and response rate (P = 0.035) at the end of 12 weeks of therapy. At the end of therapy, significantly more number of patients from combination group achieved normalization of BP (SBP < 120 mmHg and DBP < 80 mmHg) (P = 0.009). Thus, once daily treatment with atenolol/amlodipine fixed-dose combination offers superior antihypertensive efficacy over atenolol monotherapy in patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. PMID:19535971

Pareek, Anil; Salkar, Harsha; Mulay, Pradeep; Desai, Shubha; Chandurkar, Nitin; Redkar, Neelam


Atenolol in the treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension.  

PubMed Central

1 The pharmacological properties of atenolol suggest its possible usefulness in pregnancy-induced hypertension. The pharmacokinetics of atenolol in the pregnant woman, concentrations in cord blood, and its effects on maternal blood pressure and the foetus, are evaluated. 2 We studied 13 pregnant women with hypertension, most of them uncontrolled on methyldopa. Whole blood concentrations and urinary excretion of the drug were measured over 24 h following a 100 mg dose. Effects on maternal blood pressure, pulse rate and foetal heart rate and cardiotocograph were compared for the 4 days before treatment and the first 4 days of treatment. The birth weights and Apgar scores of the babies were recorded. 2 The pharmacokinetics of atenolol (plasma half-life of about 8 h) in pregnant women do not differ from the findings in the non-pregnant. The levels of atenolol in the cord blood were confirmed as approximately equal to those in the maternal blood. 4 In the ten women in whom blood pressure was assessed a small significant fall in blood pressure was observed. 5 A 5% mean fall in foetal heart rate resulted but in one case was a rate below 120 beats/min recorded. There was no evidence of depression of the stress response of the foetal heart. Apgar scores 5 min post partum were satisfactory. 6 Atenolol appears to be safe for use in hypertensive pregnancies. Its effectiveness as an antihypertensive agent in pregnancy requires further controlled evaluation.

Thorley, K J; McAinsh, J; Cruickshank, J M



Atenolol in the treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension.  


1 The pharmacological properties of atenolol suggest its possible usefulness in pregnancy-induced hypertension. The pharmacokinetics of atenolol in the pregnant woman, concentrations in cord blood, and its effects on maternal blood pressure and the foetus, are evaluated. 2 We studied 13 pregnant women with hypertension, most of them uncontrolled on methyldopa. Whole blood concentrations and urinary excretion of the drug were measured over 24 h following a 100 mg dose. Effects on maternal blood pressure, pulse rate and foetal heart rate and cardiotocograph were compared for the 4 days before treatment and the first 4 days of treatment. The birth weights and Apgar scores of the babies were recorded. 2 The pharmacokinetics of atenolol (plasma half-life of about 8 h) in pregnant women do not differ from the findings in the non-pregnant. The levels of atenolol in the cord blood were confirmed as approximately equal to those in the maternal blood. 4 In the ten women in whom blood pressure was assessed a small significant fall in blood pressure was observed. 5 A 5% mean fall in foetal heart rate resulted but in one case was a rate below 120 beats/min recorded. There was no evidence of depression of the stress response of the foetal heart. Apgar scores 5 min post partum were satisfactory. 6 Atenolol appears to be safe for use in hypertensive pregnancies. Its effectiveness as an antihypertensive agent in pregnancy requires further controlled evaluation. PMID:7332738

Thorley, K J; McAinsh, J; Cruickshank, J M



Pharmacometabolomics Reveals Racial Differences in Response to Atenolol Treatment  

PubMed Central

Antihypertensive drugs are among the most commonly prescribed drugs for chronic disease worldwide. The response to antihypertensive drugs varies substantially between individuals and important factors such as race that contribute to this heterogeneity are poorly understood. In this study we use metabolomics, a global biochemical approach to investigate biochemical changes induced by the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol in Caucasians and African Americans. Plasma from individuals treated with atenolol was collected at baseline (untreated) and after a 9 week treatment period and analyzed using a GC-TOF metabolomics platform. The metabolomic signature of atenolol exposure included saturated (palmitic), monounsaturated (oleic, palmitoleic) and polyunsaturated (arachidonic, linoleic) free fatty acids, which decreased in Caucasians after treatment but were not different in African Americans (p<0.0005, q<0.03). Similarly, the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate was significantly decreased in Caucasians by 33% (p<0.0001, q<0.0001) but was unchanged in African Americans. The contribution of genetic variation in genes that encode lipases to the racial differences in atenolol-induced changes in fatty acids was examined. SNP rs9652472 in LIPC was found to be associated with the change in oleic acid in Caucasians (p<0.0005) but not African Americans, whereas the PLA2G4C SNP rs7250148 associated with oleic acid change in African Americans (p<0.0001) but not Caucasians. Together, these data indicate that atenolol-induced changes in the metabolome are dependent on race and genotype. This study represents a first step of a pharmacometabolomic approach to phenotype patients with hypertension and gain mechanistic insights into racial variability in changes that occur with atenolol treatment, which may influence response to the drug.

Wikoff, William R.; Frye, Reginald F.; Zhu, Hongjie; Gong, Yan; Boyle, Stephen; Churchill, Erik; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M.; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Fiehn, Oliver; Johnson, Julie A.; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima



Effects of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Fruit juices can significantly change the pharmacokinetics of several drugs. Our objective was to investigate the effect of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of the beta-blocking agent atenolol. Methods: In a randomized cross-over study with two phases and a washout of 2 weeks, ten healthy volunteers took either 200 ml orange juice or water thrice daily for 3 days

J. J. Lilja; K. Raaska; P. J. Neuvonen



Pharmacokinetics of atenolol in hypertensive subjects with and without co-administration of chlorthalidone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics of atenolol with and without the co-administration of chlorthalidone were studied in five hypertensive subjects. Concomitant administration of chlorthalidone appears to have little if any effect on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol during treatment for 7 days. The atenolol elimination half-lives were 6.7±1.1 and 6.3±0.9 h, respectively, with and without chlorthalidone. Two healthy volunteers also received a single 50

E. Riva; P. L. Farina; R. Sega; G. Tognoni; W. Bastain; J. McAinsh



Formulation and Evaluation of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Atenolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buccal patches for the delivery of atenolol using sodium alginate with various hydrophilic polymers like carbopol 934 P, sodium\\u000a carboxymethyl cellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in various proportions and combinations were fabricated by solvent\\u000a casting technique. Various physicomechanical parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content,\\u000a moisture content, moisture absorption, and various ex vivo mucoadhesion parameters like mucoadhesive strength, force

Surya N. Ratha Adhikari; Bhabani S. Nayak; Amit K. Nayak; Biswaranjan Mohanty



Assessment of a fixed-dosage combination of atenolol and chlorthalidone (Tenoretic) in hypertensive Nigerians.  


The antihypertensive effect of a fixed dosage combination of the cardioselective beta-adrenoceptor blocker, atenolol, and the oral thiazide-like diuretic, chlorthalidone (Tenoretic) was studied in 24 hypertensive Nigerians in a double-blind, cross-over comparison with three other treatments. These were atenolol alone, 100 mg daily, chlorthalidone alone, 25 mg daily, and atenolol (100 mg) plus chlorthalidone (25 mg) daily taken as separate formulations. Tenoretic was taken as a once-daily tablet containing 100 mg atenolol plus 25 mg chlorthalidone. The order of administration of the drugs was randomized. Each drug was taken for 4 weeks. The results showed that atenolol and chlorthalidone lowered blood pressure to the same extent. Combination of the two drugs whether taken separately or in fixed-dosage combination was better than either product singly. The drugs were well tolerated. PMID:2109522

Salako, L A; Falase, A O; Aderounmu, A F; Walker, O



Ischemic pain relief in patients with acute myocardial infarction by intravenous atenolol.  


Pain relief in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, atenolol, was demonstrated by three separate studies. First, 18 patients were randomized to double-blind intravenous atenolol (5 mg) or saline immediately after admission, followed by oral atenolol (50 mg) or placebo 10 minutes later. In patients receiving atenolol, pain relief coincided with reduction in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and HR X SBP product (p less than 0.05); however, pain and these parameters were unchanged by placebo. The degree of pain relief was related to the reduction in cardiac work achieved (r = 0.725; p less than 0.001). A second open study involving 22 patients receiving intravenous atenolol (5 to 15 mg) early after AMI showed ischemic pain relief in 17 patients. They achieved a more significant reduction in HR X SBP product than those whose pain remained unchanged (p = 0.004). Finally, a retrospective study of 163 patients randomized to either atenolol or no beta blockade early after AMI revealed that patients receiving atenolol needed less opiate analgesia after admission (p less than 0.001). The safety of this therapy was illustrated by a decreased incidence of left heart failure and atrial fibrillation and no tendency to second- and third-degree heart block. PMID:6121479

Ramsdale, D R; Faragher, E B; Bennett, D H; Bray, C L; Ward, C; Cruickshank, J M; Yusuf, S; Sleight, P



Once-daily dosing with Atenolol in patients with mild or moderate hypertension.  

PubMed Central

Because of the difficulties patients have in adhering to their drug regimens a trial was performed in which patients with essential hypertension were given, in random order and for four weeks each, three different doses of atenolol to be taken once daily. Atenolol effectively decreased lying and standing blood pressures, and there was no difference between the effects of the three doses. The simplicity of the regimen, as well as atenolol's freedom from troublesome side effects, should be valuable in helping patients adhere to long-term treatment.

Douglas-Jones, A P; Cruickshank, J M



Valor Diagnóstico da Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons \\/ Tomografia Computadorizada (PET-CT) com Flúor-18 Fluordeoxiglicose (FDG 18 F) em Pacientes com Carcinoma Diferenciado da Tireóide, Níveis Séricos de Tireoglobulina Elevados e Pesquisa de Corpo Inteiro com Iodo Negativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o papel da PET-CT com FDG-18F na detecção de recidiva e\\/ou metástase de carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide (CDT) em pacientes com níveis elevados de tireoglobulina (TG) e PCI negativa. Pacientes e método: Os achados da PET-CT de 25 pacientes foram comparados com a avaliação histopatológica e os métodos convencionais de imagem (MC). Resultados: A PET-CT foi positiva




How can we block sympathetic overactivity? Effects of rilmenidine and atenolol in overweight hypertensive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of long-term treatment with rilmenidine compared with atenolol on lipid and glucose metabolism and cardiovascular remodelling in hypertension. In total, 37 patients with hypertension were randomised to rilmenidine 1–2 mg\\/day or atenolol 50–100 mg\\/day for 26 weeks. Standard oral glucose tolerance test with a parallel measurement of insulin and glucose

A O Konrady; Y R Kasherininov; A A Shavarov; E K Shavarova; N V Vachrameeva; A N Krutikov; E V Smirnova; E V Shlyakhto



Atenolol, sustained-release oxprenolol, and long-acting propranolol in hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of once-daily atenolol, sustained-release oxprenolol (a new formulation of oxprenolol presented as a compressed tablet in a waxed matrix), and long-acting propranolol (a new formulation presented as spheriods in a capsule) was studied in a double-blind crossover trial in 23 carefully selected hypertensive outpatients. After a run-in period with matching placebo each patient received atenolol (100 mg\\/day), sustained-release

J C Petrie; T A Jeffers; O J Robb; A K Scott; J Webster



Effect of atenolol on treadmill performance in patients with angina pectoris.  


The efficacy and safety of atenolol was evaluated in 16 patients with exertional angina pectoris in a single-blind, once daily, increasing dose study. All patients had coronary artery disease documented by previous myocardial infarction, coronary angiography, or an abnormal exercise ECG. After a four-week placebo period, patients received 25, 50, and 100 mg of atenolol once daily during three two-week periods. This was followed by a three-week treatment period with 200 mg of atenolol once daily. The study was concluded with a two to four week posttreatment period. Antianginal efficacy was assessed by monitoring changes in treadmill exercise performance in each patient 3 and 24 hours after the administration of atenolol. The endpoint of the treadmill exercise was mild but definite chest pain. At 3 and 24 hours after all dosages, atenolol significantly prolonged the duration of exercise and increased the work performed. The pulse rate and double product at the endpoint of exercise were lower with all atenolol doses. Overall, at 24 hours after the administration of atenolol, exercise tolerance was progressively increased as the dose increased. The mean duration of exercise and work performed increased 28.5 and 35.4%, respectively, on the 25-mg dose; 36.9 and 45.5%, respectively, on the 50-mg dose; 45.1 and 59.5%, respectively, on the 100-mg dose; and 65.4 and 84.8%, respectively, on the 200-mg dose. Patient acceptance and compliance were good. Single daily doses of atenolol constitute effective therapy for exercise-induced angina. PMID:6349909

Kritzer, G; Warr, T A; Strong, M L; Froelicher, V F


Trial of atenolol and chlorthalidone for hypertension in black South Africans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four black patients (Zulus) with hypertension participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial of the efficacy of a beta-blocking agent (atenolol) 100 mg once daily as compared with chlorthalidone 25 mg once daily. The two drugs were also given combined at these doses and the effects compared with those of the drugs given alone. Atenolol as sole treatment had no

Y K Seedat



Formulation and Evaluation of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Atenolol  

PubMed Central

Buccal patches for the delivery of atenolol using sodium alginate with various hydrophilic polymers like carbopol 934 P, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in various proportions and combinations were fabricated by solvent casting technique. Various physicomechanical parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content, moisture content, moisture absorption, and various ex vivo mucoadhesion parameters like mucoadhesive strength, force of adhesion, and bond strength were evaluated. An in vitro drug release study was designed, and it was carried out using commercial semipermeable membrane. All these fabricated patches were sustained for 24 h and obeyed first-order release kinetics. Ex vivo drug permeation study was also performed using porcine buccal mucosa, and various drug permeation parameters like flux and lag time were determined.

Adhikari, Surya N. Ratha; Nayak, Bhabani S.; Nayak, Amit K.



Formulation and evaluation of buccal patches for delivery of atenolol.  


Buccal patches for the delivery of atenolol using sodium alginate with various hydrophilic polymers like carbopol 934 P, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in various proportions and combinations were fabricated by solvent casting technique. Various physicomechanical parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content, moisture content, moisture absorption, and various ex vivo mucoadhesion parameters like mucoadhesive strength, force of adhesion, and bond strength were evaluated. An in vitro drug release study was designed, and it was carried out using commercial semipermeable membrane. All these fabricated patches were sustained for 24 h and obeyed first-order release kinetics. Ex vivo drug permeation study was also performed using porcine buccal mucosa, and various drug permeation parameters like flux and lag time were determined. PMID:20533098

Adhikari, Surya N Ratha; Nayak, Bhabani S; Nayak, Amit K; Mohanty, Biswaranjan



Comparison of atenolol and oxprenolol in patients with angina or hypertension and co-existent chronic airways obstruction.  


1 The effects of atenolol (50 mg and 100 mg) and oxprenolol (80 mg) on respiratory function were studied in ten patients with angina pectoris or hypertension complicated by chronic airways obstruction. 2 In patients with "fixed" airways obstruction, neither atenolol nor exprenolol significantly affected airways resistance. 3 In patients with "labile" airways obstruction, atenolol did not produce a significant increase in airways obstruction, whereas oxprenolol did. 4 Following isoprenaline challenge (1500 microgram by inhalation), atenolol permitted full bronchodilatation, whereas oxprenolol almost completely blocked the action of isoprenaline. 5 Partial agonist activity appears to be of less clinical importance than cardioselectivity. PMID:339932

Perks, W H; Chatterjee, S S; Croxson, R S; Cruickshank, J M



Antihypertensive efficacy of zofenopril compared with atenolol in patients with mild to moderate hypertension.  


Two first-line antihypertensive therapies for initiating treatment in hypertension were compared, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) zofenopril and the beta-blocker atenolol. The study was multi-centre and double-blind, and included 304 middle-aged to elderly patients with mild to moderate hypertension who were randomized to receive either zofenopril 30-60 mg once daily (od) or atenolol 50-100 mg od for 4 weeks with the possibility to an up-titration in non-responding patients. The higher dose level was then administered until 12 weeks after randomization. Blood pressures (BPs) were substantially reduced by either treatment, but after 4 weeks, the systolic and diastolic BP reductions were significantly greater (p < 0.05) with zofenopril (-15.6/-13.5 mmHg) compared with atenolol (-13.1/-11.8 mmHg). After 12 weeks and the possibility of dose up-titration, BP differences between treatments were no longer significant. However, control rates (sitting diastolic BP < 90 mmHg) for zofenopril remained significantly higher compared with atenolol. The number of subjects with adverse drug reactions possibly or probably related to the study medication was 14 (9.1%) in the zofenopril group and 30 (20.8%) in the atenolol group (p = 0.008). It is concluded that zofenopril as well as atenolol induces substantial reductions of diastolic BP in middle-aged to elderly patients with hypertension. However, the control rate when initiating antihypertensive therapy with zofenopril is higher than that for atenolol. PMID:18046976

Nilsson, Peter



Cadralazine and chlorthalidone as a second-step drug with atenolol in hypertensive patients: Differences in blood pressure control during exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term efficacy of a new vasodilator, cadralazine (ISF 2469), and chlorthalidone have been compared in 20 hypertensive patients not adequately controlled by atenolol. After 4 weeks of treatment with atenolol 100 mg once daily, patients whose diastolic blood pressure was >95 mmHg were randomly divided into two groups to receive in addition to atenolol, either cadralazine 15 mg once

F. V. Costa; C. Borghi; A. Mussi; E. Ambrosioni



Depolarization-induced release of propranolol and atenolol from rat cortical synaptosomes.  

PubMed Central

The accumulation and release of [3H]-propranolol and [3H]-atenolol were examined in synaptosomes from rat cerebral cortex. Synaptosomes accumulated 20 pmol propranolol and 0.6 pmol atenolol mg-1 protein when incubated at 30 degrees C with radiolabelled drugs (0.1 microM). Exposure of propranolol-loaded synaptosomes to elevated K+, Rb+ or Cs+ evoked a concentration-dependent increase in propranolol efflux. The action of these ions in releasing propranolol was highly correlated with their ability to produce synaptosomal membrane depolarization, as estimated with the voltage-sensitive dye diS-C3-(5). Elevated K+ also promoted atenolol release from synaptosomes in a concentration-dependent manner. Veratridine (10 microM) released propranolol and atenolol from synaptosomes and these effects were antagonized by tetrodotoxin (1 microM). Under Ca2+-free conditions, K+-induced release of propranolol was reduced by 37% and atenolol release was diminished by 68%. The results support the concept that both polar and non-polar beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs may be accumulated by nerve endings for release by membrane depolarization and suggest that neural storage and release of these molecules may influence their concentrations at localized sites of action.

Bright, P. S.; Gaffney, T. E.; Street, J. A.; Webb, J. G.



Comparative effects of atenolol and cicloprolol on cardiac performance in coronary heart disease.  


Cicloprolol is a new cardioselective beta-blocking agent with partial agonist activity (intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, ISA). Its haemodynamic profile was compared with that of atenolol (cardioselective; no ISA) in a comparative dose-response study of 24 ischaemic patients with diminished cardiac reserve. Following a stable control period, equivalent intravenous (i.v.) beta-blocking boluses of atenolol (1, 1, 2, and 4 mg) or cicloprolol (0.025, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg) were randomly administered and haemodynamics and left ventricular ejection fraction were determined at rest and during bicycle exercise. At rest, atenolol reduced heart rate (HR) and cardiac index; diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and pulmonary artery occluded pressure (PAOP) increased without change in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Cicloprolol increased left ventricular ejection fraction, reduced its end-diastolic volume, and tended to reduce filling pressure without change in other variables. During exercise, atenolol reduced ejection fraction and increased SVRI; in contrast, cicloprolol did not significantly alter these parameters. Attenuation of exercise tachycardia and cardiac index increase was similar after each agent. Thus, the cardiac performance assessed from left ventricular stroke index or ejection fraction/filling pressure relationships was less depressed after cicloprolol as compared with atenolol. The relevance of such haemodynamic differences to exercise ability or quality of life during sustained therapy warrants examination. PMID:2468927

Silke, B; Verma, S P; Sharma, S K; Frais, M A; Reynolds, G; Taylor, S H



Relative activities of atenolol and metoprolol on the cardiovascular system of man.  


The effects or oral atenolol (100 mg once/day) and metoprolol (100 mg once/day, 100 mg twice/day and 300 mg once/day) have been compared with placebo on the heart rate and systolic blood pressure responses to exercise in 5 healthy volunteers. The drugs were given for 5 days in a double blind randomised fashion with each volunteer receiving each dose of drug. Measurements were made after the first dose on day 1 and after 5 days of dosing. The results on both heart rate and systolic blood pressure showed that overall (over a 24 h period) after acute (day 1) or after chronic (5 days) dosing, atenolol 100 mg once/day, metoprolol 100 mg twice/day and 300 mg once/day, were equivalent as beta-adrenoceptor blocking doses. Thus milligram for milligram atenolol and metoprolol do not produce equivalent blockade on the cardiovascular system of man. PMID:7308277

Harry, J D; Cruickshank, J M; Young, J; Barker, N



Simultaneous Determination of Losartan Potassium, Atenolol and Hydrochlorothiazide in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Stability-Indicating UPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stability-indicating UPLC method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of losartan potassium, atenolol,\\u000a and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of degradation products. The separation was achieved\\u000a on a simple isocratic method (water: acetonitrile: triethyl amine: ortho phosphoric acid (60:40:0.1:0.1, v\\/v) at 0.7 mL min?1, a detection wavelength of 225 nm). The retention times of losartan potassium, atenolol, and

D. Durga Rao; N. V. Satyanarayana; S. S. Sait; Y. Ramakoti Reddy; K. Mukkanti



Atenolol use is associated with long-term mortality in community-dwelling older adults with hypertension.  


AIM: The role of atenolol, a non-vasodilating beta-blocker drug, on long-term mortality in hypertensive older adults is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate long-term mortality in community-dwelling hypertensive older adults taking atenolol. METHODS: Long-term mortality after 12-year follow up in isolated hypertensive older adults (n?=?972) was analyzed. The patients were stratified in the presence and absence of atenolol use. Systolic, diastolic and pulse arterial pressure were measured. RESULTS: Older adults taking atenolol showed a greater mortality and higher pulse arterial pressure values than those not taking atenolol (73.9% vs 55.0%; P?=?0.047 and 74.7?±?14.1 vs 63.0?±?14.2?mmHg, P?atenolol use (hazard risk 1.91; 95% confidence interval 1.04-4.31; P?=?0.04) and pulse arterial pressure (hazard risk 1.02; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.03; P?=?0.032) were predictive of long-term mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Atenolol use was related to increased mortality in community-dwelling hypertensive Older adults. This increase in mortality risk seems to be related to an increase of pulse arterial pressure. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2013; ??: ??-??. PMID:23581644

Testa, Gianluca; Cacciatore, Francesco; Della-Morte, David; Mazzella, Francesca; Mastrobuoni, Chiara; Galizia, Gianluigi; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Rengo, Franco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale



Propranolol and atenolol inhibit norepinephrine spillover rate into plasma in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiotracer techniques capable of measuring norepinephrine clearance and spillover rate into plasma were used to test the hypothesis that the antihypertensive effects of propranolol and atenolol in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats are associated with an inhibition of norepinephrine release from postganglionic sympathetic neurons. The 10%–15% fall in mean arterial pressure produced over 4 h by propranolol (1, 3.3 and 10

T. Kent Keeton; Ana M. Biediger



Differential cardiovascular effects of propranolol, atenolol, and pindolol measured by impedance cardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated Sramek's method of impedance cardiography as a non-invasive way of detecting the cardiovascular effects of drugs. We made cardiovascular measurements using the method during passive tilting and exercise 2 h after the oral administration of atenolol (50 and 100 mg), propranolol (40 and 80 mg), pindolol (5 and 10 mg), and placebo in seven separate studies involving

S. H. L. Thomas; R. C. Cooper; M. Ekwuru; S. Fletcher; J. Gilbody; T. S. Husseyin; M. Ishaque; R. Jagathesan; G. Reddy; S. E. Smith



Comparison of the cardiovascular effects of nifedipine and nicardipine in the presence of atenolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A placebo controlled double blind crossover study was performed in 12 healthy volunteers to compare the cardiovascular effects of single oral doses of nifedipine (5, 10 and 15 mg) and nicardipine (20 and 30 mg) in the presence of atenolol 100 mg. Haemodynamic measurements were made by transthoracic electrical bioimpedance cardiography (TEBC) 2 h following drug administration during passive tilting,

S. H. L. Thomas



Effects of atenolol and pindolol on the hypokalaemic and cardiovascular responses to adrenaline infusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate if the intrinsic sympathomimetic activity of pindolol could modify its beta-blocking effects on the responses to an adrenaline infusion, 10 healthy volunteers were studied. At an interval of 1–4 weeks each subject received pindolol and atenolol in randomized order before the infusion of adrenaline 0.06 µg·kg-1·min-1.

K. Forfang; S. Simonsen



Spectroscopic and DFT study of atenolol and metoprolol and their copper complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IR, Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of atenolol (ATE) and metoprolol (MET) were recorded and assigned on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A reliable assignment of vibrational IR and Raman bands of the two compounds was possible by a proper choice of models used in quantum chemical calculations. Both molecules are adsorbed to the silver

O. Cozar; L. Szabó; I. B. Cozar; N. Leopold; L. David; C. Cainap; V. Chi?



Anxiolytic effects of acebutolol and atenolol in healthy volunteers with induced anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acebutolol (400 mg once daily), atenolol (100 mg once daily) and placebo were self administered to 12 healthy male volunteers in a double-blind crossover study. Each drug treatment was administered for 4 days so that subjects' plasma levels of the drug were at steady state. Subjects were tested on the 4th day. On each of the 3 test days subjects

S. G. Kilmittster; M. J. Lewis; D. M. Jones



Parameters of the respiratory system function in patients with essential hypertension treated with atenolol and lotrel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty patients were observed for the purpose of comparison the effect of ?1 adrenoblockers (?1 AB) and ACE inhibitors (ACE) on the state of the respiratory system function for the treatment of patients with essential hypertension (EH). Patients of the 1st group (26) took ATENOLOL (SANOFI) 25 mg twice a day, and patients of the 2nd group (24) took LOTREL

Ihor V. Melnytskyy; Victor K. Tashchuk; Larisa P. Sydorchuk



Determination of the beta-blocker atenolol in plasma by capillary zone electrophoresis.  


A capillary zone electrophoretic method was optimised for the determination of the beta-blocker atenolol in plasma. Separation was performed in an uncoated silica capillary of 58.5 cm (effective length 50 cm) x 75 microm I.D., and detection was at 194 nm. The effects of the buffer (concentration and pH), the injection time, the voltage applied and the plasma clean-up procedure were studied. The determination of atenolol was achieved in less than 3 min, using an electrolyte of 50 mM H3BO3-50 mM Na2B4O7 (50:50, v/v) pH 9, injected hydrodynamically for 4 s at 50 mbar and applying a voltage of +25 kV. This method was applied to the determination of atenolol in plasma of nine hypertensive patients (male and female, aged from 39 to 73 years). Atenolol concentrations found vary from 30 to 585 ng/ml. PMID:11382304

Arias, R; Jiménez, R M; Alonso, R M; Télez, M; Arrieta, I; Flores, P; Ortiz-Lastra, E



Immediate haemodynamic effects of propranolol, practolol, pindolol, atenolol and ICI 89,406 in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in cardiac output, heart rate and arterial blood pressure were determined in 31 healthy volunteers after i. v. administration of equipotent doses of five different adrenergic betareceptor blocking drugs. Propranolol was given to seven subjects, atenolol to five, practolol to seven, pindolol to five, and (a new drug) ICI 89,406 to seven. Each drug was given in six logarithmically

T. Lysbo Svendsen; O. Hartling; J. Trap-Jensen



Hydrochlorothiazide and Atenolol Combination Antihypertensive Therapy: Effects of Drug Initiation Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

For combination antihypertensive therapy with thiazide diuretics and ?-blockers, the effect of the order of initiation of the drugs on the outcome has not been tested. Patients with uncomplicated hypertension were randomized to receive either hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or atenolol monotherapy, followed by addition of the alternative drug. Blood pressure (BP) responses were evaluated by race and order of drug initiation.

J A Johnson; Y Gong; K R Bailey; R M Cooper-DeHoff; A B Chapman; S T Turner; G L Schwartz; K Campbell; S Schmidt; A L Beitelshees; E Boerwinkle; J G Gums



Cardiovascular effects of Atenolol, Scopolamine and their combination on healthy men in Finnish sauna baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicators of cardiovascular strain were studied in 12 healthy young men under the influence of drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system during the course of taking a sauna bath. There were four bath sessions: one without a drug (control) and three with drug pretreatment (Atenolol 50 mg or Scopolamine 0.3 mg or their combination taken orally 2 h before the

K. Kukkonen-Harjula; P. Oja; I. Vuori; M. Pasanen; K. Lange; S. Siitonen; T. Metsä-Ketelä; H. Vapaatalo




EPA Science Inventory

Atenolol is a beta-adrenoreceptor blocker used for treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. This study evaluates the reporting frequency of adverse pre- and postnatal outcomes in a series of 70 cases of maternal exposure during gestation, derived from 140 reports to FDA with Ateno...


Atenolol Induced HDL-C Change in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) Study  

PubMed Central

We sought to identify novel pharmacogenomic markers for HDL-C response to atenolol in participants with mild to moderate hypertension. We genotyped 768 hypertensive participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study on the Illumina HumanCVD Beadchip. During PEAR, participants were randomized to receive atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide. Blood pressure and cholesterol levels were evaluated at baseline and after treatment. This study focused on participants treated with atenolol monotherapy. Association with atenolol induced HDL-C change was evaluated in 232 whites and 152 African Americans using linear regression. No SNPs achieved a Bonferroni corrected P-value. However, we identified 13 regions with consistent association across whites and African Americans. The most interesting of these regions were seven with prior associations with HDL-C, other metabolic traits, or functional implications in the lipid pathway: GALNT2, FTO, ABCB1, LRP5, STARD3NL, ESR1, and LIPC. Examples are rs2144300 in GALNT2 in whites (P=2.29x10-4, ?=-1.85 mg/dL) and rs12595985 in FTO in African Americans (P=2.90x10-4, ?=4.52 mg/dL), both with consistent regional association (P<0.05) in the other race group. Additionally, baseline GALNT2 expression differed by rs2144300 genotype in whites (P=0.0279). In conclusion, we identified multiple gene regions associated with atenolol induced HDL-C change that were consistent across race groups, several with functional implications or prior associations with HDL-C.

McDonough, Caitrin W.; Gillis, Nancy K.; Alsultan, Abdullah; Chang, Shin-Wen; Kawaguchi-Suzuki, Marina; Lang, Jason E.; Shahin, Mohamed Hossam A.; Buford, Thomas W.; El Rouby, Nihal M.; Sa, Ana C.C.; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Gums, John G.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Turner, Stephen T.; Gong, Yan; Johnson, Julie A.



Differential actions of atenolol and celiprolol on cardiac performance in ischemic heart disease.  


The therapeutic relevance of differences between beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, related to their ancillary pharmacological properties, is debated. Celiprolol is a novel cardioselective beta-blocking agent with attributed cardio-stimulating properties. Its hemodynamic profile was compared with that of atenolol (cardioselective; no ISA) in a comparative dose-response study of 24 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Following a stable control period four i.v. boluses of equivalent beta-blocking doses of atenolol (1, 1, 2, and 4 mg) or celiprolol (1, 1, 2, and 4 mg) were administered, and hemodynamics and left ventricular ejection fraction were determined. The comparative actions of the two drugs on the hemodynamics of exercise-induced angina were compared by exercise testing in the control state and following the maximum cumulative dose of each drug. At rest, atenolol reduced heart rate, cardiac index, and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF); systemic vascular resistance index increased without change in systemic arterial or pulmonary artery occluded pressures. Celiprolol increased cardiac index and ejection fraction without change in other variables. During exercise both drugs reduced cardiac index and heart rate; neither altered the exercise EF. The cardiac function curve, relating cardiac index to left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, was significantly depressed by atenolol but was elevated at rest by celiprolol. Thus these studies demonstrated hemodynamic differences between atenolol and celiprolol, presumably related to the ancillary properties of the latter. The relevance of such differences to the therapy of patients with coronary artery disease deserves further examination. PMID:2427845

Silke, B; Verma, S P; Frais, M A; Reynolds, G; Taylor, S H



Acute and chronic haemodynamic and electrophysiological effects of nifedipine in patients receiving atenolol.  

PubMed Central

The action of nifedipine given first intravenously and then orally was studied in nine patients undergoing investigation for angina pectoris who were already receiving atenolol (100-200 mg/daily) and who had been shown to be fully beta blocked (reduction in maximal heart rate by greater than 25%). Intravenous nifedipine 7.5 micrograms/kg reduced both systolic blood pressure and left ventricular pressure (dP/dt) transiently; both values were significantly lower five and 10 minutes after the infusion of nifedipine but were not significantly different from control values at 20 minutes. There was minimal but pronounced depression of atrioventricular nodal function after giving intravenous nifedipine, though this was detected only when sensitive tests of atrioventricular nodal function were used. These effects were also transient, showing no significant change from control values at 20 minutes. Atrioventricular nodal conduction time and sinus rate were unchanged. Radionuclide angiography of patients taking the oral combination of atenolol and nifedipine for chronic angina showed no change in ejection fraction compared with those taking atenolol alone, but there was a small increase in peak ejection rate. Resting blood pressure and heart rate were unchanged and the PR interval did not lengthen. Peak heart rate and systolic blood pressure showed no alteration on exercise testing when the drugs were combined compared with the response with atenolol alone. Despite the negative inotropic influence when nifedipine was given intravenously, the absence of haemodynamic deterioration when oral nifedipine is combined with atenolol has confirmed that this combination can be used safely in patients with normal left ventricular function. The minimal changes in atrioventricular nodal function cannot be detected on the surface electrocardiogram and are not of clinical importance in patients with normal conduction.

Rowland, E; Razis, P; Sugrue, D; Krikler, D M



Atenolol Induced HDL-C Change in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) Study.  


We sought to identify novel pharmacogenomic markers for HDL-C response to atenolol in participants with mild to moderate hypertension. We genotyped 768 hypertensive participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study on the Illumina HumanCVD Beadchip. During PEAR, participants were randomized to receive atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide. Blood pressure and cholesterol levels were evaluated at baseline and after treatment. This study focused on participants treated with atenolol monotherapy. Association with atenolol induced HDL-C change was evaluated in 232 whites and 152 African Americans using linear regression. No SNPs achieved a Bonferroni corrected P-value. However, we identified 13 regions with consistent association across whites and African Americans. The most interesting of these regions were seven with prior associations with HDL-C, other metabolic traits, or functional implications in the lipid pathway: GALNT2, FTO, ABCB1, LRP5, STARD3NL, ESR1, and LIPC. Examples are rs2144300 in GALNT2 in whites (P=2.29x10(-4), ?=-1.85 mg/dL) and rs12595985 in FTO in African Americans (P=2.90x10(-4), ?=4.52 mg/dL), both with consistent regional association (P<0.05) in the other race group. Additionally, baseline GALNT2 expression differed by rs2144300 genotype in whites (P=0.0279). In conclusion, we identified multiple gene regions associated with atenolol induced HDL-C change that were consistent across race groups, several with functional implications or prior associations with HDL-C. PMID:24116192

McDonough, Caitrin W; Gillis, Nancy K; Alsultan, Abdullah; Chang, Shin-Wen; Kawaguchi-Suzuki, Marina; Lang, Jason E; Shahin, Mohamed Hossam A; Buford, Thomas W; El Rouby, Nihal M; Sá, Ana C C; Langaee, Taimour Y; Gums, John G; Chapman, Arlene B; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M; Turner, Stephen T; Gong, Yan; Johnson, Julie A



Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of atenolol in combination with losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide in bulk and tablet formulation  

PubMed Central

Aim: To develop a simple, accurate, rapid and precise UV spectrophotometric method for the estimation of atenolol in combination with losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide. Materials and Methods: The method employs formation and solving simultaneous equation using 251.60 nm and 224.20 nm for losartan potassium and atenolol, 224.20 and 271.60 for atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide as two analytical wavelengths, using methanol water as a solvent. Results and Conclusion: The linearity was observed in the concentration range of 5-30 µg/ml (r=0.9991) for losratan pottassium, 2 - 12 µg/ml (r = 0.9995) for atenolol and 2 - 14 µg/ml (r = 0.9993) for hydrochlorothiazide. The results of the method were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

Bari, Sanjay; Sathe, Shital; Jain, Pritam; Surana, Sanjay



Alterations in membrane phospholipid turnover, arachidonic acid liberation and thromboxane formation in isolated mast cells treated with propranolol and atenolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propranolol substantially changed32P redistribution in isolated mast cell membrane phospholipids by increasing the activity of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid and decreasing the activity of phosphatidylcholine. Atenolol failed to affect32P distribution. Both atenolol and propranolol decreased arachidonic acid liberation from membrane phospholipids of mast cells stimulated with compound 48\\/80 and concanavalin A plus phosphatidylserine. These findings confirmed the interaction of amphiphilic

R. Nosál; J. Pe?ivová; K. Drábiková



Simultaneous determination of atenolol and chlorthalidone in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography application to pharmacokinetic studies in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

An HPLC method developed to detect in a single run both atenolol and chlorthalidone, extracted from plasma, using two detectors (UV for chlorthalidone and fluorometric for atenolol) connected in series, is described. The drugs were separated on an ODS column at room temperature using a 0.05 M sodium dodecyl sulphate in phosphate buffer (pH 5.8)-n-propanol (95:5, v\\/v) solution, delivered at

Claudio Giachetti; Anna Tenconi; Sergio Canali; Giovanni Zanolo



The effects of orally administered atenolol on the coronary hemodynamics and prostaglandin metabolism in angina pectoris patients.  


The effects of oral atenolol on coronary hemodynamics and prostaglandin metabolism have been investigated in 8 chronic stable angina pectoris patients who underwent the supine bicycle ergometer. At rest, atenolol taken orally reduced the pressure-rate product significantly (P < 0.05) but did not significantly affect the coronary sinus blood flow or the coronary sinus pressure. During exercise, atenolol also reduced the pressure-rate product significantly (P < 0.05) but did not significantly affect the coronary sinus blood flow, the coronary sinus pressure, or the coronary vascular resistance. Atenolol also did not significantly affect the thromboxane B2/6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha ratio in the arterial blood before and after exercise but did reduce this ratio in the coronary sinus blood by 15% from 1.9 +/- 1.1 to 1.5 +/- 0.46 (P < 0.10) after exercise. These results indicate that atenolol taken orally does not significantly depress the coronary hemodynamics. However, the effects of atenolol on the prostaglandin metabolism could not be clearly determined. PMID:8129203

Kurita, A; Takase, B; Uehata, A; Nishioka, T; Satomura, K; Nagayoshi, H; Mizuno, K



Blood pressure, heart rate and A-V conduction responses to nicardipine in hypertensive patients receiving atenolol.  


The antihypertensive effect of the combined use of the new calcium channel blocker nicardipine and atenolol was assessed in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving twenty hypertensive patients. Atenolol 100 mg once daily was given to all patients. In addition, either placebo or nicardipine, in increasing doses (5-20 mg three times daily), was allocated randomly to the patients. Compared with placebo, nicardipine had an additional dose-dependent, blood-pressure-lowering effect in the hypertensive patients who had been pretreated with atenolol. An increase in the heart rate was not observed, suggesting that atenolol prevented reflex activation of sympathetic nerve tone caused by the vasodilating properties of nicardipine. The combination of both atenolol and nicardipine was well tolerated by all patients; side effects were minor and did not cause discontinuation of the treatment. No effects on A-V conduction were observed. It is concluded that the combined administration of nicardipine and atenolol is a useful treatment for hypertension that is well accepted by the patients. PMID:4027146

Kolloch, R; Stumpe, K O; Overlack, A



Determination of atenolol in human plasma by HPLC with fluorescence detection: validation and application in a pharmacokinetic study.  


Atenolol is a cardioselective ?1-adrenergic blocker widely used for the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris and cardiac arrhythmias. A simple, specific, sensitive, precise and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection has been developed and validated for the determination of atenolol in human plasma. After addition of the internal standard, the analytes were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. The calibration graph for atenolol was linear in a 10-1,000 ng/mL concentration range (r > 0.999), using 0.5-mL plasma samples. The assay precision of the method was less than 6.4%, the assay accuracy ranged between 99.6% and 101.6%, and the absolute recovery of atenolol and internal standard was better than 66.1% and 76.2%, respectively. The method was found to be suitable for the quantification of atenolol in a pharmacokinetic study after a single oral administration of 100 mg atenolol to 18 healthy subjects. PMID:22729617

Spanakis, Marios; Niopas, Ioannis



Circulatory Effects of Intravenous and Oral Atenolol in Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemodynamic dose-response effects of intravenous (0.05 and 0.10 mg\\/kg) and oral (50 and 100 mg) atenolol were compared in a randomized between-group study of 24 men within seventeen hours of an acute uncompli cated myocardial infarction; 6 subjects were evaluated in each of the four groups. Hemodynamic variables were determined over a one-hour control per iod, following which the

K. Midtbø; B. Silke; S. P. Verma; G. W. Reynolds; M. Hafizullah; S. H. Taylor



Design and Characterization of Atenolol Transdermal Therapeutic Systems: Enhancement of Permeability via Iontophoresis.  


The aim of the present investigation was to improve the permeation of Atenolol by preparing a transdermal patch and using the method of iontophoresis. Influence of chemical penetration enhancers was also studied. Combination of iontophoresis and chemical penetration enhancer d-limonene and oleic acid produced satisfactory permeation and flux. The electrically driven penetration enhancement provided by this method has succeeded in overcoming the formidable barrier presented by the stratum corneum, and has shown to be a promising technique for the transport of hydrophilic drug Atenolol from polymeric films. Atenolol is a water-soluble, ionizable drug and suffers from poor bioavailability when given by oral route due to its incomplete intestinal absorption and first-pass metabolism. Being a BCS class III drug, Atenolol has low log P (0.23) value, which also may be the reason for its poor intestinal absorption. Iontophoretic delivery using Ag/AgCl electrodes with current density of 0.35 mA/cm(2) enhances its delivery rate and thereby overcomes the problem of incomplete absorption. The prepared transdermal patches were subjected to ex vivo drug permeation studies using rat skin in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for 24 h (passive and iontophoresis), and samples collected were analyzed by gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography. The column used was chiral alpha-glycoprotein (AGP) column (10 cm, particle size 5?) and UV-detection at 225 nm was used. The effectiveness of permeation enhancers (d-Limonene and oleic acid) was determined by comparing drug flux in the presence and absence of each enhancer. Combination strategies of iontophoresis with chemical enhancers like oleic acid led to the significantly higher flux levels compared with passive transdermal delivery. PMID:22767881

Keerthi, Harika; Panakanti, Pavan Kumar; Yamsani, Madhusudan Rao


Effect of atenolol and diltiazem on heart period variability in normal persons.  


Several time and frequency domain measures of heart period variability are reduced 1 to 2 weeks after myocardial infarction, and a reduced standard deviation of normal RR intervals over a 24 h period (SDNN) is associated with increased mortality. The predictive accuracy of heart period variability may be reduced by drugs used to treat patients after myocardial infarction. Accordingly, a randomized, three period, placebo-controlled, crossover (Latin square) design was used to determine the effect of atenolol and diltiazem on time and frequency measures of heart period variability calculated from 24 h continuous electrocardiographic recordings during treatment with atenolol, diltiazem and placebo in 18 normal volunteers. During atenolol treatment, the 24 h average normal RR (NN) interval increased 24% (p less than 0.001). The three measures of tonic vagal activity were significantly increased (p less than 0.001) during atenolol treatment: percent of successive normal RR intervals greater than 50 ms = 69%, root mean square successive difference of normal RR intervals = 61% and high frequency power in the heart period power spectrum = 84%. Low frequency power also increased 45% (p less than 0.01), indicating that this variable also is an indicator of tonic vagal activity over 24 h. Diltiazem had no significant effect on the 24 h average NN interval or on any measure of heart period variability. The decreased mortality rate after myocardial infarction associated with beta-adrenergic blocker but not calcium channel blocker therapy may be attributed in part to an increase in vagal tone caused by beta-blockers. PMID:1991906

Cook, J R; Bigger, J T; Kleiger, R E; Fleiss, J L; Steinman, R C; Rolnitzky, L M



Determination of Atenolol Combinations with Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorthalidone in Tablet Formulations by Reverse-Phase HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance liquid chromatographic procedure is presented for the simultaneous determination of atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide, and chlorthalidone in pharmaceutical tablets combinations. An aliquot of the sample is dissolved in methanol containing methyl p-hydroxybenzoate as an internal standard and chromatographed on a supelcosil (5 um) LC-8-DB (250mm × 4.6mm i.d.) column using a mobile phase of 1.0 mm ammonium acetate and

S. I. Sa'sa; I. M. Jalal; H. S. Khalil



HPLC and chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of atenolol, amiloride hydrochloride and chlorthalidone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three methods are presented for the simultaneous determination of atenolol (AT), amiloride hydrochloride (AM) and chlorthalidone (CD). The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method depends on the separation of each drug on a reversed phase, RP 18 column. Elution was carried out with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile -5mM heptansulphonic acid sodium salt (20:80, v\\/v, pH 4.4). Quantitation was achieved

Alaa El-Gindy; Samy Emara; Ahmed Mostafa



Photodegradation kinetics and transformation products of ketoprofen, diclofenac and atenolol in pure water and treated wastewater.  


Pharmaceutical compounds such as ketoprofen, diclofenac and atenolol are frequently detected at relatively high concentrations in secondary effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, it is important to assess their transformation kinetics and intermediates in subsequent disinfection processes, such as direct ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The photodegradation kinetics of these compounds using a medium pressure (MP) lamp was assessed in pure water, as well as in filtered and unfiltered treated wastewater. Ketoprofen had the highest time- and fluence-based rate constants in all experiments, whereas atenolol had the lowest values, which is consistent with the corresponding decadic molar absorption coefficient and quantum yield. The fluence-based rate constants of all compounds were evaluated in filtered and unfiltered wastewater matrices as well as in pure water. Furthermore, transformation products of ketoprofen, diclofenac and atenolol were identified and monitored throughout the irradiation experiments, and photodegradation pathways were proposed for each compound. This enabled the identification of persistent transformation products, which are potentially discharged from WWTP disinfection works employing UV photolysis. PMID:23177274

Salgado, R; Pereira, V J; Carvalho, G; Soeiro, R; Gaffney, V; Almeida, C; Vale Cardoso, V; Ferreira, E; Benoliel, M J; Ternes, T A; Oehmen, A; Reis, M A M; Noronha, J P



Cardiovascular effects of dl-nebivolol and its enantiomers--a comparison with those of atenolol.  


In the present study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of dl-nebivolol, a newly synthetized, chemically novel, beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist and its enantiomers, d-nebivolol (SRRR) and l-nebivolol (RSSS), in closed-chest anesthetized dogs, using atenolol as a reference substance. Results from preliminary studies in vitro indicate that d-nebivolol is the beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist and that l-nebivolol is practically devoid of beta-adrenoceptor-blocking properties. Unlike atenolol, dl-nebivolol does not depress left ventricular function and slightly, but significantly, reduces peripheral vascular resistance over the dose range from 0.0025 to 0.04 i.v. These observations are likely to be clinically relevant because one daily oral dose of 5 mg dl-nebivolol effectively lowers arterial blood pressure in patients with hypertension. The favorable hemodynamic profile of dl-nebivolol can be ascribed to the l-enantiomer because the cardiovascular effects of this enantiomer are similar to those of the racemate. The cardiovascular profile of the d-enantiomer is similar to that of atenolol, albeit that its depressant effect on left ventricular function occurs at higher doses. PMID:3208842

Van de Water, A; Xhonneux, R; Reneman, R S; Janssen, P A



Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol using simplex design method  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the present study, mucoadhesive buccal bilayer tablets of atenolol were fabricated with the objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency. Hence, the aim of this work was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion. Materials and Methods: Bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol were prepared by direct compression method using simplex method of optimization to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (X1), Carbopol (X2) and mannitol (X3); the in vitro drug release (Y1) and mucoadhesive strength (Y2) were taken as responses. The designed tablets were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters like drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, short-term stability, and drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). Results: The formulation C containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (10% w/w of matrix layer), Carbopol 934p (10% w/w of matrix layer) and mannitol (channeling agent, 40% w/w of matrix layer) was found to be promising. This formulation exhibited an in vitro drug release of 89.43% in 9 h along with satisfactory bioadhesion strength (7.20 g). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution characteristics (P<0.05). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions.

Shirsand, SB; Suresh, Sarasija; Keshavshetti, GG; Swamy, PV; Reddy, P Vijay Prakash



Study of polymorphism of Atenolol and Captopril antihypertensives using x-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of bulk drugs has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. X-ray powder diffractometry is an effective technique for the identification of crystalline solid-phase drugs. The technique is unique, since it combines specificity with a high degree of accuracy for the characterization of pharmaceuticals in solid state and is an especially useful method to describe the possible polymorphic behavior of drugs substances. In this work X-ray diffraction data have been obtained for two well-known antihypertensive drugs currently being administered in tablet form. They include atenolol and captopril. Atenolol and captopril were purchased from drugstore. The characterizations of the atenolol and captopril samples were carried out by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).

Sato, Juliana; Ferreira, Fabio



Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric differentiation of atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, and an interfering metabolite product of metoprolol.  


Over a 10-year period, 1993-2002, Federal Aviation Administration identified 50 pilot fatalities involving atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol, which is consistent with the fact that these drugs have been in the lists of the top 200 drugs prescribed in the U.S. In a few of the 50 pilot fatality cases, initial analysis suggested the presence of atenolol and metoprolol. However, there was no medical history with these cases supporting the use of both drugs. Therefore, atenolol, metoprolol, and/or propranolol, with their possible metabolite(s), were re-extracted from the selected case specimens, derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA), and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The MS spectra of these three antihypertensives and a metoprolol metabolite are nearly identical. All of the PFPA derivatives had baseline GC separation, with the exception of a metoprolol metabolite product, which co-eluted with atenolol. There were four primary mass fragments (m/z 408, 366, 202, and 176) found with all of the PFPA-beta-blockers and with the interfering metabolite product. However, atenolol has three unique fragments (m/z 244, 172, and 132), metoprolol has two unique fragments (m/z 559 and 107), propranolol has four unique fragments (m/z 551, 183, 144, and 127), and the metoprolol metabolite product has two unique fragments (m/z 557 and 149). These distinctive fragments were further validated by using a computer program that predicts logical mass fragments and performing GC-MS of deuterated PFPA-atenolol and PFPA-propranolol and of the PFPA-alpha-hydroxy metabolite of metoprolol. By using the unique mass fragments, none of the pilot fatality cases were found to contain more than one beta-blocker. Therefore, these mass ions can be used for differentiating and simultaneously analyzing these structurally similar beta-blockers in biological samples. PMID:16168172

Angier, Mike K; Lewis, Russell J; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Canfield, Dennis V



Renin inhibition by aliskiren prevents atherosclerosis progression: comparison with irbesartan, atenolol, and amlodipine.  


Hypertension is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Antihypertensive treatment, particularly blockade of the renin-angiotensin system, contributes to prevent atherosclerosis-mediated cardiovascular events. Direct comparison of different antihypertensive treatments on atherosclerosis and particularly plaque stabilization is sparse. ApoE(-/-) mice with vulnerable (2-kidney, 1-clip renovascular hypertension model) or stable (1-kidney, 1-clip renovascular hypertension model) atherosclerotic plaques were used. Mice were treated with aliskiren (renin inhibitor), irbesartan (angiotensin-receptor blocker), atenolol (beta-blocker), or amlodipine (calcium channel blocker). Atherosclerosis characteristics were assessed. Hemodynamic and hormonal parameters were measured. Aliskiren and irbesartan significantly prevented atherosclerosis progression in 2-kidney, 1-clip mice. Indeed, compared with untreated animals, plaques showed thinner fibrous cap (P<0.05); smaller lipid core (P<0.05); decreased media degeneration, layering, and macrophage content (P<0.05); and increased smooth muscle cell content (P<0.05). Interestingly, aliskiren significantly increased the smooth muscle cell compared with irbesartan. Despite similar blood pressure lowering, only partial plaque stabilization was attained by atenolol and amlodipine. Amlodipine increased plaque smooth muscle cell content (P<0.05), whereas atenolol decreased plaque inflammation (P<0.05). This divergent effect was also observed in 1-kidney, 1-clip mice. Normalizing blood pressure by irbesartan increased the plasma renin concentration (5932+/-1512 ng/mL per hour) more than normalizing it by aliskiren (16085+/-5628 ng/mL per hour). Specific renin-angiotensin system blockade prevents atherosclerosis progression. First, evidence is provided that direct renin inhibition mediates atherosclerotic plaque stabilization. In contrast, beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker treatment only partially stabilize plaques differently influencing atherogenesis. Angiotensin II decisively mediates plaque vulnerability. The plasma renin concentration measurement by an indirect method did not confirm the excessive increase of plasma renin concentration reported in the literature during aliskiren compared with irbesartan or amlodipine treatment. PMID:18391092

Nussberger, Jürg; Aubert, Jean-François; Bouzourene, Karima; Pellegrin, Maxime; Hayoz, Daniel; Mazzolai, Lucia



Comparison of quinapril and atenolol as single drugs or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide in moderate to severe hypertensives, using automated ambulatory monitoring.  

PubMed Central

1. Forty patients with moderate to severe hypertension and daytime ambulatory diastolic blood pressure > or = 90 mm Hg were randomized double-blind to once-daily treatment with either quinapril up to 20 mg (n = 20) or atenolol up to 100 mg (n = 20) as single drugs or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg over a period of 12 weeks. 2. Conventional and ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, side effects and metabolic changes were compared at the end of the run-in period on placebo, after 4 weeks on monotherapy and at the end of the 12-week period of active treatment. 3. Quinapril and atenolol reduced conventional blood pressure equally with substantial additional effect seen on combination therapy. The two regimens induced a significant decrease in ambulatory BP. However, the atenolol treated ambulatory hypertensive group experienced significantly greater decreases in diastolic blood pressure during 24 h, awake and sleep periods than did the quinapril group. 4. Adverse reactions were mild with both drugs except for severe Raynaud phenomenon in one patient in the atenolol group. Triglyceride levels were significantly increased with atenolol alone and in combination with hydrochlorothiazide. 5. Thus, within the limits of the dose ranges tested, quinapril and atenolol as single drugs or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide reduce significantly conventional and ambulatory blood pressure in moderate to severe hypertensives, but atenolol is more effective in reducing ambulatory diastolic blood pressure.

Lacourciere, Y; Lefebvre, J; Provencher, P; Poirier, L



A comparison of once and twice daily atenolol for angina pectoris.  


We have studied the effects of four doses of atenolol in 11 patients with stable angina pectoris using a symptom-limited exercise test and angina diaries. The doses 100 mg twice daily and 50 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg once daily were given double-blind and randomised within patients following run-in on placebo. Measurements were made 12 hours after the last twice daily dose and 24 hours after the last once daily dose. Exercise tolerance was improved by 40-74% and exercise duration before the onset of angina by 61-94% (P less than 0.01). Maximal heart rate was reduced further by a total daily dose of 200 mg than by lower doses, but no extra benefit was derived by giving the drug twice daily. The largest increase in exercise tolerance was obtained during treatment with 50 mg once daily. Atenolol was shown to be an effective anti-anginal agent when given once daily, and there were no major differences between the doses studied. PMID:6343259

Boyle, R M; Bray, C L; Naqvi, N; Croxson, R S; Cruickshank, J M



Formulation and in vitro evaluation of prolonged release floating microspheres of atenolol using multicompartment dissolution apparatus.  


The aim of the present work was to prepare floating microspheres of atenolol as prolonged release multiparticulate system and evaluate it using novel multi-compartment dissolution apparatus. Atenolol loaded floating microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method using 3(2) full factorial design. Formulations F1 to F9 were prepared using two independent variables (polymer ratio and % polyvinyl alcohol) and evaluated for dependent variables (particle size, percentage drug entrapment efficiency and percentage buoyancy). The formulation(F8) with particle size of 329?±?2.69 µm, percentage entrapment efficiency of 61.33% and percentage buoyancy of 96.33% for 12?h was the of optimized formulation (F8). The results of factorial design revealed that the independent variables significantly affected the particle size, percentage drug entrapment efficiency and percentage buoyancy of the microspheres. In vitro drug release study revealed zero order release from F8 (98.33% in 12?h). SEM revealed the hollow cavity and smooth surface of the hollow microspheres. PMID:23062186

Bhadouriya, Priyanka; Kumar, Manish; Pathak, Kamla



Comparison of Atenolol, Amlodipine, Enalapril, Hydrochlorothiazide, and Losartan for Antihypertensive Treatment in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effects of atenolol (50 mg), amlodipine (5 mg), enalapril (20 mg), hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg), and losartan (50 mg) given in once-daily oral doses on office and ambulatory blood pressures (BPs) in patients with hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Each of 40 randomized patients was treated in se- quence with two of the five agents (balanced incomplete




Amlodipine Versus Diltiazem as Additional Antianginal Treatment to Atenolol fn1 fn1 This study was sponsored by a grant from Pfizer Ltd, Sandwich, Kent, United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antianginal efficacy and tolerability of amlodipine and diltiazem were compared in a double-blind randomized trial of 97 patients with angina resistant to atenolol alone. Both amlodipine and diltiazem significantly reduced the frequency of angina attacks (p

Charles J. Knight; Kim M. Fox



HPLC and chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of atenolol, amiloride hydrochloride and chlorthalidone.  


Three methods are presented for the simultaneous determination of atenolol (AT), amiloride hydrochloride (AM) and chlorthalidone (CD). The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method depends on the separation of each drug on a reversed phase, RP (18) column. Elution was carried out with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile -5mM heptansulphonic acid sodium salt (20:80, v/v, pH 4.4). Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 274 nm based on peak area. The other two-chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods applied were principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS-1). These approaches were successfully applied to quantify each drug in the mixture using the information included in the absorption spectra of appropriate solutions in the range 240-290 nm with the intervals Deltalambda=0.2 nm. The three methods were successfully applied to a pharmaceutical formulation (tablets), and the results were compared with each other. PMID:15784248

El-Gindy, Alaa; Emara, Samy; Mostafa, Ahmed



Simultaneous spectrophotometric estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide, Atenolol and Losartan potassium in tablet dosage form.  


Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide (Hctz), Atenolol (Atn) and Losartan potassium (Los) in combined tablet dosage forms. The first method involves determination using the simultaneous equation method, the sampling wavelengths selected are, 272.5 nm, 224 nm and 250 nm over the concentration ranges of 0.5-30 microg/ml, 1-50 microg/ ml and 1-60 microg/ml for Hctz, Atn and Los respectively. The second method is the First order derivative method, the sampling wavelengths selected for estimation of Hctz, Atn and Los are 280.5 nm, 233 nm and 244 nm with linearity in the concentration ranges of 0.5-30 microg/ ml, 1-50 microg/ml and 1-60 microg/ml respectively. The results of the analysis were validated statistically and recovery studies were carried out as per ICH guidelines. PMID:21268558

Thomas, Asha B; Chavan, Umesh B; Nanda, Rabindra K; Kothapalli, Lata P; Deshpande, Avinash D; Jagdale, Sheetal N; Dighe, Shweta B



Electrochemical investigation of atenolol oxidation and detection by using a multicomponent nanostructural assembly of amino acids and gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel nanostructured assembly based on poly(glutamic) acid/cysteine/gold nanoparticles was designed to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and used to study the atenolol oxidation. The GCE surface was initially covered by poly(glutamic) acid/cysteine layers followed by covalent attachment of citrate-capped 40 nm-AuNPs. The system excellent electrochemical performance was tested by Linear Sweep Voltammetry and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and allowed the detection of an atenolol oxidation peak (around +0.65 V/SCE) with a detection limit of 3.9 × 10 -7 M. Such findings could be incorporated in highly sensitive detection technologies of various biological or chemical compounds and molecules.

Pruneanu, Stela; Pogacean, Florina; Grosan, Camelia; Pica, Elena Maria; Bolundut, Liviu Calin; Biris, Alexandru Sorin



Association of an oral formulation of angiotensin-(1-7) with atenolol improves lipid metabolism in hypertensive rats.  


The ?-adrenergic blockers and antagonists of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are among the drugs that present better results in the control of cardio-metabolic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the association of the ?-blocker, atenolol, and an oral formulation of Ang-(1-7) on lipid metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The main results showed that SHR treated with oral formulation of Ang-(1-7) in combination to atenolol have an improvement of lipid metabolism with a reduction of total plasma cholesterol, improvement of oral fat load tolerance and an increase in the lipolytic response stimulated by the ?-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, without modification of resting glucose or insulin sensitivity in adipocytes. In conclusion, we showed that administration of an Ang-(1-7) oral formulation in association with a ?-blocker induces beneficial effects on dyslipidemia treatment associated with hypertension. PMID:23517878

Santos, Cynthia F F; Santos, Sérgio H S; Ferreira, Adaliene V M; Botion, Leida M; Santos, Robson A S; Campagnole-Santos, Maria Jose



Spectroscopic investigations and crystal structure from synchrotron powder data of the inclusion complex of ?-cyclodextrin with atenolol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusion complexes of atenolol with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) in aqueous solution have been investigated with 1H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of this inclusion complex was established to be equimolar (1:1) and its stability constant was determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the ?-CD-atenolol (1:1) inclusion compound has been solved from synchrotron powder diffraction data using direct-space search techniques. The crystal structure model and 1H NMR data are in good agreement and, with support of Hyperchem MM+ molecular dynamics results, suggest which protons are likely to be involved in the inclusion process that leads to the supramolecular architecture of this guest-host complex.

Borodi, Gheorghe; Bratu, Ioan; Dragan, Felicia; Peschar, René; Helmholdt, Robert B.; Hernanz, Antonio



Photoreactivity of hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and its effects on the photodegradation of atenolol in water.  


In spite of the increasing concerns about the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and the nanomaterial pollution in aquatic ecosystem, the effects of carbon nanotubes on the photochemical transformation of PPCPs are less considered. In this study, the photochemical production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined in colloidal dispersions of hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT-OH) under simulated solar irradiation using a Xenon lamp. Two kinds of ROS, (1)O2 and OH, were confirmed by their molecular probes, furfuryl alcohol (FFA) and p-chlorobenzoic acid (PCBA). The steady-state concentrations of (1)O2 and OH were calculated as 1.30×10(-14)M and 5.02×10(-16)M, respectively. The effects of MWNT-OH on photodegradation of atenolol (ATL) were investigated in the presence of natural water components, i.e., dissolved organic matters (DOMs), nitrate (NO3(-)) and ferric ions (Fe(3+)). Photoproducts of atenolol were identified by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS) analysis techniques. Three potential photochemical pathways of atenolol, including the hydroxylation on aromatic ring, the loss of amide group and the cleavage of ether oxygen bond as well as di-polymerization of reaction intermediates were tentatively proposed. Using the radical quenching method, reaction with OH was determined as the major photolysis pathway of atenolol in irradiated MWNT-OH suspensions. These findings of the production of ROS and their effects on the photodegradation of organic contaminants provided useful information for assessing environmental risk of MWNT-OH. PMID:23816450

Zhang, Ya; Zhou, Lei; Zeng, Chao; Wang, Qi; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang; Ji, Yuefei; Yang, Xi



Cognitive effects of ?-adrenergic antagonists after single doses: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propranolol, atenolol, lorazepam, and placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioral effects of two ?-adrenergic receptor antagonists, selected to represent differing lipophilicity, were evaluated in a double-blind, single-dose, parallel-group study. A group of 55 healthy volunteers (mean age, 28 years) received single oral doses of placebo, atenolol (50 mg), propranolol (40 mg), or lorazepam (2 mg). Plasma drug concentrations, self-ratings of sedation and mood, observer ratings of sedation, and

David J Greenblatt; Joseph M Scavone; Jerold S Harmatz; Nina Engelhardt; Richard I Shader



Cardioselective beta-blockade with atenolol and acebutolol following acute myocardial infarction: a multiple-dose haemodynamic comparison.  


In patients with acute myocardial infarction the haemodynamic relevance of the ancillary pharmacological properties of cardioselectivity and of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) possessed by beta-blocking drugs is unclear. The dose-response effects of atenolol and acebutolol, two cardioselective compounds, the latter also possessing a degree of ISA, were therefore compared in a single-blind, dose-response, crossover study in patients within 18 h of suffering an uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. The logarithmic cumulative dosage schedule achieved plasma concentrations in the clinical therapeutic ranges for both atenolol (0.05 +/- 0.04-0.19 +/- 0.03 micrograms/ml) and acebutolol (0.22 +/- 0.14-0.8 +/- 0.29 micrograms/ml). Incremental doses of intravenous atenolol (cumulative, 1-8 mg) resulted in significant decreases in systolic blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, and stroke work index (p less than 0.01 for each). Pulmonary artery occluded pressure (p less than 0.05) and systemic vascular resistance (p less than 0.01) increased. Incremental doses of intravenous acebutolol (cumulative, 10-80 mg) also resulted in significant decreases in systolic blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, and stroke work index (p less than 0.01 for each). Systemic vascular resistance increased (p less than 0.01); there was no consistent change in the pulmonary artery occluded pressure. Within the limits of the experimental protocol, the additional property of ISA possessed by acebutolol resulted in no statistically significant haemodynamic differences from atenolol. This may reflect either an insufficient degree of ISA possessed by acebutolol to confirm the original hypothesis, or its haemodynamic irrelevance in the presence of the increased sympathetic tone that is frequently present following acute myocardial infarction. PMID:2580155

Frais, M A; Silke, B; Ahuja, R C; Verma, S P; Nelson, G I; Taylor, S H


An open label, randomised, crossover study comparing sotalol and atenolol in the treatment of symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo compare sotalol and atenolol in the treatment of symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.DESIGNProspective, randomised, open label, crossover study.SETTINGUniversity hospital.PATIENTS47 subjects aged over 50 years were recruited from the hospital outpatient department following ECG documentation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation that coincided with symptoms. Six patients withdrew and 41 completed the trial.INTERVENTIONSPatients were randomised to one month’s treatment with sotalol 80 mg

R P Steeds; A S Birchall; M Smith; K S Channer



Twenty-four hour effects of oxprenolol oros and atenolol on heart rate, blood pressure, exercise tolerance and perceived exertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of oxprenolol, a non-selective beta-blocker with moderate intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), given by the Oros delivery system, on resting and exercise heart rate and blood pressure have been compared over a 24-h period with those of atenolol, a beta1-selective blocker without ISA. The effects on maximal and submaximal exercise tolerance and perceived exertion were studied in relation to

M. A. van Baak; F. T. J. Verstappen; B. Oosterhuis



Chemometrics-assisted simultaneous determination of atenolol and chlorthalidone in synthetic binary mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resolution of binary mixtures of atenolol (ATE) and chlorthalidone (CTD) with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved, using a new and rapid method based on partial least squares (PLS1) analysis of UV spectral data. The simultaneous determination of both analytes was possible by PLS1 processing of sample absorbances between 255 and 300 nm for ATE and

Mónica C. F. Ferraro; Patricia M. Castellano; Teodoro S. Kaufman



Effects of antihypertensive drugs atenolol and nifedipine on sexual function in older men: A placebo-controlled, crossover study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the adverse sexual effects of two antihypertensive drugs, atenolol and slow-release nifedipine, in a placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study. Subjects were 16 older men (mean age = 66.6 years, SEM = 1.4) with mild to moderate hypertension. Subjects completed daily self-reports on 13 measures of sexuality: frequency of desire, coitus, noncoital partner sex, masturbation, morning erections, spontaneous erections, orgasms in

Diane L. Morrissette; Michael H. Skinner; Brian B. Hoffman; Roger E. Levine; Julian M. Davidson



Preparation, in-vitro and in-vivo characterization of transdermal patch containing glibenclamide and atenolol: a combinational approach.  


A novel aspiration in treatment of chronic disease like diabetes associated with other non communicable disease risk factors, such as hypertension is to provide greater therapeutic effect, overcome the side effects by complex therapeutic regimen and to improve patient compliance upon administering combinational transdermal delivery of Glibenclamide (G) and Atenolol (A) which have not been tested literally. Hence, the present study was designed to develop a transdermal patch containing Glibenclamide and Atenolol using blends of different polymeric combinations such as Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), Poly vinyl pyrolidone (PVP) and Carbopol (CP). The patches were subjected to physicochemical parameters, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release and in-vitro skin permeation studies. Good results were obtained in all the evaluated parameters. The drug release of all formulation follows zero order kinetics by diffusion mechanism of non fickian diffusion type. In-vitro transdermal permeation studies by using rat & goat skin and finally in-vivo studies by using rabbits were carried out for the optimized formulation (GA4 HPMC 1%, PVP 0.5%, CP 0.5%). The developed transdermal delivery system containing Glibenclamide & Atenolol might be a milestone in the combinational therapy of diabetes and hypertension. PMID:21454164

Anitha, Posina; Ramkanth, Sundarapandiyan; Saleem, Mohamed T S; Umasankari, Kommireddy; Reddy, Boddu Praveen; Chetty, Madhusudhana



A Stability-indicating High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Assay for the Simultaneous Determination of Atenolol and Lercanidipine Hydrochloride in Tablets  

PubMed Central

A simple, rapid, precise and accurate isocratic reversed phase stability indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of atenolol and lercanidipine hydrochloride in commercial tablets. The chromatographic separation was achieved on phenomenex Gemini C18 (250×4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and buffer (20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate pH 3.5) in the ratio of (55:45, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 235 nm. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 40-160 ?g/ml (r2=0.9995) for atenolol and 8-32 ?g/ml (r2=0.9993) for lercanidipine. Degradation products produced as a result of stress studies did not interfere with the detection of atenolol and lercanidipine and the assay can thus be considered stability-indicating.

Kaila, H. O.; Ambasana, M. A.; Thakkar, R. S.; Saravaia, H. T.; Shah, A. K.



Effects of atenolol, slow-release nifedipine, and their combination on respiratory gas exchange and exercise tolerance in stable effort angina.  


The effects of atenolol, nifedipine, and their combination on gas exchange and exercise tolerance were studied in 27 patients with effort angina and normal global ventricular function in an open-label and randomized cross-over trial. Symptom-limited semi-supine exercise tests using a ramp protocol (20 W/min) with simultaneous breath-by-breath analysis of gas exchange were carried out after a 4-day wash-out period and after consecutive 2-week treatment periods with atenolol (50 mg b.i.d.), slow-release nifedipine (20 mg b.i.d.), and their combination (b.i.d.). Exercise tolerance was not significantly higher with atenolol than with nifedipine [118(24) vs 113(23) W]. Combination therapy [120(23) W] was more effective than monotherapy with nifedipine (p less than 0.05) but produced no further increase in exercise tolerance over atenolol monotherapy. Maximum oxygen uptake was not significantly different among the treatments. In the range of light to moderate exercise, the slope of the VO2-workload regression line expressed as ml.min-1.W-1 was lower with atenolol than with nifedipine [8.64(1.59) vs 10.28(1.74), p less than 0.005] and intermediate with combination therapy [9.99(1.83)]. The intercept on the VO2 axis was higher with atenolol than with nifedipine [366(111) vs 299(113) ml.min-1, p less than 0.05]. A similar pattern of results was seen when the drug effects on the slope of the VCO2-workload relation were analyzed. VE was higher with nifedipine than with atenolol at all points of the regression analysis [greater than 30 W].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1749203

Wieshammer, S; Hetzel, M; Barnikel, U; Höher, M; Seibold, H; Kochs, M; Hombach, V



Mechanism-based pharmacodynamic modeling of S(-)-atenolol: estimation of in vivo affinity for the beta1-adrenoceptor with an agonist-antagonist interaction model.  


The aim of this study was the development of an agonist-antagonist interaction model to estimate the in vivo affinity of S(-)-atenolol for the beta(1)-adrenoreceptor. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used to characterize the interaction between the model drugs isoprenaline (to induce tachycardia) and S(-)-atenolol. Blood samples were taken to determine plasma pharmacokinetics. Reduction of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia was used as a pharmacodynamic endpoint. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of isoprenaline was first characterized with the operational model of agonism using the literature value for the affinity (K(A)) of isoprenaline (3.2 x 10(-8) M; left atria WKY rats). Resulting estimates for baseline (E(0)), maximal effect (E(max)), and efficacy (tau) were 374 (1.9%), 130 (5.9%), and 247 (33%) beats per minute, respectively. In addition, the interaction between isoprenaline and S(-)-atenolol was characterized using a pharmacodynamic interaction model based on the operational model of agonism that describes the heart rate response based on the affinity of the agonist (K(A)), the affinity of the antagonist (K(B)), the efficacy (tau), the maximal effect (E(max)), the Hill coefficient (n(H)), the concentrations of isoprenaline and atenolol, and the displacement of the endogenous agonist adrenaline. The estimated in vivo affinity (K(B)) of S(-)-atenolol for the beta(1) -receptor was 4.6 x 10(-8) M. The obtained estimate for in vivo affinity of S(-)-atenolol (4.6 x 10(-8) M) is comparable to literature values for the in vitro affinity in functional assays. In conclusion, a meaningful estimate of in vivo affinity for S(-)-atenolol could be obtained using a mechanism-based pharmacodynamic modeling approach. PMID:18162599

van Steeg, Tamara J; Freijer, Jan; Danhof, Meindert; de Lange, Elizabeth C M



Optimal control of myocardial ischaemia: the benefit of a fixed combination of atenolol and nifedipine in patients with chronic stable angina  

PubMed Central

Objective—To study the effects on myocardial ischaemia of 50 mg of atenolol, 20 mg of slow release nifedipine, and their fixed combination given 12 hourly. Design—A treadmill exercise test and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring were carried out after a period of five days off treatment (control) and at the end of three weeks of each treatment period. Patients—23 patients with stable angina pectoris, documented coronary artery disease, and a positive exercise test were randomised in a double blind, three way, cross over study. Results—Compared with the control, nifedipine significantly induced an increase in resting heart rate of (mean (SEM)) 14 (2) beats/min whereas atenolol and the combination significantly reduced it by 24 (2) and 20 (1) beats/min respectively. The number of exercise tests rendered negative after each intervention was five for nifedipine, nine for atenolol, and 11 for the combination. Compared with the control the time to the start of myocardial ischaemia (1 mm ST segment depression) during exercise significantly increased by 3·2 (0·6) min after nifedipine, by 4·6 (0·4) min after atenolol, and by 4·6 (0·5) min after the combination; rate-pressure product (beats/min. mm Hg) at 1 mm ST segment depression increased by 2824 (970) after nifedipine but fell by 4436 (900) and 4501 (719) after atenolol and the combination. The weekly frequency of angina was reduced from a mean of five while taking nifedipine, to three while taking atenolol, and to two while taking the combination. The total ischaemic time during ambulatory monitoring was significantly reduced from 69 (17) min during control to 37·5 (9·8) min during nifedipine, to 15·6 (5·5) min during atenolol, and to 6·5 (2·7) min during the combination. Conclusion—The undesirable effect of a high basal heart rate induced by nifedipine was neutralised by its combination with atenolol. Whereas atenolol and the combination were equally efficacious in controlling exercise induced ischaemia, the combination was more effective in reducing total ischaemic burden.

El-Tamimi, Hassan; Davies, Graham J



Effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockade on heart rate and physiological tremor in diabetics with autonomic neuropathy. A comparative study of epanolol, atenolol and pindolol.  

PubMed Central

Eight diabetics with autonomic neuropathy were given single oral doses of epanolol (200 mg), atenolol (50 mg), pindolol (5 mg) and placebo in a double-blind randomised order at weekly intervals. Supine resting heart rate, physiological tremor and blood glucose were measured before, 2 and 4 h after dosing, and ambulatory heart rate monitored for 24 h. Supine resting heart rate was significantly lowered by atenolol both at 2 and 4 h, and increased on pindolol at 4 h. Heart rate was unaffected by epanolol compared with placebo. Heart rate during the 'waking' period (14.00-23.00 h) was lower than placebo after epanolol and atenolol but unaffected by pindolol. During the 'sleeping' period (23.00 h-08.00 h) heart rate was significantly increased by pindolol, lowered with atenolol and unaffected on epanolol. Pindolol significantly increased physiological tremor at 4 h. No differences were seen between epanolol, atenolol and placebo. Plasma glucose was significantly increased by pindolol 2 h after dosing. These results suggest that pindolol probably produces its partial agonist activity at both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors, while the partial agonist activity of epanolol is beta 1-selective. Despite abnormal cardiovascular reflex tests in these diabetics, the heart rate responses obtained in this study after beta-adrenoceptor blockade were surprisingly normal, and suggest that the concept of 'cardiac denervation' in diabetes requires modification.

Reid, W; Ewing, D J; Harry, J D; Smith, H J; Neilson, J M; Clarke, B F



The role of dissolved organic matters in the aquatic photodegradation of atenolol.  


Atenolol (ATL) is a photostable and hydrolysis resistant beta-blocker and has been frequently detected in natural water. In this study, mechanism on aquatic photodegradation of ATL was investigated with an emphasis on the role of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) as well as other natural water compositions (nitrate, bicarbonate and ferric ions). Significant acceleration of photodegradtion of ATL was observed in the presence of each DOMs added, namely Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA), Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA), Nordic Lake Fulvic Acid (NOFA) and Nordic Lake Humic Acid (NOHA). Hydroxyl radical (•OH) was determined as the main reactive species in this process, instead of singlet oxygen or excited triplet of DOM. Addition of these four DOMs all inhibited photodegradation of ATL in nitrate solutions through reducing nitrated-derived •OH and screening photons absorbed by nitrate. No loss of ATL was detected in bicarbonate solution with or without DOMs. Bicarbonate exhibited a scavenger of •OH derived from DOMs. However, in the presence of iron species, photodegradation of ATL was significantly enhanced by the addition of each DOM, due to the high yield of •OH in the photoprocess of Fe(III)-DOM complex. The photoproducts distribution of ATL demonstrated that SRFA promote the hydroxylation on aromatic ring in the presence of nitrate and reduce the ketone moiety to alcohol in the system of ferric ions. Our findings indicate that DOMs should be considered in aquatic photoprocesses of organic pollutants induced by themselves as well as other coexisting photoactive water compositions. PMID:23017239

Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Ya; Yang, Xi



Ion-Pairing Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Atenolol and Indapamide in Bulk and Combined Dosage Form  

PubMed Central

A sensitive, accurate, precise and validated ion-pairing reverse-phase liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of atenolol and indapamide in bulk and tablet dosage form was developed. The proposed ion-pairing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography method utilises C18 column with 5 ?m, 150×4.6 mm i.d. column and mobile phase consisting of 0.1% w/v solution of octane sulphonic acid, sodium salt and methanol (55:45 v/v), (pH 2.8) and ultraviolet detection at 235 nm. A linearity range of 1-250 ?g/ml and 1-25 ?g/ml for atenolol and indapamide, respectively, was obtained. The mean recoveries are 100.48 and 99.82% for atenolol and indapamide, respectively. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.

Baheti, K. G.; Shah, N.; Shaikh, S.



Hemodynamic effects of nifedipine given alone and in combination with atenolol in patients with impaired left ventricular function  

SciTech Connect

The acute intravenous (IV) (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 microgram/kg/min over 10 minutes each) and chronic oral (60 mg/day) administration of nifedipine was examined in 9 patients with significantly impaired left ventricular (LV) function (ejection fraction (EF) on radionuclide scanning was 0.20 to 0.40) who were already receiving beta-blocker therapy (greater than 25% reduction in peak exercise heart rate) with atenolol, 100 to 200 mg/day. The mean control LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) at cardiac catheterization and EF for the group as a whole were 30 +/- 3 mm Hg (range 20 to 42) (mean +/- standard error of the mean) and 28.5 +/- 2.4%, respectively. Three of the 9 patients had hemodynamic deterioration and LV failure at some stage during the study, and their mean LVEDP and EF were 38 +/- 3 mm Hg (range 33 to 42) and 22.6 +/- 2.7%, respectively. In the 6 patients who tolerated the full treatment protocol, the mean LVEDP and EF were 26.5 +/- 2.0 mm Hg (range 20 to 35) and 31.5 +/- 2.8%, respectively. Seven patients received IV nifedipine, which had a negative inotropic action but did not precipitate cardiac decompensation. Chronic oral administration of nifedipine in combination with atenolol precipitated LV failure only in those with the lowest EF and highest LVEDP; usually LV failure was present with atenolol alone. Extensive infarction, frequently complicated by LV failure at the time, LVEDP greater than 32 mm Hg and control resting EF less than 30% were associated with LV failure.

de Buitleir, M.; Rowland, E.; Krikler, D.M.



Automated liquid chromatographic determination of atenolol in plasma using dialysis and trace enrichment on a cation-exchange precolumn for sample handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully automated method involving dialysis combined with trace enrichment was developed for the liquid chromatographic (LC) determination of atenolol, a hydrophilic ?-blocking agent, in human plasma. The plasma samples were dialysed on a cellulose acetate membrane and the dialysate was reconcentrated on a short trace enrichment column (TEC) packed with a strong cation-exchange material. All sample handling operations can

P Chiap; B Miralles Buraglia; A Ceccato; Ph Hubert; J Crommen



Comparison of effectiveness of carvedilol versus metoprolol or atenolol for atrial fibrillation appearing after coronary artery bypass grafting or cardiac valve operation.  


A retrospective review of 115 patients who underwent cardiac surgery demonstrated a marked reduction in postoperative atrial fibrillation (8% vs 32%, p <0.05) in patients who received carvedilol versus metoprolol or atenolol immediately after surgery. A prospective study examining the possibility of carvedilol's greater efficacy in preventing postoperative atrial fibrillation appears warranted. PMID:12972122

Merritt, J Christopher; Niebauer, Mark; Tarakji, Khaldoun; Hammer, Donald; Mills, Roger M



Enantioselective bioanalysis of beta-blocking agents: focus on atenolol, betaxolol, carvedilol, metoprolol, pindolol, propranolol and sotalol.  


The recent developments in enantioselective HPLC-separation techniques are impressive and are driven by industrial and academic interests; thus there is for instance a high demand for developing stereoselective assays for chiral drugs in biological fluids. The beta-blocking agents, which possess an amino-propanol- or -ethanol side chain with at least one chiral centre, represent one of the most intensively investigated groups of more than 40 drugs introduced world wide. Seven of the most popular beta-blockers were chosen as representatives: atenolol; betaxolol; carvedilol; metoprolol; pindolol; propranolol; and sotalol, these span the whole range of lipophilicity to hydrophilicity (polarity). Enantioselective HPLC bioassays for these beta-blockers published so far, including techniques based on chiral derivatizing agents (CDAs), chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and chiral mobile phase additives (CMPAs) have been reviewed and documented in the light of general aspects together with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations. PMID:7905307

Egginger, G; Lindner, W; Vandenbosch, C; Massart, D L


A study of the effects of atenolol and propranolol on renal function in patients with essential hypertension.  

PubMed Central

1 The effects of propranolol and atenolol given in random order in a cross-over study to fifteen patients with essential hypertension have been studied. 2 Both drugs were effective in lowering blood pressure and side effects were not markedly different. 3 There was no change in exchangeable sodium or potassium or in total body potassium during treatment with either drug. 4 Ambulant plasma renin activity was reduced by both drugs but the fall in blood pressure was not related to initial plasma renin. 5 Despite equal mean reduction in blood pressure with the two drugs, creatinine clearance fell significantly only during treatment with propranolol. 6 These observations suggest that intra-renal beta 2-adrenoceptors may be of importance in the regulation of renal function.

Wilkinson, R; Stevens, I M; Pickering, M; Robson, V; Hawkins, T; Kerr, D N; Harry, J D



Excimer formation in inclusion complexes of ?-cyclodextrin with salbutamol, sotalol and atenolol: Spectral and molecular modeling studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion complexation behavior of salbutamol, sotalol and atenolol drugs with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) were investigated by UV-visible, fluorometry, time resolved fluorescence, FT-IR, 1H NMR, SEM and PM3 methods. The above drugs gave a single emission maximum in water where as dual emission in ?-CD. In ?-CD solutions the shorter wavelength fluorescence intensity was regularly decreased and longer wavelength fluorescence intensity increased. Addition of ?-CD to aqueous solutions of drugs resulted into excimer emission. The excimer emission is concluded to be due to a 1:2 inclusion complex between ?-CD and drug. Nanosecond time-resolved studies indicated that all drugs exhibited biexponential decay in solvents and triexponential decay in CD. Investigations of thermodynamic and electronic properties confirmed the stability of the inclusion complex.

Antony Muthu Prabhu, A.; Subramanian, V. K.; Rajendiran, N.



Reduced total mortality and death from myocardial infarction and stroke in moderate/severe hypertensives treated with "Tenormin" (atenolol).  


Nine hundred and thirty-nine patients with moderate to severe hypertension, observed for up to 10 years, were found to benefit from treatment with the beta1-selective agent atenolol (Tenormin), usually coprescribed with diuretics with or without vasodilators or other agents. Therapy was well tolerated, particularly when the dose of atenolol was not increased to above 100 mg/day. Left ventricular hypertrophy was reversed. Stroke mortality was reduced by about 50% from that predicted had the high blood pressure (BP) not been treated. Good control of systolic blood pressure (SBP) resulted in a reduction of total mortality and death from myocardial infarction (MI) of 40-45%, to achieve a rate similar to that on a local tolerance population (age- and sex-matched). Although treated SBP was positively correlated with significantly fewer deaths from MI and stroke, a treated SBP of less than 140 mmHg in the elderly may be associated with an increase in mortality rate from stroke. A J-curve relationship between treated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and death from MI in hypertensive patients with accompanying overt ischaemic heart disease indicates that a treated DBP of less that about 85 mmHg is associated with an increased death rate from MI in such patients. It is therefore concluded that good control of moderate/severe hypertension significantly decreases death rate from stroke and MI. However, it is recommended that for hypertensives with co-existent overt ischaemic heart disease DBP should not be lowered to less than about 85 mmHg and, in the elderly, SBP probably should not be lowered to less than about 140 mmHg. PMID:2387213

Cruickshank, J M



First-dose effects of enalapril and atenolol upon blood pressure and cerebral blood flow in patients with mild hypertension on diuretic therapy.  


The present single-blind, randomised, cross-over, placebo-controlled study was set up to compare the first-dose effects upon blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF, measured by Xenon inhalation) of a single oral dose of atenolol 50 mg and enalapril 5 mg in ten hypertensive patients receiving a thiazide diuretic. It was found that a) the timing and degree of fall in BP after the first dose of atenolol and enalapril on a diuretic background were similar and generally not associated with symptoms or a fall in CBF, and b) dizziness, which is sometimes associated with the first-dose effect of ACE inhibitors in hypertensives on diuretics, can occasionally occur accompanied by a substantial fall (43%) in CBF in the absence of marked falls in systolic blood pressure. It is suggested that the latter event may be linked to a disturbance of cerebral autoregulation in part dependent on localised renin-angiotensin systems. PMID:2194032

Kamlow, F; Cruickshank, J M; Neil-Dwyer, G; Dorrance, D E; Hayes, Y; Patel, S; Wainwright, R J



Effect of adrenaline on myocardial oxygen consumption during selective and non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockade comparison of atenolol and pindolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of adrenaline on myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) during selective and non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockade was examined in 26 patients with angina pectoris. Cardiac venous flow was measured by thermodilution and blood was sampled for metabolic studies. Thirteen patients were given atenolol 62.5 µg\\/kg i.v. and the other 13 patients pindolol 7.5 µg\\/kg i.v. Measurements were repeated before and during

H. Ihlen; S. Simonsen; D. Welzel



Effects of Oral Atenolol and Propranolol on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Plasma Cyclic Adenosine 3’:5’Monophosphate in Borderline Hypertensive Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of oral treatment with atenolol and propranolol on blood pressure, heart rate and plasma cyclic adenosine 3’:5’-monophosphate (cAMP) were studied in a group of young borderline hypertensives. Observations were accomplished after a period of recumbent relaxation and also following psychological stress testing. The latter significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate and plasma cAMP. A direct relationship was found

A. González-Gómez; D. Garcia-Barreto; R. Cabrera; A. Toruncha; A. Hernández-Cañero



Sensitivity to insulin during treatment with atenolol and metoprolol: a randomised, double blind study of effects on carbohydrate and lipoprotein metabolism in hypertensive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To compare the effects of metoprolol and atenolol on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and on insulin response to an intravenous glucose load. DESIGN--Randomised, double blind, double dummy, controlled crossover trial. SETTING--University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. PATIENTS--60 Patients with primary hypertension (diastolic blood pressure when resting supine 95-119 mm Hg on at least two occasions during four to six weeks of treatment

T. Pollare; H. Lithell; I. Selinus; C. Berne



Oxidation of atenolol, propranolol, carbamazepine and clofibric acid by a biological Fenton-like system mediated by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological advanced oxidation of the pharmaceuticals clofibric acid (CA), carbamazepine (CBZP), atenolol (ATL) and propranolol (PPL) is reported for the first time. Extracellular oxidizing species were produced through a quinone redox cycling mechanism catalyzed by an intracellular quinone reductase and any of the ligninolytic enzymes of Trametes versicolor after addition of the lignin-derived quinone 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DBQ) and Fe3+-oxalate in the

Ernest Marco-Urrea; Jelena Radjenovi?; Gloria Caminal; Mira Petrovi?; Teresa Vicent; Damià Barceló



Randomised, double blind, multicentre comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in antihypertensive treatment: results of the HANE study. HANE Trial Research Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. DESIGN: Randomised multicentre trial over 48 weeks with double blind comparison of treatments. SETTING: 48 centres in four countries. PATIENTS: 868 patients with essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 95-120 mm Hg) INTERVENTIONS: Initial treatment (step 1) consisted of 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (n = 215), 25 mg atenolol (n = 215), 10 mg nitrendipine (n = 218), or 5 mg enalapril (n = 220) once daily. If diastolic blood pressure was not reduced to < 90 mm Hg within four weeks, doses were increased to 25 mg, 50 mg, 20 mg, 10 mg, respectively, once daily (step 2) and after two more weeks to twice daily (step 3). The eight week titration phase was followed by an additional 40 weeks for patients who had reached the target diastolic pressure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood pressure by means of an automatic device with repeated measurements. RESULTS: After eight weeks the response rate for atenolol (63.7%) was significantly higher than for enalapril (50.0%), hydrochlorothiazide (44.7%), or nitrendipine (44.5%). After one year atenolol was still more effective (48.0%) than hydrochlorothiazide (35.4%) and nitrendipine (32.9%), but not significantly better than enalapril (42.7%). The treatment related dropout rate was higher (P < 0.001) in the nitrendipine group (n = 28). CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of superiority for antihypertensive effectiveness or tolerability of the "new" classes of antihypertensives (calcium channel blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors). As these drugs are now widely used as treatment of first choice, our results further emphasise the need for studies confirming that they also reduce morbidity and mortality, as has been shown for diuretics and beta blockers.

Philipp, T.; Anlauf, M.; Distler, A.; Holzgreve, H.; Michaelis, J.; Wellek, S.



The effects of atenolol and zofenopril on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide are due to their interactions with target organ damage of essential hypertensive patients.  


The effects of 10 weeks of treatment with atenolol (n = 9) or the converting enzyme inhibitor zofenopril (n = 25) on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were studied in 34 essential hypertensive patients. After 4 weeks on placebo, pretreatment ANP, 56 +/- 7 pg/ml, was slightly but not significantly higher than that of 29 controls (41 +/- 4) and correlated with age (r = 0.44), ECG score for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (r = 0.51) and serum creatinine (r = 0.67), and negatively with creatinine clearance (r = -0.39). Atenolol reduced blood pressure (BP) by 0 +/- 6/8 +/- 2 mm Hg (ns/P < 0.01), and zofenopril by 14 +/- 4/6 +/- 2 (P < 0.01/P < 0.01), not significantly different between the two agents. Heart rate was decreased by atenolol (-16 +/- 4 bpm, P < 0.01) but not by zofenopril (+1 +/- 2 bpm, ns). Atenolol increased ANP in all patients but one (delta = +42 +/- 9 pg/ml, P < 0.01), while zofenopril did not change it significantly (-6 +/- 6 pg/ml), due to 15 patients exhibiting decreases and 10 increases in plasma ANP. The effect of atenolol on ANP positively correlated with duration of hypertension (r = 0.74), ECG score for LVH (r = 0.73) and serum creatinine (r = 0.68). Individual changes in ANP by zofenopril negatively correlated with pretreatment ANP (r = -0.69), ECG score for LVH (r = -0.44) and serum creatinine (r = -0.41). No correlations were found between BP, heart rate or their changes by treatment and the effect of either agent on plasma ANP. Multiple linear regression showed that the change in ANP was explained by the therapeutic agent used, the pretreatment plasma level of ANP, and the ECG score for LVH (F = 12.5, P < 0.001, r2 = 0.56). We conclude that the effect of antihypertensives on plasma ANP is independent of their action on BP, but dependent on an interaction between the type of drug employed and those clinical characteristics of the patient that reflect pre-existing hypertensive target organ damage. PMID:9205939

Elijovich, F; Laffer, C L; Schiffrin, E L




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: Trata-se de um estudo de caso, desenvolvido com uma paciente renal crônica, em um hospital terciário no município de Fortaleza-CE, em outubro de 2005. O objetivo de aplicar o processo de enfermagem, baseado na Teoria do Autocuidado de Orem, a paciente renal crônico. A sistematização da assistência de enfermagem à luz da Teoria de Orem

Natália Rocha; Maria Célia; Ana Ruth Macêdo


Sensitive spectrophotometric determination of atenolol in pharmaceutical formulations using bromate-bromide mixture as an eco-friendly brominating agent.  


Three simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of atenolol (ATN) in bulk drug and tablets. The methods are based on the bromination of ATN by the bromine generated in situ by the action of the acid on the bromate-bromide mixture followed by the determination of unreacted bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of either meta-cresol purple (MCP) and measuring the absorbance at 540?nm (method A) and 445?nm (method B) or erioglaucine (EGC) and measuring the absorbance at 630?nm (method C). Beer's law is valid within the concentration ranges of 1.0-20.0, 2.0-40.0 and 1.0-8.0??g/mL for method A, method B and method C, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivities were found to be 1.20×10(4), 4.51×10(3) and 3.46 × 10(4)??L/mol · cm for method A, method B and method C, respectively. Sandell's sensitivity values, correlation coefficients, limits of detection and quantification are also reported. Recovery results were statistically compared with those of a reference method by applying Student's t- and F-test. The novelty of the present study is the measurement of two different colors using MCP, that is, red-pink color of MCP in acid medium at 540?nm and yellowish-orange color of brominated MCP at 445?nm. PMID:22567567

Prashanth, Kudige N; Basavaiah, Kanakapura



Mechanical vs intrinsic components in the improvement of brachial arterial compliance. Comparison of the effects of atenolol versus ramipril in hypertensive patients.  


The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical and intrinsic effects of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, vs a beta-blocker, on brachial arterial compliance. In a double blind study, 34 essential hypertensive patients were treated for 3 months with either ramipril 2.5-5.0 mg daily (n = 17, age 57 +/- 7 y, 11 males) or atenolol 50-100 mg daily (n = 17, age 53 +/- 8 y, 11 males). Blood pressure (BP), brachial artery diameter (D), brachial-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV) and effective compliance (Ceff), were measured before and at the end of the study. Isobaric evaluation (Ciso) was performed in the entire population studied at an average mean BP of 110 mmHg. Ramipril significantly reduced BP from 155 +/- 16/94 +/- 6 mmHg to 140 +/- 15/85 +/- 7 mmHg (p < 0.001) without affecting heart rate (HR; 74 +/- 10 vs. 75 +/- 12 bpm). In addition, it significantly improved both PWV (18%; p < 0.001) and arterial compliance (45%; p < 0.001), from which 35% was related to a pressure independent effect (p < 0.01). Atenolol also induced a reduction in both BP (159 +/- 17/96 +/- 10 to 133 +/- 13/81 +/- 8 mmHg; p < 0.001) and HR (76 +/- 10 to 57 +/- 7 bpm; p < 0.001). In a similar way, PWV (11%; p < 0.05) and Ceff (30%; p < 0.05) were significantly improved without significant change in Ciso. This suggests that blood pressure reduction was responsible for compliance improvement. In conclusion, it is suggested that atenolol induces only hemodynamic changes, mediated mainly by BP reduction. In contrast, the improved brachial buffering function observed after ramipril involves not only hemodynamic changes, but also changes mediated by other mechanisms, such as modification of wall structures. PMID:11721319

Armentano, R L; Graf, S; Ramírez, A J; Espinosa, J D; Brandani, L; Baglivo, H; Sánchez, R



Haemodynamic actions of a novel sino-atrial node function modulator, ZENECA ZD7288, in the anaesthetized dog: a comparison with zatebradine, atenolol and nitrendipine.  

PubMed Central

1. ZENECA ZD7288 (4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimethyl-6-(methylamino) pyrimidinium chloride, formerly ICI D7288) is a novel sino-atrial node function modulator which selectively slows sinus node rate. Its effects on haemodynamic function have been studied in pentobarbitone anaesthetized dogs, in comparison with zatebradine, atenolol and nitrendipine. 2. ZD7288 lowered heart rate in the dose-range 0.02 to 1.0 mg kg-1 i.v. from 152 to 77 beats min-1. Myocardial contractile function (measured as both dPLV/dtmax and right ventricular free wall developed force) decreased along with rate. Stroke volume increased as rate decreased. Cardiac output decreased at doses in excess of 0.2 mg kg-1, i.v. 3. These haemodynamic changes were reversed when heart rate reduction was reversed by atrial pacing and are, therefore, considered to be indirect consequences of heart rate changes induced by ZD7288. 4. The effects of zatebradine paralleled those of ZD7288 (heart rate reduced from 149 to 60.5 beats min-1 over the dose-range 0.02 to 1.0 mg kg-1, i.v.), except that dPLV/dtmax did not decrease with heart rate and increased during arial pacing. 5. Neither ZD7288 nor zatebradine had significant effects on atrio-ventricular conduction at intrinsic heart rates, but both significantly and dose-dependently prolonged the atrio-ventricular conduction interval during atrial pacing at 180 beats min-1. 6. The observed effects of atenolol were commensurate with removal of beta-sympathetic cardiac drive. Atrial pacing was found not to restore the pre-atenolol heamodynamic state completely.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Rouse, W; Johnson, I R



Cardiovascular effects of eating, atenolol and their interaction: beta1-adrenergic modulation does not play a predominant role in the genesis of postprandial effects.  

PubMed Central

1. Eight healthy subjects were investigated on four occasions at least 1 week apart when they either ate a standard 3100 kJ cold meal or fasted. One hour earlier, either 50 mg atenolol or placebo was administered. 2. Eating was followed by prominent changes of systolic cardiovascular function: a rise of heart rate (+7, 95% CI: 4 to 9 beats min(-1)), systolic BP (+5, CI: 1 to 8 mmHg), a drop of diastolic BP (-6, CI:-9 to -3 mmHg), shortening of the pre-ejection period PEP (-11, CI: -13 to -9 ms) and electromechanical systole QS2c (-13, CI: -17 to -8 ms), a rise of the estimated cardiac output CO (+1.3, CI: 1.0 to 1.6 1 min(-1)) and a reduction of the calculated total peripheral resistance TPR (-306, CI: -389 to -222 dyn s cm(-5)). 3. Eating was also followed by an increase of the non-renal clearance of sorbitol (as a measure of hepatic blood flow) and this change was larger than proportional to the increase of CO. The plasma renin activity rose after the meal but the venous plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were not affected. 4. The postprandial effects peaked over the first 1-2 h after the meal but remained well detectable up to 4 h after eating. 5. The administration of 50 mg atenolol before the meal reduced the postprandial effects to the same extent as the atenolol effects in the fasting state. This lack of interaction (or mere arithmetic additivity) indicates that the efferent beta1-adrenergic tone does not play a predominant role in the modulation of postprandial cardiovascular changes.

De Mey, C; Enterling, D; Meineke, I



Effect of adrenaline on myocardial oxygen consumption during selective and non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockade comparison of atenolol and pindolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of adrenaline on myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) during selective and non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockade was examined in 26 patients with angina pectoris. Cardiac\\u000a venous flow was measured by thermodilution and blood was sampled for metabolic studies. Thirteen patients were given atenolol\\u000a 62.5 g\\/kg i.v. and the other 13 patients pindolol 7.5 g\\/kg i.v. Measurements were repeated before and during

H. Ihlen; S. Simonsen; D. Welzel



Rationale and Design of a Randomized Clinical Trial of Beta Blocker Therapy (Atenolol) vs. Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Therapy (Losartan) in Individuals with Marfan Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular pathology, including aortic root dilation, dissection, and rupture, is the leading cause of mortality in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). The maximal aortic root diameter at the sinuses of Valsalva is considered the best predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Although advances in therapy have improved life expectancy, affected individuals continue to suffer cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies in a FBN1-targeted mouse model of MFS with aortic pathology similar to that seen in humans showed that treatment with losartan normalized aortic root growth and aortic wall architecture. Methods The Pediatric Heart Network designed a randomized clinical trial to compare aortic root growth and other short-term cardiovascular outcomes in MFS subjects receiving atenolol or losartan. Individuals 6 months to 25 years of age with a body surface area-adjusted aortic root Z-score > 3.0 will be eligible for inclusion. The primary aim is to compare the effect of atenolol therapy to that of losartan therapy on the rate of aortic root growth over 3 years. Secondary endpoints include progression of aortic regurgitation; incidence of aortic dissection, aortic root surgery, and death; progression of mitral regurgitation; left ventricular size and function; echocardiographically-derived measures of central aortic stiffness; skeletal and somatic growth; and incidence of adverse drug reactions. Conclusion This randomized trial should make a substantial contribution to the management of individuals with MFS and expand our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the aortic manifestations of this disorder.

Lacro, Ronald V.; Dietz, Harry C.; Wruck, Lisa M.; Bradley, Timothy J.; Colan, Steven D.; Devereux, Richard B.; Klein, Gloria L.; Li, Jennifer S.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Paridon, Stephen M.; Pearson, Gail D.; Printz, Beth F.; Pyeritz, Reed E.; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Roman, Mary J.; Saul, J. Philip; Stylianou, Mario P.; Mahony, Lynn



Development and validation of RP-HPLC-UV method for simultaneous determination of buparvaquone, atenolol, propranolol, quinidine and verapamil: A tool for the standardization of rat in situ intestinal permeability studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive and specific reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection at 251nm was developed for simultaneous quantitation of buparvaquone (BPQ), atenolol, propranolol, quinidine and verapamil. The method was applicable in rat in situ intestinal permeability study to assess intestinal permeability of BPQ, a promising lead compound for Leishmania donovani infections. The method was validated

Gantala Venkatesh; S. Ramanathan; S. M. Mansor; N. K. Nair; Munavvar Abdul Sattar; Simon L. Croft; V. Navaratnam



A micromethod for the quantification of atenolol in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: therapeutic drug monitoring of two patients with severe coronary insufficiency before cardiac surgery.  


A simple, rapid, selective, and sensitive analytical method was developed for the quantification of atenolol in small volumes of plasma, by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Only 200 microL of plasma was used for chromatographic analysis. Separation was performed on a C18 reverse-phase column (4 microm) using a binary mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M of phosphate buffer, pH 5.5, and methanol (80:20, vol/vol) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/minute. The retention times of atenolol and of the internal standard (sotalol) were 12.7 and 10.4 minutes, respectively. Validation of this analytical method showed a good linear correlation (8-2000 ng/mL), high sensitivity (quantification limit: 8 ng/ml and detection limit: 4 ng/mL), accuracy of 99.3%, and intraday and interday precision of 5.3% and 6.9%, respectively. Absolute recovery was 93.7%. The method was found to be robust, with acceptable stability. The analytical method was validated by the quantification of atenolol in plasma obtained from 2 patients with unstable angina, scheduled for myocardium revascularization surgery, who were chronically treated with 50 mg of atenolol administered per os once a day. The method developed was found to be adequate for use in pharmacokinetic studies and in adjusted dose pharmacotherapy. PMID:16628137

Leite, Fátima da Silva; Pereira, Valéria Adriana; Omosako, Célia Etsuco; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho; Auler, José Otávio Costa; Santos, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge



The efficacy and tolerability of antihypertensive treatment based on atenolol in the prevention of stroke and the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy.  


Nine hundred and thirty nine moderate to severe hypertensive patients were treated with a combination of atenolol, a beta 1 selective receptor blocker, diuretics and where required, additional vasodilator therapy to achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control. Patients were followed up for a period of 10.2 years (mean 6.1 years). Amassed clinical exposure amounted to 5465 patient years. Mean BP fell from 183.0 +/- 1.0/109.2 +/- 0.5 mmHg to 145.1 +/- 0.6/89.3 +/- 0.3 mmHg and treatment resulted in a significant regression of the electrocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Side effects of treatment were consistent with those expected from a regime comprising a combination of a beta 1 selective hydrophilic beta-blocker, diuretics and vasodilators. Reported side effects appeared to diminish with time; were more common in the elderly than in the young and increased in frequency as the dose of atenolol increased. Biochemical disturbance was minimal. Total mortality (n = 91) and mortality from myocardial infarction (n = 40) were positively related to treated systolic blood pressure (SBP). A J-shaped curvilinear relationship between treated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and death rate from myocardial infarction has been shown. Although the number of deaths from stroke was small (n = 21), there appeared to be a positive relationship with treated DBP: by contrast the data suggest that in the elderly, lowering SBP to below about 140 mmHg might be associated with an increased incidence of death from stroke. PMID:3506623

Cruickshank, J M; Higgins, T J; Pennert, K; Thorp, J M; Zacharias, F M; Zacharias, F J



ATUAÇÃO DO FISIOTERAPEUT A NO ATENDIMENTO DOMICILIAR DE PACIENTES NEUROLÓGICOS: A EFETIVIDADE SOB A VISÃO DO CUIDADOR The physiotherapist's performance in the domicile attendance of neurological patients: the effectiveness under the caretaker's point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Alguns pacientes neurológicos apresentam alterações e distúrbios da cinesia funcional que os impedem de exercer sua autonomia física, repercutindo sobre sua estrutura psicológica e socioeconômica. Em decorrência desses distúrbios, os pacientes possuem graus variáveis de incapacidade que determinam níveis de dependência ao cuidador. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a efetividade da Fisioterapia no quadro clínico do paciente neurológico,

Diolina Nogueira Leite Felício; Ana Luiza; Veras Franco; Maria Edvani Araújo Torquato; Ana Paula de Vasconcellos


Nebivolol: Comparison of the Effects of dl-Nebivolol, d-Nebivolol, l-Nebivolol, Atenolol, and Placebo on Exercise-Induced Increases in Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of racemic nebivolol, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg; d-nebivolol, 2.5 mg; l-nebivolol, 2.5 mg; atenolol, 50 mg; and placebo, each given once daily for 7 days, on exercise-induced increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure were compared in a seven-way double-blind randomized crossover trial in 14 healthy male volunteers. Observations on these variables were made 3 and

L. Van Nueten; J. De Crée



Development and validation of RP-HPLC-UV method for simultaneous determination of buparvaquone, atenolol, propranolol, quinidine and verapamil: a tool for the standardization of rat in situ intestinal permeability studies.  


A simple, sensitive and specific reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection at 251 nm was developed for simultaneous quantitation of buparvaquone (BPQ), atenolol, propranolol, quinidine and verapamil. The method was applicable in rat in situ intestinal permeability study to assess intestinal permeability of BPQ, a promising lead compound for Leishmania donovani infections. The method was validated on a C-4 column with mobile phase comprising ammonium acetate buffer (0.02 M, pH 3.5) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 30:70 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The retention times for atenolol, quinidine, propranolol, verapamil and BPQ were 4.30, 5.96, 6.55, 7.98 and 8.54 min, respectively. The calibration curves were linear (correlation coefficient > or =0.996) in the selected range of each analyte. The method is specific and sensitive with limit of quantitation of 15 microg/ml for atenolol, 0.8 microg/ml for quinidine, 5 microg/ml for propranolol, 10 microg/ml for verapamil and 200 ng/ml for BPQ. The validated method was found to be accurate and precise in the working calibration range. Stability studies were carried out at different storage conditions and all the analytes were found to be stable. This method is simple, reliable and can be routinely used for accurate permeability characterization. PMID:17157469

Venkatesh, Gantala; Ramanathan, S; Mansor, S M; Nair, N K; Sattar, Munavvar Abdul; Croft, Simon L; Navaratnam, V



The ?-blocker atenolol lowers the longevity-related degree of fatty acid unsaturation, decreases protein oxidative damage, and increases extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the heart of C57BL/6 mice.  


The interruption of the ?-adrenergic receptor signaling at the level of adenylyl cyclase (AC) by specifically knocking out (KO) the AC5 gene activates the RAF/MEK/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, delays bone and heart aging, and increases mean and maximum longevity in mice. However, the mechanisms involved in life extension in this animal model with increased longevity have not been clarified, although a decrease in oxidative stress has been proposed as mediator. Two traits link longevity and oxidative stress. Long-lived mammals and birds have a low rate of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitROS) generation and a low degree of membrane fatty acid unsaturation, but these key factors have not been studied in AC5 KO mice. In the present investigation, male C57BL/6 mice were treated with the ?-blocker atenolol in drinking water, and oxidative stress-related parameters were measured in the heart. Atenolol treatment did not change the rate of mitROS production and oxidative damage to mitDNA (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-oxodG]), but strongly decreased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation and the peroxidizability index, mainly due to decreases in 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6 and to increases in 18:1n-9, 16:1n-7 and 16:0 in the atenolol group. Protein oxidation and lipoxidation were lower in the atenolol group than in the controls. The mitochondrial complex I and IV content and the amount of p-ERK1/2 signaling proteins were significantly higher in the atenolol-treated than in the control animals. These results support the idea that the increased longevity of the AC5 KO mice can be due in part to an ERK signaling-mediated stress-resistance due to a decrease in fatty acid unsaturation, leading to lower lipid peroxidation and decreased lipoxidation-derived damage to cellular proteins. PMID:20818929

Sanchez-Roman, Ines; Gomez, Jose; Naudi, Alba; Ayala, Victoria; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Lopez-Torres, Monica; Pamplona, Reinald; Barja, Gustavo



Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares assisted by voltammetry for simultaneous determination of betaxolol and atenolol using carbon nanotube paste electrode.  


In the present work differential pulse voltammetry coupled with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied for simultaneous determination of betaxolol (Bet) and atenolol (Ate) in 0.20M Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution at the surface of a multi-walled carbon nanotube modified carbon paste electrode (MWCNT/CPE). Characterization of the modified electrode was carried out by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). A strategy based on experimental design was followed. Operating conditions were improved with central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM), involving several chemical and instrumental parameters. Then second order data were built from variable pulse heights of DPV and after correction in potential shift analyzed by MCR-ALS. Analytical parameters such as linearity, repeatability, and stability were also investigated and a detection limit (DL) of 0.19 and 0.29?M for Bet and Ate was achieved, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied in simultaneous determining the two analytes in human plasma. PMID:23632433

Khoobi, Asma; Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Masoum, Saeed; Behpour, Mohsen



Cuidados paliativos aos pacientes terminais: percepção da equipe de enfermagem Palliative care to terminal patients: perception of the nursing team cuidado Paliativo a los pacientes terminales: opinión del equipo de enfermería  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSUMO: Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem qualitativa exploratória,realizado em um hospital do interior de Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de compreender o significado atribuído pela equipe de enfermagem aos cuidados paliativos com pacientes terminais.A partir dos relatos feitos pela equipe de enfermagem, foram identificadas cinco categorias: Percebendo a necessidade de humanizar o cuidar dos pacientes terminais; Presença da família:

Júlio César; Batista Santana; Kênia Fraga de Paula; Ana Cristina; Viana Campos; Maria Alice Efigênia Rezende; Bruna Danielle; Guedes Barbosa; Bianca Santana Dutra; Carlos Eduardo; Freitas Baldessari


Validated stability-indicating methods for the simultaneous determination of amiloride hydrochloride, atenolol, and chlorthalidone using HPTLC and HPLC with photodiode array detector.  


Two stability-indicating chromatographic methods are described for simultaneous determination of amiloride hydrochloride (AMI), atenolol (ATE), and chlorthalidone (CHL) in combined dosage forms. The first method was based on HPTLC separation of the three drugs followed by densitometric measurements of their bands at 274 nm. The separation was carried out on Merck HPTLC silica gel 60F254 aluminum sheets using chloroform-methanol-ammonia 27%, w/w (9 + 2 + 0.3, v/v/v) mobile phase. Analysis data was used for the linear regression graph in the range of 0.1-0.5, 0.8-5.0, and 0.3-1.5 microg/band for AMI, ATE, and CHL, respectively. The second method was based on an RP-HPLC separation of the cited drugs performed on an RP stainless steel C18 analytical column (250 x 4.6 mm id) with a gradient elution system of methanol and 0.05 M aqueous phosphate buffer adjusted to pH 4 as the mobile phase, at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Quantitation was achieved with photodiode array detection at 275 nm for AMI and 225 nm for ATE and CHL. The calibration graphs for each drug were rectilinear in the range of 2-50, 25-150, and 2-100 microg/mL for AMI, ATE, and CHL, respectively. The proposed chromatographic methods were successfully applied for determination of the investigated drugs in pharmaceutical preparations. Both methods were validated in compliance with International Conference on Harmonization guidelines in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD, and LOQ. PMID:23767356

Youssef, Rasha M; Maher, Hadir M; El-Kimary, Eman I; Hassan, Ekram M; Barary, Magda H


Registro Eletrônico para Acompanhamento Médico de Pacientes em uma UTI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically ill patients in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) depend on intensive care and need constant observation. This paper presents the current development and deployment status of an electronic patient record (EPR) created to manage patients in an ICU of our region. The system is able to store individualized patients data which are further processed to provide information about a

Rafael Charnovscki; Jacques R. Nascimento Filho; Giancarlo Bianchin Machado; Evânio Ramos Nicoleit


Abscesso pulmonar de aspiração: dados diagnósticos e resultados terapêuticos em 241 casos Primary lung abscess: diagnostic findings and results of the treatment in 241 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINOPSE São mostrados aspectos diagnósticos e terapêuticos do abscesso pulmonar de aspiração. No período de 1968 a 2002 foram reunidos e estudados 241 casos da doença - 199 em homens e 42 em mulheres, com média de idade de 41,3 anos. Em 69% dos pacientes esteve presente a ingestão de álcool e em 64% o hábito tabágico. Tosse, expectoração, febre

ÂNGELA P. ZIEGLER; José S. Moreira; Rua Carlos Von Koseritz


Esclerose múltipla: estudo descritivo de suas formas clínicas em 302 casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A esclerose múltipla é uma das causas mais comuns de incapacidade neurológica crônica em adultos jovens. Avaliamos, através de estudo retrospectivo, características epidemiológicas, formas de apresentação, manifestações clínicas, evolução e o grau de incapacitação física da esclerose múltipla em 302 pacientes. A média da idade dos pacientes foi 37,7 anos e a relação entre os gêneros foi 3,13F:1M.




Estado nutricional em zinco e teste de acuidade do paladar em crianças de baixa estatura familiar Zinc nutritional status and taste acuity test in familial short stature children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivos: Avaliar o estado nutricional em zinco e a percepção do paladar (salgado, doce, ácido e amargo) em crianças de baixa estatura familiar. Métodos: Estudo transversal de 30 crianças sem sinais de puberdade, pacientes do ambulatório de crescimento da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A ingestão dietética foi avaliada pelo método do Registro Alimentar. Para o teste de acuidade do

Andréa G. Marques; Luiz A. Lopes; Olga M. S. Amancio


Different approaches of impregnation for resolution of enantiomers of atenolol, propranolol and salbutamol using Cu(II)-L-amino acid complexes for ligand exchange on commercial thin layer chromatographic plates.  


Atenolol and propranolol (the beta-blocking agents) and salbutamol (broncho- and vasodilator) were resolved into their enantiomers by adopting different modes of loading/impregnating the Cu(II) complexes of L-proline (L-Pro), L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), L-histidine (L-His), N,N-dimethyl-L-phenylalanine (N,N-Me(2)-L-Phe), and L-tryptophan (L-Trp) on commercial precoated normal phase plates. The three different approaches were (A) using the Cu(II)-L-amino acid complex as chiral mobile phase additive, (B) ascending development of plain commercial plates in the solutions of Cu complex, and (C) using a solution of Cu(II) acetate as mobile phase additive for the commercial TLC plates impregnated with ascending development of plates in the solutions of amino acid. Spots were located using iodine vapour. The results obtained for the three methods have been compared for their efficiency and the issue of involvement of the Cu(II) cation for the best performance of the three methods has been discussed with respect to the same mobile phase. The detection limit is 0.18 microg for each enantiomer. PMID:20074739

Bhushan, R; Tanwar, Shivani



Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobial Therapy in Pediatric Patients with Acute Otitis Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A otite média aguda (OMA) é uma inflamação do ouvido médio que apresenta um início rápido de sinais e sintomas, tais como otalgia, febre, irritabilidade, anorexia e ou vômito. Conforme estudos de timpanocentese, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae não-tipável e Moraxella catarrhalis são os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente associados a esta condição clínica. Apesar da resolução espontânea da maioria dos casos

Ademir Moura Júnior; Alba Cristina; S. Oliveira; Caroline L. Fidalgo; Cristina B. Silva; Douglas N. Santana



Prontuário Eletrônico Para Pacientes De Hanseníase Via Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Este artigo apresenta a proposta de um Prontuário Eletrônico Via WEB para pacientes que sofrem de Hanseníase (PEPHANS), tendo como objetivo dar suporte à tomada de decisão pelos gestores da área da saúde envolvidos no controle e tratamento da doença. Com o PEPHANS evitar-se-à duplicidade de dados, permitindo o reaproveitamento do cadastro de pacientes, gerando alertas para auxiliar

Flávia de Queiroz Fadel; Andreia Malucelli; Laudelino Cordeiro Bastos


Estudo-piloto com clozapina em hospital público: resultados de um ano de acompanhamento Clozapine pilot study in a public hospital: one-year follow-up results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivos: Estudo-piloto prospectivo e naturalístico para avaliação da efetividade e segurança do uso da clozapina em pacientes esquizofrênicos crônicos resistentes, em tratamento num hospital psiquiátrico público - Instituto Municipal Nise da Silveira, localizado no Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Método: Foram tratados com clozapina, por um período de um ano, monitorados com hemogramas semanais nas 18 primeiras semanas e mensais nas

Carlos Eduardo da Rocha


Sintomas Depressivos e Qualidade de Vida em Indivíduos com Epilepsia por Esclerose Mesial Temporal  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Introdução: Dificuldades no trabalho, em relacionamentos interpessoais, familiares e sociais, a percepção do estigma, da discriminação dentre outros têm sido associados aos estados depressivos interictais, influen- ciando negativamente a qualidade de vida (QV) das pessoas com epilepsia. A depressão tem alta prevalência (20 a 55%) nas epilepsias, sendo vista como o fator mais importante no julgamento do paciente sobre

Neide Barreira Alonso; Tatiana Indelicato da Silva; Ana Carolina Westphal; Auro Mauro Azevedo


La cefepima y el riesgo de convulsiones en pacientes a ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... de la salud sobre la necesidad de regular la dosis del medicamento antibacteriano cefepima en pacientes con insuficiencia renal (de los riñones). ... More results from


Psicoterapia em grupo de pacientes com transtorno afetivo bipolar Group psychotherapy for bipolar disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the last years there has been a growing number of studies using psychotherapy approaches in the treatment of bipolar patients. However, little is known about the effects of these approaches. Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of Group Therapy in the treatment of bipolar affective disorder. Method: Review of the literature using Medline, Lilacs, PubMed e ISI, selecting English language



EM International. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

Not Available



Quimioterapia de alta dosis prolonga en forma significativa la supervivencia en pacientes con leucemia mieloide aguda

Los resultados preliminares de un estudio clínico grande con asignación al azar de pacientes de 16 a 60 años de edad con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA), un cáncer de la sangre y de la médula ósea, que no había sido tratada anteriormente, muestran que los pacientes que recibieron una alta dosis de daunorrubicina, un fármaco de quimioterapia disponible comercialmente, durante la terapia inicial vivieron más que los pacientes que recibieron una dosis normal del mismo fármaco.


Is EM dead?  


Since electron microscopy (EM) first appeared in the 1930s, it has held centre stage as the primary tool for the exploration of biological structure. Yet, with the recent developments of light microscopy techniques that overcome the limitations imposed by the diffraction boundary, the question arises as to whether the importance of EM in on the wane. This Commentary describes some of the pioneering studies that have shaped our understanding of cell structure. These include the development of cryo-EM techniques that have given researchers the ability to capture images of native structures and at the molecular level. It also describes how a number of recent developments significantly increase the ability of EM to visualise biological systems across a range of length scales, and in 3D, ensuring that EM will remain at the forefront of biology research for the foreseeable future. PMID:24124192

Knott, Graham; Genoud, Christel



Environmental Media Services (EMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environmental Media Services (EMS) is a nonprofit communications clearinghouse committed to the expansion of media coverage on critical environmental and public health issues. True to their mission, EMS staff "build relationships with top scientists, physicians, and other experts to bring journalists the latest and most credible information." EMS's modest homepage is free of clutter but full of content. While several sections are under construction and updates (currently) appear irregular, a series of available articles provides useful summaries of important environmental news issues over the past six months. Current articles include "The impacts of global warming on the oceans" and "Cool companies," among others.


Detección de anticuerpos antineuronas en pacientes con enfermedades del sistema nervioso: estudio preliminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Con el objetivo de profundizar en la patogenia de enfermedades que involucren al sistema nervioso central, un colectivo de los laboratorios se dio a la tarea de detectar autoanticuerpos antineuronas en pacientes con estas enfermedades mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Se analizaron 31 sueros de pacientes y 72 controles, se obtuvo como resultado una sensibilida d de 77

Raisa Jofra Hernández; Arturo Muster; Roberto Alegre Mendez



Microsoft Academic Search

A avaliação médica da tontura no idoso é geralmente frustrante. Muitas vezes, o exame físico é inespecífico, e a anamnese, difícil, pois o paciente não consegue precisar sua queixa. A maioria dos pacientes apresenta vários tipos de tontura de diferentes origens, que se confundem numa única queixa. Aliás, esta sensação é sub- jetiva - somente o próprio paciente sabe o



Gestão curricular em Matemática 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. A gestão curricular realizada pelo professor implica uma (re)construção do currículo, tendo em conta os seus alunos e as suas condições de trabalho. Esta gestão curricular assenta, de modo central, em dois elementos. Um deles é a criação de tarefas, a partir das quais os alunos se possam envolver em actividades matematicamente ricas e produtivas. As tarefas podem ser

João Pedro da Ponte


by EM tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the in vitro reconstitution of sperm nuclei and small DNA templates to mitotic chroma- tin in Xenopus laevis egg extracts by three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy (EM) tomography. Using specif- ically developed software, the reconstituted chromatin was interpreted in terms of nucleosomal patterns and the overall chromatin connectivity. The condensed chromatin formed

Peter König; Michael B. Braunfeld; John W. Sedat; David A. Agard


Gleevec disminuye la recidiva del cáncer en pacientes con tumor estromal gastrointestinal primario

Los resultados preliminares de un estudio clínico grande aleatorio y controlado con placebo, en pacientes con tumor estromal gastrointestinal (GIST) primario, un tipo de tumor que por lo general se encuentra en el estómago o en el intestino delgado, demostraron que los pacientes a los que se administró mesilato de imatinib (Gleevec®) luego de la extirpación total de su tumor tuvieron una probabilidad significativamente menor de padecer una recidiva del cáncer en comparación con aquellos a los que no se administró imatinib.


Aceitabilidade e funcionalidade de uma nova caneta para administração de insulina (Humapen®): experiência clínica em pacientes brasileiros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, insulin has been injected using a syringe and a needle. How- ever, injections are frequently considered painful and traumatic, causing psychological\\/social problems in many patients with diabetes. Insulin injec- tion pens have been found to be more convenient, cause less pain and improve patients' quality of life. We studied the acceptance and func- tionality of a new reusable insulin

José E. P. Oliveira; Adolpho Milech; Mariangélica O. Silva; Leão Zagury; Ivan S. Ferraz; Ana Lúcia C. Correia; Edgard D. Niclewicz; Rosangela S. Ataide; Fadlo F. Filho; Paula Pascalli; Eucy Falcão; Marcia J. Kayath



Artroplastia total do quadril não cimentada em pacientes com artrite reumatóide * Uncemented total hip arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze clinical, functional, and radiographic results of uncemented total hip arthroplasties in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Retrospective study of 24 patients (28 hips) with rheumatoid arthritis submitted to total hip arthroplasty, using uncemented femoral prosthesis Secur Fit Osteonics ® , with minimum follow-up of two years. The patients were clinically evaluated using the Merle D'Aubigné criteria and




Preparation and Evaluation of Buccoadhesive Films of Atenolol  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the preparation of new bilayered device comprising a drug containing mucoadhesive layer and a drug free backing layer. Bilaminated films were produced by a casting/ solvent evaporation technique. The mucoadhesive layer was composed of mixture of drug and sodium alginate with or without carbopol 934 P, and backing layer was made of ethyl cellulose. The double layer structure design was expected to provide drug delivery in a unidirectional fashion to the mucosa and avoid loss of drug due to wash out with saliva. The fabricated films were subjected to in vitro drug release, in vitro permeation through porcine buccal mucosa. The bilayered films were also evaluated for mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesive time, folding endurance, hydration studies and tensile strength.

Satishbabu, B. K.; Srinivasan, B. P.



O volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo não é suficiente para avaliar resposta broncodilatadora em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica* Measuring forced expiratory volume in one second alone is not an accurate method of assessing response to bronchodilators in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a freqüência de variação no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo após o uso de broncodilatador, em uma amostra de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. Correlacioná-la com dados clínicos e demográficos e avaliar a freqüência de resposta na capacidade vital forçada, capacidade vital lenta, capacidade inspiratória, volume residual, resistência das vias áreas e condutância das




Project planning for EMS and SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typical supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system or an energy management system (EMS) has an installed life of only 10 to 15 years. Because it can take five years or more to implement a new EMS or SCADA system, managing such projects is becoming a way of life for utilities. Project planning for EMS and SCADA systems is

Charles T. Lindeberg; Wayne R. Block



Triple Jump Acceleration for the EM Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the triple jump framework for ac- celerating the EM algorithm and other bound optimization methods. The idea is to extrapolate the third search point based on the previous two search points found by regu- lar EM. As the convergence rate of regular EM becomes slower, the distance of the triple jump will be longer, and thus provide

Han-shen Huang; Bou-ho Yang; Chun-nan Hsu



Alveolar Echinococcosis: Characterization of Diagnostic Antigen Em18 and Serological Evaluation of Recombinant Em18  

PubMed Central

The Echinococcus multilocularis protein Em18 is one of the most promising antigens for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in human patients. Here we identify an antigenic relationship between Em18 and a 65-kDa immunodominant E. multilocularis surface protein previously identified as either EM10 or EmII/3. The NH2-terminal sequence of native Em18 was determined, revealing it to be a fragment of EM10. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of EM10 in crude extracts of E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Em18 was found to be the product of degradation of EM10 by cysteine proteinase. A recombinant Em18 (RecEm18, derived from 349K to 508K of EM10) was successfully expressed by using Escherichia coli expression system and then evaluated for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. RecEm18 was recognized by 27 (87.1%) and 28 (90.3%) of 31 serum samples from clinically and/or pathologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Of 33 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis patients, 1 was recorded as having a weak positive reaction to RecEm18; however, none of the serum samples which were tested from neurocysticercosis patients (n = 10) or healthy people (n = 15) showed positive reactions. RecEm18 has the potential for use in the differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis.

Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Gottstein, Bruno; Lightowers, Marshall W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Ito, Akira



Risk Communication Within the EM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at





Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO : A administração de medicamentos é uma das atribuições de maior responsabilidade executada pelo profissional de enfermagem. É reconhecido que as prescrições médicas têm papel ímpar na prevenção de erros de medicação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os fatores causais de erros de medicação relacionados à redação da prescrição médica manuscrita em um hospital de pequeno porte. Foram



Lietuvos teritorijos žem?s plutos deformacij? ir seismotektoninio potencialo ryšys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lietuvoje yra statini?, kelian?i? ekologinio pavojaus gr?sm? (Ignalinos atomin? elektrin?, Mažeiki? naftos perdirbimo ?mon?, chemijos gamyklos Jonavoje bei K?dainiuose ir pan.). Seisminiai ?vykiai gali sutrikdyti ši? ?moni? veikl? ir net lemti didel? pavoj? aplinkai, t. y. gali b?ti sukelta didel? aplinkos tarša chemin?mis bei radioaktyviosiomis medžiagomis. Seisminius ?vykius lemia teritorijos seismotektoninis potencialas. Seismotektoninis potencialas ir Žem?s plutos deformacijos yra tarpusavyje susij? rei\\vskiniai, kuriuos sukelia dažnai tie patys giluminiai procesai Žem?s gelm?se. Žem?s plutos deformacij? tyrimas yra vienas iš informacijos šaltini? prognozuojant teritorijos seismotektonin? aktyvum?. Straipsnyje nagrin?jamos Žem?s plutos horizontaliosios deformacijos, nustatomi Žem?s plutos ?tempi? poky?iai Lietuvos teritorijoje pagal GPS matavim? duomenis. Atlikus tyrimus pagal pateikiam? Žem?s plutos horizontali?j? deformacij? ir ?tempi? tyrimo metodik?, gauti nauji horizontali?j? deformacij? charakteristik? bei ?tempi? poky?i? rezultatai ir nustatytos j? s?sajos su seismotektoniniu potencialu.

Zakarevi?ius, Algimantas; Stanionis, Arminas; Levinskait?, Daiva



Índice de Comportamiento Objetivo. Una medida para valorar la respuesta al tratamiento de pacientes con trastornos de personalidad graves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Una medida que capta la frecuencia e intensidad de comportamientos disfuncionales experimentados, así como el uso de los servicios de salud mental, se desarrollaron y probaron como parte de un ensayo de tratamiento controlado de pacientes con trastorno de personalidad borderline. El índice de comportamiento objetivo (ICO) se realizó con 136 individuos diagnosti- cados de trastorno de personalidad borderline antes

Heather Munroe-Blum; Lynn McClearly


DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM fissionable material operations. In addition, the report includes projections of future EM needs and associted recommendations.

Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL



Freqüência de hipotireoidismo em pacientes com dis- túrbio bipolar tratados com carbonato de lítio Frequency of hypothyroidism in patients with bipolar disorder treated with lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Lithium is a mood stabilizer used to treat patients with bipolar mood disorder. The influence of lithium in the hypothala- mus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis can bring serious consequences to the users of this drug because one of its collateral effects is the inhibition of thyroid function with prevalence of symptomatic hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism in patients. Sixty-two chats of

Salimara Rampelotto Botton; Sandra Trevisan Beck; Bruno Rampelotto Botton; Martha Noal


Avaliação da Qualidade de Vida em Pacientes com Fibrilação Atrial Submetidos à Ablação por Cateter Quality of Life in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Subjected to Catheter Ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the quality of life in 25 patients with atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation. Methods: Two questionnaires were completed. One was the more general Short Form SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire that assesses the quality of life through eight aspects, scored from 0 to 100, with higher scores reflecting a better quality of life. The other was the more

Lutgarde Magda; Suzanne Vanheusden; Deyse Conceição Santoro; Erika Olivier Bragança; Marcio Luis Alves Fagundes; Bernardo Rangel Tura; Leonardo Bandeira Arantes; Maila Seifert; Macedo Silva; Adriana Monteiro; Correa David; Roberto Menssing da Silva; Fernando Eugênio dos Santos; Cruz Filho


Interferência do Controle Glicêmico na Transição entre as Fases I e II da Lactogênese em Pacientes com Diabetes Melito Tipo 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interference of the Blood Glucose Control in the Transition Between phases I and II of lactogenesis in patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Lactogenesis is constituted by phases I and II. The transition between those phases is characterized by an increase of the lactose concentration in the co- lostrum. This study aimed to evaluate the interference of type 1 Diabetes

Banco de Leite



Binge eating disorder, anxiety, depression and body image in grade III obesity patients Compulsão alimentar periódica, ansiedade, depressão e imagem corporal em pacientes com obesidade grau III  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) or Binge Eating episodes (BINGE), anxiety, depression and body image disturbances in severely obese patients seeking treatment for obesity. Method: We assessed 50 patients (10M and 40F) with Body Mass Index (BMI) between 40 and 81.7 Kg\\/m2 (mean 52.2±9.2 Kg\\/m2) and aging from 18

Maria Isabel R Matos; Luciana S Aranha; Alessandra N Faria; Sandra R G Ferreira; Josué Bacaltchuck; Maria Teresa Zanella


Speech Modelling Using Subspace and EM Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speech waveform can be modelled as a piecewise-stationary linear stochastic state space system, and its parameters can be est imated using an expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm. One problem is the ini- tialisation of the EM algorithm. Standard initialisation s chemes can lead to poor formant trajectories. But these trajectories howev er are impor- tant for vowel intelligibility. The aim of

Gavin Smith; João F. G. De Freitas; Tony Robinson; Mahesan Niranjan



himu-em: The French Polynesian connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

himu, em i and em ii are three of the main geochemical mantle components that give rise to oceanic island basalts [1]. They represent the end members that produce the extreme isotopic compositions measured on intraplate volcanics. In French Polynesia, all three mantle components are represented in volcanic rocks. The characteristic himu signature is found in Tubuai, Mangaia and Rurutu,

Catherine Chauvel; Albrecht W. Hofmann; Philippe Vidal



EM international activities. February 1997 highlights  

SciTech Connect

EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.




National EMS Scope of Practice Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National EMS Scope of Practice Model is a continuation of the commitment of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Health Resources and Services Administration to the implementation of the EMS Agenda for the Future. It is part of a...



Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

Allen, D. M.



Manufacturing Methods of Multi-ingredient Compost with EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is performed for increasing the integrated effect of EM by reasonable mixing of EM solution and multi-ingredient compost in agriculture. This compost has been manufactured by treating organic materials with EM and culturing other beneficial bacteria with high density, and by adding some minerals. The organic substrates were fermented by EM. There was a definite difference between organic

H. G. Ryang; M. S. Rim; Y. H. Rim; C. U. Chang; C. G. Kang; D. C. Yang


The error cause analysis in EM simulation of ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure validity and applicability of computation results, the EM characteristic of a ship must have a full embodiment in the simulation. In this paper, concerning EM environment, configuration feature and RF function requirements of a ship, illustrates EM characteristic and error cause from two aspects, i.e.EM simulation model, computation and analysis method. Aiming at a typical example, analyzes the

Wu Nan; Huang Song-gao; Wen Ding-e; Wang Chun



Consumo e Fermentação Ruminal de Proteínas em Função de Suplementação Alimentar Energética e Protéica em Novilhos1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Objetivou-se analisar o efeito de suplementação energética sobre o consumo e a fermentação ruminal de proteínas em dois níveis de proteína dietética (6 e 20%). Quatro novilhos mestiços fistulados no rúmen foram utilizados em um quadrado latino e os tratamentos arranjados em um fatorial 2 × 2, em que as dietas testadas constituíram-se de: A. só feno; B.

Natália Guarino; Souza Barbosa; Rogério de Paula Lana; Gulab Newandram Jham; Arnaldo Chaer Borges; Antônio Bento Mâncio; José Carlos Pereira; Juliana Silva Oliveira


Marine EM Climatic Parameters. Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently there has been increased interest within the U.S. Navy in the use of climatology-based products to support the planning and execution of military operations. Climatological databases of atmospheric features that impact electromagnetic (EM) propag...

A. E. Barrios P. A. Frederickson



EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.  


The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

Mallard, A S



Accelerated list-mode EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

List-mode data preserves all sampling information in three-dimensional (3-D) PET imaging and can reduce storage requirements for short-time frame acquisitions. List-mode expectation maximization-maximum likelihood (EM-ML), which has been implemented in a number of forms (such as the EM algorithm for list-mode maximum likelihood, the FAIR algorithm and COSEM), is an obvious choice to reconstruct from such data sets when the

A. J. Reader; R. Manavaki; S. Zhao; P. J. Julyan; D. L. Hastings; J. Zweit



3D EM Characterization of Wafer Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper describes a method to characterize wafer probes using a 3D EM simulator. Rather than following the traditional method of building a custom test fixture for different probe setups and measuring the S-parameters, this 3D EM characterization method yields multi-port S-parameters of a specific probe structure by utilizing simulations. For a standard characterization, the S-parameters can be a

Hanyi Ding; Randy Wolf; John Ferrario



Perfil do paciente portador de carcinoma epidermóide da cavidade bucal, em tratamento no Hospital Mário Penna em Belo Horizonte The profile of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma under treatment in Mário Penna Hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the objective of assessing the epidemiological profile of patients with oral squamous cell carci- noma, interviews were conducted with 154 patients under treatment at Mário Penna Hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Patients with labial carcinoma were excluded. Most patients were male (80.5%), the mean age was 57.7 for men, and 65.7 for women. The male to female ratio for

Evandro Neves Abdo; Arnaldo de Almeida Garrocho; Maria Cássia Ferreira de Aguiar


Condições físicas em galáxias HII  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galáxias HII são galáxias anãs de baixa luminosidade que apresentam alta taxa de formação estelar. Seus espectros são dominados por intensas linhas de emissão devido à fotoionização pela presença de um grande número de estrelas do tipo O e B. Nós apresentamos um catálogo espectrofotométrico de 111 galáxias HII observadas no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo Boller & Chivens. Determinamos propriedades estatísticas da amostra e derivamos condições físicas (temperatura eletrônica, densidade eletrônica) e abundâncias químicas. Para algumas galáxias, fomos também capazes de resolver espacialmente regiões de formação estelar individuais e determinar propriedades espectroscópicas para estas regiões separadamente, o que nos permitiu avaliar as flutuações das condições físico-químicas dentro das galáxias HII. Em particular, vimos que apesar das galáxias HII apresentarem formação estelar espalhada ao longo do corpo da galáxia, são objetos quimicamente homogêneos. A fim de estudar a evolução temporal dos objetos durante o tempo de vida das estrelas ionizantes construimos também alguns diagramas relacionando razões de linhas de emissão com a largura equivalente de Hb (EW(Hb)). Para interpretar tais diagramas utilizamos modelos de fotoionização para populações estelares integradas. Concluímos que as galáxias HII não correspondem a simples idéia de um burst instantâneo envolvido por um gás opaco aos fótons ionizantes e com densidade constante. As relações observadas entre razões de linhas e EW(Hb) podem ser melhor compreendidas se as galáxias HII apresentarem populações estelares mais velhas, que contribuem para o contínuo óptico observado.

Kehrig, C.; Telles, E.; Cuisinier, F.



SOFIS FTS EM test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer developed by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in Japan for the Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1) satellite. GCOM-A1 will be placed in a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit, with an inclination angle of 69 degrees. ABB-Bomem is a sub-contractor of NTSpace (NEC-Toshiba Space) for the design and manufacturing of the FTS Engineering Model of SOFIS. SOFIS measures the vertical profile of the atmospheric constituents with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution for the spectral range covering 3-13 ?m. The atmospheric vertical resolution of SOFIS is 1 km. The target of SOFIS measurements is a global distribution of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, CO2, CFC-11, CFC-12, ClONO2, aerosol extinction, atmospheric pressure and temperature. NTSpace in Japan is the prime contractor of SOFIS. The spectrometer is an adapted version of the classical Michelson interferometer using an optimized optical layout and moving retro-reflectors. A solid-state laser diode operating at 1550 nm is used as metrology source of the interferometer. Its highly folded optical design results in a high performance instrument with a compact size. SOFIS FTS implements high performance control techniques to achieve outstanding speed stability of the moving mechanism. This paper describes the test activities of the SOFIS-FTS Engineering Model (EM) and preliminary results. The performances of the FTS are presented in terms of key parameters like signal-to-noise ratio, modulation efficiency and stability. Spectra acquired are shown and test methodology and analyses are presented. Lessons learned during assembly, integration and testing are described as well as improvements planned to be implemented in the Flight Model.

Soucy, Marc-Andre A.; Levesque, Luc E.; Tanii, Jun; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nakajima, Hideaki



Tour of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS) Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These videos introduce middle- and high school-age learners to the electromagnetic spectrum. The product consists of 8 animations including an introduction to electromagnetic waves and one animation for each wavelength of the EM spectrum (Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Rays and Gamma Rays). Each wavelength of the EM spectrum offers a construct to illustrate and teach about NASA sensors, missions, and science. Emphasis is placed on relevant science, such as lunar exploration, and hot science topics, such as climate change. The examples and narrative for each wavelength animation build on the learnersâ prior knowledge then introduces examples from NASA missions. These examples explore the use of spectral analysis and visualizations that help scientists make discoveries about the world around us using EM waves.

Benesch, Troy



Risk Communication Within the EM Program  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication at RFETS is lively and involves important issues, but often does not inform participants about true ''risk reduction.''

Edelson, M.



Report of Feasibility Study. MAPA/HPCM EMS Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first annual revision of the Comprehensive Plan for Areawide Emergency Medical Services (EMS) of the Health Planning Council of the Midlands, and a feasibility study regarding the establishment of an areawide EMS System are presented. The feasibility ...



Rural and Frontier EMS Town Hall Meeting Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) struggle to meet the needs and demands of citizens in communities across the nation. For rural or frontier communities it is becoming even more challenging to meet the communitys needs for prehospital emergency care. EMS S...



Sinopse dos marcos em matéria de segurança alimentar na ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 1995 Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (Ponto de controle crítico para análise de risco em frutos do mar, HACCP na sigla em inglês ... More results from


A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase evolutiva S.

de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.



Do earthquakes generate EM signals?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been significant interest in the seismoelectric effect which is the conversion of acoustic energy into electromagnetic energy. At the onset of the earthquake and at layer interfaces, it is postulated that the seismoelectric signal propagates at the speed of light and thus travels much faster than the acoustic wave. The focus has mainly been to use this method as a tool of predicting earthquakes. Our main objective is to study the possibility of using the seismoelectric effect to determine the origin time of an earthquake, establish an accurate velocity model and accurately locate microearthquakes. Another aspect of this research is to evaluate the possibility of detecting porous zones where seismic activity is postulated to generate fluid movement through porous medium. The displacement of pore fluid relative to the porous medium solid grains generates electromagnetic signals. The Institute of Earth Science and Engineering (IESE) has installed electromagnetic coils in 3 different areas to investigate the seismoelectric effect. Two of the research areas (Krafla in Iceland and Wairakei in New Zealand) are in active geothermal fields where high microearthquake activity has been recorded. The other area of research is at the site of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) at Parkfield area on the active San Andreas Fault which is associated with repeating earthquakes. In the Wairakei and Parkfield cases a single borehole electromagnetic coil close to borehole seismometers has been used whereas in the Krafla study area, 3 borehole electromagnetic coils coupled to borehole seismometers have been used. The technical difficulties of working in the borehole environment mean that some of these deployments had a short life span. Nevertheless in all cases data was gathered and is being analysed. At the SAFOD site, the electromagnetic coil recorded seismoelectric signals very close to a magnitude 2 earthquake. In the Wairakei and Krafla study areas, large swarms of earthquakes were located very close to the electromagnetic coils. This abstract focuses on the data from the Wairakei area. Preliminary data analysis has been carried out by band pass filtering and removing of the harmonics of the 50 Hz power line frequency. The initial results clearly show that electromagnetic signals accompany the seismic P and S waves (coseismic signal). Further data analysis involves the extraction of the seismoelectric signal generated at the onset of the earthquake and at interfaces from the coseismic signal and other ‘noise' sources. This processing step exhibits a major challenge in seismoelectric data processing. Unlike in other studies we measured the EM field and the seismic field at one location. Therefore the seismoelectric wave travelling at the speed of light cannot be determined as easily in the arrival times as when an array of coils is used. This makes the determination of the origin time much more difficult. Hence other processing techniques need to be explored.

Walter, Christina; Onacha, Stephen; Malin, Peter; Shalev, Eylon; Lucas, Alan



Analysis of the EM Field Distribution in Smart Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the EM field distribution in U-home which is a smart home of Kun Shan University. It is apparent that wireless devices in U-home become EM field emitters. This paper states the measurement and the analysis of the EM field distribution generated by those devices. The measurements focus on some popular frequency bands,

Churng-Jou Tsai; Bo-Yuan Tsai; Jinn-Kwei Guo; Chun-Lin Lu; Chang-Fan Liu; Yu-Sheng Lin; Yeong-Her Wang



On Convergence Properties of the EM Algorithm for Gaussian Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We build up the mathematical connection between the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and gradient-based approaches for maximum likelihood learning of finite gaussian mixtures. We show that the EM step in parameter space is obtained from the gradient via a projection matrix P, and we provide an explicit expression for the matrix. We then analyze the convergence of EM in terms of

Lei Xu; Michael I. Jordan



Induced EM Field and Absorbed Power Density Inside Human Torsos by 1 to 500 MHZ EM Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented are numerical results on the internal EM field and absorbed power density inside a human torso induced by EM waves of frequencies ranging from 1 to 500 MHz and of both vertical and horizontal polarizations.

B. S. Guru K. M. Chen



Visualization of Circuit Card EM Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report for Air Force contract F(41608-96-CA)116: Visualization of Circuit Card EM Fields. Circuit cards (or circuit boards) of one type or another are used in nearly every electrical appliance used by the military or by commerce. This na...

D. Zwillinger



EM algorithms for ML factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The details of EM algorithms for maximum likelihood factor analysis are presented for both the exploratory and confirmatory models. The algorithm is essentially the same for both cases and involves only simple least squares regression operations; the largest matrix inversion required is for aq ×q symmetric matrix whereq is the matrix of factors. The example that is used demonstrates that

Donald B. Rubin; Dorothy T. Thayer



Áreas de Risco em Manaus: Inventário preliminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho pautou-se em mapear as ocorrências registradas pela Defesa Civil Municipal (SEMDEC), nos anos de 2005 a 2008, com a finalidade de identificar as áreas mais afetadas por eventos adversos (alagação e deslizamento). Para tanto, foram utilizadas a base cartográfica Google Earth e QGIS. Uma das principais dificuldades foi a localização precisa dos eventos, pois as bases cartográficas

Denise Rodrigues Cruz; Karla R. Mendes Cassiano; Reinaldo Corrêa Costa



EMS response to an airliner crash.  


This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained. PMID:22853919

Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor



Mercury pollution in the Ems estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From approximately 1960 to 1975 the Ems estuary received several tons of mercury per year from a chlor-alkali plant, a pesticide factory and some minor sources. The discharge has been reduced drastically from 1976 onwards. In 1975 and 1976 measurements were made on the distribution of mercury in the sediment. The horizontal distribution revealed a strong local enrichment of the sediment near the point of discharge. The vertical distribution was found to be in accordance with the local deposition rates. In the water phase no significant change in mercury content from 1975 to 1978/79 could be demonstrated. In 1978/79 a difference between Ems estuary and Dutch Wadden Sea was not significant. In 1978 mercury contents of eelpout Zoarces viviparus in the Ems estuary were about twice as high as in the Wadden Sea. In the Ems estuary a decrease of these contents was found between 1974/75 and 1978. A similar decline in the Wadden Sea may be related to a decreased mercury discharge by the River Rhine.

Essink, K.



EM Topology: From Theory to Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main principles of the Electromagnetic Topology theory and the way of adapting them in order to make possible efficient analysis of EM-Coupling problems. Particularly, a difference is made between a low frequency analysis for which an adaptation of the method is required and a high frequency analysis for which direct application of the method seems achievable.

J.-P. Parmantier; I. Junqua



Marine EM in GOM: Advances and outlook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine electromagnetic (EM) sounding methods provide valuable complementary information to conventional seismic exploration methods and success stories have been claimed by several oil companies: 1) as indicator of hydrocarbon presence derived from strong resistive anomalies 2) as complimentary tool in structural exploration. While 3D seismic identifies geological structures, it does not directly reveal the fluid content (hydrocarbons). Marine EM sounding exploits variations in electrical resistivity, and is directly sensitive to fluid saturation and thus resistive hydrocarbons. Under the right circumstances it can confirm the presence of hydrocarbons by identifying their resistive characteristics. This means that the possibility of drilling dry exploration wells is significantly reduced, as is the need for extensive appraisal drilling. EM data is used to resolve ambiguities in the structural interpretation of seismic data. For example, whereas the top of a diapiric salt body is often well constrained by seismic data, the position of the lower boundaries is often more elusive. Carbonate (or salt blankets, or resistive basalt) layers complicate the detection and characterization of deeper structure because of diffusive scattering in the layer. However, the resistivity contrast between these layers and the sediments below is an ideal target for EM sounding methods. Recently, two marine EM methods have become popular: The controlled source EM (CSEM) method and magnetotellurics (MT). The CSEM method uses an electric dipole source to transmit low frequency electromagnetic signals to an array of receivers that measure the electromagnetic field at the seafloor. Variation in amplitude and phase of the received signal as the source is towed through the receiver array yield the resistivity structure of the sub-surface to depths of several kilometers. The MT method uses naturally occurring electromagnetic source fields to determine the resistivity of the sub-surface. Thus, by studying the variation in response as a function of frequency, the variation in resistivity as a function of depth may be determined. These methods give complementary information about the resistivity structure of the sub-seafloor. Whereas CSEM data are primarily sensitive to resistive structures, and in particular to layers that are thin compared to their depth of burial, MT data can constrain larger scale conductive structure. By combining natural and controlled source methods better constraints on the geometry and properties of the seafloor can be gained than from either data type alone. Several case histories with large salt structures in the section illustrate that the techniques are useful for future exploration in the GOM. We see the technology moving from its present focus of deep water to include shallower water depths (where CSEM sounding is presently restricted). In addition, we envision the integration of complimentary EM techniques to get a better constrained resistivity image of the subsurface.

MacGregor, L. M.; Strack, K. M.



Valsartan but not Atenolol Improves Vascular Pathology in Diabetic Ren2 Rat Retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background To determine whether angiotensin type 1 receptor blockade (AT1-RB) or antihypertensive therapy per se, attenuates acellular capillaries and proliferating endothelial cells in the retina of diabetic Ren-2 rats.Methods Eight-week-old hypertensive Ren-2 rats were made diabetic (streptozotocin, 55 mg\\/kg) or nondiabetic (0.1 mol\\/L citrate buffer) and studied for 20 weeks. Diabetic Ren-2 rats received by gavage the AT1-RB valsartan at

Jennifer Louise Wilkinson-Berka; Genevieve Tan; Kassie Jaworski; Slavisa Ninkovic



Effect of practolol and atenolol on lysosomal enzyme activity in the rat ventricular myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free and total activity of five lysosomal enzymes and the ratio between the levels of free and total activity after preincubation of myocardial homogenates for 15-45 min with fl-adrenoblockers, added to the homogenates up to final concentrations of between 1 x 10 -9 and 1 x 10- 5 M, were studied. The center of the chosen range of final concentrations

P. V. Sergeev; N. A. Sysolyatina



Antihypertensive therapy with verapamil SR plus trandolapril versus atenolol plus chlorthalidone on glycemic control  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is evidence that diuretics and ? blockers impair glucose tolerance, whereas calcium channel blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme blockers lack this metabolic effect. We compared the effect of a combination therapy with a nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker plus an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and a ? blocker plus a diuretic on hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) in patients with type

Heinrich Holzgreve; Roumen Nakov; Katrin Beck; Hans Uwe Janka



The association between EMS workplace safety culture and safety outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in EMS workplace safety culture across agencies. We sought to determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, perceptions of working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Results Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past 3 months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 90% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on 5 of the 6 domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for 4 of the 6 domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for 5 of 6 domains. Conclusions Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes.

Weaver, Matthew D.; Wang, Henry E.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Patterson, Daniel



ATENÇÃO FARMACÊUTICA PARA PACIENTES HIPERTENSOS - NOVA METODOLOGIA E A IMPORTÂNCIA DESSA PRÁTICA NO ACOMPANHAMENTO DOMICILIAR Pharmaceutical care for patients with hypertension: a new methodology and the importance of this practice in home care  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar e ampliar o conhecimento dos pacientes sobre a hipertensão arterial, buscando orientá-los e estimulá-los ao uso correto dos medicamentos e à adesão a estilo de vida adequado, salientando a importância da atenção farmacêutica domiciliar no tratamento da doença. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, experimental e longitudinal, realizado com 10 pacientes hipertensos de uma farmácia municipal, selecionados aleatoriamente. Dados sobre

Souza VV; Bertoncin ALF; Valdomiro Vagner de Souza; Ana Lúcia Francisco Bertoncin


Spacetime-based model of EM radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spacetime based model of an electric field and a photon is presented. The model assumes that 4 dimensional spacetime has vacuum fluctuations at all frequencies up to Planck frequency. Gravitational wave theory is used to give insights into electromagnetic (EM) radiation. From gravitational wave equations it is possible to derive the impedance of spacetime and quantify energy propagating in the medium of spacetime. EM radiation is shown to experience the same impedance as gravitational waves. This implies that photons also are waves in the medium of spacetime. The distortion of spacetime produced by a photon is calculated. Experiments are suggested including an experiment that may improve the sensitivity of experiments attempting to detect gravitational waves.

Macken, John A.



Mercury pollution in the Ems estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

From approximately 1960 to 1975 the Ems estuary received several tons of mercury per year from a chlor-alkali plant, a pesticide\\u000a factory and some minor sources. The discharge has been reduced drastically from 1976 onwards. In 1975 and 1976 measurements\\u000a were made on the distribution of mercury in the sediment. The horizontal distribution revealed a strong local enrichment of\\u000a the

K. Essink



Topic-based language models using EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel statistical language model to capture topic-related long-range dependencies. Topics are mod- eled in a latent variable framework in which we also derive an EM algorithm to perform a topic factor decomposition based on a segmented training corpus. The topic model is combined with a standard language model to be used for on-line word

Daniel Gildea; Thomas Hofmann



Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.



Generation and Identification of Arabidopsis EMS Mutants.  


EMS mutant analysis is a routine experiment to identify new players in a specific biological process or signaling pathway using forward genetics. It begins with the generation of mutants by treating Arabidopsis seeds with EMS. A mutant with a phenotype of interest (mpi) is obtained by screening plants of the M2 generation under a specific condition. Once the phenotype of the mpi is confirmed in the next generation, map-based cloning is performed to locate the mpi mutation. During the map-based cloning, mpi plants (Arabidopsis Columbia-0 (Col-0) ecotype background) are first crossed with Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotype, and the presence or absence of the phenotype in the F1 hybrids indicates whether the mpi is recessive or dominant. F2 plants with phenotypes similar to the mpi, if the mpi is recessive, or those without the phenotype, if the mpi is dominant, are used as the mapping population. As few as 24 such plants are selected for rough mapping. After finding one marker (MA) linked to the mpi locus or mutant phenotype, more markers near MA are tested to identify recombinants. The recombinants indicate the interval in which the mpi is located. Additional recombinants and molecular markers are then required to narrow down the interval. This is an iterative process of narrowing down the mapping interval until no further recombinants or molecular markers are available. The genes in the mapping interval are then sequenced to look for the mutation. In the last step, the wild-type or mutated gene is cloned to generate binary constructs. Complementation or recapitulation provides the most convincing evidence in determining the mutation that causes the phenotype of the mpi. Here, we describe the procedures for generating mutants with EMS and analyzing EMS mutations by map-based cloning. PMID:24057369

Qu, Li-Jia; Qin, Genji



Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits  

PubMed Central

Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS) utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems.

Thomas, Stephen H.; Arthur, Annette O.



Gradientes de abundâncias em galáxias espirais  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gradientes de abundâncias obtidos através de observações de regiões H II têm um papel importante no estudo de formação e evolução de galáxias espirais. Determinações diretas de abundâncias somente são obtidas quando linhas de emissão sensíveis à temperatura eletrônica (e.g., [O III]l4363) são detectadas. Infelizmente estas linhas são fracas ou não observadas em regiões H II de baixa excitação. Nestes casos métodos empíricos são utilizados para estimar as abundâncias químicas. Entretanto, diferentes métodos têm produzido diferentes estimativas de gradientes de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, nós construímos modelos de fotoionização com o objetivo de descrever diagramas de diagnósticos construídos com dados publicados de algumas galáxias espirais normais e barradas. Comparações entre nossas estimativas de abundâncias e de outros métodos mostram que quando não há acordo entre eles, nossos modelos superestimam as abundâncias de O/H e N/H por um fator de 0.3 dex em relação a estimativas diretas de abundâncias, e por fator de 0.2 dex em relação a outros métodos empíricos. A origem da produção de nitrogênio nas galáxias estudadas é discutida.

Dors, O. L.., Jr.; Copetti, M. V. F.



Activities of Effective Microorganism (EM) on the Nutrient Dynamics of Different Organic Materials Applied to Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 56 days incubation study was set up to investigate the effects of combined application of effective microorganism (EM) with composted or fresh organic materials on soil nutrient dynamics. Treatments include; Water (W) as Control, EM, Kraal manure (KM) + W, KM + EM, Lawn clippings (LC) +W, LC+EM, Commercial compost (CC) + W and CC + EM. A CO

L. Ncube


Complete-data spaces and generalized EM algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms have been applied extensively for computing maximum-likelihood and penalized-likelihood parameter estimates in signal processing applications. Intrinsic to each EM algorithm is a complete-data space (CDS)-a hypothetical set of random variables that is related to the parameters more naturally than the measurements are. The authors describe two generalizations of the EM paradigm: (i) allowing the relationship between the

J. A. Fessler; A. O. Hero




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK


e/m Experiment Analysis Refinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thomson's e/m experiment is widely popular in undergraduate courses to help gain an understanding of the properties of the electron. Our results using a standard apparatus, however, reveal significant systematic errors. We examine possible reasons for the discrepancy with the aim of modeling effects that were not included in the original analysis. We conclude that the energy loss of the electron beam as it travels through the helium and the distortion of the beam radius measurement by the curved glass of the tube are the two factors which dominate the discrepancy.

Harmon, Michael; Pruitt, Bryce; Velasquez, Kevin; Schelp, Rich



Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS activities through VPP geographic units. In summary, the ISMS and VPP process at the INEEL provided the basic framework of management support and worker involvement to implement our EMS. A cross-functional communication team was established to facilitate the implementation with great success. Communication has been an effective tool for implementing an ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL.

Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman



Convergence in Norm for Alternating Expectation-Maximization (EM) Type Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a sufficient condition for convergence of a general class of alternating estimationmaximization(EM) type continuous-parameter estimation algorithms with respect to a given norm.This class includes EM, penalized EM, Green's OSL-EM, and other approximate EM algorithms.The convergence analysis can be extended to include alternating coordinate-maximization EM algorithmssuch as Meng and Rubin's ECM and Fessler and Hero's SAGE. The condition for

Alfred O. Hero; Jeffrey A. Fessler



Recent development in open systems for EMS\\/SCADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the current situation and emerging trends of development of EMS\\/SCADA systems throughout the world, this report examines the `open system' concept from the viewpoints of users and suppliers. Current technologies for open distributed EMS\\/SCADAs and their possible future trends are described.

Yutaka Kokai; Fumio Masuda; Satoshi Horiike; Yasuji Sekine



10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false [Reserved] E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...



A European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper analyzes the technical and market issues that influence the strategy of implementation of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the payload EMS (European Mobile System) embarked on ITALSAT F-2. The final goal is to determine services, network architecture, and added value chain that make LMSS via EMS profitable for a typical telecommunication company.

Ananasso, Fulvio; Mistretta, Ignazio



Milho para Ensilagem Colhido em Diferentes Estádios de Maturidade1  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Aluno de graduação em Agronomia - UNIFENAS 5 Aluno (a) de graduação em Zootecnia - UNIFENAS Abstract: This research work was conducted in the agricultural crop of 2005\\/2006 on the José do Rosário Vellano University farm in Alfenas\\/MG, with the purpose of evaluating the effect of the maturity stage of the corn for ensiling on the percentage of DM,

Adauton Vilela de Rezende; Hélio Henrique Vilela; Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara; André Ricardo da Silva; Geraldo Benedito de Souza Almeida; Simone Silvia Senedese


On-chip em-sensitive interconnect structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to ever greater current densities in modern IC designs, electromigration (EM) in copper interconnects has become an important reliability factor. In this paper, we analyze current densities on bus and clock networks. We observe that under certain conditions, these networks may become sensitive to EM effects and prone to failure. We perform SPICE simulations on open source Wishbone bus

Di-an Li; Malgorzata Marek-Sadowska; Bill Lee



Clustering Very Large Databases Using EM Mixture Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering very large databases is a challenge for traditional pattern recognition algorithms, e.g. the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for fitting mixture models, because of high memory and iteration requirements. Over large databases, the cost of the numerous scans required to converge and large memory requirement of the algorithm becomes prohibitive. We present a decomposition of the EM algorithm requiring a small

Paul S. Bradley; Cory Reina; Usama M. Fayyad



Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

Miloni, O. I.



Optimal multiple source location estimation via the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an algorithm for multiple source localization based on the Estimate-Maximize (EM) method. The EM method is an iterative algorithm that converges to the Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimate of the unknown parameters by exploiting the stochastic syctem under consideration. In our case the algorithm will converge to the exact ML estimates of the various sources location parameters, where each

M. Feder; E. Weinstein



A Two-Round Variant of EM for Gaussian Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that, given data from a mixture of well-separated spherical Gaussians in , a sim- ple two-round variant of EM will, with high probability, learn the centers of the Gaussians to near-optimal precision, if the dimension is high ( ). We relate this to previous theoreti- cal and empirical work on the EM algorithm.

Sanjoy Dasgupta; Leonard J. Schulman



Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Module B: EMS Systems in the United States - An Introductory Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructional module on emergency medical services (EMS) systems in the United States is presented as part of an educational program for EMS systems administration and planning. The program consists of 23 such modules, which can be adpated to a variety...

B. A. Cooper G. Gibson



DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)



Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems  

SciTech Connect

In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A. [Univ. of Padova (Italy). Dept. of Electrical Engineering



LAN based data communication in modern energy management systems (EMS)  

SciTech Connect

The use of energy management systems (EMS) demands high reliability, real-time behavior and more and more economical systems. The last demand requires use of inexpensive standard components, whenever possible. The following article discusses realization of EMS, especially system communication, with respect to these constraints. Problems due to conventional use of standardized communication protocols in distributed supervisory systems in general and highly-reliable systems in particular are shown. Multicast communication concepts are presented as solutions, using standardized protocols in a problem specific way. The presented concepts fulfill the necessity of using standard components as well as the specific demands towards EMS.

Dieterle, W.; Kochs, H.D. [Univ. of Duisburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Dittmar, E. [ABB Netzleittechnik Gmbh, Ladenburg (Germany)



7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the FSA Administrator to make a determination that a natural disaster has occurred in a county, resulting in severe physical...If the FSA Administrator determines that such a natural disaster has occurred, then EM can be made available...



E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA  

SciTech Connect

A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH



Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) System for Grumman Maglev Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low ve...

S. S. Kalsi



Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Instructor's Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructor's manual for the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems administration and planning educational program is presented. The program curriculum consists of 23 modules, which can be adapted to a variety of educational settings. Guidelines are ...

M. Howells B. A. Cooper



Structure of Matter, Forces, EM Waves, Spectroscopy, Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These supplemental class notes cover the basic properties of matter, the nature of forces, the electromagnetic spectrum, and how astronomers exploit the properties of the EM spectrum to deduce the physical nature of distant objects.

O'Connell, Robert



EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Thi...

J. M. Gabelmann



7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special EM...made for these additional travel funds: (1) Number of sessions. (2) Categories, by number, of personnel attending each session. (3) Estimated...



Decentralized autonomous object-oriented EMS\\/SCADA system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy management systems\\/supervisory control and data acquisition (EMS\\/SCADA) systems are usually geographically distributed and have operational organizations. They are changing in accordance with the various and varying environments, and they should be flexible enough to adapt to those changes quickly. The paper proposes a new architecture called SCOPE (System Configuration of Power Control System) to realize flexible and reliable EMS\\/SCADA

Toshibumi. Seki; H. Sato; T. Tanaka; H. Watanabe



Preliminary Experiment of EM Technology on Waste Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of EM4 on improving the quality of waste water. The experiment was conducted in two locations of candy factory, viz Nestle and Trebor Companies in Jakarta. The EM4 was treated in laboratory condition to the effluent of waste water of non adjusted pH (pH 4.0) and adjusted pH (pH 7.44)

Gede Ngurah Wididana


Atlanta school system EMS yields eight-month payback  

Microsoft Academic Search

A $150,000 School Master energy management system (EMS) saved the Atlanta school system $250,000 and paid for itself in eight months by reducing electricity and gas consumption by 30% and 37%, respectively. The EMS includes a central processor and a remote stand-alone processor for each of 14 schools. A DOE matching grant cut the $303,000 cost in half. Monitors with





Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River National Laboratory - Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRNL-SRPT) delivered the inaugural offering of the Packaging Operations and Maintenance Course for DOE-EM-45's Packaging Certification Program (PCP) at the University of South Carolina Aiken on September 1 and 2, 2009. Twenty-nine students registered, attended, and completed this training. The DOE-EM-45 Packaging Certification Program (PCP) sponsored the presentation of a new

R. Watkins; J. England



EMS-Vision: a perceptual system for autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a survey on the new Expectation- based Multifocal Saccadic Vision (EMS-Vision) system for autonomous vehicle guidance developed at the Universität der Bundeswehr München (UBM). EMS-Vision is the third generation dynamic vision system following the 4-D approach. Its core element is a new camera arrangement, mounted on a high bandwidth pan-tilt head for active gaze control. Central knowledge

Rudolf Gregor; Michael Lützeler; Martin Pellkofer; K.-H. Siedersberger; Ernst Dieter Dickmanns



Maximum likelihood noise cancellation using the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to the two-microphone speech enhancement problem is discussed. Specifically, a maximum-likelihood (ML) problem is formulated for estimating the parameters needed for canceling the noise, and solved by the iterative EM (estimate-maximize) technique. The EM algorithm has been implemented for both a simplified and a more general scenario. The results improve upon those obtained with the classical least-squares approach




Reducing stress factors in EMS: report of a national survey.  


The existence of stress, coping with stress, and the effects of stress in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are highly current and hotly debated subjects. This article describes in part the results of a national survey of 25 EMS systems in 24 large metropolitan areas. The portion of the survey reported here focused on sources of stress and programs available to promote more effective coping with stres. Results are discussed generally and in terms of the services' organizational affiliations. PMID:10263702

Brownstone, J E; Shatoff, D K; Duckro, P N



EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications  

SciTech Connect

This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

Jeffrey M. Gabelmann



Electromagnetic divergence correction for 3D anisotropic EM modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now, the application of divergence correction has been focusing on the electromagnetic (EM) isotropic modeling. However, in regions where the earth demonstrates strong electrical anisotropy due to lamina or faults saturated with water, the traditional divergence corrections may not be working for EM modeling. In this paper, based on the divergence-free property of the current density, we propose a divergence correction technique to speed up the EM modeling process for a 3D arbitrarily anisotropic earth. The volume current density weighting method is adopted for the discretization of divergence correction, so it can be applied to non-uniform grid model. By enforcing the constraints associated with the divergence-free property, the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) iterations and the total computational time for the EM modeling are largely reduced. Furthermore, we discuss how to divide the QMR process into sections and the influence of the number of iterations and the normalized residual on the solution process. We take a helicopter-borne EM system over a 3D earth with arbitrarily electrical anisotropy as an example to examine the effectiveness of our anisotropic divergence correction technique on the EM modelings.

Liu, Yun-He; Yin, Chang-Chun



DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.



Perfis de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As flutuações de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII, inicialmente propostas para explicar as discrepâncias entre os valores de temperatura obtidos por diferentes métodos, têm sido apontadas como a causa mais provável das enormes diferenças encontradas entre as abundâncias químicas medidas através de linhas excitadas colisionalmente e de linhas de recombinação. Recentemente têm sido reportadas tentativas de detecção e quantificação diretas das flutuações de temperatura eletrônica através de medidas ponto a ponto, obtidas por meio de espectroscopia de fenda longa, das razões de linhas [OIII]l4263/l5007 e [NII]l5755/l6584, principais sensores de temperatura. Neste trabalho, utilizamos o código numérico de fotoionização Cloudy para avaliar a confiabilidade desse procedimento. Concluímos que, para valores de densidade eletrônica e de temperatura efetiva da estrela ionizante típicos das regiões HII, os perfis superficiais de temperatura obtidos via medidas do sensor [OIII]l4263/l5007 são bons traçadores dos gradientes internos de temperatura eletrônica. Já os perfis de temperatura eletrônica medidos por meio da razão [NII]l5755/l6584 não reproduzem os gradientes verdadeiros de temperatura.

Copetti, M. V. F.



Efeito preventivo da fisioterapia na redução da incidência de quedas em pacientes com Doença de Alzheimer Preventive effect of the physical therapy to minimize the occurrence of falls in patients with Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this review is to provide better understanding of the preventive effect resulted by the Physical Therapy in- tervention to minimize the occurrence of falls in patients with Alzheimer Disease. The Alzheimer Disease is the main cause of dementia between aged people. In recent years it has been showing an increase in the number of patients proportional

Tetsadê CB Piermartiri; Naaraí Camboim Bezerra; Alexandre Ademar Hoeller


Avaliação da fisioterapia sobre o equilíbrio e a qualidade de vida em pacientes com esclerose múltipla Evaluation of the physical therapy on the balance and on the quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Introduction. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a CNS demyielin disease. The main disturbs are intense fatigue, balance disturb and ataxy. Objectives. To evaluate the physical therapy effects on the balance and quality of life of MS patients. Methods. This study was analytic and interventional, the patients were randomized in two groups: Group 1: submitted in a fifteen ses - sions

Iclaikovski Farias Rodrigues; Mariângela Braga; Pereira Nielson; Andresa Rosane Marinho


Alteração da pressão intra-cuff do tubo endotraqueal após mudança da posição em pacientes sob ventilação mecânica* Endotracheal tube cuff pressure alteration after changes in position in patients under mechanical ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate endotracheal tube cuff pressure (Pcuff) alteration in patients under mechanical ventilation after changes in position. Methods: All selected patients were initially placed in the 35° semi-Fowler position, with Pcuff adjusted to 20 mmHg, and randomly divided into two groups. Group A, in which patients were moved to the lateral decubitus position,

Armando Carlos; Franco de Godoy; Ronan José Vieira; Eduardo Mello De Capitani



Qualidade de vida em pacientes com hiperidrose primária e comparação entre duas técnicas cirúrgicas Quality of life concerning patients with primary hyperidrosis and comparison of the two surgical techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Primary Hyperidrosis (PH) is a chronic disease, which is a capable of causing important subjective pain and harm. A Video Assisted Thoracic Sympathectomy (VATS) is a method of choice for this pathology. The purpose of this study is to record the patient's satisfaction after surgery and evaluate this by comparing two distinct surgical techniques. Methods: A sixty people study

Airton Schneider


Influência da massa magra corporal nas repercussões cardiopulmonares durante o teste de caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com DPOC* Influence of lean body mass on cardiopulmonary repercussions during the six-minute walk test in patients with COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although lean body mass (LBM) has been associated with mortality in patients with COPD, its influence on functional limitation is not clear. The objective of this study was to analyze the cardiopulmonary variables in COPD patients with or without LBM depletion, prior to and after the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Methods: We evaluated COPD patients, 32 with LBM depletion

Nilva Regina; Gelamo Pelegrino; Paulo Adolfo Lucheta; Fernanda Figueirôa Sanchez; Márcia Maria Faganello; Renata Ferrari; Irma de Godoy



Influence of lean body mass on cardiopulmonary repercussions during the six-minute walk test in patients with COPD* Influência da massa magra corporal nas repercussões cardiopulmonares durante o teste de caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com DPOC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although lean body mass (LBM) has been associated with mortality in patients with COPD, its influence on functional limitation is not clear. The objective of this study was to analyze the cardiopulmonary variables in COPD patients with or without LBM depletion, prior to and after the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Methods: We evaluated COPD patients, 32 with LBM depletion

Nilva Regina; Gelamo Pelegrino; Paulo Adolfo Lucheta; Fernanda Figueirôa Sanchez; Márcia Maria Faganello; Renata Ferrari; Irma de Godoy



Estudo com radioaerossol de DTPA tecnecio-99m em pacientes portadores de pneumopatia por amiodarona. (Study with radio aerosol of DTPA technetium-99 m in individuals with pulmonary disease by amiodarone).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to evaluate the role of the clearance of 99 m Technetium chelated to diethylenetriamine-penta-acetate (99 m Tc-DTPA) in amiodarone induced pulmonary disease, 40 individuals were studied in four groups. After spirometry, where a volume-time curve ...

M. Terra Filho



Efeitos da prática mental combinada à cinesioterapia em pacientes pós-acidente vascular encefálico: uma revisão sistemática Effects of mental practice combined with kinesiotherapy in post stroke patients: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Introduction. Mental practice (MP) consists of mental simulation of repetitive movements with the intention of promoting the learning of a motor ability. Objective. To investigate if MP, when combined to kine- siotherapy, is efficient in the motor deficit recovery in upper limbs of post stroke patients. Method. We realized Systematic Review throughout Data Bases PubMed\\/Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematic

Mariana Pacheco; Sergio Machado; José Eduardo Lattari; Cláudio Elidio Portella; Bruna Velasques; Julio Guilherme Silva; Victor Hugo Bastos; Pedro Ribeiro


Efeito do oleo iodado nos niveis sericos de tireoglobulina e nos parametros de funcao tireoidea em pacientes portadores de bocio endemico. (Iodized oil effects in the serum levels of thyroglobulin and in the thyroid function parameters in patients with goiters).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) response to bovine TSH (bTSH) was evaluated in 44 goitrous patients (grades II and III), living in conditions of chronic iodine (I) deficiency (iodine urinary excretion < 40 (mu) I/g creatinin), and, in 26 normal subjects. After t...

N. Lima Neto



Impact of plasmatic lipids in glycemic control and its influence in the cardiometabolic risk in morbidly obese subjects Impacto dos lipídios plasmáticos no controle glicêmico e sua influência no risco cardiometabólico em pacientes obesos mórbidos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate whether biochemical parameters are associated with a good glycemic control and to identify the occurrence of cardiometabolic risk variables. Material and methods: One hundred forty Brazilians were evaluated. The subjects were characterized with regard to glycemic control as good, fair and poor and were divided into tertiles by TG and HbA 1c . We use the ROC

Ary Serpa Neto; Felipe Martin; Bianco Rossi; Rodrigo Dal; Moro Amarante; Nara Alves Buriti; Marçal Rossi



The clinical importance of cardiopulmonary exercise testing and aerobic training in patients with heart failure A importância clínica de testes de exercícios cardiopulmonares e treinamento aeróbico em pacientes com insufi ciência cardíaca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The appropriate physiological response to an acute bout of progressive aerobic exercise requires proper functioning of the pulmonary, cardiovascular and skeletal muscle systems. Unfortunately, these systems are all negatively impacted in patients with heart failure (HF), resulting in signifi cantly diminished aerobic capacity compared with apparently healthy individuals. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is a noninvasive assessment technique that provides

Arena R; Myers J; Guazzi M


Image segmentation by EM-based adaptive pulse coupled neural networks in brain magnetic resonance imaging.  


We propose an automatic hybrid image segmentation model that integrates the statistical expectation maximization (EM) model and the spatial pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is developed to fine tune the PCNN parameters. The EM model serves two functions: evaluation of the PCNN image segmentation and adaptive adjustment of the PCNN parameters for optimal segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN, we use it to segment MR brain image into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN is compared with that of the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and Bias Corrected Fuzzy C-Means (BCFCM) algorithms. The result is four sets of boundaries for the GM and the brain parenchyma (GM+WM), the two regions of most interest in medical research and clinical applications. Each set of boundaries is compared with the golden standard to evaluate the segmentation performance. The adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and BCFCM algorithms in gray mater segmentation. In brain parenchyma segmentation, the adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the BCFCM only. However, the adaptive EM-PCNN is better than the non-adaptive EM-PCNN and EM on average. We conclude that of the three approaches, the adaptive EM-PCNN yields the best results for gray matter and brain parenchyma segmentation. PMID:20042313

Fu, J C; Chen, C C; Chai, J W; Wong, S T C; Li, I C



The EM-POGO: A simple, absolute velocity profiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic current instrumentation has been added to the Bathy Systems, Inc. POGO transport sondes to produce a free-falling absolute velocity profiler called EM-POGO. The POGO is a free-fall profiler that measures a depth-averaged velocity using GPS fixes at the beginning and end of a round trip to the ocean floor (or a preset depth). The EM-POGO adds a velocity profile determined from measurements of motionally induced electric fields generated by the ocean current moving through the vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field. In addition to providing information about the vertical structure of the velocity, the depth-dependent measurements improve transport measurements by correcting for the non-constant fall-rate. Neglecting the variable fall rate results in errors O (1 cm s-1). The transition from POGO to EM-POGO included electrically isolating the POGO and electric-field-measuring circuits, installing a functional GPS receiver, finding a pressure case that provided an optimal balance among crush-depth, price and size, and incorporating the electrodes, electrode collar, and the circuitry required for the electric field measurement. The first EM-POGO sea-trial was in July 1999. In August 2006 a refurbished EM-POGO collected 15 absolute velocity profiles; relative and absolute velocity uncertainty was ˜1cms-1 and 0.5-5 cm s-1, respectively, at a vertical resolution of 25 m. Absolute velocity from the EM-POGO compared to shipboard ADCP measurements differed by ˜ 1-2 cm s-1, comparable to the uncertainty in absolute velocity from the ADCP. The EM-POGO is thus a low-cost, easy to deploy and recover, and accurate velocity profiler.

Terker, S. R.; Sanford, T. B.; Dunlap, J. H.; Girton, J. B.



Sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas do trato respiratório de pacientes com infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade: resultados brasileiros do Programa SENTRY de Vigilância de Resistência a Antimicrobianos dos anos de 1997 e 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

O tratamento da pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC) é habitualmente empírico e o uso de antimicrobianos é baseado em estudos de vigilância. O programa SENTRY foi desenhado para monitorar a resistência a antimicrobianos através de uma rede internacional de laboratórios. Três centros no Brasil participaram do Programa SENTRY em 1997 e em 1998. Métodos: Um total de 344 isolados bacterianos




Electromagnetic multifrequency sounding device EMS, Prototype 2. Comparison with commercial tools.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EMS was developped in ninetees in Institute of Geophysics, Russian Academy of sciences, Siberian branch. In 1996-2001 years the numerous works for hydrogeology, civil engineering and archaeology were performed using EMS. The last year the second prototybe has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mapping, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation.

Abu Zeid, N.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.



Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica em NGC 2438 e NGC 2440  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tradicionalmente, as abundâncias em nebulosas planetárias e regiões HII têm sido obtidas de linhas excitadas colisionalmente, as quais são fortemente dependentes da temperatura eletrônica. Alternativamente, as abundâncias químicas podem ser determinadas de linhas de recombinação, as quais são quase independententes da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, consideráveis diferenças têm sido encontradas entre estes dois métodos. Estas discrepâncias têm sido atribuídas às flutuações espaciais da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, as magnitudes necessárias de flutuações de temperatura eletrônica são consideravelmente mais altas do que aquelas preditas pelos modelos padrões de fotoionização e os mecânismos físicos que poderiam explicar as grandes flutuações de temperatura são desconhecidas. Desta forma, o estudo de variações da temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII e nebulosas planetárias tem ganho um renovado interesse. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um estudo observacional sobre variações internas da temperatura eletrônica nas nebulosas planetárias NGC 2440 e NGC 2438. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal-ruído, na faixa de 3300-6800 Å, com o espectrógrafo Cassegrain Boller & Chivens acoplado ao telescópio de 1.52 m do European Southern Observatory (ESO). Temperaturas eletrônicas foram derivadas da razão [OIII](l4959+l5007)/l4363 em diferentes posições em cada nebulosa planetária. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica foram detectadas e suas magnitudes foram estimadas em NGC 2440 e NGC 2438.

Krabbe, A. C.; Copetti, M. V. F.



Application of the EM algorithm to radiographic images.  


The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm has received considerable attention in the area of positron emitted tomography (PET) as a restoration and reconstruction technique. In this paper, the restoration capabilities of the EM algorithm when applied to radiographic images is investigated. This application does not involve reconstruction. The performance of the EM algorithm is quantitatively evaluated using a "perceived" signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the image quality metric. This perceived SNR is based on statistical decision theory and includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. For a variety of processing parameters, the relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to compare quantitatively the effects of the EM algorithm with two other image enhancement techniques: global contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering. The results suggest that the EM algorithm's performance is superior when compared to unsharp mask filtering and global contrast enhancement for radiographic images which contain objects smaller than 4 mm. PMID:1435595

Brailean, J C; Little, D; Giger, M L; Chen, C T; Sullivan, B J


Analyses of Subnanometer Resolution Cryo-EM Density Maps  

PubMed Central

Today, electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) can routinely achieve subnanometer resolutions of complex macromolecular assemblies. From a density map, one can extract key structural and functional information using a variety of computational analysis tools. At subnanometer resolution, these tools make it possible to isolate individual subunits, identify secondary structures, and accurately fit atomic models. With several cryo-EM studies achieving resolutions beyond 5 Å, computational modeling and feature recognition tools have been employed to construct backbone and atomic models of the protein components directly from a density map. In this chapter, we describe several common classes of computational tools that can be used to analyze and model subnanometer resolution reconstructions from cryo-EM. A general protocol for analyzing subnanometer resolution density maps is presented along with a full description of steps used in analyzing the 4.3 Å resolution structure of Mm-cpn.

Baker, Matthew L.; Baker, Mariah R.; Hryc, Corey F.; DiMaio, Frank



Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.



EM-31 Alternative and Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Program  

SciTech Connect

King's introduction to his presentation made 5 important points: 1) Numerous SRS tanks scheduled for closure (contract commitments); 2) Cannot remove all sludge by mechanical means due to obstructions; 3) Chemical removal technology needed (likely oxalic acid); 4) Post - dissolution neutralization required prior to transfer to compliant tanks; 5) Sodium oxalate salts precipitate on neutralization and have negative downstream impacts. There were three SRS chemical cleaning programs in 2010: Baseline: 8wt percent OA batch contact, ECC: 1-3 wt. percent OA with oxalate destruction, and the Alternative/Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (EM-31). This talk is on the EM-31 program.

King, Bill (SRNL)



EM-31 Alternative and Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Program  


King's introduction to his presentation made 5 important points: 1) Numerous SRS tanks scheduled for closure (contract commitments); 2) Cannot remove all sludge by mechanical means due to obstructions; 3) Chemical removal technology needed (likely oxalic acid); 4) Post - dissolution neutralization required prior to transfer to compliant tanks; 5) Sodium oxalate salts precipitate on neutralization and have negative downstream impacts. There were three SRS chemical cleaning programs in 2010: Baseline: 8wt percent OA batch contact, ECC: 1-3 wt. percent OA with oxalate destruction, and the Alternative/Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (EM-31). This talk is on the EM-31 program.


Rural Volunteer EMS: Reports from the Field. Final Report No. 99.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prehospital emergency care services (EMS) are an essential component of a comprehensive health care system. Rural residents and those traveling through rural areas rely on EMS for treatment and transport in the event of an injury or other health emergency...

M. Hamon R. T. Slifkin S. Rutledge V. A. Freeman



The Mediating Role Of EMS Teamwork As It Pertains To HR Factors And Perceived Environmental Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Little management,theory or empirical results exist to guide managers,in maximizing,employee efforts to successfully implement Environmental Management Systems (EMS). In response, this study examines the relationship among,Human,Resource (HR) factors and employee perceptions of environmental,performance. Four hundred,thirty-seven (437) employees,were surveyed,in an organization with a well-developed EMS program,and ISO 14001 certification. Results suggest that management support for EMS, EMS training, employee empowerment,

Bonnie F. Daily; James W. Bishop; Robert Steiner



Changes in the Microflora and Physiological - Biochemical Characteristics in the Culture of EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microflora of EM1 culture is converted from aerobic and neutral to anaerobic and acidic. Biochemical characteristics of EM1 changed according to change of microflora. pH, EC and content of organic acid of EM1 at the end of culture were 3 - 3.5, 0.6 - 0.9 s\\/m and 1.9 - 2.1 %, respectively. Antioxidation activity of EM1 increased in proportion to

C. M. Oh; S. B. Choi


EMS provider level does not impact use of air medical transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The local emergency medical services (EMS) provider level within a nearby EMS system changed from EMT-I to paramedic. This increase in level of care was expected to decrease utilization of air medical transport and increase acuity of patients flown. Setting: Semirural, mountainous area with an annual volume of 2800 transports. Methods: Retrospective review of the EMS database performed for

David E. Fosnocht; Eric R. Swanson; Elizabeth Middleton



Convergence results for the EM approach to mixtures of experts architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is an iterative approach to maximum likelihood parameter estimation. Jordan and Jacobs recently proposed an EM algorithm for the mixture of experts architecture of Jacobs, Jordan, Nowlan and Hinton (1991) and the hierarchical mixture of experts architecture of Jordan and Jacobs (1992). They showed empirically that the EM algorithm for these architectures yields significantly faster convergence

Michael I. Jordan; Lei Xu



Designing ergonomic interventions for EMS workers: Concept generation of patient-handling devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire service personnel and private ambulance paramedics suffer musculoskeletal injuries as they lift and carry patients while performing emergency medical services (EMS). Engineering changes, such as the design of new EMS patient-handling devices, offer a potential intervention opportunity for combating this problem. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to generate beginning ideas for the design of new EMS

Karen M. Conrad; Paul A. Reichelt; Steven A. Lavender; Jessica Gacki-Smith; Sally Hattle



Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to

N. Abu Zeid; E. Balkov; M. Chemyakina; A. Manstein; Y. Manstein; G. Morelli; G. Santarato



Achieving Environmental Excellence: An Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Handbook for Wastewater Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

How this Handbook is Organized This Wastewater EMS Handbook guides you through EMS implementation based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act model of the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. The Handbook is designed primarily for EMS implementers, so the heart ...



Epiderme dos segmentos foliares de Mauritia flexuosa L. f. (Arecaceae) em três fases de desenvolvimento  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO São apresentados os dados anatômicos da epiderme dos segmentos foliares de Mauritia flexuosa L. f. (Arecaceae) em três fases do desenvolvimento. Os segmentos foliares foram analisados em toda a extensão do limbo. As células intercostais da epiderme das faces adaxial e abaxial evidenciam-se com paredes sinuosas, retangulares e orientadas longitudinalmente em relação ao eixo do segmento foliar com acentuada

Mahedy Araújo Bastos Passos; Maria Sílvia de Mendonça




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii são protozoários coccídios que parasitam diferentes espécies animais domésticas e silvestres. E nquanto a infecção por H. heydorni parece ser assintomática, N. caninum e T. gondii podem provocar alterações reprodutivas em ruminantes. N. caninum é um importante causador de abortamentos em bovinos, ao passo que T. gondii induz a abortamentos em caprinos




Microsoft Academic Search

Nas últimas décadas, verificou-se uma mudança no comportamento do consumidor no sentido de adotar uma postura mais consciente em relação aos produtos que adquire. No setor alimentício, essa evolução é nítida, em função da busca por uma maior qualidade de vida, agregando à dieta questões de saúde, incluindo produtos com menor conteúdo de gorduras e calorias, rico em fibras, pobre

Joao Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz Machado; Timoteo Ramos Queiroz; Andrea Rossi Scalco



Penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction using space-alternating generalized EM algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most expectation-maximization (EM) type algorithmsfor penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstructionconverge slowly, particularly when one incorporatesadditive background effects such as scatter, random coincidences,dark current, or cosmic radiation. In addition,regularizing smoothness penalties (or priors) introduce parametercoupling, rendering intractable the M-steps of mostEM-type algorithms. This paper presents space-alternatinggeneralized EM (SAGE) algorithms for image...

Jeffrey A. Fessler; Alfred O. Hero III



Renal and metabolic effects of 1-year treatment with ramipril or atenolol in NIDDM patients with microalbuminuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   The clinical importance of selection of different antihypertensive drugs for the treatment of diabetic patients is still\\u000a unclear. Thus we performed a randomised, controlled study in 105 hypertensive non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients\\u000a with microalbuminuria over 1 year. Patients received either the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ramipril (2.5–5.0\\u000a mg\\/day; in addition 24 % of patients also received felodipine) or

C. Schnack; W. Hoffmann; P. Hopmeier; G. Schernthaner



Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric Differentiation of Atenolol, Metoprolol, Propranolol, and an Interfering Metabolite Product of Metoprolol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pilots who successfully control their hypertension with medications, diet, and/or exercise can be medically certified to fly an aircraft. At the present time, approximately 8% of active pilots are designated as 'hypertensive with medication' by the Federa...

M. K. Angier R. J. Lewis A. K. Chaturvedi D. V. Canfield



Polyproline II structure is critical for the enzyme protective function of soybean Em (LEA1) conserved domains.  


Group 1 late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA1) proteins protect enzyme activity from dehydration and are structurally conserved with three different 20 amino acid motifs in the N-terminal, middle and C-terminal domains. Three soybean Em (LEA1) domain peptides (Em-N, Em-2M and Em-C) covering these respective motifs were constructed and had differential protective ability on lactate dehydrogenase against freeze-thaw: Em-C > Em-2M > Em-N. CD spectroscopy revealed that Em-2M and Em-C contained both polyproline II (PII) helical structure and ?-helix, while Em-N had a high potential to form ?-helix but did not contain PII structure. The PII helical structure between the third and fifth glycine in the middle motif was shown, through site mutation, to be critical for the enzyme protective function of soybean Em (LEA1) conserved domain under freezing stress. PMID:21455835

Zou, Yongdong; Hong, Ruisha; He, Shuwen; Liu, Guobao; Huang, Zebo; Zheng, Yizhi



EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's

Jeffrey M. Gabelmann



Communications technology guidelines for EMS\\/SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Guideline Technical Paper is to provide a summary of the different communications technologies available for use or application with EMS\\/SCADA system projects. All of the various communication media are addressed with a brief description along with tables of the advantages and disadvantages of each and recommendations for choosing the most appropriate communication technology. The technologies discussed

Donald J. Marihart



Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard



Preliminary study on the EMS of CRT display for computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS) of cathode ray tube (CRT) display for computer was investigated preliminarily using the test method of bulk current injection (BCI). During the test, CW signals as electromagnetic interference (EMI) signals with different amplitude at a certain frequency were injected into the RGB, horizontal synchronization (HS) and vertical synchronization (VS) signal line of video graphics array (VGA)

Da Gang Xie; Nan Wu; Jing Yu; Xiang Song Yang; Dong Yun Hou



Ultra-stiff, low mass, EM gun design  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance in an electromagnetic (EM) gun implies high velocity with minimal transition from a solid to plasma armature. Factors that affect gun performance include armature integrity, bore straightness and bore stiffness. Experiences firing solid armature at CEM-UT since 1987 have shown that the lack of one or more of these three ingredients will result in less than desirable performance.

M. D. Werst; J. R. Kitzmiller; C. S. Hearn; G. A. Wedeking



Analysis of composite EM scattering based on accurate geometry modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to studying composite EM scattering from 2-D rough surface and half-buried 3-D target is proposed in this paper, from accurate geometry modeling to RCS analysis. First, two dimensional rough surface is simulated with spectral method, which then is converted into a continuous curved surface through inverse engineering. Target model and rough surface model are combined together to be

Jie Li; Qiong He; Lixin Guo; Bing Wei



A Pilot Marine EM Study of Hydrate Ridge, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been proposed (e.g. Nigel Edwards, U. Toronto) that EM methods may be able to detect and map gas hydrate, which is more resistive than host sediments and thus provides an electrical target. While the base of hydrates often produces a distinctive seismic signature (the bottom-simulating reflector, or BSR), the gradational upper surface is less well imaged using

K. Weitemeyer; S. Constable; J. Behrens



Match'em: using fuzzy logic to profile criminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details research undertaken at Bournemouth University into the use of a fuzzy development system called Matcher to build an offender profiling system. A brief introduction is given on the background and uses for offender profiling and the Matcher tool used to build the Match'em system. A description of the design of the system and its evaluation is provided.

M. Lefly; V. Austin



Detecção Cooperativa de Intrusões em Redes Carrier Ethernet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Hoje em dia os elementos de rede (NEs) da camada 2 do modelo OSI, bridges ou switches, são componentes complexos, com centenas de milhares de linhas de software, que podem ser vulneráveis a ataques, permitindo até a execução remota de código no seu CPU interno. Este trabalho apresenta um esquema para proteger infra-estruturas de rede Carrier Ethernet de ataques

Pan Jieke; João Redol; Miguel Correia


Sonar-Based Mapping With Mobile Robots Using EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithms for learn- ing occupancy grid maps with mobile robots equipped with range finders, such as sonar sen- sors. Our approach employs the EM algorithm to solve the concurrent mapping and localization problem. To accommodate the spatial nature of range data, it relies on a two-layered representa- tion of maps, where global maps are composed from

Wolfram Burgard; Dieter Fox; Hauke Jans; Christian Matenar; Sebastian Thrun


Signs and Guides: Wayfinding Alternatives for the EMS Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concerned with increasing the accessibility of the collection of the Engineering/Math Sciences (EMS) Library at the University of California at Los Angeles through the use of self guidance systems, this practical study focused on the problem context, general library guides, and library signage in reviewing the literature, and conducted a survey…

Johnson, Johanna H.


An EM algorithm for wavelet-based image restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper introduces an expectation--maximization(EM) algorithm for image restoration (deconvolution) based on apenalized likelihood formulated in the wavelet domain. Regularizationis achieved by promoting a reconstruction with low-complexity,expressed in the wavelet coefficients, taking advantage ofthe well known sparsity of wavelet representations. Previous workshave investigated wavelet-based restoration but, except for certainspecial cases, the resulting criteria are solved...

Mário A. T. Figueiredo; Robert D. Nowak



Debris Avalanche Formation at Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano near Grenada is the most active volcanic center in the Lesser Antilles arc. Multibeam surveys of the volcano by NOAA in 2002 revealed an arcuate fault scarp east of the active cone, suggesting flank collapse. More extensive NOAA surveys in 2003 demonstrated the presence of an associated debris avalanche deposit, judging from their surface morphologic expression

H. Sigurdsson; S. N. Carey; D. Wilson



Hierarchical mixtures of experts and the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a tree-structured architecture for supervised learning. The statistical model underlying the architecture is a hierarchical mixture model in which both the mixture coefficients and the mixture components are generalized linear models (GLIMs). Learning is treated as a maximum likelihood problem; in particular, we present an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for adjusting the parameters of the architecture. We also develop

Michael I. Jordan; Robert A. Jacobs



Custo de bombas centrífugas funcionando como turbinas em microcentrais hidrelétricas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A implantação de microcentrais hidrelétricas é uma das alternativas para suprir com energia comunidades pequenas e isoladas, situadas normalmente na área rural. O aproveitamento de potenciais hidráulicos de pequeno porte é uma alternativa cada vez mais viável devido não só à falta de recursos financeiros para os grandes empreendimentos, mas também pelo imenso potencial de geração em centrais de

Carlos R. Balarim; Luiz A. Targa; Jorim S. Virgens Filho; Alceu G. Andrade Filho; Giovana K. Wiecheteck



FFTF EM service pump design, application, and testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1975, HEDL selected Atomics International to review the design of three classes of EM Pumps (L-30, L-100, L-200) and to fabricate a total of fifteen pumps. One of the L-100 pumps was shipped to the liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) for sodium testing in the small components test loop (SCTL). The paper presents the HEDL design criteria, discusses the

G. Jacobson; E. H. Carter; G. J. Hallinan; R. L. Eichelberger



Statistical Physics, Mixtures of Distributions, and the EM Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that there are strong relationships between approaches to optmization and learning based on statistical physics or mixtures of experts. In particular, the EM algorithm can be interpreted as converging either to a local maximum of the mixtures model or to a saddle point solution to the statistical physics system. An advantage of the statistical physics approach is that

Alan L. Yuille; Paul E. Stolorz; Joachim Utans



EM Localization and Separation using Interaural Level and Phase Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system for localizing and separating multiple sound sources from a reverberant two-channel recording. It consists of a probabilistic model of interaural level and phase differences and an EM algorithm for finding the maximum likelihood parameters of this model. By assigning points in the interaural spectrogram probabilistically to sources with the best-fitting parameters and then estimating the parameters

Michael I. Mandel; Daniel P. W. Ellis



Extending EMS capabilities to include online stability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the integration of stability assessment tools in the EMS. The main functions are the transient security and voltage security tools. They are invoked under several modes of operation to address the current state of the system as well as the immediate short-term planning horizons. Data exchange, preparation and output visualization are described in the context of distributed

Rene Avila-Rosales; Jay Giri; Rafael Lopez



Síndrome da cabeça caída em doença do neurônio motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A síndrome da cabeça caída é causada por diminuição de força nos músculos extensores do pescoço sendo encontrada em diversas doenças neuro m u s c u l a res, bem como, na esclerose lateral amiotrófica. D e s c revemos o caso de três mulheres com diagnóstico de doença do neurônio motor com quadro clínico de disfagia

Paulo José Lorenzoni; Marcos Christiano Lange; Cláudia S. K. Kay; Luiz G. M. P. de Almeida; Hélio A. G. Teive; Rosana H. Scola; Lineu C. Werneck



A shape constrained MAP-EM algorithm for colorectal segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task of effectively segmenting colon areas in CT images is an important area of interest in medical imaging field. The ability to distinguish the colon wall in an image from the background is a critical step in several approaches for achieving larger goals in automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The related task of polyp detection, the ability to determine which objects or classes of polyps are present in a scene, also relies on colon wall segmentation. When modeling each tissue type as a conditionally independent Gaussian distribution, the tissue mixture fractions in each voxel via the modeled unobservable random processes of the underlying tissue types can be estimated by maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm in an iterative manner. This paper presents, based on the assumption that the partial volume effect (PVE) could be fully described by a tissue mixture model, a theoretical solution to the MAP-EM segmentation algorithm. However, the MAP-EM algorithm may miss some small regions which also belong to the colon wall. Combining with the shape constrained model, we present an improved algorithm which is able to merge similar regions and reserve fine structures. Experiment results show that the new approach can refine the jagged-like boundaries and achieve better results than merely exploited our previously presented MAP-EM algorithm.

Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong; Song, Bowen; Han, Fangfang; Liang, Zhengrong



An EM algorithm for regression analysis with incomplete covariate information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression analysis is often challenged by the fact that some covariates are not completely observed. Among other approaches is a newly developed semiparametric maximum likelihood (SML) method that requires no parametric specification of the selection mechanism or the covariate distribution and that yields efficient inference, at least in some specific models. In this paper, we propose an EM algorithm for

Zhiwei Zhang; Howard E. Rockette



GPS computer navigators to shorten EMS response and transport times.  


GPS (global positioning satellite system to determine one's position on earth) units have become inexpensive and compact. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a GPS enhanced computer street map navigator to improve the ability of EMS drivers in an urban setting to locate their destination and shorten response times. For part I, residential addresses in the city were randomly selected from a telephone directory. Two driver/navigator teams were assigned to drive to the address adhering to speed limits. One team used a standard street map, whereas the other team used a GPS computer navigator. The travel time and distance of the runs were compared. For part II, the computer GPS navigator was placed on an ambulance to supplement their normal methods of navigation to find the address requesting EMS. After the run was completed, EMS providers were interviewed to determine their opinion of whether the GPS navigator was helpful. For part I the results showed that in the 29 initial test runs, comparing the GPS team versus the standard map team, the mean distances traveled were 8.7 versus 9.0 kilometers (not significant) and the mean travel times were 13.5 versus 14.6 minutes (P=.02), respectively. The GPS team arrived faster in 72% runs. For part II the results showed that most EMS providers surveyed noted that the GPS computer navigator enhanced their ability to find the destination and all EMS providers acknowledged that it would enhance their ability to find a destination in an area in which they were unfamiliar. These results suggest that a portable GPS computer navigator system is helpful and can enhance the ability of prehospital care providers to locate their destination. Because these units are accurate and inexpensive, GPS computer navigators may be a valuable tool in reducing pre-hospital transport times. PMID:11326345

Ota, F S; Muramatsu, R S; Yoshida, B H; Yamamoto, L G



An Evaluation of DOE-EM Public Participation Programs  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the scope and effectiveness of the public participation pr ograms, including Site-Specific Advisory Boards (SSABs), at seven U.S. Departmen t of Energy (DOE) sites: Fernald, Hanford, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge, Paduc ah, and Savannah River. The primary purpose of the study is to assist both DOE Field and Headquarters managers in reviewing and understanding lessons learned o ver the past decade concerning public participation programs administered by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM). The evaluation provides a snapsh ot of selected EM public participation programs at a particular point of time. It is based on interviews and site visits conducted between January and June 200 2- a time of change within the program. The study focuses on public participati on programs that incorporate a variety of activities and address a wide range of individual site activities and decisions. It uses the Acceptability Diamond as an evaluative framework to answer questions about stakeholders' experiences wit h, and assessment of, DOE-EM's public participation programs. The Acceptability Diamond, which was developed by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in previous research, identifies four program dimensions - substanti ve issues, decision-making process, relationships, and accountability - that det ermine the effectiveness of an agency's interactions with local communities. Es sentially, a public participation program may be deemed effective to the extent that it provides for open disclosure and addresses all four acceptability dimens ions in ways that are appropriate and effective for a particular community and s ituation. This framework provides a guide for agencies to 1) set objectives, 2) design public participation and oversight programs, and 3) set criteria for eva luating program effectiveness. In the current study, where the framework is use d as a means of assessing program effectiveness, the focus is on stakeholders' p erspectives of public participation: on the nature of DOE-EM's public disclosure and the four interrelated dimensions of DOE-EM's interactions with its neighbor ing communities

Bradbury, Judith A.; Branch, Kristi M.; Malone, Elizabeth L.



EM calibration based on Post OPC layout analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design for Manufacturability (DFM) involves changes to the design and CAD tools to help increase pattern printability and improve process control. Design for Reliability (DFR) performs the same to improve reliability of devices from failures such as Electromigration (EM), gate-oxide break down, hot carrier injection (HCI), Negative Bias Temperature Insatiability (NBTI) and mechanical stress effects. Electromigration (EM) occurs due to migration or displacement of atoms as a result of the movement of electrons through a conducting medium. The rate of migration determines the Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) which is modeled as a function of temperature and current density. The model itself is calibrated through failure analysis (FA) of parts that are deemed to have failed due to EM against design parameters such as linewidth. Reliability Verification (RV) of a design involves verifying that every conducting line in a design meets certain MTTF threshold. In order to perform RV, current density for each wire must be computed. Current itself is a function of the parasitics that are determined through RC extraction. The standard practice is to perform the RC extraction and current density calculation on drawn, pre-OPC layouts. If a wire fails to meet threshold for MTTF, it may be resized. Subsequently, mask preparation steps such as OPC and PSM introduce extra features such as SRAFs, jogs,hammerheads and serifs that change their resistance, capacitance and current density values. Hence, calibrating EM model based on pre-OPC layouts will lead to different results compared to post-OPC layouts. In this work, we compare EM model calibration and reliability check based on drawn layout versus predicted layout, where the drawn layout is pre-OPC layout and predicted layout is based on litho simulation of post-OPC layout. Results show significant divergence between these two approaches, making a case for methodology based on predicted layout.

Sreedhar, Aswin; Kundu, Sandip




Microsoft Academic Search

Puccinia triticina Erikss. the causal agent of the leaf rust fungal disease common in southern Brazil, is the widest distributed and regularly occurring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) pathogen. The knowledge of resistance genes is fundamental for a more effective protection against the fungus. Due to the dinamic nature of cereal-fungus relationship, the resistance stability is difficult to

Sandra Patussi Brammer; Maria Irene; Baggio de Moraes; Amarílis L. Barcellos; Sandra Cristina; K. Milach; Antony Worland; Greg Penner


Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality  

PubMed Central

This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P?EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P?EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.



Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality.  


This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P?EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P?EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul



Efeito do gradiente de martensita induzida por deformação sobre o fenômeno de delayed cracking em aços inoxidáveis austeníticos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o fenômeno de Delayed Cracking em aços inoxidáveis austeníticos quando foram severamente deformados em operações de estampagem. Durante a conformação, a austenita destes aços se transformou em martensita e a fração volumétrica desta fase apresentou variação em relação à altura da parede do copo e à composição química dos aços. O cobre

Marta Ribeiro dos Santos; Hélio José Batista Alves; Robson Guimarães Lopes; Berenice Mendonça Gonzalez



Access to Emergency Medical Services in Rural Areas: The Supporting Role of State EMS Agencies. Working Paper Number 38.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to improve the limited knowledge about rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and the support of rural EMS by state EMS agencies. A telephone survey of state EMS directors was completed in early 2001 and collected information ...

A. Knott



Conhecimento e inovação em sistemas locais de produção de revestimentos cerâmicos e os novos desafi os da concorrência internacional  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Este trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir para a compreensão das novas dinâmicas de geração de conhecimento e inovação em sistemas loc ais de produção a partir dos desafi os da concorrência internacional, por meio da realização de estudos em dois sistemas locais da indústria de cerâmica de revestimento no Brasil, um localizado em Santa Gertrudes\\/SP e outro em Criciúma\\/SC.

Gabriela Scur FEI; Renato Garcia EPUSP



Em polypeptide and its messenger RNA levels are modulated by abscisic acid during embryogenesis in wheat.  


The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the expression of the 'early-methionine-labeled' (Em) polypeptide was examined in cultured, immature wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) embryos and in developing embryos in planta. A complementary DNA (cDNA) library was constructed from poly(A)-rich RNA from immature embryos cultured in the presence of ABA. ABA-enhanced sequences were first identified by differential colony-blot hybridization, and then verified using RNA slot-blot analysis. Dot-blot hybridization showed that one clone, p1015, was homologous to the previously isolated Em cDNA, pWG432. Electrophoretic analysis of the hybrid-select translation product of p1015 confirmed its identity as an Em sequence. Comparison of the p1015 cDNA insert size and the Em message size, from northern blot analysis, showed that p1015 contained about 87% of the Em sequence. RNA slot-blot analysis and protein electrophoresis showed that Em message, but not Em protein, accumulated at a low, basal level in immature embryos in the absence of ABA. Neither Em message nor Em protein was seen in three-day germinated seedlings. Steady-state levels of Em message and protein increased in immature embryos in the presence of ABA, both in culture and in planta. Regulation appeared to be primarily at the level of transcription or specific message stability. Regulation may also involve specific protein stability, since synthesis of Em protein continued in immature embryos in the absence of ABA, but Em protein did not accumulate in detectable amounts. We conclude that ABA specifically modulates Em message and protein levels in immature embryos, but is probably not responsible for the embryogenic specificity of Em expression. PMID:2932332

Williamson, J D; Quatrano, R S; Cuming, A C



População nuclear e extranuclear em rádio-galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natureza do contínuo UV/ótico em rádio-galáxias é muito importante para o seu entendimento. Em baixos redshifts existem evidências de que muitas delas são dominadas no ótico por luz de estrelas velhas, características de galáxias early-type e em altos redshifts a característica dominante é um excesso de luz no UV, freqüentemente associado com estruturas que estão alinhadas aos eixos das estruturas rádio em grande escala. Inicialmente esse excesso foi interpretado como devido a episódios intensos de formação estelar nas galáxias hospedeiras. Entretanto, as descobertas dos alinhamentos entre as estruturas UV e rádio modificaram essa idéia. Foi proposto que a formação estelar é iniciada pela passagem do jato rádio através do meio interestelar das galáxias hospedeiras. A natureza do excesso UV começou a ser compreendida em um estudo detalhado do continuo ótico da 3C321, onde se concluiu que o contínuo desta galáxia tem origem multicomponente, com contribuições de populações velhas e intermediárias, de luz espalhada oriunda de um quasar obscurecido e do contínuo nebular. No presente trabalho estudamos a população nuclear e extranuclear de uma amostra de 24 rádio-galáxias, utilizando espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído. Através do método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência devido a um AGN, FC) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020Å. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: apenas quatro dos objetos estudados têm contribuições significativas (maiores do que 10%) das populações de 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens (ou de FC) ao longo da região espacial estudada (6 kpc centrais); nenhuma das rádio-galáxias de tipo FRI estudadas tem contribuição significativa destas populações ao longo desta região; duas (de oito) de tipo FRII tem contribuições significativas da luz que vem do AGN, na região nuclear; uma tem contribuição significativa das populações de 100 milhões de anos e mais jovens ao longo dos 4 kpc centrais, indicando claramente a presença de formação estelar recente. Comparando estes resultados com aqueles obtidos para uma amostra de galáxias não ativas de mesmo tipo de Hubble das rádio, encontramos que a principal diferença entre as duas amostras está na contribuição da população de 1 bilhão de anos, geralmente maior nas rádio-galáxias.

Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Quintana, H.; Alloin, D.; Hunstead, R.; Wisotzki, L.



Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.  


Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot



Long Term Monitoring of EM Signals Near Parkfield CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluctuations of resistivity and anomalous electromagnetic (EM) signals have often been reported as precursors to earthquakes. Most of these reports are based on anecdotal observations of unusual phenomena associated with distant earthquakes, with anomalous signals that are often orders of magnitude larger than expected based on laboratory measurements. In an attempt to assess the validity of these reports, and to understand how such signals might be generated, anomalous EM signals and resistivity have been monitored since 1995 using magnetotelluric (MT) instruments at the site of the focused earthquake prediction experiment at Parkfield, CA. This EM monitoring array was fully operational and producing high quality data when the long awaited 28 Sept Mw=6.0 Parkfield earthquake occured. The Parkfield MT site, consisting of three magnetic induction coils and replicated orthogonal electric dipoles, was situated within a few kilometers of the northwestern end of the surface rupture, providing unprecedented observations of EM signals at a well calibrated site in very close proximity to a moderate (M~6) earthquake. A second MT site near Hollister, CA was also functioning well before, during, and after the earthquake, providing a callibrated reference for cancellation of normal EM variations due to ionospheric and magnetospheric sources. Analysis of this data using a variety of techniques has not revealed any anomalous signals which were unambiguos precursors to the 28 September Earthquake. In particular, residual E and B fields computed in both the time and frequency domains over the year 2004 using the remote Hollister site for prediction have been analyzed statistically, revealing no long term trends or changes in anomalous EM signal or noise levels in the months to days preceeding the earthquake. Similarly, no anomalous bursts of EM activity are seen immediately preceeding the earthquake. Based on our analysis of these residuals we conclude that any anomalous magnetic signals would have to be at least 2-3 orders of magnitude weaker than those reported to preceed the Loma Prieta earthquake. A strong co-seismic signal was observed. Much of this signal can probably be explained by motion of the sensors in the Earth's main field, although local electrokinetic effects in the vicinity of the sensor may also have contributed to these signals. Statisitcal analysis has also been performed on variations of daily estimates of apparent resistivity and phase at Parkfield. Systematic variations in these parameters are observed, including slow seasonal modulations and more rapid changes on time scales of a few days. However, comparison to weather records suggest that these signals are most probably related to ground moisture and precipitation events, modifying near surface distortion of the electric fields. Multivariate statistical analysis, including principal components and canonical coherence analysis have also been applited to the data, allowing alternate views of temporal variations of signal and noise characteristics. Although there are some anomalous signals deserving more careful study, there is no evidence from this analysis for significant anomalous EM signals preceeding the Parkfield earthquake.

Kappler, K.; Morrison, H.; Egbert, G.



Tenants' energy bill calculated by custom EMS and software  

SciTech Connect

A Dallas real estate company reduced energy bills by 25% by allocating costs among tenants more fairly. Xencom Inc. assembled an energy management system (EMS) and custom software for the company that monitors and bills tenants who override the EMS during off-hours. The 600-point system made up of components of a number of manufacturers was installed in two buildings. Payback should occur in 18 months. Tenants wishing to override the system between 7 p.m. and 7 a.m. weekdays and between Saturday noon and 7 a.m. Monday dial the computer on any touch phone to give their access and employee code, which identifies the office space for billing. The employee then identifies which building systems he needs.

Hines, V.



Automatic Derivation of Statistical Algorithms: The EM Family and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning has reached a point where most probabilistic meth-ods can be understood as variations, extensions and combinations of a much smaller set of abstract themes, e. g., as different instances of the EM algorithm. This enables the systematic derivation of algorithms cus-tomized for different models. Here, we demonstrate the AUTOBAYES system which takes a high-level statistical model specification, uses

Alexander G. Gray; Bernd Fischer; Johann Schumann; Wray L. Buntine



EM-Coffee: An Improvement of M-Coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sequence alignment is a basic of sequence analysis. In the development of multiple sequence alignment (MSA) approaches, M-Coffee [1] was proposed as a meta-method for assembling outputs from different individual multiple aligners into one single MSA to boost the accuracy. Authors showed that M-Coffee outperformed individual alignment methods. In this paper, we propose an improvement of M-coffee, called EM-Coffee,

Nguyen Ha Anh Tuan; Ha Tuan Cuong; Nguyen Hoang Dung; Le Sy Vinh; Tu Minh Phuong



Demand-driven volume rendering of terascale EM data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In neuroscience, a very promising bottom-up approach to understanding how the brain works is built on acquiring and analyzing electron microscopy (EM) scans of brain tissue, an area known as Connectomics. This results in volume data of extremely high resolution of 3--5nm per pixel and 25--50nm slice thickness, overall leading to data sizes of many terabytes [Jeong et al. 2010].

Johanna Beyer; Markus Hadwiger; Won-Ki Jeong; Hanspeter Pfister; Jeff Lichtman



DustEM: Dust extinction and emission modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DustEM computes the extinction and the emission of interstellar dust grains heated by photons. It is written in Fortran 95 and is jointly developed by IAS and CESR. The dust emission is calculated in the optically thin limit (no radiative transfer) and the default spectral range is 40 to 108 nm. The code is designed so dust properties can easily be changed and mixed and to allow for the inclusion of new grain physics.

Compiègne, M.; Verstraete, L.; Jones, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Boulanger, F.; Flagey, N.; Le Bourlot, J.; Paradis, D.; Ysard, N.



Adaptive play in Texas Hold'em Poker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We present a Texas Hold’em poker player for limit heads- up games. Our bot is designed to adapt automatically to the strategy of the opponent,and is not based on Nash equilibrium computation. The main idea is to design a bot that builds beliefs on his opponent’s hand. A forest of game,trees is generated according to those beliefs and the

Raphaël Maîtrepierre; Jérémie Mary; Rémi Munos



Evolução temporal de discos circunstelares em estrelas Be  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pesquisa do mecanismo que leva uma estrela do tipo Be a perder massa e formar um envelope circunstelar, nomeado como fenômeno Be, é uma questão em aberto, intrigante, e que adquire contornos interessantes em face às informações espectroscópicas de alta resolução. Nesta última década, consolida-se a idéia de que a forma destes envelopes é de tipo discóide, obedecendo a uma lei Kepleriana de velocidades, e mais ainda, recentemente há evidências de que a distribuição de matéria nestes discos pode assumir um caráter de anel. Medidas de algumas dimensões de discos circunstelares puderam ser obtidas pela análise de espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído para as estrelas Be: alpha Eri (HD 10144, B3Vpe), omicron And (HD 217675, B6IIIpe), e eta Cen (HD el972, B1.5Vne), no período dos anos de 1991 a 2001. Alguns modelos clássicos de envelope predizem uma distribuição de massa que decresce suavemente a partir da superfície estelar. Entretanto, considerando que a separação de picos de emissão em perfis de linhas do HeI e H-alpha, alargados por efeitos cinemáticos, é função do raio estelar e da velocidade rotacional projetada (vsini); nossos resultados sugerem a presença de um anel de matéria circunstelar, que aparece logo após a ejeção do material fotosférico, imediatamente acima da superfície estelar, e que se expande para raios maiores ao longo do tempo, eventualmente desconectando-se da superfície por uma região de densidade de matéria mínima. Tais interpretações revivem a idéia de que anéis de matéria circunstelar podem ser os responsáveis por algumas variabilidades em perfis de linhas de emissão, como as variações V/R.

Fernandes, M. V. M.; Leister, N. V.; Levenhagen, R. S.



Parameter estimation of superimposed signals using the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computationally efficient algorithm for parameter estimation of superimposed signals based on the two-step iterative EM (estimate-and-maximize, with an E step and an M step) algorithm is developed. The idea is to decompose the observed data into their signal components and then to estimate the parameters of each signal component separately. The algorithm iterates back and forth, using the current




Single sensor active noise cancellation based on the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors develop an approach to active noise cancellation using a single microphone. The noise field is modelled as a stochastic process, and a time-adaptive algorithm based on a modification of the block-estimate-maximize (EM) algorithm is used to adaptively estimate the parameters of this process. Based on these parameter estimates a canceling signal is generated. The algorithm developed is evaluated

A. V. Oppenheim; E. Weinstein; K. C. Zangi; M. Feder; D. Gauger



A Novel EM Gradiometric Surveying System for Geophysical Reconnaissance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferometric principles are widely used in precision physics experiments and\\/or in advanced laboratory-based phase measurement systems. Phase resolution of such systems is a few orders of magnitude higher compared to that of standard mixer-based quadrature demodulators or lock-in technique. The first attempt of applying interferometric signal processing to transmitter-target-receiver based electromagnetic (EM) surveying in geophysical prospecting is described. It is

Alexey V. Veryaskin; Francis A. Torres; Timo P. Vaalsta; Ju Li; David G. Blair



Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference

D. N. Smithe; D. Karipides; P. Stoltz; G. Cheng; H. Wang



Effect of the nuclear factors EmBP1 and viviparous1 on the transcription of the Em gene in HeLa nuclear extracts.  

PubMed Central

Templates constructed from the wheat Em and maize rab28 promoters are efficiently and accurately transcribed in the well-characterized cell-free transcription system prepared from HeLa nuclei. Deletion analysis of the Em promoter indicates that a G-box (CACGTG) element (Em1b) is required for transcription. USF, a Myc transcription factor in HeLa nuclear extracts, activates transcription by binding to Em1b, as shown by the ability of an antibody raised against USF to inhibit transcription and to interfere with Em1b complex formation in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The addition of the recombinant Viviparous1 protein from maize to HeLa nuclear extracts specifically stimulated transcription of the Em promoter but was dependent on the presence of USF in the extract. In USF-depleted extracts, the addition of recombinant EmBP1, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor from wheat, activated transcription through Em1b as well as from a similar G-box in the adenovirus major late promoter. Our study demonstrates that the basic transcriptional apparatus in HeLa nuclear extract supports transcription from plant promoters and can be used to assay the function of certain plant nuclear proteins, thereby helping to determine their effects on transcription.

Razik, M A; Quatrano, R S




Microsoft Academic Search

Este artigo é resultante da utilização de duas ferramentas de gestão aplicadas a definição de problemas prioritários em uma propriedade rural especializada em cria de bovinos de corte. Contudo, este estudo foi composto de levantamento de dados e informações coletados a partir de entrevistas estruturadas aplicadas aos profissionais responsáveis pela produção, mercadologia, sistema de informações, finanças, gestão de pessoas e

Odilon Jose De Oliveira Neto; Jose Jeronimo de Lima; Vagner Antonio Maximo Cesar; Simone Oliveira Rezende; Reginaldo Santana Figueiredo



EMS Providers and Exception From Informed Consent Research: Benefits, Ethics, and Community Consultation  

PubMed Central

As attention to, and motivation for, EMS-related research continues to grow, particularly exception from informed consent (EFIC) research, it is important to understand the thoughts, beliefs, and experiences of EMS providers who are actively engaged in the research. Study Objective We explored the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of EMS providers regarding their involvement in prehospital emergency research, particularly EFIC research. Method Using a qualitative design, 24 participants were interviewed including Nationally Registered Paramedics and Virginia certified Emergency Medical Technicians employed at Richmond Ambulance Authority, the participating EMS agency. At the time of our interviews, the EMS agency was involved in an exception from informed consent trial. Transcribed interview data were coded and analyzed for themes. Findings were presented back to the EMS agency for validation. Results Overall, there appeared to be support for prehospital emergency research. Participants viewed research as necessary for the advancement of the field of EMS. Improvement in patient care was identified as one of the most important benefits. A number of ethical considerations were identified: individual risk versus public good and consent. EMS providers in our study were open to working with EMS researchers throughout the community consultation and public disclosure process. Conclusions EMS providers in our study value research and are willing to participate in studies. Support for research was balanced with concerns and challenges regarding the role of providers in the research process.

Ripley, Elizabeth; Ramsey, Cornelia; Prorock-Ernest, Amy; Foco, Rebecca; Luckett, Solomon; Ornato, Joseph P.



Hydration-layer models for cryo-EM image simulation.  


To compare cryo-EM images and 3D reconstructions with atomic structures in a quantitative way it is essential to model the electron scattering by solvent (water or ice) that surrounds protein assemblies. The most rigorous method for determining the density of solvating water atoms for this purpose has been to perform molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of the protein-water system. In this paper we adapt the ideas of bulk-water modeling that are used in the refinement of X-ray crystal structures to the cryo-EM solvent-modeling problem. We present a continuum model for solvent density which matches MD-based results to within sampling errors. However, we also find that the simple binary-mask model of Jiang and Brünger (1994) performs nearly as well as the new model. We conclude that several methods are now available for rapid and accurate modeling of cryo-EM images and maps of solvated proteins. PMID:22609687

Shang, Zhiguo; Sigworth, Fred J



Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

Not Available



EMS-Vision: combining on- and off-road driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, work at the Universitat der Bundeswehr Muenchen (UBM) has been focused on autonomous road vehicles. During the last four years the Expectation-based Multi-focal Saccadic Vision (EMS-Vision) system has been developed and implemented. EMS-Vision is the 3rd generation dynamic vision system following the 4-D approach. The explicit representation of the own capabilities combined with a complex control and information flow allows the implementation of decision units for goal oriented activation of locomotion and perception. Due to this general approach and in contrast to former UBM systems that were specially designed and optimized for certain limited scenarios and domains, e.g., road following on Autobahnen, the EMS-Vision system can handle complex driving missions spanning multiple domains. It has been realized on a decentralized parallel hardware structure, exclusively built of commercial off-the-shelf components, in both UBM test vehicles VaMoRs and VaMP. Results from an autonomously performed mission on the UBM campus are discussed.

Gregor, Rudolf; Luetzeler, Michael; Dickmanns, Ernst D.



International EMS. How demand is shifting around the world.  


The panelists agreed that prehospital systems around the world might very well begin seeing higher demand and lower acuity. However, the unique aspects of each culture that create different prehospital concerns also create different solutions to these needs. U.S. providers must consider for-profit organizations when attempting to reduce fragmentation to gain one lobbying voice, while EMS providers in some nations, such as in Latin America and India, must consider integrating their treatments with local shamens to gain patient acceptance. In Franco-German systems, efficient doctor training has allowed placement of anesthesiologists on ambulances, while prehospital providers in Vietnam have basic concerns, such as whether prehospital care can be sustained in the hospital environment. The shift in EMS around the world will Sdepend more on the expectations and demands of the customers in each nation. It will also depend on the ability of its EMS leaders and administrators to come up with solutions that get customers the most appropriate care in the most affordable manner. To learn more, go to PMID:24159727



Artigo Original Fatores associados à mortalidade em pacientes hospitalizados por asma aguda grave em 1994, 1999 e 2004 na Espanha e América Latina* Factors associated with mortality in patients hospitalized in Spain and Latin America for acute severe asthma in 1994, 1999, and 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate, for the first time, the characteristics of patients with acute asthma who died during hospitalization in Spain and Latin America, as well as to evaluate factors associated with asthma mortality. Methods: A retrospective review of hospital records of 3,038 patients with asthma (aged 15-69 years) admitted to nineteen tertiary care hospitals in Spain and in eight Latin-American

Gustavo Javier Rodrigo; Vicente Plaza; Santiago Bardagí Forns; Miguel Perpiñá Tordera; Jorge Salas



GLLH EM Invisible Cloak With Novel Front Branching And Without Exceed Light Speed Violation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose new Global and Local (GL) electromagnetic (EM) cloaks with distinctive class material a_{\\\\alpha \\\\beta}\\\\log ^\\\\alpha (b_{\\\\alpha \\\\beta}\\/h) h^\\\\beta (GLLH Cloak) without exceed light speed violation. The refractive index of the GLLH cloak material, $n(r)$, is large than one or equal to one. Our GLLH cloak is created by GL EM modeling and GL EM cloak

Ganquan Xieand; Jianhua Li; Lee Xie; Feng Xie



Theoretical and experimental investigations of gravity modification by specially conditioned EM radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordinary electromagnetic (em) fields do not couple significantly with those that underlie gravitation and give rise to inertia, and it is suggested that this is because they are of different field essence and form. It is also suggested that a much stronger electro-gravitic coupling might be accomplished for effective propulsion by conditioning ordinary em fields into configurations that are similar to those which underlie gravitation and give rise to inertia. This paper summarizes theoretical and experimental em field conditioning work. .

Froning, H. D.; Barrett, T. W.



The Competitive EM Algorithm for Gaussian Mixtures with BYY Harmony Criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaussian mixture has been widely used for data modeling and analysis and the EM algorithm is generally employed for its parameter\\u000a learning. However, the EM algorithm may be trapped into a local maximum of the likelihood and even leads to a wrong result\\u000a if the number of components is not appropriately set. Recently, the competitive EM (CEM) algorithm for Gaussian

Hengyu Wang; Lei Li; Jinwen Ma



EM-ANN models for microstrip vias and interconnects in dataset circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for accurate and efficient modeling of monolithic microwave\\/millimeter wave integrated circuit (MMIC) components by using electromagnetically trained artificial neural network (EM-ANN) software modules is presented. Full-wave EM analysis is employed to characterize MMIC components. Structures for simulation are chosen using design of experiments (DOE) methodology. EM-ANN models are then trained using physical parameters as inputs and S-parameters

Paul M. Watson; Kuldip C. Gupta



Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma estrutura maior.

Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.



EM703, a new derivative of erythromycin, inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling in human lung fibroblasts.  


Long-term, low-dose macrolide therapy has been proven to improve survival in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis, although the mechanisms by which it does so remain unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides, the authors examined the effects of erythromycin (EM-A) and new derivative EM703 on transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta /Smad signaling fibroblasts. EM-A and EM703 each inhibited fibroblast proliferation and the collagen production in human lung fibroblasts induced by TGF-beta. EM-A and EM703 inhibited the augmentation of Smad3 mRNA induced by TGF-beta. Smad7 mRNA was inhibited by TGF-beta, but augmented by coincubation with EM-A or EM703. EM-A and EM703 each inhibited p-Smad2/3 proteins induced by TGF-beta. Smad7 protein inhibited by TGF-beta restored beyond basal level by EM-A and EM703. These findings suggest that EM-A and EM703 inhibit TGF-beta signaling in human lung fibroblasts via inhibition of p-Smad2/3 through recovery of Smad7 level. PMID:18600500

Yu, ChangHe; Azuma, Arata; Li, YingJi; Wang, Chunyan; Abe, Sinji; Usuki, Jiro; Matsuda, Kuniko; Kudoh, Shoji; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Omura, Satoshi



Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

Chang, F. C.



The characteristics of lithospheric origin ULF EM radiation in the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The penetration of ultra low frequency (0.01-100 s-1) electromagnetic (ULF EM) radiation throughout ionosphere are calculated numerically for source in the lithosphere and in the magnetosphere. The changes of perturbation area shape during propagation in the ionosphere are investigated for different <> types in the lithosphere which excite this EM radiation. The wave and spatial characteristics of penetrated into upper ionosphere ULF EM field are determined. The influence of altitude profile's main parameters of ionosphere plasma and geophysical condition onto the penetration effect of ULF EM radiation throughout is discussed.

Cheremnykh, O. K.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Kremenetsky, I.


Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to present several archaeological case stories including paleolitic, bronze and iron ages, antique and medieval targets discovery. The cases include complex geophysical works using GPR, Vertical DC sounding and magnetometry together with EM sounding. Archaeological proofs of geophysical prospection will be presented. The last September in Italy we have done the comparative work at few Italian archaeological sites. The second EMS prototype has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mappers, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation. The researches were done with financial support of RFBR grant # 00-06-80421

Abu Zeid, N.; Balkov, E.; Chemyakina, M.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.



EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges  

SciTech Connect

EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.



EM Modelling of RF Propagation Through Plasma Plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric propulsion is a commercially attractive solution for attitude and position control of geostationary satellites. Hall-effect ion thrusters generate a localized plasma flow in the surrounding of the satellite, whose impact on the communication system needs to be qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. An electromagnetic modelling tool has been developed and integrated into the Antenna Design Framework- ElectroMagnetic Satellite (ADF-EMS). The system is able to guide the user from the plume definition phases through plume installation and simulation. A validation activity has been carried out and the system has been applied to the plume modulation analysis of SGEO/Hispasat mission.

Pandolfo, L.; Bandinelli, M.; Araque Quijano, J. L.; Vecchi, G.; Pawlak, H.; Marliani, F.



SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Math Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of resources for teaching mathematical fundamentals of electro- and magnetostatics constructed over the course of four semesters of a transformed junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course. Included are homework questions, concept tests, and information about common student difficulties in the topic and ways to address these difficulties. This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.



State of the Art in EM Field Computation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC



Caucasicosides E-M, furostanol glycosides from Helleborus caucasicus.  


Nine furostanol glycosides, namely caucasicosides E-M, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Helleborus caucasicus, along with 11 known compounds including nine furostanol glycosides, a bufadienolide and an ecdysteroid. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments along with ESIMS(n) analyses. The steroidal composition of leaves of H. caucasicus shows as particular feature the occurrence of steroidal compounds belonging to the 5? series, unusual for Helleborus species, and in particular, caucasicosides F-H are based on a 5?-polyhydroxylated steroidal aglycon never reported before. PMID:21893324

Muzashvili, Tamar; Perrone, Angela; Napolitano, Assunta; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia



8 EMS vendors now offer guaranteed savings plans  

SciTech Connect

At least eight companies now offer company-wide insurance policies guaranteeing the savings projections of energy-management system (EMS) dealers. The plans can guarantee either that energy costs will be lower than the lease payments or that the user will achieve a stated payback. The plan requires users to buy a maintenance contract with their system. Drawbacks are the disincentive for users to seek additional energy savings and the problem of how to measure the savings. Users can request a policy through an insurance company if they are hesitant about a company policy. Spokesmen for several companies offering the insurance option describe the highlights of their programs. (DCK)

Raymond, M.



Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean.  


Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When the EMS concentration was over 0.9%, the mutation frequency decreased rapidly. (2) Of the EMS treatments plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment, the mutagenic effect of 0.6% EMS was the best for inducing morphological variations. Caffeine post-treatment decreased notably the mutation frequency of EMS treatment; when concentrations of EMS were very high (1.5% and 1.8%), mutation frequencies of EDTA post-treatment were still 5.0% and 4.88%, but no mutants were found in EMS treatment or plus caffeine post-treatment. (3) In the M2 mutation spectrum, 11 kinds of mutant types were observed in EMS treatment or plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment. Relative frequencies of some mutant types (growth period, plant height, grain size, leaf shape and sterility, etc.) were similar among the three treatments, but EDTA post-treatment could change the relative frequencies of yield characteristics (number of pods and grains, grain weight/plant) induced by EMS treatment only. PMID:7885367

Zhu, B; Gu, A; Deng, X; Geng, Y; Lu, Z



Aristarchus's <em>On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and the Moonem>: Greek and Arabic Texts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1920s, T. L. Heath pointed out that historians of mathematics have "given too little attention to Aristarchus". This is still true today. The Greek text of Aristarchus's On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and the Moonem> has received little attention; the Arabic editions virtually none. Much of what this text has to tell us about ancient and medieval mathematics and the mathematical sciences has gone unnoticed. It should be taken as an important source for our understanding of the mathematical sciences of the early Hellenistic period.

Berggren, J. L.; Sidoli, N.




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Objetivo: Identificar os indicadores de hemorragia letal em vítimas de trauma penetrante de tronco, admitidas com hipotensão arterial sistêmica e analisar sua aplicabilidade na seleção dos candidatos ao \\

José Gustavo Parreira


Robust EM Continual Reassessment Method in Oncology Dose Finding  

PubMed Central

The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a commonly used dose-finding design for phase I clinical trials. Practical applications of this method have been restricted by two limitations: (1) the requirement that the toxicity outcome needs to be observed shortly after the initiation of the treatment; and (2) the potential sensitivity to the prespecified toxicity probability at each dose. To overcome these limitations, we naturally treat the unobserved toxicity outcomes as missing data, and use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the dose toxicity probabilities based on the incomplete data to direct dose assignment. To enhance the robustness of the design, we propose prespecifying multiple sets of toxicity probabilities, each set corresponding to an individual CRM model. We carry out these multiple CRMs in parallel, across which model selection and model averaging procedures are used to make more robust inference. We evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed robust EM-CRM designs through simulation studies and show that the proposed methods satisfactorily resolve both limitations of the CRM. Besides improving the MTD selection percentage, the new designs dramatically shorten the duration of the trial, and are robust to the prespecification of the toxicity probabilities.

Yuan, Ying; Yin, Guosheng



Robust EM Continual Reassessment Method in Oncology Dose Finding.  


The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a commonly used dose-finding design for phase I clinical trials. Practical applications of this method have been restricted by two limitations: (1) the requirement that the toxicity outcome needs to be observed shortly after the initiation of the treatment; and (2) the potential sensitivity to the prespecified toxicity probability at each dose. To overcome these limitations, we naturally treat the unobserved toxicity outcomes as missing data, and use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the dose toxicity probabilities based on the incomplete data to direct dose assignment. To enhance the robustness of the design, we propose prespecifying multiple sets of toxicity probabilities, each set corresponding to an individual CRM model. We carry out these multiple CRMs in parallel, across which model selection and model averaging procedures are used to make more robust inference. We evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed robust EM-CRM designs through simulation studies and show that the proposed methods satisfactorily resolve both limitations of the CRM. Besides improving the MTD selection percentage, the new designs dramatically shorten the duration of the trial, and are robust to the prespecification of the toxicity probabilities. PMID:22375092

Yuan, Ying; Yin, Guosheng



An EM framework for segmentation of tissue mixtures from medical images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image segmentation plays a major role in quantitative image analysis and computer aided detection (CAD) and diagnosis (CADx) for clinical applications. Conventional segmentation assigns a single label to each voxel, neglecting the partial volume (PV) effect. This work presents an EM (expectation maximization) framework for segmentation of tissue mixture in each voxel. Image data and tissue mixture models, EM algorithm

Zhengrong Liang; Xiang Li; Daria Eremina; Lihong Li



The Greek EMS-SCADA: from the contractor to the user  

Microsoft Academic Search

The national electric utility of Greece has installed and put in operation a modern energy management system (EMS). This paper presents the evolution of the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system of the EMS during its two years of commercial operation. It classifies all the improvements implemented during this period in 3 areas: telecommunications, man-machine interface and core SCADA

D. T. Askounis; E. Kalfaoglou



Comparison of EM and SEM Algorithms in Poisson Regression Models: A Simulation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose to compare two algorithms to compute maximum likelihood estimates for the parameters of a mixture Poisson regression model: the EM algorithm and the Stochastic EM algorithm. The comparison of the two procedures was done through a simulation study of the performance of these approaches on simulated data sets and real data sets. Simulation results show

Susana Faria; Gilda Soromenho



Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a convenient…

Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun



Comparação entre o desempenho motor de homens e mulheres em séries múltiplas de exercícios com pesos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A magnitude das respostas neuromusculares, metabólicas e morfológicas de homens e mulheres parece ser bastante diferen- ciada até mesmo quando esses sujeitos são submetidos a proto- colos de exercícios com pesos semelhantes. Todavia, as diferen- ças no desempenho motor entre homens e mulheres têm sido relatadas predominantemente em protocolos baseados em con- trações isométricas e isocinéticas. Assim, o objetivo

Emanuel Péricles Salvador; Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino; André Luiz Demantova Gurjão; Raphael Mendes Ritti Dias; Fábio Yuzo Nakamura; Arli Ramos de Oliveira



Analysis of developing EM wave absorber for port logistics RFID system by using Amorphous metal powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we developed an EM wave absorber having the absorption ability of more than 15 dB for port logistics RFID system by using Amorphous Metal Powder. Firstly, we fabricated EM wave absorber by using Amorphous Metal Powder and CPE(Chlorinated Polyethylene) with different composition ratios 80 ? 20 wt.% and 85 ? 15 wt.%. Secondly, we designed the optimum

Dong Soo Choi; Dong Il Kim; Do Yeol Kim; Dong Han Choi



Using the EM algorithm to train neural networks: misconceptions and a new algorithm for multiclass classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been of considerable interest in recent years as the basis for various algorithms in application areas of neural networks such as pattern recognition. However, there exists some misconceptions concerning its application to neural networks. In this paper, we clarify these misconceptions and consider how the EM algorithm can be adopted to train multilayer perceptron (MLP)

Shu-Kay Ng; Geoffrey John McLachlan



Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron



Effect of EM574 on Postprandial Pancreaticobiliary Secretion, Gastric Motor Activity, and Emptying in Conscious Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

EM574, an erythromycin derivative and a potentmotilin receptor agonist, is now under clinical trial asa gastroprokinetic drug. The aim of this study was toestimate the effect of EM574 on postprandial pancreaticobiliary secretion, gastric motoractivity, and emptying in conscious dogs. Five mongreldogs were prepared. Indwelling cannulas for bothinfusion of phenolsulfonphthalein and aspiration ofluminal samples were inserted into the proximal anddistal duodenum,

Toshiyuki Tanaka; Akiyoshi Mizumoto; Erito Mochiki; Hideki Suzuki; Zen Itoh; Satoshi Omura



Mapping Coastal Wetlands Using EM and Airborne Lidar: a Texas Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combined EM induction and airborne lidar measurements with vegetation surveys along two transects across Mustang Island, a Texas barrier island, to examine whether EM and lidar can be used to map coastal wetlands and associated geomorphic environments. Lidar-derived elevations correlate well with National Wetland Inventory (NWI) upland, palustrine, estuarine, and marine units. Lidar can be used to map wetland

J. G. Paine; W. A. White; R. C. Smyth; J. R. Andrews; J. C. Gibeaut



Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Module K: Legal Aspects of Emergency Medical Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructional module on the legal aspects of emergency medical services (EMS) is presented as part of an educational program on EMS systems administration and planning. The program consists of 23 such modules, which can be adapted to a variety of educa...

J. O. Page



Effects of reinforced concrete walls on transmission of EM Wave in WLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the condition of WLAN (wireless local area network), walls are the main obstacles in channel. Nowadays, many structures and buildings use reinforced concrete walls. These walls affect transmission of EM wave at some degree. This paper analyses the effects of some typical structural parameters of reinforced concrete walls on transmission of EM wave using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution

Liu Ping; Chen Gui; Long Yun-liang



The mean field theory in EM procedures for blind Markov random field image restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Markov random field (MRF) model-based EM (expectation-maximization) procedure for simultaneously estimating the degradation model and restoring the image is described. The MRF is a coupled one which provides continuity (inside regions of smooth gray tones) and discontinuity (at region boundaries) constraints for the restoration problem which is, in general, ill posed. The computational difficulty associated with the EM procedure

Jun Zhang



Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.



Measurement and Analysis of L-Band (1535-1660 MHz) Electromagnetic (EM) Noise on Ships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program of L-band (1535-1660 MHz) electromagnetic (EM) noise measurements conducted on ships is described. The magnitude and duration of EM noise on ships is of particular significance in terms of potential radio frequency interference (RFI) to future M...

J. M. Clarke S. R. Cantor J. J. Winchus A. L. Caporale



Características psicométricas do Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Survey (MBI-SS) em estudantes universitários brasileiros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O Inventário de Burnout de Maslach (MBI-SS) foi projetado para avaliar a síndrome de burnout em estudantes. Este artigo analisa as características psicométricas (fidedignidade e validade de construto) do MBI-SS em uma amostra de 514 estudantes. A análise fatorial identificou três fatores correlatos às três dimensões originalmente identificadas no inventário: exaustão emocional, eficácia profissional e descrença, indicando que a

Mary Sandra Carlotto; Sheila Gonçalves Câmara



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O milho é uma cultura presente em todas as regiões brasileiras; nos últimos anos, seus custos de produção aumentaram. Técnicas que proporcionem economia, sem perda de produtividade, podem incentivar seu cultivo, tão importante no sistema de rota- ção de culturas. Os adubos verdes são opções para a redução de custos, principalmente em relação ao nitrogênio. Utilizaram-se dados de



Marginal maximum likelihood estimation of item parameters: Application of an EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum likelihood estimation of item parameters in the marginal distribution, integrating over the distribution of ability, becomes practical when computing procedures based on an EM algorithm are used. By characterizing the ability distribution empirically, arbitrary assumptions about its form are avoided. The Em procedure is shown to apply to general item-response models lacking simple sufficient statistics for ability. This includes

R. Darrell Bock; Murray Aitkin



Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.



Tumores experimentais do sistema nervoso central: padronização de modelo em roedores utilizando a linhagem 9L  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Grande variedade de modelos experimentais foram estabelecidos em neuro-oncologia durante as últimas décadas, a fim de estudar a biologia tumoral e a eficiciência de novas drogas e novos tratamentos em gliomas malignos humanos. Embora estes modelos estejam bem caracterizados e sejam facilmente reproduzíveis e aplicáveis, há limitações quanto ao seu uso e à resposta obtida, principalmente quando utilizados

Custódio Michailowsky; Flavio Key Niura; Ângela C. do Valle; Shigueko Sonohara; Thales D'Alessandro Meneguin; Ana Maria C. Tsanaclis



Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

Weissman, Alexander



Determining the ratio of charge to mass e\\/m for electrons by magnetic focusing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an instrument based on Busch's method of determining e\\/m for electrons. A square-wave deflection voltage is used for deflecting an electron beam. With this instrument, one can more easily and more accurately determine e\\/m for the electron. A comparison is made experimentally and theoretically among several ways of deflecting an electron beam.

Yong-Kang Yang



A Probabilistic Analysis of EM for Mixtures of Separated, Spherical Gaussians  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that, given data from a mixture of k well-separated spherical Gaussians in Rd, a simple two-round variant of EM will, with high probability, learn the parameters of the Gaussians to near- optimal precision, if the dimension is high (d ln k). We relate this to previous theoretical and empirical work on the EM algorithm.

Sanjoy Dasgupta; Leonard J. Schulman



Elogio do cotidiano: a confiança e a arte da vida social em uma comunidade amazônica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Como antropóloga (em vez de, por exemplo, filósofa)1 meu objetivo é compreender e desvelar as visões de mundo de outras pessoas, em parti- cular as dos povos indígenas da floresta tropical amazônica. A versão local que, por muitos anos, venho tentando entender pertence aos Pia- roa, um povo que vive ao longo de tributários do rio Orinoco, na Vene- zuela.

Joanna Overing



Realce de Bordas em Imagens Digitais: Uma Abordagem por Números Fuzzy  

Microsoft Academic Search

O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma nova abordagem para a extração de bordas em imagens em tons de cinza. A abordagem proposta é baseada na teoria de números fuzzy. Os números fuzzy são apropriados para lidar com incertezas, uma vez que quantificam matematica- mente termos lingüísticos do tipo \\

Inês Ap; Gasparotto Boaventura; Adilson Gonzaga


Simple and effective EM-based optimization procedure for microwave filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and effective computerized optimization procedure for microwave filters is discussed. The basic idea is to integrate a fast and accurate electromagnetic (EM) solver, a filter design strategy, and two different optimization algorithms. The structural parameters to be modified are then chosen with the objective of improving the interaction between the EM solver and the optimization process. A simple

J. T. Alos; M. Guglielmi



Time-delay estimation for filtered Poisson processes using an EM-type algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a modified EM algorithm to estimate a nonrandom time shift parameter of an intensity associated with an inhomogeneous Poisson process Nt, whose points are only partially observed as a noise-contaminated output X of a linear time-invariant filter excited by a train of delta functions, a filtered Poisson process. The exact EM algorithm for computing the maximum likelihood time

Nikolaos Antoniadis; A. O. Hero



Effect of Effective Microorganisms (EM®) on the Growth Parameters of Fayoumi and Horro Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to determine growth promoter effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on Horro and Fayoumi chickens. This study was conducted at Agricultural Research Center and National Veterinary Institute (Debre Zeit). A total of 450 chickens (225 from each breed) were used in this study. Birds were grouped according to treatment groups: EM-treated (with feed, with water, with feed

E. wondmeneh; T. Getachew; D. Tadelle



ITS and Transportation Safety: EMS System Data Integration to Improve Traffic Crash Emergency Response and Treatment - Phase III Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transportation safety and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) literature has called for the development of better information system tools to support EMS to aid in reducing the human impact of medical emergencies. Building upon previous research by the r...

B. Hilton B. Schooley T. A. Horan




Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the products of the interaction of thorium with 230 ; Mev protons revealed evidence for the existence of the neutron-excess isotopes: ; Em²²³, Em²²⁴, and Fr²²⁴. The existence of these three new ; isotopes was confirmed by identification of their decay products: Ra²²³ and ; Ra²²⁴. (auth);




Cryo-EM modeling by the molecular dynamics flexible fitting method  

PubMed Central

The increasing power and popularity of cryo-electron (cryo-EM) microscopy in structural biology brought about the development of so-called hybrid methods, which permit the interpretation of cryo-EM density maps beyond their nominal resolution in terms of atomic models. The Cryo-EM Modeling Challenge 2010 is the first community effort to bring together developers of hybrid methods as well as cryo-EM experimentalists. Participating in the challenge, the molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) method was applied to a number of cryo-EM density maps. The results are described here with special emphasis on the use of symmetry-based restraints to improve the quality of atomic models derived from density maps of symmetric complexes; on a comparison of the stereochemical quality of atomic models resulting from different hybrid methods; and on application of MDFF to electron crystallography data.

Chan, Kwok-Yan; Trabuco, Leonardo G.; Schreiner, Eduard; Schulten, Klaus



Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong



A Generalized Fast Frequency Sweep Algorithm for Coupled Circuit-EM Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Frequency domain techniques are popular for analyzing electromagnetics (EM) and coupled circuit-EM problems. These techniques, such as the method of moments (MoM) and the finite element method (FEM), are used to determine the response of the EM portion of the problem at a single frequency. Since only one frequency is solved at a time, it may take a long time to calculate the parameters for wideband devices. In this paper, a fast frequency sweep based on the Asymptotic Wave Expansion (AWE) method is developed and applied to generalized mixed circuit-EM problems. The AWE method, which was originally developed for lumped-load circuit simulations, has recently been shown to be effective at quasi-static and low frequency full-wave simulations. Here it is applied to a full-wave MoM solver, capable of solving for metals, dielectrics, and coupled circuit-EM problems.

Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Sharpe, R M; Fasenfest, B



Prevalence of Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult EMS Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives To characterize the proportion of older adult ED patients with depression or cognitive impairment. To compare the prevalence of depression or cognitive impairment among ED patients arriving via EMS, as compared to other modes. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (age?60) presenting to an academic medical center ED were interviewed. Participants provided demographic and clinical information, and were evaluated for depression and cognitive impairment. Subjects arriving via EMS were compared to those arriving via other modes using the chi-square test, t-test, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test, where appropriate. Results Consent was obtained from 1342 eligible older adults; 695 (52%) arrived via EMS. The median age for those arriving via EMS was 74 (IQR 65, 82), 52% were female, 81% white. 15% of EMS patients had moderate or greater depression, as compared to 14% of patients arriving via other modes (p=0.52). 13% of EMS patients had cognitive impairment, as compared to 8% arriving via other modes (p<0.01). Depressed EMS patients frequently reported a history of depression (47%) and taking antidepressants (51%). Cognitively impaired EMS patients infrequently reported a history of dementia (16%) or taking medications for dementia (14%). Conclusions In this cohort of community-dwelling older adult ED patients depression and cognitive impairment were common. As compared to ED patients arriving by other transport means, patients arriving via EMS had similar prevalence of depression but an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment. Screening for depression and cognitive impairment by EMS providers may have value, but needs further investigation.

Shah, Manish N.; Jones, Courtney M. C.; Richardson, Thomas M.; Conwell, Yeates; Katz, Paul; Schneider, Sandra M.



Perfil da automedicação em idosos participantes de grupos da terceira idade de uma cidade do sul do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Introdução: A automedicação tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas e assume uma importância maior quando é realizada por idosos, pois geralmente representam um grupo polimedicado. Objetivo: Avaliar a automedicação em idosos participantes de grupos da terceira idade localizados em uma cidade do sul do Brasil. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal baseado em entrevistas com idosos participantes de grupos

Edézio Antunes Cascaes; Maria Luiza Falchetti; Dayani Galato


A Gentle Tutorial of the EM Algorithm and its Application to Parameter Estimation for Gaussian Mixture and Hidden Markov Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the maximum-likelihood parameter estimation problem and how the Expectation- Maximization (EM) algorithm can be used for its solution. We first describe the abstract form of the EM algorithm as it is often given in the literature. We then develop the EM pa- rameter estimation procedure for two applications: 1) finding the parameters of a mixture of Gaussian densities,

Jeff A. Bilmes



Efeitos da monensina sobre a fermentação e sensibilidade de bactérias ruminais de bovinos sob dietas ricas em volumoso ou concentrado  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da monensina sobre as mudanças nos padrões de fermentação e resistência à perda do potássio intracelular das bactérias ruminais provenientes de quatro bovinos recebendo dietas ricas em volumoso ou concentrado. As bactérias obtidas por centrifugação diferencial foram resuspensas em um meio pobre em potássio, no qual foi medida a perda do p otássio intracelular,

Rogério de Paula Lana; James B. Russell



Making connections. Voice and data solutions for EMS.  


Communications used to be so simple-1) grab the radio, 2) push and talk. Now we're besieged by a confusing assortment of technology and terms-wideband, broadband, VoIP, RoIP, ect.- and a constand thrumming imperative to achieve and improve and perfect some mystical state of full interoperability. Frankly, it can all be a bit much. With this supplement, we hope to clarify you options. We examine the importance of broadband for EMS, with its potential for larger data "pipes" between the hospital and the field; advances in the promising technologies of Voice over IP and Radio over IP; and how some systems are improving their interconnectedness and resulting operations. The jargon can be overwhelming, but the ideas are worth understanding. PMID:18814746

Careless, James; Erich, John



Detecting particles in cryo-EM micrographs using learned features.  


A new learning-based approach is presented for particle detection in cryo-electron micrographs using the Adaboost learning algorithm. The approach builds directly on the successful detectors developed for the domain of face detection. It is a discriminative algorithm which learns important features of the particle's appearance using a set of training examples of the particles and a set of images that do not contain particles. The algorithm is fast (10 s on a 1.3 GHz Pentium M processor), is generic, and is not limited to any particular shape or size of the particle to be detected. The method has been evaluated on a publicly available dataset of 82 cryoEM images of keyhole lympet hemocyanin (KLH). From 998 automatically extracted particle images, the 3-D structure of KLH has been reconstructed at a resolution of 23.2 A which is the same resolution as obtained using particles manually selected by a trained user. PMID:15065673

Mallick, Satya P; Zhu, Yuanxin; Kriegman, David


SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of tutorials and tutorial pre-tests was constructed for a transformed junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course. These tutorials are weekly student sessions, modeled after research-validated curricula developed at the University of Washington. Using these materials in study/recitation sections, students work in small groups with the instructor as a learning coach. The materials are designed to target known student difficulties, to elicit and develop conceptual understanding and math/physics connections. They also help faculty listen to student reasoning, get a clearer sense of student ideas, and determine where they are struggling. This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Kinney, Edward; Dubson, Michael



EM-based measurement fusion for HRR radar centroid processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops a new algorithm for high range resolution (HRR) radar centroid processing for scenarios where there are closely spaced objects. For range distributed targets with multiple discrete scatterers, HRR radars will receive detections across multiple range bins. When the resolution is very high, and the target has significant extent, then it is likely that the detections will not occur in adjacent bins. For target tracking purposes, the multiple detections must be grouped and fused to create a single object report and a range centroid estimate is computed since the detections are range distributed. With discrete scatterer separated by multiple range bins, then when closely spaced objects are present there is uncertainty about which detections should be grouped together for fusion. This paper applies the EM algorithm to form a recursive measurement fusion algorithm that segments the data into object clusters while simultaneously forming a range centroid estimate with refined bearing and elevation estimates.

Slocumb, Benjamin J.; Blair, W. Dale



EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4  

SciTech Connect

A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

Kurennoy, Sergey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.

D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang



TrakEM2 Software for Neural Circuit Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

A key challenge in neuroscience is the expeditious reconstruction of neuronal circuits. For model systems such as Drosophila and C. elegans, the limiting step is no longer the acquisition of imagery but the extraction of the circuit from images. For this purpose, we designed a software application, TrakEM2, that addresses the systematic reconstruction of neuronal circuits from large electron microscopical and optical image volumes. We address the challenges of image volume composition from individual, deformed images; of the reconstruction of neuronal arbors and annotation of synapses with fast manual and semi-automatic methods; and the management of large collections of both images and annotations. The output is a neural circuit of 3d arbors and synapses, encoded in NeuroML and other formats, ready for analysis.

Cardona, Albert; Saalfeld, Stephan; Schindelin, Johannes; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Preibisch, Stephan; Longair, Mark; Tomancak, Pavel; Hartenstein, Volker; Douglas, Rodney J.



SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Homework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework question collection was constructed over the course of four semesters of a transformed junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course on electro- and magneto-statics. Many questions are related to textbook problems, but with added elements of explanation, sense-making, estimation or approximation, real-world connections, and multiple-representations. Not all these homework questions were used in the course design project. Some problems used include detailed instructor notes, including statistics on student performance on each homework problem assigned. The homework solutions are only available to instructors by writing the authors, This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.



OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.



DOE-EM privatization and the 2006 Plan: Principles for procurement policies and risk management  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Remediation and Waste Management (EM) has recently set in place programs to restructure the strategic planning mechanism that will drive its clean-up schedule, The 2006 Plan, and to create a new set of business relationships with private contractors that will reduce costs--privatization. Taken together, the 2006 Plan and privatization will challenge EM to create new business practices to recast its risk management policies to support these initiatives while ensuring that its responsibilities toward the environment, human health, and worker safety (ES and H) are maintained. This paper argues that the 2006 Plan has transformed EM`s traditional, bottoms-up approach based on technical dictates to a top-down approach based on management goals--a transformation from an engineering problem to an economic problem. The 2006 Plan evolved from EM`s Ten-Year Plan, and seeks to convert the largely open-ended planning approach previously undertaken by EM to a plan bounded by time and dollars. The plan emphasizes making tradeoffs and choosing activities that deliver the most clean-up for the dollar. It also recognizes that each major player--stakeholders, DOE, OMB and Congress--has distinct interests that must be resolved if the process is to succeed. This, in turn, has created the need for a corresponding transformation in risk management practices from compliance-driven to benefit/cost-driven.

Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Duemmer, C.L.



Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.



Methodology for the development of a Canadian national EMS research agenda  

PubMed Central

Background Many health care disciplines use evidence-based decision making to improve patient care and system performance. While the amount and quality of emergency medical services (EMS) research in Canada has increased over the past two decades, there has not been a unified national plan to enable research, ensure efficient use of research resources, guide funding decisions and build capacity in EMS research. Other countries have used research agendas to identify barriers and opportunities in EMS research and define national research priorities. The objective of this project is to develop a national EMS research agenda for Canada that will: 1) explore what barriers to EMS research currently exist, 2) identify current strengths and opportunities that may be of benefit to advancing EMS research, 3) make recommendations to overcome barriers and capitalize on opportunities, and 4) identify national EMS research priorities. Methods/Design Paramedics, educators, EMS managers, medical directors, researchers and other key stakeholders from across Canada will be purposefully recruited to participate in this mixed methods study, which consists of three phases: 1) qualitative interviews with a selection of the study participants, who will be asked about their experience and opinions about the four study objectives, 2) a facilitated roundtable discussion, in which all participants will explore and discuss the study objectives, and 3) an online Delphi consensus survey, in which all participants will be asked to score the importance of each topic discovered during the interviews and roundtable as they relate to the study objectives. Results will be analyzed to determine the level of consensus achieved for each topic. Discussion A mixed methods approach will be used to address the four study objectives. We anticipate that the keys to success will be: 1) ensuring a representative sample of EMS stakeholders, 2) fostering an open and collaborative roundtable discussion, and 3) adhering to a predefined approach to measure consensus on each topic. Steps have been taken in the methodology to address each of these a priori concerns.



Queda dos homic?dios em S?o Paulo, Brasil: uma an?lise descritiva  

PubMed Central

Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (?74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (?78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (?79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (?74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social.

Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sergio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sergio



A row-action alternative to the EM algorithm for maximizing likelihoods in emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

The maximum likelihood (ML) approach to estimating the radioactive distribution in the body cross section has become very popular among researchers in emission computed tomography (ECT) since it has been shown to provide very good images compared to those produced with the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is an often-used iterative approach for maximizing the Poisson likelihood in ECT because of its attractive theoretical and practical properties. Its major disadvantage is that, due to its slow rate of convergence, a large amount of computation is often required to achieve an acceptable image. In this paper the authors present a row-action maximum likelihood algorithm (RAMLA) as an alterative to the EM algorithm for maximizing the Poisson likelihood in ECT. The authors deduce the convergence properties of this algorithm and demonstrate by way of computer simulations that the early iterates of RAMLA increase the Poisson likelihood in ECT at an order of magnitude faster than the standard EM algorithm. Specifically, they show that, from the point of view of measuring total radionuclide uptake in simulated brain phantoms, iterations 1, 2, 3, and 4 of RAMLA perform at least as well as iterations 45, 60, 70, and 80, respectively, of EM. Moreover, they show that iterations 1,2,3, and 4 of RAMLA achieve comparable likelihood values as iterations 45, 60, 70, and 80, respectively, of EM. They also present a modified version of a recent fast ordered subsets EM (OS-EM) algorithm and show that RAMLA is a special case of this modified OS-EM. Furthermore, they show that the modification converges to a ML solution whereas the standard OS-EM does not.

Browne, J. [Advanced Research and Applications Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Pierro, A.R. de [State Univ. of Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept. of Applied Mathematics



Effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms (EM) on seed cotton yield in Pakistan.  


A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms on growth and yield of cotton. Treatments included: control; organic materials (OM); effective microorganisms (EM); OM+EM; mineral NPK (170:85:60 kg); 1/2 mineral NPK+EM; 1/2 mineral NPK+OM+EM and mineral NPK+OM+EM. OM and EM alone did not increase the yield and yield attributing components significantly but integrated use of both resulted in a 44% increase over control. Application of NPK in combination with OM and EM resulted in the highest seed cotton yield (2470 kg ha-1). Integrated use of OM+EM with 1/2 mineral NPK yielded 2091 kg ha-1, similar to the yield (2165 kg ha-1) obtained from full recommended NPK, indicating that this combination can substitute for 85 kg N ha-1. Combination of both N sources with EM also increased the concentrations of NPK in plants. Economic analysis suggested the use of 1/2 mineral NPK with EM+OM saves the mineral N fertilizer by almost 50% compared to a system with only mineral NPK application. This study indicated that application of EM increased the efficiency of both organic and mineral nutrient sources but alone was ineffective in increasing yield. PMID:16023343

Khaliq, Abdul; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hussain, Tahir



Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 0.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When

Zhu Baoge; Gu Aiqiu; Deng Xiangdong; Deng Yuxuan; Lu Zixian



EMS Provider Assessment of Vehicle Damage Compared to a Professional Crash Reconstructionist  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the accuracy of EMS provider assessments of motor vehicle damage, when compared to measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. Methods EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were interviewed upon ED arrival. The interview collected provider estimates of crash mechanism of injury. For crashes that met a preset severity threshold, the vehicle’s owner was asked to consent to having a crash reconstructionist assess their vehicle. The assessment included measuring intrusion and external auto deformity. Vehicle damage was used to calculate change in velocity. Paired t-test and correlation were used to compare EMS estimates and investigator derived values. Results 91 vehicles were enrolled; of these 58 were inspected and 33 were excluded because the vehicle was not accessible. 6 vehicles had multiple patients. Therefore, a total of 68 EMS estimates were compared to the inspection findings. Patients were 46% male, 28% admitted to hospital, and 1% died. Mean EMS estimated deformity was 18” and mean measured was 14”. Mean EMS estimated intrusion was 5” and mean measured was 4”. EMS providers and the reconstructionist had 67% agreement for determination of external auto deformity (kappa 0.26), and 88% agreement for determination of intrusion (kappa 0.27) when the 1999 Field Triage Decision Scheme Criteria were applied. Mean EMS estimated speed prior to the crash was 48 mph±13 and mean reconstructionist estimated change in velocity was 18 mph±12 (correlation -0.45). EMS determined that 19 vehicles had rolled over while the investigator identified 18 (kappa 0.96). In 55 cases EMS and the investigator agreed on seatbelt use, for the remaining 13 cases there was disagreement (5) or the investigator was unable to make a determination (8) (kappa 0.40). Conclusions This study found that EMS providers are good at estimating rollover. Vehicle intrusion, deformity, and seatbelt use appear to be more difficult to estimate with only fair agreement with the crash reconstructionist. As expected, the EMS provider estimated speed prior to the crash does not appear to be a reasonable proxy for change in velocity.

Lerner, E. Brooke; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Lawrence, Richard; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Brasel, Karen; Jurkovich, Gregory J.



Vibrational symmetry classification and torsional tunneling splitting patterns in G6(EM), G12, and G36(EM) molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the torsional splitting patterns in methanol-like molecules, with the excitation of small amplitude vibrational modes in the methyl group, are determined by mechanisms that can be formulated in an almost identical fashion to that for ethane-like molecules. This is achieved by treating ethane-like molecules by the internal axis method (IAM) and methanol-like molecules by the principal axis method (PAM) or rho-axis method (RAM). Using the extended molecular groups G6(EM) or C6v(M) for methanol and G36(EM) for ethane, vibrations perpendicular to the internal rotation axis are conveniently described by modes of higher degeneracy (E for methanol and Gs for ethane) in the absence of coupling of top and frame. Head-tail coupling operators, except the cos-type barrier terms, lower the degeneracy, causing vibrational splittings. Coupled vibrational pairs with torsional splitting patterns that we call 'regular' (pure A1, A2 pairs for methanol and pure E1d, E2d pairs for ethane) or 'inverted' (pure B1, B2 pairs for methanol and pure E1s, E2s pairs for ethane) can be formed as limit cases. Actual splitting patterns occur between the above limits, and are basically determined by torsional Coriolis coupling, which can tune more or less to resonance pairs of uncoupled basis levels linked by specific head-tail coupling operators. The inversion of torsional splitting patterns, observed in perpendicular vibrational modes of the methyl group of methanol, can be predicted by these theoretical considerations. Similar considerations apply to molecules of G12 symmetry.

Lattanzi, F.; di Lauro, C.



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL


Carbon Nanotube Fiber-Reinforced Composite Structures for EM and Lightning Strike Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for repairing fiber-reinforced composite structures while maintaining original EM and lightning protection using carbon nanotubes, fibers, and thermoset resins is disclosed. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method comprises prepa...

D. H. Landis J. L. Conroy J. W. Piche P. J. Glatkowski



Educational Program for EMS Systems Administration and Planning. Module Q: Personnel Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructional module on personnel management is presented as part of an educational program for emergency medical services (EMS) systems administration and planning. The program consists of 23 such modules, which can be adapted to a variety of educatio...

E. C. Murphy



Reservoir characterization and process monitoring with EM methods. 1994 Annual report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past five years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have applied the EM induction method to the problem of petroleum reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) monitoring. The goal is to develop practica...

M. Wilt



Examination of In-Bore Projectile Motion from an EM Railgun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was undertaken to examine electromagnetic (EM) gun barrel/projectile interaction. The RASCAL code was used in this study because of its ability to easily manipulate relevant parameters such as gun tube centerline, projectile/bore contact ...

L. Burton



CHOYCE: a web server for constrained homology modelling with cryoEM maps  

PubMed Central

Summary: CHOYCE is a web server for homology modelling of protein components and the fitting of those components into cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps of their assemblies. It provides an interactive approach to improving the selection of models based on the quality of their fit into the EM map. Availability: Contact:; Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Rawi, Reda; Whitmore, Lee; Topf, Maya



An Effective EM\\/IR-drop Flow with UltraSim and VAVO\\/VAEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both static and dynamic methods are widely used for the electro-migration (EM) and IR-drop verifications. For analog and mixed-signal (AMS) designs, only dynamic spice-like simulations may provide adequate accuracy. It is well- known that dynamic simulations generally take a long run time even with so- called fast spice simulators, such as UltraSim. In addition, the EM and IR drop verifications

Wei-Si Jiang


Two different Em -like genes are expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds during maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a radish cDNA probe, we have isolated and characterized two genomic clones from Arabidopsis thaliana (GEA1 and GEA6) encoding two different proteins that are homologous to the “Early methionine-labelled” (Em) protein of wheat. GEA1 differs from GEA6 and Em clones of wheat in that a sequence coding for 20 amino acid residues is tandemly repeated 4 times. These two

Pascale Gaubier; Monique Raynal; Gillian Hull; Gordon M. Huestis; Françoise Grellet; César Arenas; Montserrat Pagès; Michel Delseny



On Iterative EM-Based Frequency Domain Joint Estimation of Synchronization Parameter and Channel Impulse Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an iterative EM-based frequency domain joint estimation algorithm of synchronization parameter and channel impulse response (CIR) in direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) system is proposed. This algorithm is based on the expectation-maximization (EM) method. A complete Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) analysis of the proposed algorithms is also given in this paper. Because this algorithm can

Cheng Li; Tianqi Wang; Hsiao-hwa Chen



Acceleration of germination of super-hard rice cultivar EM10 by soaking with red onion.  


Red onion accelerated the germination of rice seeds and inhibited microbial infestation during germination. After germination with red onion for 16 h at 35 °C, super-hard rice EM10 showed a higher germination ratio (2.3 times), and it contained more GABA (2.3 times) and glucose (2.9 times) than that soaked without onion. Due to soaking with red onion, germinated EM10 was fortified with quercetin (18 mg/100 g). PMID:21389608

Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi



Fully EM algorithms for the quasi-neutral, zero-electron-inertia model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm has been developed to compute the electromagnetic signature of impulsive currents in quasi-neutral, collisionless plasmas. Such plasmas are common in laser target chambers, space physics, and EMP generating events. Traditional models[1] used in this regime make the Darwin assumption that neglects purely EM waves. Computing electro-magnetic pulse behavior (EMP) requires the solution of the EM wave equations. Other

Dennis Hewett



Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation

M. Wilt; C. Schenkel; C. Torres-Verdin; Ki Ha Lee; Hung-Wen Tseng



Helicopter-borne measurements of sea ice thickness, using a small and lightweight, digital EM system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea ice is an important climate variable and is also an obstacle for marine operations in polar regions. We have developed a small and lightweight, digitally operated frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction (EM) system, a so-called EM bird, dedicated for measurements of sea ice thickness. It is 3.5 m long and weighs only 105 kg, and can therefore easily be shipped to remote places and

Christian Haas; John Lobach; Stefan Hendricks; Lasse Rabenstein; Andreas Pfaffling



Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) survey was carried out in two sites of domestic waste of old and recent landfills. The landfill structures lie on a major highly fractured limestone aquifer of shallow groundwater less than 30 m, which is considered as the main source of fresh water in Amman–Zarqa region. A total of 18 VLF-EM profiles were conducted with length

E. Al-Tarazi; J. Abu Rajab; A. Al-Naqa; M. El-Waheidi




Microsoft Academic Search

Helicopter-borne electromagnetic-inductive (EM) ice thickness measurements have been performed in February 2003 along the Finish Baltic Sea coast. Both, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia were surveyed. Measurements have been performed with a small, two-frequency EM-Bird, a towed sensor suspended 20 m below the heli- copter and operated 15 m above the ice surface. Results show that

Christian Haas


A note on stopping rules in EM-ML reconstructions of ECT images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the expectation-maximization algorithm to obtain pseudo-maximum likelihood estimates (i.e. the EM-ML algorithm) of radiopharmaceutical distributions based on data collected from emission computed tomography (ECT) systems is now a well developed area, as witnessed by a number of recent articles on that topic, including the detailed study of the relative performance of EM-ML and FBP reconstructions provided in

Valen E. Johnson



Amplification and expression of EMS-1 (cortactin) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.  


Amplification of chromosome 11q13 DNA sequences is detected in approximately 30% of primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). The amplified region includes genes for cyclin D1, hst-1, int-2, and more recently, ems-1. Ems-1 encodes an 80/85kd cytoskeletal associated protein termed cortactin, which has been shown to bind F-actin and is a pp60src substrate. We investigated 16 HNSCC cell lines for ems-1 DNA amplification and gene expression by western blotting and immunofluorescence using mAb 4F11. Amplification of ems-1 DNA was detected in 8/16 (50%) cell lines and was related directly to over-expression of cortactin by western blotting and immunofluorescence. Western blotting detected both forms of cortactin, p80 and p85, at equal intensity. Immunofluorescent staining revealed low levels of cortactin localized to the cytoplasm and surface membrane in normal bronchial epithelial cells and tumor cell cultures with single copy ems-1 DNA. In contrast, tumor cell cultures with ems-1 DNA amplification demonstrated intense, homogeneous cortactin cytoplasmic staining. These results suggest that overexpression of p80/85 may be a useful marker to identify 11q13 amplification, a molecular alteration correlated with the presence of lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer. PMID:8552396

Patel, A M; Incognito, L S; Schechter, G L; Wasilenko, W J; Somers, K D



Method for estimating dynamic EM tracking accuracy of surgical navigation tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tracking systems have been used for several years in image guided medical procedures. Vendors often state static accuracies of a single retro-reflective sphere or LED. Expensive coordinate measurement machines (CMM) are used to validate the positional accuracy over the specified working volume. Users are interested in the dynamic accuracy of their tools. The configuration of individual sensors into a unique tool, the calibration of the tool tip, and the motion of the tool contribute additional errors. Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems are considered an enabling technology for many image guided procedures because they are not limited by line-of-sight restrictions, take minimum space in the operating room, and the sensors can be very small. It is often difficult to quantify the accuracy of EM trackers because they can be affected by field distortion from certain metal objects. Many high-accuracy measurement devices can affect the EM measurements being validated. EM Tracker accuracy tends to vary over the working volume and orientation of the sensors. We present several simple methods for estimating the dynamic accuracy of EM tracked tools. We discuss the characteristics of the EM Tracker used in the GE Healthcare family of surgical navigation systems. Results for other tracking systems are included.

Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; Beauregard, Lee; Anderson, Peter



SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Student Difficulties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of student difficulties identified in a junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course during four semesters of a curriculum transformation project. These resource documents present the research findings of this project that resulted from: interviews with students using âthink-aloudâ protocol as they worked through problems or diagrammed their understanding using concept maps; observations during help sessions and tutorials; student questions during lecture; student performance on concept tests / clicker questions; student performance on homework and exams; and student performance on the conceptual assessment developed for the course. In addition to student difficulties, these documents include the learning goals associated with each topic and class activities developed by other institutions to address that topic. Those who wish to learn more about these activities activities should This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Kinney, Edward; Dubson, Michael



EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.

Nelson, S.D.



Electromagnetic (EM) wave attachment to femtosecond laser plasma filaments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis outlines a theoretical and experimental analysis of utilizing plasma filaments generated by a femtosecond class laser system as a means for transmission of Radio Frequency (RF) electro-magnetic waves. Theoretically, the plasma filaments are modeled as complex cylindrical wires in space for single and dual wire configurations. Attenuation as a function of distance is calculated for single wire TE mode propagation and dual wire TEM mode propagation. Minimum attenuation is shown to be dependant on filament diameter, electron density and filament separation (for the dual wire case). Initial experimental validation of theoretical models is performed with copper wire filament surrogates. RF/plasma filament interaction is then demonstrated in a rectangular waveguide fixture. Filament electron density enhancement is demonstrated in cylindrical resonant RF cavities (2.6 GHz and 0.9 GHz) where an increase in pulse width of attached EM waves beyond lifetimes of typical ultra-fast laser generated plasma filaments is observed. Transmission of RF energy out of resonant cavities along a filament is demonstrated further validating transmission theory.

Friedman, Daniel Clint


If EM waves don't interfere, what causes interferograms?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonics engineers involved in designing and operating Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) often rely on Maxwell's wave equations and time-frequency (distance-wavenumber) Fourier theory as models to understand and predict the conversion of optical energy to electrical signals in their instruments. Dr. Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri and his colleagues, at last year's conference, presented three significant concepts that might completely change the way we comprehend the interaction of light and matter and the way interference information is generated. The first concept is his non-interaction of waves (NIW) formulation, which puts in place an optical wave description that more accurately describe the properties of the finite time and spatial signals of an optical system. The second is a new description for the cosmic EM environment that recognizes that space is really filled with the ether of classical electromagnetics. The third concept is a new metaphysics or metaphotonics that compares the photon as a particle in a void against the photon as a wave in a medium to see which best explain the twelve different aspects of light. Dr. Henry Lindner presents a compelling case that photons are waves in a medium and particles (electrons, protons, atoms) are wave-structures embedded in the new ether. Discussion of the three new principles is intended to increase the curiosity of photonics engineers to investigate these changes in the nature of light and matter.

Wellard, Stanley J.



Rock 'Em, Sock 'Em!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|K-12-level competitive robotics is growing in popularity around the country and worldwide. According to one of the leading organizers of these events, FIRST--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology--250,000 students from 56 countries take part in its competitions. FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) is a yearly event the organization…

Waters, John K.



A INFLUÊNCIA DA RESPONSABILIDADE SOCIAL NOS HÁBITOS DE CONSUMO: uma análise do comportamento de consumo em universitários do curso de Administração com Habilitação em Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO As mudanças na sociedade trouxeram ao consumidor um grande poder de decisão, tornando-o responsável pela escolha de seu consumo e preferências. As empresas para acompanharem tais mudanças apostaram em transformações e adaptaram-se aos novos rumos do mercado. O marketing por sua vez, vem inovando suas estratégias e ações para atender a essas novas necessidades e determinações do consumidor e

Ana Carolina; Saad Camargo; Ligia Ghisi



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Os Meliponina tem ocorrência restrita a áreas tropicais e subtropicais e é na Região Neotropical que possuem a maior diversidade de espécies. A maioria faz seus ninhos preferencialmente em ocos de árvores, no entanto, algumas espécies podem nidificar em cavidades no solo, em cupinzeiros ou formigueiros (abandonados ou ativos), em ninhos de pássaros desativados ou em paredes de casas.

Estefane Leoncini SIQUEIRA; Roderic Breno MARTINES; Fernanda Helena


Adequação do consumo de ferro por gestantes e mulheres em idade fértil atendidas em um serviço de pré-natal Adequacy of iron consumption in pregnant and fertile women assisted by a prenatal service Adecuación del consumo de hierro por mujeres embarazadas y fértiles asistidas por un servicio prenatal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSumo: Anemia por carência alimentar de ferro é o problema nutricional mais prevalente em nível de saúde coletiva e afeta crianças e mulheres em idade reprodutiva, em especial as gestantes. Este estudo avaliou o consumo de alimentos fontes de ferro, naturais e fortificados, e a adequação de energia e nutrientes de mulheres em idade reprodutiva, gestantes ou não. Desenvolveu-se um

Juliana Moreira Lino Viana; Adriana Uehara Santos; Maria Alice Tsunechiro; Ana Paula; Sayuri Sato; Isabel Bonadio; Sophia Cornbluth Szarfarc; Elizabeth Fujimori


Compositions of HIMU, EM1, and EM2 from global trends between radiogenic isotopes and major elements in ocean island basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sr and Pb isotopes exhibit global trends with the concentrations of major elements (SiO2, TiO2, FeO, Al2O3 and K2O) and major elements ratios (CaO/Al2O3 and K2O/TiO2) in the shield-stage lavas from 18 oceanic hotspots (including Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos, Cook-Australs, St. Helena, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Canary, Madeira, Comoros, Azores, Samoa, Society, Marquesas, Mascarene, Kerguelen, Pitcairn, and Selvagen). Based on the relationships between major elements and isotopes in ocean island basalts (OIBs), we find that the lavas derived from the mantle end members, HIMU (or high ‘?’ = 238U/204Pb), EM1 (enriched mantle 1), EM2 (enriched mantle 2), and DMM (depleted MORB [mid-ocean ridge basalt] mantle) exhibit distinct major element characteristics: When compared to oceanic hotspots globally, the hotspots with a HIMU (radiogenic Pb-isotopes and low 87Sr/86Sr) component, such as St. Helena and Cook-Australs, exhibit high CaO/Al2O3, FeOT, and TiO2 and low SiO2 and Al2O3. EM1 (enriched mantle 1; intermediate 87Sr/86Sr and low 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Pitcairn and Kerguelen) and EM2 (enriched mantle 2; high 87Sr/86Sr and intermediate 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Samoa and Societies) exhibit higher K2O concentrations and K2O/TiO2 weight ratios than HIMU lavas. EM1 lavas exhibit the lowest CaO/Al2O3 in the OIB dataset, and this sets EM1 apart from EM2. A plot of CaO/Al2O3 vs K2O/TiO2 perfectly resolves the four mantle end member lavas. Melting processes (pressure, temperature and degree of melting) fail to provide an explanation for the full spectrum of major element concentrations in OIBs. Such processes also fail to explain the correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotopes. Instead, a long, time integrated history of various parent daughter elements appears to be coupled to major element and/or volatile heterogeneity in the mantle source. End member lava compositions are compared with experimental partial melt compositions to place constraints on the lithological characteristics of the mantle end members.

Jackson, Matthew G.; Dasgupta, Rajdeep



Compositions of HIMU, EM1, and EM2 from Global Trends between Radiogenic Isotopes and Major Elements in Ocean Island Basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sr and Pb isotopes exhibit global trends with the concentrations of major elements (SiO2, TiO2, FeO, Al2O3 and K2O) and major elements ratios (CaO/Al2O3 and K2O/TiO2) in the shield-stage lavas from 18 oceanic hotspots (including Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos, Cook-Australs, St. Helena, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Canary, Madeira, Comoros, Azores, Samoa, Society, Marquesas, Mascarene, Kerguelen, Pitcairn, and Selvagen). Based on the relationships between major elements and isotopes in ocean island basalts (OIBs), we find that the lavas derived from the mantle end members, HIMU (or high 'ì' = 238U/204Pb), EM1 (enriched mantle 1), EM2 (enriched mantle 2), and DMM (depleted MORB [mid-ocean ridge basalt] mantle) exhibit distinct major element characteristics: When compared to oceanic hotspots globally, the hotspots with a HIMU (radiogenic Pb-isotopes and low 87Sr/86Sr) component, such as St. Helena and Cook-Australs, exhibit high CaO/Al2O3, FeOT, and TiO2 and low SiO2 and Al2O3. EM1 (enriched mantle 1; intermediate 87Sr/86Sr and low 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Pitcairn and Kerguelen) and EM2 (enriched mantle 2; high 87Sr/86Sr and intermediate 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Samoa and Societies) exhibit higher K2O concentrations and K2O/TiO2 weight ratios than HIMU lavas. EM1 lavas exhibit the lowest CaO/Al2O3 in the OIB dataset, and this sets EM1 apart from EM2. A plot of CaO/Al2O3 vs K2O/TiO2 perfectly resolves the four mantle end member lavas. Melting processes (pressure, temperature and degree of melting) fail to provide an explanation for the full spectrum of major element concentrations in OIBs. Such processes also fail to explain the correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotopes. Instead, a long, time integrated history of various parent- daughter elements appears to be coupled to major element and/or volatile heterogeneity in the mantle source. End member lava compositions are compared with experimental partial melt compositions to place constraints on the lithological characteristics of the mantle end members.

Jackson, M. G.; Dasgupta, R.



EM703 improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by the inhibition of TGF-? signaling in lung fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fourteen-membered ring macrolides have been effective in reducing chronic airway inflammation and also preventing lung injury and fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice via anti-inflammatory effects. EM703 is a new derivative of erythromycin (EM) without the bactericidal effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of EM703 in an experimental model of bleomycin-induced lung injury and subsequent fibrosis in mice. METHODS:

Ying Ji Li; Arata Azuma; Jiro Usuki; Shinji Abe; Kuniko Matsuda; Toshiaki Sunazuka; Takako Shimizu; Yukiyo Hirata; Hirofumi Inagaki; Tomoyuki Kawada; Satoru Takahashi; Shoji Kudoh; Satoshi Omura



EmCodeSyn: A visual framework for multi-rate data flow specifications and code synthesis for embedded applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new framework EmCodeSyn is introduced for visual debugging, execution and code synthesis from multi-rate data flow based specifications. EmCodeSyn is an attempt to create a formal semantics based visual framework for specifying safety critical applications such as automotive control, avionics fly-by-wire control, etc. In contrast with SIMULINK\\/Stateflow, LabVIEW and other visual tools, EmCodeSyn is based on

Bijoy A. Jose; Jason Pribble; Lemaire Stewart; Sandeep K. Shukla



Mapping Coastal Wetlands Using EM and Airborne Lidar: a Texas Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combined EM induction and airborne lidar measurements with vegetation surveys along two transects across Mustang Island, a Texas barrier island, to examine whether EM and lidar can be used to map coastal wetlands and associated geomorphic environments. Lidar-derived elevations correlate well with National Wetland Inventory (NWI) upland, palustrine, estuarine, and marine units. Lidar can be used to map wetland habitat more accurately and in greater detail than is feasible from aerial photographs and limited field checks, approaching that achievable on the ground. Where vegetation is dense, lidar-derived elevations may represent the top of massed vegetation rather than the ground surface, leading to potential habitat misclassification. Measurements of shallow electrical conductivity using a ground-based EM instrument range over three orders of magnitude and also correlate well with NWI habitat and geomorphic unit. High conductivities are measured within marine and estuarine NWI units and in salt marsh, wind-tidal flat, and forebeach environments. Low conductivities are measured within upland and palustrine NWI habitats and in dune, VBF, and fresh marsh environments. Conductivity profiles possess more mappable detail than is present on NWI maps. Tests of an airborne EM sensor towed 30 m above the ground yielded insufficient resolution. Elevation and conductivity are inversely correlated along the transects. EM and lidar readily discern saline- and fresh-water environments and complement traditional wetland classification by helping distinguish environments that have similar signatures on aerial photographs. There is some overlap in elevation and conductivity among similar habitats and environments, but a statistical classification based on integrated data from lidar, EM, and aerial photographs can achieve greater resolution and accuracy than current remote-sensing methods. Future work should include evaluating the effect of vegetation density on lidar-beam penetration, quantifying seasonal change in ground conductivity in fresh and saline environments, examining the geographic variability of elevation and conductivity, and further evaluating the use of airborne EM sensors to measure conductivity at multiple exploration depths simultaneously.

Paine, J. G.; White, W. A.; Smyth, R. C.; Andrews, J. R.; Gibeaut, J. C.



Úlcera de perna: um estudo de casos em Juiz de Fora-MG (Brasil) e região* Leg ulcer: an observational study in Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil) and region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: FUNDAMENTOS: Úlcera de perna (UP) caracteriza-se por perda do tegumento nas extremidades dos membros inferiores causada geral- mente por disfunção vascular. O BJETIVOS: Caracterizar clínica e epidemiologicamente a amostra populacional com UP atendida nos centros de saúde de Juiz de Fora. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Submetidos ao protocolo clínico 124 pacientes com UP, de Juiz de Fora e região de

Marco Andrey; Cipriani Frade; Igor Brum Cursi; Felipe Fortes Andrade; Samara Casemiro Soares; Sandro V. Santos; Norma Tiraboschi Foss


Scalable and interactive segmentation and visualization of neural processes in EM datasets.  


Recent advances in scanning technology provide high resolution EM (Electron Microscopy) datasets that allow neuro-scientists to reconstruct complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, due to the enormous size and complexity of the resulting data, segmentation and visualization of neural processes in EM data is usually a difficult and very time-consuming task. In this paper, we present NeuroTrace, a novel EM volume segmentation and visualization system that consists of two parts: a semi-automatic multiphase level set segmentation with 3D tracking for reconstruction of neural processes, and a specialized volume rendering approach for visualization of EM volumes. It employs view-dependent on-demand filtering and evaluation of a local histogram edge metric, as well as on-the-fly interpolation and ray-casting of implicit surfaces for segmented neural structures. Both methods are implemented on the GPU for interactive performance. NeuroTrace is designed to be scalable to large datasets and data-parallel hardware architectures. A comparison of NeuroTrace with a commonly used manual EM segmentation tool shows that our interactive workflow is faster and easier to use for the reconstruction of complex neural processes. PMID:19834227

Jeong, Won-Ki; Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Vazquez, Amelio; Pfister, Hanspeter; Whitaker, Ross T


Scalable and Interactive Segmentation and Visualization of Neural Processes in EM Datasets  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in scanning technology provide high resolution EM (Electron Microscopy) datasets that allow neuroscientists to reconstruct complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, due to the enormous size and complexity of the resulting data, segmentation and visualization of neural processes in EM data is usually a difficult and very time-consuming task. In this paper, we present NeuroTrace, a novel EM volume segmentation and visualization system that consists of two parts: a semi-automatic multiphase level set segmentation with 3D tracking for reconstruction of neural processes, and a specialized volume rendering approach for visualization of EM volumes. It employs view-dependent on-demand filtering and evaluation of a local histogram edge metric, as well as on-the-fly interpolation and ray-casting of implicit surfaces for segmented neural structures. Both methods are implemented on the GPU for interactive performance. NeuroTrace is designed to be scalable to large datasets and data-parallel hardware architectures. A comparison of NeuroTrace with a commonly used manual EM segmentation tool shows that our interactive workflow is faster and easier to use for the reconstruction of complex neural processes.

Jeong, Won-Ki; Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Vazquez, Amelio; Pfister, Hanspeter; Whitaker, Ross T.



The EMS response to the Oklahoma City bombing.  


This is a descriptive study of the Emergency Medical Services response to a bombing of a United States Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on 19 April 1995. The explosion emanated from a rented truck parked in the front of the building. The force of the explosion destroyed three of the four support columns in the front of the building and resulted in a pancaking effect of the upper floors onto the lower floors. There were three distinct phases of the medical response: 1) Immediately available local EMS ambulances and staff; 2) Additional ambulances staffed by recalled, off-duty personnel; and 3) mutual-aid ambulances and personnel from the surrounding communities. There were 361 persons in the building at the time of the explosion, 163 of these perished. Within the first hour of the explosion, 139 patients were transported to area hospitals. Of these, 32% were in critical condition. During the day of the explosion, 444 persons were treated for physical injuries: 410 of these were related to the explosion and 14, including one with fatal injuries, were sustained during search and rescue attempts. A total of 354 (80%) were treated and released from emergency departments, and 90 (20%) were admitted to hospitals. Six of the transported victims either were dead on arrival to the emergency department or died after admission to the hospital. Of those who died, 95% of the deaths were related to blunt trauma associated with the collapse of the structure. Only three persons were extricated alive after the first five hours following the explosion. The scene became flooded with volunteers who, although their intentions were to provide help and aid to those injured, created a substantial logistical problem for Incident Command. Several other lessons were learned: 1) Telephone lines and cells became overloaded, but the Hospital Emergency Administrative Radio system was operational only in three of the 15 hospitals; 2) Volunteer personnel should have responded to the hospitals and not to the scene; and 3) Training was an essential for the success of such a response. Thus, the success of this operation was a function of the intense training, practice, and coordination between multiple agencies. PMID:10187007

Maningas, P A; Robison, M; Mallonee, S


Preliminary Seafloor Controlled Source EM Results From APPLE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain events in the life cycle of oceanic lithosphere are dominantly two-dimensional. These include formation of crust at axial spreading centers and deformation at the lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary. These processes may result in an electrically anisotropic oceanic lithosphere by creating conductive pathways in preferred orientations. Controlled Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) soundings and Magnetotelluric (MT) soundings were made during the Anisotropy and Physics of the Pacific Lithosphere Experiment (APPLE), carried out in February/March 2001 approximately 600 km west of San Diego, California. Twenty seafloor electromagnetic field sensors were deployed: 4 long-wire CSEM recorders with 200 m electrode offsets, 6 high-frequency MT/CSEM recorders with two orthogonal 10 m offset electrodes and two orthogonal induction coil magnetometers, and 10 low-frequency MT recorders with a three-component fluxgate magnetometer and two orthogonal 10 m electric dipoles, 5 of which also recorded CSEM data. Every instrument was recovered, with data, during this primary cruise and a follow-up recovery cruise for the long-period instruments in August 2001. The deep-towed EM transmitter (DASI) was a 100 m horizontal electric dipole, which was towed in a 30 km radius circle around a central core of recorders. A radial tow was also performed. DASI transmitted a 4 Hz square wave throughout the CSEM phase of the experiment. Initial processing of the CSEM data reveals evidence of crustal anisotropy. In particular, transmitted electromagnetic energy is attenuated more strongly when propagating from west to east than from north to south. The difference in attenuation is about a factor of two, at a range of 30 km and a frequency of 4Hz. This confirms earlier results from the PEGASUS experiment, which proposed that oceanic lower crust and upper mantle with east-west trending lineaments of increased conductivity will exhibit greater attenuation of electric fields in the east-west direction. These lineaments may be deposits of conductive minerals (e.g. oxides, graphite) stretched out along the direction of plate motion.

Behrens, J. P.; MacGregor, L.; Constable, S.; Everett, M.




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A cultura do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (l.) R. Br.) tem sido a principal opção para a formação de palhada no sistema de plantio direto no cerrado, sendo cultivado em safrinha ou em pré-safra. Para esta última época, todavia, são necessárias informações que possibilitem seu cultivo sem prejudicar a época de semeadura da cultura de verão. O objetivo do trabalho

Fabio Ribeiro; Renato Lara; Gilson Pereira; Antônio Joaquim; Braga Pereira; Shinayder Cristina SANTOS; Santiel Alves; João Paulo; Goulart de SOUSA


Estudo e aplicação do código de desembaraçamento espectral - Korel - em sistemas triplos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O código KOREL é uma ferramenta adicional eficiente para a determinação simultânea de parâmetros orbitais espectroscópicos para o desembaraço de espectros individuais de sistemas estelares com até cinco componentes. Estudos já realizados (Torres,KBV,2002, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG) mostram as limitações, aplicabilidade e eficiência do código para sistemas com duas componentes. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, a continuação dos estudos para sistemas com três componentes (sistemas hierárquicos), utilizando espectros sintéticos "gabaritos" de estrelas individuais em órbitas cujos parâmetros são conhecidos "a priori". Geramos os espectros compostos e verificamos como o código reproduz os parâmetros orbitais e espectros individuais em diversas situações físicas. É apresentado, ainda, uma discussão da aplicabilidade do código em sistemas reais como RV Crateris (Machado,ACM,1997, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG), um sistema triplo cujas componentes eclipsantes estão, provavelmente, ainda na fase pré-sequência principal.

Torres, K. B. V.; Vaz, L. P. R.



Diffusion-Based EM Algorithm for Distributed Estimation of Gaussian Mixtures in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Distributed estimation of Gaussian mixtures has many applications in wireless sensor network (WSN), and its energy-efficient solution is still challenging. This paper presents a novel diffusion-based EM algorithm for this problem. A diffusion strategy is introduced for acquiring the global statistics in EM algorithm in which each sensor node only needs to communicate its local statistics to its neighboring nodes at each iteration. This improves the existing consensus-based distributed EM algorithm which may need much more communication overhead for consensus, especially in large scale networks. The robustness and scalability of the proposed approach can be achieved by distributed processing in the networks. In addition, we show that the proposed approach can be considered as a stochastic approximation method to find the maximum likelihood estimation for Gaussian mixtures. Simulation results show the efficiency of this approach.

Weng, Yang; Xiao, Wendong; Xie, Lihua



EM algorithm applied for estimating non-stationary region boundaries using electrical impedance tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EIT has been used for the dynamic estimation of organ boundaries. One specific application in this context is the estimation of lung boundaries during pulmonary circulation. This would help track the size and shape of lungs of the patients suffering from diseases like pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure (ARF). The dynamic boundary estimation of the lungs can also be utilized to set and control the air volume and pressure delivered to the patients during artificial ventilation. In this paper, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the non-stationary lung boundary. The uncertainties caused in Kalman-type filters due to inaccurate selection of model parameters are overcome using EM algorithm. Numerical experiments using chest shaped geometry are carried out with proposed method and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). Results show superior performance of EM in estimation of the lung boundary.

Khambampati, A. K.; Rashid, A.; Kim, B. S.; Liu, Dong; Kim, S.; Kim, K. Y.



Auswirkungen des K + -Kanalblockers Tedisamil auf Hämodynamik, Myokardischämie und neurohumorales System bei Patienten mit stabiler Angina pectoris.¶Ein Vergleich mit dem ß-Blocker Atenolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Clinical drawbacks of beta-blocker treatment in stable angina have motivated researchers to provide alternative heart rat lowering agents, such as tedisamil which additionally exerts antiischemic and antiarrhythmic effects by blockade of cellular repolarizing K+ currents. Methods and Results: 48 patients with stable angina pectoris were investigated (double-blind, randomized, parallel grouped) comparing the hemodynamic, antiischemic, metabolic and neurohumoral effects

V. Mitrovic; A. Miskovic; M. Straub; K. Beckmann; J. Thormann; H. Pitschner



Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China.  


This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits. PMID:15285401

Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan



Applying WPD and SVD to Classification of EM Wave Induced by Partial Discharge in Power Transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial discharge (PD) current is an impulse signal at nanosecond level, which can generate electromagnetic (EM) wave containing broadband frequency information. The frequency band of EM signal is from MHz up to GHz. Due to different PD patterns, impulse currents with different shapes induce different EM waves containing different frequency information. Therefore, using the features extracted from frequency domain of EM signals, the classification of PD patterns can be effectively got. It is good to use wavelet or wavelet packet decomposition to select features. However, if the decomposition level is too shallow to find enough effective features, it cannot group the EM signals to the right pattern. On the contrary, although it is easier to find features to distinguish the PD pattern if the decomposition level is deep, there will be a lot of redundancy variables and it is hard to select features among so many variables. In this paper, a method is presented, which selected features in the whole decomposition tree instead of selecting among the leaf node of the tree, because more potential features can be found in the whole tree. With the present method, it is possible not only to get enough features, but also to eliminate the redundancy variables effectively. In order to validate the method, large EM signals from four PD patterns in a power transformer are acquired as the training data and testing data for feature selection and classification, and three common classification methods are introduced to classify the PD patterns using the features selected by the method. Most of the classification results are satisfactory indicating that the proposed method is effective.

Zhao, Xu; Cheng, Yong-Hong; Meng, Yong-Peng; Danikas, Michael G.



EM Safety Innovations Aim Toward Safer Technologies and Better Information for Users  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 2000, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Science and Technology (OST) has substantially re-examined and improved our approach to worker safety and health. Consistent with OST's responsibilities for safety, these initiatives can be categorized generally as: (1) Making our technologies inherently safer to use; and (2) Providing useful safety and health information about our technologies to the sites and technology operators. This evolved through a collaborative process by the EM Office of Safety, Health and Security, the EM Office of Science and Technology, EM Focus Areas and others. It was, initially, largely in response to a set of eight recommendations by the Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB) and to lessons learned from a serious accident in August, 2000 involving an OST-funded new technology. The cornerstone of this effort is the Policy for Occupational Safety and Health in EM's Science and Technology Program, issued in January 2001. DOE Focus Areas are focusing more attention on worker safety and health in their solicitations and procurement documents for new technology research and development (R&D) projects. EM Headquarters is working with Focus Areas, site environmental contractors, technology developers, and their respective DOE field organizations to ensure that roles and responsibilities for worker safety and health are clearly defined when a new technology is demonstrated at an environmental management site. The peer review process administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) now requires technology developers to think through their approach to safety and health in a more detailed, focused way than previously. In Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs), developers are comparing their new technologies to baseline technologies on the basis of safety and health. Technology Safety Data Sheets (TSDSs) are being prepared for new technologies when they reach the appropriate stage of development.

Lankford, M.; Geiger, J.; Carpenter, C.



A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.



Consensus among flexible fitting approaches improves the interpretation of cryo-EM data  

PubMed Central

Cryo-elecron microscopy (Cryo-EM) can provide important structural information of large macromolecular assemblies in different conformational states. Recent years have seen an increase in structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) by fitting a high-resolution structure into its low-resolution cryo-EM map. A commonly used protocol for accommodating the conformational changes between the X-ray structure and the cryo-EM map is rigid body fitting of individual domains. With the emergence of different flexible fitting approaches, there is a need to compare and revise these different protocols for the fitting. We have applied three diverse automated flexible fitting approaches on a protein dataset for which rigid domain fitting (RDF) models have been deposited in the PDB. In general, a consensus is observed in the conformations, which indicates a convergence from these theoretically different approaches to the most probable solution corresponding to the cryo-EM map. However, the result shows that the convergence might not be observed for proteins with complex conformational changes or with missing densities in cryo-EM map. In contrast, RDF structures deposited in the PDB can represent conformations that not only differ from the consensus obtained by flexible fitting but also from X-ray crystallography. Thus, this study emphasizes that a “consensus” achieved by the use of several automated flexible fitting approaches can provide a higher level of confidence in the modeled configurations. Following this protocol not only increases the confidence level of fitting, but also highlights protein regions with uncertain fitting. Hence, this protocol can lead to better interpretation of cryo-EM data.

Ahmed, Aqeel; Whitford, Paul C.; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Tama, Florence



Consensus among flexible fitting approaches improves the interpretation of cryo-EM data.  


Cryo-elecron microscopy (cryo-EM) can provide important structural information of large macromolecular assemblies in different conformational states. Recent years have seen an increase in structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) by fitting a high-resolution structure into its low-resolution cryo-EM map. A commonly used protocol for accommodating the conformational changes between the X-ray structure and the cryo-EM map is rigid body fitting of individual domains. With the emergence of different flexible fitting approaches, there is a need to compare and revise these different protocols for the fitting. We have applied three diverse automated flexible fitting approaches on a protein dataset for which rigid domain fitting (RDF) models have been deposited in the PDB. In general, a consensus is observed in the conformations, which indicates a convergence from these theoretically different approaches to the most probable solution corresponding to the cryo-EM map. However, the result shows that the convergence might not be observed for proteins with complex conformational changes or with missing densities in cryo-EM map. In contrast, RDF structures deposited in the PDB can represent conformations that not only differ from the consensus obtained by flexible fitting but also from X-ray crystallography. Thus, this study emphasizes that a "consensus" achieved by the use of several automated flexible fitting approaches can provide a higher level of confidence in the modeled configurations. Following this protocol not only increases the confidence level of fitting, but also highlights protein regions with uncertain fitting. Hence, this protocol can lead to better interpretation of cryo-EM data. PMID:22019767

Ahmed, Aqeel; Whitford, Paul C; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Tama, Florence



The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in EMS  

PubMed Central

Purpose Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. Methods A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a 6 month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for 3 categories of agency staff mix: all paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed), and all-volunteer. Results The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=10.2%, mixed=12.3%, all-volunteer=12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n=25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$86,452.05, mixed=$9,766.65, and all-volunteer=$0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$7,161.38, mixed=$1,409.64, and all-volunteer=$0). Conclusions Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study’s mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings provide estimates of two key workforce measures – turnover rates and costs – where previously none ha