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Sample records for athletic training career

  1. Career Commitment of Postprofessional Athletic Training Program Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Context: Choosing to pursue an advanced degree in athletic training appears to indicate professional commitment and passion for the profession. Currently, there is a paucity of information regarding why some athletic trainers pursue enrollment in a postprofessional athletic training program (PPATP), indicating commitment to the profession, but later depart for another primary role outside of athletic training. Objective: To understand why athletic trainers invested in advanced training via a PPATP but then decided to leave the profession. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Online data collection. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve graduates (8 women [67%], 4 men [33%], age = 31.58 ± 3.06 years) from PPATPs who no longer had primary employment as an athletic trainer. Data Collection and Analysis: Recruits responded to an e-mail invitation to participate by completing a confidential online questionnaire. We analyzed data using a general inductive approach and secured trustworthiness using multiple-analyst triangulation, peer review, and member checks. Results: Two higher-order themes emerged regarding the career commitment of former athletic trainers who were PPATP graduates: (1) departure from an athletic training career and (2) partial continuance in athletic training. Two second-order themes emerged from the reasons for departure: (1) decreased recognition of value and (2) work-life imbalance. Finally, we identified 2 third-order themes from the participants' reasons for departure because of a perceived lack of value: (1) low salary and (2) long, inconsistent hours worked. Conclusions: Most of our participants intended to stay in the profession when they chose to attend a PPATP. However, during role inductance in either the clinical experience of the PPATP they attended or early in their careers, they began to have thoughts of leaving mainly because of inadequate financial compensation, challenging work schedules, or both. PMID:25343531

  2. National Athletic Trainers' Association-Accredited Postprofessional Athletic Training Education: Attractors and Career Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Context Anecdotally, we know that students select graduate programs based on location, finances, and future career goals. Empirically, however, we lack information on what attracts a student to these programs. Objective To gain an appreciation for the selection process of graduate study. Design Qualitative study. Setting Postprofessional programs in athletic training (PPATs) accredited by the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants A total of 19 first-year PPAT students participated, representing 13 of the 16 accredited PPAT programs. Data Collection and Analysis All interviews were conducted via phone and transcribed verbatim. Analysis of the interview data followed the procedures as outlined by a grounded theory approach. Trustworthiness was secured by (1) participant checks, (2) participant verification, and (3) multiple analyst triangulations. Results Athletic training students select PPAT programs for 4 major reasons: reputation of the program or faculty (or both), career intentions, professional socialization, and mentorship from undergraduate faculty or clinical instructors (or both). Participants discussed long-term professional goals as the driving force behind wanting an advanced degree in athletic training. Faculty and clinical instructor recommendations and the program's prestige helped guide the decisions. Participants also expressed the need to gain more experience, which promoted autonomy, and support while gaining that work experience. Final selection of the PPAT program was based on academic offerings, the assistantship offered (including financial support), advanced knowledge of athletic training concepts and principles, and apprenticeship opportunities. Conclusions Students who attend PPAT programs are attracted to advancing their entry-level knowledge, are committed to their professional development as athletic trainers, and view the profession of athletic training as a life-long career. The combination of

  3. Factors Influencing Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of the Athletic Training Profession and Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Sarah S.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Successful athletic training programs should help students develop a desire to work within the athletic training profession while providing adequate preparation for them to enter the workforce. Understanding athletic training students' perceptions of the profession as they leave programs and the factors that influence these…

  4. Undergraduate Athletic Training Students' Influences on Career Decisions After Graduation

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Gavin, Kerri E.; Pitney, William A.; Casa, Douglas J.; Burton, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Context Career opportunities for athletic training students (ATSs) have increased substantially over the past few years. However, ATSs commonly appear to be opting for a more diversified professional experience after graduation. With the diversity in available options, an understanding of career decision is imperative. Objective To use the theoretical framework of socialization to investigate the influential factors behind the postgraduation decisions of senior ATSs. Design Qualitative study. Setting Web-based management system and telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants Twenty-two ATSs (16 females, 6 males; age = 22 ± 2 years) who graduated in May 2010 from 13 different programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Data Collection and Analysis All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed inductively. Data analysis required independent coding by 2 athletic trainers for specific themes. Credibility of the results was confirmed via peer review, methodologic triangulation, and multiple analyst triangulation. Results Two higher-order themes emerged from the data analysis: persistence in athletic training (AT) and decision to leave AT. Faculty and clinical instructor support, marketability, and professional growth were supporting themes describing persistence in AT. Shift of interest away from AT, lack of respect for the AT profession, compensation, time commitment, and AT as a stepping stone were themes sustaining the reasons that ATSs leave AT. The aforementioned reasons to leave often were discussed collectively, generating a collective undesirable outlook on the AT profession. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of faculty support, professional growth, and early socialization into AT. Socialization of pre–AT students could alter retention rates by providing in-depth information about the profession before students commit in their undergraduate education and by helping

  5. Collegiate Athletes and Career Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Jennifer L.; Strear, Molly M.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Henderson, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    Given the unique experiences of collegiate athletes and the need to facilitate their transition as they complete postsecondary education and join the workforce, the present study sought to evaluate a group-administered career development program at a US university focused on preparing students for the transition into professional life upon…

  6. Change and Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Dr. R. Richard Ray, Jr. is a Professor and Chair of Kinesiology at Hope College in Holland, Michigan. Since 1982 he has served as the Program Director for the Athletic Training Education Program at Hope College. Dr. Ray is the author of several books and over 40 articles. In this article he begins by laying a foundation for the reasons why change…

  7. Female Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of Motherhood and Retention in Athletic Training

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Context: Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. Objective: To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training education program. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education–accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic study. Data Collection and Analysis: The participants responded to a series of questions related to work–life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. Results: The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work–life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work–life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. Conclusions: A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work–life balance strategies, which can

  8. Mental Training for the Distance Athlete: "The Running Values Auction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteen, Deborah E.; Phillips, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Coaches and sports psychologists often say that it is the mind that controls the body, and that once a race begins, it is 90 percent mental and 10 percent physical training. Teaching young athletes to use mental strategies is a skill they will continue to use throughout their athletic career, and best of all, throughout their everyday lives, even…

  9. Career Guidance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John E.

    The 1972 Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Career Training Program was aimed at placing counselors in actual work situations (as new employees) to enable them to experience that which they must describe to students if they are to do an effective job in career counseling. The overall purpose was to give counselors or teachers and administrators an…

  10. Social Support and Career Thoughts in College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    The career decision-making process can be a daunting task during the college years for both athletes and non-athletes alike. Understanding factors that influence this process and ways to best support students as they are making career decisions is integral to counselors working with college students. Social support and career thoughts were…

  11. Photobiomodulation in athletic training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Shuang-Xi; Cui, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Lu, Jian; Deng, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been mainly used in athlete trauma care. In this paper, the possible applications of PBM in athlete medical care to maintain pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis and in athlete trauma care to treat osteoarthritis and delayed onset of muscular soreness (DOMS) have been discussed. In order to maintain pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis, PBM might be used in an intravascular way, in an endonasal way or in a directly irradiated way. DOMS was supposed to have three phases, z-line disruption, proteolysis of damaged proteins and protein synthesis for myofibril remodeling, each of which might have its own optimum dose of PBM.

  12. Training Career Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Spencer G.; Engels, Dennis; Lenz, Janet

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes 8 presentations from Group 8 on the theme "Training of Researchers and Practitioners," which were part of the 2007 joint symposium of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance, Society for Vocational Psychology, and National Career Development Association held in Padua, Italy. Three themes…

  13. Intensive training in young athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, N; Pintore, E

    1990-01-01

    An increasing number of children take part in organized sporting activities, undergoing intensive training and high level competition from an early age. Although intensive training in children may foster health benefits, many are injured as a result of training, often quite seriously. This paper reviews some of the areas of research dealing with intensively trained young athletes, and focuses on physical, cardiovascular and muscular effects, sports injuries and psychological effects of intensive training. It is concluded that measures should be taken to modify present training and competition schemes to avoid the deleterious effects of intensive physical activity on these children. PMID:2097019

  14. Promoting Coherence in Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Walker, Stacy E.; Laursen, R. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present athletic training educators with guidelines for developing coherent athletic training education programs. Background: Coherent athletic training education programs are marked by a clear relationship between program goals and learning activities. These learning activities follow a logical progression that facilitates knowledge…

  15. Description of Professional Master's Athletic Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Professional master's (PM) athletic training programs (ATPs) are becoming more popular as the profession debates what the entry-level degree should be for athletic training. More information is needed related to the potential benefits of PM ATPs. Objective: Describe the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE)…

  16. Overview of Athletic Training Education Research Publications

    PubMed Central

    Turocy, Paula Sammarone

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the limited amount of peer-reviewed literature on athletic training education that has been published in athletic training journals. Publications that related specifically to the development of evaluation tools or specific addenda to the required athletic training curriculum were not included. Background: As education reform continues to unfold in athletic training, it is important for all certified athletic trainers to understand the research that undergirds the educational practices in athletic training. Many of the profession's educational practices have been taken from standards and methods developed by the discipline of education, with very little validation for applicability to the discipline of athletic training. A very limited number of comprehensive scientific investigations of the educational standards and practices in athletic training education have been carried out; however, for more research to be conducted, it is essential that the currently available research be reviewed. Description: The summaries of athletic training educational research in this article include the topics of learning styles, facilitation of learning and professional development, instructional methods, clinical instruction and supervision, predictors of success on the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification certification examination, program administration, and continuing education. The amount of research in athletic training education is limited when compared with the amount and quality of educational research available in other professions, such as medicine, nursing, dentistry, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. In this article, I attempt to describe the existing literature and identify what is needed to expand the breadth and depth of research in athletic training education. Clinical Advantages: This article is intended to help educators identify areas within athletic training education that require further

  17. Minnesota Career Focus. Careers & Training: A Guide for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Economic Security, St. Paul.

    This guide to Minnesota training resources for adults seeking new employment opportunities provides an overview of careers, wages, job availability, and necessary training. Occupations are described in these areas: medical careers; office professions; technical careers; art, writing, and media careers; service careers---food, hair, police;…

  18. Providing Career Counseling for Collegiate Student-Athletes: A Learning Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurts, W. Matthew; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2004-01-01

    Collegiate student-athletes present unique issues regarding career development. Career counselors who infuse the Learning Theory of Career Counseling (Krumboltz, 1996) into their work with collegiate student-athletes can help these clients learn new ways to explore career possibilities. By co-creating learning opportunities with student-athletes,…

  19. Multicultural Career Counseling: Ten Essentials for Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Heppner, Mary J.

    2002-01-01

    Critical areas in which career counselors need training are as follows: demographics, world of work, career and multicultural counseling competence, career counseling process, multicultural counseling theories, career development models, career assessment, barriers to career development, culturally sensitive career centers, and continuing…

  20. Reflections on Athletic Training Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Thomas Weidner is the Director of the Athletic Training Education Program and the Research and Education Laboratory at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. In this article he shares his views on what he has come to learn from being an educator in the current era of athletic training education reform. This manuscript is from the…

  1. Training the prepubertal and pubertal athlete.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, Valerie K

    2007-06-01

    Participation of prepubertal and pubertal children in sports has increased significantly over the past decade. There is a continuing concern for their emotional and physical well-being. This review discusses concerns that coaches, trainers, parents, and athletes must confront. Young athletes are limited in their ability to perform on the playing field by both their physical and emotional maturity. Competitive sports in this age group can lead to injury and disability. Both strength training and aerobic training can have benefits for this age group but must be performed in a cautious and creative fashion. Child athletes have increased nutritional demands that require special attention. The use of performance-enhancing drugs is of special concern in this age group. Training the child athlete should be performed with the utmost concern for the athlete's safety and well-being. PMID:19202665

  2. Dance Dynamics. Athletes & Dancers Training & Moving Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This series of articles explores the various ways in which training procedures in both dance and athletics are compatible. Topics include: traditional and adapted dance class structures and materials; the inclusion of dance in the physical education curriculum; and the physical fitness of dancers as compared to athletes. (JN)

  3. Perceptions of Sexual Harassment in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shingles, René Revis; Smith, Yevonne

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe and analyze the experiences of ethnically diverse female certified athletic trainers (ATCs) in order to discern the perceived nature of sexual harassment in the athletic training profession. Design and Setting: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for a larger study; however, only the qualitative data are…

  4. Athletic Training: Instructors Perceived Preparedness for Teaching in an Athletic Training Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Kevin F.

    2013-01-01

    Athletic trainers work in clinical settings such as secondary schools, colleges and universities, sports medicine clinics, professional sports, hospitals, and other healthcare environments. However, with the rapid expansion of athletic training education programs (ATEP) over the years, another role for the athletic trainer has developed, the…

  5. Retention Initiatives Used by Professional Bachelor's Athletic Training Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Retaining athletic training students has been identified as problematic by approximately half of athletic training program (ATP) directors. It is unknown what ATP directors do to improve athletic training student retention. Objective: To identify initiatives that ATP directors use to improve the retention rates of athletic training…

  6. Athletic Training Student Socialization Part II: Socializing the Professional Master's Athletic Training Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Professional socialization is a key process in the professional development of athletic training students. Literature has focused on many perspectives regarding socialization and has primarily focused on the undergraduate level. Objective: Gain insights from the program director at professional master's (PM) athletic training programs on…

  7. Athletic Training Student Socialization Part I: Socializing Students in Undergraduate Athletic Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Professional socialization is a key process in the professional development of athletic training students. The published athletic training education research has focused on many perspectives regarding socialization; however, it has yet to investigate the program director's (PD's) opinion. Objective: To gain insights from the PD on methods…

  8. Program Director Perspectives on Athletic Training Student Motivation to Complete Their Professional Athletic Training Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Student motivation has been linked to persistence until graduation for athletic training students. There is little research, however on ways athletic training programs (ATPs) foster student motivation. Objective: To expand upon the existing literature regarding retention of students in ATPs, specifically examining the concept of student…

  9. Determination of Career Planning Profiles of Turkish Athletes Who Are Ranked in the Olympics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulya, Bingol; Cemal, Gundogdu; Sukru, Bingol

    2012-01-01

    This study researched in the level of career planning of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics during the time they were active in sports and after they retired. This study which aimed to determine the career planning efficiency of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics based on the viewpoints of the athletes holding Olympic degree is scanning…

  10. Construction of the integrated model for practical career support to the professional athletes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Motoki; Hochi, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Mami; Kaneko, Ikuyo; Yamada, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Recently, along with the enhancement of the argument for career of athletes, many researchers who major in sports psychology focus mainly on athletic retirement, a coordination of transitions in sport or and outside sport, social support and professional assistance in career transition, in the context of the second career concerning to professional athletes in Japan. However, when it comes to career transition of professional athletes, it is necessary to consider "career" from the whole perspectives of human life. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to clarify the career transition of professional athletes by the way of questionnaire and interview survey, which is approached from the view point of industrial/organizational psychology. For this purpose, we implemented the interview survey to professional athletes in 2008. In addition, we carried out the investigation to professional football players (interview survey: 5 players, questionnaire survey: 102 players) in 2009. Consequently, three following findings were led in conclusion. (1)Career intervention to professional athletes should be performed before the turning point of the career (career transition). (2)It is important to assess the career intervention to professional athletes. (3)It is an important stance to watch the processes when professional athletes open up one's career by oneself. PMID:22317681

  11. The 3-I Career Advising Process and Athletes with Foreclosed Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menke, Donna J.

    2015-01-01

    Student-athletes who identify more strongly with their athletic role than their academic life may neither encounter nor embrace the chance to explore career options. Their lack of exposure or interest to career advising may compound career immaturity and development. Gordon's (2006) 3-I (inquire, inform, integrate) decision-making process applied…

  12. African American Student Athletes' Perceptions of Career Transition in Sport: A Qualitative and Visual Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, C. Keith; Lawrence, Suzanne Malia

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on 26 African American athletes and explores their perceptions of athletic career transition. Participants consisted of student athletes from a United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IIA institution in the Southeastern region. Participants completed the Life After Sports Scale (LASS), a 58-item…

  13. Motivation towards dual career of European student-athletes.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Corrado; Guidotti, Flavia; Goncalves, Carlos E; Moreira, Liliana; Doupona Topic, Mojca; Bellardini, Helena; Tonkonogi, Michail; Colin, Allen; Capranica, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate motivations for the dual career of European student-athletes living in countries providing different educational services for elite athletes: State-centric regulation-State as sponsor/facilitator (State), National Sporting Federations/Institutes as intermediary (Federation) and Laisser Faire, no formal structures (No Structure). Therefore, the European Student-athletes' Motivation towards Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-EU) was administered to 524 European student-athletes. Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were applied to test the factor structure, and the reliability and validity of the SAMSAQ-EU, respectively. A multivariate approach was applied to verify subgroup effects (P ≤ 0.05) according to gender (i.e., female and male), age (i.e., ≤ 24 years, > 24 years), type of sport (i.e., individual sport and team sport) and competition level (i.e., national and international). Insufficient confirmatory indexes were reported for the whole European student-athlete group, whereas distinct three factor models [i.e., Student Athletic Motivation (SAM); Academic Motivation (AM); Career Athletic Motivation (CAM)] emerged, with acceptable reliability estimates, for State (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.75; and CAM = 0.75), Federation (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.66; and CAM = 0.87) and No Structure (SAM = 0.78; AM = 0.74; and CAM = 0.79) subgroups. Differences between subgroups were found only for competition level (P < 0.001) in relation to SAM (P = 0.001) and CAM (P < 0.001). For SAM, the highest and lowest values emerged for Federation (national, 5.1 ± 0.5; international, 5.4 ± 0.5) and State (national, 4.5 ± 0.9; international, 4.8 ± 0.7). The opposite picture emerged for CAM (Federation: national, 3.3 ± 0.7; international, 3.5 ± 0.9; State: national, 5.0 ± 0.8; international, 5.0 ± 0.9). Therefore, despite SAMSAQ-EU demonstrated to be a useful tool, results showed that European student-athletes

  14. Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. p<0.001) in male athletes. The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes. PMID:23834510

  15. Self Reported Perceptions of Physical Demands on Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawaguchi, Jeffrey K.; Babcock, Garth; Little, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Context: According to the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) Standards for the Accreditation of Entry-Level Athletic Training Education Programs, athletic training students (ATSs) must complete clinical experiences that provide opportunities to integrate cognitive function, psychomotor skills, and affective…

  16. Characteristics of Athletic Training Students That Preceptors Find Desirable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Thomas, Spencer; Paulsen, Jenica; Chiu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students acquire clinical hours under the direct supervision of athletic training preceptors. Objective: The purpose of this project was to explore what characteristics preceptors desire in their athletic training students. Design and Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 286…

  17. Interprofessional Education and Practice in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbach, Anthony P.; Richardson, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Professional preparation in athletic training has grown from modest roots based in physical education in the 1960s to its emergence as a recognized health profession today. The profession has long embraced interprofessional practice (IPP), but many times has not been included in discussions held at the institutional, governmental, and…

  18. Situational Supervision for Athletic Training Clinical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Linda S.; Gardner, Greg; Barnum, Mary G.; Willeford, K. Sean; Sexton, Patrick; Guyer, M. Susan; Fincher, A. Louise

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The medical education model provides the basis for athletic training students to learn theoretical and practical skills. Clinical rotations are completed where they apply what they have learned under the direct supervision of a clinical instructor (CI) or approved clinical instructor (ACI). Approved clinical instructors are taught…

  19. Incorporating Mobile Learning into Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To introduce and present techniques for incorporating mobile learning into athletic training education. Background: The matriculation of digital natives into college has stimulated the identification and development of new teaching and learning strategies. Electronic learning (e-learning), including the use of learning management…

  20. Athletic Trainers' Perceptions of the Importance, Preparation and Time Spent in the Athletic Training Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Context: Graduates of professional programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education are expected to be competent and proficient in the athletic training content areas. Objective: The unique skills and knowledge that an athletic trainer (AT) must possess may have more importance in one clinical setting than in…

  1. Undergraduate Athletic Training Education Program Directors' Perceptions of the Nature of Coupling with Intercollegiate Athletic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roiger, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    Some research exists relative to the personnel relationship between athletic training education programs (ATEPs) and intercollegiate athletic departments, yet little research has examined program directors' general perceptions of coupling or coupling related to the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) standards of…

  2. Qualitative Research Applications in Athletic Training

    PubMed Central

    Pitney, William A.; Parker, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explain the ethnographic, phenomenologic, and grounded theory approaches to qualitative research and to describe how these approaches can be applied to contemporary topics related to athletic training education. Background: Athletic training education has recently experienced an increase in the use of qualitative methods, and various qualitative approaches are viable for answering many questions related to athletic training education. Ethnography focuses on describing a culture or subculture. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of lived human experience. Grounded theory focuses on developing theory related to social processes. Each approach is contextual and attempts to facilitate insight and understanding related to the human condition. Description: We provide an in-depth discussion of each of the selected qualitative approaches and explain the focus and unique data-collection and data-analysis strategies and identify the distinctive outcomes of each approach. Each research approach has a distinct purpose, and the specific application is driven by the questions asked. We also identify questions that are amenable to a specific method. Applications: To better understand the interactive nature of education and learning, athletic training researchers are beginning to ask questions that require information to be gathered about meaning, contexts, culture, and processes. Such questions are best answered through the use of qualitative research methods that most commonly include ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory. In order for athletic training professionals to gain the most from the research conducted, it is essential that they have an understanding of the theoretic underpinnings of these methods and when each should be used. PMID:12937540

  3. BALANCE TRAINING FOR THE OLDER ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Page, Phil; Takeshima, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    As the older adult population increases in size, the number of older adults participating in sport activities will also likely increase proportionally with a concomitant increase in musculoskeletal injuries. Age-associated functional declines in muscle strength and the sensory systems, in addition to several other issues, contribute to reductions in balance that may increase fall risk There are a variety of ways to evaluate balance and fall-risk, and each older adult should be regularly screened in order to evaluate any changes in the ability to maintain postural stability. Balance training is a useful intervention in rehabilitation of postural stability impairments as well as in training programs for performance enhancement. One scientifically-based approach is Sensorimotor Training (SMT) which can be characterized as a progressive balance training program using labile surfaces to provide adequate and safe challenges to the older athlete's balance. SMT addresses both static and dynamic components of balance as well as the multitude of systems that control balance in order to train effective strategies and elicit automatic postural responses in order to enhance postural stability. The authors believe that SMT should become part of the regular training regimen for the aging athlete. For the sport and orthopedic healthcare professional, an understanding of the physiologic changes that occur with age, the means by which balance can be assessed, and how SMT programs can be developed and implemented is crucial in addressing the growing number of older athletes that they will see. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175135

  4. Aligning Athletes' Career Choices and Graduate Degree Pathways: Implications for 21st-Century Career Development Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslerig, Siduri J.; Navarro, Kristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Higher education career development professionals are charged with more than understanding the challenges and needs of a diverse student body, and they must also prepare students for career fields in life after higher education. This empirical study explored the graduate degree choices and career aspirations of 14 college athletes who competed in…

  5. Visual feedback training in young karate athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vando, Stefano; Haddad, Monoem; Masala, Daniele; Falese, Lavinia; Padulo, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a Visual Feedback Training (VFT) of the centre of pressure (COP) on postural sway in young karate athletes. Methods: 38 young male karate athletes were recruited and randomly in 2 groups: experimental group (SG; n=19, age =16.54 ± 2.00 yrs) and the control group (CG; n= 19, age 16.45 ± 1.53 yrs). The SG performed a battery test of VFT on stabilometric platform screening in a monitor of COP in a real time. During 10-min of the test, athlete tries to bring his own body to the centre of COP. CG followed the same procedure of SG without receiving any feedback of their COP. Results: ANOVA revealed an interaction training for type × F(1,360)=78.892 at p<0.001 (η2=33.178) and for training × time F(1,36)=7.479 with p<0.010 (η2=13.432). The results showed that VFT improved COP in SG of the 83% (p<0.0001) and decreased of the 26% in the CG (p<0.001). Conclusions: performing VFT improve stability and balance control and therefore greater ability to acquire motor control of the body in young karate athletes. PMID:25332924

  6. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555

  7. Athletic Training: From Physical Education to Allied Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Athletic training was spawned from physical education in the 1960s, and since that time has evolved into a recognized health care profession. The majority of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs) are housed within academic units of kinesiology. However, the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has recommended that ATEPs…

  8. Academic Support Services and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy in Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary N.; Jasinski, Dale; Dunn, Steve; Fletcher, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between evaluations of academic support services and student athletes' career decision-making self-efficacy. One hundred and fifty-eight NCAA athletes (68% male) from 11 Division I teams completed measures of satisfaction with their academic support services, career decision-making self-efficacy, general…

  9. Career Decision Making for Young Elite Athletes: Are We Ahead on Points?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albion, Majella J.; Fogarty, Gerard J.

    2005-01-01

    A comparison is made between the career decision making of secondary school students who are also elite athletes and a sample of non-athlete students. The 226 athletes (111 females, 115 males) in the study were on sporting scholarships with the Australian Institute of Sport or state/territory institutions. Measures used included the "Career…

  10. Strength Training for Young Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, William J.; Fleck, Steven J.

    This guide is designed to serve as a resource for developing strength training programs for children. Chapter 1 uses research findings to explain why strength training is appropriate for children. Chapter 2 explains some of the important physiological concepts involved in children's growth and development as they apply to developing strength…

  11. Accreditation and Continuous Quality Improvement In Athletic Training Education

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Kimberly S.; Rakich, Jonathon S.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To apply the continuous quality improvement model commonly associated with the business sector to entrylevel athletic training education program accreditation. Data Sources: We applied athletic training educational program accreditation as a tool for ensuring quality in the entrylevel athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on the Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. Literature from the business, education, and athletic training fields is integrated to support this paradigm shift in athletic training education. Data Synthesis: The advent of mandated entry-level athletic training educational program accreditation has forced institutions to evaluate their educational programs. Accreditation will promote continuous quality improvement in athletic training education through mechanisms such as control measures and process improvement. Conclusions/Recommendations: Although accreditation of entry-level athletic training education programs has created some dissonance among athletic training professionals, it will strengthen the profession as a whole. Athletic training educators must capture the synergy generated from this change to ensure quality educational experiences for all our students as we move forward to secure a strong position in the allied health care market. PMID:16558629

  12. College and Career Counseling Training Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board's (SREB) College and Career Counseling Training Initiative works to increase the knowledge and skills of counselors who advise students on their postsecondary aspirations. Membership in the initiative provides access to Strategies in College and Career Counseling, a series of online training modules that can…

  13. Critical Thinking in Undergraduate Athletic Training Education

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Donald

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this study were (a) to determine whether or not undergraduate athletic training educators are writing learning objectives that foster critical thinking (CT) skills, and (b) to determine if their written assignments and written examinations are measuring the extent to which students have developed CT skills. Design and Setting: Thirty institutions seeking accreditation for their athletic training programs from the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Educational Programs in the 1994-95 academic year were asked to provide their curriculum materials (course syllabus, two to three examinations, or both from each athletic training-specific course). Subjects: Thirteen curriculum directors (43%) provided materials. Measurements: Each learning objective, examination question, and written assignment was classified as either CT or non-critical thinking (NCT) using Bloom's taxonomy. Results: From 64 usable syllabi, a total of 678 learning objectives were classified as either CT (52%) or NCT (48%). From 81 written examinations, 3215 questions were classified as either CT (14%) or NCT (86%). In addition, a total of 143 written assignments were all classified as CT. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that educators fostered more CT in their learning objectives and written assignments than in their written exams. Valid educational instruments (eg, Bloom's taxonomy) may help educators design learning objectives, assignments, and examinations. PMID:16558457

  14. Career and Family Aspirations of Female Athletic Trainers Employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Ferraro, Elizabeth M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Context: Female athletic trainers (ATs) tend to depart the profession of athletic training after the age of 30. Factors influencing departure are theoretical. Professional demands, particularly at the collegiate level, have also been at the forefront of anecdotal discussion on departure factors. Objective: To understand the career and family intentions of female ATs employed in the collegiate setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven female ATs (single = 14, married with no children = 6, married with children = 7) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Data Collection and Analysis: All female ATs responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were analyzed via a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by peer review, member interpretive review, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Our participants indicated a strong desire to focus on family or to start a family as part of their personal aspirations. Professionally, many female ATs were unsure of their longevity within the Division I collegiate setting or even the profession itself, with 2 main themes emerging as factors influencing decisions to depart: family planning persistence and family planning departure. Six female ATs planned to depart the profession entirely because of conflicts with motherhood and the role of the AT. Only 3 female ATs indicated a professional goal of persisting at the Division I setting regardless of their family or marital status, citing their ability to maintain work-life balance because of support networks. The remaining 17 female ATs planned to make a setting change to balance the roles of motherhood and AT because the Division I setting was not conducive to parenting. Conclusions: Our results substantiate those of previous researchers, which indicate the Division I setting can be

  15. Use of Computer-Based Instruction in Athletic Training Education

    PubMed Central

    Fincher, A. Louise; Wright, Kenneth E.

    1996-01-01

    Computer-based instruction is being widely used in the education programs of many allied health professions. However, there has been little, if any, documentation of computer-based instruction use in athletic training education. The primary purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of undergraduate and graduate NATA-approved athletic training education programs are using some form of computer-based instruction (ie, computer-assisted instruction or interactive video). We also addressed the following research questions: 1) What athletic training educational software is currently being used by athletic training students and educators? 2) What factors currently impede the use of computer-based instruction in athletic training education? 3) What instructional methods are commonly used to incorporate computer-based instruction into the athletic training curricula? and 4) What are the attitudes of athletic training program directors toward the use of computer-based instruction in athletic training education? Surveys were mailed to the program directors (n = 97) of all graduate and undergraduate NATA-approved athletic training education programs. Eighty-six (87.7%) usable surveys were returned. Forty-eight (55.8%) of the respondents reported using some form of computer-based instruction in their athletic training education program; 47 (54.7%) used computer-assisted instruction and 9 (10.6%) used interactive video. Respondents also identified the educational software they use and their method for implementing this software. Software was used most often to supplement traditional instructional methods. A lack of funds was reported to be the primary impeding factor for those programs not using computer-based instruction. Respondents reported an overall positive attitude toward computer-based instruction use in athletic training education and indicated the need for increased development of athletic training/sports medicine software. PMID:16558370

  16. Leadership and Management: Techniques and Principles for Athletic Training

    PubMed Central

    Nellis, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    Leadership and management have become topics of recent interest in athletic training. These skills are distinct from each other and are vital to a successful and efficient athletic training room. Leadership is an influence relationship, while management is an authority relationship. Leadership is concerned with knowing yourself, your staff, your profession, and how to apply people skills. Management is concerned with organization, communication, and the development of your athletic training facility's mission. By applying good management and leadership skills, you can implement your mission statement, evaluate your results, and improve the performance of your athletic training facility. PMID:16558296

  17. Administering the School's Athletic Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Paul S.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the role of each member of a secondary school's athletic health care team, including the principal, athletic director, team physician, school nurse, coach or physical educator, and professional and student athletic trainers. (WD)

  18. Training K-12 Administrators for Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    Based on the practical training experience of sixteen school districts and two universities which comprise the Wisconsin Career Education Consortium, this report presents training strategies for training superintendents, directors of instruction and/or supervisors of curriculum development, building principals and assistant principals, local…

  19. A Subjective and Objective Process for Athletic Training Student Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; McLoda, Todd A.; Stanek, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Admission decisions are made annually concerning whom to accept into athletic training programs. Objective: To present an approach used to make admissions decisions at an undergraduate athletic training program and to corroborate this information by comparing each aspect to nursing program admission processes. Background: Annually,…

  20. The Use of Cloud Technology in Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkey, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    As technology advances and becomes more portable, athletic training educators (ATEs) have many options available to them. Whether attempting to streamline efforts in courses, or operate a more efficient athletic training education program, portable technology is becoming an important tool that will assist the ATE. One tool that allows more…

  1. Educating the Educator: Teaching Airway Adjunct Techniques in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2011-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" ("Competencies") now requires athletic training educators (ATEs) to introduce into the curriculum various types of airway adjuncts including: (1) oropharyngeal airways (OPA), (2) nasopharyngeal airways (NPA), (3) supraglottic airways (SGA), and (4) suction. The addition of these…

  2. Student Perceptions of an Athletic Training Residential Living Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradney, Debbie A.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Colleges and universities are implementing new academic and social programs to retain students. One possible program is a residential living community (RLC) devoted to a content area. Objective: To understand the perceptions of athletic training students involved in an RLC. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training program.…

  3. Clinical Reasoning in Athletic Training Education: Modeling Expert Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisler, Paul R.; Lazenby, Todd W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To address the need for a more definitive approach to critical thinking during athletic training educational experiences by introducing the clinical reasoning model for critical thinking. Background: Educators are aware of the need to teach students how to think critically. The multiple domains of athletic training are comprehensive and…

  4. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  5. Retention Initiatives Used by Professional Master's Athletic Training Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Many professional master's athletic training program directors believe retention is a problem facing athletic training education. However, it remains unknown what steps, if any, are taken to improve retention. Objective: To inquire with program directors about their respective methods and interventions aimed at increasing retention rates.…

  6. Career Experiences and Intentions of Women in Senior Level Intercollegiate Athletic Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veraldo, Cynthia Miller

    2013-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in the most senior level administrative positions in intercollegiate athletics. This qualitative study is an analysis of the professional lives of nine women who hold Senior Associate AD positions in Division I intercollegiate athletics. They were interviewed about their career experiences and their intentions to pursue…

  7. A Career in Professional Athletics: A Guide for Making the Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolig, Laura E., Ed.

    This booklet provides guidance to student-athletes on making the transition to a career in professional athletics. It contains a list of do's and don'ts for students in regard to their collegiate eligibility, along with suggestions on obtaining disability insurance coverage for protection from loss of future earnings. The booklet provides…

  8. Career Pathways of Athletic Directors: Consideration of the Impact of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Lenora E.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored career pathways for becoming an athletic director (AD) at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Divisions I, II, and, III member institutions with consideration of gender and race/ethnicity. The study employed an exploratory, descriptive research design using a quantitative electronic survey tapping a census of all…

  9. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    PubMed

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. PMID:27173805

  10. Career Education Teacher Training Corps. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefert, Kaye D.; And Others

    A project was conducted to develop a Career Education Teacher Training Corps model for local district staff development and district program planning and development. Seven training modules were developed which provide a comprehensive planning and staff development system that can be adapted for use in a variety of educational settings. These…

  11. Where Are the Women in Women's Sports? Predictors of Female Athletes' Interest in a Coaching Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.…

  12. An Overview of Selected State Licensure Athletic Training Laws

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Gary E.

    1992-01-01

    With the growth of athletic training, many state governing bodies have created regulations concerning the role of athletic trainers in their respective states. Some of these states have included the licensure, certification, and/or registration of athletic trainers as a prerequisite for employment. Although many states have similar requirements, each state differs in its legislation that affects various athletic training domains. Athletic trainers should be aware of these variances in state licensure laws, especially when seeking employment in another state. In May 1991, a survey of the 20 states with licensure laws was conducted to examine application procedures, scope of practice, and other factors related to the licensing of athletic trainers. PMID:16558149

  13. Qualitative Inquiry in Athletic Training: Principles, Possibilities, and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the principles of qualitative research and provide insights into how such methods can benefit the profession of athletic training. Background: The growth of a profession is influenced by the type of research performed by its members. Although qualitative research methods can serve to answer many clinical and professional questions that help athletic trainers navigate their socioprofessional contexts, an informal review of the Journal of Athletic Training reveals a paucity of such methods. Description: We provide an overview of the characteristics of qualitative research and common data collection and analysis techniques. Practical examples related to athletic training are also offered. Applications: Athletic trainers interact with other professionals, patients, athletes, and administrators and function in a larger society. Consequently, they are likely to face critical influences and phenomena that affect the meaning they give to their experiences. Qualitative research facilitates a depth of understanding related to our contexts that traditional research may not provide. Furthermore, qualitative research complements traditional ways of thinking about research itself and promotes a greater understanding related to specific phenomena. As the profession of athletic training continues to grow, qualitative research methods will assume a more prominent role. Thus, it will be necessary for consumers of athletic training research to understand the functional aspects of the qualitative paradigm. PMID:12937461

  14. Career maturity and state anxiety of Taiwanese college student athletes given cognitive career-oriented group counseling.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huiling; Johanson, Robert E

    2006-12-01

    In this study, the extent to which a cognitive career-based group counseling program might promote career maturity and decrease state anxiety among student athletes was investigated at two business colleges in Taiwan. 80 male and female participant volunteers, averaging about 19 years of age, were divided into control and treatment groups in each college. The treated group was given instruction. Analysis indicates that treated students exhibited overall lower mean state anxiety than the nontreated group. However, no significant treatment group differences were detected among participants' career maturity scores. The results raise important questions regarding the ways in which institutions of higher education seek benefit from student athletes' physical talents, e.g., increased name recognition, yet often do not prepare them for their careers postgraduation. PMID:17305200

  15. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  16. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes.

    PubMed

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  17. Educating the Educator: Use of Pulse Oximetry in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2012-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" expanded the scope of knowledge and skill set of entry-level athletic trainers related to the domain of "Acute Care of Injuries and Illnesses." One of these major changes includes the introduction of adjunct airway techniques, such as oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal airways and…

  18. The Olympic Training Center: Helping Athletes Improve Their Performance.

    PubMed

    DeBenedette, V

    1988-07-01

    The Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs offers a variety of programs to help American athletes optimize their performance. Research in biomechanics and exercise physiology may pay off at the 1988 Summer Games. PMID:27403833

  19. Consulting and Training--Career Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Olive D.

    1986-01-01

    Business teachers have additional career options to consider, namely, joining a consulting-training firm as a junior professional employee; entering a firm as an associate; investing personal resources in an already successful firm; starting one's own firm; and/or applying for part- or full-time work as an internal consultant or trainer and…

  20. Evaluation of the Career Planning of Athletes, Who Succeeded in Olympics, in the Light of Different Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundogdu, Cemal

    2011-01-01

    In this study, career planning of Turkish athletes, who won medals in olympics for the periods they played and left sport, are investigated; however, differentiation of career planning dimensions of athletes in terms of demographic and sportive variables is examined as well. This study, which aimed at determining the effectiveness of career…

  1. Communicative Acts in Coach-Athlete Interactions: When Losing Competitions and when Making Mistakes in Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagar, Sam S.; Jowett, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Athletes' perceptions of coaches' communicative acts of interaction in two key interpersonal situations were examined, and their impact on the athletes: (a) when athletes lose competitions; and, (b) when athletes make mistakes in training. Athletes (N = 324, M age = 20.11) completed an open-ended survey. Data were deductively and inductively…

  2. The Electrocardiogram in Highly Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Keerthi; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    Regular intensive exercise is associated with a constellation of several structural and functional adaptations within the heart that permit the generation of a large and sustained increase in cardiac output and/or increase in blood pressure. The magnitude with which these markers of physiological remodeling manifest on the surface electrocardiogram is governed by several factors and some athletes show electrical and structural changes that overlap with those observed in cardiomyopathy and in ion channel diseases, which are recognized causes of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. This article provides a critical appraisal of the athlete's ECG. PMID:26100419

  3. Generalized training effects induced by athletic preparation. A review.

    PubMed

    Issurin, V B

    2009-12-01

    The present review deals with training effects produced by training pieces of different duration. Athletes' responses to training workloads can be considered hierarchically, where the most intimate level encompasses changes produced at the cellular and molecular levels, while the generalized level summarizes the most integrative training outcomes, which characterize athletes' adaptability, preparedness and readiness for forthcoming workloads. These training outcomes, called generalized training effects (GTE) are considered to be closely linked with duration and mode of training workloads. Summarizing earlier and more recent publications, GTEs are categorized as acute, immediate, cumulative, delayed and residual training effects, which encompass changes induced by 1) a single exercise; 2) a single workout or training day; 3) a series of workouts; or 4) obtained over a given time interval after a program completion ; or (5) changes retained after cessation of training beyond a give time period. Each one these GTEs has a three-fold characterization:1) variables of executed workloads; 2) athletes' responses to workloads and training-induced changes in their state; 3) changes in athletic performance as described by sport specific indicators. Although the concept of GTE is far from complete in terms of an understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying the short-, medium-, and long-term changes caused by athletic training, a number of fundamental theories and statements contribute to its scientific background. They are Cannon's theory of homeostasis; Salye's theory of stress adaptation; Weigert's law of supercompensation; and Lamarck's classic theory of evolution regarding the "use" and "disuse" of any organ or function. PMID:20087292

  4. Sports Specialization and Intensive Training in Young Athletes.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Joel S

    2016-09-01

    Sports specialization is becoming the norm in youth sports for a variety of reasons. When sports specialization occurs too early, detrimental effects may occur, both physically and psychologically. If the timing is correct and sports specialization is performed under the correct conditions, the athlete may be successful in reaching specific goals. Young athletes who train intensively, whether specialized or not, can also be at risk of adverse effects on the mind and body. The purpose of this clinical report is to assist pediatricians in counseling their young athlete patients and their parents regarding sports specialization and intensive training. This report supports the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical report "Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes." PMID:27573090

  5. Absence of Training-Specific Cardiac Adaptation in Paraplegic Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Phillip E.; Campbell, Ian G.; George, Keith P.

    2002-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that wall thickness, but not chamber dimension, would be larger in endurance- and power-trained athletes with spinal cord injuries than in sedentary people with spinal cord injuries. Data on 11 power-trained and 5 sedentary participants showed no statistically significant differences between groups, though there was a trend…

  6. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport. PMID:27486418

  7. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport. PMID:27486418

  8. Career Fitness Training for High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Erin; Karlstad, Julia A.

    2004-01-01

    Physical education can contribute to the career readiness and development needs of students by providing them with training to meet the physical fitness standards required for many occupations. A course for career fitness training could prepare students for the fitness requirements of careers in law enforcement, firefighting, and the military.…

  9. Structural Support of High-Performance Athletes' Education: Supporting Dual Careers in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlidis, George; Gargalianos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how the current Greek sport-education context seems to offer relatively poor dual-career support in comparison to other available structures in the world. This results in additional obstacles for Greek athletes who wish to educate themselves and an ambiguous prospect for their future. Consequently, the Greek…

  10. Case-Based Learning in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Executive Committee for Education has emphasized the need for proper recognition and management of orthopaedic and general medical conditions through their support of numerous learning objectives and the clinical integrated proficiencies. These learning objectives and integrated clinical…

  11. An Examination of Feedback Interactions between Athletic Training Students and Clinical Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottingham, Sara Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Feedback has been established as an important educational tool in athletic training clinical education. However, there is currently minimal understanding of the feedback provided during athletic training clinical education experiences. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of feedback in athletic training clinical education,…

  12. Distinctions between Athletic Training Education Programs at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Gary B.; Colston, Marisa A.; Bogdanowicz, Brian T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide a historical perspective on factors that have shaped the current structure of athletic training education, and to advocate development of a new conceptual framework for a continuum of professional education in athletic training. Background: Athletic training is a relatively young profession that has undergone significant…

  13. Presence of Burnout in Undergraduate Athletic Training Students at One Western Us University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riter, Tamra S.; Kaiser, David A.; Hopkins, J. Ty; Pennington, Todd R.; Chamberlain, Ron; Eggett, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Determine if undergraduate athletic training students enrolled in an accredited athletic training education program (ATEP) and participating in clinical assignments experience burnout. Design and Setting: Undergraduate athletic training students enrolled in a clinical education course were surveyed during the fourth and twelfth weeks of…

  14. Program Directors' Perceptions of Professional Bachelor's Athletic Training Student Decisions to Persist and Depart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Hertel, Jay; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Wathington, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recent literature has focused on reasons for athletic training student persistence and departure. However, accredited professional bachelor's athletic training program (ATP) directors' opinions regarding student retention have yet to be studied, to our knowledge. Objective: To determine reasons for athletic training student persistence…

  15. Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…

  16. The Socialization of First-Time Athletic Training Education Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viesselman, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Starting in 2004 athletic training students had to graduate from accredited athletic training education programs to become certified. Institutions had to accredit their athletic training education programs to continue offering students the opportunity to become certified. These institutions needed to transition current employees or hire new…

  17. Master's Level Professional Athletic Training Programs: Program Characteristics, Graduation Requirements, and Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrowski, Jennifer Lynn; Marshall, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Context: While currently there are 2 curriculum route options leading to athletic training certification, the future of athletic training education is being heavily debated. While master's-level professional (MLP) athletic training programs account for less than 8% of all accredited programs, these programs have seen tremendous growth in the past…

  18. No effect of weight cycling on the post-career BMI of weight class elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitions of pre-competition weight-loss diets done by athletes participating in weight class sports can be regarded as periods of weight cycling. The aim of the present study is to identify the long term post-career (22 years) evolutionary profile of athletes’ BMI after such weight cycling. Methods One hundred and thirty-six retired French athletes who participated in major international competitions in weight class sports (rowers, wrestlers, boxers, and judokas) were included. Former and current body mass, height, dietary characteristics during the career (annual frequency, amount of weight lost), current physical activity, and answers on the eating-attitude test were collected by phone interview (consistency was tested by comparison with measured weight). We performed ANOVA tests for comparison between groups (sport, dieting), post-hoc tests (Bonferroni test) to identify differences within groups. BMI’s changes were treated using a mixed model. Results The recorded weight changes did not depend upon time since retirement. Between 18 y and 50 y, athletes’ BMI increased by 3.2 kg/m2 compared to the 4.2 kg/m2 increase in the general population. This increase was independent of the number of diets during the career. Retired athletes declared a mean weekly physical activity of 4.8 h ± 4.3. The eating-attitude test showed low scores for all sports without any correlation to diet characteristics. Conclusion Weight cycling during an athletic career does not induce a massive weight gain after retirement, probably due to the high level of physical activity still practiced after retirement by these athletes. PMID:23711106

  19. Applying Brain-Based Learning Principles to Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Debbie I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To present different concepts and techniques related to the application of brain-based learning principles to Athletic Training clinical education. Background: The body of knowledge concerning how our brains physically learn continues to grow. Brain-based learning principles, developed by numerous authors, offer advice on how to…

  20. Immediate Feedback and Learning in Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Laurent, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Context: Immediate feedback has been shown to improve student learning more efficiently than delayed feedback in lower-level general education courses. No research exists examining the effects of immediate feedback on learning in higher-level athletic training coursework. Objective: To determine if using the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique…

  1. The Use of Standardized Patients in Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Standardized patients are widely used in health care programs to both teach and evaluate the communication and clinical skills of students. Although athletic training education programs (ATEPs) commonly use simulations, little information exists related to the use and implementation of standardized patients (SPs). Objective: To provide…

  2. Enhance Learning in Athletic Training Education with Audience Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Chris T.

    2010-01-01

    Audience Response Systems (ARS) are now being used to enhance learning in various higher education disciplines. With several ARS brands available, it is most important to consider various facets of this interactive technology prior to implementing it into athletic training courses. This article will outline strategies to incorporate this learning…

  3. Spirituality in the Curricula of Accredited Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udermann, Brian E.; Schutte, Greta E.; Reineke, David M.; Pitney, William A.; Gibson, Mark H.; Murray, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine if topics related to spirituality were being addressed in the curricula of athletic training education programs (ATEPs) and to investigate whether program directors (PDs) believed this to be a topic worthy of inclusion in ATEP experiences. Design and Setting: A descriptive mixed method study…

  4. Perceived Cultural Competence Levels in Undergraduate Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volberding, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: As the patient population continues to diversify, it is essential that athletic training students (ATSs) are educated to provide culturally competent care. This high-quality health care within the context of a patient's race, ethnicity, language, religious beliefs, or behaviors is a foundation of professional practice. Objective:…

  5. Designing Simulations for Athletic Training Students through Interprofessional Teaching Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: While multidisciplinary team approaches to education and practice have been promoted for decades, literature on collaborative efforts in athletic training and nursing remains sparse. Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an example of an interprofessional teaching collaboration in which a simulation scenario was developed…

  6. Descriptive Qualities of Athletic Training Education Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, James E.; Judd, Michael R.; Colandreo, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Limited literature explores professional preparation of program directors (PD) to lead an athletic training education program (ATEP). Objective: To explore challenges, effectiveness, leadership, and PD role selection. Design: Descriptive and qualitative exploratory email survey. Setting: Educational. Participants: Emails were sent to 345…

  7. Athletic Training Services in Public Secondary Schools: A Benchmark Study

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Riana R.; Casa, Douglas J.; Vandermark, Lesley W.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Attanasio, Sarah M.; Fontaine, Garrett J.; Wafer, Alex M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Authors of the most recent study of athletic training (AT) services have suggested that only 42% of secondary schools have access to athletic trainers. However, this study was limited by a small sample size and was conducted more than 10 years ago. Objective: To determine current AT services in public secondary schools. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Public secondary schools in the United States. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 8509 (57%) of 14 951 secondary schools from all 50 states and Washington, DC, responded to the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s): Data on AT services were collected for individual states, National Athletic Trainers' Association districts, and the nation. Results: Of the 8509 schools that responded, 70% (n = 5930) had AT services, including full-time (n = 3145, 37%), part-time (n = 2619, 31%), and per diem (n = 199, 2%) AT services, and 27% (n = 2299) had AT services from a hospital or physical therapy clinic. A total of 4075 of 8509 schools (48%) provided coverage at all sports practices. Eighty-six percent (2 394 284/2 787 595) of athletes had access to AT services. Conclusions: Since the last national survey, access to AT services increased such that 70% of respondent public secondary schools provided athletic trainers at sports games or practices. Approximately one-third of all public secondary schools had full-time athletic trainers. This number must increase further to provide appropriate medical coverage at athletic practices and games for secondary school athletes. PMID:25689559

  8. Preceptors' Influence on Athletic Training Students' Development of Excitement and Commitment to the Field of Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students (ATS) who are excited about their chosen profession are likely to persist to graduation. Preceptors exert significant influence on ATS; however, little is known about the methods that preceptors use to help ATS develop their own professional commitments. Objective: To investigate the methods used by preceptors…

  9. Educational Reform in Athletic Training: A Policy Analysis.

    PubMed

    Craig, Debbie I.

    2003-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply a policy-analysis framework to the athletic training educational reform policy that will be fully implemented by January 2004. DATA SOURCES: Policy analysis is not a specific science. No one framework exists for conducting all policy analyses. I used literature from the education, policy analysis, and athletic training fields as data sources to provide background and to create a framework from which to conduct the policy analysis. DATA SYNTHESIS: Once the policy-analysis framework was selected, I began data synthesis, using several athletic training sources in support of the findings. The tension among the myriad stakeholders in this policy is clear. Although many see the benefits of accreditation, some experience hardships from the imposed policy. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Of the 4 possible alternatives suggested, following the route currently under implementation (Committee on Accreditation of Health Education Programs accreditation) was the most agreeable solution. The goals as stated by the policy makers are attained by the policy. However, issues within the accreditation process itself need to be addressed. Of the many stakeholders in the reform effort, some will see little gain and have many hardships imposed on them. As the policy is implemented, unintended implications will likely arise, as with any new policy. Thus, I recommend that the National Athletic Trainers' Association develop a system dedicated solely to reducing the hardships faced by many of its members as the policy is implemented. PMID:14737218

  10. Educational Reform in Athletic Training: A Policy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To apply a policy-analysis framework to the athletic training educational reform policy that will be fully implemented by January 2004. Data Sources: Policy analysis is not a specific science. No one framework exists for conducting all policy analyses. I used literature from the education, policy analysis, and athletic training fields as data sources to provide background and to create a framework from which to conduct the policy analysis. Data Synthesis: Once the policy-analysis framework was selected, I began data synthesis, using several athletic training sources in support of the findings. The tension among the myriad stakeholders in this policy is clear. Although many see the benefits of accreditation, some experience hardships from the imposed policy. Conclusions/Recommendations: Of the 4 possible alternatives suggested, following the route currently under implementation (Committee on Accreditation of Health Education Programs accreditation) was the most agreeable solution. The goals as stated by the policy makers are attained by the policy. However, issues within the accreditation process itself need to be addressed. Of the many stakeholders in the reform effort, some will see little gain and have many hardships imposed on them. As the policy is implemented, unintended implications will likely arise, as with any new policy. Thus, I recommend that the National Athletic Trainers' Association develop a system dedicated solely to reducing the hardships faced by many of its members as the policy is implemented. PMID:14737218

  11. Program Directors' Perceptions of Undergraduate Athletic Training Student Retention

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Hertel, Jay; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Wathington, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The average retention rate for students enrolled in undergraduate athletic training programs (ATPs) nationwide has been reported to be 81%, and slightly more than half of program directors (PDs) have indicated that retention of athletic training students (ATSs) is a problem. However, why PDs do or do not believe ATS retention is problematic is unknown. Objective: To determine why PDs do or do not believe ATS retention is problematic. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Undergraduate ATPs. Patients or Other Participants: We obtained responses from 177 of the 343 PDs (51.6%). Using data saturation as a guide, we randomly selected 16 PDs from the survey responses to participate in follow-up telephone interviews; 8 believed retention was a problem and 8 did not. Data Collection and Analysis: During audio-recorded telephone interviews, we asked PDs why they thought retention was or was not a problem for athletic training education. Following verbatim transcription, we used grounded theory to analyze the interview data and maintained trustworthiness by using intercoder agreement, member checks, and peer review. Results: Program directors believed that retaining ATSs was a problem because students lack information regarding athletic training and the rigor of the ATP. Program directors were consistent in their perception that ATPs do not have a retention challenge because of the use of a secondary admissions process. This finding was likely based on personal use of a secondary admissions process in the ATPs these PDs lead. Conclusions: Program directors who lead ATPs that struggle to retain ATSs should consider using a secondary admissions process. During the preprofessional phase of the ATP, faculty and staff should work to socialize students to the demands of the ATP and the professional lives of athletic trainers. PMID:25259613

  12. The History and Evolution of Athletic Training Education in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Delforge, Gary D.; Behnke, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To present a chronologic review of the history and evolution of athletic training education in the United States as related to the professional growth of athletic training and the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Background: Commonly accepted characteristics of a profession are an identifiable body of knowledge, the emergence of practitioners as professional authorities, and community recognition. These characteristics establish the criteria by which the professional growth, or professionalization, of athletic training can be judged. With guidance from the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the development of athletic training education programs and credentialing of athletic trainers during the past 50 years have contributed to the professionalization of athletic training. Description: We present a chronology of the contributions of the National Athletic Trainers' Association to the development of athletic training education in the United States. The activities of various committees, task forces, and Association members are reviewed and traced through the past 5 decades. Early curriculum models and the development of education programs in colleges and universities are discussed. Advantages: The historical review of athletic training education in this article will enhance the reader's understanding of the relationships among education, credentialing of practitioners, and professionalism in athletic training. PMID:16558550

  13. Role of Clinical Education Experiences on Athletic Training Students' Development of Professional Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Context: Limited evidence exists on the role clinical education can play in the development of athletic training student commitment for the profession. Objective: Investigating the role clinical education experiences play on the development of passion for athletic training. Design: Exploratory qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training…

  14. Institutional Profiles of CAATE Accredited Entry-Level Athletic Training Education Programs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Valerie J.; Kedrowski, Jonathan J.; Richter, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Context: Educational reform has recently become common thread in athletic training education. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Education Task force suggests that Athletic Training Education Programs (ATEPs) align within colleges of health-related professions and offer academic majors. Objective: To provide a current profile of…

  15. Factors Influencing Senior Athletic Training Students' Preparedness to Enter the Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Benes, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Athletic training education programs must provide the student with opportunities to learn the roles and responsibilities of the athletic trainer. Objective: Investigate factors that help prepare the athletic training student (ATS) to successfully enter the workplace upon graduation from her undergraduate program. Design: Exploratory…

  16. Programmatic Factors Associated with Undergraduate Athletic Training Student Retention and Attrition Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Hertel, Jay; Wathington, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Athletic training programs (ATPs) are charged with meeting an increased demand for athletic trainers with adequate graduates. Currently, the retention rate of athletic training students in ATPs nationwide and the programmatic factors associated with these retention rates remain unknown. Objective: Determine the retention rate for athletic…

  17. The History and Evolution of Athletic Training Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delforge, Gary D.; Behnke, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a chronologic review of the history and evolution of U.S. athletic training education as related to the professional growth of athletic training and the National Athletic Trainers' Association, reviewing activities of various committees, task forces, and Association members and tracing them over five decades. Early curriculum models and…

  18. Mentoring and Personal Relationships Are Perceived Benefits of Serving as an Athletic Training Preceptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Preceptors play a vital role in athletic training education as they mentor and socialize athletic training students into their professional role. Exploring the benefits to serving as a preceptor is important to secure appropriate professional role models for students. Objective: To determine the benefits of serving as an athletic training…

  19. Reducing knee and anterior cruciate ligament injuries among female athletes: a systematic review of neuromuscular training interventions.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that neuromuscular training not only decreases the potential biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury, but also decreases knee and, specifically, ACL injury incidence in female athletes. Five of the six interventions in this systematic review demonstrated significant effects on overall knee or ACL injury rates. It appears that plyometric power, biomechanics and technique, strength, balance, and core stability training can induce neuromuscular changes and potential injury prevention effects in female athletes. However, it is unknown which of these components is most effective or whether the effects are combinatorial. Future research should assess the relative efficacy of these interventions alone and in combination to achieve the optimal effect in the most efficient manner possible. Selective combination of neuromuscular training components may provide additive effects, further reducing the risk of ACL injuries in female athletes. Additional research directions include the assessment of relative injury risk using mass neuromuscular screening, the development of more specific injury prevention protocols targeted toward high-risk athletes, and the determination of when these interventions should be implemented. It may be that prepubertal or early pubertal female athletes may have the potential to achieve optimal biomechanical changes and the greatest chance of injury-free sports participation throughout their careers. PMID:15742602

  20. Clinical Integration and How It Affects Student Retention in Undergraduate Athletic Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Young, Allison; Klossner, Joanne; Docherty, Carrie L; Dodge, Thomas M; Mensch, James M

    2013-01-01

    Context A better understanding of why students leave an undergraduate athletic training education program (ATEP), as well as why they persist, is critical in determining the future membership of our profession. Objective To better understand how clinical experiences affect student retention in undergraduate ATEPs. Design Survey-based research using a quantitative and qualitative mixed-methods approach. Setting Three-year undergraduate ATEPs across District 4 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants Seventy-one persistent students and 23 students who left the ATEP prematurely. Data Collection and Analysis Data were collected using a modified version of the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed on the quantitative data, followed by a univariate analysis of variance on any significant findings. The qualitative data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Results A difference was identified between the persister and dropout groups (Pillai trace = 0.42, F1,92 = 12.95, P = .01). The follow-up analysis of variance revealed that the persister and dropout groups differed on the anticipatory factors (F1,92 = 4.29, P = .04), clinical integration (F1,92 = 6.99, P = .01), and motivation (F1,92 = 43.12, P = .01) scales. Several themes emerged in the qualitative data, including networks of support, authentic experiential learning, role identity, time commitment, and major or career change. Conclusions A perceived difference exists in how athletic training students are integrated into their clinical experiences between those students who leave an ATEP and those who stay. Educators may improve retention by emphasizing authentic experiential learning opportunities rather than hours worked, by allowing students to take on more responsibility, and by facilitating networks of support within clinical education experiences. PMID:23672327

  1. An Examination of the Alignment of Student-Athletes' Undergraduate Major Choices and Career Field Aspirations in Life after Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Today higher education student affairs professionals are charged with not only understanding the challenges and needs of a diverse student body, they must also prepare students for careers in life after college. For this empirical study I explored the undergraduate major choices and career aspirations of 29 senior student-athletes at a large,…

  2. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  3. Brain-Compatible Learning: Principles and Applications in Athletic Training

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the principles of brain-compatible learning research and provide insights into how this research may be applied in athletic training education to benefit the profession. Background: In the past decade, new brain-imaging techniques have allowed us to observe the brain while it is learning. The field of neuroscience has produced a body of empirical data that provides a new understanding of how we learn. This body of data has implications in education, although the direct study of these implications is in its infancy. Description: An overview of how the brain learns at a cellular level is provided, followed by a discussion of the principles of brain-compatible learning. Applications of these principles and implications for the field of athletic training education are also offered. Application: Many educational-reform fads have garnered attention in the past. Brain-compatible learning will not likely be one of those, as its origin is in neuroscience, not education. Brain-compatible learning is not an educational-reform movement. It does not prescribe how to run your classroom or offer specific techniques to use. Rather, it provides empirical data about how the brain learns and suggests guidelines to be considered while preparing lessons for your students. These guidelines may be incorporated into every educational setting, with every type of curriculum and every age group. The field of athletic training lends itself well to many of the basic principles of brain-compatible learning. PMID:16558681

  4. Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete Development.

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Lesinski, Melanie; Büsch, Dirk; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Prieske, Olaf; Puta, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert; Behm, David G

    2016-01-01

    During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD), resistance training (RT) is an important means for (i) stimulating athletic development, (ii) tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii) inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i) to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii) to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii) to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research. In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating) training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity, and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i) to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females), (ii) to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters), and (iii) to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes. PMID:27242538

  5. Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete Development

    PubMed Central

    Granacher, Urs; Lesinski, Melanie; Büsch, Dirk; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Prieske, Olaf; Puta, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert; Behm, David G.

    2016-01-01

    During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD), resistance training (RT) is an important means for (i) stimulating athletic development, (ii) tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii) inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i) to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii) to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii) to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research. In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating) training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity, and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i) to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females), (ii) to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters), and (iii) to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes. PMID:27242538

  6. Employment Characteristics, Educational Histories, and Pedagogical Training of Educators in CAATE-Accredited Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Context: With the rapid expansion of ATEPs in the last decade, the demand for doctoral-trained athletic training educators has increased exponentially. As more athletic training educators enter higher education, it is important to fully understand how well prepared these educators are for life in academe. Objective: To describe employment…

  7. Development of Measurability and Importance Scales for the NATA Athletic Training Educational Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Nogle, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Developed and validated an instrument designed to measure the perceived measurability and importance of the National Athletic Trainers' Association Athletic Training Educational Competencies. Data from 931 athletic trainers and sport medicine physicians support 6 constructs, each of which demonstrates high reliability. (SLD)

  8. Science and Practice of Coaching a Strength Training Program for Novice and Intermediate-Level Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Addresses various aspects of the athletic coaching process in strength training, including: teaching and coaching exercises to novice and intermediate level athletes (typical high school and younger college aged athletes); technical analysis and modification of student technique; student motivation; goal setting; reinforcement; and the overall…

  9. The Effects of Problem-Solving Training on Adolescents' Career Exploration and Career Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, David A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to compare the effects of three career guidance methods on eleventh graders' career exploratory and decision-making behaviors. The study involved 66 volunteers (reduced by attrition to 48) who attended one of three six-hour, one-day sessions: guided field trips; cognitive decision-making training; or behavioral…

  10. Student and Supervisor Perceptions of the Quality of Supervision in Athletic Training Education

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Mark B.; Larson, Gerald A.; Luebe, Jeffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of the quality of athletic training supervision via the internship route to certification and the NATA-approved/CAAHEP programs. Design and Setting: A questionnaire was mailed to head athletic trainers or NATA/CAAHEP program directors and athletic training students in 40 programs nationwide (stratified random sample). Subjects: Head athletic trainers (20), NATA-approved or CAAHEP-accredited program directors (20), and athletic training students in those educational programs (149). Measurements: The Athletic Training Supervisory Skills Inventory (ATSSI) was adapted from the Supervisory Evaluation Form (SEF) and athletic training literature. The ATSSI was reviewed by 30 certified athletic trainers, and their feedback was incorporated into the final version of the questionnaire. The ATSSI contains 46 questions that cover six major domains of athletic training supervisor behavior. Results: Overall, there were no differences in how internship route supervisors and NATA/CAAHEP program directors rated their own supervisory skills. Also, there were few differences in how students in those two types of athletic training education programs rated their supervisors. Conclusions: This exploratory study's limitations included a one-time assessment approach and a small sample of supervisors. Future studies in supervision should take a longitudinal approach and include a larger sample size. PMID:16558468

  11. Extramural Training and Career Opportunities in Aging Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The rapid growth of the older population heightens the urgency for training in aging research. This publication outlines the opportunities for extramural research training and career development that exist within the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The NIA supports research and research training primarily through the award of grants and…

  12. Perceptions of Quality for Graduate Athletic Training Education

    PubMed Central

    Seegmiller, Jeff G

    2006-01-01

    Context: Accreditation is generally considered the primary mechanism for quality assurance in higher education, but disagreement often exists between accrediting agencies and the perceptions of professionals who feel the accrediting body has failed to meet its quality control function. For accreditation to have value, it must be a meaningful indicator of quality and be viewed as such. Objective: To identify the predominant contributors to quality for postcertification graduate education as perceived by athletic training educators and to compare results among respondents with different education levels, academic ranks, tenure classifications, and program affiliations. Design: Non-experimental descriptive survey. Setting: 2003 National Athletic Trainers' Association Educators' Conference. Patients or Other Participant(s): Of a convenience sample of 353 athletic training educators, 194 (55%) submitted usable questionnaires. Males accounted for 115 (59%) respondents and females for 79 (41%). Of the 14 National Athletic Trainers' Association-accredited postcertification graduate education programs, 12 were represented. Main Outcome Measure(s): Quantitative data for closed-ended questionnaire items were analyzed using descriptive statistics and measures of central tendency, with composite mean scores for each item used for comparisons. Qualitative data were coded according to major themes and analyzed. Results: Support for accreditation at the postcertification graduate education level was moderate (mean = 3.08 ± 0.811 on a 4-point scale). Subjects with doctoral degrees (n = 88) indicated that research contributed significantly more to quality (mean = 3.38 ± 0.636) than did those with master's degrees (n = 106, mean = 2.97 ± 0.786). Respondents with master's degrees stated that clinical education was a greater contributor to quality (mean = 3.76 ± 0.491) than did those with doctoral degrees (3.44 ± 0.663). Conclusions: The educators showed agreement for most quality

  13. Student-Athletes' Perceptions of Their Academic and Athletic Roles: Intersections Amongst Their Athletic Role, Academic Motivation, Choice of Major, and Career Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Student-athletes' academic and athletic roles both require commitment, time, energy, and effort. Managing and balancing these multiple roles not only impacts student-athletes' use of time, but also their overall college experience. The purpose of this study was to explore how collegiate student-athletes perceive their academic and athletic roles.…

  14. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lystad, R P; Graham, P L; Poulos, R G

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo. PMID:26424924

  15. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Graham, PL; Poulos, RG

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo. PMID:26424924

  16. Epidemiologic Comparison of Injured High School Basketball Athletes Reporting to Emergency Departments and the Athletic Training Setting

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Erica N.; McKenzie, Lara B.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Context: Basketball is a popular US high school sport with more than 1 million participants annually. Objective: To compare patterns of athletes with basketball-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments from 2005 through 2010 and the high school athletic training setting from the 2005–2011 seasons. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the High School Reporting Information Online database. Main Outcome Measure(s): Complex sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of basketball-related injuries for comparison. Patients or Other Participants: Adolescents from 13 to 19 years of age treated in US emergency departments for basketball-related injuries and athletes from 13 to 19 years of age from schools participating in High School Reporting Information Online who were injured while playing basketball. Results: Nationally, an estimated 1 514 957 (95% confidence interval = 1 337 441, 1 692 474) athletes with basketball-related injuries reported to the emergency department and 1 064 551 (95% confidence interval = 1 055 482, 1 073 620) presented to the athletic training setting. Overall, the most frequent injuries seen in the emergency department were lacerations and fractures (injury proportion ratios [IPRs] = 3.45 and 1.72, respectively), whereas those seen in the athletic training setting were more commonly concussions and strains/sprains (IPRs = 2.23 and 1.19, respectively; all P values < .0001). Comparisons of body site and diagnosis combinations revealed additional differences. For example, athletes with lower leg fractures more often presented to the emergency department (IPR = 6.53), whereas those with hand fractures more frequently presented to the athletic training setting (IPR = 1.18; all P values < .0001). Conclusions: Patterns of injury differed among high school basketball players

  17. Preferred Learning Styles of Professional Undergraduate and Graduate Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thon, Sarah; Hansen, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Context: Recognizing the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students will equip educators to more effectively improve their teaching methods and optimize student learning. Objective: To determine the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students…

  18. Who Should Mentor Me? Giving a Voice to Black Women Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siple, Bonnie J.; Hopson, Rodney K.; Sobehart, Helen C.; Turocy, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Black women are dramatically underrepresented in the health care profession of athletic training. It may be theorized that one of the reasons more black female students are not entering into the profession of athletic training is that they do not have adequate mentors to successfully guide them. Objective: The purpose of our qualitative…

  19. Evaluating Perceptions of Culminating Clinical Education Experiences of Senior Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Patricia A.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The perceptions of athletic training students (ATSs) regarding their clinical education experiences are not fully understood. It is important to investigate ATS perceptions of clinical education to allow athletic training educators to provide educational experiences that will maximize learning. Objective: To determine what ATSs value…

  20. Preparing Proficient Practitioners: Problem-Based Learning in Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Cordial M.

    2011-01-01

    Athletic training education is continuing to grow and change as different instructional methods are studied and implemented. Problem-based learning is one instructional method that has been implemented in varying degrees in athletic training education programs but its effectiveness has not been studied extensively. Problem-based learning has been…

  1. Program Directors' Perceptions of Reasons Professional Master's Athletic Training Students Persist and Depart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Student retention is a key issue in higher education. With the increasing number of professional master's (PM) athletic training programs (ATPs), understanding student retention is necessary to maintain viable programs. Objective: Explore program directors' perceptions of the reasons athletic training students persist and depart from PM…

  2. VO2 Max in Variable Type Exercise Among Well-Trained Upper Body Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Douglas R.; Mullin, John P.

    1982-01-01

    The maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of well-trained upper body athletes was compared to that of untrained individuals in four types of exercise: arm cranking, legs only cycling, graded treadmill running, and combined arm cranking and leg cycling. Results of the study showed that well-trained upper body athletes attained a significantly higher…

  3. Using a Web-Based Database to Record and Monitor Athletic Training Students' Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kirk W.; Williams, Lisa; Janicki, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to introduce a documentation recording system employing the Microsoft Structured Query Language (MS-SQL) database used by the Athletic Training Education Program (ATEP) for recording and monitoring of athletic training student (ATS) clinical experiences and hours. Background: Monitoring ATSs clinical…

  4. Four-Corner Model for Curricular Development in Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, Matthew; Scialli, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present a model for an educational continuum that identifies entry-level to advance practice competencies and content for athletic training education. Background: Specific degree-level purposes within the context of higher education, in conjunction with professional needs should be addressed in athletic training education.…

  5. Is Direct Supervision in Clinical Education for Athletic Training Students Always Necessary to Enhance Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriber, Kent; Trowbridge, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present an alternative model of supervision within clinical education experiences. Background: Several years ago direct supervision was defined more clearly in the accreditation standards for athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Currently, athletic training students may not gain any clinical experience without their clinical…

  6. Sampling Methods and the Accredited Population in Athletic Training Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…

  7. Engagement Theory in Action: An Investigation of Athletic Training Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the use of good practice indicators by athletic training program directors and to provide a theoretical framework using engagement theory, a learner-centered process focusing on program improvement through continuous planning and evaluation, as a foundation for implementing good practices in athletic training education…

  8. Should Athletic Training Educators Utilize Grades When Evaluating Student Clinical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriber, Kent; Gray, Courtney; Millspaugh, Rose

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore and address some of the challenges for assessing, interpreting, and grading athletic training students' clinical performance and to suggest athletic training educators consider using a more universal assessment method for professional consistency. Background: In years past students learned from teachers or mentors on an…

  9. Defining the Engaging Learning Experience from the Athletic Training Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Benes, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Clinical experiences are an integral part of athletic training education and are where students gain the hands-on, practical knowledge and skills necessary to provide quality patient care in the field. However, some clinical education experiences may not allow athletic training students to become clinically integrated. Objective: To…

  10. Predictors of Success on Professional Credentialing Examinations of Athletic Training Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esparza, Shandra Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Compared to other allied health programs, graduates of athletic training (AT) programs have lower pass rates on their national credentialing examination (48%). In 2013, the new Standards for Entry Level AT Programs from the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) will require AT education programs to be accountable for…

  11. Instilling Foundation Behaviors of Professional Practice in Undergraduate Athletic Training Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to investigate the implementation of the "Foundational Behaviors of Professional Practice" in undergraduate athletic training education program curriculums accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education [CAATE]. Specifically, this study examined the educational and…

  12. Perceptions of Athletic Training Education Program Directors on Their Students' Persistence and Departure Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    The athletic training profession is in the midst of a large increase in demand for health care professionals for the physically active. In order to meet demand, directors of athletic training education programs (ATEPs) are challenged with providing sufficient graduates. There has been a large increase in ATEPs nationwide since educational reform…

  13. Program Directors' Perceptions of Programmatic Attributes Contributing to Athletic Training Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Graduates of athletic training programs (ATPs) have identified factors contributing to their persistence through professional education. However, program directors have yet to elaborate on programmatic attributes that might contribute to athletic training student retention in their respective ATPs. Objective: To determine program…

  14. Physiological characteristics of well-trained junior sprint kayak athletes.

    PubMed

    Borges, Thiago Oliveira; Dascombe, Ben; Bullock, Nicola; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to profile the physiological characteristics of junior sprint kayak athletes (n=21, VO2max 4.1±0.7 L/min, training experience 2.7±1.2 y) and to establish the relationship between physiological variables (VO2max, VO2 kinetics, muscle-oxygen kinetics, paddling efficiency) and sprint kayak performance. VO2max, power at VO2max, power:weight ratio, paddling efficiency, VO2 at lactate threshold, and whole-body and muscle oxygen kinetics were determined on a kayak ergometer in the laboratory. Separately, on-water time trials (TT) were completed over 200 m and 1000 m. Large to nearly perfect (-.5 to -.9) inverse relationships were found between the physiological variables and on-water TT performance across both distances. Paddling efficiency and lactate threshold shared moderate to very large correlations (-.4 to -.7) with 200- and 1000-m performance. In addition, trivial to large correlations (-.11 to -.5) were observed between muscle-oxygenation parameters, muscle and whole-body oxygen kinetics, and performance. Multiple regression showed that 88% of the unadjusted variance for the 200-m TT performance was explained by VO2max, peripheral muscle deoxygenation, and maximal aerobic power (P<.001), whereas 85% of the unadjusted variance in 1000-m TT performance was explained by VO2max and deoxyhemoglobin (P<.001). The current findings show that well-trained junior sprint kayak athletes possess a high level of relative aerobic fitness and highlight the importance of the peripheral muscle metabolism for sprint kayak performance, particularly in 200-m races, where finalists and nonfinalists are separated by very small margins. Such data highlight the relative aerobic-fitness variables that can be used as benchmarks for talent-identification programs or monitoring longitudinal athlete development. However, such approaches need further investigation. PMID:25473923

  15. Self-reported concussion symptoms and training routines in mixed martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Heath, Christopher J; Callahan, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact, fighting sport that has risen in popularity over recent years, resulting in an increase in both training facilities and sport participants. To date, little research has examined the complications and vulnerability to head trauma, or concussive symptomatology, in MMA athletes. In this study, we assessed relationships between training routines and concussive symptoms, as well as medical care, in MMA athletes. A sample (N = 119) of MMA athletes reported concussive symptoms, training routines, and medical histories through an online survey. Nearly 15% of the MMA athletes reported history of a knockout, and nearly one-third reported a technical knockout. Subjective ratings of concussive symptoms were high for these athletes, with many of them waiting only a brief time after such incidents to return to competition. These findings have important implications for informing the medical treatment and safety decision for returning to participation for these athletes. PMID:23777375

  16. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division and Primary Job Title of Athletic Trainers and Their Job Satisfaction or Intention to Leave Athletic Training

    PubMed Central

    Terranova, Aaron B.; Henning, Jolene M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. Objective: To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used separate 3 × 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. Results: We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F2,182 = 7.82, P = .001) and Operating Conditions (F2,182 = 12.01, P < .001). The JSS subscale Nature of Work was the greatest indicator of intention to leave (β = −0.45). Conclusions: We found a strong negative correlation between various facets of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a

  17. Altitude training for elite endurance athletes: A review for the travel medicine practitioner.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard; O'Connor, Rory; Johnston, Niall

    2016-01-01

    High altitude training is regarded as an integral component of modern athletic preparation, especially for endurance sports such as middle and long distance running. It has rapidly achieved popularity among elite endurance athletes and their coaches. Increased hypoxic stress at altitude facilitates key physiological adaptations within the athlete, which in turn may lead to improvements in sea-level athletic performance. Despite much research in this area to date, the exact mechanisms which underlie such improvements remain to be fully elucidated. This review describes the current understanding of physiological adaptation to high altitude training and its implications for athletic performance. It also discusses the rationale and main effects of different training models currently employed to maximise performance. Athletes who travel to altitude for training purposes are at risk of suffering the detrimental effects of altitude. Altitude illness, weight loss, immune suppression and sleep disturbance may serve to limit athletic performance. This review provides an overview of potential problems which an athlete may experience at altitude, and offers specific training recommendations so that these detrimental effects are minimised. PMID:27040934

  18. Sensorimotor Learning in a Computerized Athletic Training Battery.

    PubMed

    Krasich, Kristina; Ramger, Ben; Holton, Laura; Wang, Lingling; Mitroff, Stephen R; Gregory Appelbaum, L

    2016-01-01

    Sensorimotor abilities are crucial for performance in athletic, military, and other occupational activities, and there is great interest in understanding learning in these skills. Here, behavioral performance was measured over three days as twenty-seven participants practiced multiple sessions on the Nike SPARQ Sensory Station (Nike, Inc., Beaverton, Oregon), a computerized visual and motor assessment battery. Wrist-worn actigraphy was recorded to monitor sleep-wake cycles. Significant learning was observed in tasks with high visuomotor control demands but not in tasks of visual sensitivity. Learning was primarily linear, with up to 60% improvement, but did not relate to sleep quality in this normal-sleeping population. These results demonstrate differences in the rate and capacity for learning across perceptual and motor domains, indicating potential targets for sensorimotor training interventions. PMID:27254262

  19. TRAINING THE POOR FOR NEW CAREERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAFFER, ANATOLE; SPECHT, HARRY

    IN A DISCUSSION OF THE RICHMOND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR TRAINING SUBPROFESSIONALS, THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES OF THE PROJECT ARE DISCUSSED--(1) RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION OF PERSONNEL, AND (2) BASIC, INSERVICE, AND OTHER TRAINING PROCEDURES. THE PROJECT TRAINS LOW-INCOME INDIVIDUALS FOR SUBPROFESSIONAL JOBS IN THE POLICE…

  20. States Seek High School Pathways Weaving Academic, Career Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Every student at Wheeling High School takes a full academic courseload. Many of the graduates of this 2,000-student school in Wheeling, Illinois, however, also emerge with significant experience in a career field. Those interested in health careers, for example, can work with student-athletes in the school's athletic training facility, earn a…

  1. Amino acid mixture improves training efficiency in athletes.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Masaru; Sugita, Masaaki; Maruyama, Kimiaki

    2006-02-01

    This review discusses some of the beneficial effects of a dietary amino acid supplement on muscle function, fatigue, and recovery in exercising athletes. The supplement, a mixture of amino acids that included the branched-chain amino acids, arginine and glutamine, was studied chronically at several daily dose levels for extended periods of time (10, 30, and 90 d). Outcome variables included physical measures of muscle strength, fatigue and damage, and blood indices of muscle damage and oxygen-carrying capacity. One beneficial effect of the amino acid supplement was a quicker recovery from the muscle fatigue that followed eccentric exercise training. A dose-response study of the amino acid mixture at 2.2, 4.4, and 6.6 g/d for 1 mo showed that at the highest dose, indices of blood oxygen-carrying capacity were increased and those of muscle damage were decreased at the end of the trial. When the amino acid mixture was given for 90 d to elite rugby players during training at a dose of 7.2 g/d, a blood-component analysis indicated improvements in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Together, the studies suggest that the amino acid supplement contributed to an improvement in training efficiency through positive effects on muscle integrity and hematopoiesis. PMID:16424143

  2. A multidisciplinary approach to overreaching detection in endurance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Le Meur, Yann; Hausswirth, Christophe; Natta, Françoise; Couturier, Antoine; Bignet, Frank; Vidal, Pierre Paul

    2013-02-01

    In sport, high training load required to reach peak performance pushes human adaptation to their limits. In that process, athletes may experience general fatigue, impaired performance, and may be identified as overreached (OR). When this state lasts for several months, an overtraining syndrome is diagnosed (OT). Until now, no variable per se can detect OR, a requirement to prevent the transition from OR to OT. It encouraged us to further investigate OR using a multivariate approach, including physiological, biomechanical, cognitive, and perceptive monitoring. Twenty-four highly trained triathletes were separated into an overload group and a normo-trained group (NT) during 3 wk of training. Given the decrement of their running performance, 11 triathletes were diagnosed as OR after this period. A discriminant analysis showed that the changes of eight parameters measured during a maximal incremental test could explain 98.2% of the OR state (lactatemia, heart rate, biomechanical parameters and effort perception). Variations in heart rate and lactatemia were the two most discriminating factors. When the multifactorial analysis was restricted to these variables, the classification score reached 89.5%. Catecholamines and creatine kinase concentrations at rest did not change significantly in both groups. Running pattern was preserved and cognitive performance decrement was observed only at exhaustion in OR subjects. This study showed that monitoring various variables is required to prevent the transition between NT and OR. It emphasized that an OR index, which combines heart rate and blood lactate concentration changes after a strenuous training period, could be helpful to routinely detect OR. PMID:23195630

  3. Effects of Stress Inoculation Training on Athletes' Postsurgical Pain and Rehabilitation after Orthopedic Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael J.; Berger, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (stress inoculation training; SIT) for postsurgical anxiety, pain and physical rehabilitation in injured athletes. Sixty male athletes who underwent arthroscopic surgery for miniscus injury in one knee were randomly assigned to either treatment (SIT and physical therapy) or control…

  4. Small-Group Standardized Patient Encounter Improves Athletic Training Students' Psychosocial Intervention and Referral Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Thrasher, Ashley B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers provide psychological support, counseling, intervention, and referral to patients during clinical practice. However, students are rarely exposed to real-life opportunities to develop these skills. Objective: To determine if a small-group standardized patient (SP) encounter improved athletic training students'…

  5. Take a Page from Your Coach's Play Book: Teaching Technical and Tactical Skills in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth B.; Williams, Skip M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The ability to demonstrate sound clinical reasoning is needed for a practicing athletic trainer. However, instruction on how to make a correct clinical decision may be deficient in many athletic training programs. Objective: To provide an overview of how to teach technical and tactical skills, using both a tradition and a nontraditional…

  6. Training and Psychosocial Patterns during the Early Development of Portuguese National Team Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiros, Andre; Cote, Jean; Fonseca, Antonio Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early development of expert athletes compared to a group of athletes that did not achieve an expert level of performance despite being involved in youth events with their national squads. In particular, the activities, training patterns, and psychosocial influences that characterized their paths in competitive sports were…

  7. Seeking Greater Relevance for Athletic Training Education within American Higher Education and the Health Care Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses several of the challenges facing today's system of higher education, and discusses the implications of these challenges for the athletic training profession. Among the major challenges are cost, accountability, access, and value of a higher education. The paper next focuses on several issues about which athletic training…

  8. Athletic Training Educators' Instructional Methods and Confidence in Graduating Students' Abilities regarding Psychosocial Intervention and Referral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamson-Utley, Jennifer Jordan; Stiller-Ostrowski, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Graduating athletic training students must consider both physical and mental aspects of injury to fully rehabilitate the injured athlete; however, programs may not be preparing students to apply psychosocial strategies that can improve the recovery process. Objective: To examine Psychosocial Intervention and Referral (PIR) content area…

  9. An Assessment of Post-Professional Athletic Training Students' Critical Thinking Skills and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Jessica Marie

    2013-01-01

    The need for outcome measures in critical thinking skills and dispositions for post-professional athletic training programs (PPATPs) is significant. It has been suggested that athletic trainers who are competent and disposed towards thinking critically will be successful in the profession. The purpose of this study is to assess critical thinking…

  10. The Relationship between Diversity Training, Organizational Commitment, and Career Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Margaret; Holmes, Mark Robert; Hannan, Charity-Ann; Cukier, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between employees' perceptions of diversity training (DT) existence and effectiveness with organizational commitment (OC), and career satisfaction (CS). Design/methodology/approach: The analyses in this paper utilize survey data collected between 2006 and 2007 from over 11,000…

  11. Taking Flight: Education and Training for Aviation Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S., Ed.; Oster, Clinton V., Jr., Ed.

    This book reports on a study of education and training for civilian aviation careers. Following an overview of the study in chapter 1, chapter 2 provides the context for the analysis by first sketching the evolution of the aviation industry, then describing the key characteristics of the current industry and its workforce. Among the issues…

  12. Career Development of Foreign Trained Immigrants from Regulated Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Lydia; Chen, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we aim to examine and understand the career development experiences of foreign-trained immigrants from regulated professions (FTIRPs) in Canada. To provide some background on immigration in a Canadian context, we focus on a myriad of factors that affect the vocational well-being of FTIRPs. We apply key concepts from several major…

  13. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Metal Fabrication, Machinist Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the metal fabrication machinist training program requirements. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their goals,…

  14. Fireman: Naval Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The Rate Training Manual and the Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) was prepared to assist the fireman apprentice to qualify and to advance to fireman in the Navy. The manual is designed for individual study and provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational qualifications of the fireman rating. Fireman is one of the lower…

  15. Career Advancement through Short-Term Training Project (CAST). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofer-Henderson, Karen

    The Career Advancement through Short-term Training (CAST) project offered comprehensive career guidance and counseling to those persons needing to upgrade technical skills, those needing flexible training schedules, those moving into new careers, and those needing prerequisite training. Materials and products were developed to implement a…

  16. Training Improves Careers--and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langham, Barbara A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes training paths for child caregivers, and the incorporation of staff training requirements for facility accreditation by national professional organizations and the development of individual credentials. Describes strategies for improving quality of care, including organizing for higher wages, subsidizing care, and extending free public…

  17. Valuing Flexibility in Career Training Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahanpath, Noel; Neal, Mark; McCormack, Shane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature and significance of flexibility in decisions about education and training options. This is done through an examination of the relevance of real options valuation (ROV) to our understanding of educational and training choices. Through this examination, the paper aims to contribute to the…

  18. The training intensity distribution among well-trained and elite endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Sperlich, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID) of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a “pyramidal” TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT). Some world-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called “polarized” TID (i.e., significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training) during certain phases of the season. However, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals when compared with a TID that emphasizes HVLIT or threshold training. The aims of the present review are to: (1) summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; (2) provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; (3) address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and (4) highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies. PMID:26578968

  19. FLUID BALANCE DURING TRAINING IN ELITE YOUNG ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT SPORTS

    PubMed Central

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes which start exercise in sub-optimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exists. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite men athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2±1.3 y, years of training: 7.7±2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6±0.9 °C and 58±8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 min and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (USG≥1.020 mg/dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pre-training urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, while a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥ 1.020 mg/dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was −1.1±0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability. PMID:24513625

  20. Effects of intensive exercise training on immunity in athletes.

    PubMed

    Pyne, D B; Gleeson, M

    1998-07-01

    A large number of studies have failed to show whether exercise-induced perturbations in immune function are associated with the incidence of infection. "Sports immunology", examining the interaction of physical, psychological and environmental stress on immunity, is emerging as a sub-discipline of sports medicine. A series of studies by our research team has profiled the immune responses of elite swimmers during training. Serum immunoglobulin and IgG subclass levels were lower in swimmers than controls. Suppression of mucosal immune parameters has been associated with the risk of upper respiratory tract infection. Swimmers with a lower pre-season salivary IgA and/or lower pre-exercise salivary IgA level were more likely to contract an URTI during a 7-month training period. In a shorter 12-week study, infected swimmers had a mean salivary IgM concentration that dropped more sharply after a single training session. Significant declines in natural killer cell count and neutrophil oxidative activity were not associated with URTI. Despite systemic and mucosal immunosuppression a cohort of swimmers were also able to mount an antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine equivalent to that of sedentary individuals. Observations of chronic suppression of aspects of host defence and the significant relationship between changes in mucosal immune parameters and URTI, provide a framework for assessment of the immune status of athletes. The underlying causes of upper respiratory tract distress symptoms may be infective, inflammatory or allergic in origin: a differential diagnosis has implications for treatment and management. PMID:9722284

  1. Citius, Altius, Fortius: beneficial effects of resistance training for young athletes: Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; MacDonald, James; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The motto of the Olympic Games is Citius, Altius, Fortius which is Latin for 'Faster, Higher, Stronger'. It is a clarion call to all competitors, including the youngest, to engage in training strategies that prepare athletes to be the best in the world. Existing research indicates that various forms of resistance training can elicit performance improvements in young athletes. Stronger young athletes will be better prepared to learn complex movements, master sport tactics, and sustain the demands of training and competition. An integrative training programme grounded in resistance training and motor skill development can optimise a young athlete's potential to maximise their athletic and sporting performance, while reducing the risk of a sports-related injury. Resistance training may be especially important for modern-day young athletes who are more likely to specialise in one sport at an early age at the expense of enhancing general physical fitness and learning diversified sport skills. Structured interventions that include qualified instruction; targeted movement practice; and strength and conditioning activities that are developmentally appropriate, progressive and technique driven are needed to attain a level of athleticism that is consistent with the Olympic motto. PMID:26089321

  2. Effects of hypoxia on diaphragmatic fatigue in highly trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Georgiadou, Olga; Koskolou, Maria; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Golemati, Spyretta; Wagner, Harrieth; Roussos, Charis; Wagner, Peter D; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2007-01-01

    Previous work suggests that exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH), causing only moderate arterial oxygen desaturation (SaO2: 92 ± 1%), does not exaggerate diaphragmatic fatigue exhibited by highly trained endurance athletes. Since changes in arterial O2 tension have a significant effect on the rate of development of locomotor muscle fatigue during strenuous exercise, the present study investigated whether hypoxia superimposed on EIAH exacerbates the exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in these athletes. Eight trained cyclists (V˙O2max: 67.0 ± 2.6 ml kg−1 min−1; mean ± s.e.m.) completed in balanced order four 5 min exercise tests leading to different levels of end-exercise SaO2 (64 ± 2, 83 ± 1, 91 ± 1 and 96 ± 1%) via variations in inspired O2 fraction (FIO2: 0.13, 0.17, 0.21 and 0.26, respectively). Measurements were made at corresponding intensities (65 ± 3, 80 ± 3, 85 ± 3 and 90 ± 3% of normoxic maximal work rate, respectively) in order to produce the same tidal volume, breathing frequency and respiratory muscle load at each FIO2. The mean pressure time product of the diaphragm did not differ across the four exercise tests and ranged between 312 ± 28 and 382 ± 22 cmH2O s min−1. Ten minutes into recovery, twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi,tw) determined by bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation, was significantly (P = 0.0001) reduced after all tests. After both hypoxic tests (FIO2: 0.13, 0.17) the degree of fall in Pdi,tw (by 26.9 ± 2.7 and 27.4 ± 2.6%, respectively) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than after the normoxic test (by 20.1 ± 3.4%). The greater amount of diaphragmatic fatigue in hypoxia at lower leg work rates (presumably requiring smaller leg blood flow compared with normoxia at higher leg work rates), suggests that when ventilatory muscle load is similar between normoxia and hypoxia, hypoxia exaggerates diaphragmatic fatigue in spite of potentially greater respiratory muscle blood flow availability. PMID

  3. Athletic Training Educators' Pedagogical Strategies for Preparing Students to Address Sudden Death in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Salvatore, Anthony C.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Educational training programs both impart knowledge and allow students to practice skills to gain clinical competence. Objective: Understand the educational training provided to athletic training students regarding sudden death in sport beyond exertional heat stroke. Design: An exploratory, qualitative study using telephone interviews and…

  4. Fluid Balance During Training in Elite Young Athletes of Different Sports.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability. PMID:24513625

  5. An Examination of the Career Development and Decision-Making Process of Female Division I Student-Athletes Attending a Mississippi Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstead, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The career development and decision-making process of student-athletes has been found to be a complex process (Brown, Glastetter-Fender, & Shelton, 2000; Lally & Kerr, 2005; and Sandstedt, Cox, Martens, Ward, Webber, & Ivey, 2004). Intertwined with issues not found within the general student population career development and decision-making…

  6. Training Physicians for Public Health Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Lyla M., Ed.; Munthali, A. Wezi, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Public health efforts have resulted in tremendous improvements in the health of individuals and communities. The foundation for effective public health interventions rests, in large part, on a well-trained workforce. Unfortunately there is a major shortage of public health physicians who are prepared to face today's public health challenges.…

  7. Leadership in athletic training: implications for practice and education in allied health care.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    Leadership behaviors are an important aspect of athletic training and are needed within all allied health care disciples. A two-phase, exploratory, non-experimental research study using a Delphi technique and a randomly selected sample of athletic trainers (n = 161) was conducted to determine leadership competencies perceived to be important for athletic training practice and education. The Delphi technique (phase one) resulted in the Leadership Development in Athletic Training instrument (LDAT). In the national survey (phase two), respondents used the LDAT to rate the importance of leadership competencies for athletic training practice and for athletic training education. Coefficient alphas ranged from α = 0.83 to 0.97 and provided satisfactory estimates of internal consistency. Concurrent, construct, and convergent validity were established. Forty-nine leadership competencies were rated important for practice and 48 for education (M = 1.5, p ≤ 0.001). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that leadership competencies were organized by four constructs (with six emphases): 1) personality characteristics, 2) diagnosing context and people skills, 3) communication and initiative, and 4) strategic thinking. Repeated measures ANOVA with Sidak post-hoc adjustments indicated each leadership construct significantly increased in importance as the level of the ATEP progressed. PMID:21184023

  8. Statistical mentoring at early training and career stages

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Hamada, Michael S.; Moore, Leslie M.; Wendelberger, Joanne R.

    2016-06-27

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), statistical scientists develop solutions for a variety of national security challenges through scientific excellence, typically as members of interdisciplinary teams. At LANL, mentoring is actively encouraged and practiced to develop statistical skills and positive career-building behaviors. Mentoring activities targeted at different career phases from student to junior staff are an important catalyst for both short and long term career development. This article discusses mentoring strategies for undergraduate and graduate students through internships as well as for postdoctoral research associates and junior staff. Topics addressed include project selection, progress, and outcome; intellectual and social activitiesmore » that complement the student internship experience; key skills/knowledge not typically obtained in academic training; and the impact of such internships on students’ careers. Experiences and strategies from a number of successful mentorships are presented. Feedback from former mentees obtained via a questionnaire is incorporated. As a result, these responses address some of the benefits the respondents received from mentoring, helpful contributions and advice from their mentors, key skills learned, and how mentoring impacted their later careers.« less

  9. Relation of Type and Amount of Training to Career Counseling Self-Efficacy in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soresi, Salvatore; Nota, Laura; Lent, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation of self-efficacy to length and type of training in a sample of Italian career counselors. Findings indicated that amount of career counseling training was positively related to counselors' self-efficacy regarding their abilities to conceptualize vocational problems, deal with career indecision concerns, and provide…

  10. The Effects of Isolated and Integrated ‘Core Stability’ Training on Athletic Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Casey A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. Objective This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. Data sources A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June2011). Study selection A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Study appraisal and synthesis methods Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. Results In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Limitations Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic

  11. Monitoring Hydration Status Pre- and Post-Training among University Athletes Using Urine Color and Weight Loss Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…

  12. The Effect of High-Fidelity Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Simulation on Athletic Training Student Knowledge, Confidence, Emotions, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…

  13. Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of and Academic Preparation in the Use of Psychological Skills in Sport Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of…

  14. A comparison of traditional and block periodized strength training programs in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Hoffman, Jay R; Merni, Franco; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different periodization models in strength and power athletes. Twenty-four experienced resistance trained men were randomly assigned to either a block periodization training program (BP; age = 24.2 ± 3.1 years, body mass = 78.5 ± 11.0 kg, height = 177.6 ± 4.9 cm) or to a traditional periodization program (TP; age = 26.2 ± 6.0 years, body mass = 80.5 ± 13.3 kg, height = 179.2 ± 4.6). Participants in both training programs performed 4 training sessions per week. Each training program consisted of the same exercises and same volume of training (total resistance lifted per session). The difference between the groups was in the manipulation of training intensity within each training phase. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE) and after 15 weeks (POST) of training. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare strength and power performance between the groups. Participants in BP were more likely (79.8%) to increase the area under the force-power curve than TP. Participants in BP also demonstrated a likely positive (92.76%) decrease in the load corresponding to maximal power at the bench press compared with TP group, and a possible improvement (∼60%) in maximal strength and power in the bench press. No significant changes were noted between groups in lower-body strength or jump power performance after the 15-week training period. Results of this study indicate that BP may enhance upper-body power expression to a greater extent than TP with equal volume; however, no differences were detected for lower-body performance and body composition measures. PMID:24476775

  15. Leadership Behaviors of Athletic Training Leaders Compared With Leaders in Other Fields

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Timothy G; Bradney, Debbie A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers are in positions of leadership. Objective: To determine self-reported leadership practices of head athletic trainers (HATCs) and program directors (PDs). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Respondents' academic institutions. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 238 athletic training leaders completed the Leadership Practices Inventory. Of these, 50.4% (n = 120) were HATCs and 49.6% (n = 118) were PDs; 69.3% (n = 165) were men and 30.7% (n = 73) were women; almost all respondents (97.1%, n = 231) were white. Respondents typically reported having 11 to 15 years of experience as an athletic trainer (n = 57, 23.9%) and being between the ages of 30 and 39 years (n = 109, 45.8%). Main Outcome Measure(s): Categories of leadership behaviors (ie, Model, Inspire, Challenge, Encourage, and Enable) were scored from 1 (almost never) to 10 (almost always). Item scores were summed to compute mean category scores. We analyzed demographic information; used t ratios to compare the data from athletic training leaders (PDs and HATCs) with normative data; compared sex, age, position, ethnicity, and years of experience with leadership practices; and computed mean scores. Results: Athletic training leaders reported using leadership behaviors similar to those of other leaders. The PDs reported using inspiring, challenging, enabling, and encouraging leadership behaviors more often than did the HATCs. No differences were found by ethnicity, age, years of experience, or leadership practices. Conclusions: Athletic training leaders are transformational leaders. Athletic training education program accreditation requirements likely account for the difference in leadership practices between PDs and HATCs. PMID:17597953

  16. Career research interests and training of genetic counseling students.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Angela C; Huether, Carl A; Shooner, Kerry; Buncher, C Ralph; Warren, Nancy Steinberg

    2007-10-01

    Research is important to validate clinical services, provide information on the effectiveness of practice techniques, and develop the knowledge base of a clinical profession. Genetic counseling students from American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC) accredited training programs were surveyed to determine their career research interests and interest in pursuing a hypothetical doctoral degree in genetic counseling. Genetic counseling program directors were surveyed to assess the emphasis on research training within their programs. A substantial number (46%, n = 92) of genetic counseling students are interested in performing research in their careers and many (40%, n = 80) would pursue a doctoral degree in genetic counseling if it was available. Students and directors from programs with a thesis requirement reported a significantly higher emphasis on career research preparation than those from programs without a thesis requirement. The results of this study indicate that future genetic counselors are interested in contributing to the research base that will advance the field. This study suggests a need to strengthen research training within ABGC accredited graduate programs and explore the development of a doctoral degree option in genetic counseling. PMID:17674166

  17. Multiculturalism and Athletic Training Education: Implications for Educational and Professional Progress

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To introduce athletic training educators and practicing professionals to the pedagogic concept and professional benefits that multicultural education, awareness, and training might provide if implemented in athletic training education. Data Sources: I reviewed textbook chapters and articles used in the course of my doctoral studies and searched the archives of Diversity Digest and Academic Medicine for the years 1998 to 2002 with the key words multiculturalism, diversity, cultural competence, education, and learning. I obtained additional information by cross-referencing pertinent articles. Data Synthesis: I present a rational argument for the inclusion of a critical pedagogy into the field of athletic training education. I outline the infrastructure in the professional field of athletic training, review some of the literature on critical multicultural theory and pedagogy, and examine some of the potential cognitive and intellectual implications of diversity and multicultural education. Conclusions/Recommendations: Future work in this area should focus on various and creative strategies for implementing a multicultural agenda in athletic training curricula and on the analysis of the associated benefits and outcomes of such educational strategies. PMID:16558679

  18. Comparative study of career development and training programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Alan

    1988-01-01

    Improvement of human capital has been identified as the key to any further increase of productivity for any country engaged in the global economic competition. The same can be said of any organization seeking to enhance its overall performance. This study is aimed at: (1) surveying the current practices of career development and training programs at major corporations and government research organizations; (2) presenting the distributions of various program features among survey respondents; (3) identifying the profile of the training program of a typical research organization, against which each organization can check and identify its relative strengths as well as areas needing further strengthening; (4) conducting an economic analysis of the effectiveness of the training programs at Langley Research Center; and (5) making recommendations as to how to enhance existing training programs.

  19. Development of Standards and Criteria for the Selection, Training, and Evaluation of Athletic Training Approved Clinical Instructors.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Thomas G; Henning, Jolene M

    2004-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop standards and associated criteria for the selection, training, and evaluation of athletic training approved clinical instructors (ACIs). DESIGN AND SETTING: A previously developed set of 7 physical therapy clinical instructor standards/criteria and 2 additional standards/criteria developed through a review of the literature were systematically adapted, judged, and revised through a Delphi technique. SUBJECTS: Athletic training education experts currently employed as program directors for entry-level Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs-accredited athletic training educational programs and who had the following: a doctoral degree, at least 5 years of supervising athletic training students, and familiarity/experience with clinical instruction in various athletic training clinical education settings. MEASUREMENTS: We used panelists' critiques and ratings to make sequential revisions in a series of 3 Delphi rounds. Standards were rated as to whether they were clear, necessary, and appropriate. We rated criteria for the associated standard as to whether they were useful, helpful, clear, specific, and consistent. RESULTS: We developed a final set of 7 standards and 50 associated criteria to measure these standards. The accepted standards include the following: legal and ethical behavior, communication skills, interpersonal relationships, instructional skills, supervisory and administrative skills, evaluation of performance, and clinical skills and knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: The 7 standards and associated criteria developed in this research project could be used not only for selecting, training, and evaluating an ACI but also for developing an understanding of the requirements of clinical education in general. Further research should include validating these standards/criteria among athletic training ACIs representing different types of clinical settings. PMID:15592606

  20. Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

  1. Pain and Injury Associated with Powerlifting Training in Visually Impaired Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haykowsky, Mark J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed occurrence and level of pain and injury history associated with powerlifting training in 11 adults with visual impairments. Powerlifting training was associated with an elevated occurrence of pain in shoulders, elbows, lower back, and knee regions. Injury rate, however, was lower than for athletes without visual impairments.…

  2. Changes in Body Composition and Strength of Female Athletes on Two Different Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyster, Nancy

    Thirty-one championship caliber women athletes participating on varsity teams at Ohio State University were trained using two different conditioning programs, in an attempt to determine the physiological outcomes of weight training versus cardiovascular-oriented conditioning. Fourteen tennis players followed a program of high-resistance weight…

  3. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    PubMed

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  4. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training.

    PubMed

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load. PMID:24255910

  5. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training

    PubMed Central

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load. PMID:24255910

  6. The Nature of Coupling with Intercollegiate Athletic Departments: Undergraduate Athletic Training Education Program Directors' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roiger, Trevor C.; Card, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Coupling theory, based on a tight-loose continuum, describes the nature of a connection, relationship, or interaction between entities. Understanding the nature of an ATEP's relationship with intercollegiate athletic departments is important to their growth and responsiveness to environmental change. Objective: To determine program…

  7. The Importance of State Regulation to the Promulgation of the Athletic Training Profession

    PubMed Central

    Rello, Maria N.

    1996-01-01

    States regulate professions to protect the public from harm by unqualified practitioners. Without regulation of athletic trainers (ATs), there is no legal way to assure quality health care to athletes because there is no legal definition as to what an AT can and cannot do. Problems exist, however; 1) ATs nationwide may not be adequately familiar with state regulations; 2) without regulation, legal support is given to high schools to use less qualified persons to care for student-athletes; 3) more education is needed to familiarize the public and the health care industry with the functions and qualifications of a certified AT; and 4) without uniformity of regulation, athletes may continue to suffer as untrained and/or unqualified persons continue to be perceived as members of the profession and as certified and noncertified ATs continue to practice without legal sanction, perhaps beyond their area of expertise. This article encompasses both a literature review and an opinion survey (of ATs) with regard to state regulation of the athletic training profession. The intent of this article is to help ATs understand the implications of state regulation on our profession. A survey was mailed to 500 ATs across the country soliciting opinions on state regulation and its implication of the profession of athletic training. The intent of the survey results are not to verify the literature review nor to infer information regarding other ATs, but merely to be a gathering tool to solicit information from fellow ATs. PMID:16558390

  8. Impact of intense training and rapid weight changes on salivary parameters in elite female Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, M-L; Ko, M-H; Chang, C-K; Chou, K-M; Fang, S-H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the cumulative effects of prolonged intensive training with or without rapid weight changes (RWC) on salivary parameters of elite female Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. Ten elite female Taiwanese TKD athletes (ages: 21.3 ± 1.2 years of age, Ht 164.4 ± 5.6 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. Resting saliva samples were collected at 28-, 14-, 7-, and 1 day before and 1-, 7-, 21 days after a national competition. The levels of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA), cortisol, and lactoferrin were measured. In analyzing the anthropometric data, we found that a significant proportion (50%) of elite female TKD athletes had RWC shortly before and after a national competition. The participants were allocated either to the RWC or to the non-RWC group according to their weight change profiles. Our results showed that levels of sIgA and cortisol of athletes with RWC were significantly modulated during the study period. However, athletes without RWC only showed reduced lactoferrin after competition. The results presented here demonstrate that intensive training in combination with RWC affects the mucosal immunity and disrupts the cortisol stress response of elite female TKD athletes. PMID:20456682

  9. Investigating Post-Graduate Athletic Training Education Student Perceptions Following a Purposefully-Implemented Peer-Assisted Learning Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate graduates' perceptions of a purposefully-implemented Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) pedagogy in their undergraduate athletic training education and the impact of that experience in their first job post-graduation. This was the first research in athletic training education that…

  10. Linking Rhetorical Sensitivity with the Ability of an Athletic Training Student to Successfully Perform a Patient Medical Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoncino, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the self-reported rhetorical sensitivity of a sample of athletic training students is positively related to successfully performing a patient medical interview. Particularly, the study focused on if athletic training students' reported communication behaviors is related to their…

  11. Atrial remodeling, autonomic tone, and lifetime training hours in nonelite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Matthias; Roten, Laurent; Tanner, Hildegard; Wilhelm, Ilca; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Saner, Hugo

    2011-08-15

    Endurance athletes have an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) at 40 to 50 years of age. Signal-averaged P-wave analysis has been used for identifying patients at risk for AF. We evaluated the impact of lifetime training hours on signal-averaged P-wave duration and modifying factors. Nonelite men athletes scheduled to participate in the 2010 Grand Prix of Bern, a 10-mile race, were invited. Four hundred ninety-two marathon and nonmarathon runners applied for participation, 70 were randomly selected, and 60 entered the final analysis. Subjects were stratified according to their lifetime training hours (average endurance and strength training hours per week × 52 × training years) in low (<1,500 hours), medium (1,500 to 4,500 hours), and high (>4,500 hours) training groups. Mean age was 42 ± 7 years. From low to high training groups signal-averaged P-wave duration increased from 131 ± 6 to 142 ± 13 ms (p = 0.026), and left atrial volume increased from 24.8 ± 4.6 to 33.1 ± 6.2 ml/m(2) (p = 0.001). Parasympathetic tone expressed as root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals increased from 34 ± 13 to 47 ± 16 ms (p = 0.002), and premature atrial contractions increased from 6.1 ± 7.4 to 10.8 ± 7.7 per 24 hours (p = 0.026). Left ventricular mass increased from 100.7 ± 9.0 to 117.1 ± 18.2 g/m(2) (p = 0.002). Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and blood pressure at rest were normal in all athletes and showed no differences among training groups. Four athletes (6.7%) had a history of paroxysmal AF, as did 1 athlete in the medium training group and 3 athletes in the high training group (p = 0.252). In conclusion, in nonelite men athletes lifetime training hours are associated with prolongation of signal-averaged P-wave duration and an increase in left atrial volume. The altered left atrial substrate may facilitate occurrence of AF. Increased vagal tone and atrial ectopy may serve as modifying and

  12. Incidence of exercise-induced asthma in adolescent athletes under different training and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, Maria P; Kokaridas, Dimitrios G; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi F; Karadonas, Michalis I; Fotiadou, Eleni G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if there were differences in the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm between athletes in different sports, which take place under different environmental conditions such as open places, closed courses, and swimming pools with similar exercise intensity (football, basketball, water polo) using the free running test. The study included 90 adolescents (3 groups of 30) aged 14-18 years recruited from academies in northern Greece. All the participants were initially subjected to (a) a clinical examination and cardiorespiratory assessment by a physician and (b) free running test of a 6-minute duration and measurement with a microspirometer of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁). Only the participants who had measured a decrease in FEV₁ ≥ 10% were reevaluated with the microspirometer during a training session. The examination of all the participants during the free running test showed that 22 athletes, that is, 9, 8, and 5 of football, basketball, and water polo athletes, respectively, demonstrated an FEV₁ ≥ 10 drop. Reevaluation of the 22 participants during training showed that 5 out 9 (55%) football athletes, 4 out of 8 basketball athletes (50%), and none of the 5 athletes of the water polo team displayed a drop of FEV₁ ≥ 10%. Despite the absence of any significant statistical differences between the 3 groups, the analysis of variances did show a trend of a lower incidence of EIA in the water polo athletes. It was found that a football or basketball game can induce EIA in young athletes but to a lesser degree than the free running test can induce. The water polo can be a safer sport even for participants with a medical history of asthma or allergies. PMID:21912293

  13. Builder 3 & 2. Naval Education and Training Command Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Countryman, Gene L.

    This Rate Training Manual (Textbook) and Nonresident Career Course form a correspondence, self-study package to provide information related to tasks assigned to Builders Third and Second Class. Focus is on constructing, maintaining, and repairing wooden, concrete, and masonry structures, concrete pavement, and waterfront and underwater structures;…

  14. Leadership content important in athletic training education with implications for allied health care.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Matthew R; Scialli, Joan

    2008-01-01

    A two-phase exploratory and comparative research study using a Delphi technique and a web-based national survey was done to determine leadership content (i.e., theories, styles, or practices) important to include in athletic training education. Eighteen athletic training experts participated in the Delphi technique, followed by 161 athletic trainers completing the national survey. Consensus of experts was reached after two rounds (77% interrater agreement, alpha = 0.80 and alpha = 0.93 per respective round) and identified 31 leadership content items important to include in athletic training education. The national sample then rated importance of each leadership content area for inclusion in four types of athletic training education programs (entry-level baccalaureate, entry-level master's degree, postgraduate certifications, and doctoral degree). The respondents ranked the leadership content in order of importance according to mean (mean = 1.53 +/- 0.84 to 2.55 +/- 0.55; scale, 0-3). Twenty-two content items (63%) were rated at least "very important" (mean > or = 2.0). Exploratory factor analysis established construct validity and organized leadership content by three factors: managerial leadership and knowledge management; leadership theories; and leadership issues, trends, and policies (alpha = 0.84-0.91). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (Sidak post-hoc adjustments) established criterion-related concurrent validity, which found increasing levels of importance as education type progressed (F = 4.88, p = 0.003-32.56, p = 0.000). Adding leadership content within athletic training enhances the professionalization of students, facilitates leadership competency among students and practicing professionals enrolled in postcertification educational programs, and facilitates job placement and role. PMID:19157049

  15. Athletic Training Students' Perception of Significant Clinical Instructor Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Carlen; Martin, Malissa

    2010-01-01

    Context: Characteristics of a model clinical instructor (CI) continue to be defined. However, certain characteristics are still unknown. Objective: To more fully define and describe quality clinical instruction by examining the impact of employment status, years of experience as a certified athletic trainer (AT), and employment setting on athletic…

  16. Coming to Terms: Career Development Experiences of NCAA Division I Female Student-Athletes in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Markesha McWilliams

    2013-01-01

    Transitions are defined as "any event or non-event that results in changed relationships, routines, assumptions, and roles" (Goodman, Schlossberg, & Anderson, 2006, p. 33). A particular transition unique to student-athletes in comparison to other college students is the end of their collegiate athletic eligibility. The purpose of…

  17. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05). None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period) but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training. PMID:26635619

  18. Effects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Goran; Jukic, Igor; Milanovic, Dragan; Metikos, Dusan

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sprint training on muscle function and dynamic athletic performance and to compare them with the training effects induced by standard plyometric training. Male physical education students were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: sprint group (SG; n = 30), plyometric group (PG; n = 30), or control group (CG; n = 33). Maximal isometric squat strength, squat- and countermovement jump (SJ and CMJ) height and power, drop jump performance from 30-cm height, and 3 athletic performance tests (standing long jump, 20-m sprint, and 20-yard shuttle run) were measured prior to and after 10 weeks of training. Both experimental groups trained 3 days a week; SG performed maximal sprints over distances of 10-50 m, whereas PG performed bounce-type hurdle jumps and drop jumps. Participants in the CG group maintained their daily physical activities for the duration of the study. Both SG and PG significantly improved drop jump performance (15.6 and 14.2%), SJ and CMJ height ( approximately 10 and 6%), and standing long jump distance (3.2 and 2.8%), whereas the respective effect sizes (ES) were moderate to high and ranged between 0.4 and 1.1. In addition, SG also improved isometric squat strength (10%; ES = 0.4) and SJ and CMJ power (4%; ES = 0.4, and 7%; ES = 0.4), as well as sprint (3.1%; ES = 0.9) and agility (4.3%; ES = 1.1) performance. We conclude that short-term sprint training produces similar or even greater training effects in muscle function and athletic performance than does conventional plyometric training. This study provides support for the use of sprint training as an applicable training method of improving explosive performance of athletes in general. PMID:17530960

  19. Athletic Identity, Vocational Identity, and Occupational Engagement in College Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Lacole L.

    2012-01-01

    Athletic departments in National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision universities provide academic support services to their student-athletes. Even though student-athletes receive help including career assistance from academic counselors, some studies have found that student-athletes are behind non-athletes in career…

  20. Rand Symposium on Pilot Training and the Pilot Career; Recollections of the Chairman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, W. A.

    Topics discussed in this 1970 symposium included the economics of flight training, careers in flying, college versus high school graduates, defining the trained pilot, motivation and selection, innovation in pilot training, training goals, transfer of training, and the role of simulators. Conferees agreed that the present Air Force undergraduate…

  1. Training in élite young athletes (the Training of Young Athletes (TOYA) Study): injuries, flexibility and isometric strength.

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, N; King, J B; Helms, P

    1994-01-01

    Using a mixed longitudinal design, the incidence of injuries, and the development of flexibility and isometric strength of the upper and lower limbs were studied for 2 years in 453 élite young athletes (aged between 9 and 18 years) practising football, gymnastics, swimming or tennis. The children suffered from a low incidence of injuries. Strength and flexibility did not exert a significant role in determining injuries. The rate of injury was not significantly different between the 2 years of the study. Young swimmers showed a greater generalized flexibility. Girls were more flexible than boys between the ages of 13 to 16 years. Athletic children are able to exert greater isometric strength than normal schoolchildren. Boys diverged from the normal population at 14 years, while athletic girls were stronger at all ages. Girls were stronger than boys up to age 12, who were still increasing their muscle strength at 19 years. The average maximal isometric strength exerted in both upper and lower limbs in the four sports was not significantly different. Male gymnasts over 11 years old were significantly stronger than all other athletes. PMID:7921912

  2. The training—injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    Background There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury. Main thesis This paper describes the ‘Training-Injury Prevention Paradox’ model; a phenomenon whereby athletes accustomed to high training loads have fewer injuries than athletes training at lower workloads. The Model is based on evidence that non-contact injuries are not caused by training per se, but more likely by an inappropriate training programme. Excessive and rapid increases in training loads are likely responsible for a large proportion of non-contact, soft-tissue injuries. If training load is an important determinant of injury, it must be accurately measured up to twice daily and over periods of weeks and months (a season). This paper outlines ways of monitoring training load (‘internal’ and ‘external’ loads) and suggests capturing both recent (‘acute’) training loads and more medium-term (‘chronic’) training loads to best capture the player's training burden. I describe the critical variable—acute:chronic workload ratio—as a best practice predictor of training-related injuries. This provides the foundation for interventions to reduce players risk, and

  3. Monitoring internal training load and mucosal immune responses in futsal athletes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Alexandre; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Coutts, Aaron; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Kempton, Thomas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cortisol, and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and their relationships with training loads (TLs) during a 4-week period of intensive training during the competitive season in elite Brazilian futsal players. Twelve athletes (age: 19 ± 1 years; height: 180 ± 4 cm; and body mass: 73 ± 7 kg) participated in the study. The training program included tactical, technical, specific conditioning and strength training, and competition matches. Training load was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion. Salivary immunoglobulin A, salivary cortisol and symptoms of URTIs were assessed weekly. A significant decrease in weekly TL was observed for week 4 (tapering) compared with that of other weeks (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for cortisol and SIgA during the study (p > 0.05). There was a significant decrease in URTI symptom severity during week 4 as compared with that of weeks 1 and 2 (p < 0.05), with a significant correlation between weekly TL and URTI severity and weekly TL during week 4 (rs = 0.75; p < 0.05). The present findings suggest that futsal athletes are more susceptible to high URTI symptom severity in the periods of higher training. Therefore, the reduction in TLs before competitions is an appropriate strategy to minimize URTI symptoms ensuring the athlete's ability to train and compete. PMID:22744297

  4. The Effects of an Electronic Audience Response System on Athletic Training Student Knowledge and Interactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Hetzler, Tona

    2015-01-01

    Context: Electronic audience response systems (ARSs) are a technological teaching tool currently being used with widespread success within various disciplines of higher education. Researcher support for its application in athletic training education remains sparse, however. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether use of an ARS in a…

  5. Altering the Athletic Training Curriculum: A Unique Perspective on Learning over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potteiger, Kelly; Brown, Christopher David; Kahanov, Leamor

    2012-01-01

    Context: The cohort athletic training curriculum features a competency-based approach that allows the student to matriculate through the program in a systematic fashion. This method is desired as it allows for efficient delivery and mastery of the educational content and associated clinical skills. The result may be an inflexible curriculum that…

  6. Characteristics and Program Decisions of Master's-Level Professional Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrowski, Jennifer Lynn; Iadevaia, Cheree M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The number of master's-level professional athletic training programs (MLPATPs) has grown by over 400% in the past 10 years; however, little is known about the characteristics of the students who enroll in these programs or why they select this route to certification. Objective: To describe, by exploring the characteristics of MLPATP…

  7. Learning Style Preferences of Undergraduate Dietetics, Athletic Training, and Exercise Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Meredith G.; Hansen, Pamela; Rhee, Yeong; Brundt, Ardith; Terbizan, Donna; Christensen, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the preferred learning style (LS) of college students and compared LS preferences among students majoring in Dietetics, Exercise Science, and Athletic Training. LS questionnaires were distributed to students (N = 693, mean age 20.5 ± 1.7) enrolled in health science courses at three Midwestern universities. Most students…

  8. Athletes in Motion: Training for the Olympic Games with Mind and Body: Two Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven

    Two case studies illustrate the Fine-Tuning Effect and its benefit to participants in athletic competition. The Fine-Tuning Effect is the sharpening of psychological processes that enable physical skills to be expressed in a maximum fashion. Such techniques as muscle relaxation, visual imagery, guided fantasy, autogenic training, and meditation…

  9. Achievement Goal Orientation for Athletic Training Education: Preparing for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…

  10. Changes over Time in the Predictors of Athletic Training Program Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Windee M.; Neibert, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Understanding changes in athletic training program (ATP) commitment over time is crucial in retaining high-quality students in an ATP. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine if changes over time in ATP commitment determinants are related to actual changes in ATP commitment. Design: Longitudinal and cross-sectional survey.…

  11. The Relationship between Athletic Training Student Critical Thinking Skills and Clinical Instructor Supervision: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabay, Michele R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) assess the critical thinking skill level of the athletic training student at onset and end of the clinical education experience 2) to examine the influence of the students' critical thinking skills and the CIs' supervision responses to the changes in the students' critical thinking skills and 3) to compare the…

  12. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  13. Athletic Training Instructors: A Needs Assessment of Teaching Methodology Knowledge and Self-Perceived Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Debbie I.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to assess teaching backgrounds, self-perceived teaching methodology knowledge, and self-perceived competence of Athletic Training Education Program (ATEP) instructors to determine if there was a need for more instruction in teaching methodology (TM). Design & Setting: This was a quantitative design utilizing a…

  14. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  15. The Medallion Program: Using the Generic Sport Model to Train Athletes with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgren, Wendy J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Manitoba Special Olympics Medallion Program which provides Special Olympians with the opportunity to engage in sport-specific training at the level required to improve athletic performance. The program is more competitive than general Special Olympics physical activity programs which are more recreational in nature. (SM)

  16. Standardized Patient Encounters Improved Athletic Training Students' Confidence in Clinical Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Kirk J.; Jarriel, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Researchers have reported that interacting with standardized patients (SPs) is a worthwhile and realistic experience for athletic training (AT) students. These encounters enhance students' interviewing skills, confidence as a clinician, clinical skill development, and interpersonal communication. Objective: To determine how SP encounters…

  17. Using Performance Assessments to Determine Competence in Clinical Athletic Training Education: How Valid Are Our Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gayle A.; Moss, Robert; Applegate, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Context: Validity arguments can be used to provide evidence that instructors are drawing accurate conclusions from the results of students' clinical performance assessments (PAs). Little research has been conducted in athletic training education to determine if the evidence supports the use of current PAs. Measurement theories designed to…

  18. The Impact of Clinical Experiences from Athletic Training Student and Preceptor Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Sarah S.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Clinical education is an integral part of athletic training programs. This is where students should develop their professional identities and become socialized into the profession. Understanding the student and preceptor perspectives of the impact that clinical experiences have on students can provide valuable insight into this aspect of…

  19. Employer and Employee Opinions of Thematic Deficiencies in New Athletic Training Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Context: Anecdotal information has been shared for several years that employers do not feel that new athletic training graduates are ready for the workforce. To date there have been no studies of employers and employees to determine deficiencies in order to confirm or refute this position. Objective: To explore the opinions of employers and…

  20. Clinical Preceptors' Perspectives on Clinical Education in Post-Professional Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Kelvin; McCarty, Cailee W.; Mutchler, Jessica M.; Van Lunen, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Context: Clinical education is the interaction between a clinical preceptor and student within the clinical setting to help the student progress as a clinician. Post-professional athletic training clinical education is especially important to improve these students' clinical knowledge and skills. However, little research has been conducted to…

  1. Standardized Patients Provide Realistic and Worthwhile Experiences for Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Standardized patients are more prominently used to both teach and evaluate students' clinical skills and abilities. Objective: To investigate whether athletic training students perceived an encounter with a standardized patient (SP) as realistic and worthwhile and to determine their perceived comfort in future lower extremity evaluations…

  2. The Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Knowledge and Behavior to Provide Culturally Competent Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nynas, Suzette Marie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Culturally competent knowledge and skills are critical for all healthcare professionals to possess in order to provide the most appropriate health care for their patients and clients. Objective: To investigate athletic training students' knowledge of culture and cultural differences, to assess the practice of culturally competent care,…

  3. The Delphi Method: An Approach for Facilitating Evidence Based Practice in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandrey, Michelle A.; Bulger, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The growing importance of evidence based practice in athletic training is necessitating academics and clinicians to be able to make judgments about the quality or lack of the body of research evidence and peer-reviewed standards pertaining to clinical questions. To assist in the judgment process, consensus methods, namely brainstorming,…

  4. Help-Seeking Behaviors among Athletic Training Students in the Clinical Education Setting: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Mikiko Aoyagi; Freesemann, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Help-seeking is an important self-regulating and proactive strategy that prepares students to be successful learners. It is particularly important in the clinical education setting, in which students must actively engage in learning. Objective: To determine both the type of help-seeking behaviors used by athletic training students in the…

  5. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory in Athletic Training Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellhase, Kristen C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory offers insight into the development of learning styles, classification of learning styles, and how students learn through experience. Discussion is presented on the value of Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory for Athletic Training Education. Data Sources: This article reviews research related to…

  6. Perceptions of the Benefits to Using a Secondary Admissions Process in Professional Bachelor's Athletic Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Some athletic training program (ATP) directors use direct admit, where students are admitted into the ATP directly out of high school. Other ATP directors admit students into the program after a set time period on campus through a secondary admissions process. It remains unknown why ATP directors use various admissions practices.…

  7. Pedagogical Tools to Address Clinical Anatomy and Athletic Training Student Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie; Yeargin, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Context: A thorough knowledge of anatomy is needed in four of the six domains of athletic training: prevention, injury/condition recognition, immediate care, and treatment/rehabilitation. Students with a solid foundation can achieve competency in these specific domains. Objective: To provide educators with pedagogical tools to promote a deeper…

  8. Strategies for Highly Effective Athletic Training Education Program Directors: A Practical Approach to Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, James E.; Gray, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Following "Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" by Stephen Covey, this article seeks to communicate effective strategies for athletic training education Program Directors (PDs) to follow. Commentary of Covey's work and practical strategies to integrate them into PD practice and responsibilities are provided. Background: Due to a lack…

  9. Individual Moral Philosophies and Ethical Decision Making of Undergraduate Athletic Training Students and Educators

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E

    2008-01-01

    Context: Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important. Objective: To expand ethics research in athletic training by (1) describing undergraduate athletic training students' and educators' individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making abilities and (2) investigating the effects of sex and level of education on mean composite individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making scores. Design: Stratified, multistage, cluster-sample correlational study. Setting: Mailed survey instruments were distributed in classroom settings at 30 institutions having Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)–accredited athletic training programs. Patients or Other Participants: Undergraduate students and educators (n = 598: 373 women, 225 men; mean age = 23.5 ± 6.3 years) from 25 CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used the Ethics Position Questionnaire and the Dilemmas in Athletic Training Questionnaire to compute participants' mean composite individual moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and ethical decision-making scores, respectively. Three separate 2 (sex: male, female) × 3 (education level: underclass, upper class, educator) between-subjects factorial analyses of variance using idealism, relativism, and ethical decision-making scores as dependent measures were performed. Results: Respondents reported higher idealism scores (37.57 ± 4.91) than relativism scores (31.70 ± 4.80) (response rate = 83%). The mean ethical decision-making score for all respondents was 80.76 ± 7.88. No significant interactions were revealed. The main effect for sex illustrated that men reported significantly higher relativism scores ( P = .0014, η 2 = .015) than did women. The main effect for education level revealed

  10. Effect of Training in Rational Decision Making on the Quality of Simulated Career Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumboltz, John D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined if training in rational decision making improves the quality of simulated career decisions. Training in rational decision making resulted in superior performance for females on one subscore of the knowledge measure. It also resulted in superior simulated career choices by females and younger males. (Author)

  11. Academic and Career Advancement for Black Male Athletes at NCAA Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ashley R.; Hawkins, Billy J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the structural arrangements and challenges many Black male athletes encounter as a result of their use of sport for upward social mobility. Recommendations to enhance their preparation and advancement are provided.

  12. Metabolomic investigation into variation of endogenous metabolites in professional athletes subject to strength-endurance training.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bei; A, Jiye; Wang, Guangji; Lu, Huali; Huang, Xiaoping; Liu, Yi; Zha, Weibin; Hao, Haiping; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Linsheng; Gu, Shenghua; Huang, Qing; Zheng, Yuanting; Sun, Jianguo

    2009-02-01

    Strength-endurance type of sport can lead to modification of human beings' physiological status. The present study aimed to investigate the alteration of metabolic phenotype or biochemical compositions in professional athletes induced by long-term training by means of a novel systematic tool, metabolomics. Resting venous blood samples of junior and senior male rowers were obtained before and after 1-wk and 2-wk training. Venous blood from healthy male volunteers as control was also sampled at rest. Endogenous metabolites in serum were profiled by GC/TOF-MS and multivariate statistical technique, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares projection to latent structures and discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to process the data. Significant metabolomic difference was observed between the professional athletes and control subjects. Long-term strength and endurance training induced distinct separation between athletes of different exercise seniority, and training stage-related trajectory of the two groups of athletes was clearly shown along with training time. However, most of these variations were not observed by common biochemical parameters, such as hemoglobin, testosterone, and creatine kinase. The identified metabolites contributing to the classification included alanine, lactate, beta-d-methylglucopyranoside, pyroglutamic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, citric acid, free fatty acids, valine, glutamine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and so on, which were involved in glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism. These findings suggest that metabolomics is a promising and potential tool to profile serum of professional athletes, make a deep insight into physiological states, and clarify the disorders induced by strength-endurance physical exercise. PMID:19036890

  13. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine; Sander, Mikael; Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2015-08-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n = 10) for three to four weeks at 2130 m or higher whereas a control group (n = 10) completed a three-week training camp at sea-level. Haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after the training camps. ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (RET%), OFF score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were calculated using the Bayesian model. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: two swimmers exceeded the OFF score thresholds at day +7; one swimmer exceeded the OFF score threshold at day +28; one swimmer exceeded the threshold for RET% at day +14; and one swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day +14. In the control group, no values exceeded the individual ABP reference range. In conclusion, LHTH induces haematological changes in Olympic-level elite athletes which can exceed the individually generated references in the ABP. Training at altitude should be considered a confounding factor for ABP interpretation for up to four weeks after altitude exposure but does not consistently cause abnormal values in the ABP. PMID:25545030

  14. Effects of electrostimulation and plyometric training program combination on jump height in teenage athletes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, Emilio J; Benito-Martínez, Elisa; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lara-Sánchez, Amador; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight-week (2 days/week) training periods of plyometric exercises (PT) and neuromuscular electrostimulation (EMS) on jump height in young athletes. Squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) were performed to assess the effects of the training protocols 98 athletes (100 & 200m and 100m & 110m hurdles) voluntarily took part in this study, 51 males (52%) and 47 females (48%), 17.91 ± 1.42 years old, and 5.16 ± 2.56 years of training experience. The participants were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the frequency and the timing of the stimulation. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effects of every training program on jump height. Our findings suggest that compared to control (Plyometrics (PT) only), the combination of 150Hz EMS + PT simultaneously combined in an 8 week (2days/week) training program, we could observe significant jump height improvements in the different types of strength: explosive, explosive-elastic, and explosive-elastic-reactive. The combination of PT after ≤ 85 Hz EMS did not show any jump height significant increase in sprinters. In conclusion, an eight week training program (with just two days per week) of EMS combined with plyometric exercises has proven useful for the improvement of every kind of vertical jump ability required for sprint and hurdles disciplines in teenage athletes. PMID:24150085

  15. Six weeks of core stability training improves landing kinetics among female capoeira athletes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence

    2015-03-29

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60]), and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]). The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]). The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64]), and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70]) landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week 0 and week 6

  16. Six Weeks of Core Stability Training Improves Landing Kinetics Among Female Capoeira Athletes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60]), and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]). The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]). The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64]), and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70]) landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week 0 and week 6

  17. Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  18. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Sandra; Nordebo, Kristina; Malm, Christer

    2014-12-01

    It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician) and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female) competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range) was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164) by a 3(rd) degree polynomial regression (R(2) = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001). We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days. Key pointsTop level performance demands high training volumes and intensities, which may compromise immune function.Elite athletes must have an immune system capable of intact function also when under sever physiological and psychological stress.Elite performance, especially in endurance sports, is therefore incompatible with a high rate of infections.A negative correlation between infections and exercise training load among elite athletes is consequently observed - the less sick you are the more you can train. PMID:25435787

  19. Comparison of Non-Invasive Individual Monitoring of the Training and Health of Athletes with Commercially Available Wearable Technologies.

    PubMed

    Düking, Peter; Hotho, Andreas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Fuss, Franz Konstantin; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables) provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively. Here, we discuss the wearable technologies available for non-invasive monitoring of various parameters concerning an athlete's training and health. On the basis of these considerations, we suggest directions for future development. Furthermore, we propose that a combination of several wearables is most effective for accessing all relevant parameters, disturbing the athlete as little as possible, and optimizing performance and promoting health. PMID:27014077

  20. Comparison of Non-Invasive Individual Monitoring of the Training and Health of Athletes with Commercially Available Wearable Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Düking, Peter; Hotho, Andreas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Fuss, Franz Konstantin; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables) provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively. Here, we discuss the wearable technologies available for non-invasive monitoring of various parameters concerning an athlete's training and health. On the basis of these considerations, we suggest directions for future development. Furthermore, we propose that a combination of several wearables is most effective for accessing all relevant parameters, disturbing the athlete as little as possible, and optimizing performance and promoting health. PMID:27014077

  1. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Interventions and Supplements to Improve Performance during Athletic Training.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Daniela; Negro, Massimo; Arcelli, Enrico; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the numerous positive effects of physical exercise, some negative physiological changes occur in long-lasting heavy training with transient dysfunction of the immune system, increased inflammation, and oxidative stress. This is the case of elite athletes, who train intensively to compete at the highest levels. However, these athletes can counteract the negative effects of heavy training, reducing acute and chronic inflammations and supporting the immune system, with nutritional and supplementation countermeasures. For this purpose, macronutrient manipulation with an appropriate use of certain supplements can be considered as an intervention to reduce exercise-induced immune changes and inflammatory risk. For example, branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation may promote such immune responses in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, micronutrients play an important role in immune function; in particular, the antioxidant capacity of several dietary micronutrients (e.g., tocopherols, docosahexaenoate, and flavonoids) is very interesting to support the endogenous antioxidant defense systems of the athletes, counterbalancing the negative effects of oxidative damage due to free radicals. Some of these nutrients have potential anti-inflammatory properties as assessed by the attenuated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Key Teaching Points: Long-lasting heavy training plan and competition can lead to chronic immune suppression in athletes, increasing infection risk. Chronic exercise increases mobilization of neutrophils, decreases mobilization of lymphocytes, and decreases the absolute and relative numbers of neutrophils at rest. Nutritional deficiencies alter the immuno-system and increase infection risk. Nutrition can influence exercise-induced immune suppression. Elite athletes competing at the highest levels can benefit from nutritional and supplementation support to improve immunity and reduce acute and chronic inflammations. PMID

  2. Effects of Electrostimulation and Plyometric Training Program Combination on Jump Height in Teenage Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-López, Emilio J.; Benito-Martínez, Elisa; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lara-Sánchez, Amador; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight-week (2 days/week) training periods of plyometric exercises (PT) and neuromuscular electrostimulation (EMS) on jump height in young athletes. Squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) were performed to assess the effects of the training protocols 98 athletes (100 & 200m and 100m & 110m hurdles) voluntarily took part in this study, 51 males (52%) and 47 females (48%), 17.91 ± 1.42 years old, and 5.16 ± 2.56 years of training experience. The participants were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the frequency and the timing of the stimulation. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effects of every training program on jump height. Our findings suggest that compared to control (Plyometrics (PT) only), the combination of 150Hz EMS + PT simultaneously combined in an 8 week (2days/week) training program, we could observe significant jump height improvements in the different types of strength: explosive, explosive-elastic, and explosive-elastic-reactive. The combination of PT after ≤ 85 Hz EMS did not show any jump height significant increase in sprinters. In conclusion, an eight week training program (with just two days per week) of EMS combined with plyometric exercises has proven useful for the improvement of every kind of vertical jump ability required for sprint and hurdles disciplines in teenage athletes. Key points The combined use of high frequency electromyostimulation and plyometric training 2 days/week in an 8 week training program produce significant improvements in jump height in teenage athletes. A high-frequency (≥ 150 Hz) EMS and its simultaneous application with PT can significantly contribute to the improvement of the three different types of strength manifestations (explosive, explosive-elastic and explosive-elastic-reactive strength). An alternate training with different stimulation frequencies [85Hz EMS/ PT combination and 150Hz EMS

  3. Educational Preparation and Experiences in the Industrial-Occupational Setting: A Qualitative Study of Athletic Training Graduates' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Jim F.

    2011-01-01

    Context: The industrial-occupational setting provides a workplace of substantial potential for the athletic training graduate. Acquiring input from entry-level athletic trainers (ATs) pertaining to experiences, knowledge, and skills necessary to be successful in the industrial-occupational setting is critical information for future Athletic…

  4. Sports Medicine and Athletic Training in the 21st Century: Bridging the Gap between Research and Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Sport and recreational activity is a vital part of today's society, and athletic training researchers are playing an important role in gaining a better understanding of how to promote safe and healthy participation for athletes of all ages. This article aims to illustrate the importance of research to prevent and effectively treat sport and…

  5. Survey Instrument Validity Part I: Principles of Survey Instrument Development and Validation in Athletic Training Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Instrument validation is an important facet of survey research methods and athletic trainers must be aware of the important underlying principles. Objective: To discuss the process of survey development and validation, specifically the process of construct validation. Background: Athletic training researchers frequently employ the use of…

  6. Moment-knee angle relation in well trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, B; Brueggemann, G P

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether different modes of long-term competitive physical activity cause functional differences in the moment-knee angle relation of the M. quadriceps femoris (QF). Therefore, a sample (n = 40) of young male competitive endurance runners, cyclists, triathletes and tennis players performed isometric maximal voluntary knee extensions (MVC) with their stronger leg at six different knee joint angles while keeping the hip joint angle constant. Muscle activation of QF-muscles during MVC was estimated using surface electromyography (EMG). Moments and EMG data of each subject were normalized to the largest value produced at any knee joint position [% Max.]. No significant differences in the normalized [% Max.] moment-knee angle relation of the QF were found between endurance runners, cyclists and triathletes. Despite few unsystematic exceptions, no functional differences in the normalized moment-knee angle relation of the QF occurred among tennis players and the endurance-oriented athletic groups. Obtained by curve fitting, the optimal knee joint angle for moment production was not significantly different among all athletic groups. We conclude that long-term competitive endurance running, cycling, triathlon and tennis do not provoke functional differences in the moment-knee angle relation of the whole QF. PMID:18050053

  7. Total haemoglobin mass and red blood cell profile in endurance-trained and non-endurance-trained adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Gert; Bärtsch, Peter; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate differences in total haemoglobin mass (tHb mass) and in red blood cell profile between elite endurance-trained (END) and non-endurance-trained (nEND) male and female adolescent athletes, tHb mass (CO rebreathing) and specific variables of red blood cell profile (haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, erythrocyte indices) were determined in 59 elite junior athletes (29 END, 30 nEND). We hypothesized that at the age of 15-17 years, regular endurance training might induce a significant increase in tHb mass and changes in red blood cell profile. Therefore, all parameters were again determined after 6, 12 and 18 months in a subset of 27 subjects (17 END, 10 nEND). In END, tHb mass related to body weight was ~15% greater than in nEND (11.2 ± 1.6  vs. 9.7 ± 1.3 g kg(-1), P < 0.001), whereas no significant differences were observed for the red blood cell profile. In both groups, tHb mass related to body weight and the variables of red blood cell profile had not changed significantly after 6, 12 and 18 months of regular training. In conclusion, in elite junior athletes, differences in tHb mass between END and nEND were similar, however, smaller compared with previously in adult athletes reported values. At the age of 15-17 years, 18 months of regular training did not induce significant changes in tHb mass beyond alterations explained by physical growth and also variables of red blood cell profile did not change significantly. PMID:21431423

  8. A systematic review on heart-rate recovery to monitor changes in training status in athletes.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Lamberts, Robert P; Kallen, Victor L; Jin, Anmin; Van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2012-09-01

    Heart-rate recovery (HRR) has been proposed as a marker of autonomic function and training status in athletes. The authors performed a systematic review of studies that examined HRR after training. Five cross-sectional studies and 8 studies investigating changes over time (longitudinal) met our criteria. Three out of 5 cross-sectional studies observed a faster HRR in trained compared with untrained subjects, while 2 articles showed no change as a result of training. Most longitudinal studies observed a corresponding increase in HRR and power output (training status). Although confounding factors such as age, ambient temperature, and the intensity and duration of the exercise period preceding HRR make it difficult to compare these studies, the available studies indicated that HRR was related to training status. Therefore, the authors conclude that HRR has the potential to become a valuable tool to monitor changes in training status in athletes and less well-trained subjects, but more studies and better standardization are required to match this potential. PMID:22357753

  9. Changes in Endurance Performance in Young Athletes During Two Training Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Tota, Łukasz; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Pokora, Ilona; Cempla, Jerzy; Pilch, Wanda; Pałka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in endurance performance in young runners (females and males) during two training seasons. It involved 19 male and 16 female athletes aged 15–17 specializing in track-and-field middle and long distances runs. The following parameters were measured three times during the training season: maximal oxygen uptake, running economy, and the level of the second ventilatory threshold. Training volume and intensity during each season were analyzed within an 8-week period prior to the exercise tests. The volume and intensity of training at various stages of preparation in both seasons were similar. During the first year of observation, significant improvements in relative volume of maximal oxygen uptake were reported both in female and male athletes. During the second training season, it was found that running economy improved both in women and men, with no changes in maximal oxygen uptake. The same (in terms of volume and intensity) endurance training carried out with young runners during two consecutive training seasons can result in different training effects. PMID:26839615

  10. What Are Vocational Training Conversations about? Analysis of Vocational Training Conversations in Dutch Vocational Education from a Career Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Annemie; Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka; Baert, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Research evidence shows that a career dialogue is a central part of any powerful learning environment for career learning. In vocational education and training, there are three important parties in this dialogue: the student, the teacher and the mentor from practice. In this paper the communication between these parties is investigated in…

  11. Training Personnel and Procedures for Special Olympics Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sue Ellen

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the concept of sports training, a survey was conducted of 170 Special Olympics coaches in Ohio. The survey sought to determine who was responsible for training Special Olympians, their qualifications, and their specific needs and interests concerning preparation for coaching responsibilities. (Author/JDD)

  12. High School Athletic Directors: An Examination of the Role, Realities and Career Progressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Tamela J.

    2010-01-01

    In this qualitative study of public high school athletic directors (ADs), the experiences and contacts of eight White ADs (four men and four women) that influenced their ability to attain (achieve) and retain (maintain) the AD position are examined, compared and analyzed, with a specific focus on gender. Specifically, this study examines the…

  13. Positive Transitions for Student Athletes: Life Skills for Transitions in Sport, College & Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Darin J.; Stankovich, Christopher E.; Kays, Todd M.

    This book provides concrete information and step-by-step exercises to help student athletes succeed in college and make a successful transition to the world beyond college. The book is divided into 14 units containing some or all the following elements: goals; reading materials accompanying review questions; exercises; a unit recap; unit review…

  14. Management Careers in Professional Sport and College/University Athletics: Results of a Survey Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitel, Patricia A.; And Others

    This study assessed the needs of management positions and obtained evaluations of sport management programs by management personnel from different sport program perspectives, i.e., professional sport and college/university athletics. Results of survey identified: (1) specific similarities and differences in the criteria for both hiring sport…

  15. Comparing University Athletes and Nonathletes on Attitudes and Perceptions. Research Report #5-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiche, Keith; Sedlacek, William; Adams-Gaston, Javaune

    With a goal of forming interventions and programs to address needs of student athletes (such as group and individual career interventions as well as time management training), this study compared attitudes of 73 freshman athletes and 73 nonathlete freshmen at the University of Maryland toward their college experience. A questionnaire concerning…

  16. Brain-training for physical performance: a study of EEG-neurofeedback and alpha relaxation training in athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikicin, Mirosław; Orzechowski, Grzegorz; Jurewicz, Katarzyna; Paluch, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Marek; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, EEG-neurofeedback training (EEG-NFB) has been increasingly used to optimize various brain functions. Better performance in various activities was also reported after relaxation trainings, another popular method in therapeutic practice. Both these methods are used as a part of professional coaching in sports training centers. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of such holistic training on physiological (EEG) and behavioral measures on semi-professional athletes. EEG-NFB paradigm was intended for amplification of the amplitudes of SMR (12-15 Hz) and beta1 (13-20 Hz) bands and simultaneous reduction of the amplitude of theta (4-7.5 Hz) and beta2 (20-30 Hz). Participation in NFB sessions was accompanied with self-administration of relaxing, audio-visual stimulation after each daily athletic training session. The training program resulted in the increase of alpha and beta1 power of trained participants when assessed in rest with eyes-closed. In eyes - open state, participants of the trained group maintained the same level in all frequency bands, in opposite to the control subjects, whose power decreased in the second measurement in beta1 band when compared to the first one. The trained group exhibited greater reduction of reaction times in a test of visual attention than the control group and showed improvement in several performance measures of Kraepelin's work-curve, used to evaluate speed, effectiveness and work accuracy. Together, these results present initial support for the use of holistic, neurophysiological training in sports workout. PMID:26994421

  17. An Operational Blueprint for Health Career Education and Training Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Theresa W.; Thompson, Christopher W.

    An operational blueprint for health career education and training was designed to provide the District of Columbia public schools with a documented strategy for implementing a comprehensive, multifocal health careers program. The blueprint will establish a mechanism for interagency communication and cooperation at all levels, involving all aspects…

  18. Stylistic Learning Differences Between Undergraduate Athletic Training Students and Educators: Gregorc Mind Styles

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Trenton E; Caswell, Shane V

    2006-01-01

    Context: Learning theory and pedagogic research are unfamiliar to many educators trained in the sciences. Athletic training educators must learn to appreciate the theoretic and practical value of pedagogic research, including learning styles. Objective: To extend the learning styles research in athletic training by introducing the Mind Styles model and Gregorc Style Delineator instrument to investigate students' and program directors' baseline style preferences and to study the effects of sex, education level, and academic role on mean composite Gregorc Style Delineator scores. Design: Correlational research design. Setting: Instruments were mailed to program directors and administered in classroom settings. Patients or Other Participants: Ten of 10 athletic training programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs formed sample 1, with 200 undergraduate athletic training students (68 men, 132 women, age = 20.12 ± 2.02 years). A total of 43 program directors (22 men, 21 women, age = 40.05 ± 9.30 years) created sample 2. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used the Gregorc Style Delineator to measure participants' perceptual and ordering abilities, combining them in a quaternary design to create mean composite scores for the Concrete Sequential (CS), Abstract Sequential (AS), Abstract Random (AR), and Concrete Random (CR) Mind Styles subscales. We also noted each subject's sex, education level, and academic role. Results: We obtained a response rate of 100% of undergraduates and 43% of program directors. The CS style was preferred by 44.5% (n = 89) of students and 58.1% (n = 25) of program directors. Program directors preferred the CS style more (P < .001) and the AS and AR styles less (P < .001) than predicted by χ2 testing. Students preferred the CS style more (P < .001) and the AS style less (P < .001) than expected also. Men students preferred the AS style more (P < .01) and the AR style less (P < .01) than women students

  19. Alumni Perspectives on Career Preparation during a Postdoctoral Training Program: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M.; Raue, Kimberley; Nelson, David E.; Tsakraklides, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Published evaluations of career preparation of alumni from long-standing postdoctoral fellowship programs in the biomedical sciences are limited and often focus on quantitative analysis of data from extant publicly available sources. Qualitative methods provide the opportunity to gather robust information about specific program elements from structured postdoctoral training programs and the influence of this training on subsequent career paths of alumni. In-depth interviews with a subset of the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) alumni (n = 27), representing more than 25 years of the program’s history and multiple career sectors, were conducted to assess alumni reflections on the training environment and career preparation during their time in the CPFP. NVivo software was used to analyze data and identify major themes. Four main themes emerged from these interviews, including: the value of structured training curriculum, mentorship, transdisciplinary environment, and professional identity. Even when reflecting on training that occurred one to two decades earlier, alumni were able to highlight specific components of a structured postdoctoral training program as influencing their research and career trajectories. These results may have relevance for those interested in assessing how postdoctoral training can influence fellows throughout their careers and understanding salient features of structured programs. PMID:25673353

  20. Alumni perspectives on career preparation during a postdoctoral training program: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Raue, Kimberley; Nelson, David E; Tsakraklides, Sophia

    2015-03-01

    Published evaluations of career preparation of alumni from long-standing postdoctoral fellowship programs in the biomedical sciences are limited and often focus on quantitative analysis of data from extant publicly available sources. Qualitative methods provide the opportunity to gather robust information about specific program elements from structured postdoctoral training programs and the influence of this training on subsequent career paths of alumni. In-depth interviews with a subset of the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) alumni (n=27), representing more than 25 years of the program's history and multiple career sectors, were conducted to assess alumni reflections on the training environment and career preparation during their time in the CPFP. NVivo software was used to analyze data and identify major themes. Four main themes emerged from these interviews, including: the value of structured training curriculum, mentorship, transdisciplinary environment, and professional identity. Even when reflecting on training that occurred one to two decades earlier, alumni were able to highlight specific components of a structured postdoctoral training program as influencing their research and career trajectories. These results may have relevance for those interested in assessing how postdoctoral training can influence fellows throughout their careers and understanding salient features of structured programs. PMID:25673353

  1. Wasted Potential: Training and Career Progression for Part-Time and Temporary Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivney, Veronica

    A study examined ways in which employers in the United Kingdom are meeting the challenge of training and career progression for part-time and temporary employees. First, the literature was reviewed to gather information on the following topics: the growth of "atypical" work, training and adult workers, differential access to training, factors…

  2. From Olympia to Atlanta: a cultural-historical perspective on diet and athletic training.

    PubMed

    Grivetti, L E; Applegate, E A

    1997-05-01

    Greek and Roman writers described diet and training of Olympic athletes. Lucian (A.D. 120-ca. 180) described distance and speed work in runners; Galen (A.D. 131-201) recommended ball-related exercises to train vision and the body; Philostratos (A.D. 170-249) suggested cross training by endurance running, weight training, and wrestling with animals. The ancient Greek training system, the tetrad (eta tau epsilon tau rho alpha sigma), was a four-day cycle with each day devoted to a different activity. Diogenes Laertius (died A.D. 222) wrote that Greek athletes trained on dried figs, moist cheese and wheat; then the pattern changed and focused on meat. Epictetus (2nd century A.D.) wrote that Olympic victors avoided desserts and cold water and took wine sparingly. Philostratos deprecated athletic diet in his era, a pattern based on white bread sprinkled with poppy seeds, fish and pork. Americans at the XIth Olympiad in Berlin (1936) consumed beefsteak with average daily intake of 125 grams of butter or cotton oil, three eggs, custard for dessert and 1.5 L of milk. The American pattern at Berlin was characterized by ad libitum intake of white bread, dinner rolls, fresh vegetables and salads. At Atlanta, more than 5 million meals will be served during the Olympic festival. The highly varied menu will include fresh vegetables and dips; fruits, cheeses and breads; salads; pasta, rice and fruit salads; soups; meat and seafood entrees; hot vegetables; desserts; and beverages. American Southern specialties will be served. PMID:9164253

  3. Neuromuscular Characteristics of Endurance--And Power-Trained Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koceja, David M.; Davison, Edwin; Robertson, Christopher T.

    2004-01-01

    In response to chronic physical training, the human neuromuscular system undergoes significant and specific adaptations. More importantly, these influences are the result of the type and quantity of physical activity. One of the simplest neuromuscular mechanisms is the spinal stretch reflex. The reflex system was previously viewed as inflexible,…

  4. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully. PMID:27030632

  5. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance. PMID:27162773

  6. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance. PMID:27162773

  7. [High-intensity interval training for young athletes].

    PubMed

    Engel, Florian Azad; Sperlich, Billy

    2014-06-01

    A computer-based literature research during July 2013 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed to assess the effect of the high intensity interval training (HIIT) on sport performance in healthy children and adolescents. Studies examining the effect of HIIT on aerobic and anaerobic performance pre and post to HIIT-Interventions in children and adolescents (9-18 years) were included. The results indicate increased aerobic and anaerobic performance following two or three HIIT sessions per week for a period of five to ten weeks, additional to normal training. Results regarding long term effects following HIIT have not been documented so far. In addition, due to the physiological characteris-tics during HIIT protocols improved fatigue resistance has been demonstrated in children as compared to adults, which may be interpreted as a prerequisite for the applicability of HIIT in children. PMID:24733304

  8. Managing Heteronormativity and Homonegativity in Athletic Training: In and Beyond the Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Maurer-Starks, Suanne S; Clemons, Heather L; Whalen, Shannon L

    2008-01-01

    Context: As an allied health professional working in various settings, an athletic trainer (AT) is responsible for the health care of a highly diverse population. More often than not, this diversity is defined by the visible, such as race or sex. However, diversity encompasses many more variables than these observable factors and includes sexual orientation. Efforts have been made to educate ATs about issues related to sex and race; however, sexual orientation typically has not been addressed, although ATs have treated and will continue to treat lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) patients. Objective: To introduce ATs (educators and practicing clinicians) to the concept of heteronormativity, its effect on society, and its influences on the manner in which they teach athletic training students and deliver health care to their patients. Data Collection and Analysis: We searched various databases, including MEDLINE, ERIC, SportDiscus, and CINAHL Information Systems using the terms bisexual, diversity, gay, heteronormativity, homophobia in sport, and lesbian. Pertinent articles were cross-referenced to gain additional information. The literature revealed the historic implications of homonegativity for sport and its effects on those involved in sport culture, including ATs. Conclusions: Future dialogues should focus on innovative strategies for including LGB issues into athletic training curricula and for meeting the needs of students and professionals in addition to patients who identify as LGB. PMID:18523570

  9. Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures are all options for athlete monitoring. Objective We systematically reviewed objective and subjective measures of athlete well-being. Objective measures, including those taken at rest (eg, blood markers, heart rate) and during exercise (eg, oxygen consumption, heart rate response), were compared against subjective measures (eg, mood, perceived stress). All measures were also evaluated for their response to acute and chronic training load. Methods The databases Academic search complete, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched in May 2014. Fifty-six original studies reported concurrent subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being. The quality and strength of findings of each study were evaluated to determine overall levels of evidence. Results Subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being generally did not correlate. Subjective measures reflected acute and chronic training loads with superior sensitivity and consistency than objective measures. Subjective well-being was typically impaired with an acute increase in training load, and also with chronic training, while an acute decrease in training load improved subjective well-being. Summary This review provides further support for practitioners to use subjective measures to monitor changes in athlete well-being in response to training. Subjective measures may stand alone, or be incorporated into a mixed methods approach to athlete monitoring, as is current practice in many sport settings. PMID:26423706

  10. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

  11. Postmodern Career Counselling, Theory and Training: Ethical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuit, Wim; Watson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This article suggests a re-consideration of the way in which postmodern career counselling and theory could position counsellors in relation to their clients. It also poses ethical challenges and questions to developing career counsellors and their established educators. More specifically, the article explores the ethical dilemmas confronting…

  12. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on exercise responses in Paralympic athletes with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    West, C R; Taylor, B J; Campbell, I G; Romer, L M

    2014-10-01

    We asked whether specific inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves respiratory structure and function and peak exercise responses in highly trained athletes with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Ten Paralympic wheelchair rugby players with motor-complete SCI (C5-C7) were paired by functional classification then randomly assigned to an IMT or placebo group. Diaphragm thickness (B-mode ultrasonography), respiratory function [spirometry and maximum static inspiratory (PI ,max ) and expiratory (PE ,max ) pressures], chronic activity-related dyspnea (Baseline and Transition Dyspnea Indices), and physiological responses to incremental arm-crank exercise were assessed before and after 6 weeks of pressure threshold IMT or sham bronchodilator treatment. Compared to placebo, the IMT group showed significant increases in diaphragm thickness (P = 0.001) and PI ,max (P = 0.016). There was a significant increase in tidal volume at peak exercise in IMT vs placebo (P = 0.048) and a strong trend toward an increase in peak work rate (P = 0.081, partial eta-squared = 0.33) and peak oxygen uptake (P = 0.077, partial eta-squared = 0.34). No other indices changed post-intervention. In conclusion, IMT resulted in significant diaphragmatic hypertrophy and increased inspiratory muscle strength in highly trained athletes with cervical SCI. The strong trend, with large observed effect, toward an increase in peak aerobic performance suggests IMT may provide a useful adjunct to training in this population. PMID:23530708

  13. Minority Undergraduate Training for Energy-Related Careers (MUTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, C.; Yih, T.C.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1995-12-01

    OAK-B135 Minority Undergraduate Training for Energy-Related Careers (MUTEC). First, all the co-investigators would like to thank the Department of Energy's Minority Impact Office for awarding FIU with the MUTEC grant for the past five years. We believe it has made a difference, especially in the creation of a new, streamlined curriculum that began with the Mechanical Engineering Program and has now become college wide. Second, we have given 774 students an introduction to engineering, something that did not exist 3 years ago. Third, we have given FLAME the opportunity to participate in this program through the equivalent introduction to engineering course. Over 150 of those students have participated and have a 100% record of completing the program once, they start. Over 80% of those students have gone on to college. Fourth, we have aided 32 undergraduates continue in their engineering studies. Of those half have already graduated, and half of those have gone on to graduate school. One of these graduate school students has graduated with an MSME and another has won an NSF Scholarship. Fifth, we have created a bank of 51 2-hour tapes in 10 science and engineering science areas and covered the spectrum of math courses from geometry/trigonometry to differential equations. Sixth, we have created two examinations for use in preparation for entry into the engineering programs and in preparation for the EIT. Seventh, we have created a streamlined curriculum and four options, two of which are energy related. From these points, we believe that the program was very successful and for that we wish to thank the Department of Energy and specifically Ms. Estela Romo for her unwavering support.

  14. P-wave morphology is unaffected by training-induced biatrial dilatation: a prospective, longitudinal study in healthy athletes.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Solari, Marco; Biagi, Michele; Cassano, Francesco; Focardi, Marta; Corrado, Domenico; Bonifazi, Marco; Mondillo, Sergio; Henein, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Biatrial enlargement is common in athletes with a further increase occurring after training. P-wave morphology seems to be unaffected by atrial size, however longitudinal data are not available. This study aimed to prospectively investigate whether exercise-induced increase in biatrial size corresponds to electrical changes on 12-lead ECG. Thirty-five athletes were evaluated at the beginning of the training and after 6 months by ECG and standard and speckle-tracking echocardiography. Twenty-three sedentary subjects served as controls. Athletes had greater left atrial (LA) and right atrial (RA) size compared with controls (20.7 ± 4.7 vs. 27.1 ± 6.6 and 17.3 ± 3.8 vs. 23.4 ± 6.3 mL/m2, respectively, p < 0.0001). After 6 months, a further increase in LA and RA size was observed (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Neither athletes nor controls fulfilled the ECG criteria for RA enlargement and no differences were found for LA enlargement criteria between athletes and controls (2/35, 6% vs. 0/23, 0%, p = 0.23). This percentage remained unchanged after training. Biatrial stiffness remained normal in athletes also after training. Training causes an increase in biatrial volumes, with normal filling pressures and normal stiffness. These changes in atrial morphology are not associated with respective electrical changes, suggesting that P-wave morphology is unaffected by training-induced biatrial dilatation in young healthy athletes. PMID:26474571

  15. Acute antioxidant supplementation improves endurance performance in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David J; Dank, Steven; Coupland, Rory; Midgley, Adrian; Spence, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of an antioxidant (AO; Lactaway® containing pycnogenol) on time to fatigue (TTF). Nine trained cyclists [mean ± SD age 35 ± 10 yrs; body mass 71.6 ± 10.2 kg; VO2 peak 63 ± 11 ml/kg/min] performed on two separate occasions a continuous protocol of 5 min at 50% of peak power output (PPO), 8 min at 70% of PPO, and then cycled to fatigue at 95% PPO. Four hours prior to the exercise protocol, the subjects consumed the supplement or a placebo (counterbalanced, double blind protocol). Cyclists, on average, rode for 80 s more in the Lactaway trial than they did in the placebo trial. There was considerable evidence (chances ≥94.5%) for substantial positive treatment effects for TTF and the other performance-related variables (excluding [BLa] at 95% PPO). Other studies are necessary to confirm these results and identify the mechanisms underlying the observed effects. PMID:22242733

  16. Management of In-Season Concurrent Rotator Cuff Tear With Shoulder Instability in Professional Contact Football Athletes; Respect the Career Goals!

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Maike; Hoy, Gregory; Branson, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Professional sports injuries are usually all dealt with at one single operation to return the player to the sport after appropriate rehabilitation. We questioned the assumption that rotator cuff tears must be repaired concurrently with instability syndromes, and aimed to allow a professional rugby league player to achieve career goals by NOT correcting all pathology at one surgery. Case Presentation A professional rugby league player presented with acute shoulder instability on a setting of a chronic full thickness rotator cuff tear. We performed an “in season” arthroscopic stabilization on an elite rugby league player, leaving a previously diagnosed large full thickness rotator cuff tear untreated. This allowed aggressive rehabilitation and return to contact competition at 12 weeks post-surgery. The player achieved a long held career goal of winning a premiership ring before undertaking rotator cuff repair at the end of the season. Latest follow up at seven years (still at elite level) demonstrated an asymptomatic shoulder. Conclusions The assumption that all pathology found at surgical exploration requires correction to play at elite level is not universally correct. We postulate that whilst rotator cuff deficiency has severe long-term sequelae, it is shoulder instability alone that prevents high level contact sports participation. Career goal management is an important part of managing elite level athletes. We have demonstrated that by careful management of the specific pathology preventing participation can allow elite athletes to achieve career goals without compromising long-term health. PMID:27217928

  17. The Effectiveness of a Training Program Based on Practice of Careers in Vocational Interests Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasneh, Omar. M.; Farajat, Amani. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present research was conducted to identify the effectiveness of a training program based on practice of careers in vocational interests development, to answer questions about the study and test its hypothesis the training program had been prepared and the adoption of a measure of vocational interests, as validity and reliability of each of…

  18. Library Career Training Program: Abstracts of Funded Projects, 1991. Title II-B, Higher Education Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Yvonne B., Comp.; Owens, Janice E., Comp.

    The Library Career Training Program, Title II-B of the Higher Education Act (HEA), provides grants to institutions of higher education and library organizations or agencies to train persons in librarianship through fellowships, institutes, and traineeships, and to establish, develop, and expand programs of library and information science. The U.S.…

  19. Organising, Providing and Evaluating Technical Training for Early Career Researchers: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Besouw, Rachel M.; Rogers, Katrine S.; Powles, Christopher J.; Papadopoulos, Timos; Ku, Emery M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the importance of providing technical training opportunities for Early Career Researchers (ECRs) worldwide through the case study of a MATLAB training programme, which was proposed, organised, managed and evaluated by a team of five ECRs at the University of Southampton. The effectiveness of the programme in terms of the…

  20. The Community College and Career Training Grant Program: Lessons Learned from the Field and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhalde, Ray; Kazis, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The new Community College and Career Training Grant Program to be launched this fall presents an important opportunity to help more American workers find better long-term employment more efficiently, through the promotion of innovative training and education programs that incorporate the best of what works for dislocated and unemployed adult…

  1. National Trends: Implications for Graduate Student Training and Career Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elling, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Discusses some problems experienced by doctoral degree foreign language graduates in seeking fulfilling career positions and suggests some aspects of the employment market and position search process that the graduate should consider when seeking a position. (CB)

  2. Different Exercise Training Interventions and Drop-Landing Biomechanics in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pfile, Kate R.; Hart, Joseph M.; Herman, Daniel C.; Hertel, Jay; Kerrigan, D. Casey; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in female athletes and are related to poor neuromuscular control. Comprehensive neuromuscular training has been shown to improve biomechanics; however, we do not know which component of neuromuscular training is most responsible for the changes. Objective: To assess the efficacy of either a 4-week core stability program or plyometric program in altering lower extremity and trunk biomechanics during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Design: Cohort study. Setting: High school athletic fields and motion analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-three high school female athletes (age = 14.8 ± 0.8 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.07 m, mass = 57.7 ± 8.5 kg). Intervention(s): Independent variables were group (core stability, plyometric, control) and time (pretest, posttest). Participants performed 5 DVJs at pretest and posttest. Intervention participants engaged in a 4-week core stability or plyometric program. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables were 3-dimensional hip, knee, and trunk kinetics and kinematics during the landing phase of a DVJ. We calculated the group means and associated 95% confidence intervals for the first 25% of landing. Cohen d effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all differences. Results: We found within-group differences for lower extremity biomechanics for both intervention groups (P ≤ .05). The plyometric group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the knee-flexion and knee-abduction moments. The core stability group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the hip-flexion and hip internal-rotation moments. The control group decreased the knee external-rotation moment. All kinetic changes had a strong effect size (Cohen d > 0.80). Conclusions: Both programs resulted in biomechanical changes, suggesting that both types of exercises are warranted for ACL injury prevention and should be

  3. Salivary hormones, IgA, and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Papacosta, Elena; Gleeson, Michael; Nassis, George P

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the time course of change of salivary testosterone (sT), cortisol (sC), and IgA (SIgA); mood state; and performance capacity during a 2-week taper in judo athletes and to examine the diurnal variation in these salivary markers. Eleven male judo athletes completed 5 weeks of training: 1 week of normal training (NORM), 2 weeks of intensified training (INT), and 2 weeks of exponential tapering (TAPER). Once per week subjects completed vertical and horizontal countermovement jump tests, a grip strength test, a Special Judo Fitness Test, a multistage aerobic fitness test, a 3 × 300-m run test, and anthropometric measurement. Subjects also completed questionnaires to assess mood state and muscle soreness. Two daily saliva samples (at 0700 and 1900) were collected at the end of each week during NORM and INT and every day during TAPER. Increased morning sT, decreased evening sC, lower muscle soreness, and enhanced mood state (p < 0.05) were evident by the early phases of TAPER. A significant 7.0% improvement in 3 × 300-m performance time, a 6.9% improvement in the vertical jump (p < 0.05), and increased morning and evening SIgA secretion rate (p < 0.01) were observed during the middle-late phases of TAPER. The higher values of salivary variables were observed in the morning. This study indicates that salivary hormones display diurnal variation. Furthermore, changes in hormonal responses, mood state, and muscle soreness precede enhancements in performance and mucosal immunity, suggesting that judo athletes taper for at least a week before competition. PMID:23249825

  4. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men) performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany). During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001), indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001) and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022). Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001). The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01). Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01). Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with increased immune

  5. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men) performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany). During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001), indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001) and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022). Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001). The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01). Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01). Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with increased immune

  6. Integrating science and soft skills in training courses for early-career scientists in ACCENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.

    2006-12-01

    Scientists receive little training in communicating to non-scientists. Yet, both stakeholders and politicians increasingly see scientists as an important part of their world. Scientists feel, however, often uncomfortable with a socio-political role, especially, as discussion frequently moves away from the area of their expertise. The European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT; www.accent- network.org) has thus started to integrate both science (disciplinary, interdisciplinary approaches) and soft skills (e.g., communicating to non-scientists) in training courses for early-career scientists. In doing so, the Training and Education Task in ACCENT attempts to respond to a need expressed by many early-career scientists in Europe. There are different ways how scientific material can be brought into the public and political arenas. This contribution will share experiences in integrated training for early-career scientists, incorporating both science and outreach to the general public and politicians.

  7. The impact of triathlon training and racing on athletes' general health.

    PubMed

    Vleck, Veronica; Millet, Gregoire P; Alves, Francisco Bessone

    2014-12-01

    Although the sport of triathlon provides an opportunity to research the effect of multi-disciplinary exercise on health across the lifespan, much remains to be done. The literature has failed to consistently or adequately report subject age group, sex, ability level, and/or event-distance specialization. The demands of training and racing are relatively unquantified. Multiple definitions and reporting methods for injury and illness have been implemented. In general, risk factors for maladaptation have not been well-described. The data thus far collected indicate that the sport of triathlon is relatively safe for the well-prepared, well-supplied athlete. Most injuries 'causing cessation or reduction of training or seeking of medical aid' are not serious. However, as the extent to which they recur may be high and is undocumented, injury outcome is unclear. The sudden death rate for competition is 1.5 (0.9-2.5) [mostly swim-related] occurrences for every 100,000 participations. The sudden death rate is unknown for training, although stroke risk may be increased, in the long-term, in genetically susceptible athletes. During heavy training and up to 5 days post-competition, host protection against pathogens may also be compromised. The incidence of illness seems low, but its outcome is unclear. More prospective investigation of the immunological, oxidative stress-related and cardiovascular effects of triathlon training and competition is warranted. Training diaries may prove to be a promising method of monitoring negative adaptation and its potential risk factors. More longitudinal, medical-tent-based studies of the aetiology and treatment demands of race-related injury and illness are needed. PMID:25292108

  8. Individual, Programmatic, and Institutional Influences on Undergraduate Athletic Training Students' Cultural Competence.

    PubMed

    Volberding, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine factors that influence an undergraduate athletic training student's (ATS) level of cultural competence (CC). Utilizing a CC score derived from a student survey, one-way ANOVAs to identify differences in CC scores by gender, race, and year in school and three separate correlation analyses (all students, Caucasian Students, Students of Color) to identify the relationship between CC and variables were performed. Only eight variables in the Students of Color model were significant. This suggests that race may impact factors that influence an ATS CC and could assist educators to recognize uncontrollable factors may influence students' CC. PMID:26817171

  9. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects

    PubMed Central

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2012-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and power-lifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed. PMID:19945973

  10. Lower Extremity Biomechanics in Athletes With Ankle Instability After a 6-Week Integrated Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pi-Yin; Chen, Wen-Ling; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Heng-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Context: Plyometric exercise has been recommended to prevent lower limb injury, but its feasibility in and effects on those with functional ankle instability (FAI) are unclear. Objective: To investigate the effect of integrated plyometric and balance training in participants with FAI during a single-legged drop landing and single-legged standing position. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: University motion-analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty athletes with FAI were divided into 3 groups: plyometric group (8 men, 2 women, age = 23.20 ± 2.82 years; 10 unstable ankles), plyometric-balance (integrated)–training group (8 men, 2 women, age = 23.80 ± 4.13 years; 10 unstable ankles), and control group (7 men, 3 women, age = 23.50 ± 3.00 years; 10 unstable ankles). Intervention(s): A 6-week plyometric-training program versus a 6-week integrated-training program. Main Outcome Measure(s): Postural sway during single-legged standing with eyes open and closed was measured before and after training. Kinematic data were recorded during medial and lateral single-legged drop landings after a 5-second single-legged stance. Results: Reduced postural sway in the medial-lateral direction and reduced sway area occurred in the plyometric- and integrated-training groups. Generally, the plyometric training and integrated training increased the maximum angles at the hip and knee in the sagittal plane, reduced the maximum angles at the hip and ankle in the frontal and transverse planes in the lateral drop landing, and reduced the time to stabilization for knee flexion in the medial drop landing. Conclusions: After 6 weeks of plyometric training or integrated training, individuals with FAI used a softer landing strategy during drop landings and decreased their postural sway during the single-legged stance. Plyometric training improved static and dynamic postural control and should be incorporated into rehabilitation programs for those with FAI

  11. Training Gaps for Pediatric Residents Planning a Career in Primary Care: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Adam A; Kamin, Carol; Glicken, Anita Duhl; Jones, M. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background Resident training in pediatrics currently entails similar training for all residents in a fragmented curriculum with relatively little attention to the career plans of individual residents. Objectives To explore strengths and gaps in training for residents planning a career in primary care pediatrics and to present strategies for addressing the gaps. Methods Surveys were sent to all graduates of the University of Colorado Denver Pediatric Residency Program (2003–2006) 3 years after completion of training. Respondents were asked to evaluate aspects of their training, using a 5-point Likert scale and evaluating each item ranging from “not at all well prepared” to “extremely well prepared” for their future career. In addition, focus groups were conducted with practitioners in 8 pediatric practices in Colorado. Sessions were transcribed and hand coded by 2 independent coders. Results Survey data identified training in behavior and development (mean score, 3.72), quality improvement and patient safety strategies (mean, 3.57), and practice management (mean, 2.46) as the weakest aspects of training. Focus groups identified deficiencies in training in mental health, practice management, behavioral medicine, and orthopedics. Deficiencies noted in curriculum structure were lack of residents' long-term continuity of relationships with patients; the need for additional training in knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for primary care (perhaps even a fourth year of training); and a training structure that facilitates greater resident autonomy to foster development of clinical capability and self-confidence. Conclusions Important gaps were identified in the primary care training of pediatric residents. These data support the need to develop more career-focused training. PMID:22942954

  12. Portfolio careers for medical graduates: implications for postgraduate training and workforce planning.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Harris A; Mitchell, Rob D; Milford, Will; Vaswani, Nitin; Moylan, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Portfolio careers in medicine can be defined as significant involvement in one or more portfolios of activity beyond a practitioner's primary clinical role, either concurrently or in sequence. Portfolio occupations may include medical education, research, administration, legal medicine, the arts, engineering, business and consulting, leadership, politics and entrepreneurship. Despite significant interest among junior doctors, portfolios are poorly integrated with prevocational and speciality training programs in Australia. The present paper seeks to explore this issue. More formal systems for portfolio careers in Australia have the potential to increase job satisfaction, flexibility and retention, as well as diversify trainee skill sets. Although there are numerous benefits from involvement in portfolio careers, there are also risks to the trainee, employing health service and workforce modelling. Formalising pathways to portfolio careers relies on assessing stakeholder interest, enhancing flexibility in training programs, developing support programs, mentorship and coaching schemes and improving support structures in health services. PMID:24718035

  13. Postural Adaptations in Preadolescent Karate Athletes Due to a One Week Karate Training Camp

    PubMed Central

    Vando, Stefano; Filingeri, Davide; Maurino, Lucio; Chaabène, Helmi; Bianco, Antonino; Salernitano, Gianluca; Foti, Calogero; Padulo, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an increasing number of training hours of specific high-intensity karate training on postural sway in preadolescent karate athletes. Seventy-four karatekas were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: Karate Group (KG=37): age 10.29±1.68 yrs; or Control Group (CG= 37): age 10.06±1.77 yrs. The KG performed two sessions per day for 1 week in total, while the CG performed only 3 sessions during the same period. The center-of-pressure length (COPL) and velocity (COPV) were recorded under four different experimental conditions: open eyes (EO), closed eyes (EC), open eyes monopodalic left (EOL), open eyes monopodalic right (EOR), pre as well as post training intervention. Post-camp results indicated significant differences between the groups in the COPL p<0.001; an interaction of training type×time in the COPV (p<0.001) and an interaction of training type×time (p=0.020). The KG revealed an improvement in the COPL from pre to post-camp under conditions of EO [−37.26% (p<0.001)], EC [−31.72% (p<0.001)], EOL [−27.27% (p<0.001)], EOR [−21.44% (p<0.001)], while CG revealed small adaptations in conditions of EO (3.16%), EC (0.93%), EOL (−3.03%), EOR (−0.97%). Furthermore, in the KG an improvement in the COPV from pre to post-camp was observed in conditions of EO [−37.92% (p<0.001)], EC [−32.52% (p<0.001)], EOL [−29.11% (p<0.001)], EOR [−21.49% (p<0.001)]. In summary, one-week of high intensity karate training induced a significant improvement in static body balance in preadolescent karate athletes. Karate performance requires high-levels of both static and dynamic balance. Further research dealing with the effect of karate practice on dynamic body balance in young athletes is required. PMID:24235983

  14. Overcoming Barriers to Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice Concepts in Athletic Training Education: Perceptions of Select Educators

    PubMed Central

    Manspeaker, Sarah; Van Lunen, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Context: The need to include evidence-based practice (EBP) concepts in entry-level athletic training education is evident as the profession transitions toward using evidence to inform clinical decision making. Objective: To evaluate athletic training educators' experience with implementation of EBP concepts in Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE)-accredited entry-level athletic training education programs in reference to educational barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Design: Qualitative interviews of emergent design with grounded theory. Setting: Undergraduate CAATE-accredited athletic training education programs. Patients or Other Participants: Eleven educators (3 men, 8 women). The average number of years teaching was 14.73 ± 7.06. Data Collection and Analysis: Interviews were conducted to evaluate perceived barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers to implementation of evidence-based concepts in the curriculum. Interviews were explored qualitatively through open and axial coding. Established themes and categories were triangulated and member checked to determine trustworthiness. Results: Educators identified 3 categories of need for EBP instruction: respect for the athletic training profession, use of EBP as part of the decision-making toolbox, and third-party reimbursement. Barriers to incorporating EBP concepts included time, role strain, knowledge, and the gap between clinical and educational practices. Suggested strategies for surmounting barriers included identifying a starting point for inclusion and approaching inclusion from a faculty perspective. Conclusions: Educators must transition toward instruction of EBP, regardless of barriers present in their academic programs, in order to maintain progress with other health professions' clinical practices and educational standards. Because today's students are tomorrow's clinicians, we need to include EBP concepts in entry-level education to promote

  15. Career Commitment as a Mediator between Organization-Related Variables and Motivation for Training and Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hayeon; Kang, Dae-seok; Lee, Sang-won; McLean, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the perception of a linkage between organizational ethical behavior and career success, representing ethical orientation of the organization, influences employees' perceptions of organizational politics and their subsequent career motivation, that is, career commitment, motivation to participate in training, and turnover…

  16. Protective role of 17-β-estradiol towards IL-6 leukocyte expression induced by intense training in young female athletes.

    PubMed

    Tringali, Cristina; Scala, Loredana; Silvestri, Ilaria; Vitale, Jacopo; Scurati, Raffaele; Michielon, Giovanni; Alberti, Giampietro; Venerando, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Exercise performed at a competitive level could deeply modify the immune system and the cytokine response of athletes. In this report, we demonstrated that young elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 16; age: 9-15 years) showed an increase of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA expression in blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in comparison to girls performing the same sport at a recreational level (n = 16; age: 10-15 years). The increase of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNAs appeared to be directly linked to the intensity and duration of the training. Moreover, in elite athletes engaged in artistic gymnastics or in synchronised swimming (n =34; age: 9-15 years), IL-6 gene expression appeared to be modulated by the levels of circulating oestrogens: pre-pubertal athletes (n = 20; age: 11 ± 1 years) revealed a higher increase in IL-6 than pubertal athletes (n = 14; age: 14 ± 1.6 years). In pre-pubertal athletes, body mass index (BMI) percentile was inversely correlated with the increase of both IL-6 and TNF-α. The consequence of these events was the shift of the cytokine profile towards a pro-inflammatory status. These modifications, induced by training performed at an elite level, might negatively affect the growth of female children athletes. PMID:24016202

  17. Educating the Educator: Use of Advanced Bleeding Control Mechanisms in Athletic Training: A Shift in the Thought Process of Prehospital Care. Part 2: Hemostatic Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Ellen K.; Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2014-01-01

    In Part 1 of this series [see: EJ1044392], the concepts of hemorrhaging, shock, and controlling bleeding as they relate to athletic training and prehospital emergency care along with the use of tourniquets were presented for athletic training educators (ATEs) to teach the skill in the classroom. This article, Part 2 of advanced bleeding control,…

  18. Feasibility of training athletes for high-pressure situations using virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Cheryl; Bowman, Doug A

    2014-04-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been successfully applied to a broad range of training domains; however, to date there is little research investigating its benefits for sport psychology training. We hypothesized that using high-fidelity VR systems to display realistic 3D sport environments could trigger anxiety, allowing resilience-training systems to prepare athletes for real-world, highpressure situations. In this work we investigated the feasibility and usefulness of using VR for sport psychology training. We developed a virtual soccer goalkeeping application for the Virginia Tech Visionarium VisCube (a CAVE-like display system), in which users defend against simulated penalty kicks using their own bodies. Using the application, we ran a controlled, within-subjects experiment with three independent variables: known anxiety triggers, field of regard, and simulation fidelity. The results demonstrate that a VR sport-oriented system can induce increased anxiety (physiological and subjective measures) compared to a baseline condition. There were a number of main effects and interaction effects for all three independent variables in terms of the subjective measures of anxiety. Both known anxiety triggers and simulation fidelity had a direct relationship to anxiety, while field of regard had an inverse relationship. Overall, the results demonstrate great potential for VR sport psychology training systems; however, further research is needed to determine if training in a VR environment can lead to long-term reduction in sport-induced anxiety. PMID:24650988

  19. Hormonal and Physiological Adaptations to High-Intensity Interval Training in Professional Male Canoe Polo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sheykhlouvand, Mohsen; Khalili, Erfan; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Gharaat, Mohammadali

    2016-03-01

    Sheykhlouvand, M, Khalili, E, Agha-Alinejad, H, and Gharaat, M. Hormonal and physiological adaptations to high-intensity interval training in professional male canoe polo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 859-866, 2016-This study compared the effects of 2 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs in professional male canoe polo athletes. Responses of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), peak and mean anaerobic power output (PPO and MPO), blood volume, and hormonal adaptations to HIIT were examined. Male athletes (n = 21, age: 24 ± 3 years; height: 181 ± 4 cm; mass: 85 ± 6 kg; and body fat: 12.9 ± 2.7%) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups (N = 7): (a) (G1) interval paddling with variable volume (6, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9, 8, 7, 6 repetitions per session from first to ninth session, respectively) × 60 second at lowest velocity that elicited V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), 1:3 work to recovery ratio; (b) (G2) interval paddling with variable intensity (6 × 60 second at 100, 110, 120, 130, 130, 130, 120, 110, 100% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak from first to ninth session, respectively, 1:3 work to recovery); and (c) (GCON) the control group performed three 60 minutes paddling sessions (75% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) per week for 3 weeks. High-intensity interval training resulted in significant (except as shown) increases compared with pretest, in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (G1 = +8.8% and G2 = +8.5%), heart rate at VT (b·min) (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +5.9%) and (%maximum) (G1 = +6.9%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +6.5%), PPO (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +12.2%), MPO (G1 = +11.1%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +16.2%), total testosterone (G1 = +29.4% and G2 = +16.7%), total testosterone/cortisol ratio (G1 = +40.9% and G2 = +28.1%), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (G1 = +1.7% and G2 = +1.3%). No significant changes were found in GCON. High-intensity interval paddling may improve both aerobic and anaerobic

  20. Dissociation of heart rate variability and heart rate recovery in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Matthew; Mendoza, Albert

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between aerobic fitness, volume of physical activity (PA), heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) in a group of well-trained endurance athletes. Nineteen endurance athletes participated in this study and had aerobic capacities that placed them above the 99th percentile based on normative values (VO(2max): 67.1 ± 2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). HRV was obtained via an EKG collected during supine rest and reported as high-frequency (HF), low-frequency (LF), and total power (TP). Natural log (ln) transformation was applied when variables violated assumptions of normality. HRR recovery was reported as the reduction in heart rate from peak exercise to the heart rate 1 min after cessation of exercise and PA was estimated from a questionnaire. HRR was significantly correlated with PA and VO(2max) (r = 0.67, P = 0.003 and 0.51, P = 0.039, respectively), but not with any index of HRV. Age was significantly correlated with lnHF (r = -0.49, P = 0.033), lnLF/lnHF (r = 0.48, P = 0.037), and normalized units (NU) of LF (r = 0.47, P = 0.042) and HF (r = -0.47, P = 0.042). Stepwise regression revealed that the strongest predictor of HRR was PA (R (2) = 0.45) and that VO(2max) did not add significant predictive value to the model. The relationship between HRV and age is evident in well-trained endurance athletes, whereas the relationship between HRV and PA/aerobic fitness is not. The maintained relationship between HRR and PA/aerobic fitness suggests that HRR may be a better marker of fitness-related differences in autonomic control in this population. PMID:22124525

  1. Contemporary Issues in Protein Requirements and Consumption for Resistance Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jacob; Wilson, Gabriel J

    2006-01-01

    In recent years an explosion of research papers concerning protein consumption has been published. The need to consolidate this information has become critical from both practical and future research standpoints. For this reason, the following paper presents an in depth analysis of contemporary issues in protein requirements and consumption for resistance trained athletes. Specifically, the paper covers: 1.) protein requirements for resistance trained athletes; 2.) the effect of the digestion rate of protein on muscular protein balance; 3.) the optimal timing of protein intake relative to exercise; 4.) the optimal pattern of protein ingestion, relative to how an individual should consume their protein throughout a 24 hour period, and what sources are utilized during this time frame; 5.) protein composition and its interaction with measures of protein balance and strength performance; 6.) the combination of protein and carbohydrates on plasma insulin levels and protein balance; 7.) the efficacy of protein supplements and whole food protein sources. Our goal is to provide the reader with practical information in optimizing protein intake as well as for provision of sound advice to their clients. Finally, special care was taken to provide future research implications. PMID:18500966

  2. Training Multidisciplinary Scholars in Science Policy for Careers in Academia, Private Sector, and Public Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Regardless of a graduate student's ultimate career ambitions, it is becoming increasingly important to either develop skills to successfully transition into non-academic careers or to be able to understand the societal benefits of basic and applied research programs. In this talk I will provide my prospective -- from working in academia, the Federal government, and as an independent consultant -- about the training that we need for graduate students to navigate the jungle gym of career opportunities available (or not available) after they graduate. In particular, I will speak to the need for science policy training, in which scientific and coordination skills are put to use to help support societal decisions. I will assert that, to effectively train graduate students, it is necessary to provide experiences in multidisciplinary, policy-relevant scholarship to build marketable skills critical for a student's professional development.

  3. Effects of Oral Sodium Supplementation on Indices of Thermoregulation in Trained, Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Earhart, Elizabeth L.; Weiss, Edward P.; Rahman, Rabia; Kelly, Patrick V.

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS) during one trial and placebo (PL) during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials). Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr-1 during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459). Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress (“warm/hot” ratings) but were not different between trials (p = 0.825). Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919). Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05). High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse effects

  4. Effects of oral sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation in trained, endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Earhart, Elizabeth L; Weiss, Edward P; Rahman, Rabia; Kelly, Patrick V

    2015-03-01

    Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS) during one trial and placebo (PL) during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials). Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr(-1) during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459). Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress ("warm/hot" ratings) but were not different between trials (p = 0.825). Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919). Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05). High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse effects

  5. Neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training in elite youth soccer: Role of instability.

    PubMed

    Prieske, O; Muehlbauer, T; Borde, R; Gube, M; Bruhn, S; Behm, D G; Granacher, U

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies revealed that inclusion of unstable elements in core-strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus potential extra stimuli to induce more pronounced performance enhancements in youth athletes. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training performed on unstable (CSTU) compared with stable surfaces (CSTS) in youth soccer players. Thirty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 17 ± 1 years) were assigned to two groups performing a progressive core strength-training program for 9 weeks (2-3 times/week) in addition to regular in-season soccer training. CSTS group conducted core exercises on stable (i.e., floor, bench) and CSTU group on unstable (e.g., Thera-Band® Stability Trainer, Togu© Swiss ball) surfaces. Measurements included tests for assessing trunk muscle strength/activation, countermovement jump height, sprint time, agility time, and kicking performance. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of test (pre vs post) for trunk extensor strength (5%, P < 0.05, d = 0.86), 10-20-m sprint time (3%, P < 0.05, d = 2.56), and kicking performance (1%, P < 0.01, d = 1.28). No significant Group × test interactions were observed for any variable. In conclusion, trunk muscle strength, sprint, and kicking performance improved following CSTU and CSTS when conducted in combination with regular soccer training. PMID:25559249

  6. Athletics and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appenzeller, Herb

    This book answers questions concerning athletics and the law. The chapters include trends in litigation, disruptive behavior, the changing attitude of the court toward married athletes, training rules, and good conduct codes. They include the problem of athletic travel, the changing role of state athletic associations with their diverse rules,…

  7. Developing a Career in Global Health: Considerations for Physicians-in-Training and Academic Mentors

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brett D.; Kasper, Jennifer; Hibberd, Patricia L.; Thea, Donald M.; Herlihy, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Global health is an expansive field, and global health careers are as diverse as the practice of medicine, with new paths being forged every year. Interest in global health among medical students, residents, and fellows has never been higher. As a result, a greater number of these physicians-in-training are participating in global health electives during their training. However, there is a gap between the level of trainee interest and the breadth and depth of educational opportunities that prepare them for a career in global health. Objective Global health experiences can complement and enhance each step of traditional physician training, from medical school through residency and fellowship. Global health experiences can expose trainees to patients with diverse pathologies, improve physical exam skills by decreasing reliance on laboratory tests and imaging, enhance awareness of costs and resource allocation in resource-poor settings, and foster cultural sensitivity. The aim of this article is to describe issues faced by physicians-in-training and the faculty who mentor them as trainees pursue careers in global health. Methods We conducted a narrative review that addresses opportunities and challenges, competing demands on learners' educational schedules, and the need for professional development for faculty mentors. Conclusions A widening gap between trainee interest and the available educational opportunities in global health may result in many medical students and residents participating in global health experiences without adequate preparation and mentorship. Without this essential support, global health training experiences may have detrimental consequences on both trainees and the communities hosting them. We discuss considerations at each training level, options for additional training, current career models in global health, and challenges and potential solutions during training and early career development. PMID:23997872

  8. Transferable Skills Training for Researchers: Supporting Career Development and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are embarking on increasingly diverse careers where collaboration, networking and interdisciplinarity are becoming more important. Transferable skills (e.g. communication skills and problem-solving abilities) can help researchers operate more effectively in different work environments. While researchers acquire some of these skills in…

  9. Jon Carlson: Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Jon Carlson as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology. "For his contributions in creating educational and training materials in psychology for instruction and the public. Jon Carlson has a distinguished career in higher education, maintained an active private practice, served 34 years as a school psychologist/counselor, is a prolific author and scholar, and is an innovator in the development of media-based training materials. His contribution to education and training is noteworthy for the volume of his professional production, the scope of topics addressed, and his ability to provide meaningful tools to change how psychologists are trained. His audiovisual work documents the profession of psychology in terms of research and practice for current scholars and for future generations." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22082400

  10. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ2 =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ2 =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ2 =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183

  11. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-12-22

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183

  12. Education and Training to Address Specific Needs During the Career Progression of Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ajit K; Blair, Patrice Gabler; Lupi, Linda K

    2016-02-01

    Surgeons have specific education and training needs as they enter practice, progress through the core period of active practice, and then as they wind down their clinical work before retirement. These transitions and the career progression process, combined with the dynamic health care environment, present specific opportunities for innovative education and training based on practice-based learning and improvement, and continuous professional development methods. Cutting-edge technologies, blended models, simulation, mentoring, preceptoring, and integrated approaches can play critical roles in supporting surgeons as they provide the best surgical care throughout various phases of their careers. PMID:26612024

  13. Opticalman 3 & 2, Naval Education and Training Command Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course. Revised, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Program Development Center, Pensacola, FL.

    This document contains a U.S. Navy Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course which form a self-study package to teach the theoretical knowledge and mental skills needed by the Opticalman Third Class and Opticalman Second Class. (Opticalmen maintain, repair, and overhaul telescopic alidades, azimuth and bearing circles, binoculars,…

  14. Rand Symposium on Pilot Training and the Pilot Career. (Santa Monica, Calif., Feb. 23-27, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, W. A.; Wainstein, E. S.

    This document contains discussions of the following: The pilot career; Career and education; The pilot skill--definition, measurement, and retention; Relevance of training to combat; Selection; Motivation; Training innovations and the role of research; Simulators; The instructor pilot; Topics for research. (Author/CK)

  15. A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Lori; May, April C.; Falahpour, Maryam; Isakovic, Sara; Simmons, Alan N.; Hickman, Steven D.; Liu, Thomas T.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes’ ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK)] changes neural activation patterns during an interoceptive challenge. Participants completed a task involving anticipation and experience of loaded breathing during functional magnetic resonance imaging recording. There were five main results following mPEAK training: (1) elite athletes self-reported higher levels of interoceptive awareness and mindfulness and lower levels of alexithymia; (2) greater insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation during anticipation and post-breathing load conditions; (3) increased ACC activation during the anticipation condition was associated with increased scores on the describing subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire; (4) increased insula activation during the post-load condition was associated with decreases in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale identifying feelings subscale; (5) decreased resting state functional connectivity between the PCC and the right medial frontal cortex and the ACC. Taken together, this pilot study suggests that mPEAK training may lead to increased attention to bodily signals and greater neural processing during the anticipation and recovery from interoceptive perturbations. This association between attention to and processing of interoceptive afferents may result in greater adaptation during stressful situations in elite athletes. PMID:26379521

  16. The effect of low extremity plyometric training on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the 'Power up plyometric training'. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st -4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th-8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th-12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times. PMID:24567698

  17. Junior Pharmacy Faculty Members’ Perceptions of Their Exposure to Postgraduate Training and Academic Careers During Pharmacy School

    PubMed Central

    Murawski, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the perceptions of junior pharmacy faculty members with US doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degrees regarding their exposure to residency, fellowship, and graduate school training options in pharmacy school. Perceptions of exposure to career options and research were also sought. Methods. A mixed-mode survey instrument was developed and sent to assistant professors at US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Results. Usable responses were received from 735 pharmacy faculty members. Faculty members perceived decreased exposure to and awareness of fellowship and graduate education training as compared to residency training. Awareness of and exposure to academic careers and research-related fields was low from a faculty recruitment perspective. Conclusions. Ensuring adequate exposure of pharmacy students to career paths and postgraduate training opportunities could increase the number of PharmD graduates who choose academic careers or other pharmacy careers resulting from postgraduate training. PMID:22544956

  18. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  19. Issues in Selecting Methods of Evaluating Clinical Competence in the Health Professions: Implications for Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlemas, David A.; Hensal, Carleton

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine methods used to evaluate the clinical competence and proficiency of students in medicine and allied health professions. To identify factors that would be valuable to educators in athletic training and other medical and allied health professions in the development and use of clinical assessment methods. Data Sources: We…

  20. A Descriptive Study of Athletic Training Education Programs Based on Findings on CAATE Standard H and Program Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golly, Heather Louise

    2011-01-01

    There is limited research that describes the evaluation procedures utilized by Athletic Training Education Programs (ATEP). The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the process the CAATE member institutions use to assess outcome-based standards in Standard H. This research used a cross-sectional study design. A survey link…

  1. Clinical Instructors' Perceptions of the Importance of Affective Behaviors in Undergraduate Athletic Training Clinical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokris, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The affective domain represents a set of learning objectives that are difficult to assess and instruct. Affective behaviors consist of different attributes such as interpersonal relationships, professionalism, trust, empathy, and integrity to name a few. This study surveyed athletic training clinical instructors' perception of the importance…

  2. Considerations for the Use of the Observation Experience to Aid in Early Socialization and Retention of Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Context: Retention of quality students in athletic training programs (ATPs) is important. Many factors contribute to retention of students, including their motivation level, peer support, positive interactions with instructors, clinical integration, and mentorship. Objective: Highlight the use of the observation period for preparatory athletic…

  3. Robert S. Behnke Address to the Attendees of the NATA Athletic Training Educators' Conference: It Takes Courage to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Danny T.

    2011-01-01

    There is a great deal to learn from colleagues who have had critical and noteworthy contributions to athletic training education. Therefore, this journal periodically includes the Robert S. Behnke keynote addresses from recipients of the Sayers "Bud" Miller Distinguished Educator Award. In this issue, the speech from Danny T. Foster, PhD, who…

  4. Sleep, anxiety and electronic device use by athletes in the training and competition environments.

    PubMed

    Romyn, Georgia; Robey, Elisa; Dimmock, James A; Halson, Shona L; Peeling, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study subjectively assessed sleep quality and quantity, state anxiety and electronic device use during a 7-day training week (TRAIN) and a 7-day competitive tournament (COMP). Eight state-level netball players used wrist-watch actigraphy to provide indirect sleep measures of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset and fragmentation index. State anxiety was reported using the anxiety sub-scale in the Profile of Mood States-Adolescents. Before bed duration of electronic device use and the estimated time to sleep after finishing electronic device use was also recorded. Significant main effects showed that sleep efficiency (p = 0.03) was greater in COMP as compared to TRAIN. Furthermore, the bedtime and wake time were earlier (p = 0.01) during COMP. No further differences existed between conditions (p > 0.05). However, strong negative associations were seen between state anxiety and the sleep quality rating. Here, sleep efficiency was likely greater in COMP due to the homeostatic need for recovery sleep, resulting from the change in environment from training to competition. Furthermore, an increased anxiety before bed seems to influence sleep quality and should be considered in athletes portraying poor sleep habits. PMID:25790844

  5. The Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Post-Training Recovery in Jiu-Jitsu Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Jonatas Ferreira da Silva; Esteves, João Victor Del Conti

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of using hyperbaric oxygen therapy during post-training recovery in jiu-jitsu athletes. Methods Eleven experienced Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes were investigated during and following two training sessions of 1h30min. Using a cross-over design, the athletes were randomly assigned to passive recovery for 2 hours or to hyperbaric oxygen therapy (OHB) for the same duration. After a 7-day period, the interventions were reversed. Before, immediately after, post 2 hours and post 24 hours, blood samples were collected to examine hormone concentrations (cortisol and total testosterone) and cellular damage markers [creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)]. Moreover, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and recovery (RPR) scales were applied. Results Final lactate [La] values (control: 11.9 ± 1.4 mmol/L, OHB: 10.2 ± 1.4 mmol/L) and RPE [control: 14 (13–17 a.u.), OHB: 18 (17–20 a.u.)] were not significantly different following the training sessions. Furthermore, there was no difference between any time points for blood lactate and RPE in the two experimental conditions (P>0.05). There was no effect of experimental conditions on cortisol (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.793, η2 = 0.00, small), total testosterone (F1,20 = 0.03, P = 0.877, η2 = 0.00, small), CK (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.759, η2 = 0.01, small), AST (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.761, η2 = 0.01, small), ALT (F1,20 = 0.0, P = 0.845, η2 = 0.00, small) or LDH (F1,20 = 0.7, P = 0.413, η2 = 0.03, small). However, there was a difference between the two experimental conditions in RPR with higher values at post 2 h and 24 h in OHB when compared to the control condition (P<0.05). Conclusions Thus, it can be concluded that OHB exerts no influence on the recovery of hormonal status or cellular damage markers. Nonetheless, greater perceived recovery, potentially due to the placebo effect, was evident

  6. Geographical movement of doctors from education to training and eventual career post: UK cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Goldacre, Michael; Davidson, Jean; Maisonneuve, Jenny; Lambert, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the geographical mobility of UK-trained doctors. Design Cohort studies conducted by postal questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants A total 31,353 UK-trained doctors in 11 cohorts defined by year of qualification, from 1974 to 2008. Main outcome measures Location of family home prior to medical school, location of medical school, region of first training post, region of first career post. Analysis for the UK divided into 17 standard geographical regions. Results The response rate was 81.2% (31,353/45,061; denominators, below, depended on how far the doctors’ careers had progressed). Of all respondents, 36% (11,381/31,353) attended a medical school in their home region and 48% (10,370/21,740) undertook specialty training in the same region as their medical school. Of respondents who had reached the grade of consultant or principal in general practice in the UK, 34% (4169/12,119) settled in the same region as their home before entering medical school. Of those in the UK, 70% (7643/10,887) held their first career post in the same region as either their home before medical school, or their medical school or their location of training. For 18% (1938/10,887), all four locations – family home, medical school, place of training, place of first career post – were within the same region. A higher percentage of doctors from the more recent than from the older cohorts settled in the region of their family home. Conclusion Many doctors do not change geographical region in their successive career moves, and recent cohorts appear less inclined to do so. PMID:23481431

  7. An examination of training on the VertiMax resisted jumping device for improvements in lower body power in highly trained college athletes .

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Oliverson, Jeff R; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio; Potenziano, Ben J

    2008-05-01

    Training to develop superior muscular power has become a key component to most progressive sport conditioning programs. Conventional resistance training, plyometrics, and speed/agility modalities have all been employed in an effort to realize superlative combinations of training stimuli. New training devices such as the VertiMax resisted jump trainer are marketed as a means of improving lower body reactive power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the VertiMax, in combination with traditional training modalities, for improvements in lower body power among highly trained athletes. Forty men and women Division I collegiate athletes representing the sports of baseball, basketball, soccer, gymnastics, and track completed a 12-week mixed-methods training program. Two groups were constructed with both groups performing the same conventional resistance training and strength training exercises. The training control group performed traditional plyometric exercises while the experimental group performed similar loaded jump training on the VertiMax. Lower body power was measured before and after the training program by the TENDO FiTROdyne Powerlizer and statistically compared for differences between groups. Data analyses identified a significant (p < 0.05) and meaningful difference between power development among the 2 groups, with the VertiMax eliciting a greater treatment effect (effect size = 0.54) over conventional resistance and plyometric training alone (effect size = 0.09). These data convincingly demonstrate that the VertiMax represents an effective strategy for developing lower body power among trained college athletes, when combined with traditional strength and conditioning approaches. PMID:18438246

  8. Influence of length-restricted strength training on athlete's power-load curves of knee extensors and flexors.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Kleinöder, Heinz; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated whether different length-restricted strength training regimens affect voluntary explosive concentric power-load curves of the quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstring (HAM) muscles. Thirty-two athletes were divided into 3 different training groups (G1-G3): G1 performed isometric training at knee joint angles corresponding to long muscle-tendon unit (MTU) length for QF and HAM; G2 conducted concentric-eccentric contraction cycles that were restricted to a knee joint range of motion corresponding to predominantly long MTU length for QF and HAM; and G3 combined the protocols of G1 and G2. Knee joint angle-dependent power-load curves during maximal voluntary explosive concentric knee extensions and flexions were measured for loads corresponding to 40, 60, and 80% of individual 1 repetition maximum at 5 different occasions: 2 times before, after 5 and 8 weeks of training, and 4 weeks post training. Power values of each subject were normalized to the largest value produced at any knee joint position (percent maximum). Obtained by curve fitting, the optimal knee joint angle for power production of QF and HAM remained unaltered throughout the course of the study for all testing loads and training groups. Therefore, different strength training regimens with a common restriction to long MTU lengths failed to induce length-dependent alterations in athlete's voluntary concentric power-load curves of knee extensors and flexors. The approach to develop strength training programs that induce systematic shifts in length-dependent power production of QF and HAM is of direct practical relevance for athletic activities such as cycling, ice skating, and skiing. However, restricting the muscle excursion range during loading seems to be an inappropriate trigger to cause length-dependent alterations in athlete's voluntary concentric power-load curves. PMID:20145573

  9. The Effect of Low Extremity Plyometric Training on Back Muscle Power of High School Throwing Event Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the ‘Power up plyometric training’. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st −4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th–8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th−12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times. PMID:24567698

  10. Comparison of athletic training professional preparation to the prevalence of injury occurrence in the collegiate setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerman, Beverly Jean

    1999-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the frequency of injuries that occur to certain body areas in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes and the percentage of time teaching about the same subject areas in Athletic Training Education Programs (ATEP). Directors of Commission of Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) accredited and National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) approved programs were surveyed. Randomly selected ATEP directors were interviewed by telephone to collect information on estimated teaching time, the strengths and weaknesses of their programs, and preferred teaching methods. Data were collected from the NCAA Injury Surveillance System to calculate the frequency of injury. Chi-square 'goodness-of-fit' tests were used to determine if a 'good fit' existed between injury frequency and teaching time in two categories: general body areas (head and face, upper extremity, lower extremity, spine, and abdomen and thorax) and specific body areas (head, face, upper arm and shoulder, elbow and forearm, wrist and hand, hip and pelvis, thigh, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot, cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, abdomen, and thorax). Standardized residuals were used to assist in determining the location of statistical significance within the same two categories. The chi-square values calculated for both the general and specific body areas were greater than the critical value set at a significance level of .05 with 4 and 14 degrees of freedom respectively. Therefore, it was found that a 'good fit' does not exist between injury frequency and teaching time. The standardized residuals were calculated for each variable within the categories. One out of five general body areas and 10 out of 15 specific body areas were less than 2.00 in absolute value and were found not to contribute to the high chi-square value. Although the chi-square values showed a lack of fit between injury frequency and teaching time

  11. Career Education--The State of the Art of Inservice Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matilsky, Philip I.

    The author describes four exemplary inservice programs dealing with career education for the handicapped, and reviews current issues in the field. Among programs cited are Project T.H.O.R. (Training Habilitators of the Retarded), a statewide inservice program for teachers and administrators working with the trainable mentally retarded; and the…

  12. Health Careers Directory; Health Education and Training Opportunities in South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Hospital Association, Columbia. Educational Services Program.

    The stated goal of the directory is to provide high school guidance counselors with information on health education and training opportunities in one document. To achieve this, the following information is provided: definition of career, program, location, admissions policy, length of course, affiliation, costs, and other items for each career…

  13. Aviation Boatswain's Mate F3 and 2: Naval Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable Aviation Boatswain's Mates F (Fuels) to help themselves fulfill the requirements of their rating. Designed for individual study and not formal classroom instruction, the RTM provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational…

  14. Virginia's Private Career Schools. An Overlooked Resource for Job Training and Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.

    A study gathered objective data to inform policymakers and the public about the role of the private career school in providing postsecondary vocational training. The universe of the study was made up of state-approved for-profit business, trade, and technical schools and nationally accredited cosmetology schools. A mailed questionnaire gathered…

  15. Steelworker 1 & C. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essinger, Patrick J.

    This Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable Steelworkers First and Chief to help themselves fulfill the requirements of their rating. (These positions direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in cutting, welding, placing and erecting rigid frame and other…

  16. Hospital Corpsman 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frederick R.

    This Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable Hospital Corps personnel to help themselves fulfill the requirements of their rating. Among these requirements are the abilities to perform duties as assistants in the prevention, recognition, and treatment of disease and injuries, and in…

  17. Lithographer 3 and 2: Naval Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The rate training manual and nonresident career course (RTM/NRCC) form is a self-study package that will enable third class and second class lithographers to fulfill the requirements for that rating. Chapter one provides a brief history of printing and discusses the duties and qualifications of the Navy lithographer. Chapters two through eighteen…

  18. Machinery Repairman 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Michael H.; Taylor, Edward A.

    This Rate Training Manual (textbook) and Nonresident Career Course form a correspondence self-study package to teach the theoretical knowledge and mental skills needed by the Machinery Repairman Third Class and Second Class. The 15 chapters in the textbook are (1) Scope of the Machinery Repairman Rating; (2) Toolrooms and Tools; (3) Layout and…

  19. ALOHA to New Learning: Uniting Student and Career Staff through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Lynn N.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines staff training from a different perspective, as a means of transmitting organizational culture to student employees through a closer communication between career and student part-time employees. Results of a qualitative survey suggest communication supports multigenerational relationships and administrators who invest in…

  20. Analysis of Postdoctoral Training Outcomes That Broaden Participation in Science Careers

    PubMed Central

    Rybarczyk, Brian J.; Lerea, Leslie; Whittington, Dawayne; Dykstra, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Postdoctoral training is an optimal time to expand research skills, develop independence, and shape career trajectories, making this training period important to study in the context of career development. Seeding Postdoctoral Innovators in Research and Education (SPIRE) is a training program that balances research, teaching, and professional development. This study examines the factors that promote the transition of postdocs into academic careers and increase diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Data indicate that SPIRE scholars (n = 77) transition into faculty positions at three times the national average with a greater proportion of underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) and females represented among SPIRE scholars. Logistic regression models indicate that significant predictors are the intended career track at the start of the postdoctoral training and the number of publications. Factors necessary for successful transition are teaching experience as independent instructors, professional development opportunities, and the experience of balancing teaching with research. Scholars’ continued commitment to increasing diversity in their faculty roles was demonstrated by their attainment of tenure-track positions at minority-serving institutions, continued mentorship of URMs, and engagement with diversity initiatives. These results suggest that a postdoctoral program structured to include research, teaching, and diversity inclusion facilitates attainment of desired academic positions with sustained impacts on broadening participation. PMID:27543634

  1. Analysis of Postdoctoral Training Outcomes That Broaden Participation in Science Careers.

    PubMed

    Rybarczyk, Brian J; Lerea, Leslie; Whittington, Dawayne; Dykstra, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Postdoctoral training is an optimal time to expand research skills, develop independence, and shape career trajectories, making this training period important to study in the context of career development. Seeding Postdoctoral Innovators in Research and Education (SPIRE) is a training program that balances research, teaching, and professional development. This study examines the factors that promote the transition of postdocs into academic careers and increase diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Data indicate that SPIRE scholars (n = 77) transition into faculty positions at three times the national average with a greater proportion of underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) and females represented among SPIRE scholars. Logistic regression models indicate that significant predictors are the intended career track at the start of the postdoctoral training and the number of publications. Factors necessary for successful transition are teaching experience as independent instructors, professional development opportunities, and the experience of balancing teaching with research. Scholars' continued commitment to increasing diversity in their faculty roles was demonstrated by their attainment of tenure-track positions at minority-serving institutions, continued mentorship of URMs, and engagement with diversity initiatives. These results suggest that a postdoctoral program structured to include research, teaching, and diversity inclusion facilitates attainment of desired academic positions with sustained impacts on broadening participation. PMID:27543634

  2. A Guide to Educational and Training Programs in Maryland Health Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Hospital Education and Research Foundation, Lutherville.

    The Maryland Hospital Education and Research Foundation (MHERF) is a private, non-profit organization whose objectives are: (1) to coordinate, improve and standardize continuing education and training programs for health personnel in Maryland; (2) to coordinate, accelerate and extend existing health career information activities in the state and…

  3. Construction Mechanic 1 and C: Naval Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that enables Construction Mechanics to fulfill the requirements for advancement to Construction Mechanic First Class (CM1) or Chief Construction Mechanic (CMC). Chapter 1 provides information relevant to the duties and responsibilities of a CM1 or CMC.…

  4. Aviation Electrician's Mate 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, John A., Jr.

    This Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable Aviation Electrician's (AE) Mates to help themselves fulfill the requirements of their rating. Designed for individual study and not formal classroom instruction, the RTM provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational…

  5. Electrician's Mate 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Thomas E.; Hawley, John F.

    This Rate Training Manual (Textbook) and Nonresident Career Course form a correspondence, self-study package to provide information related to tasks assigned to the Electrician's Mate Third and Second Class. Focus is on operating and maintaining power and lighting systems and associated equipment. The 16 chapters in the text are (1) The…

  6. Hospital Corpsman 1 & C. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frederick R.

    This Rate Training Manual (RTM) and Nonresident Career Course (NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable Navy senior hospital corps personnel to fulfill the requirements of their rating. While primarily developed around the requirements for personnel serving on independent duty, the information contained within it is applicable to all HM 1…

  7. Effects of resistance training combined with vascular occlusion or hypoxia on neuromuscular function in athletes.

    PubMed

    Manimmanakorn, Apiwan; Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Taylor, Robert; Draper, Nick; Billaut, Francois; Shearman, Jeremy P; Hamlin, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of low-load resistant training combined with vascular occlusion or normobaric hypoxic exposure, on neuromuscular function. In a randomised controlled trial, well-trained athletes took part in a 5-week training of knee flexor/extensor muscles in which low-load resistant exercise (20% of one repetition maximum, 1-RM) was combined with either (1) an occlusion pressure of approximately 230 mmHg (KT, n = 10), (2) hypoxic air to generate an arterial blood oxygen saturation of ~80% (HT, n = 10), or (3) with no additional stimulus (CT, n = 10). Before and after training, participants completed the following tests: 3-s maximal voluntary contraction (MVC₃), 30-s MVC, and an endurance test (maximal number of repetitions at 20% 1-RM, Reps₂₀). Electromyographic activity (root mean square, RMS) was measured during tests and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps and hamstrings was measured pre- and post-training. Relative to CT, KT, and HT showed likely increases in MVC₃ (11.0 ± 11.9 and 15.0 ± 13.1%, mean ± 90% confidence interval), MVC₃₀ (10.2 ± 9.0 and 18.3 ± 17.4%), and Reps₂₀ (28.9 ± 23.7 and 23.3 ± 24.0%). Compared to the CT group, CSA increased in the KT (7.6 ± 5.8) and HT groups (5.3 ± 3.0). KT had a large effect on RMS during MVC₃, compared to CT (effect size 0.8) and HT (effect size 0.8). We suspect hypoxic conditions created within the muscles during vascular occlusion and hypoxic training may play a key role in these performance enhancements. PMID:23412543

  8. Use of prescription drugs in athletes.

    PubMed

    Alaranta, Antti; Alaranta, Hannu; Helenius, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    Although athletes are young and generally healthy, they use a variety of non-doping classified medicines to treat injuries, cure illnesses and obtain a competitive edge. Athletes and sports medicine physicians try to optimize the treatment of symptoms related to extreme training during an elite athlete's active career. According to several studies, the use of antiasthmatic medication is more frequent among elite athletes than in the general population. The type of training and the kind of sport influence the prevalence of asthma. Asthma is most common among those competing in endurance events, such as cycling, swimming, cross-country skiing and long-distance running. Recent studies show that athletes use also NSAIDs and oral antibacterials more commonly than age-matched controls, especially athletes competing in speed and power sports. Inappropriately high doses and concomitant use of several different NSAIDs has been observed. All medicines have adverse effects that may have deleterious effects on elite athletes' performance. Thus, any unnecessary medication use should be minimized in elite athletes. Inhaled beta(2)-agonists may cause tachycardia and muscle tremor, which are especially harmful in events requiring accuracy and a steady hand. In experimental animal models of acute injury, especially selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors have been shown to be detrimental to tissue-level repair. They have been shown to impair mechanical strength return following acute injury to bone, ligament and tendon. This may have clinical implications for future injury susceptibility. However, it should be noted that the current animal studies have limited translation to the clinical setting. Adverse effects related to the CNS and gastrointestinal adverse reactions are commonly reported in connection with NSAID use also in elite athletes. In addition to the potential for adverse effects, recent studies have shown that NSAID use may negatively regulate muscle growth by inhibiting

  9. Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes – Results from Simulated Training Camps

    PubMed Central

    Hecksteden, Anne; Skorski, Sabrina; Schwindling, Sascha; Hammes, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover) have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength) at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1), after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8) and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11). Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue) which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery). With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l), urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl), free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml) and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml). For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l) only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling and by CK

  10. Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes - Results from Simulated Training Camps.

    PubMed

    Hecksteden, Anne; Skorski, Sabrina; Schwindling, Sascha; Hammes, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover) have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength) at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1), after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8) and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11). Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue) which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery). With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l), urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl), free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml) and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml). For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l) only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling and by CK

  11. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA. PMID:25992659

  12. The convergent validity between two objective methods for quantifying training load in young taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Chaouachi, Anis; Castagna, Carlo; Wong, Del P; Chamari, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Various studies used objective heart rate (HR)-based methods to assess training load (TL). The common methods were Banister's Training Impulse (TRIMP; weights the duration using a weighting factor) and Edwards' TL (a summated HR zone score). Both the methods use the direct physiological measure of HR as a fundamental part of the calculation. To eliminate the redundancy of using various methods to quantify the same construct (i.e., TL), we have to verify if these methods are strongly convergent and are interchangeable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the convergent validity between Banister's TRIMP and Edwards' TL used for the assessment of internal TL. The HRs were recorded and analyzed during 10 training weeks of the preseason period in 10 male Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. The TL was calculated using Banister's TRIMP and Edwards' TL. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the convergent validity between the 2 methods for assessing TL. Very large to nearly perfect relationships were found between individual Banister's TRIMP and Edwards' TL (r values from 0.80 to 0.99; p < 0.001). Pooled Banister's TRIMP and pooled Edwards' TL (pooled data n = 284) were nearly largely correlated (r = 0.89; p < 0.05; 95% confidence interval: 0.86-0.91). In conclusion, these findings suggest that these 2 objective methods, measuring a similar construct, are interchangeable. PMID:21904234

  13. National Athletic Trainers' Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... represent, engage and foster the continued growth and development of the athletic training profession and athletic trainers as unique health care providers. Professional Development Center Use the free CEUs that come with ...

  14. Training Future Dentists for an Academic Career: A Three-Tiered Model.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Zsuzsa; Albani, Sarah E; Wankiiri-Hale, Christine

    2016-05-01

    The anticipated shortage of dental faculty presents a challenge for dental education as it will greatly impact the training of the next generation of practicing dentists. One way to alleviate shortages is to identify students who are interested in an academic career at the predoctoral level and provide them with training in teaching, research, and leadership. Based on available evidence, formal programs offer the best way to introduce students to academia as a viable career path. A well-designed program can also equip interested students with the necessary skills and basic knowledge to facilitate starting an academic career. The University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine has developed a three-tiered model for providing its dental students with exposure to and training in academic dentistry. The three tiers reflect differing levels of commitment: 1) a two-year academic career track program, 2) academic career track elective courses, and 3) extracurricular activities. The aim of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the program's overall effectiveness. Data were collected using student and faculty surveys and student applications for the two-year academic career track program. The data gathered included characteristics of, and feedback from, students taking the elective courses, as well as student and faculty feedback about student teacher effectiveness. The study found overall positive responses to the three-tiered program from faculty, students, and student teachers at this initial stage. Whether these students ultimately become faculty members (the ultimate goal of the program) will be assessed in the future. PMID:27139201

  15. Integrating Theory and Practice to Increase Scientific Workforce Diversity: A Framework for Career Development in Graduate Research Training

    PubMed Central

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Gutierrez, Belinda; Topp, Sharon; Carnes, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Few, if any, educational interventions intended to increase underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students in biological and behavioral sciences are informed by theory and research on career persistence. Training and Education to Advance Minority Scholars in Science (TEAM-Science) is a program funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences at the University of Wisconsin–Madison with the twin goals of increasing the number of URM students entering and completing a PhD in BBS and increasing the number of these students who pursue academic careers. A framework for career development in graduate research training is proposed using social cognitive career theory. Based on this framework, TEAM-Science has five core components: 1) mentor training for the research advisor, 2) eight consensus-derived fundamental competencies required for a successful academic career, 3) career coaching by a senior faculty member, 4) an individualized career development plan that aligns students’ activities with the eight fundamental competencies, and 5) a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats personal career analysis. This paper describes the theoretical framework used to guide development of these components, the research and evaluation plan, and early experience implementing the program. We discuss the potential of this framework to increase desired career outcomes for URM graduate trainees in mentored research programs and, thereby, strengthen the effectiveness of such interventions on participants’ career behaviors. PMID:22135370

  16. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. Methods A 10-week crossover, placebo controlled study was conducted. Eight trained male cyclists and two triathletes were randomly assigned to consume 75 g/d whole almonds (ALM) or isocaloric cookies (COK) with equal subject number. They consumed the assigned food for 4 wks and then the alternate food for another 4 wks. They underwent 3 performance tests including 125-min steady status exercise (SS) and 20-min time trial (TT) on an indoor stationary trainer at the start of the study (BL) and at the end of each intervention phase. Venous blood was collected in the morning prior to the performance test for biochemical measurements and finger blood during the test for glucose determination. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and oxygen use were calculated using respiratory gas analysis. Results ALM increased cycling distance during TT by 1.7 km as compared BL (21.9 vs. 20.2 km, P = 0.053) and COK increased 0.6 km (20.8 vs. 20.2 km, P > 0.05). ALM, but not COK, led to higher CHO and lower fat oxidation and less oxygen consumption during TT than BL (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in heart rate among BL, ALM and COK. ALM maintained higher blood glucose level after TT than COK (P < 0.05). ALM had higher vitamin E and haemoglobin and lower serum free fatty acid (P < 0.05), slightly elevated serum arginine and nitric oxide and plasma insulin (P > 0.05) than BL, and a higher total antioxidant capacity than COK (P < 0.05). Conclusions Whole almonds improved cycling distance and the elements related to endurance performance more than isocaloric cookies in trained athletes as some nutrients in almonds may contribute to

  17. Staphylococcus aureus and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and Around Therapeutic Whirlpools in College Athletic Training Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. Results: We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F2,238 = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses. PMID:25710853

  18. A group-enhanced sprint interval training program for amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Luc J; Anderson, Scott H; Schmale, Matthew S; Hallworth, Jillian R; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-08-01

    Sprint interval training (SIT) can elicit improvements in aerobic and anaerobic capacity. While variations in SIT protocols have been investigated, the influence of social processes cannot be overlooked. As research supports the use of groups to influence individual cognitions and behaviours, the current project assessed the effectiveness of a group-based intervention with participants conducting SIT. Specifically, 53 amateur athletes (age, 21.9 ± 2.9 years; 53% females) took part in a 4-week training program (3 sessions per week, 30-s "all-out" efforts with 4 min active recovery, repeated 4-6 times per session), and were assigned to "true group", aggregate, or individual conditions. Results indicated no significant differences between groups for the physiological measures. With regards to training improvements from baseline for all participants- regardless of condition - significant main effects for time were identified for maximal oxygen uptake (2.5-2.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p < 0.001, η(2) = 0.03), time-trial performance (14-32 s, p < 0.001, η(2) = 0.37), and anaerobic power (1.1-1.7 k·h(-1), p < 0.001, η(2) = 0.66). With regards to the psychological measures, significant main effects between groups were found for motivation (p = 0.033, η(2) = 0.13), task self-efficacy (p = 0.018, η(2) = 0.15), and scheduling self-efficacy (p = 0.003, η(2) = 0.22). The true group experienced greater improvements in motivation than the individual condition, but the aggregate and individual conditions demonstrated greater increases in task and scheduling self-efficacy. Though the SIT paradigm employed induced training improvements similar to previous work, the group intervention was not able to further these improvements. PMID:27377136

  19. Career Advancement Training: A Project to Provide Career Information and Services to Women Interested in or Training for Non-Traditional Vocational/Technical Occupations. Final Report from July 1, 1983 to August 31, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Linda J.

    The Career Advancement Training (CAT) Project was established to provide career information and services to women interested in nontraditional occupations. General objectives were to increase community awareness regarding occupational stereotyping, women's ability to perform nontraditional jobs, and vocational programs available at Daytona Beach…

  20. Women's American ORT [Organization for Rehabilitation through Training] and Career Education. Monographs on Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Kenneth B.

    Women's American ORT (Organization for Rehabilitation through Training) is an autonomous affiliate of a worldwide Jewish volunteer organization. It is dedicated to fighting poverty by providing Jewish youth and adults with vocational skills so that they may become productive members of society. In the past, WAO (Women's American ORT) has made…

  1. Plasma levels of trace elements and exercise induced stress hormones in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel; López-Colón, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the variation and relationship of several trace elements, metabolic substrates and stress hormones activated by exercise during incremental exercise. Seventeen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), the workload was increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Prior diet, activity patterns, and levels of exercise training were controlled, and tests timed to minimize variations due to the circadian rhythm. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co), serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and several hormones were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity was measured before and after the test, and participants drank water ad libitum. Significant differences were found in plasma Zn and Se levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn was significantly correlated with epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.884, P < 0.01; r = 0.871, P < 0.01; and r = 0.808, P = 0.05); and Se showed significant positive correlations whit epinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.743, P < 0.05; and r = 0.776, P < 0.05). Neither Zn nor Se levels were associated with insulin or glucagon, and neither Mn nor Co levels were associated with any of the hormones or substrate metabolites studied. Further, while Zn levels were found to be associated only with lactate, plasma Se was significantly correlated with lactate and glucose (respectively for Zn: r = 0.891, P < 0.01; and for Se: r = 0.743, P < 0.05; r = 0.831, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that there is a positive correlation between the increases in plasma Zn or Se and stress hormones variations induced by exercise along different submaximal intensities in well-hydrated well-trained endurance athletes. PMID:26004901

  2. The Effects of Music on High-intensity Short-term Exercise in Well Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes. Methods Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test. Results HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (Ppeak and Pmean) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (P<0.05). The relative increases were 4.1 ± 3.6 and 4.0 ± 3.7 W·kg−1 for Ppeak and Pmean respectively. These findings demonstrated the beneficial effect of music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances. Conclusions As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs’ muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises. PMID:23342221

  3. Supermarket Careers. A Partnership in Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.

    A partnership between the Bergen County Vocational-Technical Schools (New Jersey), the Wakefern Food Corporation/Shoprite, and Cornell University developed and implemented supermarket skills training programs. The programs were held in two vocational schools that educate mentally handicapped students, aged 14-21, during daytime hours and adult…

  4. Quartermaster 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    One of a series of training manuals prepared for enlisted personnel in the Navy and Naval Reserve, this self-study package provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational qualifications of the Quartermaster rating. Contents include a 16-chapter text followed by a glossary, subject index, and the associated nonresident career…

  5. The Older American: New Work, New Training, New Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Alan

    For the great number of Americans over 65 years of age, meaningful work is a central activity, whether or not an income support system is needed. Human services work, helping others, is particularly suited to many older persons. This type of work calls for education and training for those who had worked in different areas. College programs should…

  6. Military Career Guide: Employment and Training Opportunities in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Military Entrance Processing Command (DOD), North Chicago, IL.

    This copiously illustrated guide is a single reference source for the diverse employment and training opportunities in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. It is divided into two major sections. The first section contains descriptions of 134 enlisted military occupations and provides information regarding the aptitudes needed…

  7. Engineman 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, C. B.; Farris, C. L.

    This Navy training and self-study manual is designed to provide a basic theoretical and practical understanding of primarily diesel engines and associated equipment, the main emphasis being on shipboard types and operations. Each chapter offers verbal and pictorial description of machinery, with both schematic and equipment-specific depiction of…

  8. Sport-Specific Training Targeting the Proximal Segments and Throwing Velocity in Collegiate Throwing Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Thomas; Uhl, Timothy L.; Howell, Dana; Hewett, Timothy E.; Viele, Kert; Mattacola, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    Context The ability to generate, absorb, and transmit forces through the proximal segments of the pelvis, spine, and trunk has been proposed to influence sport performance, yet traditional training techniques targeting the proximal segments have had limited success improving sport-specific performance. Objective To investigate the effects of a traditional endurance-training program and a sport-specific power-training program targeting the muscles that support the proximal segments and throwing velocity. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting University research laboratory and gymnasium. Patients or Other Participants A total of 46 (age = 20 ± 1.3 years, height = 175.7 ± 8.7 cm) healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III female softball (n = 17) and male baseball (n = 29) players. Intervention(s) Blocked stratification for sex and position was used to randomly assign participants to 1 of 2 training groups for 7 weeks: a traditional endurance-training group (ET group; n = 21) or a power-stability–training group (PS group; n = 25). Mean Outcome Measure(s) The change score in peak throwing velocity (km/h) normalized for body weight (BW; kilograms) and change score in tests that challenge the muscles of the proximal segments normalized for BW (kilograms). We used 2-tailed independent-samples t tests to compare differences between the change scores. Results The peak throwing velocity (ET group = 0.01 ± 0.1 km/h/kg of BW, PS group = 0.08 ± 0.03 km/h/kg of BW; P < .001) and muscle power outputs for the chop (ET group = 0.22 ± 0.91 W/kg of BW, PS group = 1.3 ± 0.91 W/kg of BW; P < .001) and lift (ET group = 0.59 ± 0.67 W/kg of BW, PS group = 1.4 ± 0.87 W/kg of BW; P < .001) tests were higher at postintervention in the PT than in the ET group. Conclusions An improvement in throwing velocity occurred simultaneously with measures of muscular endurance and power after a sport-specific training regimen targeting the proximal segments

  9. Shoulder Disease Patterns of the Wheelchair Athletes of Table-Tennis and Archery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the shoulder disease patterns for the table-tennis (TT) and archery (AR) wheelchair athletes via ultrasonographic evaluations. Methods A total of 35 wheelchair athletes were enrolled, made up of groups of TT (n=19) and AR (n=16) athletes. They were all paraplegic patients and were investigated for their wheelchair usage duration, careers as sports players, weekly training times, the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI) scores and ultrasonographic evaluation. Shoulders were divided into playing arm of TT, non-playing arm of TT, bow-arm of AR, and draw arm of AR athletes. Shoulder diseases were classified into five entities of subscapularis tendinopathy, supraspinatus tendinopathy, infraspinatus tendinopathy, biceps long head tendinopathy, and subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis. The pattern of shoulder diseases were compared between the two groups using the Mann-Whitney and the chi-square tests Results WSUPI did not significantly correlate with age, wheelchair usage duration, career as players or weekly training times for all the wheelchair athletes. For the non-playing arm of TT athletes, there was a high percentage of subscapularis (45.5%) and supraspinatus (40.9%) tendinopathy. The percentage of subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis showed a tendency to be present in the playing arm of TT athletes (20.0%) compared with their non-playing arm (4.5%), even though this was not statistically significant. Biceps long head tendinopathy was the most common disease of the shoulder in the draw arm of AR athletes, and the difference was significant when compared to the non-playing arm of TT athletes (p<0.05). Conclusion There was a high percentage of subscapularis and supraspinatus tendinopathy cases for the non-playing arm of TT wheelchair athletes, and a high percentage of biceps long head tendinopathy for the draw arm for the AR wheelchair athletes. Consideration of the biomechanical properties of each sport may be needed to tailor specific

  10. An Exploration of Factors Influencing Career Progression of Tutors in Public Primary Teachers' Training Colleges in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muchanje, Peter N.; Njuguna, Felicita W.; Kalai, Jeremiah M.; Bironga, Sophia M.

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to determine the influence of gender, Teachers Service Commission (TSC) adherence to career progression policy guidelines and tutors' exposure to professional development on career progression of tutors in primary teachers training colleges in Kenya. This study was a descriptive survey with 264 tutors randomly sampled from eight…

  11. The Long-Term Care Workforce Crisis: Dementia-Care Training Influences on Job Satisfaction and Career Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coogle, Constance L.; Head, Colleen A.; Parham, Iris A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study compares changes in job satisfaction and career commitment among Alzheimer's care staff participating in a two-phase, state-level training collaborative to improve dementia care. Results reveal an increase in extrinsic job satisfaction and a decrease in career commitment. Findings could be related to the effects of both the…

  12. A Mentor Training Program Improves Mentoring Competency for Researchers Working with Early-Career Investigators from Underrepresented Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mallory O.; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective…

  13. The training, careers, and work of Ph.D. physical scientists: Not simply academic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pedersen-Gallegos, Liane; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine

    2002-11-01

    We present an in-depth portrait of the training, careers, and work of recent Ph.D. physical scientists. Use of specialized training varies widely, with about half often using knowledge of their Ph.D. specialty area in their jobs. The use of specialized training does not, however, correlate with job satisfaction. In this and other important measures, there are relatively few differences between "academics" and "nonacademics." Important job skills for all employment sectors include writing, oral presentation, management, data analysis, designing projects, critical thinking, and working in an interdisciplinary context. Rankings given by respondents of graduate training in some of these skill areas were significantly lower than the importance of these skills in the workplace. We also found that the rated quality of graduate training varies relatively little by department or advisor. Finally, although nonacademic aspirations among graduate students are fairly common, these do not appear to be well supported while in graduate school.

  14. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  15. Training a Cadre of Rural Educators to Conduct Career Education In-Service. Final Report [and] Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashmere Consolidated School District, WA.

    A Cashmere School District, Washington, project trained a cadre of rural educators and provided them with necessary skills and materials to conduct career education inservice training. Over fifty participants attended ten-day workshops at which the nine training modules developed by the project were used. Designed for independent presentation,…

  16. Ischemic preconditioning increases muscle perfusion, oxygen uptake, and force in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Paradis-Deschênes, Pénélope; Joanisse, Denis R; Billaut, François

    2016-09-01

    Muscle ischemia and reperfusion induced by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can improve performance in various activities. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of IPC on muscle hemodynamics and oxygen (O2) uptake during repeated maximal contractions. In a cross-over, randomized, single-blind study, 10 strength-trained men performed 5 sets of 5 maximal voluntary knee extensions of the right leg on an isokinetic dynamometer, preceded by either IPC of the right lower limb (3×5-min compression/5-min reperfusion cycles at 200 mm Hg) or sham (20 mm Hg). Changes in deoxyhemoglobin, expressed as a percentage of arterial occlusion, and total hemoglobin ([THb]) concentrations of the vastus lateralis muscle were monitored continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy. Differences between IPC and sham were analyzed using Cohen's effect size (ES) ± 90% confidence limits, and magnitude-based inferences. Compared with sham, IPC likely increased muscle blood volume at rest (↑[THb], 46.5%; ES, 0.56; 90% confidence limits for ES, -0.21, 1.32). During exercise, peak force was almost certainly higher (11.8%; ES, 0.37; 0.27, 0.47), average force was very likely higher (12.6%; ES, 0.47; 0.29, 0.66), and average muscle O2 uptake was possibly increased (15.8%; ES, 0.36; -0.07, 0.79) after IPC. In the recovery periods between contractions, IPC also increased blood volume after sets 1 (23.6%; ES, 0.30; -0.05, 0.65) and 5 (25.1%; ES, 0.32; 0.09, 0.55). Three cycles of IPC immediately increased muscle perfusion and O2 uptake, conducive to higher repeated force capacity in strength-trained athletes. This maneuver therefore appears relevant to enhancing exercise training stimulus. PMID:27574913

  17. Dynamic neuromuscular analysis training for preventing anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Slauterbeck, James R

    2007-01-01

    Female athletes are four to six times more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Since the enactment of Title IX, male athletic participation at the high school level has remained steady (3.8 million), whereas female athletic participation has increased tenfold (from 0.3 to 3.0 million). Geometric growth in athletic participation and the higher injury rate in female athletes have led to gender inequity in ACL injury rates. Most ACL injuries occur as a result of noncontact mechanisms such as during landing from a jump or while making a lateral pivot. Dynamic knee instability, caused by ligament dominance (decreased dynamic neuromuscular control of the joint), quadriceps dominance (decreased hamstring strength and recruitment), and leg dominance (side-to-side differences in strength and coordination) may be responsible for gender inequity in ACL injury rates. PMID:17472323

  18. Effect of compensatory acceleration training in combination with accommodating resistance on upper body strength in collegiate athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Margaret T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of inclusion of a band or chain compensatory acceleration training (CAT), in a 5-week training phase, on maximal upper body strength during a 14-week off-season strength and conditioning program for collegiate male athletes. Patients and methods Twenty-four National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collegiate baseball players, who were familiar with the current strength and conditioning program and had a minimum of 1 year of formal collegiate strength and conditioning experience, participated in this off-season training study. None of the men had participated in CAT before. Subjects were matched following a maximal effort (1-repetition maximum [1-RM]) bench press test in week 1, then were randomly assigned into a band-based CAT group or a chain-based CAT group and participated in a 5-week training phase that included bench pressing twice per week. Upper body strength was measured by 1-RM bench press again at week 6. A 2 × 2 mixed factorial (method × time) analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences across groups. The alpha level was set at P<0.05. Results No difference (F1,22=0.04, P=0.84) existed between the band-based CAT and chain-based CAT groups. A significant difference was observed between pre- and posttests of 1-RM bench (F1,22=88.46, P=0.001). Conclusion A 5-week band CAT or chain CAT training program used in conjunction with an off-season strength and conditioning program can increase maximal upper body strength in collegiate baseball athletes. Using band CAT and/or chain CAT as a training modality in the off-season will vary the training stimulus from the traditional and likely help to maintain the athlete’s interest. PMID:25177154

  19. Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance. PMID:22360344

  20. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Adam W.; Kushner, Adam M.; Groene, John; Williams, Christopher; Riley, Michael A.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT) is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline) objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance. Key points Specific, targeted interventions that isolate injury risk factors and can help correct modifiable neuromuscular deficits are essential. Current training interventions for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention have only demonstrated limited effectiveness and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption to reduce ACL injury rates. The paper provides an overview of innovative strategies and technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement neuromuscular training (NMT

  1. Using the Training Reactions Questionnaire to Analyze the Reactions of University Students Undergoing Career-Related Training in Jordan: A Prospective Human Resource Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Al-Zawahreh, Abdelghafour

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to validate Morgan and Casper's training reactions questionnaire (TRQ) for use in Jordan. The study also investigated the reactions of university students to career-related training programs. Another purpose of the study was to determine the impact of certain aspects of training programs on the…

  2. Acute effect of a complex training protocol of back squats on 30-m sprint times of elite male military athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect temporal of a complex training protocol on 30 meter sprint times. A secondary objective was to evaluate the fatigue indexes of military athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The variables measured were times in 30-meter sprint, and average power and peak power of squats. The intervention session with complex training consisted of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% 1RM + 4 repetitions at 60% 1RM + 3 repetitions of 30 meters with 120-second rests. For the statistical analysis repeated measures of ANOVA was used, and for the post hoc analysis, student’s t-test was used. [Results] Times in 30 meter sprints showed a significant reduction between the control set and the four experimental sets, but the average power and peak power of squats did not show significant changes. [Conclusion] The results of the study show the acute positive effect of complex training, over time, in 30-meter sprint by military athletes. This effect is due to the post activation potentiation of the lower limbs’ muscles in the 30 meters sprint. PMID:27134353

  3. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  4. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-12-22

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  5. International Networking and Media Training for Early Career Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, J. R.; Baron, N.; Brown, J.; Kenny, P.; Kim, K.; Simons, A.

    2006-12-01

    Communicating science to the public and the media requires a unique skill set, training for which is not often available in traditional graduate programs. To address this need, the British Council USA, American University, and SeaWeb/COMPASS hosted an international workshop to provide media communication training for scientists while promoting international collaboration, and providing perspectives from science journalists who cover climate change in the United States and United Kingdom. The workshop was part of the British Council's International Networking for Young Scientists and ZeroCarbonCity initiatives. Fifteen PhD students and post- docs were selected from a competitive applicant pool for a three-day, hands-on workshop in Washington, DC in November 2006. SeaWeb/COMPASS led modules on: What makes news?; Elements of a good story; Interview "do's and don'ts"; Live practice interviews; Realities of working with the media; Communicating with policy makers. Several prominent environmental journalists interacted with participants including Michelle Nijhuis, contributing editor for High Country News and winner of the 2006 Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Writing from the American Geophysical Union and Christopher Joyce, a correspondent on National Public Radio's science desk. Participants also toured the NPR studios in Washington, DC. The organizers will build upon the success of the workshop by promoting the communication of climate science to the general public and developing additional networking opportunities for climate researchers in the United States and United Kingdom.

  6. Educating Educators: Perceptions of Preceptors and Clinical Education Coordinators Regarding Training at a Division II Athletic Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomar, Renae Ellen; Mulvihill, Thalia

    2016-01-01

    Context: Clinical experiences give the student athletic trainer the opportunity to relate and apply didactic information to a real-world setting. During these experiences student athletic trainers are supervised by certified, licensed health care providers working in a variety of settings (e.g., hospital, physical therapy clinic, doctor's office).…

  7. Early Career Hire Rapid Training and Development Program: Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Betsy N.; Solish, Benjamin S.; Halatek, Lauren; Rieber, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    The aging of the industrialized workforce, particularly in the aerospace industry, has resulted in a very large generation gap in the workforce. The disproportionate size of Baby Boomers, increasing longevity and declining birth rates has made this phenomenon a reality that no organization can ignore. It is now critical that aerospace organizations prepare themselves for this watershed transformation in the workforce and take the initiative to prepare the incoming workforce with the skills and knowledge necessary to stay at the forefront. Last year the Jet Propulsion Laboratory launched a pioneering training program, known as Phaeton, to provide the knowledge, practice, experience, mentoring opportunities, and project life cycle exposure to our incoming generation of engineers. After 14 months of operation, now is the time to discuss the preliminary results of this new program.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF REPETITIONS PERFORMED AT GIVEN INTENSITIES IS DIFFERENT IN ENDURANCE AND STRENGTH TRAINED ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Richens, B.

    2014-01-01

    Prescribing training intensity and volume is a key problem when designing resistance training programmes. One approach is to base training prescription on the number of repetitions performed at a given percentage of repetition maximum due to the correlation found between these two measures. However, previous research has raised questions as to the accuracy of this method, as the repetitions completed at different percentages of 1RM can differ based upon the characteristics of the athlete. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of an athlete's training background on the relationship between the load lifted (as a percentage of one repetition maximum) and the number of repetitions achieved. Eight weightlifters and eight endurance runners each completed a one repetition maximum test on the leg press and completed repetitions to fatigue at 90, 80 and 70% of their one repetition maximum. The endurance runners completed significantly more repetitions than the weightlifters at 70% (39.9 ± 17.6 versus 17.9 ± 2.8; p < 0.05) and 80% (19.8 ± 6.4 versus 11.8 ± 2.7; p < 0.05) of their one repetition maximum but not at 90% (10.8 ± 3.9 versus 7.0 ± 2.1; p > 0.05) of one repetition maximum. These differences could be explained by the contrasting training adaptations demanded by each sport. This study suggests that traditional guidelines may underestimate the potential number of repetitions that can be completed at a given percentage of 1RM, particularly for endurance trained athletes. PMID:24899782

  9. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Cooke, Matthew B; Hayes, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids recently have been removed from International Olympic Committee banned substances lists, whereas ephedrine itself is now permissible at urinary concentrations less than 10 mug.mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes. Consequently, we sought to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine (C) or a combination of ephedra and caffeine (C + E) on muscular strength and anaerobic power using a double-blind, crossover design. Forty-five minutes after ingesting a glucose placebo (P: 300 mg), C (300 mg) or C + E (300 mg + 60 mg), 9 resistance-trained male participants were tested for maximal strength by bench press [BP; 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and latissimus dorsi pull down (LP; 1RM). Subjects also performed repeated repetitions at 80% of 1RM on both BP and LP until exhaustion. After this test, subjects underwent a 30-second Wingate test to determine peak anaerobic cycling power, mean power, and fatigue index. Although subjects reported increased alertness and enhanced mood after supplementation with caffeine and ephedra, there were no significant differences between any of the treatments in muscle strength, muscle endurance, or peak anaerobic power. Our results do not support the contention that supplementation with ephedra or caffeine will enhance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise performance. PMID:18550961

  10. Independent Association of Postdoctoral Training with Subsequent Careers in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M.; Nelson, David E.; Izmirlian, Grant; Ross, Katherine H.; Raue, Kimberley; Tsakraklides, Sophia; Miyaoka, Atsushi; Spiegelman, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career paths of alumni from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), a structured in-house postdoctoral training program of 3–4 years duration, and specifically what proportion of the alumni were currently performing cancer prevention-related activities. The analyses here included 119 CPFP alumni and 85 unsuccessful CPFP applicants, all of whom completed postdoctoral training between 1987–2011 and are currently employed. Postdoctoral training experiences and current career outcomes data were collected via online surveys. Differences between groups were assessed using chi-square and Fisher’s exact test p-values and subsequent regression analyses adjusted for differences between the groups. Compared to 15.3% of unsuccessful CPFP applicants, 52.1% of CPFP alumni (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI): 1.91–13.0) were currently spending the majority of their time working in cancer prevention. Among those doing any cancer prevention-focused work, 54.3% of CPFP alumni spent the majority of their time performing cancer prevention research activities when compared to 25.5% of unsuccessful applicants (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.38–13.2). In addition to the independent effect of the NCI CPFP, scientific discipline, and employment sector were also associated with currently working in cancer prevention and involvement in cancer prevention research-related activities. These results from a structured postdoctoral training program are relevant not only to the cancer prevention community but also to those interested in evaluating alignment of postdoctoral training programs with available and desired career paths more broadly. PMID:26659381

  11. Independent Association of Postdoctoral Training with Subsequent Careers in Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Nelson, David E; Izmirlian, Grant; Ross, Katherine H; Raue, Kimberley; Tsakraklides, Sophia; Miyaoka, Atsushi; Spiegelman, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career paths of alumni from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), a structured in-house postdoctoral training program of 3-4 years duration, and specifically what proportion of the alumni were currently performing cancer prevention-related activities. The analyses here included 119 CPFP alumni and 85 unsuccessful CPFP applicants, all of whom completed postdoctoral training between 1987-2011 and are currently employed. Postdoctoral training experiences and current career outcomes data were collected via online surveys. Differences between groups were assessed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test p-values and subsequent regression analyses adjusted for differences between the groups. Compared to 15.3% of unsuccessful CPFP applicants, 52.1% of CPFP alumni (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI): 1.91-13.0) were currently spending the majority of their time working in cancer prevention. Among those doing any cancer prevention-focused work, 54.3% of CPFP alumni spent the majority of their time performing cancer prevention research activities when compared to 25.5% of unsuccessful applicants (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.38-13.2). In addition to the independent effect of the NCI CPFP, scientific discipline, and employment sector were also associated with currently working in cancer prevention and involvement in cancer prevention research-related activities. These results from a structured postdoctoral training program are relevant not only to the cancer prevention community but also to those interested in evaluating alignment of postdoctoral training programs with available and desired career paths more broadly. PMID:26659381

  12. Beetroot juice does not enhance altitude running performance in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Josh Timothy; Oliver, Samuel James; Lewis-Jones, Tammy Maria; Wylie, Lee John; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) provided as concentrated beetroot juice supplement would improve endurance running performance of well-trained runners in normobaric hypoxia. Ten male runners (mean (SD): sea level maximal oxygen uptake, 66 (7) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 10 km personal best, 36 (2) min) completed incremental exercise to exhaustion at 4000 m and a 10-km treadmill time-trial at 2500 m simulated altitude on separate days after supplementation with ∼7 mmol NO3(-) and a placebo at 2.5 h before exercise. Oxygen cost, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during the incremental exercise test. Differences between treatments were determined using means [95% confidence intervals], paired sample t tests, and a probability of individual response analysis. NO3(-) supplementation increased plasma nitrite concentration (NO3(-), 473 (226) nmol·L(-1) vs. placebo, 61 (37) nmol·L(-1), P < 0.001) but did not alter time to exhaustion during the incremental test (NO3(-), 402 (80) s vs. placebo 393 (62) s, P = 0.5) or time to complete the 10-km time-trial (NO3(-), 2862 (233) s vs. placebo, 2874 (265) s, P = 0.6). Further, no practically meaningful beneficial effect on time-trial performance was observed as the 11 [-60 to 38] s improvement was less than the a priori determined minimum important difference (51 s), and only 3 runners experienced a "likely, probable" performance improvement. NO3(-) also did not alter oxygen cost, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, or RPE. Acute dietary NO3(-) supplementation did not consistently enhance running performance of well-trained athletes in normobaric hypoxia. PMID:25942474

  13. A Mixed-Methods Study Examining the Postgraduate Career Choices of Student-Athletes on 12 NCAA Women's Basketball Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Sharon R.

    2010-01-01

    Title IX, a federal law that was passed in 1972, ensured equitable treatment for women in any federally funded program. It affected educational institutions at every level (elementary, high school, higher education) and included areas such as admissions, facilities, financial assistance, and, most notably, athletics programs within those…

  14. How Career and Technical Education Can Jump-Start a New Industry: Chinese Government Turns to Career-Focused Schools in Maryland for Video Game Industry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Lawrence M.; Nikirk, F. Martin

    2009-01-01

    While career and technical education (CTE) has been an important part of the U.S. education system for decades, other countries have been slower to adopt and develop similar types of training. Realizing that CTE is crucial to developing homegrown talent capable of competing in a 21st century economy, countries like China are reaching out to…

  15. Acute effect of whole body vibration on isometric strength, squat jump, and flexibility in well-trained combat athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pekünlü, E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on maximal strength, squat jump, and flexibility of well-trained combat athletes. Twelve female and 8 male combat athletes (age: 22.8 ± 3.1 years, mass: 65.4 ± 10.7 kg, height: 168.8 ± 8.8 cm, training experience: 11.6 ± 4.7 years, training volume: 9.3 ± 2.8 hours/week) participated in this study. The study consisted of three sessions separated by 48 hours. The first session was conducted for familiarization. In the subsequent two sessions, participants performed WBV or sham intervention in a randomized, balanced order. During WBV intervention, four isometric exercises were performed (26 Hz, 4 mm). During the sham intervention, participants performed the same WBV intervention without vibration treatment (0 Hz, 0 mm). Hand grip, squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength tests were performed after each intervention. The results of a two-factor (pre-post[2] × intervention[2]) repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p = 0.018) of pre-post × intervention only for the hand grip test, indicating a significant performance increase of moderate effect (net increase of 2.48%, d = 0.61) after WBV intervention. Squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength performances were not affected by WBV. In conclusion, the WBV protocol used in this study potentiated hand grip performance, but did not enhance squat jump, trunk flexion, or isometric leg strength in well-trained combat athletes. PMID:26060334

  16. Networks of trainees: examining the effects of attending an interdisciplinary research training camp on the careers of new obesity scholars

    PubMed Central

    Godley, Jenny; Glenn, Nicole M; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2014-01-01

    Students training in obesity research, prevention, and management face the challenge of developing expertise in their chosen academic field while at the same time recognizing that obesity is a complex issue that requires a multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach. In appreciation of this challenge, the Canadian Obesity Network (CON) has run an interdisciplinary summer training camp for graduate students, new career researchers, and clinicians for the past 8 years. This paper evaluates the effects of attending this training camp on trainees’ early careers. We use social network analysis to examine the professional connections developed among trainee Canadian obesity researchers who attended this camp over its first 5 years of operation (2006–2010). We examine four relationships (knowing, contacting, and meeting each other, and working together) among previous trainees. We assess the presence and diversity of these relationships among trainees across different years and disciplines and find that interdisciplinary contact and working relationships established at the training camp have been maintained over time. In addition, we evaluate the qualitative data on trainees’ career trajectories and their assessments of the impact that the camp had on their careers. Many trainees report that camp attendance had a positive impact on their career development, particularly in terms of establishing contacts and professional relationships. Both the quantitative and the qualitative results demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary training and relationships for career development in the health sciences. PMID:25336965

  17. Networks of trainees: examining the effects of attending an interdisciplinary research training camp on the careers of new obesity scholars.

    PubMed

    Godley, Jenny; Glenn, Nicole M; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2014-01-01

    Students training in obesity research, prevention, and management face the challenge of developing expertise in their chosen academic field while at the same time recognizing that obesity is a complex issue that requires a multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach. In appreciation of this challenge, the Canadian Obesity Network (CON) has run an interdisciplinary summer training camp for graduate students, new career researchers, and clinicians for the past 8 years. This paper evaluates the effects of attending this training camp on trainees' early careers. We use social network analysis to examine the professional connections developed among trainee Canadian obesity researchers who attended this camp over its first 5 years of operation (2006-2010). We examine four relationships (knowing, contacting, and meeting each other, and working together) among previous trainees. We assess the presence and diversity of these relationships among trainees across different years and disciplines and find that interdisciplinary contact and working relationships established at the training camp have been maintained over time. In addition, we evaluate the qualitative data on trainees' career trajectories and their assessments of the impact that the camp had on their careers. Many trainees report that camp attendance had a positive impact on their career development, particularly in terms of establishing contacts and professional relationships. Both the quantitative and the qualitative results demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary training and relationships for career development in the health sciences. PMID:25336965

  18. Hope, Trust, and Dreaming Big: Student-Athlete Identity and Athletic Divisional Reclassification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Daniel B.; Newman, Richard E.; Miller, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletics are an indelible aspect of American higher education, and many collegiate athletes, particularly those at the Division I level, view their college careers as an extension of and springboard toward a professional sports career. This study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with men's athletic administrators…

  19. Analysis of Training Load and Competition During the PhD Course of a 3000-m Steeplechase Female Master Athlete: An Autobiography.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Elisa; Fulle, Stefania; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Pietrangelo, Tiziana

    2015-09-11

    The first author, Elisa Gabrielli, has been a distance runner for many years, and then at a particular point in her career, she decided to move over to the 3000-m steeplechase. She was attracted by this discipline as she believed that it would be the appropriate discipline for her, due to the challenge it provided her, and the necessary knowledge and awareness she had through her studies. For reasons that are discussed in this report, the 3000-m steeplechase is a race that is more difficult to interpret and manage biomechanically and physiologically than most others. Combining this with her PhD allowed her to use a multidisciplinary approach to review the competitive experience gained in this discipline. During this period, she indeed not only deepened the technical aspects of her training, but also those that underlie this discipline, through her knowledge of sport, with particular reference to the female athlete. Through her technical research, she was able to take 'snapshots' of what could happen from the physiological point of view. With satisfaction, she improved her performance in the 3000-m race and in the 3000-m steeplechase. How? In particular, she worked on her running technique through specific exercises. She worked on de-contraction and posture, while saving energy consumption. She worked on the control of her breathing, and she took into account her prevailing heart rate. This was all in combination with the consumption of specific nutrients, as she tried to manage the production of lactate with the training of the red muscle fibres that are rich in mitochondria. Finally, she tried to improve her perception of strenuous work, by training at high altitude. This allowed her not only to improve her physical performance, but especially to improve her mind-set, which allowed her to be more confident in herself and her abilities. PMID:26913156

  20. Analysis of Training Load and Competition During the PhD Course of a 3000-m Steeplechase Female Master Athlete: An Autobiography

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, Elisa; Fulle, Stefania; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The first author, Elisa Gabrielli, has been a distance runner for many years, and then at a particular point in her career, she decided to move over to the 3000-m steeplechase. She was attracted by this discipline as she believed that it would be the appropriate discipline for her, due to the challenge it provided her, and the necessary knowledge and awareness she had through her studies. For reasons that are discussed in this report, the 3000-m steeplechase is a race that is more difficult to interpret and manage biomechanically and physiologically than most others. Combining this with her PhD allowed her to use a multidisciplinary approach to review the competitive experience gained in this discipline. During this period, she indeed not only deepened the technical aspects of her training, but also those that underlie this discipline, through her knowledge of sport, with particular reference to the female athlete. Through her technical research, she was able to take ‘snapshots’ of what could happen from the physiological point of view. With satisfaction, she improved her performance in the 3000-m race and in the 3000-m steeplechase. How? In particular, she worked on her running technique through specific exercises. She worked on de-contraction and posture, while saving energy consumption. She worked on the control of her breathing, and she took into account her prevailing heart rate. This was all in combination with the consumption of specific nutrients, as she tried to manage the production of lactate with the training of the red muscle fibres that are rich in mitochondria. Finally, she tried to improve her perception of strenuous work, by training at high altitude. This allowed her not only to improve her physical performance, but especially to improve her mind-set, which allowed her to be more confident in herself and her abilities. PMID:26913156

  1. Development of a measurement and feedback training tool for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes.

    PubMed

    Lembert, Sandra; Schachner, Otto; Raschner, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the start plays a critical role in sliding events and explains more than 55% of the variance of the final time in luge. Experts evaluate the contribution of the arm strokes to be 23% of the total starting performance. The aim of the present study was to develop a measurement and feedback training tool (Speedpaddler) for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes. The construction is an aluminium alloy framework with a customary belt conveyor system, which is driven by two synchronized servo motors. Training is possible with constant speeds up to 12 m · s(-1) or several speed curves, which simulate the acceleration of different luge tracks. The construction facilitates variations in the inclination and speed of the conveyor belts and thereby the resistance and movement speed. If the athlete accelerates the conveyor belts during arm-paddling, the torque of the motors decreases. Torque measurements and high-speed video offer valuable insights into the several technique criteria. Comparisons of arm-paddle cycle durations on ice and on the Speedpaddler with 18 luge athletes (national team and juniors) showed no statistical differences. The Speedpaddler might be a useful tool to improve starting performance all year round. PMID:22077383

  2. Effects of Compliance on Trunk and Hip Integrative Neuromuscular Training on Hip Abductor Strength in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    SUGIMOTO, DAI; MYER, GREGORY D.; BUSH, HEATHER M.; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.

    2014-01-01

    Sugimoto, D, Myer, GD, Bush, HM, and Hewett, TE. Effects of compliance on trunk and hip integrative neuromuscular training on hip abductor strength in female athletes. Recent studies demonstrate the link between reduced hip abductor strength and increased risk for knee injury such as patellofemoral pain syndrome in women athletes. Meta-analytic reports indicate that the efficacy of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) is associated with compliance to the prescribed programming. Thus, the purpose was to investigate the compliance effects of a trunk and hip–focused INT exercises on hip abductor strength in young women athletes. In a controlled laboratory study design, 21 high school women volleyball players (mean age = 15.6 ± 1.4 years, weight = 64.0 ± 7.4 kg, height = 171.5 ± 7.0 cm) completed isokinetic hip abductor strength testing in pre- and postintervention, which consisted of 5 phases of supervised progressive trunk and hip–focused INT exercises twice a week for 10 weeks. The compliance effects were analyzed based on the changed hip abductor strength values between pre- and postintervention and 3 different compliance groups using 1-way analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The participants in the high-compliance group demonstrated significant hip abductor peak torque increases compared with noncompliance group (p = 0.02), but not between moderate-compliance and noncompliance groups (p = 0.27). The moderate correlation coefficient value (r = 0.56) was recorded between the isokinetic hip abductor peak torque changes and the 3 compliance groups. Because of the observed significant effects and moderate linear association, the effectiveness of a trunk and hip–focused INT protocol to improve hip abduction strength seems dependent on compliance. Compliance of trunk and hip–focused INT is an important aspect of increasing hip abductor strength increase in young women athletes. PMID:24751656

  3. Career Outcomes of Graduates of R25E Short-Term Cancer Research Training Programs.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Renee A; Padilla, Luz A; Daniel, Casey L; Prickett, Charles T; Venkatesh, Raam; Brooks, C Michael; Waterbor, John W

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy of short-term cancer research educational programs in meeting its immediate goals and long-term cancer research career objectives has not been well studied. The purpose of this report is to describe the immediate impact on, and the long-term career outcomes of, 499 medical students and graduate students who completed the Cancer Research Experiences for Students (CaRES) program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) from 1999 to 2013. In summer 2014, all 499 program alumni were located and 96.4 % (481 of 499) agreed to complete a longitudinal tracking survey. About 23 % of CaRES alumni (110 of 499) have published at least one cancer-related paper. Overall 238 cancer-related papers have been published by CaRES alumni, one third of this number being first-authored publications. Nearly 15 % (71 of 481 respondents) reported that their current professional activities include cancer research, primarily clinical research and outcomes research. Of these 71 individuals, 27 (38 %) have completed their training and 44 (62 %) remain in training. Of all respondents, 58 % reported that they administered care to cancer patients and 30 % reported other cancer-related professional responsibilities such as working with a health department or community group on cancer control activities. Of the 410 respondents not currently engaged in cancer research, 118 (29 %) stated intentions to conduct cancer research in the next few years. Nearly all respondents (99.6 %) recommended CaRES to today's students. Challenging short-term educational cancer research programs for medical students and graduate health professional students can help them refine and solidify their career plans, with many program alumni choosing cancer research careers. PMID:25604064

  4. University of Washington's eScience Institute Promotes New Training and Career Pathways in Data Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, S.; Parker, M. S.; Howe, B.; Lazowska, E.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid advances in technology are transforming nearly every field from "data-poor" to "data-rich." The ability to extract knowledge from this abundance of data is the cornerstone of 21st century discovery. At the University of Washington eScience Institute, our mission is to engage researchers across disciplines in developing and applying advanced computational methods and tools to real world problems in data-intensive discovery. Our research team consists of individuals with diverse backgrounds in domain sciences such as astronomy, oceanography and geology, with complementary expertise in advanced statistical and computational techniques such as data management, visualization, and machine learning. Two key elements are necessary to foster careers in data science: individuals with cross-disciplinary training in both method and domain sciences, and career paths emphasizing alternative metrics for advancement. We see persistent and deep-rooted challenges for the career paths of people whose skills, activities and work patterns don't fit neatly into the traditional roles and success metrics of academia. To address these challenges the eScience Institute has developed training programs and established new career opportunities for data-intensive research in academia. Our graduate students and post-docs have mentors in both a methodology and an application field. They also participate in coursework and tutorials to advance technical skill and foster community. Professional Data Scientist positions were created to support research independence while encouraging the development and adoption of domain-specific tools and techniques. The eScience Institute also supports the appointment of faculty who are innovators in developing and applying data science methodologies to advance their field of discovery. Our ultimate goal is to create a supportive environment for data science in academia and to establish global recognition for data-intensive discovery across all fields.

  5. A review of the effect of swim training and nutrition on bone mineral density in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present paper reviews the physiological adaptation to swim training and dietary supplementation relating to bone mineral density (BMD) in female swimmers. Swim training still seems to have conflicting effects on bone health maintenance in athletes. [Methods] This review article focuses on swim training combined with dietary supplementation with respect to BMD in female athletes. [Results] Upon review of previous studies, it became obvious that the majority of studies did not collect physical activity data on the swimmers outside of their swimming activities. These activities may have some influence on the BMD of swimmers and therefore, future studies need to examine additional physical activity history data as well as swim training. This additional information may help to explain why swimmers' BMD tends to be lower than the BMD of control individuals in many studies. Moreover, dietary supplementation such as calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D also affect bone health in swimmers, and it is extremely important to evaluate BMD in the context of dietary supplementation. [Conclusion] A review of the literature suggests that exercise intervention studies, including longitudinal and randomized control trials, need to attempt to introduce various exercise programs to female swimmers in order to determine the optimal exercise prescription for bone health. PMID:27274459

  6. Perceptions of Sport Retirement by Current Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffler, Brandy Sue

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the problem of college student-athletes retiring from their sports unprepared for life outside of sanctioned athletics. The purpose was to identify if a current student-athlete believes he/she is prepared for a career life after competitive college athletics and who the student-athlete feels should provide guidance into the…

  7. Aging, muscle fiber type, and contractile function in sprint-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Marko T; Cristea, Alexander; Alén, Markku; Häkkinen, Keijo; Sipilä, Sarianna; Mero, Antti; Viitasalo, Jukka T; Larsson, Lars; Suominen, Harri

    2006-09-01

    Biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis of 18- to 84-yr-old male sprinters (n = 91). Fiber-type distribution, cross-sectional area, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content were identified using ATPase histochemistry and SDS-PAGE. Specific tension and maximum shortening velocity (V(o)) were determined in 144 single skinned fibers from younger (18-33 yr, n = 8) and older (53-77 yr, n = 9) runners. Force-time characteristics of the knee extensors were determined by using isometric contraction. The cross-sectional area of type I fibers was unchanged with age, whereas that of type II fibers was reduced (P < 0.001). With age there was an increased MHC I (P < 0.01) and reduced MHC IIx isoform content (P < 0.05) but no differences in MHC IIa. Specific tension of type I and IIa MHC fibers did not differ between younger and older subjects. V(o) of fibers expressing type I MHC was lower (P < 0.05) in older than in younger subjects, but there was no difference in V(o) of type IIa MHC fibers. An aging-related decline of maximal isometric force (P < 0.001) and normalized rate of force development (P < 0.05) of knee extensors was observed. Normalized rate of force development was positively associated with MHC II (P < 0.05). The sprint-trained athletes experienced the typical aging-related reduction in the size of fast fibers, a shift toward a slower MHC isoform profile, and a lower V(o) of type I MHC fibers, which played a role in the decline in explosive force production. However, the muscle characteristics were preserved at a high level in the oldest runners, underlining the favorable impact of sprint exercise on aging muscle. PMID:16690791

  8. Bridging the Gap: Supporting Translational Research Careers Through an Integrated Research Track Within Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Melissa R.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Pincus, Harold A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    In the setting of traditional residency training programs, physician–scientists are often limited in their ability to pursue research training goals while meeting clinical training requirements. This creates a gap in research training at a critical developmental stage. In response, Columbia University Medical Center’s Department of Psychiatry, in partnership with the New York State Psychiatric Institute, has created a formal Research Track Program (RTP) for psychiatry residents so that interested individuals can maintain their attention on research training during formative residency years. Clinical and research training are integrated through core clinical rotations on research units. With protected research time and clear developmental milestones for each year of training, the RTP allows research track residents to meet both clinical and research training goals while maintaining a healthy work–life balance. In coordination with existing postdoctoral research fellowship programs, research track residents can effectively jump-start fellowship training with advanced course work and consistent, continuous mentorship bridging residency and fellowship years. A key element of the program is its provision of core training in research literacy and extensive research opportunities for all residents, stimulating research interest across the whole residency program. Supported by the National Institutes of Health and a private foundation, this RTP capitalizes on a unique academic–private partnership to address many of the challenges facing physician–scientists. By integrating clinical and research exposures and offering protected research time, careful mentoring, and financial resources, the program aims to further the development of those most poised to establish careers in translational research. PMID:23619070

  9. Effect of three day bed-rest on circulatory and hormonal responses to active orthostatic test in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubala, P.; Smorawinski, J.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Circulatory and hormonal parameters were measured in endurance-trained athletes and control subjects during orthostatic tolerance tests conducted prior to and after three days of bed rest. Heart rate and blood pressure changes due to bed rest appeared to be the same in both groups. Hormonal changes, however, were different between the two groups, with the athletes having decreased sympathoadrenal activity and increased plasma renin activity. Untrained subjects had changes in cortisol secretion only.

  10. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  11. Did Project 2000 nurse training change recruitment patterns or career expectations?

    PubMed

    Davies, C; Stilwell, J; Wilson, R; Carlisle, C; Luker, K

    2000-07-01

    In the UK, Project 2000 nurse education, introduced over the last eight years, aimed to increase the professional status of nurses and enhance skills, focusing on wider community care. This paper reports some of the results from a research project conducted between 1994 and 1996, funded by the Department of Health (Project 2000 Fitness for Purpose 1996). It was hypothesized that the changes in Project 2000 training might attract those more academically qualified and lead to more rapid career progression. The results found in this study did not support either of these hypotheses and suggestions are made about the reasons for the negative findings. PMID:10895124

  12. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Kids > Athlete's Foot Print A A ... a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...

  13. Developing a Model of Advanced Training to Promote Career Advancement for Certified Genetic Counselors: An Investigation of Expanded Skills, Advanced Training Paths, and Professional Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Baty, Bonnie J; Trepanier, Angela; Bennett, Robin L; Davis, Claire; Erby, Lori; Hippman, Catriona; Lerner, Barbara; Matthews, Anne; Myers, Melanie F; Robbins, Carol B; Singletary, Claire N

    2016-08-01

    There are currently multiple paths through which genetic counselors can acquire advanced knowledge and skills. However, outside of continuing education opportunities, there are few formal training programs designed specifically for the advanced training of genetic counselors. In the genetic counseling profession, there is currently considerable debate about the paths that should be available to attain advanced skills, as well as the skills that might be needed for practice in the future. The Association of Genetic Counseling Program Directors (AGCPD) convened a national committee, the Committee on Advanced Training for Certified Genetic Counselors (CATCGC), to investigate varied paths to post-master's training and career development. The committee began its work by developing three related grids that view career advancement from the viewpoints of the skills needed to advance (skills), ways to obtain these skills (paths), and existing genetic counselor positions that offer career change or advancement (positions). Here we describe previous work related to genetic counselor career advancement, the charge of the CATCGC, our preliminary work in developing a model through which to view genetic counselor advanced training and career advancement opportunities, and our next steps in further developing and disseminating the model. PMID:26739839

  14. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes – a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hun-young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. [Methods] Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. [Results] RBC (4.499×105 cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. [Conclusion] For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity. PMID:27298808

  15. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Adam W; Kushner, Adam M; Groene, John; Williams, Christopher; Riley, Michael A; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT) is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline) objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance. Key pointsSpecific, targeted interventions that isolate injury risk factors and can help correct modifiable neuromuscular deficits are essential.Current training interventions for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention have only demonstrated limited effectiveness and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption to reduce ACL injury rates.The paper provides an overview of innovative strategies and technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement neuromuscular training (NMT) including

  16. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand: The use of instability to train the core in athletic and nonathletic conditioning.

    PubMed

    Behm, David G; Drinkwater, Eric J; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Cowley, Patrick M

    2010-02-01

    The use of instability devices and exercises to train the core musculature is an essential feature of many training centres and programs. It was the intent of this position stand to provide recommendations regarding the role of instability in resistance training programs designed to train the core musculature. The core is defined as the axial skeleton and all soft tissues with a proximal attachment originating on the axial skeleton, regardless of whether the soft tissue terminates on the axial or appendicular skeleton. Core stability can be achieved with a combination of muscle activation and intra-abdominal pressure. Abdominal bracing has been shown to be more effective than abdominal hollowing in optimizing spinal stability. When similar exercises are performed, core and limb muscle activation are reported to be higher under unstable conditions than under stable conditions. However, core muscle activation that is similar to or higher than that achieved in unstable conditions can also be achieved with ground-based free-weight exercises, such as Olympic lifts, squats, and dead lifts. Since the addition of unstable bases to resistance exercises can decrease force, power, velocity, and range of motion, they are not recommended as the primary training mode for athletic conditioning. However, the high muscle activation with the use of lower loads associated with instability resistance training suggests they can play an important role within a periodized training schedule, in rehabilitation programs, and for nonathletic individuals who prefer not to use ground-based free weights to achieve musculoskeletal health benefits. PMID:20130673

  17. Comparison of Effect of Regular Unstructured Physical Training and Athletic Level Training on Body Composition and Cardio Respiratory Fitness in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; A, Vinayathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity and hypertension are global problems that are on the rise in India. Improving physical activity is an accepted main line of strategy for overcoming poor body composition, hypertension and reduced cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) all of which are considered as independent risk factors for the development of future cardiovascular complications. Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on anthropometric measures, body composition, blood pressure and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents. Settings and Design: This is a collaborative study between the Department of physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research and Residential school, Jawahar Navodhya Vidyalaya, Puducherry, India. Method and Material: Student volunteers in the age group of 12–17 years were classified into athletes (group 1) and physically active non-athletes (group 2). Parameters measured and calculated were weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage (BF%), fat free mass (FFM), Systolic (SBP) & Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP), Rate pressure product (RPP) and Predicted VO2 max. Statistical Analysis used: Mean difference between the groups was analysed using unpaired Student’s t–test. All statistical analysis was carried out for two-tailed significance at the 5 % level using SPSS version 19 (SPSSInc, USA). Results: Anthropometric measures, body composition measures and blood pressure values of both the group students were within the normal limits. There was no significant difference in anthropometric and body composition parameters between the group 1 and group 2 students. DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly lower in group 1 students when compared to group 2 students. VO2 max values were more in group 1 girls as compared to group 2 girls while the values of boys were comparable

  18. Effects and dose–response relationships of resistance training on physical performance in youth athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To quantify age, sex, sport and training type-specific effects of resistance training on physical performance, and to characterise dose–response relationships of resistance training parameters that could maximise gains in physical performance in youth athletes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. Data sources Studies were identified by systematic literature search in the databases PubMed and Web of Science (1985–2015). Weighted mean standardised mean differences (SMDwm) were calculated using random-effects models. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Only studies with an active control group were included if these investigated the effects of resistance training in youth athletes (6–18 years) and tested at least one physical performance measure. Results 43 studies met the inclusion criteria. Our analyses revealed moderate effects of resistance training on muscle strength and vertical jump performance (SMDwm 0.8–1.09), and small effects on linear sprint, agility and sport-specific performance (SMDwm 0.58–0.75). Effects were moderated by sex and resistance training type. Independently computed dose–response relationships for resistance training parameters revealed that a training period of >23 weeks, 5 sets/exercise, 6–8 repetitions/set, a training intensity of 80–89% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), and 3–4 min rest between sets were most effective to improve muscle strength (SMDwm 2.09–3.40). Summary/conclusions Resistance training is an effective method to enhance muscle strength and jump performance in youth athletes, moderated by sex and resistance training type. Dose–response relationships for key training parameters indicate that youth coaches should primarily implement resistance training programmes with fewer repetitions and higher intensities to improve physical performance measures of youth athletes. PMID:26851290

  19. Bridging the Generation Gap: A Rapid Early Career Hire Training Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieber, Richard R.; Coffee, Thomas; Dong, Shuonan; Infield, Samantha I.; Kilbride, Kendra B.; Seibert, Michael A.; Solish, Benjamin S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a training program to provide Early Career Hires (ECHs) in the aerospace industry with real, rapid, hands-on exposure to multiple phases and multiple disciplines of flight project development. Such a program has become necessary to close the Generation Gap and ensure that aerospace organizations maintain a highly skilled workforce as experienced personnel begin to retire. This paper discusses the specific motivations for and implementation of such a program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. However, the essential features are widely applicable to other NASA centers and organizations delivering large llight systems. This paper details the overall program concept, stages of participation by an ECH, oversight and mentoring, program assessment, training project selection, and facilities requirements.

  20. Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes Claire M. Hull and Julia A. Harris ... general adult population are indisputable. However, for the marathon athlete who trains intensively and for long periods ...

  1. [Musculoskeletal rehabilitation and bone. Abnormal bone metabolism in female elite athletes].

    PubMed

    Enatsu, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    Recently, female athletes are particularly well, the other hand, many athletes suffer from amenorrhea due to excessive training. Especially, in sports with weight restrictions, they suffer from "Female athlete triad" , eating disorders, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Amenorrhea is nothing else than a lack of estrogen, action on bone resorption and promote bone formation, by neglect this, it lead to osteoporosis and a stress fracture, and they would often give up their career as elite athletes. So we should consider it as serious sports injury. The problems of amenorrhea is should be recognized as a deficiency of estrogen. A Case of amenorrhea in female athletes, it is necessary to consider the hormone replacement therapy based on the appropriate diagnosis. However, it is important to start the management of body fat and body weight and strength of exercises since adolescent for the prevention the amenorrhea. PMID:20354328

  2. Effect of Implicit Perceptual-Motor Training on Decision-Making Skills and Underpinning Gaze Behavior in Combat Athletes.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Nicolas; Farrow, Damian; Fournier, Jean F

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-session, implicit perceptual-motor training program on decision-making skills and visual search behavior of highly skilled junior female karate fighters (M age = 15.7 years, SD = 1.2). Eighteen participants were required to make (physical or verbal) reaction decisions to various attacks within different fighting scenarios. Fighters' performance and eye movements were assessed before and after the intervention, and during acquisition through the use of video-based and on-mat decision-making tests. The video-based test revealed that following training, only the implicit perceptual-motor group (n = 6) improved their decision-making accuracy significantly compared to a matched motor training (placebo, n = 6) group and a control group (n = 6). Further, the implicit training group significantly changed their visual search behavior by focusing on fewer locations for longer durations. In addition, the session-by-session analysis showed no significant improvement in decision accuracy between training session 1 and all the other sessions, except the last one. Coaches should devote more practice time to implicit learning approaches during perceptual-motor training program to achieve significant decision-making improvements and more efficient visual search strategy with elite athletes. PMID:27371637

  3. Impact of Global Health Research Training on Career Trajectories: The Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars and Fellows Program.

    PubMed

    Heimburger, Douglas C; Carothers, Catherine Lem; Blevins, Meridith; Warner, Tokesha L; Vermund, Sten H

    2015-09-01

    From 2004 to 2012, the Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars/Fellows Program (FICRS-F) provided 1-year research training opportunities for U.S. and international doctoral "Scholars" and postdoctoral "Fellows" at low- and middle-income country (LMIC) centers. We collected data prospectively and then surveyed a representative sample of 100 alumni (94% response), assessing Program impacts on their careers and collaborations. Frequently, collaborations continued beyond the formal training period with U.S.- (63%) and site-based mentors (66%). U.S. Fellows reported the highest post-training focus on research (88 on a 100-point scale), and the highest Program impact on competitiveness for career or training positions and choices of post-training topics and institutions (95 points). Interest in global health research increased markedly during the training period, especially for LMIC trainees, and was sustained post-training. LMIC alumni reported a significantly higher focus on global health and research than did U.S. alumni. Alumni reported that their mentored research training had a substantial impact on their career trajectories. PMID:26195466

  4. The effects of whole-body vibration in isolation or combined with strength training in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Preatoni, Ezio; Colombo, Alessandro; Verga, Monica; Galvani, Christel; Faina, Marcello; Rodano, Renato; Preatoni, Ennio; Cardinale, Marco

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the behavior of a vibrating platform under different conditions and to compare the effects of an 8-week periodized training program with whole-body vibration (WBV) alone or in combination with conventional strength training (ST). Vibrating frequencies, displacements, and peak accelerations were tested through a piezoelectric accelerometer under different conditions of load and subjects' position. Eighteen national-level female athletes were assigned to 1 of 3 different groups performing WBV, conventional ST, or a combination of the 2 (WBV + ST). Isometric maximal voluntary contraction, dynamic maximal concentric force, and vertical jump tests were performed before and after the conditioning program. Vibrating displacements and maximum accelerations measured on the device were not always consistent with their expected values calculated from the display and manufacturers' information (sinusoidal waveforms). The WBV alone or in combination with low-intensity resistance exercise did not seem to induce significant enhancements in force and power when compared with ST. It appears that WBV cannot substitute parts of ST loading in a cohort of young female athletes. However, vibration effects might be limited by the behavior of the commercial platforms as the one used in the study. More studies are needed to analyze the performances of devices and the effectiveness of protocols. PMID:22067255

  5. A comparison of traditional learning and problem-based learning in pharmacology education for athletic training students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Michael Richard

    The purpose of this research project was to compare Traditional Learning (TL) activities with Problem-based Learning (PBL) activities in an undergraduate pharmacology course. Fifteen athletic training students served as the sample. The students completed a four-week program focusing on analgesic and anti-inflammatory medications. All students received instruction via TL methods and PBL methods. The two methods were compared on measures of student satisfaction, content acquisition, problem-solving skill, and critical thinking skills. The results revealed a statistically significant difference (p value < .001) for student performance on essay exams when scored for problem solving skills. There were no statistically significant differences for content acquisition using multiple-choice exams or on the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The focus group revealed support for the reported benefits of PBL, support for TL, and encouragement for a combined course. The results suggest that the PBL method is as effective as the TL method in regards to content acquisition and performance on the CCTST. However, student problem solving abilities appear to improve after PBL methods as evidenced with the improved performance on the essay exams. Educational effectiveness and reported benefits from the focus group support the use of PBL in the education of athletic training students in the domain of pharmacology.

  6. Effect of two complex training protocols of back squats in blood indicators of muscular damage in military athletes.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Ríos, Ignacio Chirosa; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the variations in the blood muscular damage indicators post application of two complex training programs for back squats. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The study had a quasi-experimental cross-over intra-subject design. Two complex training protocols were applied, and the variables to be measured were cortisol, metabolic creatine kinase, and total creatine kinase. For the statistical analysis, Student's t-test was used. [Results] Twenty-four hours post effort, a significant decrease in cortisol level was shown for both protocols; however, the metabolic creatine kinase and total creatine kinase levels showed a significant increase. [Conclusion] Both protocols lowered the indicator of main muscular damage in the blood supply (cortisol). This proved that the work weight did not generate significant muscular damage in the 24-hour post-exercise period. PMID:27313356

  7. Effect of two complex training protocols of back squats in blood indicators of muscular damage in military athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Ríos, Ignacio Chirosa; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the variations in the blood muscular damage indicators post application of two complex training programs for back squats. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The study had a quasi-experimental cross-over intra-subject design. Two complex training protocols were applied, and the variables to be measured were cortisol, metabolic creatine kinase, and total creatine kinase. For the statistical analysis, Student’s t-test was used. [Results] Twenty-four hours post effort, a significant decrease in cortisol level was shown for both protocols; however, the metabolic creatine kinase and total creatine kinase levels showed a significant increase. [Conclusion] Both protocols lowered the indicator of main muscular damage in the blood supply (cortisol). This proved that the work weight did not generate significant muscular damage in the 24-hour post-exercise period. PMID:27313356

  8. Future Directions of Evidence-Based Practice in Athletic Training: Perceived Strategies to Enhance the Use of Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Cailee E.; Hankemeier, Dorice A.; Wyant, Aimee L.; Hays, Danica G.; Pitney, William A.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The shift to a culture of evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is a necessary step in both the optimization of patient care and the advancement of athletic trainers (ATs) as health care professionals. Whereas individuals have gained knowledge in this area, most ATs still are not practicing in an evidence-based manner. Exploring perceived strategies to enhance the use of EBP will help to determine the best approaches to assist ATs in applying EBP concepts to practice to improve patient care. Objective: To explore beneficial strategies and techniques ATs perceived would promote successful implementation of EBP within athletic training education and clinical practice. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Individual telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five ATs (12 educators, 13 clinicians; athletic training experience = 16.00 ± 9.41 years) were interviewed. Data Collection and Analysis: One phone interview was conducted with each participant. After the interview was transcribed, the data were analyzed and coded into common themes and categories. Triangulation of the data occurred via the use of multiple researchers and member checking to confirm the accuracy of the data. Results: Participants identified several components they perceived as essential for enhancing the use of EBP within the athletic training profession. These components included the need for more EBP resources, more processed information, focused workshops, peer discussion and mentorship, and continual repetition and exposure. Participants also indicated that ATs need to accept their professional responsibilities to foster EBP in their daily practices. Conclusions: The proper shift to a culture of EBP in athletic training will take both time and a persistent commitment by ATs to create strategies that will enhance the implementation of EBP across the profession. Researchers should focus on continuing to identify effective educational interventions for ATs

  9. Evaluation Models for Continuing Education Program Efficacy: How Does Athletic Training Continuing Education Measure up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty-Restrepo, Jennifer L.; Hughes, Brian J.; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Pitney, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although continuing education is required for athletic trainers (AT) to maintain their Board of Certification credential, little is known regarding its efficacy for advancing knowledge and improving patient care. Continuing professional education (CPE) is designed to provide professionals with important practical learning opportunities.…

  10. Athletic Training Services and Student Health Services on Campus: Working Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, H. Spencer

    2003-01-01

    The interests of the student athlete are best served when their medical care is managed by professionals who understand their unique needs. Most often, that is under the umbrella of the student health service, regardless of who performs direct clinical care. Unfortunately, in practice, this is too often the exception rather than the rule. A close…

  11. Perceptions from Graduates of Professional Athletic Training Programs Involved in Peer-Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dana Karlene

    2014-01-01

    Context: Research has not explored how peer-assisted learning (PAL) impacts graduates once they are practicing as athletic trainers. Peer-assisted learning has been used in a variety of health education settings but there is a lack of data on its effects on the performance of graduates. Objective: To investigate professional graduates'…

  12. Research Training and Career Patterns of Bioscientists: The Training Programs of the National Institutes of Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    Included in this study are two principal tasks: (1) the preparation of a computerized roster containing relevant program information on essentially all former trainees and fellows supported by the National Institutes of Health back to the inception of the training programs in 1938, and (2) the analysis of these data and related data to determine…

  13. Tradevman 1 & C. Naval Education and Training Command. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Washington, DC.

    Designed as a self-study text for enlisted personnel of the Navy and Naval Reserve, this rate training manual presents information that is directly related to the professional standards for advancement to Petty Officer Third Class and Petty Officer Second Class in the Tradevman (TD) rating. (Tradevmen install, repair, modify, and maintain…

  14. Construction Mechanic 3 & 2. Naval Education and Training Command Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Washington, DC.

    Designed for individual study and nonformal classroom instruction, this Navy training manual provides subject matter that relates to the occupational standards of the construction mechanic rating. Each chapter includes line drawings, diagrams, and photos illustrating the subject matter. Subjects covered include the following: preparation for…

  15. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  16. Treatment of athletes.

    PubMed

    DALY, J J

    1958-06-01

    Treating participants in athletics requires the coordination of coaches, trainers, administrators and physician. Often in cases of proneness to injury, a cause can be found and correction may be obtained by further training or withdrawal of the athlete from the team. Certain types of injury should be always kept in mind in the examination of athletes, particularly football players. Ligamentous tears, myositis ossificans, navicular fracture and brain injury are injuries that may not be precisely diagnosed at the initial examination. PMID:13536862

  17. Perceptions of Career and Technology and Training and Development Students regarding Basic Personal Computer Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jason L.; Davis, Harley

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 58 students in career and technology teacher education and training and development was surveyed to determine self-perception as to their competency in five constructs containing 43 elements related to personal computer knowledge and skills. In an analysis of all computer knowledge and skill elements combined, there was no…

  18. Processes in Career Selection: A Demonstration Project in Staff Development: An Area Approach to In-Service Training: Part One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineral Area Coll., Flat River, MO.

    The project was designed to demonstrate the use of a college credit course to provide inservice training for key elementary, secondary, vocational, and college staff numbers. They were selected by school administrators and given the reponsibility of leadership in developing plans to initiate career selection teaching teaching procedures in each…

  19. Integrating Theory and Practice to Increase Scientific Workforce Diversity: A Framework for Career Development in Graduate Research Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Gutierrez, Belinda; Topp, Sharon; Carnes, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Few, if any, educational interventions intended to increase underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students in biological and behavioral sciences are informed by theory and research on career persistence. Training and Education to Advance Minority Scholars in Science (TEAM-Science) is a program funded by the National Institute of General Medical…

  20. A Study of the Drivers of Commitment amongst Nurses: The Salience of Training, Development and Career Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Thomas Joseph; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to highlight factors influencing the commitment of nurses, and particularly focuses on the role of training, development and career issues. It provides the basis for a HRD framework, outlining policy choices in developing high commitment amongst nursing staff. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research…

  1. Careers in the Biotechnology Industry: What Do Our Students Do in the Industry and What Degrees and Training Are Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahms, A. Stephen; Bourque, Janis

    2001-01-01

    Part of a series designed to facilitate better understanding of the biotechnology industry by the academic educational and research training sector, concentrates on careers in biotechnology. Discusses jobs that reflect the industry as a whole and can be extrapolated to the industry both nationally and internationally. (Author/MM)

  2. Does wearing clothing made of a synthetic “cooling” fabric improve indoor cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes?

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Sara J; Krug, Robin; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, crossover study examined the effects of a clothing ensemble made of a synthetic fabric promoted as having superior cooling properties (COOL) on exercise performance and its physiological and perceptual determinants during cycle exercise in ambient laboratory conditions that mimic environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. Twenty athletes (15 men:5 women) aged 25.8 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SEM) with a maximal rate of O2 consumption of 63.7 ± 1.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed cycle exercise testing at 85% of their maximal incremental power output to exhaustion while wearing an ensemble consisting of a fitted long-sleeved shirt and full trousers made of either COOL or a synthetic control fabric (CTRL). Exercise endurance time was not different under COOL versus CTRL conditions: 12.38 ± 0.98 versus 11.75 ± 1.10 min, respectively (P > 0.05). Similarly, COOL had no effect on detailed thermoregulatory (skin and esophageal temperatures), cardiometabolic, ventilatory, and perceptual responses to exercise (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, clothing made of a synthetic fabric with purported “cooling” properties did not improve high-intensity cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes under ambient laboratory conditions that mimic the environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. PMID:26290527

  3. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance. PMID:27445856

  4. An Assessment of Technical Assistance and Training Needs in New Careers Projects Being Sponsored by the United States Training and Employment Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jerusa C.; And Others

    The New Careers concept involves helping the disadvantaged to help themselves, by offering them entry level jobs with the opportunity for advancement to the professional level. A definite hierarchy is established according to tasks and educational requirements, and training is provided during the work day to provide the means for advancement. The…

  5. Use of Advanced Bleeding Control Mechanisms in Athletic Training: A Shift in the Thought Process of Prehospital Care. Part 1: Tourniquets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert; Payne, Ellen K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide athletic training educators (ATE) with evidence regarding the use of tourniquets in the prehospital setting as well as to be a resource on how to teach the management of external hemorrhage using tourniquets.

  6. A Learner-Centered Technique and Clinical Reasoning, Reflection, and Case Presentation Attributes in Athletic Training Students

    PubMed Central

    Heinerichs, Scott; Vela, Luzita I.; Drouin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Providing opportunities to develop clinical decision-making skills, including clinical reasoning, is an important aspect of clinical education. The learner-centered technique of summarizing the history and findings, narrowing the differential, analyzing the differential, probing the instructor about uncertainties, plan management, and selecting an issue for self-directed study (SNAPPS) is used in medicine to express clinical reasoning. Objective: To investigate the effects of SNAPPS on the clinical reasoning, reflection, and 4 case presentation attributes (length, conciseness, case summary, and expression of clinical reasoning) in athletic training students. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Three undergraduate programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Patients or Other Participants: We randomly assigned 38 athletic training students (17 men, 21 women; age = 21.53 ± 1.18 years, grade point average = 3.25 ± 0.31) who had completed at least 1 year of clinical education and all orthopaedic evaluation coursework to the SNAPPS group or the usual and customary group using a stratification scheme. Intervention(s): The SNAPPS group completed four 45-minute clinical reasoning and case presentation learning modules led by an investigator to learn the SNAPPS technique, whereas the usual and customary group received no formal instruction. Both groups audio recorded all injury evaluations performed over a 2-week period. Main Outcome Measures: Participants completed the Diagnostic Thinking Inventory and Reflection in Learning Scale twice. Case presentations were analyzed for 4 attributes: length, conciseness, case summary, and expression of clinical reasoning. Results: Case presentations were longer (t18.806 = −5.862, P < .001) but were more concise (t32 = 11.297, P < .001) for the SNAPPS group than for the usual and customary group. The SNAPPS group performed better on both the case summary subscale

  7. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  8. Excitability of the soleus reflex arc during intensive stretch-shortening cycle exercise in two power-trained athlete groups.

    PubMed

    Avela, Janne; Finni, Jarkko; Komi, Paavo V

    2006-07-01

    In several explosive types of sport events the leg extensor muscles are subjected to very high impact loads. Thus, extreme requirements exist for the neuromuscular system to develop sufficient muscle stiffness in the lower extremities in order to tolerate these high impact loads. Therefore, it would be challenging to measure reflex modulation during high impact activities, and with different athlete populations. In the present experiment, H-reflex and short latency reflex (M1) sensitivity was measured during drop jump exercises among high jumpers and sprinters. The changes in both reflex peak-to-peak amplitudes showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction towards the end of the exercise for the sprinters. In addition, the same subject group showed a remarkable increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) activity 2 h after the jumps. Similar changes could not be observed for the high jumpers. These results clearly indicate different neural adaptation strategies for the two athlete groups. Reduction in H-reflex sensitivity and an increase in CK-activity in sprinters were taken as evidence for presynaptic inhibition, probably induced by substances related to muscle damage. Since high jump training includes more high impact loading, it was assumed that it could lead to some structural adaptation and, thus, prevents exercise induced reflex modification to a certain extent. PMID:16763835

  9. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Players' Perceptions of Women in the Athletic Training Room Using a Role Congruity Framework

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Caitlin; Grappendorf, Heidi; Burton, Laura; Harmon, Sandra M.; Henderson, Angela C.; Peel, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Previous researchers have demonstrated that male and female athletes feel more comfortable with treatment by a same-sex athletic trainer for sex-specific injuries and conditions. Objective: To address football players' comfort with care provided by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers for sex-specific and non–sex-specific injuries and conditions through the lens of role congruity theory. Design: Cross-sectional study for the quantitative data and qualitative study for the qualitative data. Setting: Two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Series university football programs. Patients or Other Participants: Male football players within the 2 university programs. Data Collection and Analysis: We replicated existing methods and an existing survey to address male football players' comfort levels. Additionally, an open-ended question was used to determine male football players' perceptions of female athletic trainers. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to identify differences between the responses for the care given by a male athletic trainer and for the care given by a female athletic trainer. Three categories were analyzed: general medical conditions, psychological conditions, and sex-specific injuries. The qualitative data were coded and analyzed using content analysis. Results: Male football players were more comfortable with treatment by a male athletic trainer (mean  =  3.61 ± 1.16) for sex-specific injuries and conditions than they were with treatment by a female athletic trainer (mean  =  2.82 ± 1.27; P < .001). No significant results were found for comfort with overall psychological conditions, although a female athletic trainer was preferred over a male athletic trainer for the treatment of depression (mean  =  3.71 ± 1.07 versus mean  =  3.39 ± 1.16, respectively; P < .001). Qualitative data provided support for role congruity theory. Conclusions: Both quantitative and qualitative

  10. The Influence of Age on the M Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training to Reduce Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Sugimoto, Dai; Thomas, Staci; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In female athletes, sports-related injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) increase during adolescence and peak in incidence during the mid- to late teens. Although biomechanical investigations indicate that a potential window of opportunity exists for optimal timing for the initiation of integrative neuromuscular training (NMT) in young female athletes, the influence of the timing of initiation of these programs on the efficacy of ACL injury reduction has yet to be evaluated. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of the current report was to systematically review and synthesize the scientific literature regarding the influence of age of NMT implementation on the effectiveness for reduction of ACL injury incidence. The hypothesis tested was that NMT would show a greater effect in younger populations. Study Design Meta-analysis; Level of evidence 1a. Methods Data were pooled from 14 clinical trials that met the inclusion criteria of (1) number of ACL injuries reported; (2) NMT program used; (3) female participants were included; (4) investigations used prospective, controlled trials; and (5) age of participants was documented or was obtainable upon contact with the authors. A meta-analysis with odds ratio (OR) was used to compare the ratios of ACL injuries between intervention and control groups among differing age categorizations. Results A meta-analysis of the 14 included studies demonstrated significantly greater knee injury reduction in female athletes who were categorized in the preventive NMT group compared with those who were in the control group (OR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35, 0.83). Lower ACL injuries in mid-teens (OR 0.28; CI: 0.18, 0.42) compared with late teens (OR 0.48; CI: 0.21, 1.07) and early adults (OR 1.01; CI: 0.62, 1.64) were found in participants undergoing NMT. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis revealed an age-related association between NMT implementation and reduction of ACL incidence. Both

  11. Strength and Motivation: What College Athletes Bring to Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheyett, Anna; Dean, Charlotte; Zeitlin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    College athletes develop many strengths and skills during their athletic career, such as dedication, ability to work across cultures, leadership, and community building. Social workers need many of these same skills. This study explores the potential transfer of skills from athletics to social work among 15 former college athlete MSW students.…

  12. The effects of traditional and enforced stopping speed and agility training on multidirectional speed and athletic function.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Schultz, Adrian B; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of a traditional speed and agility training program (TSA) and an enforced stopping program emphasizing deceleration (ESSA). Twenty college-aged team sport athletes (16 males, 4 females) were allocated into the training groups. Pretesting and posttesting included: 0-10, 0-20, 0-40 m sprint intervals, change-of-direction, and acceleration test (CODAT), T-test (multidirectional speed); vertical, standing broad, lateral, and drop jumps, medicine ball throw (power); Star Excursion Balance Test (posteromedial, medial, anteromedial reaches; dynamic stability); and concentric (240° · s(-1)) and eccentric (30° · s(-1)) knee extensor and flexor isokinetic testing (unilateral strength). Both groups completed a 6-week speed and agility program. The ESSA subjects decelerated to a stop within a specified distance in each drill. A repeated measures analysis of variance determined significant (p ≤ 0.05) within- and between-group changes. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated. The TSA group improved all speed tests (d = 0.29-0.96), and most power tests (d = 0.57-1.10). The ESSA group improved the 40-m sprint, CODAT, T-test, and most power tests (d = 0.46-1.31) but did not significantly decrease 0-10 and 0-20 m times. The TSA group increased posteromedial and medial excursions (d = 0.97-1.89); the ESSA group increased medial excursions (d = 0.99-1.09). The ESSA group increased concentric knee extensor and flexor strength, but also increased between-leg knee flexor strength differences (d = 0.50-1.39). The loading associated with stopping can increase unilateral strength. Coaches should ensure deceleration drills allow for appropriate sprint distances before stopping, and athletes do not favor 1 leg for stopping after deceleration. PMID:24169474

  13. The use of pupillometry in the assessment of cardiac autonomic function in elite different type trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Kaltsatou, Antonia; Kouidi, Evangelia; Fotiou, Dimitrios; Deligiannis, Pantazis

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic function by pupillometry in male athletes. Fifteen elite endurance- (END) and eleven power-trained (POWER) athletes and fifteen sedentary individuals (CONTROL) were studied. All subjects underwent three pupillometric measurements: at rest, peak exercise testing and recovery phase. The pupillometric indices studied were: baseline pupil radius (R1), minimum pupil radius (R2), maximum constriction velocity (VC(max)), maximum constriction acceleration (AC(max)), amplitude (AMP, R1-R2), constriction ratio (AMP%). During exercise, RR intervals were obtained for each subject with a Polar S810i for time and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. The following parameters of HRV were measured: standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN), the mean square successive differences (rMSSD), percent of NN intervals differing >50 ms from the preceding NN (pNN50), low (LF)- and high (HF)- frequency components of the autoregressive power spectrum of the NN intervals and their ratio (LF/HF). At rest and recovery, END showed significantly increased VC(max) and AC(max) compared to POWER and CONTROL. AMP% was significantly greater in END at rest, peak exercise and recovery compared to POWER and CONTROL. END and POWER had significantly greater AMP at rest and recovery compared to CONTROL. Moreover, all HRV indices were significantly increased in END compared to POWER and CONTROL. However, POWER showed significantly increased rMSSD and LF compared to CONTROL. HRV parameters were significantly correlated with pupillometric parameters during exercise. Our results indicated that any kind of exercise training and mainly endurance one affects autonomic regulation of pupillary light reflex. PMID:21259023

  14. Ohio's Career Continuum: Family Life, Motivation, Orientation, Exploration, Vocational or Pre-Professional Training, Adult, Technical and Collegiate Training. Career Exploration Program. Grades 9-10. Career Development Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    This curriculum guide on career exploration for ninth and tenth grade teachers is designed as an experimental curriculum to facilitate the interfacing of career education concepts with the instructional program goals in individual school situations. This guide begins with several short sections discussing the career education continuum, Ohio's…

  15. Has the athlete trained enough to return to play safely? The acute:chronic workload ratio permits clinicians to quantify a player's risk of subsequent injury.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Peter; Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-04-01

    The return to sport from injury is a difficult multifactorial decision, and risk of reinjury is an important component. Most protocols for ascertaining the return to play status involve assessment of the healing status of the original injury and functional tests which have little proven predictive ability. Little attention has been paid to ascertaining whether an athlete has completed sufficient training to be prepared for competition. Recently, we have completed a series of studies in cricket, rugby league and Australian rules football that have shown that when an athlete's training and playing load for a given week (acute load) spikes above what they have been doing on average over the past 4 weeks (chronic load), they are more likely to be injured. This spike in the acute:chronic workload ratio may be from an unusual week or an ebbing of the athlete's training load over a period of time as in recuperation from injury. Our findings demonstrate a strong predictive (R(2)=0.53) polynomial relationship between acute:chronic workload ratio and injury likelihood. In the elite team setting, it is possible to quantify the loads we are expecting athletes to endure when returning to sport, so assessment of the acute:chronic workload ratio should be included in the return to play decision-making process. PMID:26701923

  16. Impact of milk consumption and resistance training on body composition of female athletes.

    PubMed

    Josse, Andrea R; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-01-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) preceding the provision of high-quality dairy protein supports muscle anabolism. Milk contains bioactive components, including two high-quality protein fractions, calcium and vitamin D, each of which has been shown modulate body composition (increasing lean mass and decreasing fat mass) under energy balance and hypoenergetic conditions. These dairy nutrients are also essential for skeletal health. Acutely, no study of RE and milk/whey consumption has been undertaken exclusively in female athletes, let alone women, nevertheless, studies with both men and women show increased lean mass accretion following milk/whey compared to soy/placebo. Currently, no longer-term RE studies with milk supplementation have been done in female athletes. However, trials in young recreationally active women demonstrated augmented increases in lean mass and decreases in fat mass with RE and milk or whey protein consumption. The amount of protein consumed post-exercise is also important; two trials using yogurt (5 g protein/6 oz) failed to demonstrate a positive change in body composition compared to placebo. For bone health, RE plus dairy improved bone mineral density at clinically important sites and reduced bone resorption. With energy restriction, in one study, higher dairy plus higher protein resulted in greater fat loss, lean mass gain and improved bone health in overweight women. In another study, milk and calcium supplementation showed no greater benefit. Neither trial exclusively utilized RE. Overall, RE and milk/dairy consumption positively impact body composition in women by promoting losses in fat, gains or maintenance of lean mass and preservation of bone. Future studies in female athletes and under energy restriction with RE alone are warranted. PMID:23075559

  17. Careers and Professional Activities of Graduates of a Medical Scientist Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, William D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The medical scientist program at the Duke University School of Medicine was designed to prepare students with clinical experience for careers in basic science, clinical teaching, and investigation. The career selections and professional activities of graduates and the factors that may have influenced their career choices are examined. (MLW)

  18. An Interpersonal Psychotherapy Approach to Counseling Student Athletes: Clinical Implications of Athletic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heird, Emily Benton; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that disruptive circumstances in an athlete's career (temporary injury, permanent injury, retirement) can pose significant difficulties, especially if the athlete has developed a salient athletic identity at the expense of a multidimensional self-concept. The authors present an interpersonal psychotherapy approach to case…

  19. The athlete's hip and groin.

    PubMed

    Tammareddi, Kumar; Morelli, Vincent; Reyes, Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Groin and hip injuries are seen in athletes who perform quick directional changes and cutting movements. Because forces generated through athletic performance are transferred through the hip, injuries to these areas may limit athletes with mild pain or lead to career-ending injuries. The anatomy of the hip and groin is complex and symptoms often overlap. This article discusses some athletic causes, but other medical conditions may be associated with hip and groin pain as well. Updates in evaluation and treatment are discussed for adductor strains, hip osteoarthritis, femoroacetabular impingement, sports hernia, osteitis pubis, and obturator nerve entrapment. PMID:23668647

  20. Corporate Career Demonstration Project: Impact of a Thirteen-Week Training Program on the Personal, Interpersonal, and Academic Skills of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berneman, Louis P.; And Others

    The Corporate Career Demonstration Project is a Federally funded program designed to provide economically disadvantaged young adults with specialized training, counseling and educational experiences. The project's major goal is to prepare these youth for entry level corporate career positions they would otherwise be unable to obtain. Applicants…

  1. Career and Training in the New Economy: A Study Focused to Small Scale Enterprises Located in OSTIM Organized Industrial Region in Ankara/Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Hasan Huseyin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe training levels related to careers, employment, and influences of "new economy" in small and mid-sized firms. The organizational side of career development behaviors was also a focus of this study. Interviews related to company policies and practices were conducted with 26 employers or managers…

  2. Industrial Medicine and Athletic Training: Cost-Effectiveness in the Non-traditional Setting

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Gregory R.

    1993-01-01

    Helping disabled workers to return to work is the goal of many corporate rehabilitation efforts. Increasingly, employers are providing rehabilitation services either as part of their overall disability management approach, or as a special program aimed at facilitating return to work. Finding a program that offers cost management, as well as facilitating appropriate return to work is the objective of most employers in effective disability management. Disability management involves two types of costs: wage-related benefit costs and costs for rehabilitation services or treatment. Whether the injuries occur at work or leisure, the costs will be borne by the company in some fashion. There are clear benefits from using an in-house program. Increasingly, corporate managers are employing athletic trainers to provide this rehabilitation service on-site. PMID:16558220

  3. The Future of Genomic Research in Athletic Performance and Adaptation to Training.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan; Tanaka, Masashi; Eynon, Nir; North, Kathryn N; Williams, Alun G; Collins, Malcolm; Moran, Colin N; Britton, Steven L; Fuku, Noriyuki; Ashley, Euan A; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Ahmetov, Ildus I; de Geus, Eco; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, an individual's trainability and injury predisposition, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies focusing predominantly on genotyping a limited number of genetic variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts has not generated results of practical significance. Hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will in the future provide more comprehensive coverage and in-depth understanding of the biology underlying sports-related traits and related genetic mechanisms. Large, collaborative projects with sound experimental designs (e.g. clearly defined phenotypes, considerations and controls for sources of variability, and necessary replications) are required to produce meaningful results, especially when a hypothesis-free approach is used. It remains to be determined whether the novel approaches under current implementation will result in findings with real practical significance. This review will briefly summarize current and future directions in exercise genetics and genomics. PMID:27287077

  4. Injuries and Footwear (Part 1): Athletic Shoe History and Injuries in Relation to Foot Arch Height and Training in Boots.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney; Orr, Robin; Grier, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the history of the athletic shoe, examines whether selecting running shoes based on foot arch height influences injuries, and examines historical data on injury rates when physical training (PT) is performed in boots versus running shoes. In the 1980s and into the 2000s, running shoe companies were advertising specialized shoes with "motion control," "stability," and "cushioning," designed for individuals with low, normal, and high arches, respectively. Despite marketing claims that these shoes would reduce injury rates, coordinated studies in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps basic training showed that assigning or selecting shoes on this basis had no effect on injury rates. Consistent with this finding, biomechanical studies have shown that the relationships between arch height, foot joint mobility, and rear-foot motion are complex, variable, and frequently not as strong as often assumed. In 1982, the US Army switched from PT in boots to PT in running shoes because of the belief that boots were causing injuries and that running shoes would reduce injury rates. However, a historical comparison of injury rates before and after the switch to running shoes showed virtually no difference in injury risk between the two periods. It is not clear at this point if the type of footwear effects injury incidence. PMID:26630104

  5. Physiological, Perceptual and Psychological Responses of Career versus Volunteer Firefighters to Live-fire Training Drills.

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, Steven J; Poh, Paula Y S; Greenlee, Tina A; Goldstein, Eric; Horn, Gavin P; Smith, Denise L

    2014-11-13

    A primary objective of the present study was to examine the effect of short-term live-fire firefighting activities on key physiological, perceptual and psychological variables and whether occupational status influenced these responses. It was also of interest to examine whether individual difference factors differentiated the occupational status groups and if so, whether such individual difference factors influenced perceptual and psychological responses to firefighting activities. Male firefighters (n = 52 career, n = 53 volunteer firefighters) participated in 18 min of simulated firefighting activity in a training structure that contained live fires. Measures of heart rate (HR) and Tcore were obtained before and after firefighting activities along with perceptions of thermal sensations, exertion, respiratory distress and affect. Firefighting activities resulted in significant elevations in HR and Tcore , whereas thermal sensations, respiratory distress, exertion and affect all showed significant and sizable changes reflecting greater distress and dysphoria. Occupational status and individual difference factors accounted for some of this negative change. The findings replicate and extend previous work by demonstrating the influence of occupational status and individual difference factors in the psychological responses to firefighting activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25393336

  6. Academic and Workplace-related Visual Stresses Induce Detectable Deterioration Of Performance, Measured By Basketball Trajectories and Astigmatism Impacting Athletes Or Students In Military Pilot Training.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Separate military establishments across the globe can confirm that a high percentage of their prospective pilots-in-training are no longer visually fit to continue the flight training portion of their programs once their academic coursework is completed. I maintain that the visual stress induced by those intensive protocols can damage the visual feedback mechanism of any healthy and dynamic system beyond its usual and ordinary ability to self-correct minor visual loss of acuity. This deficiency seems to be detectable among collegiate and university athletes by direct observation of the height of the trajectory arc of a basketball's flight. As a particular athlete becomes increasingly stressed by academic constraints requiring long periods of concentrated reading under highly static angular convergence of the eyes, along with unfavorable illumination and viewing conditions, eyesight does deteriorate. I maintain that induced astigmatism is a primary culprit because of the evidence of that basketball's trajectory! See the next papers!

  7. Ventilatory Threshold, Running Economy and Distance Running Performance of Trained Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Scott K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to identify physiological factors that account for success in distance running, researchers evaluated relationships among ventilatory threshold, running economy, and distance running performance. Subjects were trained male runners with similar maximal aerobic power. (Authors/PP)

  8. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation downregulates the increase of monocytes expressing toll-like receptor 4 in response to 6-day intensive training in kendo athletes.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Kon, Michihiro; Tanimura, Yuko; Hanaoka, Yukichi; Kimura, Fuminori; Akama, Takao; Kono, Ichiro

    2015-06-01

    This study examined changes in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-expressing monocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in response to continuous intensive exercise training in athletes, as well as the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on these changes. Eighteen male elite kendo athletes in Japan were randomly assigned to a CoQ10-supplementation group (n = 9) or a placebo-supplementation group (n = 9) using a double-blind method. Subjects in the CoQ10 group took 300 mg CoQ10 per day for 20 days. Subjects in the placebo group took the same dosage of placebo. All subjects practiced kendo 5.5 h per day for 6 consecutive days during the study period. Blood samples were collected 2 weeks before training, on the first day (day 1), third day (day 3), and fifth day of training (day 5), and 1 week after the training period (post-training) to ascertain TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) monocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD28(+)/CD4(+), CD28(+)/CD8(+), and CD56(+)/CD3(-) cells) using flow cytometry analysis. The group × time interaction for TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells did not reach significance (p = 0.08). Within the CoQ10 group, the absolute number of TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells was significantly higher only at day 5. The placebo group showed a significant increase in the absolute number of TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells at day 3, day 5, and post-training (p < 0.05). There was no significant group × time interaction for any lymphocyte subpopulation. CD3(+), CD8(+), and CD56(+)/CD3(-) cells were significantly reduced at day 3 in both groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CoQ10 supplementation might downregulate the increase of TLR-4-expressing monocytes in response to continuous strenuous exercise training in kendo athletes. PMID:25941765

  9. Lack of quantitative training among early-career ecologists: a survey of the problem and potential solutions.

    PubMed

    Barraquand, Frédéric; Ezard, Thomas H G; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zimmerman, Naupaka; Chamberlain, Scott; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Curran, Timothy J; Poisot, Timothée

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency in mathematics and statistics is essential to modern ecological science, yet few studies have assessed the level of quantitative training received by ecologists. To do so, we conducted an online survey. The 937 respondents were mostly early-career scientists who studied biology as undergraduates. We found a clear self-perceived lack of quantitative training: 75% were not satisfied with their understanding of mathematical models; 75% felt that the level of mathematics was "too low" in their ecology classes; 90% wanted more mathematics classes for ecologists; and 95% more statistics classes. Respondents thought that 30% of classes in ecology-related degrees should be focused on quantitative disciplines, which is likely higher than for most existing programs. The main suggestion to improve quantitative training was to relate theoretical and statistical modeling to applied ecological problems. Improving quantitative training will require dedicated, quantitative classes for ecology-related degrees that contain good mathematical and statistical practice. PMID:24688862

  10. Training Minorities for Health Careers: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, William; Quinones, Mark A.

    1979-01-01

    The economic status, salary, and continued education experiences of 69 Black females who completed health career programs at the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in June 1973 were investigated. It was concluded that the graduates appeared to have experienced success in pursuing and achieving career objectives. (JH)

  11. Training Career Adaptability to Facilitate a Successful School-to-Work Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Jessie; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2012-01-01

    The transition from school to work is one of the most critical steps in graduates' careers, as it can determine vocational outcomes and future career success. Yet, these newcomers to the labor market often take longer than regular job seekers to find a suitable job, are more likely to experience a job mismatch and to suffer from underemployment.…

  12. Coordinator's Training Guide. Research & Development Series No. 119-A. Career Planning Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaltry, Paul; Kester, Ralph J.

    One of a set of twelve documents describing the Career Planning Support System (CPSS) and its use, this guide is designed to help the CPSS coordinator become familiar with CPSS and his or her role. (The Career Planning Support System is a comprehensive guidance program management system which (1) provides techniques to improve a high school's…

  13. An Asset-Based Approach in Career Facilitation: Lessons for Higher Education Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, S.; Ebersohn, L.; Ferreira, R.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory and descriptive study investigated the use of the asset-based approach in career facilitation in South Africa. Five adolescents (3 females and 2 males) aged 16 to 18 years participated. An intervention study following a qualitative approach was conducted. We developed and implemented an asset-based career facilitation intervention…

  14. Support from Teachers and Trainers in Vocational Education and Training: The Pathways to Career Aspirations and Further Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Claudia; Stalder, Barbara E.; Tschan, Franziska; Häfeli, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Transition from school to work is a challenging period for young people with learning difficulties. In the dual vocational system of Switzerland, teachers at vocational educational and training (VET)-schools, as well as trainers at VET-companies, provide important support. We were interested in the different pathways from this support to…

  15. THE ROLE AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ECCENTRIC TRAINING IN ATHLETIC REHABILITATION: TENDINOPATHY, HAMSTRING STRAINS, AND ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The benefits and proposed physiological mechanisms of eccentric exercise have previously been elucidated and eccentric exercise has been used for well over seventy years. Traditionally, eccentric exercise has been used as a regular component of strength training. However, in recent years, eccentric exercise has been used in rehabilitation to manage a host of conditions. Of note, there is evidence in the literature supporting eccentric exercise for the rehabilitation of tendinopathies, muscle strains, and in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation. The purpose of this Clinical Commentary is to discuss the physiologic mechanism of eccentric exercise as well as to review the literature regarding the utilization of eccentric training during rehabilitation. A secondary purpose of this commentary is to provide the reader with a framework for the implementation of eccentric training during rehabilitation of tendinopathies, muscle strains, and after ACL reconstruction. PMID:21655455

  16. Risk Factors for Self-Reported Exercise-Related Leg Pain in High School Cross-Country Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reinking, Mark F.; Austin, Tricia M.; Hayes, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Prevention of exercise-related leg pain (ERLP) has not been successful because ERLP risk factors are not well known. Objective: To determine the percentage of high school cross-country (XC) athletes who reported a history of ERLP in their running careers, to identify the percentage of athletes who reported an occurrence of ERLP during 1 XC season, and to investigate the association of selected factors (age, high school year, years of high school running, sex, ERLP history, body mass index [BMI], foot type, and training distance) and the occurrence of ERLP. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Six local high schools. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred twenty-five high school XC athletes (62 females, 63 males). Main Outcome Measure(s): All athletes completed an initial ERLP questionnaire, and foot type was visually assessed. After the season, athletes were asked to complete a Web-based questionnaire regarding the seasonal occurrence of ERLP. Statistical analyses of differences (t tests) and associations (χ2, relative risk) were conducted. Results: A total of 103 of the 125 athletes (82.4%) reported a history of ERLP, with 81 athletes reporting ERLP occurrence within the month preceding completion of the initial questionnaire. Bilateral medial leg pain was the most common ERLP presentation. More than half of the athletes (58.4%) with an ERLP history reported that the pain had interfered with XC participation. Ninety-three athletes responded to the postseason questionnaire, and 45 (48.0%) reported ERLP seasonal occurrence. Most athletes (97.8%) who experienced the seasonal occurrence of ERLP had a history of ERLP. No associations were noted between ERLP history or seasonal occurrence and age, high school year, years of high school running, sex, BMI, foot type, or training distance. Conclusions: Both a history of ERLP and the seasonal occurrence of ERLP were common among these XC athletes. The only risk factor identified for ERLP season

  17. Perspective: Does Laboratory-Based Maximal Incremental Exercise Testing Elicit Maximum Physiological Responses in Highly-Trained Athletes with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed Central

    West, Christopher R.; Leicht, Christof A.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Romer, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate) responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push). In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardized exercise intensities. PMID:26834642

  18. Perspective: Does Laboratory-Based Maximal Incremental Exercise Testing Elicit Maximum Physiological Responses in Highly-Trained Athletes with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed

    West, Christopher R; Leicht, Christof A; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Romer, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate) responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push). In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardized exercise intensities. PMID:26834642

  19. Enhanced care assistant training to address the workforce crisis in home care: changes related to job satisfaction and career commitment.

    PubMed

    Coogle, Constance L; Parham, Iris A; Jablonski, Rita; Rachel, Jason A

    2007-01-01

    Changes in job satisfaction and career commitment were observed as a consequence of a geriatric case management training program focusing on skills development among personal care attendants in home care. A comparison of pretraining and posttraining scores uncovered a statistically significant increase in Intrinsic Job Satisfaction scores for participants 18-39 years of age, whereas levels declined among the group of middle aged participants and no change was observed among participants age 52 and older. On the other hand, a statistically significant decline in Extrinsic Job Satisfaction was documented over all participants, but this was found to be primarily due to declines among participants 40-51 years of age. When contacted 6-12 months after the training series had concluded participants indicated that the training substantially increased the likelihood that they would stay in their current jobs and improved their job satisfaction to some extent. A comparison of pretraining and posttraining scores among participants providing follow-up data revealed a statistically significant improvement in levels of Career Resilience. These results are discussed as they relate to similar training models and national data sets, and recommendations are offered for targeting future educational programs designed to address the long-term care workforce shortage. PMID:17595925

  20. Carbohydrate supercompensation and muscle glycogen utilization during exhaustive running in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Madsen, K; Pedersen, P K; Rose, P; Richter, E A

    1990-01-01

    Three female and three male highly trained endurance runners with mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values of 60.5 and 71.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively, ran to exhaustion at 75%-80% of VO2max on two occasions after an overnight fast. One experiment was performed after a normal diet and training regimen (Norm), the other after a diet and training programme intended to increase muscle glycogen levels (Carb). Muscle glycogen concentration in the gastrocnemius muscle increased by 25% (P less than 0.05) from 581 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 50 to 722 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 34 after Carb. Running time to exhaustion, however, was not significantly different in Carb and Norm, 77 min, SEM 13 vs 70 min, SEM 8, respectively. The average glycogen concentration following exhaustive running was 553 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 70 in Carb and 434 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 57 in Norm, indicating that in both tests muscle glycogen stores were decreased by about 25%. Periodic acid-Schiff staining for semi-quantitative glycogen determination in individual fibres confirmed that none of the fibres appeared to be glycogen-empty after exhaustive running. The steady-state respiratory exchange ratio was higher in Carb than in Norm (0.92, SEM 0.01 vs 0.89, SEM 0.01; P less than 0.05). Since muscle glycogen utilization was identical in the two tests, the indication of higher utilization of total carbohydrate appears to be related to a higher utilization of liver glycogen. We have concluded that glycogen depletion of the gastrocnemius muscle is unlikely to be the cause of fatigue during exhaustive running at 75%-80% of VO2max in highly trained endurance runners. Furthermore, diet- and training-induced carbohydrate super-compensation does not appear to improve endurance capacity in such individuals. PMID:2079068