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Sample records for atis vallis rihards

  1. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  2. Apsus Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02170 Apsus Vallis

    The channel in this image is called Apsus Vallis and it is located near the Elysium volcanic complex. Lava may have played a part in the formation of Apsus Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.3N, Longitude 134.9E. 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Dao Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This THEMIS visible image shows Dao Vallis, a large outflow channel that starts on the southeast flank of a large volcano called Hadriaca Patera and runs for 1000 kilometers southwest into the Hellas impact basin. The channel is up to 20 kilometers wide near its source, but narrows downstream. As can be seen in the context image, the part of Dao Vallis imaged by THEMIS is actually one of the most narrow.

    It is believed that Dao Vallis was carved by a combination of surface and subsurface flow. Evidence for both of these processes can be seen in this image. The size of the channel, its steep walls, and the lineations at the bottom of the channel indicate that it was carved by surface flow of water. The erosional morphology near the center of the image, on the northern edge of the channel indicates that groundwater sapping was also a minor process. Subsidence of the surface into the quasi-circular depressions seen in this image is indicative of this process.

    Because the source region of Dao Vallis is the flank of a volcano, it is most likely that the water that carved the channel erupted from the subsurface as geothermal heating by nearby magma melted large amounts of ground ice. Some of this water made it to the surface and carved the channel, while some water flowed below ground and caused the sapping features evident in this THEMIS image.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  4. Sabis Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03663 Sabis Vallis

    These small channels join to become Sabis Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -5.7N, Longitude 207.8E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Uzboi Vallis, Nirgal Vallis, and Luki Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 9 April 2002) This THEMIS image captures two channels (Nirgal Vallis is the smaller sinuous channel on the left and Uzboi Vallis is the larger channel located in the lower right) and Luki Crater located in the upper right. The mouth of Nirgal Vallis appears to be truncated by Uzboi Vallis. This indicates that Nirgal Vallis is an older channel than Uzboi Vallis. The floor of Uzboi Vallis was subsequently bombarded by an asteroid or comet which gouged out the 21 km diameter crater named Luki. Luki is named after a town in the Ukraine. Uzboi is the name of a dry river in Russia. Nirgal is the Babylonian name for Mars. Gullies and alluvial deposits discovered by Mars Global Surveyor are clearly visible on the polar-facing (south) wall and floor of Nirgal Vallis and also in the inner rim of Luki crater. These gullies appear to emanate from a specific layer in the walls. There is a pronounced sparsity of gullies on the equator-ward facing slopes but some are present in this image. The gullies have been proposed to have formed by the subsurface release of water. The western channel wall of Uzboi Vallis does not appear to have the fine-scale gullying as does Nirgal Vallis. However, the western channel wall of Uzboi Vallis does show some evidence of downslope movement (mass wasting). Some patches of dunes are also seen on the channel floor, notably along the edges of the channel floor near the canyon walls. There is also a landslide located along the southern wall of Luki Crater.

  6. Tinjar Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 19 May 2004 This image of Tinjar Vallis was acquired Oct. 20, 2002, during northern spring.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 28.2, Longitude 131.6 East (228.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  7. Mawrth Vallis Phyllosilicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1217 UTC (7:17 a.m. EST) on January 10, 2006, near 25.5 degrees north latitude, 19.3 degrees west longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Mawrth Vallis is located to the south of Acidalia Planitia and to the east of Tiu Valles. One of the oldest channels on Mars, Mawrth Vallis cuts through the ancient cratered terrain of western Arabia Terra and is part of the Chryse Planitia basin.

    Mawrth Vallis holds special interest to scientist studying Mars. In 2005 the OMEGA spectrometer on board the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter discovered phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis. Phyllosilicates are a family of hydroxyl (OH) bearing minerals that generally have a flaky or sheet-like structure. These OH-bearing minerals are often the products of water-related chemical alteration, making them good indicators for the presence of liquid water. Clay minerals are part of this family.

    OMEGA's discovery made Mawrth Vallis a prime target for CRISM's higher-resolution instrumentation. The upper left panel in the montage above reveals the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The gray-scale THEMIS image reveals a variety of light and dark materials shaped by erosion.

    The upper right image is an infrared false-color image taken by CRISM. It reveals the complex, layered nature of these deposits, while the lower three spectral images provide further detail of the region's distinct mineral layers.

    The lower left image reveals two discrete clay units as well as an overlying layer of the material rich in the volcanic mineral pyroxene. The bottom-center image reveals

  8. Marte Vallis Platy Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-442, 4 August 2003

    The Marte Vallis system, located east of Cerberus and west of Amazonis Planitia, is known for its array of broken, platy flow features. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a close-up view of some of these plates; they appear to be like puzzle pieces that have been broken apart and moved away from each other. The Mars science community has been discussing these features for the past several years--either the flows in Marte Vallis are lava flows, or mud flows. In either case, the material was very fluid and had a thin crust on its surface. As the material continued to flow through the valley system, the crust broke up into smaller plates that were then rafted some distance down the valley. This picture is located near 6.9oN, 182.8oW. It is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  9. Marte Vallis Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    20 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows platy flow surfaces in the Marte Vallis region of Mars. The origin of the flows is not well-understood, but as some Mars scientists have suggested, the flows may be the product of low viscosity (very fluid), high temperature volcanic eruptions, or perhaps they are the remains of large-scale mud flows. In either case, the materials are solid and hold a record of small meteor impact craters, thus indicating that they are not composed of ice, as still others have speculated.

    Location near: 6.7oN, 182.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  10. Megaripples in Athabasca Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Researchers' goal in taking this image was to look for boulders in the large ripples formed by an ancient catastrophic flood in Mars' Athabasca Vallis. The Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft captured this image on Dec. 25, 2003, with use of an enhanced-resolution technique called compensated pitch and roll targeted observation.

    The flood-deposited megaripples had been seen in earlier, lower-resolution images from the same camera. They are the only good examples known of ripples formed in a giant catastrophic flood anywhere on Mars. Their presence indicates that large amounts of water poured rapidly through this area, based on resemblance to similar megaripples in catastrophic flood sites on Earth. The ripples in Athabasca Vallis were buried for some period and later exhumed. Strange, round features on top of some of the ripples and the adjacent plains are products of erosion and removal of the overlying layer. Finding boulders in the ripples would help constrain estimates of the power of the floods. However, the image does not show boulders in the ripples, implying either that the rocks that make up these features are smaller than about 1 to 2 meters (3 to 7 feet) in diameter or that the ripple sediments have not been completely exhumed.

    The image covers an area 3 kilometers (2 miles) wide, near 9.5 degrees north latitude and 203.7 degrees west longitude. Pixel size is about 1.5 meters (5 feet) by one-half meter (1.6 feet). North is up and sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

    Mars Global Surveyor is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  11. Reull Vallis Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 1 July 2002) The jumbled, chaotic terrain in this THEMIS image may represent a source region for the Reull Vallis, one of the larger channel systems in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Such regions of chaos are thought to form by the catastrophic release of groundwater. If this was the case, then the water would have flowed down gradient to the south and may have contributed to the formation of the Reull Vallis. The top of the image shows two short segments of channels that are interrupted by the chaos, demonstrating that there was a channel system in place before the ground foundered to produce the chaos. One of the more intriguing features seen among the jumbled blocks are narrow ledges that vaguely resemble bath tub rings in the way they conform to the topography. Two good examples are seen running roughly left-right across the image about a fourth of the way down. At first they appear to be layers protruding from the cliff faces, but upon closer inspection a more ledge-like character is evident. Note how they appear different between the south-facing and north facing cliffs. The occurrence of one of these features on the south-facing interior rim of the largest crater in the image but nowhere else around the rim argues against the idea that the ledges are due to a layer of rock cropping out throughout the landscape. Instead, they appear more like the edges of a layer of sediment that drapes the topography. It is possible that the sediment is mixed with ice and is best preserved in the shadowed portions of the terrain. There is no easy explanation for these unusual features. They represent one more Martian enigma.

  12. Ares Vallis Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 May 2004 When it was operating in the Ares/Tiu Valles region of Chryse Planitia, Mars, in 1997, Mars Pathfinder detected dust devils that passed over and near the lander. From orbit, no images of dust devils at the Mars Pathfinder site have yet been acquired, but this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime dust devil near the rim of a 610-meter (670 yards)-diameter impact crater in the same general region as the Mars Pathfinder site. This scene is near 19.6oN, 32.9oW, in part of the Ares Vallis system. The dust devil in this case is not making a streak, as dust devils tend to do in some regions of Mars. The dark feature to the right (east) of the dust devil is its shadow. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  13. Huo Hsing Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 12 July 2002) This image shows another example of an ancient channel in the Arabia Terra region of Mars. As with other channels observed on Mars, the geomorphology of Huo Hsing Vallis is suggestive of, and assumed to have been carved by, running water, although the fluid that flowed through these channels cannot be proven to have been water. This channel cuts through several layers of rocks. These rock layers may be sedimentary, composed of particles of other rocks that have been cemented together somehow, or they may be igneous layers, formed by the repeated eruption of lava (or some combination of sedimentary and igneous layers). The distinctive appearance of this terrain has led to its being described as 'etched'. Because the channel cuts through these rocks, the layered rocks must be older than the channel (see previous discussion of superposition). At the lower left side of the image, several intersecting ridges can be seen. These ridges may be inverted topography, or they may be exposed dikes, which form by linear intrusions of lava into rock underground; dikes are exposed by erosion of the overlying rock. The most recent activity in the region appears to be the formation of mega-ripples in the channel. Wind moving particles of rock forms these ripples perpendicular to the wind direction.

  14. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  15. Huo Hsing Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 5 June 2002) The Science A portion of an ancient channel called the Huo Hsing Vallis seen in the center of this image. As with all channel forms on Mars, it was carved by some moving fluid but that fluid can not automatically be assumed to be water. Lava and even wind can sculpt channel forms that mimic those of flowing water. In this case, the presence of pronounced oxbow bends in the channel favors the conclusion that water was the fluid. It is interesting that the ripple-like ridges on the channel floor mimic current ripples found in many streams on Earth. But the fluid responsible for their formation likely is the wind. Similar ripples occur in many places on Mars that have no relationship to channels. Surrounding the channel is an intensely eroded landscape known as etched terrain. The many layers that were deposited in the past are now being eroded away by the wind. In the process, unusual polygonal ridges are being exposed, the most prominent of which appear just north of the oxbow bends. The mechanism by with they form is poorly understood. It is possible that they began as polygonal troughs similar in form and origin as those that form in permafrost regions on Earth like the Canadian Arctic. If the troughs were subsequently filled in by sediment that solidified into a more resistant deposit than the surrounding material, later erosion would leave behind ridges in place of the former troughs. Known as inverted topography, there are examples of this type of landform in other etched terrains on Mars. The Story For thousands of years, many cultures the world over have studied the planets, first by observing their motions in the night sky, later through telescopes, and today through up-close observation enabled by spacecraft. Many places on Mars are given names that honor the long history of contributions by all peoples to Mars exploration. Huo Hsing, the Chinese word for the planet Mars, is the namesake of the ancient channel shown above. As with all

  16. Phyllosilicate Deposits in Shalbatana Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintzer, Anne E.; Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2011-01-01

    Shalbatana Vallis is an ancient river valley on Mars, the westernmost of the southern Chryse outflow channels. The geologic history of this area has significant implications for understanding Mars' hydrologic and climate history. The highland flood basalts are cut by large collapse depressions, multiple outflow channels, and chaotic terrain. An intravalley paleolake with a depth of over 400 m, in the 125 km diameter Orson Welles crater (Fig. 1) and the adjacent section of Shalbatana Vallis, was deduced from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography, evidence of shorelines and the occurrence of fan-delta deposits, including Gilbert-style deltas [1]. A number of CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) images with strong phyllosilicate signatures have been identified throughout the channel and nearby highlands (Fig. 1). A majority of the signatures are concentrated in areas exposed by impact cratering. Since such minerals can form by a variety of different geological processes, such as weathering, burial diagenesis, and hydrothermal alteration [2], the nature of the phyllosilicate deposits in the Shalbatana Vallis region may provide insights into the formation processes that took place and help to place constraints on the early aqueous activity in the region.

  17. Sedimentary Rocks in Ladon Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    25 January 2004 This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture of an outcrop of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in Ladon Vallis. These rocks preserve clues to the martian past. However, like books in a library, one needs to go there and check them out if one wishes to read what the layers have to say. This November 2003 picture is located near 21.1oS, 29.8oW, and covers an area 3km (1.9 mi.) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  18. Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

    CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

    This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

    Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the

  19. Shalbatana/Simud Vallis Junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The sinuous channels and streamlined islands at the junction of Shalbatana and Simud Vallis present an erosional history of the catastrophic floods that scoured the Martian surface hundreds of millions of years ago.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 16, Longitude 317.4 East (42.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  20. Cut Crater in Reull Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 6 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 24, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Reull Vallis.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -40.1, Longitude 99.1 East (260.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  1. Nanedi Vallis: Sustained Water FLow?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This picture of a canyon on the Martian surface was obtained a few minutes after 10 PM PST, January 8, 1998 by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), during the 87th orbit around Mars of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. It shows the canyon of Nanedi Vallis, one of the Martian valley systems cutting through cratered plains in the Xanthe Terra region of Mars. The picture covers an area 9.8 km by 18.5 km (6.1 mi by 11.5 mi), and features as small as 12 m (39 ft) can be seen. The canyon is about 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide. Rocky outcrops are found along the upper canyon walls; weathered debris is found on the lower canyon slopes and along the canyon floor. The origin of this canyon is enigmatic: some features, such as terraces within the canyon (as seen near the top of the frame) and the small 200 m (660 ft) wide channel (also seen near the top of the frame) suggest continual fluid flow and downcutting. Other features, such as the lack of a contributing pattern of smaller channels on the surface surrounding the canyon, box-headed tributaries, and the size and tightness of the apparent meanders (as seen, for example, in the Viking image 897A32, left), suggest formation by collapse. It is likely that both continual flow and collapse have been responsible for the canyon as it now appears. Further observations, especially in areas west of the present image, will be used to help separate the relative effects of these and other potential formation and modification processes.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  2. Ma'adim Vallis From the Top

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a still from an animation showing the geography of Ma'adim Vallis, a valley or channel that enters Gusev Crater. The view of the crater is from the northwest, which is not the direction from which Spirit approached the crater as it landed.

  3. Effective ATI channels in high harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchiev, M. Yu; Ostrovsky, V. N.

    2001-02-01

    Harmonic generation by an atom in a laser field is described by the three-step mechanism as proceeding via above-threshold ionization (ATI) followed by electron propagation in the laser-dressed continuum and subsequent laser-assisted recombination (LAR). The amplitude of the harmonic production is given by the coherent sum of contributions from different intermediate ATI channels labelled by the number, m, of absorbed laser photons. The range of m-values that give a substantial contribution is explored and found to be rather broad for high harmonic generation. The coherence effects are of crucial importance as they are responsible for the characteristic pattern of harmonic intensities with a plateau domain followed by a cut-off region. Due to the multiphoton nature of the process, an efficient summation of m-contributions can be carried out within the framework of the saddle-point method. The saddle points correspond to some complex-valued labels m = mc associated with the intermediate effective ATI channels in the three-step harmonic generation process. The advantage of this approach stems from the fact that summation over a large number of conventional ATI m-channels is replaced by summation over a small number of effective mc-channels. The equation governing mc has a transparent physical meaning: the electron ejected from the atom on the first (ATI) stage should return to the core to make LAR possible. The effective channel labels m move along characteristic trajectories in the complex plane as the system parameters vary. In the cut-off region of the harmonic spectrum a single effective channel contributes. For lower harmonics, in the plateau domain, two effective ATI channels become essential. The interference of their contributions leads to an oscillatory pattern in the harmonic generation rates. The calculated rates are in good agreement with the results obtained by other approaches.

  4. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  5. Discharge rates in Ma'adim Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, G. D.; Rothery, D. A.; Murray, J. B.; Day, T.; Cook, A. C.; Muller, J.-P.; Iliffe, J. C.

    1993-03-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) of a small part of the Martian channel Ma'adim Vallis was produced using the Frankot and Chellappa shape-from-shading algorithm. Software developed by the Dept. of Photogrammetry and Surveying at University College London uses this technique to extract slope information from the grey levels of image pixels. This technique was applied to a Viking Orbiter image of part of Ma'adim Vallis, and measurements of the channel depth and bed-slope of a channel incised into the floor of Ma'adim Vallis were made. These results were used to calculate order of magnitude estimates for discharge rates through the channel. The maximum values calculated are three orders of magnitude less than those for N. Kasei Vallis and are similar to values cited for the Missoula floods. However, when more realistic values of the water depth are used, discharge rates comparable with those for the Mississippi River result.

  6. Discharge rates in Ma'adim Vallis, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, G. D.; Rothery, D. A.; Murray, J. B.; Day, T.; Cook, A. C.; Muller, J-P.; Iliffe, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) of a small part of the Martian channel Ma'adim Vallis was produced using the Frankot and Chellappa shape-from-shading algorithm. Software developed by the Dept. of Photogrammetry and Surveying at University College London uses this technique to extract slope information from the grey levels of image pixels. This technique was applied to a Viking Orbiter image of part of Ma'adim Vallis, and measurements of the channel depth and bed-slope of a channel incised into the floor of Ma'adim Vallis were made. These results were used to calculate order of magnitude estimates for discharge rates through the channel. The maximum values calculated are three orders of magnitude less than those for N. Kasei Vallis and are similar to values cited for the Missoula floods. However, when more realistic values of the water depth are used, discharge rates comparable with those for the Mississippi River result.

  7. A geologic characterization of Ladon Vallis, Mars, and vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfinger, D.; Milam, K.

    2013-12-01

    Ladon Vallis and Ladon Basin, Mars (Ladon study area), are in the path of the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava drainage system, which is part of what is potentially the solar system's longest fluvial system. A reconstruction of the geologic conditions that formed the flow path is vital to understanding geologic conditions on early Mars. An integral part of this reconstruction is the determination of the geologic process(es) that formed Ladon Vallis. Although previous workers have referred to Ladon Vallis as an 'outflow system' or 'outflow channel system', there has not been a formal geologic characterization that has led to that determination. The main purpose of this research has been to determine Ladon Vallis' channel type in order to help constrain its role in the flow path in which it resides. The characterization required to make this determination has involved analyzing its landforms and geometry and estimating the maximum discharge involved in its formation. While Ladon's anastomosing channels and streamlined islands suggest that it is an outflow channel, its discharge has been estimated (Grant and Parker, 2002) at levels more characteristic of valley networks. Results in this work have confirmed their estimated discharge for the final flow of Ladon Vallis. However, results more characteristic of outflow channels have been obtained for profiles downstream and in older flows. Crater counts have yielded age estimates similar to those of previous studies, with Ladon Vallis's formation beginning in the Middle Noachian from possible overland flow extending from Holden Basin and ending in the Early Hesperian from chaotic discharges from Holden Crater. Ladon Basin contained water through most of the Early Hesperian and lost much of it to flooding that formed Morava Vallis in the Middle Hesperian. Grant, J. A., and Parker, T. J., 2002, J. Geophys Res., 107(E9), 5066, doi:10.1029/2001JE001678.

  8. Vallis Marineris Mouth as the Best Location for Exploration Zone (EZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2015-10-01

    The mouth of Vallis Marineris is a particularly interesting location where the widest rock varieties could be expected. The Vallis crosses chaotic terrains and equatorial zone where water ice could be discovered. Pathfinder and Viking were nearby.

  9. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System... Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be identified through the use of an automatic transmitter identification system as specified below....

  10. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System... Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be identified through the use of an automatic transmitter identification system as specified below....

  11. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System... Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be identified through the use of an automatic transmitter identification system as specified below....

  12. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System... Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be identified through the use of an automatic transmitter identification system as specified below....

  13. ANOVA Versus Regression Analysis of ATI Designs: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports a Monte Carlo study of differences induced by different analysis choices over selected types of aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) data (nine combinations of three sample sizes and three population parameter effect sizes). Generally, ANOVA methods tended to overestimate smaller effect sizes and to underestimate larger effect…

  14. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, N. V.; Fomenko, A. N.; Korovin, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5-3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  15. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilova, N. V. Fomenko, A. N. Korovin, M. S.

    2015-11-17

    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5–3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  16. Simultaneous SAR and GMTI using ATI/DPCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Ross; Best, Matthew; Farrell, Sean

    2014-06-01

    In previous work, we presented GMTI detection and geo-location results from the AFRL Gotcha challenge data set, which was collected using a 3-channel, X-band, circular SAR system. These results were compared against GPS truth for a scripted vehicle target. The algorithm used for this analysis is known as ATI/DPCA, which is a hybrid of along-track interferometry (ATI) and the displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) technique. In the present paper the use of ATI/DPCA is extended in order to detect and geo-locate all observable moving targets in the Gotcha challenge data, including both the scripted movers and targets of opportunity. In addition, a computationally efficient SAR imaging technique is presented, appropriate for short integration times, which is used for computing an image of the scene of interest using the same pulses of data used for the GMTI processing. The GMTI detections are then overlaid on the SAR image to produce a simultaneous SAR/GMTI map.

  17. Emplacement Scenarios for Vallis Schroteri, Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry, W. Brent; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic processes that formed Vallis Schr teri are not well understood. Vallis Schr teri, located on the Aristarchus Plateau, is the largest rille on the Moon, and it displays three key morphologic components: the Cobra Head, the 155-km-long primary rille, and the 240-km-long inner rille. Observations of terrestrial eruptions are applied here to help explain the morphologic relationships observed for Vallis Schr teri. The Cobra Head, a 10-km-wide source vent surrounded by a 35-kmdiameter and 900-m-high low shield, might have been constructed from fl ows, spatter, and pyroclastic deposits erupted during lava fountain events, similar to the early stages of the vent at Pu u O o in Hawaii and the fi nal morphology of Bandera crater, a cinder cone in New Mexico. The vent fed an initial sheet fl ow controlled by preeruption topography. A channel formed within this sheet fl ow was the foundation for the primary rille, which deepened through construction and thermomechanical erosion by lava. The inner rille is confi ned to the fl at fl oor of the primary rille and is characterized by tight gooseneck meanders. This rille crosscuts the distal scarp of the primary rille and extends toward Oceanus Procellarum. This enigmatic relationship can be explained through backup, overfl ow, and diversion of the lava into a new rille that eroded into the margin of the primary rille. Similar backup, overfl ow, and redirection of the lava fl ow were observed during the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption in Hawaii. Analysis of the fi nal morphology of lunar rilles provides key information about lunar volcanic processes and insight into the local stratigraphy.

  18. Formation of Hrad Vallis (Mars) by low viscosity lava flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Joshua P.; Leverington, David W.

    2014-02-01

    Hrad Vallis is a Martian outflow channel previously interpreted as a product of aqueous outbursts from the subsurface, possibly involving mudflows associated with lahar-like events. However, an alternative volcanic hypothesis for the development of the system is worthy of consideration on the basis of (1) the nature of landforms preserved along component channels and adjacent uplands and (2) similarities between the basic properties of this system and large volcanic channels of the inner solar system. Hrad Vallis commences on the distal flanks of the Elysium Mons shield volcano, terminates within extensive volcanic plains, is associated with landforms typical of large volcanic channels, and shows evidence for having been a conduit for large volumes of lava. The properties of this system are consistent with incision by low viscosity lava. Crude thermal estimates suggest that this system could have formed through effusion of as little as ~ 10,900 km3 of magma to the surface, or ~ 6% of the volume of the terrestrial Columbia River Basalt Group. Incision rates of up to several meters per day are estimated for mechanical and thermal processes involving lava flows with depths of 5-20 m and dynamic viscosities of ~ 1 Pa s. Flow of lava within the Hrad Vallis system is predicted to have been fully turbulent and characterized by discharges as great as ~ 865,000 m3/s. Predicted flow conditions are consistent with those previously determined for Athabasca Valles, which also formed as a result of the expulsion of flows from structures associated with Elysium Mons.

  19. Rock Morphologies of the Mawrth Vallis Landing Site Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Wray, J. J.; Parente, M.; Silver, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    The major clay units at Mawrth Vallis have been well-characterized by OMEGA and CRISM [1-6]. Here we extend this to HiRISE data, demonstrating that these units can be mapped in photographic data as well as through imaging spectroscopy. In HiRISE data the nontronite-bearing unit consists of two main textures: 2-5 m irregular polygons and irregular parallel fracture sets. In contrast, the montmorillonite-bearing unit consists of 0.5-1.5 m regular polygons (see figure below from HiRISE RED image PSP_007612_2045). These morphologies are consistent with previous outcrop-scale observations [1, 7]. Possibly, these polygons are due to freeze-thaw cycles, desiccation, loss of interlayer water, or a combination of these processes. In any case, the same processes must have occurred throughout the Mawrth Vallis region in order to produce such consistency. On the plains surrounding Mawrth Vallis, clear bed divisions are visible in the montmorillonite unit on both gradual and steep slopes (e.g. crater walls) but none are visible in the nontronite unit except in steep crater walls, implying that the beds in the montmorillonite unit may be better lithified than those in the older nontronite unit. Kaolinite, where identified by CRISM, appears bright and fractured in HiRISE imagery with no visible polygons. These morphologies are consistent across the entire 300 x 300 km central Mawrth Vallis region. Therefore, these units can be mapped in areas with some dust/sand cover that masks the CRISM spectrum or where there are no CRISM data available (see companion abstract by Parente et al. for details on automatic texture mapping). This discovery will provide future rover missions (such as MSL) with a more complete map of the major lithologic units, which will enhance and streamline mission planning. [1]Bishop, J. L., et al. (2008) Science, 321, 830-833. [2]Bibring, J.-P., et al. (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [3]Loizeau, D., et al. (2009) Icarus, (in press). [4]McKeown, N. K., et al

  20. Topography of Apollinaris Patera and Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, G. D.; Rothery, D. A.; Murray, J. B.; Day, T.; Cook, A.; Muller, J.-P.; Iliffe, J. C.

    1992-12-01

    Digital elevation models of the northern part of Ma'adim Vallis (603a41 607m/pix, 639a91 721m/pix), and Apollinaris Patera (603a42 612m/pix, 639a92 717m/pix), covering the area between 180 degrees to 190 degrees long and -2 degrees to -20 degrees lat. were obtained using a method described here. The results for the Ma'adim Vallis area show broad agreement with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic map of the area with a channel depth of 1 to 2 km. A detailed study of the variations in the channel depth along its course and calculations of its discharge rate from channel cross section and slope are currently being undertaken. Results for Apollinaris Patera have been obtained, although the absolute heights relative to the Mars datum are not well constrained. However, the relative heights are sufficient for some analysis. Again, the topographic map is in reasonable agreement with the USGS map of the area, although there are significant differences.

  1. Clay Minerals in Mawrth Vallis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This map showing the location of some clay minerals in of a portion of the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars covers an area about 10 kilometers (6.2 mile) wide. The map is draped over a topographical model that exaggerates the vertical dimension tenfold.

    The mineral mapping information comes from an image taken on Sept. 21, 2007, by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). Iron-magnesium phyllosilicate is shown in red. Aluminum phyllosyllicate is shown in blue. Hydrated silica and a ferrous iron phase are shown in yellow/green.

    The topographical information comes from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

    Mawrth Vallis is an outflow channel centered near 24.7 degrees north latitude, 339.5 degrees east longitude, in northern highlands of Mars.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  2. Topography of Apollinaris Patera and Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, G. D.; Rothery, D. A.; Murray, J. B.; Day, T.; Cook, A.; Muller, J.-P.; Iliffe, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    Digital elevation models of the northern part of Ma'adim Vallis (603a41 607m/pix, 639a91 721m/pix), and Apollinaris Patera (603a42 612m/pix, 639a92 717m/pix), covering the area between 180 degrees to 190 degrees long and -2 degrees to -20 degrees lat. were obtained using a method described here. The results for the Ma'adim Vallis area show broad agreement with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic map of the area with a channel depth of 1 to 2 km. A detailed study of the variations in the channel depth along its course and calculations of its discharge rate from channel cross section and slope are currently being undertaken. Results for Apollinaris Patera have been obtained, although the absolute heights relative to the Mars datum are not well constrained. However, the relative heights are sufficient for some analysis. Again, the topographic map is in reasonable agreement with the USGS map of the area, although there are significant differences.

  3. Aeromonas salmonicida Ati2 is an effector protein of the type three secretion system.

    PubMed

    Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Barbeau, Xavier; Sarty, Darren; Tanaka, Katherine H; Denoncourt, Alix M; Lagüe, Patrick; Reith, Michael E; Charette, Steve J

    2013-09-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, a fish pathogen, uses the type three secretion system (TTSS) to inject effector proteins into host cells to promote the infection. The study of the genome of A. salmonicida has revealed the existence of Ati2, a potential TTSS effector protein. In the present study, a structure-function analysis of Ati2 has been done to determine its role in the virulence of A. salmonicida. Biochemical assays revealed that Ati2 is secreted into the medium in a TTSS-dependent manner. Protein sequence analyses, molecular modelling and biochemical assays demonstrated that Ati2 is an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, which hydrolyses PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in a way similar to VPA0450, a protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus having high sequence similarity with Ati2. Mutants of Ati2 with altered amino acids at two different locations in the catalytic site displayed no phosphatase activity. Wild-type and mutant forms of Ati2 were cloned into expression systems for Dictyostelium discoideum, a soil amoeba used as an alternative host to study A. salmonicida virulence. Expression tests allowed us to demonstrate that Ati2 is toxic for the host cell in a catalytic-dependent manner. Finally, this study demonstrated the existence of a new TTSS effector protein in A. salmonicida. PMID:23832001

  4. Positive Reinforcement Training to Enhance the Voluntary Movement of Group-Housed Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys)

    PubMed Central

    Veeder, Christin L; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Martin, Allison L

    2009-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) has successfully been used to train diverse species to execute behaviors helpful in the everyday care and wellbeing of the animals. Because little information is available about training sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys), we analyzed PRT with a group of 30 adult males as they were trained to shift from 1 side of their enclosure to the other. Over a 4-mo period we conducted 57 training sessions totaling 26.5 h of training and recorded compliance information. During training, compliance increased from 76% of the animals during the first 5 training sessions to 86% of the animals shifting during the last 5 sessions. This result indicated progress but fell short of our goal of 90% compliance. After 25 training sessions, problem-solving techniques were applied to help the consistently noncompliant animals become more proficient. The techniques included reducing social stress by shifting animals so that noncompliant monkeys could shift into an unoccupied space, using more highly preferred foods, and ‘jackpot’-sized reinforcement. To determine whether social rank affected training success, animals were categorized into high, medium, and low dominance groups, based on 7 h of behavioral observations. A Kruskal–Wallis test result indicated a significant difference in compliance according to the category of dominance. Although training a group this large proved challenging, the mangabeys cooperated more than 90% of the time during follow-up sessions. The training program improved efficiency in caring for the mangabeys. PMID:19383217

  5. Automated Texture Classification of the Mawrth Vallis Landing Site Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bayley, L.; Hunkins, L.; McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Supervised classification techniques have been developed to discriminate geomorphologic units in HiRISE images of Mawrth Vallis on Mars, one of the MSL candidate landing sites. A variety of clay minerals that indicate water was once present have been identified in the ancient bedrock at Mawrth Vallis [1-7]. These clay-rich rocks exhibit distinct surface textures in HiRISE images, where the nontronite-bearing unit consists of two primary textures: 2-5 m irregular inverted polygons and irregular parallel fracture sets ([8,13], Fig. b-c). In contrast, the montmorillonite-bearing unit consists of 0.5-1.5 m regular polygons ([8,13], Fig. e). We also characterized dunes (Fig. d), and the spectrally unremarkable caprock unit (Fig. a). Classification of these textures was performed by extracting discriminatory features from gray-level run length matrices (GLRLMs) [9], gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCMs) [10], and semivariograms [11] calculated for small blocks of data in HiRISE images. Preliminary results using an algorithm containing eight of these classification features produced a texture classification technique that is 85 percent accurate. The discriminant analysis (e.g. [12]) classifier we used modeled a linear discriminant function for each class based on the training feature vectors for that class. The test vector with the largest value for its discriminant function was then assigned to each class. We assumed linear functions were acceptable for small training sets and we performed automated selection in order to identify the most discriminative features for the textures in Mawrth Vallis. Continued efforts are underway to test and refine this procedure in order to optimize texture recognition on a broader collection of textures, representing additional surface components from Mawrth Vallis and other landing sites on Mars. [1] Bibring, J.-P., et al. (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [2] Poulet, F., et al. (2005) Nature, 438, 632-627. [3] Bishop, J. L., et al

  6. Polygenetic origin of Hrad Vallis region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Hon, Rene A.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of apparently genetically related landforms in the Hrad Vallis region of Mars is examined. It is found that the outer valley of Hrad and the neighboring valley are composite features formed by karst or thermokarst processes and the growth and coalescence of smaller fault-aligned depressions. The materials in the vicinity may be soluble carbonates or sulfates or clay-rich sediment subject to thixotropic collapse. Water circulating within fault and fissure systems removed materials or altered the stability of materials to allow formation of steep-sided depressions. After the emplacement of surface materials in early Amazonian time, water was probably discharged to the surface. Isolate topographic depressions probably formed synchronously with the early release of water. Open lakes may have existed for a time.

  7. Habitable Noachian Environments and Abundant Resources in the Mawrth Vallis Exploration Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, B.; Loizeau, D.; Poulet, F.; Bishop, J.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Farrand, W.; Michalski, J.; Gross, C.; Kleinhenz, J.; Linne, D.

    2015-10-01

    The Mawrth Vallis EZ contains the most extensive exposed outcrop of clay-rich rocks on Mars, offer substantial and accessible resources for water extraction, as well as Fe, Al, and Si feedstock, and have high biosignature preservation potential.

  8. Phyllosilicate Stratigraphy near Mawrth Vallis, Mars: New Insights from Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James; Squyres, S. W.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Kirk, R. L.

    2007-10-01

    Phyllosilicate minerals were first identified on Mars by the OMEGA spectrometer on board Mars Express [1,2]. On Earth, these minerals form most commonly through prolonged interactions between rock and water, so their presence on Mars may have significant implications for the planet's aqueous history. In finely layered outcrops surrounding the ancient outflow channel Mawrth Vallis, OMEGA found two compositionally distinct types of phyllosilicates. With the higher-resolution view afforded by CRISM and HiRISE on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we find that these different minerals occur in distinct stratigraphic horizons, implying changing environmental conditions and/or a variable source of sediment for this location during the Noachian era. A layered unit containing Al-rich phyllosilicates overlies the most extensive of at least two units rich in Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates; in places, these are separated by another unit containing hydrated material of unknown mineralogy. All units are fractured into blocks ranging from decimeters to over a hundred meters across, and the morphology and scale of fractures correlates with the compositional stratigraphy. The lateral continuity of these stratigraphic units over scales exceeding 100 km and the uniformity (at CRISM resolution) of hydrated mineral signatures within each unit suggest that alteration occurred prior to sedimentary emplacement at this site. We use topographic data from HiRISE and the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express to aid in regional stratigraphic correlations and improve our understanding of the three-dimensional geometries of the phyllosilicate-rich layers. The layer geometries provide constraints on the timing of sedimentary deposition in Mawrth Vallis. [1] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1576-1581. [2] Poulet, F. et al. (2005) Nature 438, 623-627.

  9. Retreat of a Giant Cataract in a Long-Lived Catastrophic Outflow Tributary Canyon to Ares Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, N. H.; Gupta, S.; Kim, J.; Lin, S.; Muller, J.

    2011-03-01

    In this analysis we posit that cataract initiation and retreat within a tributary canyon to Ares Vallis were triggered by drops in base level at its mouth, a direct result of incision of the main branch of Ares Vallis during long-lived episodic flooding within both systems.

  10. Nanedi Vallis: Sustained Water Flow? - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This picture of a canyon on the Martian surface was obtained a few minutes after 10 PM PST, January 8, 1998 by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), during the 87th orbit around Mars of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. It shows the canyon of Nanedi Vallis, one of the Martian valley systems cutting through cratered plains in the Xanthe Terra region of Mars. The picture covers an area 9.8 km by 18.5 km (6.1 mi by 11.5 mi), and features as small as 12 m (39 ft) can be seen. The canyon is about 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide. Rocky outcrops are found along the upper canyon walls; weathered debris found on the lower canyon slopes and along the canyon floor. The origin of this canyon is enigmatic: some features, such as terraces within the canyon (as seen near the top of the frame) and the small 200 m (660 ft) wide channel (also seen near the top of the frame) suggest continual fluid flow and downcutting. Other features, such as the lack of a contributing pattern of smaller channels on the surface surrounding the canyon, box-headed tributaries, and the size and tightness of the apparent meanders (as seen, for example, in the Viking image 89A32), suggest formation by collapse. It is likely that both continual flow and collapse have been responsible for the canyon as it now appears. Further observations, especially in areas west of the present image, will be used to help separate the relative effects of these and other potential formation and modification processes.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  11. Morphology and Ages of Units on the Floor of Dao Vallis Head, Mars: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korteniemi, J.; Kukkonen, S.; Kostama, V.-P.

    2012-03-01

    Preliminary results of CTX/HiRISE scale geologic mapping and age estimates on the various floor units of Dao Vallis head, Mars. We have identified a complex and distinct feature set from an area previously considered as a single unit.

  12. Thermal and Mechanical Erosion by Low-Viscosity Lava Flows at Hrad Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, J.; Leverington, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Hrad Vallis outflow channel heads on the northwestern flanks of Elysium Mons, one of the largest volcanoes on Mars. The system consists of a single sinuous channel over much of its 1450 km length. Channel floors are typically 50 to 200 m below adjacent plains, with channel depths progressively diminishing as the distal parts of the system fade into the plains of Utopia Planitia. Hrad Vallis possesses a range of characteristics typical of Martian outflow channels, including anastamosing reaches, streamlined erosional residuals, and channel terraces. Problematically, much of the Hrad Vallis region is thinly mantled by sediments of aeolian or other origin, concealing features of interest. Nevertheless, local exposures of channel floors show landforms including shear zones, longitudinal ridges, and wake forms. Adjacent upland plains show abundant evidence for the past emplacement of lobate-margined overflow deposits. The Hrad Vallis system has been previously interpreted as having developed through catastrophic aqueous outbursts from the subsurface, but such origins are not congruous with observations made in this study, including the absence of deposits of clear fluvial or diluvial character. Characteristics of the Hrad Vallis system appear instead to be most consistent with origins involving incision by low-viscosity lavas. Specifically, the system heads on the flanks of a large shield volcano, terminates at extensive ridged volcanic plains, shows evidence for having been a conduit for large volumes of lava, and possesses properties analogous to those of large volcanic channels of the Moon, Venus, and Mercury. Crude thermal estimates suggest that Hrad Vallis could have been formed through effusion of as little as ~10,000 cubic kilometers of magma. Despite the widespread presence at Hrad Vallis of channel slopes of less than 0.1 degrees, daily incision rates of tens of centimeters to several meters are estimated for mechanical and thermal erosion processes

  13. Simud Vallis Floor: A Joint Landing Site for both the ExoMars 2018 and the Mars 2020 Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Rossato, S.; Baratti, E.; Mangili, C.; Mancarella, F.; McBride, K. S.; Coradini, M.

    2014-07-01

    The geomorphological, mineralogical and the surface engineering properties of the Simud Vallis floor are presented. This region is scientifically compelling and a safe landing area for both the ExoMars 2018 and the Mars 2020 rovers.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, ATI A-3000 5P BAG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of March 24-25, 1999, tests of ATI's A-3000 5P Bag paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic performance factor being ver...

  15. Performance modeling of an integral, self-regulating cesium reservoir for the ATI-TFE

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, K.L.; Ramalingam, M.L. ); Young, T.J. )

    1993-01-20

    This work covers the performance modeling of an integral metal-matrix cesium-graphite reservoir for operation in the Advanced Thermionic Initiative-Thermionic Fuel Element (ATI-TFE) converter configuration. The objectives of this task were to incorporate an intercalated cesium-graphite reservoir for the 3C[sub 24]Cs[r arrow]2C[sub 36]Cs+Cs[sub (g)] two phase equilibrium reaction into the emitter lead region of the ATI-TFE. A semi two-dimensional, cylindrical TFE computer model was used to obtain thermal and electrical converter output characteristics for various reservoir locations. The results of this study are distributions for the interelectrode voltage, output current density, and output power density as a function of axial position along the TFE emitter. This analysis was accomplished by identifying an optimum cesium pressure for three representative pins in the ATI driverless'' reactor core and determining the corresponding position of the graphite reservoir in the ATI-TFE lead region. The position for placement of the graphite reservoir was determined by performing a first-order heat transfer analysis of the TFE lead region to determine its temperature distribution. The results of this analysis indicate that for the graphite reservoirs investigated the 3C[sub 24]Cs[r arrow]2C[sub 36]Cs+Cs[sub (g)] equilibrium reaction reservoir is ideal for placement in the TFE emitter lead region. This reservoir can be directly coupled to the emitter, through conduction, to provide the desired cesium pressure for optimum performance. The cesium pressure corresponding to the optimum converter output performance was found to be 2.18 torr for the ATI core least power TFE, 2.92 torr for the average power TFE, and 4.93 torr for the maximum power TFE.

  16. Compositional stratigraphy of clay-bearing layered deposits at Mawrth Vallis, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wray, J.J.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Mustard, J.F.; Kirk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Phyllosilicates have previously been detected in layered outcrops in and around the Martian outflow channel Mawrth Vallis. CRISM spectra of these outcrops exhibit features diagnostic of kaolinite, montmorillonite, and Fe/Mg-rich smectites, along with crystalline ferric oxide minerals such as hematite. These minerals occur in distinct stratigraphic horizons, implying changing environmental conditions and/or a variable sediment source for these layered deposits. Similar stratigraphic sequences occur on both sides of the outflow channel and on its floor, with Al-clay-bearing layers typically overlying Fe/Mg-clay-bearing layers. This pattern, combined with layer geometries measured using topographic data from HiRISE and HRSC, suggests that the Al-clay-bearing horizons at Mawrth Vallis postdate the outflow channel and may represent a later sedimentary or altered pyroclastic deposit that drapes the topography. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Digital Elevation Models Aid the Analysis of Flows at Hrad Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Hamilton, C.; Garbeil, H.

    2015-12-01

    We have identified several landforms in the Hrad Vallis region of Mars (33.0o - 35.5oN, 216o - 218oW), which suggest that this area was covered by an ice sheet concurrent with volcanic eruptions. Using digital elevation models derived from High Resolution Imaging Science (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) data, a reexamination of the area reveals a complex history including flow inflation and topographic control by transient topographic barriers. Among Amazonian-age outflow channels, Hrad Vallis is exceptional as it exhibits good evidence of magma/water interactions. It is inferred to have formed in association with a shallow igneous sill that melted part of the martian cryosphere and/or released water from an extensive aquifer to produce enormous lahar-like mud flows. Exposed ~30 m high dikes, 20 m high eroded mounds, and flow paths that are inconsistent with present-day topographic gradients, lead us to speculate that this area was covered by at least ~40 m of material (eolian deposits or ice) at the time of volcanic dike intrusion and flow emplacement. This material was subsequently removed leaving no clear morphologic signs (e.g., wind streaks, if eolian material; moraines, if ice). We favor the ice model because if this area was once ice-covered, it offers a plausible mode of formation (as pingoes) for some enigmatic 30 m high domes in the vicinity. At least one 120 km long flow from Hrad Vallis was emplaced as a pahoehoe-like flow that was confined by topographic obstacles and subsequently inflated to thickness of ~45 m. Although the direct relationship between this flow and Hrad Vallis remains to be determined, the inflated flow suggests a longer period of eruption/emplacement at a slower effusion rate than was previously believed.

  18. Geomorphology of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars,and Associated Paleolake Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Rossman, P., III; Howard, Alan D.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    2004-01-01

    Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys in the Martian highlands, appears to have originated by catastrophic overflow of a large paleola ke located south of the valley heads. Ma'adim Vallis debouched to Gus ev crater, 900 km to the north, the landing site for the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover. Support for the paleolake overflow hypothesis come s from the following characteristics: (I) With a channel width of 3 km at its head, Ma'adim Vallis originates at two (eastern and western) gaps incised into the divide of the approximately 1.1 M km(exp 2) enc losed Eridania head basin, which suggests a lake as the water source. (2) The sinuous course of Ma'adim Vallis is consistent with overland flow controlled by preexisting surface topography, and structural con trol is not evident or required to explain the valley course. (3) The nearly constant approximately 5 km width of the inner channel through crater rim breaches, the anastomosing course of the wide western tri butary, the migration of the inner channel to the outer margins of be nds in the valley's lower reach, a medial sedimentary bar approximate ly 200 m in height, and a step-pool" sequence are consistent with modeled flows of 1-5 x l0 (exp 6) m(exp 3)/s. Peak discharges were likely higher but are poorly constrained by the relict channel geometry. (4 ) Small direct tributary valleys to Ma'adim Vallis have convex-up lon gitudinal profiles, suggesting a hanging relationship to a valley that was incised quickly relative to the timescales of tributary developm ent. (5) The Eridania basin had adequate volume between the initial d ivide and the incised gap elevations to carve Ma'adim Vallis during a single flood. (6) The Eridania basin is composed of many overlapping , highly degraded and deeply buried impact craters. The floor materials of the six largest craters have an unusually high internal relief ( approximately 1 km) and slope (approximately 0.5-1.5 degrees) among d egraded Martian craters, which are usually

  19. A preliminary assessment of the effects of ATI-2042 in subjects with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation using implanted pacemaker methodology

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Anita; Silberbauer, John; Teichman, Sam L.; Milner, Peter; Sulke, Neil; Camm, A. John

    2009-01-01

    Aims ATI-2042 (budiodarone) is a chemical analogue of amiodarone with a half life of 7 h. It is electrophysiologically similar to amiodarone, but may not have metabolic and interaction side effects. The sophisticated electrocardiograph logs of advanced DDDRP pacemakers were used to monitor the efficacy of ATI-2042. The aim of this study was to determine the preliminary efficacy and safety of ATI-2042 in patients with paroxsymal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and pacemakers. Methods and results Six women with AF burden (AFB) between 1 and 50% underwent six sequential 2-week study periods. Patients received 200 mg bid of ATI-2042 during Period 2 (p2), 400 mg bid during p3, 600 mg bid during p4, 800 mg bid during p5, and no drug during baseline and washout (p1 and p6). Pacemaker data for the primary outcome measure AFB were downloaded during each period. Mean AFB decreased between baseline and all doses: AFB at baseline (SD) was 20.3 ± 14.6% and mean AFB at 200 mg bid was 5.2 ± 4.2%, at 400 mg bid 5.2 ± 5.2%, at 600 mg bid 2.8 ± 3.4%, and at 800 mg bid 1.5 ± 0.5%. The mean reductions in AFB at all doses of ATI-2042 were statistically significant (P < 0.005). Atrial fibrillation burden increased in washout. Atrial fibrillation episodes tended to increase with ATI-2042, but this was offset by substantial decreases in episode duration. ATI-2042 was generally well tolerated. Conclusion ATI-2042 effectively reduced AFB over all doses studied by reducing mean episode duration. A large-scale study will be required to confirm this effect. PMID:19174378

  20. Hard-object feeding in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and interpretation of early hominin feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Daegling, David J; McGraw, W Scott; Ungar, Peter S; Pampush, James D; Vick, Anna E; Bitty, E Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Morphology of the dentofacial complex of early hominins has figured prominently in the inference of their dietary adaptations. Recent theoretical analysis of craniofacial morphology of Australopithecus africanus proposes that skull form in this taxon represents adaptation to feeding on large, hard objects. A modern analog for this specific dietary specialization is provided by the West African sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys. This species habitually feeds on the large, exceptionally hard nuts of Sacoglottis gabonensis, stereotypically crushing the seed casings using their premolars and molars. This type of behavior has been inferred for A. africanus based on mathematical stress analysis and aspects of dental wear and morphology. While postcanine megadontia, premolar enlargement and thick molar enamel characterize both A. africanus and C. atys, these features are not universally associated with durophagy among living anthropoids. Occlusal microwear analysis reveals complex microwear textures in C. atys unlike those observed in A. africanus, but more closely resembling textures observed in Paranthropus robustus. Since sooty mangabeys process hard objects in a manner similar to that proposed for A. africanus, yet do so without the craniofacial buttressing characteristic of this hominin, it follows that derived features of the australopith skull are sufficient but not necessary for the consumption of large, hard objects. The adaptive significance of australopith craniofacial morphology may instead be related to the toughness, rather than the hardness, of ingested foods. PMID:21887229

  1. Hard-Object Feeding in Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and Interpretation of Early Hominin Feeding Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Daegling, David J.; McGraw, W. Scott; Ungar, Peter S.; Pampush, James D.; Vick, Anna E.; Bitty, E. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Morphology of the dentofacial complex of early hominins has figured prominently in the inference of their dietary adaptations. Recent theoretical analysis of craniofacial morphology of Australopithecus africanus proposes that skull form in this taxon represents adaptation to feeding on large, hard objects. A modern analog for this specific dietary specialization is provided by the West African sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys. This species habitually feeds on the large, exceptionally hard nuts of Sacoglottis gabonensis, stereotypically crushing the seed casings using their premolars and molars. This type of behavior has been inferred for A. africanus based on mathematical stress analysis and aspects of dental wear and morphology. While postcanine megadontia, premolar enlargement and thick molar enamel characterize both A. africanus and C. atys, these features are not universally associated with durophagy among living anthropoids. Occlusal microwear analysis reveals complex microwear textures in C. atys unlike those observed in A. africanus, but more closely resembling textures observed in Paranthropus robustus. Since sooty mangabeys process hard objects in a manner similar to that proposed for A. africanus, yet do so without the craniofacial buttressing characteristic of this hominin, it follows that derived features of the australopith skull are sufficient but not necessary for the consumption of large, hard objects. The adaptive significance of australopith craniofacial morphology may instead be related to the toughness, rather than the hardness, of ingested foods. PMID:21887229

  2. Formation of Jarosite in the Marwrth Vallis Region of Mars by Weathering Within Paleo-Ice Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Here we report new detections of jarosite in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars. These newly recognized deposits expand the known occurrences of sulfates [1-2] in the region and further expand the already considerable geologic-mineralogic diversity of the Mawrth Vallis area [3-6]. The occurrence of sulfates such as jarosite in geologic contact with thick deposits of phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis area is a relatively rare case on Mars where the enigmatic transition from an early phyllosilicateforming era to a younger sulfate-forming era [7] can be explored. We propose an ice-weathering model which can potentially explain the formation of jarosite-silicakaolinite within acidic ice deposits.

  3. Evidence for a changing Martian climate from the mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.

    2016-08-01

    Layered outcrops in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars contain the greatest diversity of aqueous alteration products on the planet, and these materials are used to infer past aqueous environments. Orbital investigations indicate Al/Si-rich clay-bearing units overly an Fe/Mg-smectite-rich unit. Many different secondary minerals have been identified in the upper Al/Si-rich clay units, but the presence of poorly crystalline phases has not been previously investigated. Identification of ∼10-30% allophane and imogolite in the clay-bearing units resolves previous mineralogical discrepancies between TES and CRISM of clay-bearing units on Mars. We demonstrate here that the poorly crystalline aluminosilicates allophane and imogolite comprise a significant portion of the uppermost stratum of the Al/Si-clay-rich units. These phases are unique to immature soils derived from volcanic ash in well-drained, mildly acidic environments on Earth, and we hypothesize that the deposits discovered here originate from supervolcanic activity in nearby Arabia Terra. The transition through time from smectite-bearing units to the uppermost allophane/imogolite unit in Mawrth Vallis signifies a change in climate from a warm and wet environment to one where water was sporadic and likely depleted rapidly.

  4. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleo-environments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The results of this work will include two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  5. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale will be used to characterize geologic processes that have shaped the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary will provide the ability to: 1) further test original dichotomy formation hypotheses, 2) constrain ancient paleoenvironments and climate conditions, and 3) evaluate various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The result will be two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  6. Moon/Mars Landing Commemorative Release: Gusev Crater and Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, the first human beings landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1976, the first robotic lander touched down on Mars. This July 20th-- 29 years after Apollo 11 and 22 years since the Viking 1 Mars landing-- we take a look forward toward one possible future exploration site on the red planet.

    One of the advantages of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) over its predecessors on the Viking and Mariner spacecraft is resolution. The ability to see-- resolve--fine details on the martian surface is key to planning future landing sites for robotic and, perhaps, human explorers that may one day visit the planet.

    At present, NASA is studying potential landing sites for the Mars Surveyor landers, rovers, and sample return vehicles that are scheduled to be launched in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Among the types of sites being considered for these early 21st Century landings are those with 'exobiologic potential'--that is, locations on Mars that are in some way related to the past presence of water.

    For more than a decade, two of the prime candidates suggested by various Mars research scientists are Gusev Crater and Ma'adim Vallis. Located in the martian southern cratered highlands at 14.7o S, 184.5o W, Gusev Crater is a large, ancient, meteor impact basin that--after it formed--was breached by Ma'adim Vallis.

    Viking Orbiter observations provided some evidence to suggest that a fluid--most likely, water--once flowed through Ma'adim Vallis and into Gusev Crater. Some scientists have suggested that there were many episodes of flow into Gusev Crater (as well as flow out of Gusev through its topographically-lower northwestern rim). Some have also indicated that there were times when Ma'adim Vallis, also, was full of water such that it formed a long, narrow lake.

    The possibility that water flowed into Gusev Crater and formed a lake has led to the suggestion that the materials seen on the floor of this crater--smooth-surfaced deposits

  7. Mineralogy of Layered Outcrops at Mawrth Vallis and Implications for Early Aqueous Geochemistry on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Gross, C.; Rampe, E. B.; Wray, J. J.; Parente, M.; Horgan, B.; Loizeau, D.; Viviano-Beck, C. E.; Clark, R. N.; Seelos, F. P.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Murchie, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Recently developed CRISM parameters and newly available DTMs are enabling refined characterization of the mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis. A stratigraphy including 5 units is mapped using HRSC DTMs across 100s of kms and using HiRISE DTMs across 100s of meters. Transitions in mineralogic units were characterized using spectral properties and surface morphology. The observations point to an ancient wet and warm geologic record that formed the thick nontronite unit, a period of wet/dry cycling to create acid alteration, followed by leaching or pedogenesis to result in Al-phyllosilicates, and finally a drier, colder climate that left the altered ash in the form of nanophase aluminosilicates, rather than crystalline clays.

  8. Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles is being used to characterize Reull Vallis (RV) and to determine the history of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. Studies of RV examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes and provide constraints on potential associated climatic changes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives include 1) characterizing RV in its "fluvial zone," 2) analysis of channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to and interactions with RV, 3) examining young, presumably sedimentary plains along RV, and 4) determining the nature of the connection between the segments of RV.

  9. Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analyses of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles are being used to characterize the Reull Vallis (RV) system and to determine the history of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. Studies of RV examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes and provide constraints on potential associated climatic changes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives for these quadrangles include 1) characterization of RV in its "fluvial zone," 2) analysis of channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to and interactions with RV, 3) examination of young (?), presumably sedimentary plains along RV that embay the surrounding highlands, and 4) determination of the nature of the connection between segments 1 and 2 of RV.

  10. Kasei Vallis of Mars: Dating the Interplay of Tectonics and Geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, D. U.

    1985-01-01

    Crater density age dates on more than 250 small geomorphic surfaces in the Kasei Region of Mars show clusterings indicative of times of peak geomorphic and tectonic activity. Kasei Vallis is part of a 300 km wide channel system breaching a N-S trending ancient basement high (+50,000 crater age) separating the Chryse Basin from the Tharsis Volcanic Province of Mars. The basement high was covered by a least 3 groups of probable volcanic deposits. Major regional fracturing took place at age 4,000 to 5,000 and was immediately followed by deposition of regional volcanics of the Fesenkov Plains (age 3,000 to 4,200). Younger clusterings of dates in the 900 to 1,500 and 500 to 700 range represent only minor modification of the basic tectonic geomorphic landform. The data suggest that Kasei gap is a structurally controlled breach of a buried ridge by a rather brief episode of fluvial activity.

  11. ExoMars 2018 Rover Candidate Landing Sites: Aram Dorsum and the Hypanis Vallis Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefton-Nash, E.; Gupta, S.; Balme, M.; Grindrod, P.; Fawdon, P.; Davis, J.; Sidiropoulos, P.; Yershov, V.; Muller, J.-P.

    2015-10-01

    The search for life on Mars is a cornerstone of international solar system exploration. In 2018, the European Space Agency will launch the ExoMars Rover to further this goal. The ExoMars Rover's key science objectives are to: 1) search for signs of past and present life on Mars; 2) investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the subsurface; and 3) characterize the surface environment. ExoMars will drill into the sub-surface to look for indicators of past life using a variety of techniques, including assessment of morphology (potential fossil organisms), mineralogy (past environments) and a search for organic molecules and their chirality (biomarkers).The choice of landing site is vital if the objectives are to be met. The landing site must: (i) be ancient (≥3.6 Ga); (ii) show abundant morphological and mineral evidence for longterm, or frequently recurring, aqueous activity; (iii) include numerous sedimentary outcrops that (iv) are distributed over the landing region (the typical Rover traverse range is a few km, but ellipse size is ~104 by 19 km). Various engineering constraints also apply, including: (i) latitude limited to 5º S to 25º N; (ii) maximum altitude of the landing site 2 km below Mars's datum; and (iii) few steep slopes within the ellipse.In 2014, two international workshops were held to discuss potential landing sites. The outcome of these workshops was a shortlist of four possible sites: Aram Dorsum, Hypanis Delta, Mawrth Vallis, and Oxia Planum. We proposed the Hypanis and Aram Dorsum sites and led the scientific presentations for these sites at the Workshops. Here, we present the science cases for Aram Dorsum and Hypanis Vallis.

  12. Detection of copiapite in the northern Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: Evidence of acid sulfate alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, William H.; Glotch, Timothy D.; Horgan, Briony

    2014-10-01

    The Mawrth Vallis region on Mars is associated with extensive layered deposits containing a stratigraphic sequence of Fe/Mg smectites overlain by Al phyllosilicates. Earlier studies have reported restricted exposures of the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite on top of the sequence. In this paper we have used CRISM data covering the northern portion of the Mawrth Vallis region to find a new jarosite exposure and multiple occurrences of the mixed valence Fe-sulfate mineral copiapite (Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2·20(H2O)). HiRISE imagery indicate that the copiapite exposures lie on top of the Al phyllosilicates and thus post-date that unit either as a coating or as extensive veins. The presumed copiapite exposures are associated with high values of a “SINDX” parameter derived from CRISM data. Application of several spectral matching metrics over a spectral subsection indicated several candidates for the high SINDX phase including copiapite, ferricopiapite and metavoltine (another mixed valence Fe-sulfate mineral). Visible and near infrared CRISM spectra of the high SINDX areas are most consistent with the phase being copiapite. On Earth copiapite generally occurs as efflorescent coatings in acid mine drainage environments or in association with acid sulfate soils. The presence of jarosite and copiapite indicates the presence of acidic waters. Such acid waters could have contributed to the formation of the underlying Al phyllosilicate minerals. A possible mode of origin for these minerals in this region would involve a fluctuating ground water table and the weathering of Fe sulfide minerals.

  13. Are sinuous ridges in the equatorial Rahway Vallis region of Mars fluvioglacial in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, Jason D.; Balme, Matt R.; Conway, Susan J.; Gallagher, Colman

    2013-04-01

    A suite of elongate, branching positive relief landforms has been observed around Rahway Vallis, south-west of Orcus Patera, Mars. They are typically 10 to 150 metres across, and several to tens of kilometres in length. We have observed that these forms occur both individually and as part of complex systems incorporating various cross-cutting, anastomosing and branching patterns. This study forms part of a larger debate as to whether fluvioglacial processes, as opposed to igneous activity, shaped the landscapes in the Elysium Planitia region. The similarity of some of these positive relief branching forms to inverted channels, or perhaps even relict sub-glacial fluvial systems (eskers) suggests an alternative fluvioglacial hypothesis to formation by volcanic processes. Interestingly, if these are esker-like forms then glacial activity in this region was "wet-based", so there should be other characteristic landforms visible. To address this idea, we are conducting a new mapping study of sinuous ridges in the region around Rahway Vallis to assess whether they are more consistent in morphology with formation by igneous or fluvioglacial processes. The survey is being performed using orbital images from the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and elevation data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Our mapping has shown that many of the ridges form convergent, contributory networks. The ridges are spatially associated with kilometre-wide shallow channels and are found at a nearly constant elevation of -3000m above Mars Datum. Our preliminary interpretation is that these ridges are depositional landforms with multiple sources, and therefore could be sub-glacial (eskers), or inverted fluvial channels. The associated larger channels could be higher order fluvial channels, with the ridges and wide-channels together forming part of a larger drainage network.

  14. An Examination of Public Opinion in Austria Towards Inclusion. Development of the "Attitudes Towards Inclusion Scale"--ATIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Susanne; Gebhardt, Markus; Ederer-Fick, Elfriede M.; Gasteiger Klicpera, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The "Attitudes Towards Integration Scale" (ATIS) assesses the attitude of the general public towards the school integration of children with disabilities. The scale was empirically created in a pilot study (n=351) and later used to survey 2158 people. The data from both surveys are analysed in the present paper; the results show that the scale…

  15. Epitaxial thin films of ATiO(3-x)H(x) (A = Ba, Sr, Ca) with metallic conductivity.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Takeshi; Kitada, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yoji; Sakaguchi, Tatsunori; Bouilly, Guillaume; Kasahara, Shigeru; Terashima, Takahito; Takano, Mikio; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2012-05-30

    Epitaxial thin films of titanium perovskite oxyhydride ATiO(3-x)H(x) (A = Ba, Sr, Ca) were prepared by CaH(2) reduction of epitaxial ATiO(3) thin films deposited on a (LaAlO(3))(0.3)(SrAl(0.5)Ta(0.5)O(3))(0.7) substrate. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy detected a substantial amount and uniform distribution of hydride within the film. SrTiO(3)/LSAT thin film hydridized at 530 °C for 1 day had hydride concentration of 4.0 × 10(21) atoms/cm(3) (i.e., SrTiO(2.75)H(0.25)). The electric resistivity of all the ATiO(3-x)H(x) films exhibited metallic (positive) temperature dependence, as opposed to negative as in BaTiO(3-x)H(x) powder, revealing that ATiO(3-x)H(x) are intrinsically metallic, with high conductivity of 10(2)-10(4) S/cm. Treatment with D(2) gas results in hydride/deuteride exchange of the films; these films should be valuable in further studies on hydride diffusion kinetics. Combined with the materials' inherent high electronic conductivity, new mixed electron/hydride ion conductors may also be possible. PMID:22563869

  16. The 3ATI instrument: the first of a new breed of common display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J.; Thomas, J.; James, M. R.; Tumilty, T.; Nguyen, K.

    2006-05-01

    This paper outlines how the convergence of: high resolution rugged AM-LCD; high reliability solid-state backlighting; low-power, high-performance microcircuits; and robust, reconfigurable software can be combined in a modular architecture, to provide a truly "one size fits all" multi-function instrument. The 3ATI form-factor has been selected for this demonstration, as it both represents a very significant population of legacy applications, and because of its compact nature, providing a significant technical challenge. The authors outline how these challenges were addressed and present one application example as applied to the Threat Warning Instrument (TWI), for the Canadian Forces CH-148 (derived from the Sikorsky H-92 platform) "Cyclone" Defensive Aids Suite.

  17. Effect of doxorubicin on (at-I-131) heptadecanoic acid myocardial scintigraphy and echocardiography in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Styles, C.B.; Noujaim, A.A.; Jugdutt, B.I.; Sykes, T.R.; Bain, G.O.; Shnitka, T.L.; Hooper, H.R.

    1983-11-01

    The effects of serial treatment with doxorubicin on dynamic myocardidal scintigraphy with (at-I-131) heptadecanoic acid (I-131 HA), and on global left-ventricular function determined echocardiographically, were studied in a group of nine mongrel dogs. Total extractable myocaridal lipid was compared postmortem between a group of control dogs and doxorubicin-treated dogs. A significant and then progressive fall in global LV function was observed at a cumulative doxorubicin dose of 4 mg/kg. A significant increase in the myocaridal t/sub 1/2/ of the I-131 HA was observed only at a higher cumulative dose, 10 mg/kg. No significant alteration in total extractable myocardial lipids was observed between control dogs and those treated with doxorubicin. The findings suggest that the changes leading to an alteration of myocardial dynamic imaging with I-131 HA are not the initiating factor in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

  18. Preliminary Geological Map of the Peace Vallis Fan Integrated with In Situ Mosaics From the Curiosity Rover, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, D. Y.; Palucis, M.; Dietrich, B.; Calef, F.; Stack, K. M.; Ehlmann, B.; Bridges, J.; Dromart, J.; Eigenbrode, J.; Farmer, J.; Grant, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hamilton, V.; Hardgrove, C.; Kah, L.; Leveille, R.; Mangold, N.; Rowland, S.; Williams, R.

    2013-01-01

    A geomorphically defined alluvial fan extends from Peace Vallis on the NW wall of Gale Crater, Mars into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landing ellipse. Prior to landing, the MSL team mapped the ellipse and surrounding areas, including the Peace Vallis fan. Map relationships suggest that bedded rocks east of the landing site are likely associated with the fan, which led to the decision to send Curiosity east. Curiosity's mast camera (Mastcam) color images are being used to refine local map relationships. Results from regional mapping and the first 100 sols of the mission demonstrate that the area has a rich geological history. Understanding this history will be critical for assessing ancient habitability and potential organic matter preservation at Gale Crater.

  19. Fluvial processes in Ma'adim Vallis and the potential of Gusev crater as a high priority site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie; Landheim, Ragnild; Greeley, Ronald; Farmer, Jack

    1994-01-01

    According to exobiology site selection criteria for Mars, the search for potential extinct/extant water dependent life should focus on sites were water flowed and ponded. The Ma'adim Vallis/Gusev crater system is of high priority for exobiology research, because it appears to have involved long term flooding, different periods and rates of sedimentation, and probable episodic ponding. The topics covered include the following: evidence of nonuniform fluvial processes and early overflooding of the plateau and ponding.

  20. The Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: A potential landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Jean-PierreBibring; Poulet, François; Loizeau, Damien; Mangold, Nicolas; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Bishop, Janice L; Wray, James J; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Hauber, Ernst; Altieri, Francesca; Carrozzo, F Giacomo; Niles, Paul B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2011, is to characterize the habitability of a site on Mars through detailed analyses of the composition and geological context of surface materials. Within the framework of established mission goals, we have evaluated the value of a possible landing site in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars that is targeted directly on some of the most geologically and astrobiologically enticing materials in the Solar System. The area around Mawrth Vallis contains a vast (>1 × 10⁶ km²) deposit of phyllosilicate-rich, ancient, layered rocks. A thick (>150 m) stratigraphic section that exhibits spectral evidence for nontronite, montmorillonite, amorphous silica, kaolinite, saponite, other smectite clay minerals, ferrous mica, and sulfate minerals indicates a rich geological history that may have included multiple aqueous environments. Because phyllosilicates are strong indicators of ancient aqueous activity, and the preservation potential of biosignatures within sedimentary clay deposits is high, martian phyllosilicate deposits are desirable astrobiological targets. The proposed MSL landing site at Mawrth Vallis is located directly on the largest and most phyllosilicate-rich deposit on Mars and is therefore an excellent place to explore for evidence of life or habitability. PMID:20950170

  1. Geologic Mapping of the Mawrth Vallis Region, Mars: MTM Quadrangles 25022, 25017, 25012, 20022, 20017, and 20012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, F. C.; Bleamaster, L. F., III

    2010-01-01

    Mawrth Vallis is a 15-25 km wide, 500 km long sinuous channel that winds through the highlands of Arabia Terra and debouches into the lowlands of Acidalia Planitia. The Mawrth Vallis region lies along the gradational zone between southern hemisphere thick crust and northern hemisphere thin crust, a topographically distinct portion of the Martian crustal dichotomy. The origin and age of the dichotomy boundary are controversial and are further complicated by the multi-stage and multi-process geologic history that has modified this approximately 6000 km section of the highland-lowland boundary (approximately 5 N, 330E to approximately 30 N, 80 E; herein referred as the Arabia Terra boundary). Furthermore, the Arabia Terra boundary has been subjected to many post-boundary processes such as outflow floods to the west, volcanism and tectonism to the east, and potential volatile deposition and glacial modification to the north. This study seeks to better understand the history of the Mawrth Vallis region by mapping six MTM quadrangles (17.5-27.5 N, 335-350 E) at 1:1M scale using traditional and modern digital geologic mapping techniques.

  2. Composition and thermal inertia of the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars from TES and THEMIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Joseph R.; Fergason, Robin L.

    2009-01-01

    Clay mineral-bearing deposits previously discovered on Mars with near infrared ( λ=0.3-5 μm) remote sensing data are of major significance for understanding the aqueous history, geological evolution, and past habitability of Mars. In this study, we analyzed the thermal infrared ( λ=6-35 μm) surface properties of the most extensive phyllosilicate deposit on Mars: the Mawrth Vallis area. Clay mineral-bearing units, which in visible images appear to be relatively light-toned, layered bedrock, have thermal inertia values ranging from 150 to 460 J m -2 K -1 s -1/2. This suggests the deposits are composed of a mixture of rock with sand and dust at 100-meter scales. Dark-toned materials that mantle the clay-bearing surfaces have thermal inertia values ranging from 150 to 800, indicating variable degrees of rockiness or induration of this younger sedimentary or pyroclastic unit. Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra of the light-toned rocks were analyzed with a number of techniques, but none of the results shows a large phyllosilicate component as has been detected in the same surfaces with near-infrared data. Instead, TES spectra of light-toned surfaces are best modeled by a combination of plagioclase feldspar, high-silica materials (similar to impure opaline silica or felsic glass), and zeolites. We propose three hypotheses for why the clay minerals are not apparent in thermal infrared data, including effects due to surface roughness, sub-pixel mixing of multiple surface temperatures, and low absolute mineral abundances combined with differences in spatial sampling between instruments. Zeolites modeled in TES spectra could be a previously unrecognized component of the alteration assemblage in the phyllosilicate-bearing rocks of the Mawrth Vallis area. TES spectral index mapping suggests that (Fe/Mg)-clays detected with near infrared data correspond to trioctahedral (Fe 2+) clay minerals rather than nontronite-like clays. The average mineralogy and geologic

  3. Clay Bearing Units in the Region around Mawrth Vallis: Stratigraphy, Extent, and Possible Alteration Fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrea, E. Z. Noe; Bishop, J. L.; McKeown, N. K.; Swayze, G.; Michalski, J. R.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Mustard, J. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Arvidson, R.; Morris, R. B.; Murchie, S.; McEwen, A. S.; Malaret, E.; Hash, C.

    2007-01-01

    The largest exposure of phyllosilicates on Mars occurs on the highland plains around Mawrth Vallis. This exposure extends for about 300 km southward from the edge of the dichotomy boundary, covering an area greater than 200 x 300 kilometers over an elevation range of approximately 2000 meters. At least two different types of hydrated phyllosilicates (Fe/Mg-rich and Al-rich phyllosilicates) have been identified in OMEGA data based on absorption bands near 2.3 and 2.2 micrometers, respectively. These clay-bearing units are associated with layered, indurated light-toned units with complex spatial and stratigraphic relationships, and are unconfomably overlain by a darker, indurated, more heavily cratered unit. Ongoing analysis of OMEGA (approximately 1 kilometer/pixel) and CRISM multi-spectral (MSP, 200 meters/pixel) data reveal hydrated minerals with absorptions at approximately 2.2 or 2.3 micrometers in locations up to 300 kilometers away from the borders of the previously identified extent of clay-bearing units. We seek to: 1) further constrain the mineralogy of the hydrated species identified in [5], and 2) understand spatial and stratigraphic relationships between the different hydrated minerals and the cratered plains units in which they are found. In this work we perform mineralogical and stratigraphic comparisons between units to test whether these extended units may be related, in order to establish a broad zone of alteration.

  4. Landing at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis: A potential 2020 Mars rover landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, T.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Van Gasselt, S.; Kinch, K.; Madsen, M. B.; Rosenberg, H.

    2014-04-01

    For the upcoming 2020 Mars rover mission we selected a potential landing site that meets all geological criteria including the presence of Noachian/Early Hesperian aqueous sediments and associated hydrous mineral phases and access to unaltered igneous rocks. Our proposed landing site is located at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis in Magong crater. The 25 km × 20 km landing ellipse is centred at 11.990°N, 313.425°E. This site features deltaic sediments and distal lacustrine sediments. In central delta cliff sections weak signatures of Fe/Mg-bearing phyllosilicates are detected. Lacustrine sediments are cut by a partially exhumed igneous dyke. On the crater floor of Magong crater, remnants of an approximately 1 m thick dark deposit are observed, which is interpreted to be a tephra layer sourced from the adjacent volcanic field within Lederberg crater. Detailed terrain analysis of the landing site shows that engineering constraints are met with respect to slope and relief.

  5. Clinicopathologic Characteristics, Prevalence, and Risk Factors of Spontaneous Diabetes in Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys)

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amelia C; Herndon, James G; Courtney, Cynthia L; Collura, Lynn; Cohen, Joyce K

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, clinical observations in our colony of sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) suggested a high frequency of type 2 diabetes. Postmortem studies of diabetic animals revealed dense amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets. To investigate these findings, we screened our colony (97 male mangabeys; 99 female mangabeys) for the disease from 2008 to 2012. The overall prevalence of diabetes was 11% and of prediabetes was 7%, which is nearly double that reported for other primate species (less than 6%). Fructosamine and triglyceride levels were the best indicators of diabetes; total cholesterol and glycated hemoglobin were not associated with disease. Increasing age was a significant risk factor: prevalence increased from 0% in infants, juveniles, and young adults to 11% in adults and 19% in geriatric mangabeys. Sex, medroxyprogesterone acetate exposure, and SIV status were unrelated to disease. Weight was marginally higher in prediabetics, but body condition did not indicate obesity. Of the 49 mangabeys that were necropsied after clinical euthanasia or death from natural causes, 22 were diabetic; all 22 animals demonstrated pancreatic amyloid, and most had more than 75% of islets replaced with amyloid. We conclude that type 2 diabetes is more common in mangabeys than in other primate species. Diabetes in mangabeys has some unusual pathologic characteristics, including the absence of altered cholesterol levels and glycated hemoglobin but a robust association of pancreatic insular amyloidosis with clinical diabetes. Future research will examine the genetic basis of mangabey diabetes and evaluate additional diagnostic tools using imaging and serum markers. PMID:24956212

  6. Microstructural Effects on the Mechanical Properties of ATI 718Plus® Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearsey, R. M.; Tsang, J.; Oppenheimer, S.; McDevitt, E.

    2012-02-01

    Four microstructural variants of ATI 718Plus® alloy (718Plus) have been investigated to elucidate the effects of grain size, precipitate size, morphology, and phase fraction (δ and γ') on mechanical properties such as low cycle fatigue (LCF) life, fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) properties, and dwell FCGR behavior at both 649°C and 704°C under 100 s dwell and nondwell conditions. Similar tests have also been performed on Waspaloy in two comparative microstructural conditions. LCF test results demonstrate that all four microstructural conditions of 718Plus have superior life compared with Waspaloy under all investigated test conditions. FCGR results show that, at both test temperatures, all microstructural conditions of 718Plus and Waspaloy exhibit identical behavior in the steady-state regime, except that 718Plus exhibits a much higher threshold stress intensity (Δ K TH). However, the dwell FCGR results show that Waspaloy displays better steady-state crack growth resistance under dwell conditions. However, with a thermal exposed precipitate microstructure, 718Plus shows considerable improvement in this response.

  7. Detection of Ground Moving Targets for Two-Channel Spaceborne SAR-ATI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhen; Cai, Bin; Liang, Diannong

    2010-12-01

    Many present spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are constrained to only two channels for ground moving target indication (GMTI). Along-track interferometry (ATI) technique is currently exploited to detect slowly moving targets and measure their radial velocity and azimuth real position. In this paper, based on the joint probability density function (PDF) of interferogram's phase and amplitude and the two hypotheses "clutter" and "clutter plus signal", several constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection criteria are analyzed for their capabilities and limitations under low signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) and low clutter-to-noise ratio (CNR) conditions. The CFAR detectors include one-step CFAR detector with interferometric phase, two-step CFAR detectors, and two-dimensional (2D) CFAR detector. The likelihood ratio test (LRT) based on the Neyman-Pearson (NP) criterion is exploited as an upper bound for the performance of the other CFAR detectors. Performance analyses demonstrate the superiority of the 2D CFAR techniques to detect dim slowly moving targets for spaceborne system.

  8. Measurement of intensity-dependent rates of above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atomic hydrogen at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.D.

    1991-04-01

    Measured rates of multiphoton ionization (MPI) from the ground state of atomic hydrogen by a linearly polarized, subpicosecond KrF laser pulse at 248 nm wavelength are compared to predictions of lowest-order perturbation theory, Floquet theory, and Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss (KFR) theory with and without Coulomb correction for peak irradiance of 3 {times} 10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14}W/cm{sup 2}. The Coulomb-corrected Keldysh model falls closest to the measured rates, the others being much higher or much lower. At 5 {times} 10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2}, the number of ATI electrons decreased by a factor of approximately 40 with each additional photon absorbed. ATI of the molecular hydrogen background and of atoms from photodissociation of the molecules were also observed. The experiment employed a crossed-beam technique at ultrahigh vacuum with an rf-discharge atomic hydrogen source and a magnetic-bottle type electron time-of-flight spectrometer to count the electrons in the different ATI channels separately. The apparatus was calibrated to allow comparison of absolute as well as relative ionization rates to the theoretical predictions. This calibration involved measuring the distribution of irradiance in a focal volume that moved randomly and changed its size from time to time. A data collection system under computer control divided the time-of-flight spectra into bins according to the energy of each laser pulse. This is the first measurement of absolute rates of ATI in atomic hydrogen, and the first measurement of absolute test of MPI in atomic hydrogen without a large factor to account for multiple modes in the laser field. As such, the results of this work are important to the development of ATI theories, which presently differ by orders of magnitude in their prediction of the ionization rates. They are also important to recent calculations of temperatures in laser-heated plasmas, many of which incorporate KFR theory.

  9. Discovery of jarosite within the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: Implications for the geologic history of the region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrand, W. H.; Glotch, T.D.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of visible to near infrared reflectance data from the MRO CRISM hyperspectral imager has revealed the presence of an ovoid-shaped landform, approximately 3 by 5 km in size, within the layered terrains surrounding the Mawrth Vallis outflow channel. This feature has spectral absorption features consistent with the presence of the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite, specifically a K-bearing jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6). Terrestrial jarosite is formed through the oxidation of iron sulfides in acidic environments or from basaltic precursor minerals with the addition of sulfur. Previously identified phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis layered terrains include a basal sequence of layers containing Fe-Mg smectites and an upper set of layers of hydrated silica and aluminous phyllosilicates. In terms of its fine scale morphology revealed by MRO HiRISE imagery, the jarosite-bearing unit has fracture patterns very similar to that observed in Fe-Mg smectite-bearing layers, but unlike that observed in the Al-bearing phyllosilicate unit. The ovoid-shaped landform is situated in an east-west bowl-shaped depression superposed on a north sloping surface. Spectra of the ovoid-shaped jarosite-bearing landform also display an anomalously high 600 nm shoulder, which may be consistent with the presence of goethite and a 1.92 ??m absorption which could indicate the presence of ferrihydrite. Goethite, jarosite, and ferrihydrite can be co-precipitated and/or form through transformation of schwertmannite, both processes generally occurring under low pH conditions (pH 2-4). To date, this location appears to be unique in the Mawrth Vallis region and could represent precipitation of jarosite in acidic, sulfur-rich ponded water during the waning stages of drying. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Variability of rock texture and morphology correlated with the clay-bearing units at Mawrth Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Nancy K.; Bishop, Janice L.; Silver, Eli A.

    2013-06-01

    The clay units at Mawrth Vallis have been well-characterized in hyperspectral data; however, a similar study of high spatial resolution High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) data has not been previously conducted. Here the textures of the clay units are described and related to mineralogy across the central Mawrth Vallis region. The nontronite-bearing rocks appear tan in HiRISE COLOR data and are polygonally fractured with polygons 2-5 m across. In some cases, the fractures appear wider and/or have darker fill or the rocks are a darker brown. The montmorillonite-bearing rocks appear blue with regular polygons 0.5-1.5 m across; sometimes, there are larger polygons surrounded by regular polygons, a square fracture pattern, or the color appears yellow or mottled blue-yellow. Kaolinite-rich rocks are the brightest outcrops and are nonpolygonally fractured. Regions with spectra consistent with hydrated silica or the ferrous mineral component do not have unique textures. Hydrated silica-bearing rocks appear yellow or mottled with a regular polygonal texture or yellow with hummocky appearance with no polygons. It is also possible that dust/sand on the surface alters the montmorillonite spectrum to appear like that of hydrated silica. The ferrous component may be expressed as mottled coloring or as a bright fracture fill. The nontronite- and montmorillonite-bearing units have remarkably consistent textures in this region, allowing them to be uniquely identified in the Mawrth Vallis region in nonhyperspectral data sets such as CTX and HiRISE. The morphology of the polygons in these two units suggests that their formation is likely dominated by desiccation and controlled by composition.

  11. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P. (Editor); Edgett, K. S. (Editor); Rice, J. W., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This volume, the first of two comprising the technical report for this workshop, contains papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region, September 24-30, 1995, in Spokane, Washington. The Mars Pathfinder Project received a new start in October 1993 as one of the next missions in NASA's long-term Mars exploration program. The mission involves landing a single vehicle on the surface of Mars in 1997. The project is one of the first Discovery-class missions and is required to be a quick, low-cost mission and achieve a set of significant but focused engineering, science, and technology objectives. The primary objective is to demonstrate a low-cost cruise, entry, descent, and landing system required to place a payload on the martian surface in a safe, operational configuration. Additional objectives include the deployment and operation of various science instruments and a microrover. Pathfinder paves the way for a cost-effective implementation of future Mars lander missions. Also included in this volume is the field trip guide to the Channeled Scabland and Missoula Lake Break-out. On July 4, 1997, Mars Pathfinder is scheduled to land near 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, in a portion of Ares Vallis. The landing ellipse covers a huge (100 x 200 km) area that appears to include both depositional and erosional landforms created by one or more giant, catastrophic floods. One of the best known terrestrial analogs to martian outflow channels (such as Ares Vallis) is the region known as the Channeled Scabland. The field trip guide describes some of the geomorphological features of the Channeled Scabland and adjacent Lake Missoula break-out area near Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho.

  12. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P. (Editor); Edgett, K. S. (Editor); Rice, J. W. , Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will place a single lander on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997, following a December 1996 launch. As a result of the very successful first Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop, the project has selected the Ares Vallis outflow channel in Chryse Planitia as the landing site. This location is where a large catastrophic outflow channel debouches into the northern lowlands. A second workshop and series of field trips, entitled Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington, were held in Spokane and Moses Lake, Washington. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a focus for learning as much as possible about the Ares Vallis region on Mars before landing there. The rationale is that the more that can be learned about the general area prior to landing, the better scientists will be able interpret the observations made by the lander and rover and place them in the proper geologic context. The field trip included overflights and surface investigations of the Channeled Scabland (an Earth analog for the martian catastrophic outflow channels), focusing on areas particularly analogous to Ares Vallis and the landing site. The overflights were essential for placing the enormous erosional and depositional features of the Channeled Scabland into proper three-dimensional context. The field trips were a joint educational outreach activity involving K-12 science educators, Mars Pathfinder scientists and engineers, and interested scientists from the Mars scientific community. Part 1 of the technical report on this workshop includes a description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, abstracts accepted for presentation at the workshop, an introduction to the Channeled Scabland, and field trip guides for the overflight and two field trips. This part, Part 2, includes the program for the workshop, summaries of the workshop technical sessions, a summary of the field trips and ensuing

  13. History of the clay-rich unit at Mawrth Vallis, Mars: High-resolution mapping of a candidate landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bishop, J. L.; Michalski, J.; Quantin, C.

    2015-11-01

    The Mawrth Vallis region is covered by some of the largest phyllosilicate-rich outcrops on Mars, making it a unique window into the past history of Mars in terms of water alteration, potential habitability, and the search for past life. A landing ellipse had been proposed for the Curiosity rover. This area has been extensively observed by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment and the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, offering the possibility to produce geologic, structural, and topographic maps at very high resolution. These observations provide an unprecedented detailed context of the rocks at Mawrth Vallis, in terms of deposition, alteration, erosion, and mechanical constraints. Our analyses demonstrate the presence of a variety of alteration environments on the surface and readily accessible to a rover, the presence of flowing water at the surface postdating the formation of the clay-rich units, and evidence for probable circulation of fluids in the rocks at different depths. These rocks undergo continuous erosion, creating fresh outcrops where potential biomarkers may have been preserved. The diversity of aqueous environments over geological time coupled to excellent preservation properties make the area a very strong candidate for future robotic investigation on Mars, like the NASA Mars 2020 mission.

  14. Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulates differentiation of ATII cells to ATI-like cells through activation of Wnt5a

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Manik C.; Gorantla, Vijay; Makena, Patrudu S.; Luellen, Charlean; Sinclair, Scott E.; Schwingshackl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar type II (ATII) epithelial cells play a crucial role in the repair and remodeling of the lung following injury. ATII cells have the capability to proliferate and differentiate into alveolar type I (ATI) cells in vivo and into an ATI-like phenotype in vitro. While previous reports indicate that the differentiation of ATII cells into ATI cells is a complex biological process, the underlying mechanism responsible for differentiation is not fully understood. To investigate factors involved in this differentiation in culture, we used a PCR array and identified several genes that were either up- or downregulated in ATI-like cells (day 6 in culture) compared with day 2 ATII cells. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) mRNA was increased nearly eightfold. We found that IGF-I was increased in the culture media of ATI-like cells and demonstrated a significant role in the differentiation process. Treatment of ATII cells with recombinant IGF-I accelerated the differentiation process, and this effect was abrogated by the IGF-I receptor blocker PQ401. We found that Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt-Frizzled pathway, was activated during IGF-I-mediated differentiation. Both protein kinase C and β-catenin were transiently activated during transdifferentiation. Knocking down Wnt5a using small-interfering RNA abrogated the differentiation process as indicated by changes in the expression of an ATII cell marker (prosurfactant protein-C). Treatment of wounded cells with either IGF-I or Wnt5a stimulated wound closure. These results suggest that IGF-I promotes differentiation of ATII to ATI cells through the activation of a noncanonical Wnt pathway. PMID:23709620

  15. A fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based along track interferometry (ATI) approach to SAR-based ground moving target indication (GMTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel D.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-06-01

    Along-track interferometry (ATI) is used to detect ground moving targets against a stationary background in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In this paper, we present a novel approach to multi-channel ATI wherein clutter cancellation is applied to each pixel of the multiple SAR images, followed by a Fourier transform to estimate range rate (Doppler). Range rate estimates allow us to compensate for the cross-range offset of the target, thus geo-locating the targets. We then present a number of benefits to this approach.

  16. Protection forest resilience after a fire event: a case study in Vallis, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Werlen, Mario; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Forests are well known to protect against natural hazards such as landslides, rockfall and floods. Nevertheless, they are dynamic ecosystems which are exposed to a variety of disturbances such as windstorms, fires, bark beetle and pathogen outbreaks. Catastrophic disturbances like windstorms and fires usually remove large portions of the canopy, starting a succession process which lead to a complete stand regeneration. Disturbances belong to the natural dynamic of forests, however they are highly undesirable in the case where forest protect infrastructure or settlements. Quantifying the decay and recovery of the protection effect of forests after disturbances is therefore important to evaluate risks and implement appropriate management techniques, when needed. This work analyzes the dynamic of a Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris) protection forests near Visp (Vallis) after a fire event, focusing on root reinforcement, which is the key factor in preventing shallow landslides. Forest cover, root distribution and root mechanical properties were analyzed 4 years after the fire event, and the root reinforcement has been quantified. Furthermore, the contribution of natural regeneration has been evaluated. Results show that the root reinforcement of Scots pine has declined massively in the forest fire area. At a distance of 1.5 m from the tree stem there is a reduction of 60% compared with the live stand. With increasing distance from the stem, the reduction in the reinforcement is even bigger. At a distance of 2.5 meters it is 12% and at 3.5 meters, only 5% of the original root reinforcement. This decrease is due to the decomposition of roots and associated change in the mechanical properties of the wood. The reinforcement of the dead roots in the forest area is estimated between 0.36 kPa and 2.64 kPa. The contribution of the emerging regeneration is estimated on average 0.01 kPa. Overall the stand provides a reinforcement between 0.37 kPa and 2.65 kPa. From the results it

  17. Volcano/Ice Interaction Origin of Thermally Distinct Craters in Hrad Vallis, Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Evidence of volcano-ground ice interactions on Mars can provide important constraints on the timing and distribution of Martian volcanic processes and climate characteristics. We seek to constrain the presence of volatiles in close association with volcanic activity in the Elysium region of Mars. Northwest of the Elysium Rise is Hrad Vallis, a ~370 m deep, 800 km long sinuous valley that begins in a source region at 34oN, 218 oW. Flanking both sides of the source region is a lobate deposit that extends ~50 km perpendicular from the source and is an average of ~40 m thick. Within the lobate deposit 12 craters have been identified by thermal infrared signatures and morphologies that are distinct from any other craters or depressions in the region. The thermally distinct craters (TDCs) are 1100-1800 m in diameter, 30-40 m deep and are typically circular with central depressions surrounded by ~1 to >6 concentric fracture sets. In order to investigate the origin of the thermal anomalies, as well as scrutinize previous observations made using THEMIS and MOC data, the meter-scale morphology of the TDCs and the surrounding terrain was characterized using images from the CTX (~6 m/pix) and HiRISE (0.25-0.30 m/pix) cameras. Patches of the terrain appear smooth at the meter scale, while fields of cones populate other regions of the surface. The cones are ~30-50 m across at the summit, and ~60-80 m across at the base. Many of the cones have flat summits, while some have a summit crater. The larger cones exhibit channels extending radially away from the summit and decameter-scale pits are observed at the base of many of the cones. The cone morphology suggests they may be the result of the explosive interaction between hot material (lava? mudflow?) and volatiles (either frozen ground or ground ice). Morris and Mouginis-Mark (2006) noted the ejecta surrounding Crater 11 appeared to have a slight “rayed” appearance. HiRISE views of the proposed rays reveal that these are

  18. The sinuous ridge and channel network within Rahway Vallis and the wider contextual study of the surrounding Rahway Basin, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, Jason; Balme, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Gallagher, Colman

    2014-05-01

    Rahway Vallis is a previously identified shallow v-shaped valley network in the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data, located at 10°N 175°E, within the Cerberus Plains in the Elysium Planitia region of Mars. Rahway Vallis is situated in low-lying terrain bounded to west, north and east by older highlands, and to the south by the flood-carved channel system Marte Vallis. Here we present a study of the low-lying area in which Rahway Vallis sits, which we refer to as the "Rahway basin". The floor of the Rahway basin is extremely flat (sloping at 0.02° south-east) and hosts a branching network of ridge and channel systems. The aim of this project is to determine the genesis of these branching forms, in particular to test the hypothesis that they are glaciofluvial in origin. Using topographic cross-profiles of the channels that are identifiable in CTX 6 m/pixel images, we have found that they are set within broader v-shaped valley that has almost no morphological expression. These valleys have a convex-up, shallow (around 15 metres vertically compared to several kilometres in the horizontal) V-shaped profiles that are consistent in form across the whole Rahway Basin. Long profiles show the channels to deepen with respect to the bank height downslope. Both channels and valley show a consistent downhill gradient from west to east. The channels typically widen down-slope and increase in width at confluences. If these are water-cut channels, they reach Strahler stream orders of 4, consistent with a contributory network with multiple sources. Associated with the channels are sinuous ridges, typically several kilometres long, 20 m across, with heights on the order of 10 m. They sometimes form branching networks leading into the channels but also form individually and parallel to the channels. Possible explanations for the sinuous ridges include inverted fluvial channels and eskers. However despite looking through ca. 250 CTX images across the Rahway basin, no other glacial

  19. Ancient Martian Lakestands and Fluvial Processes in Iani Chaos: Geology of Light-Toned Layered Deposits and their Relationship to Ares Vallis Outflow Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guallini, Luca; Gilmore, Martha; Marinangeli, Lucia; Thomas, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Iani Chaos is a ~30,000 square kilometers region that lies at the head of the Ares Vallis outflow channel system. Mapping of Ares Vallis reveals multiple episodes of erosion, probably linked to several discharge events from the Iani Chaos aquifer. We present the first detailed geomorphological map of the Iani region. Five chaos units have been distinguished with varying degrees of modification (primarily by erosion and fracturing), starting from a common terrain (Noachian highlands). We observe a general progressive decrease of their mean elevation from the Mesas, Mesas & Knobs and Hummocky (Hy) terrains to the Knobs and Knobby morphologies. This trend is consistent with an initial collapse of the original surface with an increase of the fracturing and/or of the erosion. Light-toned Layered Deposits (LLD) have been also mapped and described in Iani Chaos. These terrains are clearly distinguished by a marked light-toned albedo, high thermal inertia and a pervasively fractured morphology. LLD both fill the basins made by the collapsed chaotic terrains and are found to be partially modified by the chaos formation. LLD also overlap chaos mounds or are themselves eroded into mounds after deposition. These stratigraphic relationships demonstrate that LLD deposition occurred episodically in the Iani region and throughout the history of the development of the chaos. Water seems to have had an active role in the geological history of Iani. The composition and morphologies of the LLD are consistent with deposition in an evaporitic environment and with erosion by outflows, requiring stable water on the surface. For the first time, we have also mapped and analyzed potential fluvial features (i.e., channels, streamlined islands, terraces, grooved surfaces) on the surface of the LLD. These landforms describe a fluvial system that can be traced from central Iani and linked northward to Ares Vallis. Using topographic data, we have compared the elevation of the LLD and channel

  20. Characterization of phyllosilicates observed in the central Mawrth Vallis region, Mars, their potential formational processes, and implications for past climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKeown, N.K.; Bishop, J.L.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Parente, M.; Mustard, J.F.; Murchie, S.L.; Swayze, G.A.; Bibring, J.-P.; Silver, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Mawrth Vallis contains one of the largest exposures of phyllosilicates on Mars. Nontronite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and hydrated silica have been identified throughout the region using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). In addition, saponite has been identified in one observation within a crater. These individual minerals are identified and distinguished by features at 1.38-1.42, ???1.91, and 2.17-2.41 ??m. There are two main phyllosilicate units in the Mawrth Vallis region. The lowermost unit is nontronite bearing, unconformably overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate unit containing montmorillonite plus hydrated silica, with a thin layer of kaolinite plus hydrated silica at the top of the unit. These two units are draped by a spectrally unremarkable capping unit. Smectites generally form in neutral to alkaline environments, while kaolinite and hydrated silica typically form in slightly acidic conditions; thus, the observed phyllosilicates may reflect a change in aqueous chemistry. Spectra retrieved near the boundary between the nontronite and Al-phyllosilicate units exhibit a strong positive slope from 1 to 2 ??m, likely from a ferrous component within the rock. This ferrous component indicates either rapid deposition in an oxidizing environment or reducing conditions. Formation of each of the phyllosilicate minerals identified requires liquid water, thus indicating a regional wet period in the Noachian when these units formed. The two main phyllosilicate units may be extensive layers of altered volcanic ash. Other potential formational processes include sediment deposition into a marine or lacustrine basin or pedogenesis. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Edgett, K. S.; Rice, J. W., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    This volume, the first of two comprising the technical report for this workshop, contains papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2 24-30, 1995, in Spokane, Washington. The Mars Pathfinder Project received a new start in October 1993 as one of the next missions in NASA's long-term Mars exploration program. The mission involves landing a single vehicle on the surface of Mars in 1997. The project is one of the first Discovery-class missions and is required to be a quick, low-cost mission and achieve a set of significant but focused engineering, science, and technology objectives. The primary objective is to demonstrate a low-cost cruise, entry, descent, and landing system required to place a payload on the martian surface in a safe, operational configuration. Additional objectives include the deployment and operation of various science instruments and a microrover. Pathfinder paves the way for a cost-effective implementation of future Mars lander missions. Also included in this volume is the field trip guide to the Channeled Scabland and Missoula Lake Break-out. On July 4, 1997, Mars Pathfinder is scheduled to land near 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, in a portion of Ares Vallis. The landing ellipse covers a huge (100 x 200 km) area that appears to include both depositional and erosional landforms created by one or more giant, catastrophic floods. One of the best known terrestrial analogs to martian outflow channels (such as Ares Vallis) is the region known as the Channeled Scabland. The field trip guide describes some of the geomorphological features of the Channeled Scabland and adjacent Lake Missoula break-out area near Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho.

  2. Wind-wave-induced velocity in ATI SAR ocean surface currents: First experimental evidence from an airborne campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Adrien C. H.; Gommenginger, Christine; Marquez, Jose; Doody, Sam; Navarro, Victor; Buck, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Conventional and along-track interferometric (ATI) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) senses the motion of the ocean surface by measuring the Doppler shift of reflected signals. Measurements are affected by a Wind-wave-induced Artifact Surface Velocity (WASV) which was modeled theoretically in past studies and has been estimated empirically only once before with Envisat ASAR by Mouche et al. (2012). An airborne campaign in the tidally dominated Irish Sea served to evaluate this effect and the current retrieval capabilities of a dual-beam SAR interferometer known as Wavemill. A comprehensive collection of Wavemill airborne data acquired in a star pattern over a well-instrumented validation site made it possible for the first time to estimate the magnitude of the WASV, and its dependence on azimuth and incidence angle from data alone. In light wind (5.5 m/s) and moderate current (0.7 m/s) conditions, the wind-wave-induced contribution to the measured ocean surface motion reaches up to 1.6 m/s upwind, with a well-defined second-order harmonic dependence on direction to the wind. The magnitude of the WASV is found to be larger at lower incidence angles. The airborne WASV results show excellent consistency with the empirical WASV estimated from Envisat ASAR. These results confirm that SAR and ATI surface velocity estimates are strongly affected by WASV and that the WASV can be well characterized with knowledge of the wind knowledge and of the geometry. These airborne results provide the first independent validation of Mouche et al. (2012) and confirm that the empirical model they propose provides the means to correct airborne and spaceborne SAR and ATI SAR data for WASV to obtain accurate ocean surface current measurements. After removing the WASV, the airborne Wavemill-retrieved currents show very good agreement against ADCP measurements with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) typically around 0.1 m/s in velocity and 10° in direction.

  3. Locus of Control & Motivation Strategies for Learning Questionnaire: Predictors of Student Success on the ATI Comprehensive Predictor Exam & NCLEX-RN Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jane H.

    2011-01-01

    The two purposes of this study were to determine whether locus of control (LOC) was predictive of how a student would perform on the ATI Comprehensive Predictor Exam and the NCLEX-RN, and if the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) provided information that would help determine predictors of success on these two exams. The study…

  4. Dietary variation and food hardness in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys): implications for fallback foods and dental adaptation.

    PubMed

    McGraw, W Scott; Vick, Anna E; Daegling, David J

    2014-07-01

    We present information on food hardness and monthly dietary changes in female sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) in Tai Forest, Ivory Coast to reassess the hypothesis that thick molar enamel is parsimoniously interpreted as a response to consumption of hard foods during fallback periods. We demonstrate that the diet of sooty mangabeys varies seasonally, but that one food--Sacoglottis gabonensis--is the most frequently consumed food every month and year round. This food is the hardest item in the sooty diet. Given that this species has among the thickest enamel within the primate order, a plausible conclusion is that thick enamel in this taxon evolved not in response to seasonally critical function or fallback foods, but rather to the habitual, year round processing of a mechanically protected foodstuff. These data serve as a caution against de rigueur interpretations that reliance on fallback foods during lean periods primarily explains the evolution of thick enamel in primates. PMID:24810136

  5. Near-Surface Geologic Units Exposed Along Ares Vallis and in Adjacent Areas: A Potential Source of Sediment at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1997-01-01

    A sequence of layers, bright and dark, is exposed on the walls of canyons, impact craters and mesas throughout the Ares Vallis region, Chryse Planitia, and Xanthe Terra, Mars. Four layers can be seen: two pairs of alternating dark and bright albedo. The upper dark layer forms the top surface of many walls and mesas. The upper dark-bright pair was stripped as a unit from many streamlined mesas and from the walls of Ares Valles, leaving a bench at the top of the lower dark layer, approximately 250 m below the highland surface on streamlined islands and on the walls of Ares Vallis itself. Along Ares Vallis, the scarp between the highlands surface and this bench is commonly angular in plan view (not smoothly curving), suggesting that erosion of the upper dark-bright pair of layers controlled by planes of weakness, like fractures or joints. These near-surface layers in the Ares Vallis area have similar thicknesses, colors, and resistances to erosion to layers exposed near the tops of walls in Valles Marineris (Treiman et al.) and may represent the same pedogenic hardpan units. From this correlation, and from analogies with hardpans on Earth, the light-color layers may be cemented by calcite or gypsum. The dark layers are likely cemented by an iron-bearing mineral. Mars Pathfinder instruments should permit recognition and useful analyses of hardpan fragments, provided that clean uncoated surfaces are accessible. Even in hardpan-cemented materials, it should be possible to determine the broad types of lithologies in the Martian highlands. However, detailed geochemical modeling of highland rocks and soils may be compromised by the presence of hardpan cement minerals.

  6. Multiple working hypotheses for the formation of compositional stratigraphy on Mars: Insights from the Mawrth Vallis region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Joseph R.; Niles, P. B.; Cuadros, J.; Baldridge, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    A unique aspect of martian geology is the presence of similar compositional stratigraphy observed in many locations throughout the surface. Where the Al-rich and Fe/Mg-rich clay minerals occur together, aluminous clays typically overly layered ferromagnesian clays, possibly indicating that precipitation-driven leaching occurred in a warmer, wetter climate. Sulfates generally occurring stratigraphically above clays could be relics of a global environmental shift between clay-forming and sulfate forming epochs. These compositional relationships speak to an important aspect of the martian geosystem that is yet poorly understood. We synthesized recent ideas to produce several working hypotheses for the formation of compositional stratigraphy on Mars and tested the hypotheses on well-exposed sulfate- and clay-bearing rocks found in the Mawrth Vallis region. In the Mawrth Vallis area, interpretations of compositional stratigraphy are strongly constrained by the fact that the sulfates and clays occur within a friable unit (probably loessite or tephra) that was deposited unconformably onto cratered terrain of fundamentally different character. Within the friable unit, the presence of aluminous clays over ferromagnesian clays might represent evidence for leaching associated with rainfall, but the presence of montmorillonite, beidellite, and sulfates argue against intense leaching as a dominant process. We suggest that ice/snow-mediated chemical weathering of dust could produce a deposit consistent with the observations through hydrolysis reactions facilitated by acidic, briny solutions within the icy dust deposit. Slow downward transport of Mg2+ and possibly Fe2+ in these solutions could potentially have produced the crude compositional stratigraphy, but regional scale leaching of basaltic bedrock by rainfall is unlikely to explain the observations. Because both clays and sulfates are found within draping, friable sedimentary deposits that occur at a range of elevations

  7. Herbal Therapies and Social-Health Policies: Indigenous Ati Negrito Women's Dilemma and Reproductive Healthcare Transitions in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ong, Homervergel G; Kim, Young-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The high maternal mortality in the Philippines in the past decades prompted intervention strategies to curb unwanted deaths of mothers and improve health and social conditions of women. Such introductions however have begun to challenge traditional reproductive health practices creating confusion among practitioners and incipient transitions in healthcare. Our aim in this study was to document the herbal therapies practiced by indigenous Ati Negrito women and discuss the implications of social and conventional healthcare intervention programs on reproductive healthcare traditions by conducting semistructured interviews. Fidelity Level index was used to determine culturally important plants (i.e., the most preferred). Review of related studies on most preferred plants and therapies was further carried out to provide information regarding their safety/efficacy (or otherwise). Determination of informants' traditional medicinal knowledge was done using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A total of 49 medicinal plants used in treating female reproductive health-related syndromes across four categories were recorded. Significant differences in traditional medicinal knowledge were recorded when informants were grouped according to age, education, and number of children. Issues discussed in this research could hopefully raise awareness on changes in healthcare practices in indigenous cultures and on medical safety especially when traditional and conventional medications interact. PMID:26345471

  8. Synthesis of disordered pyrochlores, ATi 2O 7 ( A=Y, Gd and Dy), by mechanical milling of constituent oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, Antonio F.; Boulahya, Khalid; Maczka, Miroslaw; Hanuza, Jerzy; Amador, Ulises

    2005-04-01

    This paper reports the mechanochemical synthesis and the structural and microstructural characterization of three titanates, ATi 2O 7 ( A=Y, Gd and Dy), with a pyrochlore-like structure. Starting from stoichiometric mixtures of elemental oxides TiO 2 and AO 3, single-phase samples of highly disordered pyrochlores were obtained after milling. Differential thermal analysis of the as prepared powders showed in every case the presence of a single exothermic event at temperatures close to 800 °C. The evolution of the structure and microstructure of these highly-disordered pyrochlores with temperature was studied by combining XRD and IR and Raman spectroscopies. On heating, both the cation and anion arrays in Y 2Ti 2O 7 and Dy 2Ti 2O 7, order by two independent processes. The exothermic events observed in DTA have their origin in the ordering of the anion sublattice, whereas cation ordering progress smoothly with temperature. Gadolinium titanate, Gd 2Ti 2O 7, behaves differently to the other two compounds studied concerning the cation sublattice: no evidence of cation disorder is observed, even in the just-milled sample.

  9. Herbal Therapies and Social-Health Policies: Indigenous Ati Negrito Women's Dilemma and Reproductive Healthcare Transitions in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Homervergel G.; Kim, Young-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The high maternal mortality in the Philippines in the past decades prompted intervention strategies to curb unwanted deaths of mothers and improve health and social conditions of women. Such introductions however have begun to challenge traditional reproductive health practices creating confusion among practitioners and incipient transitions in healthcare. Our aim in this study was to document the herbal therapies practiced by indigenous Ati Negrito women and discuss the implications of social and conventional healthcare intervention programs on reproductive healthcare traditions by conducting semistructured interviews. Fidelity Level index was used to determine culturally important plants (i.e., the most preferred). Review of related studies on most preferred plants and therapies was further carried out to provide information regarding their safety/efficacy (or otherwise). Determination of informants' traditional medicinal knowledge was done using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A total of 49 medicinal plants used in treating female reproductive health-related syndromes across four categories were recorded. Significant differences in traditional medicinal knowledge were recorded when informants were grouped according to age, education, and number of children. Issues discussed in this research could hopefully raise awareness on changes in healthcare practices in indigenous cultures and on medical safety especially when traditional and conventional medications interact. PMID:26345471

  10. Ma'adim Vallis Estuarine Delta in Elysium Basin and Its Relevance as a Landing Site for Exobiology Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    The debouche of Ma'adim Vallis in the Elysium Basin generated a transitional transported sediment structure, which planimetric shape is controlled by the enclosing topography of a deep reentrant gulf of the Basin into the highland. We defined it as an estuarine delta. The location and the importance of this estuarine delta is supported by the theoretical model of graded profile constructed for Ma'adim Vallis, and by two approaches: (i) the reconstruction of Ma'adim Vallis downstream course from Gusev to Elysium Basin, and (ii) the survey of the sediment deposit in the alleged estuary. The longitudinal graded profile of Ma'adim Vallis finds its base-level in the Elysium Basin, at a about 1000 m elevation, which is in agreement with the observed Basin shoreline. This model is supported by observational evidence of flow between the northern rim of Gusev crater, and the Elysium Basin shoreline. This downstream course of Ma'adim Vallis can be divided into three hydrogeologic regions. into three hydrogeologic regions. (a) The first region is a flooded plain (Zephiria Mensae), consisting in chaotic terrain formed by highland rocks, and disintegrated lava of the western flank of Apollinaris. Morphologic indicators of the flood process are: (1) the sediment deposit over the Gusev crater northern rim that reflects the overspilling of the crater-lake water through a 40-km wide gap provided by an ancient impact crater, (2) the tear-drop shaped feature on the northeastern flank of Apollinaris Patera, and (3) the chaotic terrain that suggest the emergence of ground water generated by the seepage of the crater lake through high-permeable broken rampart material. This underground water circulation sustained by the hydrostatic pressure of the crater-lake has likely generated a hydrothermal system in the volcanic environment of Apollinaris Patera. The stratigraphy of the flooded area is identified as Hesperian age, with occurrences of Noachian hilly individual features, and as

  11. Ma'adim Vallis Estuarine Delta in Elysium Basin and Its Relevance as a Landing Site for Exobiology Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    The debouche of Ma'adim Vallis in the Elysium Basin generated a transitional transported sediment structure, which planimetric shape is controlled by the enclosing topography of a deep reentrant gulf of the Basin into the highland. We defined it as an estuarine delta. The location and the importance of this estuarine delta is supported by the theoretical model of graded profile constructed for Ma'adim Vallis, and by two approaches: (i) the reconstruction of Ma'adim Vallis downstream course from Gusev to Elysium Basin, and (ii) the survey of the sediment deposit in the alleged estuary. The longitudinal graded profile of Ma'adim Vallis finds its base-level in the Elysium Basin, at a about 1000 m elevation, which is in agreement with the observed Basin shoreline. This model is supported by observational evidence of flow between the northern rim of Gusev crater, and the Elysium Basin shoreline. This downstream course of Ma'adim Vallis can be divided into three hydrogeologic regions. into three hydrogeologic regions. (a) The first region is a flooded plain (Zephiria Mensae), consisting in chaotic terrain formed by highland rocks, and disintegrated lava of the western flank of Apollinaris. Morphologic indicators of the flood process are: (1) the sediment deposit over the Gusev crater northern rim that reflects the overspilling of the crater-lake water through a 40-km wide gap provided by an ancient impact crater, (2) the tear-drop shaped feature on the northeastern flank of Apollinaris Patera, and (3) the chaotic terrain that suggest the emergence of ground water generated by the seepage of the crater lake through high-permeable broken rampart material. This underground water circulation sustained by the hydrostatic pressure of the crater-lake has likely generated a hydrothermal system in the volcanic environment of Apollinaris Patera. The stratigraphy of the flooded area is identified as Hesperian age, with occurrences of Noachian hilly individual features, and as

  12. The Origin of Eridania Lake and Ma'adim Vallis: An Investigation of Closed Chaos Basins, Hesperian Ridged Plains, and Tectonic Constructs on the Floor of a Large Hypothesized Paleolake on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. M.; Head, J. W.

    2009-03-01

    The stratigraphy of structures and units is analyzed on the floor of a potential paleolake south of Ma’adim Vallis, Mars. Closed chaos basins are potential sources of groundwater inputs, and may have been modified by later lava flow loading.

  13. Ponding, draining and tilting of the Cerberus Plains; a cryolacustrine origin for the sinuous ridge and channel networks in Rahway Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, J. D.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.

    2015-06-01

    Rahway Vallis sits within a shallow basin (the "Rahway basin") in the Cerberus Plains of Mars containing a branching network of channels converging on the basin floor. Using topographic cross-profiles of the channels we have found that they are set within broader, subtly-expressed, valleys. These valleys are shallow (around 15 m vertically compared to several kilometres in the horizontal) and have convex to rectilinear slope profiles that are consistent in form across the whole Rahway basin. Both channels and valleys descend and deepen consistently from west to east. The channels typically widen down-slope and increase in width at confluences. The morphology and topology of this channel system are consistent with formation by contributory fluid flow, generated from many distributed sources. The transition between the older heavily cratered terrain and the floor of the Rahway basin is bounded by near-horizontal continuous topographic terraces. Plotting the elevation of the terraces shows that they conform to a plane with a height difference of around 100 m east to west for the 300 km width of the Rahway basin. We calculate that the volume of material needed to fill the topography up to the level of the plane best fit by the terraces is ∼1500 km3. Bordering the channels are sinuous ridges, typically several kilometres long, 20 m across, with heights on the order of 10 m. They sometimes form branching networks leading into the channels, but also occur individually and parallel to the channels. The multiple tilted terraces, the channel/valley network with many fluvial-like characteristics, and the distributed source regions, suggest that the landforms within the Rahway basin are unlikely to have formed through purely volcanic processes. Rather, the channels within the Rahway basin are consistent with a genesis requiring the flow of liquid water, and the sinuous ridges with melting of a static ice body that occupied the basin. We suggest a hypothesis of rapid basin

  14. A new technique for identification of minerals in hyperspectral images. Application to robust characterization of phyllosilicate deposits at Mawrth Vallis using CRISM images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bishop, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Mapping of Mars by MRO has revealed the presence of numerous small phyllosilicate outcrops. These are typically identified in CRISM images using "summary products" (Pelkey, 2007) that consist of band ratios, depths and spectral slopes around diagnostic wavelengths. The summary products are designed to capture spectral features related to both surface mineralogy and atmospheric gases and aerosols. Such products, as an analysis tool to characterize composition as well as a targeting tool to identify areas of mineralogical interest, have been successful in capturing the known diversity of the Martian surface, and in highlighting locations with strong spectral signatures. Here we present alternative mineral mapping technique that 1) aims to increase the robustness of mineral detections with respect to the specific CRISM artifacts, 2) takes advantage of the spatial context of each pixel and 3) develops new parameters for the discrimination of species in the phyllosilicates family. We include spatial context by evaluating spectral shapes, band depths and spectral slopes for the current pixel based on its spatial neighbors within the same geological unit. Furthermore, the parameters are based on estimates that are more robust to CRISM speckling noise that might alter the parameters and potentially the mineral interpretation. As an effort to distinguish between phyllosilicates species, we are augmenting the suite of existent parameters with a set of mineral parameters that involve the position, number and shapes of diagnostic phyllosilicate absorptions. We are comparing the effectiveness of this new approach to the summary product procedure. The study shows that homogeneous mineral maps and diagnostic spectral identifications are possible as a result of the application of such new parameters. We applied the technique to the discrimination of kaolinite in Mawrth Vallis. The experiments show several small kaolinite outcrops dispersed within the more extensive Al

  15. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries "Profumata di Tortona" (F. moschata) and "Regina delle Valli" (F. vesca).

    PubMed

    Negri, Alfredo S; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  16. Accuracy of Human and Veterinary Point-of-Care Glucometers for Use in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Stovall, Melissa I; Owens, Devon C; Scott, Jessica A; Jones-Wilkes, Amelia C; Kempf, Doty J; Ethun, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Handheld, point-of-care glucometers are commonly used in NHP for clinical and research purposes, but whether these devices are appropriate for use in NHP is unknown. Other animal studies indicate that glucometers should be species-specific, given differences in glucose distribution between RBC and plasma; in addition, Hct and sampling site (venous compared with capillary) influence glucometer readings. Therefore, we compared the accuracy of 2 human and 2 veterinary glucometers at various Hct ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with that of standard laboratory glucose analysis. Subsequent analyses assessed the effect of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and sampling site on glucometer accuracy. The veterinary glucometers overestimated blood glucose (BG) values in all species by 26 to 75 mg/dL. The mean difference between the human glucometers and the laboratory analyzer was 7 mg/dL or less in all species. The human glucometers overestimated BG in hypoglycemic mangabeys by 4 mg/dL and underestimated BG in hyperglycemic mangabeys by 11 mg/dL; similar patterns occurred in rhesus macaques. Hct did not affect glucometer accuracy, but all samples were within the range at which glucometers generally are accurate in humans. BG values were significantly lower in venous than capillary samples. The current findings show that veterinary glucometers intended for companion-animal species are inappropriate for use in the studied NHP species, whereas the human glucometers showed clinically acceptable accuracy in all 3 species. Finally, potential differences between venous and capillary BG values should be considered when comparing and evaluating results. PMID:27177571

  17. Characterization of ATI, TK and IFN-alpha/betaR genes in the genome of the BeAn 58058 virus, a naturally attenuated wild Orthopoxvirus.

    PubMed

    Marques, J T; Trindade, G D; Da Fonseca, F G; Dos Santos, J R; Bonjardim, C A; Ferreira, P C; Kroon, E G

    2001-12-01

    The lack of knowledge about the natural host of Vaccinia virus (VV) along with the description of human infections caused by poxviruses after smallpox eradication has increased the need to characterize poxviruses isolated from the wild. Moreover, in the past years poxviruses have been widely studied as potential vaccination tools, with the discovery of several genes implicated in the evasion of the host immune response involved in virus pathogenesis. Among them, an Interferon (IFN)-binding protein was identified in the supernatant of VV strain WR infected cells coded by the B18R gene. It was shown that many other Orthopoxviruses also encode and express this soluble receptor although some VV strains such as Lister and modified Ankara, which were less reactogenic vaccines, do not. The BeAn 58058 virus (BAV) has been recently characterized and proposed to be an Orthopoxvirus. BAV was also shown to be less virulent in animal models than VV Lister. Here we report the identification of an IFN-alpha/betaR gene in the BAV genome with 99% of sequence identity with the VVWR B18R gene. The identified gene encodes a B18R-like IFN binding protein as demonstrated by its capacity to inhibit the IFN-mediated protection of VERO cells against EMC virus. In order to better characterize the virus we have searched for the A type inclusion body (ATI) gene currently used in the classification of Orthopoxviruses but did not detect it in the BAV genome. We have also sequenced the BAV thymidine kinase (TK) gene, a poxvirus-conserved gene, which, as expected, showed high homology with the TK gene of other poxviruses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on sequences of the IFN-alpha/betaR and TK genes from several poxviruses and in both cases BAV was placed in the same cluster as other VV strains. These observations strengthened the hypothesis that this virus is a variant of the VV vaccine used in Brazil. However the explanation for the BAV lack of virulence remains to be discovered

  18. Elastic properties of perovskite ATiO{sub 3} (A = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) and PbBO{sub 3} (B = Ti, Zr, and Hf): First principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Pandech, Narasak; Limpijumnong, Sukit; Sarasamak, Kanoknan

    2015-05-07

    The mechanical properties of perovskite oxides depend on two metal oxide lattices that are intercalated. This provides an opportunity for separate tuning of hardness, Poisson's ratio (transverse expansion in response to the compression), and shear strength. The elastic constants of series of perovskite oxides were studied by first principles approach. Both A-site and B-site cations were systematically varied in order to see their effects on the elastic parameters. To study the effects of A-site cations, we studied the elastic properties of perovskite ATiO{sub 3} for A being Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, or Ba, one at a time. Similarly, for B-site cations, we studied the elastic properties of PbBO{sub 3} for B being Ti, Zr, or Hf, one at a time. The density functional first principles calculations with local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were employed. It is found that the maximum C{sub 11} elastic constant is achieved when the atomic size of the cations at A-site and B-site are comparable. We also found that C{sub 12} elastic constant is sensitive to B-site cations while C{sub 44} elastic constant is more sensitive to A-site cations. Details and explanations for such dependencies are discussed.

  19. ATI TDA 5A aerosol generator evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, D.A.

    1998-07-27

    Oil based aerosol ``Smoke`` commonly used for testing the efficiency and penetration of High Efficiency Particulate Air filters (HEPA) and HEPA systems can produce flammability hazards that may not have been previously considered. A combustion incident involving an aerosol generator has caused an investigation into the hazards of the aerosol used to test HEPA systems at Hanford.

  20. Nirgal Vallis and its Windblown Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The wide angle cameras of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) system onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) are used every day to gather a global view of changes occurring in martian weather and surface frost patterns. Late in June 2001, as southern winter transitioned to spring, dust storm activity began to pick up as cold air from the south polar cap moved northward toward the warmer air at the martian equator. By early July, dust storms had popped up all over the planet, particularly throughout the southern hemisphere and in the Elysium/Amazonis regions of the northern hemisphere. Soon, the entire planet--except the south polar cap--was enshrouded in dust. Similar storms have occurred before. For example, the planet was obscured by dust when the Mariner 9, Mars 2, and Mars 3 spacecraft reached the planet in late 1971. The MGS MOC images showed the evolution of the 2001 great dust storm period. There was never a time when the entire planet was in the midst of a single storm. Several large storms would occur at the same time, and dust was kicked high into the atmosphere to cause much of the rest of the planet to be obscured. The dust storms largely subsided by late September 2001, but the atmosphere remained hazy into November of that year. The two pictures shown here come from the E05 (June 2001) and E06 (July 2001) subphases of the MGS MOC Extended Mission. The view from June shows the Tharsis volcanic region (left), Valles Marineris chasms (right) and the late winter south polar cap (bottom). The view from July shows the same regions, but most of the details are hidden by dust storms and haze.

  1. Ruptured Mycotic Aortic Aneurysm in a Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus atys)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Prachi; Cohen, Joyce K; Lockhart, Shawn R; Hurst, Steven F; Drew, Clifton P

    2011-01-01

    Mycotic aortic aneurysm is a local, irreversible dilatation of the aorta associated with destruction of the vessel wall by infection and is a grave clinical condition associated with high morbidity and mortality in humans. Rupture of aortic aneurysms can be spontaneous, idiopathic, or due to severe trauma, and the condition has been associated with bacterial and, rarely, fungal infections in humans and animals. Here, we describe a case of ruptured spontaneous aortic aneurysm associated with zygomycetic infection in a 21-y-old female sooty mangabey. The animal did not present with any significant clinical signs before being found dead. At necropsy, she was in good body condition, and the thoracic cavity had a large amount of clotted blood filling the left pleural space and surrounding the lung lobes. Near the aortic arch, the descending thoracic aorta was focally perforated (diameter, approximately 0.15 cm), and clotted blood adhered to the tunica adventitia. The aortic intima had multiple, firm, pale-yellow nodules (diameter, 0.25 to 0.5 cm). Histopathologically, these nodules consisted of severe multifocal pyogranulomatous inflammation intermixed with necrosis, fibrin, and broad, infrequently septate, thin-walled fungal hyphae. Immunohistochemistry revealed fungal hyphae characteristic of Mucormycetes (formerly Zygomycetes), and PCR analysis identified the organism as Basidiobolus spp. Dissemination of the fungus beyond the aorta was not noted. Spontaneous aortic aneurysms have been described in nonhuman primates, but this is the first reported case of a ruptured spontaneous aortic aneurysm associated with entomophthoromycetic infection in a sooty mangabey. PMID:22330581

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, ATI OSM 200 SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than...

  3. On post-weld heat treatment cracking in tig welded superalloy ATI 718Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asala, G.; Ojo, O. A.

    The susceptibility of heat affected zone (HAZ) to cracking in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded Allvac 718Plus superalloy during post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was studied. Contrary to the previously reported case of low heat input electron beam welded Allvac 718Plus, where HAZ cracking occurred during PWHT, the TIG welded alloy is crack-free after PWHT, notwithstanding the presence of similar micro-constituents that caused cracking in the low input weld. Accordingly, the formation of brittle HAZ intergranular micro-constituents may not be a sufficient factor to determine cracking propensity, the extent of heat input during welding may be another major factor that influences HAZ cracking during PWHT of the aerospace superalloy Allvac 718Plus.

  4. Poetic Cohesion in American Sign Language: Valli's "Snowflake"& Coleridge's "Frost at Midnight."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormsby, Alec

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on original poetic composition in American Sign Language (ASL). The development of a documented body of poetry in ASL and of a framework for poetic usage has demonstrated that the limitations of gestural sign systems are inherent in the cultural development of the deaf and has affirmed the legitimacy of the deaf community and its language.…

  5. Remote Sensing Soil Salinity Map for the San Joaquin Vally, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudiero, E.; Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinization is a major natural hazard to worldwide agriculture. We present a remote imagery approach that maps salinity within a range (i.e., salinities less than 20 dS m-1, when measured as the electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract), accuracy, and resolution most relevant to agriculture. A case study is presented for the western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV), California, USA (~870,000 ha of farmland) using multi-year Landsat 7 ETM+ canopy reflectance and the Canopy Response Salinity Index (CRSI). Highly detailed salinity maps for 22 fields (542 ha) established from apparent soil electrical conductivity directed sampling were used as ground-truth (sampled in 2013), totaling over 5000 pixels (30×30 m) with salinity values in the range of 0 to 35.2 dS m-1. Multi-year maximum values of CRSI were used to model soil salinity. In addition, soil type, elevation, meteorological data, and crop type were evaluated as covariates. The fitted model (R2=0.73) was validated: i) with a spatial k-folds (i.e., leave-one-field-out) cross-validation (R2=0.61), ii) versus salinity data from three independent fields (sampled in 2013 and 2014), and iii) by determining the accuracy of the qualitative classification of white crusted land as extremely-saline soils. The effect of land use change is evaluated over 2396 ha in the Broadview Water District from a comparison of salinity mapped in 1991 with salinity predicted in 2013 from the fitted model. From 1991 to 2013 salinity increased significantly over the selected study site, bringing attention to potential negative effects on soil quality of shifting from irrigated agriculture to fallow-land. This is cause for concern since over the 3 years of California's drought (2010-2013) the fallow land in the WSJV increased from 12.7% to 21.6%, due to drastic reduction in water allocations to farmers.

  6. The Efficacy of ATI Predictive Testing and Remediation on National Certification and Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Alexandra Selman

    2013-01-01

    This project study sought to evaluate the effects of implementing quarterly predictive testing and remediation on National Certification and Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) pass rates of an associate's degree nursing program at a small Midwestern community college. The college's pass rate on the NCLEX-RN has been below both the…

  7. Operations and maintenance manual for the light duty utility arm (LDUA) at-tank instrument enclosure (ATIE) (LDUA system 4300)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-23

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) At-Tank Instrument Enclosure has completed testing and is ready for operation. This document defines the requirements applicable to the operation and maintenance of the At-Tank Instrument Enclosure.

  8. Physics of Failure Analysis of Xilinx Flip Chip CCGA Packages: Effects of Mission Environments on Properties of LP2 Underfill and ATI Lid Adhesive Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Jong-ook

    2013-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex 4QV and 5QV (V4 and V5) are next-generation field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space applications. However, there have been concerns within the space community regarding the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages; polymeric materials such as the underfill and lid adhesive will be directly exposed to the space environment. In this study, reliability concerns associated with the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages were investigated by studying properties and behavior of the underfill and the lid adhesvie materials used in V4/V5 packages.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of ATiO{sub 3}–Pr thin films prepared by a photochemical method (where A = Ba and Ca)

    SciTech Connect

    Cabello, G.; Lillo, L.; Caro, C.; Seguel, M.; Buono-Core, G.E.; Huentupil, Y.; Chornik, B.; Carrasco, C.; Rodríguez, C.A.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A method of photochemical deposition has been used to the preparation of (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3} thin films doped Pr(III). • The (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3}/Pr(III) films under 375 nm excitation shows emissions attributable to {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 3}H{sub 4} transition of Pr ion. • These PL signals decreased above 10 mol% of Pr(III). • Analysis suggests the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap influences in the PL processes. - Abstract: This article reports the characterization and optical properties of (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3} thin films doped with Pr at different proportions (0–15 mol%). The films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and quartz substrates using a photochemical method and post-annealed at 900 °C. The evaluation of photo-reactivity of the precursor complexes was monitored by UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that Ba, Ca, Ti, O and Pr are present in the form of perovskite. Under UV light excitation (375 nm) the (Ba,Ca)TiO{sub 3}–Pr films show the characteristic emissions ascribed to {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 3}H{sub 4} transition of Pr{sup 3+} ion. The optical measurements show the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap which influence the emission processes.

  10. The Keck "Mars 2000" Project: Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Data to Assess Geological Processes and Regional Stratigraphy Near Orcus Patera and Marte Vallis on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    During the Keck 'Mars 2000' summer project 10 undergraduates (rising juniors) used Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to study a 19x14 degree region they identified as a potential Mars 2003 landing site. Here we introduce the project science and organization. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Topographic map of the western region of Dao Vallis in Hellas Planitia, Mars; MTM 500k -40/082E OMKT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosiek, Mark R.; Redding, Bonnie L.; Galuszka, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    This map, compiled photogrammetrically from Viking Orbiter stereo image pairs, is part of a series of topographic maps of areas of special scientific interest on Mars. Contours were derived from a digital terrain model (DTM) compiled on a digital photogrammetric workstation using Viking Orbiter stereo image pairs with orientation parameters derived from an analytic aerotriangulation. The image base for this map employs Viking Orbiter images from orbits 406 and 363. An orthophotomosaic was created on the digital photogrammetric workstation using the DTM compiled from stereo models.

  12. Estimation of convective rain volumes utilizing the are-time-integral technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. Ronald; Smith, Paul L.

    1990-01-01

    Interest in the possibility of developing useful estimates of convective rainfall with Area-Time Integral (ATI) methods is increasing. The basis of the ATI technique is the observed strong correlation between rainfall volumes and ATI values. This means that rainfall can be estimated by just determining the ATI values, if previous knowledge of the relationship to rain volume is available to calibrate the technique. Examples are provided of the application of the ATI approach to gage, radar, and satellite measurements. For radar data, the degree of transferability in time and among geographical areas is examined. Recent results on transferability of the satellite ATI calculations are presented.

  13. Antagonistic effects of atipamezole, flumazenil and 4-aminopyridine against anaesthesia with medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine combination in cats.

    PubMed

    Ueoka, Naotami; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2008-02-01

    Antagonistic effects of atipamezole (ATI), flumazenil (FLU) and 4-aminopyridine (4AP) alone and in various combinations after administration of medetomidine-midazolam-ketamine (MED-MID-KET) were evaluated in cats. Animals were anaesthetised with MED (50 microg/kg), MID (0.5 mg/kg) and KET (10 mg/kg) given intramuscularly. Twenty minutes later, physiological saline, ATI (200 microg/kg), FLU (0.1 mg/kg), 4AP (0.5 mg/kg), ATI-FLU, FLU-4AP, ATI-4AP or ATI-FLU-4AP was administered intravenously. FLU, 4AP alone, or FLU-4AP did not effectively antagonise the anaesthesia, hypothermia, bradycardia, and bradypnoea induced by MED-MID-KET. ATI alone was effective. ATI-FLU, ATI-4AP and ATI-FLU-4AP combinations produced an immediate and effective recovery from anaesthesia. The combination of ATI-FLU-4AP was the most effective in antagonising the anaesthetic effects, but was associated with tachycardia, tachypnoea, excitement, and muscle tremors. Combinations with ATI are more effective for antagonising anaesthesia, but ATI-FLU-4AP is not suitable. PMID:17766159

  14. Radar and satellite area-time-integral techniques for estimating convective precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.; Johnson, L. Ronald; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.; Reinke, Don

    1990-01-01

    The application of the area-time-integral (ATI) method (Doneaud et al, 1984) to radar and satellite measurements is reviewed. Results are presented from the calculation of ATI values from radar observations based on low-elevation-angle and low-altitude CAPPI data. Also, results from a satellite ATI calculation using IR images from a GEO platform are given. The results suggest that the radar and satellite applications produce good consistency.

  15. 48 CFR 252.246-7006 - Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Companies (ATIS-0322000) Number), European Health Industry Business Communication Council (EHIBCC) and Health Industry Business Communication Council (HIBCC)), as indicated in the Register of Issuing...

  16. 48 CFR 252.246-7006 - Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Companies (ATIS-0322000) Number), European Health Industry Business Communication Council (EHIBCC) and Health Industry Business Communication Council (HIBCC)), as indicated in the Register of Issuing...

  17. 48 CFR 252.246-7006 - Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Companies (ATIS-0322000) Number), European Health Industry Business Communication Council (EHIBCC) and Health Industry Business Communication Council (HIBCC)), as indicated in the Register of Issuing...

  18. Atractylenolide I-mediated Notch pathway inhibition attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Li; Mao, Rurong; Shen, Ke; Zheng, Yuanhong; Li, Yueqi; Liu, Jianwen; Ni, Lei

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • This paper supports the anti-tumor effects of AT-I on gastric cancer in vitro. • AT-I attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits. • It is the systematic study regarding AT-I suppression of Notch pathway in GC and GCSLCs. - Abstract: Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the main naturally occurring compounds of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has remarkable anti-cancer effects on various cancers. However, its effects on the treatment of gastric cancer remain unclear. Via multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that AT-I could potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inactivating Notch pathway. AT-I treatment led to the reduction of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, and its downstream Hes1/ Hey1. Our results showed that AT-I inhibited the self-renewal capacity of gastric stem-like cells (GCSLCs) by suppression of their sphere formation capacity and cell viability. AT-I attenuated gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) traits partly through inactivating Notch1, leading to reducing the expressions of its downstream target Hes1, Hey1 and CD44 in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that AT-I might develop as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  19. Soil moisture derived using two apparent thermal inertia functions over Canterbury, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabinia, Mammatt; Rack, Wolfgang; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    The near-surface soil moisture (SM) is an important property of the soil that can be studied from satellite remote sensing observations over a large spatial domain. This research provides an estimate on the accuracy of SM retrieved from satellite land surface temperature (LST) observations over the Canterbury Plains, New Zealand. The apparent thermal inertia (ATI) method with two approaches (ATI1 and ATI2) was applied to derive the near-surface SM from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST product. The in-situ measurements of SM and rainfall data at six sites across the study area were used as reference. The analysis was conducted over two periods, a short period of four months and a longer period of three years. SM simulations by the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model were used in the analysis for the shorter period. Overall, SM based on ATI2 showed a slightly higher correlation with the in-situ measurements (ρ¯=0.66) than ATI1 (ρ¯=0.63). The correlation, in general, was higher for the WRF simulations (ρ¯=0.81). Both functions performed better during summer compared to winter, but overall, ATI2 showed lower mean errors (ME≈-15 m3.m-3 volumetric SM) compared to ATI1 (ME≈-20 m3.m-3) at most of the sites. Additionally, seasonal variations of SM were better detected by ATI2 than ATI1, and the effects of precipitation were detected on more occasions by the ATI2 function. We conclude that ATI2 function can be used to estimate the near-surface SM over a large area from the MODIS LST time series if a few representative reference stations are available.

  20. Effects in cats of atipamezole, flumazenil and 4-aminopyridine on stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic responses induced by medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Ueoka, Naotami; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antagonistic effects of a fixed dose of atipamezole (ATI), flumazenil (FLU) and 4-aminopyridine (4AP), both alone and in various combinations, on key stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic changes induced by medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and ketamine (KET) in healthy cats. Seven cats were used consistently in eight investigation groups. Cats were administered a mixture of 0.05 mg/kg MED and 0.5 mg/kg MID followed 10 mins later by 10 mg/kg KET intramuscularly. Twenty minutes after KET injection, the cats were intravenously injected with either a physiological saline solution at 0.1 ml/kg (control) or one of the seven variations of experimental drugs, alone or in combination: ATI, FLU, 4AP, ATI + FLU, FLU + 4AP, ATI + 4AP and ATI + FLU + 4AP. Blood samples were collected 10 times during the 24 h test period. Plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and non-esterified fatty acid levels were measured. The administration of MED + MID + KET resulted in hyperglycaemia and decreases in epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. FLU or 4AP alone or FLU + 4AP did not effectively antagonise the effects induced by MED + MID + KET but enhanced the hyperglycaemia. ATI alone was effective in antagonising these effects. Compared with non-ATI regimens, combinations with ATI were more effective in antagonising the effects induced by MED + MID + KET; however, ATI + FLU + 4AP caused large increases in cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. ATI, both alone and in combination, is effective in antagonising the neurohormonal and metabolic effects of MED + MID + KET in cats. However, ATI + FLU + 4AP is not suitable because of large stress-related hormonal responses. PMID:25366173

  1. OVERVIEW OF VALLEY WITH WAIKELE MAGAZINES FROM SOUTH ALONG THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF VALLEY WITH WAIKELE MAGAZINES FROM SOUTH ALONG THE VALLY WALL FROM GUARD/WATCH TOWER S82. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Recent Geological and Hydrological Activity in Amazonis and Elysium Basins and Their Link, Marte Valles (AME): Prime Target for Future Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2012-03-01

    Amazonis and Elysium basins and their link, Marte Vallis (AME), uniquely point to a geologically and hydrologically active Mars. We will present evidence for why AME reconnaissance can help address whether Mars is geologically, hydrologically, and biologically active.

  3. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio in 13- to 32-kilogram pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible Val to Lys (SID Val:Lys) ratio for 13 to 32 kg pigs. In Exp. 1, a Val deficient basal diet containing 0.60% L-Lys•HCl, 1.21% SID Lys, and 0.68% SID Val was developed (0.56 SID Val:Lys). Performance of pigs fed th...

  4. Methodological Considerations in Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Research with Intact Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; Salvia, John

    1980-01-01

    The paper cites difficulties in aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) research which investigates relationships between test performance and the extent of profiting from instruction. Two methods for ATI research (regression analysis and analysis of variance) are described, assumptions and potential mininterpretations are noted, and correct…

  5. Hemispheric Asymmetries and Cognitive Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    Visual, auditory, and bimodal event-related potentials were recorded from 50 males, and lateral asymmetry indices were derived. Eleven psychometric tests of different cognitive attributes were also administered to them. This area of research has been labeled aptitude-treatment-interaction (ATI). The emphasis of ATI research is on identification of…

  6. 48 CFR 246.710-70 - Warranty attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Prefix. D—CAGE. LB—ATIS-0322000. LH—EHIBCC. RH—HIBCC. UN—DUNS. (g) Warranty administrator enterprise... & Bradstreet's Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number, GS1 Company Prefix, Allied Committee 135 NATO...-9—GS1 Company Prefix. D—CAGE. LB—ATIS-0322000. LH—EHIBCC. RH—HIBCC. UN—DUNS. (i) Warranty...

  7. 48 CFR 246.710-70 - Warranty attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Prefix. D—CAGE. LB—ATIS-0322000. LH—EHIBCC. RH—HIBCC. UN—DUNS. (g) Warranty administrator enterprise... & Bradstreet's Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number, GS1 Company Prefix, Allied Committee 135 NATO...-9—GS1 Company Prefix. D—CAGE. LB—ATIS-0322000. LH—EHIBCC. RH—HIBCC. UN—DUNS. (i) Warranty...

  8. 48 CFR 246.710-70 - Warranty attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Prefix. D—CAGE. LB—ATIS-0322000. LH—EHIBCC. RH—HIBCC. UN—DUNS. (g) Warranty administrator enterprise... & Bradstreet's Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number, GS1 Company Prefix, Allied Committee 135 NATO...-9—GS1 Company Prefix. D—CAGE. LB—ATIS-0322000. LH—EHIBCC. RH—HIBCC. UN—DUNS. (i) Warranty...

  9. 48 CFR 246.710-70 - Warranty attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Prefix. D—CAGE. LB—ATIS-0322000. LH—EHIBCC. RH—HIBCC. UN—DUNS. (g) Warranty administrator enterprise... & Bradstreet's Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number, GS1 Company Prefix, Allied Committee 135 NATO...-9—GS1 Company Prefix. D—CAGE. LB—ATIS-0322000. LH—EHIBCC. RH—HIBCC. UN—DUNS. (i) Warranty...

  10. A Community of Writers: Peer Tutor Training for Writing Center Techniques Which Foster Dialogue in the Writing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Linda; Johnson, Candice

    After much trial and error, the Agricultural Technical Institute of the Ohio State University (ATI/OSO) discovered that training of writing lab tutors can best be done through collaboration of the Writing Lab Coordinator with the "Development of Tutor Effectiveness" course offered at the institute. The ATI/OSO main computer lab and secondary lab…

  11. Differential Effectiveness of Two Science Diagram Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.

    Reported is an Aptitude Treatment Instruction (ATI) Study designed to evaluate the aptitude of verbal comprehension in terms of two unitary complex science diagram types: a single complex block word diagram and a single complex picture word diagram.. ATI theory and research indicate that different effective instructional treatments tend to help…

  12. Art and Technology Integration Project: Year 1 Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Elliott; And Others

    This report provides a progress report on the Art and Technology Integration Project (ATI), a partnership of the Westside and Grand Island Public Schools, the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art (NMAA), and the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO). The ATI project focuses on long-range assessment of the integration of the…

  13. Aminotroponiminates as tunable, redox-active ligands: reversible single electron transfer and reductive dimerisation.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, C; Krummenacher, I

    2016-08-21

    Aminotroponiminates (atis) are shown to be redox-active ligands. Under strongly reducing conditions, the result of electron transfer can be controlled by the choice of the metal bound to the ati ligand. Either reversible electron transfer or a reductively induced dimerisation is observed. The latter reaction is (regio- and diastereo-) selective and chemically reversible. PMID:27452905

  14. Establishing the Validity of the Affirmative Training Inventory: Assessing the Relationship between Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Training and Students' Clinical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Thomas Stone; McGeorge, Christi R.; Toomey, Russell B.

    2013-01-01

    This study established the validity and factor structure of the Affirmative Training Inventory (ATI; T. S. Carlson, C. R. McGeorge & M. Rock, unpublished) as a measure of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative clinical training. Additionally, this study examined the latent associations among the subscales of the ATI and the Sexual…

  15. Development of a fish assemblage tolerance index for the National Rivers and Streams Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whittier et al (Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 136:254-271) developed an assemblage tolerance index (ATI) for stream fishes in the western US based on quantitative tolerance values developed for individual fish and amphibian species. The ATI is conceptually similar to the Hilsenhoff Bi...

  16. Client-Treatment Interaction in the Study of Differential Change Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham-Salomon, Varda; Hannah, Mo Therese

    1991-01-01

    Discusses epistemological and methodological issues regarding aptitude-treatment interactions (ATI) in psychotherapy. Noting that track record of interactional research is not very encouraging, argues that ATI research should focus on heuristic goal of illuminating mechanisms and processes that make therapies differentially effective. Suggests…

  17. Novel method to reduce fishy aftertaste in wine and seafood pairing using alcohol-treated yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Toshikazu; Kanai, Keiko; Yokoyama, Aki; Tamura, Takayuki; Hanamure, Kenichi; Sasaki, Kanako; Takata, Ryoji; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-06-20

    "Fishy aftertaste" is sometimes perceived in wine consumed with seafood. Iron in wine has been reported to be a key compound that produces fishy aftertaste. However, cost-effective methods to remove iron from wine have not been developed. Here, we describe a cost-effective and safe iron adsorbent consisting of alcohol-treated yeast (ATY) cells based on the observation that nonviable cells adsorbed iron after completion of fermentation. Treatment of cells with more than 40% (v/v) ethanol killed them without compromising their ability to adsorb iron. Drying the ATY cells did not reduce iron adsorption. Use of ATY cells together with phytic acid had a synergistic effect on iron removal. We term this means of removing iron the "ATY-PA" method. Sensory analysis indicated that fishy aftertaste in wine-seafood pairings was not perceived if the wine had been pretreated with both ATY cells and phytic acid. PMID:22630330

  18. Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 and Its Regulatory Protein Inhibitor 2 Negatively Regulate ABA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Xie, Shaojun; Batelli, Giorgia; Wang, Bangshing; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xing, Lu; Lei, Mingguang; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The core ABA signaling pathway consists of three major components: ABA receptor (PYR1/PYLs), type 2C Protein Phosphatase (PP2C) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2). Nevertheless, the complexity of ABA signaling remains to be explored. To uncover new components of ABA signal transduction pathways, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for SnRK2-interacting proteins. We found that Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 (TOPP1) and its regulatory protein, At Inhibitor-2 (AtI-2), physically interact with SnRK2s and also with PYLs. TOPP1 inhibited the kinase activity of SnRK2.6, and this inhibition could be enhanced by AtI-2. Transactivation assays showed that TOPP1 and AtI-2 negatively regulated the SnRK2.2/3/6-mediated activation of the ABA responsive reporter gene RD29B, supporting a negative role of TOPP1 and AtI-2 in ABA signaling. Consistent with these findings, topp1 and ati-2 mutant plants displayed hypersensitivities to ABA and salt treatments, and transcriptome analysis of TOPP1 and AtI-2 knockout plants revealed an increased expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes in the mutants. Taken together, our results uncover TOPP1 and AtI-2 as negative regulators of ABA signaling. PMID:26943172

  19. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Grigoriev, Ilya; Fischer, Rainer; Tominaga, Motoki; Robinson, David G.; Hašek, Jiří; Paciorek, Tomasz; Petrášek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, Ricardo; Meisel, Lee A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ueda, Takashi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Akhmanova, Anna; Brock, Roland; Spang, Anne; Friml, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this concept. However, despite the use of ATIs in plant research for many decades, the mechanism of ATI action has remained largely elusive. Using real-time live-cell microscopy, we show here that prominent ATIs such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 2-(1-pyrenoyl) benzoic acid (PBA) inhibit vesicle trafficking in plant, yeast, and mammalian cells. Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport components participates in the mechanism of auxin transport. These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role. PMID:18337510

  20. Arabidopsis ATG8-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 Is Involved in Autophagy-Dependent Vesicular Trafficking of Plastid Proteins to the Vacuole[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Michaeli, Simon; Honig, Arik; Levanony, Hanna; Peled-Zehavi, Hadas; Galili, Gad

    2014-01-01

    Selective autophagy has been extensively studied in various organisms, but knowledge regarding its functions in plants, particularly in organelle turnover, is limited. We have recently discovered ATG8-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 (ATI1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and showed that following carbon starvation it is localized on endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated bodies that are subsequently transported to the vacuole. Here, we show that following carbon starvation ATI1 is also located on bodies associating with plastids, which are distinct from the ER ATI bodies and are detected mainly in senescing cells that exhibit plastid degradation. Additionally, these plastid-localized bodies contain a stroma protein marker as cargo and were observed budding and detaching from plastids. ATI1 interacts with plastid-localized proteins and was further shown to be required for the turnover of one of them, as a representative. ATI1 on the plastid bodies also interacts with ATG8f, which apparently leads to the targeting of the plastid bodies to the vacuole by a process that requires functional autophagy. Finally, we show that ATI1 is involved in Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance. Taken together, our results implicate ATI1 in autophagic plastid-to-vacuole trafficking through its ability to interact with both plastid proteins and ATG8 of the core autophagy machinery. PMID:25281689

  1. The relationship between infliximab concentrations, antibodies to infliximab and disease activity in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vande Casteele, Niels; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G; Stitt, Larry; Zou, G Y; Singh, Sharat; Lockton, Steve; Hauenstein, Scott; Ohrmund, Linda; Greenberg, Gordon R; Rutgeerts, Paul J; Gils, Ann; Sandborn, William J; Vermeire, Séverine; Feagan, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although low infliximab trough concentrations and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), the clinical relevance of ATI in patients with adequate infliximab concentrations is uncertain. We evaluated this question using an assay sensitive for identification of ATI in the presence of infliximab. Design In an observational study, 1487 trough serum samples from 483 patients with CD who participated in four clinical studies of maintenance infliximab therapy were analysed using a fluid phase mobility shift assay. Infliximab and ATI concentrations most discriminant for remission, defined as a C-reactive protein concentration of ≤5 mg/L, were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. A multivariable regression model evaluated these factors as independent predictors of remission. Results Based upon analysis of 1487 samples, 77.1% of patients had detectable and 22.9% had undetectable infliximab concentrations, of which 9.5% and 71.8%, respectively, were positive for ATI. An infliximab concentration of >2.79 μg/mL (area under the curve (AUC)=0.681; 95% CI 0.632 to 0.731) and ATI concentration of <3.15 U/mL (AUC=0.632; 95% CI 0.589 to 0.676) were associated with remission. Multivariable analysis showed that concentrations of both infliximab trough (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.5; p<0.001) and ATI (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.81; p=0.002) were independent predictors of remission. Conclusions The development of ATI increases the probability of active disease even at low concentrations and in the presence of a therapeutic concentration of drug during infliximab maintenance therapy. Evaluation of strategies to prevent ATI formation, including therapeutic drug monitoring with selective infliximab dose intensification, is needed. PMID:25336114

  2. Analytic formulas for above threshold ionization or detachment plateau spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, M. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2009-11-01

    Closed form analytic formulas are derived in the tunneling limit for both above threshold detachment (ATD) of negative ions and above threshold ionization (ATI) of neutral atoms. These formulas provide a fully quantum justification of the well-known classical three-step scenario for strong field ionization and detachment spectra in the high energy region of the ATI or ATD plateau and also provide analytical insight into how the ATI/ATD rates may be controlled by varying the laser field parameters or by varying the atomic species.

  3. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida. [Everglades agricultural area and the west north central peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Surface temperatures derived from HCMM data were compared with to those obtained by GOES satellite and the apparent thermal inertia (ATI) calculated. For two dates, the HCMM temperatures appear to be about 5 C lower than the GOES temperatures. The ATI for excessively-drained to well-drained mineral soils was greater than for drained organic soils possibly because of long periods of low rainfall during late 1980 and early 1981. Organic soils cropped to sugar cane showed lower ATI after a severe killing freeze. With dead leaves, there was less transpiration and more solar radiation probably reached the dark soil surface. This would explain the larger diurnal temperature amplitude observed.

  4. Accurate determination of absolute carrier-envelope phase dependence using photo-ionization.

    PubMed

    Sayler, A M; Arbeiter, M; Fasold, S; Adolph, D; Möller, M; Hoff, D; Rathje, T; Fetić, B; Milošević, D B; Fennel, T; Paulus, G G

    2015-07-01

    The carrier-envelope phase (CEP) dependence of few-cycle above-threshold ionization (ATI) of Xe is calibrated for use as a reference measurement for determining and controlling the absolute CEP in other interactions. This is achieved by referencing the CEP-dependent ATI measurements of Xe to measurements of atomic H, which are in turn referenced to ab initio calculations for atomic H. This allows for the accurate determination of the absolute CEP dependence of Xe ATI, which enables relatively easy determination of the offset between the relative CEP measured and/or controlled by typical devices and the absolute CEP in the interaction. PMID:26125386

  5. Fast Sampling and Analysis of Offgas Dioxins/Furans Using a Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Method

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, C. G.; Rees, R. T.; Reick, K. G.; Montgomery, J. L.; Battleson, D. M.; LeFever, J.; Sears, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    The United States Department of Energy is using or evaluating several Alternatives-to- Incineration (ATI) technologies for treating hazardous wastes and low-level mixed wastes. ATI treatment technologies may have the potential for generating gaseous or other emissions of polychlorinated dioxins/furans, a class of highly toxic compounds which are regulated to very low levels. At present, the emission limit for dioxins/furans from hazardous waste incinerators is 0.2 ng TEQ/dscm (0.4 ng TEQ/dscm w/TC). Emissions from ATI technologies are expected to be subject to similar restrictions.

  6. Cerberus Fossae, Elysium, Mars: A source for lava and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plescia, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Cerberus Fossae, a long fracture system in the southeastern part of Elysium, has acted as a conduit for the release of both lava and water onto the surface. The southeastern portion of the fracture system localized volcanic vents having varying morphology. In addition, low shields occur elsewhere on the Cerberus plains. Three locations where the release of water has occurred have been identified along the northwest (Athabasca and Grjota' Vallis) and southeast (Rahway Vallis) portions of the fossae. Water was released both catastrophically and noncatastrophically from these locations. A fluvial system that extends more than 2500 km has formed beginning at the lower flank of the Elysium rise across the Cerberus plains and out through Matte Vallis into Amazonis Planitia. The timing of the events is Late Amazonian. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 3D Reconstruction of the Source and Scale of Buried Young Flood Channels on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Gareth A.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Phillips, Roger J.

    2013-05-01

    Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (<500 million years old), is embayed by lava flows that hinder detailed studies and comparisons with older channel systems. Understanding Marte Vallis is essential to our assessment of recent Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates.

  8. Cerberus Fossae, Elysium, Mars: a source for lava and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    2003-07-01

    Cerberus Fossae, a long fracture system in the southeastern part of Elysium, has acted as a conduit for the release of both lava and water onto the surface. The southeastern portion of the fracture system localized volcanic vents having varying morphology. In addition, low shields occur elsewhere on the Cerberus plains. Three locations where the release of water has occurred have been identified along the northwest (Athabasca and Grjota' Vallis) and southeast (Rahway Vallis) portions of the fossae. Water was released both catastrophically and noncatastrophically from these locations. A fluvial system that extends more than 2500 km has formed beginning at the lower flank of the Elysium rise across the Cerberus plains and out through Marte Vallis into Amazonis Planitia. The timing of the events is Late Amazonian.

  9. Detection of small, slow ground targets using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis; Chapin, Elaine; Rosen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along-track interferometry (ATI) is a technique for sensing Earth-surface motion. The technique involves interferometrically combining data from two radar images acquired from phase centers separated along the platform flight track.

  10. The area-time-integral technique to estimate convective rain volumes over areas applied to satellite data - A preliminary investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, Andre A.; Miller, James R., Jr.; Johnson, L. Ronald; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.; Laybe, Patrick

    1987-01-01

    The use of the area-time-integral (ATI) technique, based only on satellite data, to estimate convective rain volume over a moving target is examined. The technique is based on the correlation between the radar echo area coverage integrated over the lifetime of the storm and the radar estimated rain volume. The processing of the GOES and radar data collected in 1981 is described. The radar and satellite parameters for six convective clusters from storm events occurring on June 12 and July 2, 1981 are analyzed and compared in terms of time steps and cluster lifetimes. Rain volume is calculated by first using the regression analysis to generate the regression equation used to obtain the ATI; the ATI versus rain volume relation is then employed to compute rain volume. The data reveal that the ATI technique using satellite data is applicable to the calculation of rain volume.

  11. Real-time automatic target identification system for air-to-ground targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Mike; Wood, Jonathan; Nothard, Jo

    2005-10-01

    Future targeting systems, for manned or unmanned combat aircraft, aim to provide increased mission success and platform survivability by successfully detecting and identifying even difficult targets at very long ranges. One of the key enabling technologies for such systems is robust automatic target identification (ATI), operating on high resolution electro-optic sensor imagery. QinetiQ have developed a real time ATI processor which will be demonstrated with infrared imagery from the Wescam MX15 in airborne trials in summer 2005. This paper describes some of the novel ATI algorithms, the challenges overcome to port the ATI from the laboratory onto a real time system and offers an assessment of likely airborne performance based on analysis of synthetic image sequences.

  12. Preliminary results from an airborne experiment using along-track interferometry for ground moving target indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Chen, Curtis W.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along track interferometry (ATI) has been used extensively to measure ocean surface currents. Given its ability to measure small velocities of relatively radar-dark water surfaces, there is great potential that this technique can be adapted for ground moving target indication (GMTI) applications, particularly as a method for detecting very slwo targets with small radar cross sections. In this paper we describe preliminary results from an ATI GMTI experiment.

  13. Low cost, combined radio frequency and electrostatic protection for electroexplosive devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Attenuation Technology Inc. (ATI) has developed a series of ferrite attenuators for protecting electroexplosive devices (EED's) from inadvertent actuation due to RF exposure. ATI's first attenuator was fabricated using the MN 67 ferrite formulation. That attenuator protected EED's from both pin-to-pin and pin-to-case RF exposure. Those attenuators passed MIL STD 1385B testing when used in electric blasting caps (EBC), electric squibs, and firing line filters made for the US Navy.

  14. Analytic formulas for above-threshold ionization or detachment plateau spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, M. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2009-03-01

    Closed-form analytic formulas are derived in the tunneling limit for both above-threshold detachment (ATD) of negative ions and above-threshold ionization (ATI) of neutral atoms. These formulas are shown to give precise agreement with essentially exact single-active-electron numerical results for detached or ionized electron energies corresponding to the high-energy end of the ATD and ATI plateaus (with only a small constant shift of electron energies being required in the case of ATI). These formulas for ATI and ATD rates thus provide an analytic explanation for the well-known oscillatory patterns of ATI and ATD rates as functions of electron energy and of the parameters of the laser field. They also provide an analytic explanation for the dependence of these rates on the initial orbital angular momentum of the active electron. Most significantly, these formulas provide a fully quantum justification of the well-known classical three-step scenario for strong-field ionization and detachment spectra in the high-energy region of the ATI or ATD plateau.

  15. Web-Based Environment for Maintaining Legacy Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael; Thompson, Nelson; Orr, Mark; Fox, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Tool Integration Environment (ATIE) is the name of both a software system and a Web-based environment created by the system for maintaining an archive of legacy software and expertise involved in developing the legacy software. ATIE can also be used in modifying legacy software and developing new software. The information that can be encapsulated in ATIE includes experts documentation, input and output data of tests cases, source code, and compilation scripts. All of this information is available within a common environment and retained in a database for ease of access and recovery by use of powerful search engines. ATIE also accommodates the embedment of supporting software that users require for their work, and even enables access to supporting commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software within the flow of the experts work. The flow of work can be captured by saving the sequence of computer programs that the expert uses. A user gains access to ATIE via a Web browser. A modern Web-based graphical user interface promotes efficiency in the retrieval, execution, and modification of legacy code. Thus, ATIE saves time and money in the support of new and pre-existing programs.

  16. All-solid-state sodium batteries using amorphous TiS3 electrode with high capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanibata, Naoto; Matsuyama, Takuya; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2015-02-01

    All-solid-state sodium cells (Na15Sn4/Na3PS4 glass-ceramic/a-TiS3) showed a high capacity of over 300 mAh per gram of TiS3 at the 1st discharge-charge cycle. The capacity was gradually decreased to 100 mAh g-1 at the 10th cycle. Nyquist plots of the cell showed that the resistance of the a-TiS3 composite electrode became larger with the discharge-charge cycles. The XRD patterns of the a-TiS3 composite electrode before and after the 1st cycle indicated that the a-TiS3 was still amorphous during discharge-charge process. The Raman bands attributable to a-TiS3 were also observed after the 1st cycle. The SEM images and EDX mapping indicated that the a-TiS3 particles aggregated in the electrode after the 10th cycle. The all-solid-state sodium cell using a-TiS3 composite electrode with acetylene black as a conductive additive showed the high capacity of over 300 mAh g-1 for 5 cycles.

  17. Eversion during external rotation of the human cadaver foot produces high ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Post, Joel M; Braman, Jerrod E; Meyer, Eric G; Powell, John W; Haut, Roger C

    2012-09-01

    While high ankle sprains are often clinically ascribed to excessive external foot rotation, no experimental study documents isolated anterior tibiofibular ligament (ATiFL) injury under this loading. We hypothesized that external rotation of a highly everted foot would generate ATiFL injury, in contrast to deltoid ligament injury from external rotation of a neutral foot. Twelve (six pairs) male cadaveric lower extremity limbs underwent external foot rotation until gross failure. All limbs were positioned in 20° of dorsiflexion and restrained with elastic athletic tape. Right limbs were in neutral while left limbs were everted 20°. Talus motion relative to the tibia was measured using motion capture. Rotation at failure for everted limbs (46.8 ± 6.1°) was significantly greater than for neutral limbs (37.7 ± 5.4°). Everted limbs showed ATiFL injury only, while neutral limbs mostly demonstrated deltoid ligament failure. This is the first biomechanical study to produce isolated ATiFL injury under external foot rotation. Eversion of the axially loaded foot predisposes the ATiFL to injury, forming a basis for high ankle sprain. The study helps clarify a mechanism of high ankle sprain and may heighten clinical awareness of isolated ATiFL injury in cases of foot eversion prior to external rotation. It may also provide guidance to investigate the effect of prophylactic measures for this injury. PMID:22328337

  18. Phase-wrapping ambiguity in along-track interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Ross; Ilin, Roman; Best, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    In a previous SPIE paper we described several variations of along-track interferometry (ATI), which can be used for moving target detection and geo-location in clutter. ATI produces a phase map in range/Doppler coordinates by combining radar data from several receive channels separated fore-and-aft (along-track) on the sensor platform. In principle, the radial velocity of a moving target can be estimated from the ATI phase of the pixels in the target signature footprint. Once the radial velocity is known, the target azimuth follows directly. Unfortunately, the ATI phase is wrapped, i.e., it repeats in the interval [-π, π], and therefore the mapping from ATI phase to target azimuth is non-unique. In fact, depending on the radar system parameters, each detected target can map to several equally-likely azimuth values. In the present paper we discuss a signal processing method for resolving the phase wrapping ambiguity, in which the radar bandwidth is split into a high and low sub-band in software, and an ATI phase map is generated for each. By subtracting these two phase maps we can generate a coarse, but unambiguous, radial velocity estimate. This coarse estimate is then combined with the fine, but ambiguous estimate to pinpoint the target radial velocity, and therefore its azimuth. Since the coarse estimate is quite sensitive to noise, a rudimentary tracker is used to help smooth out the phase errors. The method is demonstrated on Gotcha 2006 Challenge data.

  19. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio required for 25- to 120-kilogram pigs fed low crude protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, X T; Ma, W F; Zeng, X F; Xie, C Y; Thacker, P A; Htoo, J K; Qiao, S Y

    2015-10-01

    Four 28-d experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) valine (Val) to lysine (Lys) ratio required for 26- to 46- (Exp. 1), 49- to 70- (Exp. 2), 71- to 92- (Exp. 3), and 94- to 119-kg (Exp. 4) pigs fed low CP diets supplemented with crystalline AA. The first 3 experiments utilized 150 pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White), while Exp. 4 utilized 90 finishing pigs. Pigs in all 4 experiments were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 diets with 6 pens per treatment (3 pens of barrows and 3 pens of gilts) and 5 pigs per pen for the first 3 experiments and 3 pigs per pen for Exp. 4. Diets for all experiments were formulated to contain SID Val to Lys ratios of 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, 0.70, or 0.75. In Exp. 1 (26 to 46 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.039; quadratic, = 0.042) with an increasing dietary Val:Lys ratio. The SID Val:Lys ratio to maximize ADG was 0.62 using a linear broken-line model and 0.71 using a quadratic model. In Exp. 2 (49 to 70 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.021; quadratic, = 0.042) as the SID Val:Lys ratio increased. G:F improved (linear, = 0.039) and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) decreased (linear, = 0.021; quadratic, = 0.024) with an increased SID Val:Lys ratio. The SID Val:Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.67 and 0.65, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 and 0.71, respectively, using a quadratic model. In Exp. 3 (71 to 92 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.007; quadratic, = 0.022) and SUN decreased (linear, = 0.011; quadratic, = 0.034) as the dietary SID Val:Lys ratio increased. The SID Val:Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.67 and 0.67, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 and 0.74, respectively, using a quadratic model. In Exp. 4 (94 to 119 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.041) and G:F was improved (linear, = 0.004; quadratic, = 0.005) as the dietary SID Val:Lys ratio increased. The SID Val:Lys ratio to maximize G:F was 0

  20. Looking Out Across Dao, Niger, and Harmakhis Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) opened its fourth year orbiting the red planet with this mid-autumn view of three major valley systems east of the Hellas plains. From left to right, the first major valley, Dao Vallis, runs diagonally from the upper left to just past the lower center of the image. Niger Vallis joins Dao Vallis just above the center of the frame. Harmakhis Vallis extends diagonally across the right half of the picture, toward the lower right. These valleys are believed by some to have been formed--at least in part--by large outbursts of liquid water some time far back in the martian past, though there is no way to know exactly how many hundreds of millions or billions of years ago this might have occurred. In each valley, water would have flowed toward the bottom of the image. Although their dimensions vary along their courses, the valleys are all roughly 1 km (0.6 miles) deep and range in width from about 40 km (25 miles) down to about 8 km (5 mi). Located around 40oS, 270oW, the picture covers an area approximately 800 km across and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left. North is toward the left; the picture is a composite of red and blue wide angle images obtained by MOC on September 13, 2000.

  1. The Cultural Practice of Reading and the Standardized Assessment of Reading Instruction: When Incommensurate Worlds Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article critiques the articles by Connor et al., Croninger and Valli, Pianta and Hamre, and Rowan and Correnti, which appeared in the March 2009 issue of "Educational Researcher," by taking a cultural-historical perspective on reading and reading instruction. In this paradigm a number of those authors' assumptions are seen as questionable,…

  2. The Organized Contradictions of Professional Development and School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappington, Neil; Pacha, Joseph; Baker, Paul; Gardner, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    "One of the most persistent findings from research on school improvement is, in fact, the symbiotic relationship between professional development and school improvement efforts" (Hawley & Valli, 1999, p. 129). These researchers, and others in the field, argue that there must be a direct relationship between the professional development of…

  3. Clues to the Relative Timing of Lakes in Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W. E.; Palucis, M. C.; Parker, T.; Rubin, D.; Lewis, K.; Sumner, D.; Williams, R. M. E.

    2014-07-01

    In Gale Crater two higher deltas appear to record the deposition into lakes associated with the cutting of Farah Vallis. At the entrance canyon to Mt. Sharp a possible back stepping fan/delta sequence may record a later rising lake level.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Ancient Mars Water and Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Titles in this section include: 1) Giant Lowland Polygons: Relics of an Ancient Martian Ocean? 2) Lake Shorelines: Earth Analogs for Hypothesized Martian Coastal Features; 3) Complex Evolution of Paleolacustrine Systems on Mars: An Example from the Holden Crater; 4) Geomorphology and Hydraulics of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars, During a Noachian/Hesperian Boundary Paleoflood; 5) Geologic Evolution of Dao Vallis, Mars; 6) Advances in Reconstructing the Geologic History of the Chryse Region Outflow Channels on Mars; 7) Ravi Vallis, Mars - Paleoflood Origin and Genesis of Secondary Chaos Zones; 8) Walla Walla Vallis and Wallula Crater: Two Recently Discovered Martian Features Record Aqueous History; 9) Tharsis Recharge: a Source of Groundwater for Martian Outflow Channels; 10) Factors Controlling Water Volumes and Release Rates in Martian Outflow Channels; 11) Significance of Confined Cavernous Systems for Outflow Channel Water Sources, Reactivation Mechanisms and Chaos Formation; 12) Systematic Differences in Topography of Martian and Terrestrial Drainage Basins; 13) Waves on Seas of Mars and Titan: Wind-Tunnel Experiments on Wind-Wave Generation in Extraterrestrial Atmospheres.

  5. Sedimentary geomorphology of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, James W., Jr.; Parker, Timothy Jay

    1997-01-01

    The first landing on Mars in over 20 years will take place July 4, 1997, near te mouth of the Ares Vallis outflow channel located in southeastern Chryse Planitia. Mars Pathfinder, unlike Viking 1, is expected to land on a surface that has a distinct and unambiguous fluvial signature.

  6. Research on Professional Development Schools. Teacher Education Yearbook VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, David M., Ed.; McIntyre, D. John, Ed.

    This book examines the current standard practice of confining teacher preparation to 4 years of coursework, examining the growing interest in career-spanning teacher education. There are 12 chapters. Section 1, "Collaboration: Building Bridges to Transform Institutional Cultures," includes: "Overview and Framework" (Linda Valli) and three…

  7. Developing a Reflective Practitioner through the Connection between Educational Research and Reflective Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Carlo, Dawn; Hinkhouse, Holly; Isbell, Leah

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the connection between qualitative research methods in education and teacher reflective practices as they relate to Valli's ("Reflective teacher education: cases and critiques." State University of New York Press, Albany, 1992; "Peabody J Educ" 72(1): 67-88, 1997) model of reflection. Using the authors' own experiences in…

  8. Aram Chaos: A Long Lived Subsurface Aqueous Environment with Strong Water Resource Potential for Human Missions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibille, L.; Mueller, R. P.; Niles, P. B.; Glotch, T.; Archer, P. D.; Bell, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Aram Chaos is a 280-km-wide near-circular structure near the outflow channel Ares Vallis and Aureum Chaos. It is a compelling landing site for human explorers featuring multiple science ROIs with a compelling resource ROI with polyhydrated sulfates.

  9. Redefining Professional Development. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The research on effective professional development is consistent across many studies. Researchers Willis Hawley and Linda Valli (Westchester Institute for Human Services Research, n.d.), in their synthesis of the professional development literature, find that high-quality teacher development is as follows: (1) Informed by research on teaching and…

  10. Eridania Paleolakes Basin Floor: A new Landing Site for the next Mars 2020 Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Carter, J.; Rossato, S.; Baratti, E.; Mangili, C.; McBride, K. S.; Coradini, M.

    2014-07-01

    A new landing site for Mars 2020 is presented: Eridania basin. This area i) is the floor of the closed basin originating the Ma’adim Vallis; ii) shows clear clay-bearing sedimentary signatures; iii) fully respects the safety landing constraints.

  11. Knockdown of Drosha in human alveolar type II cells alters expression of SP-A in culture: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Silveyra, Patricia; Chroneos, Zissis C; DiAngelo, Susan L; Thomas, Neal J; Noutsios, Georgios T; Tsotakos, Nikolaos; Howrlylak, Judie A; Umstead, Todd M; Floros, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Human surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important role in surfactant metabolism and lung innate immunity. SP-A is synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II cells (ATII), one of the two cell types of the distal lung epithelium (ATII and ATI). We have shown that miRNA interactions with sequence polymorphisms on the SP-A mRNA 3′UTRs mediate differential expression of SP-A1 and SP-A2 gene variants in vitro. In the present study, we describe a physiologically relevant model to study miRNA regulation of SP-A in human ATII. For these studies, we purified and cultured human ATII on an air-liquid interface matrix (A/L) or plastic wells without matrix (P). Gene expression analyses confirmed that cells cultured in A/L maintained the ATII phenotype for over 5 days, whereas P-cultured cells differentiated to ATI. When we transfected ATII with siRNAs to inhibit the expression of Drosha, a critical effector of miRNA maturation, the levels of SP-A mRNA and protein increased in a time dependent manner. We next characterized cultured ATII and ATI by studying expression of 1,066 human miRNAs using miRNA PCR arrays. We detected expression of >300 miRNAs with 24 miRNAs differentially expressed in ATII vs. ATI, 12 of which predicted to bind SP-A 3′UTRs, indicating that these may be implicated in SP-A downregulation in ATI. Thus, miRNAs not only affect SPA expression, but also may contribute to the maintenance of the ATII cell phenotype and/or the trans-differentiation of ATII to ATI cells, and may represent new molecular markers that distinguish ATII and ATI. PMID:25058539

  12. Knockdown of Drosha in human alveolar type II cells alters expression of SP-A in culture: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Silveyra, Patricia; Chroneos, Zissis C; DiAngelo, Susan L; Thomas, Neal J; Noutsios, Georgios T; Tsotakos, Nikolaos; Howrylak, Judie A; Umstead, Todd M; Floros, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Human surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important role in surfactant metabolism and lung innate immunity. SP-A is synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II (ATII) cells, one of the two cell types of the distal lung epithelium (ATII and ATI). We have shown that miRNA interactions with sequence polymorphisms on the SP-A mRNA 3'UTRs mediate differential expression of SP-A1 and SP-A2 gene variants in vitro. In the present study, we describe a physiologically relevant model to study miRNA regulation of SP-A in human ATII. For these studies, we purified and cultured human ATII on an air-liquid interface matrix (A/L) or plastic wells without matrix (P). Gene expression analyses confirmed that cells cultured in A/L maintained the ATII phenotype for over 5 days, whereas P-cultured cells differentiated to ATI. When we transfected ATII with siRNAs to inhibit the expression of Drosha, a critical effector of miRNA maturation, the levels of SP-A mRNA and protein increased in a time dependent manner. We next characterized cultured ATII and ATI by studying expression of 1,066 human miRNAs using miRNA PCR arrays. We detected expression of >300 miRNAs with 24 miRNAs differentially expressed in ATII versus ATI, 12 of which predicted to bind SP-A 3'UTRs, indicating that these may be implicated in SP-A downregulation in ATI. Thus, miRNAs not only affect SP-A expression, but also may contribute to the maintenance of the ATII cell phenotype and/or the trans-differentiation of ATII to ATI cells, and may represent new molecular markers that distinguish ATII and ATI. PMID:25058539

  13. Investigation of Adaptive-threshold Approaches for Determining Area-Time Integrals from Satellite Infrared Data to Estimate Convective Rain Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.; VonderHaar, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research is being carried out as a collaborative effort between the two participating organizations, with the satellite data analysis to determine values for the ATIs being done primarily by the STC-METSAT scientists and the associated radar data analysis to determine the 'ground-truth' rainfall estimates being done primarily at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T). Synthesis of the two separate kinds of data and investigation of the resulting rainfall-versus-ATI relationships is then carried out jointly. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'adaptive-threshold approach'. In the former, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts as determined by radar. Work on the second, or 'adaptive-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values has explored two avenues: (1) attempt involved choosing IR thresholds to match the satellite ATI values with ones separately calculated from the radar data on a case basis; and (2) an attempt involved a striaghtforward screening analysis to determine the (fixed) offset that would lead to the strongest correlation and lowest standard error of estimate in the relationship between the satellite ATI values and the corresponding rainfall volumes.

  14. Further studies to extend and test the area-time-integral technique applied to satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.; Vonderhaar, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'variable-threshold approach'. In the former approach, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are most closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts. Results thus far have indicated that a strong correlation exists between the rain volumes and the satellite ATI values, but the optimum threshold for this relationship seems to differ from one geographic location to another. The difference is probably related to differences in the basic precipitation mechanisms that dominate in the different regions. The average rainfall rate associated with each cloudy pixel is also found to vary across the spectrum of ATI values. Work on the second, or 'variable-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values was essentially suspended during this period due to exhaustion of project funds. Most of the ATI work thus far has dealt with cloud clusters from the Lagrangian or 'floating-target' point of view. For many purposes, however, the Eulerian or 'fixed-target' perspective is more appropriate. For a very large target area encompassing entire cluster life histories, the rain volume-ATI relationship would obviously be the same in either case. The important question for the Eulerian perspective is how small the fixed area can be made while maintaining consistency in that relationship.

  15. Thermal studies of Martian channels and valleys using Termoskan data: New results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Termoskan instrument onboard the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest-spatial-resolution thermal data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images are 2 km/pixel midday observations of several major channel and valley systems, including significant portions of Shalbatana Vallis, Ravi Vallis, Al-Qahira Vallis, Ma'adim Vallis, the channel connecting Valles Marineris with Hydraotes Chaos, and channel material in Eos Chasma. Termoskan also observed small portions of the southern beginnings of Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles and some channel material in Gangis Chasma. Simultaneous broad band visible data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that most of the channels and valleys have higher inertias than their surroundings, consistent with Viking IRTM-based thermal studies of Martian channels. We see for the first time that thermal inertia boundaries closely match all flat channel floor boundaries. Combining Termoskan thermal data, relative observations from Termoskan visible channel data, Viking absolute bolometric albedos, and a thermal model of the Mars surface, we have derived lower bounds on channel thermal inertias. Lower bounds on typical channel thermal inertias range from 8.4 to 12.5 (10(exp -3) cal cm(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)K(exp -1)) (352 to 523 in SI units). Lower bounds on inertia differences with the surrounding heavily cratered plains range from 1.1 to 3.5 (46 to 147 in SI units). Atmospheric and geometric effects are not sufficient to cause the inertia enhancements. We agree with previous researchers that localized, dark, high inertia areas within channels are likely eolian in nature. However, the Temloskan data show that eolian deposits do not fill the channels, nor are they responsible for the overall thermal inertia enhancement. Thermal homogeneity and strong correlation of thermal boundaries with the channel floor boundaries lead us to favor noneolian overall explanations.

  16. Quantification of antimicrobial consumption in adult cattle on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium, and associations with udder health, milk quality, and production performance.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows. PMID:26778315

  17. Analytic Model for Description of Above-Threshold Ionization by an Intense, Short Laser Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anthony F.; Frolov, M. V.; Knyazeva, D. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Geng, J.-W.; Peng, L.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    We present an analytic model for above-threshold ionization (ATI) of an atom by an intense, linearly-polarized short laser pulse. Our quantum analysis provides closed-form formulas for the differential probability of ATI, with amplitudes given by a coherent sum of partial amplitudes describing ionization by neighboring optical cycles near the peak of the intensity envelope of a short laser pulse. These analytic results explain key features of short-pulse ATI spectra, such as the left-right asymmetry in the ionized electron angular distribution, the multi-plateau structures, and both large-scale and fine-scale oscillation patterns resulting from quantum interferences of electron trajectories. The ATI spectrum in the middle part of the ATI plateau is shown to be sensitive to the spatial symmetry of the initial bound state of the active electron owing to contributions from multiple-return electron trajectories. An extension of our analytic formulas to real atoms provides results that are in good agreement with results of numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He and Ar atoms. Research supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-1208059, by RFBR Grant No. 13-02-00420, by Ministry of Ed. & Sci. of the Russian Fed. Proj. No. 1019, by NNSFC Grant Nos. 11322437, 11174016, and 11121091, and by the Dynasty Fdn. (MVF & DVK).

  18. Optimized nonhyperbolic moveout correction equation of long-offset seismic data for TI media with an arbitrary spatial orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Chong-Tao; Yao, Chen; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2010-12-01

    The conventional long-offset nonhyperbolic moveout equation is derived for the transverse isotropic media with a vertical symmetric axis (VTI). It cannot be extended to the transverse isotropic media with an arbitrary spatial orientation of symmetry axis (ATI). In this paper, we optimize a modified long-offset nonhyperbolic moveout equation for ATI media based on the conventional nonhyperbolic moveout equation and the exact analytical solution of the quartic moveout coefficient ( A 4) and NMO velocity for ATI media that were derived in our previous work. Compared with the exact traveltimes of the ray-tracing algorithm for anisotropic media, this optimized equation can be used to calculate the traveltime varying with survey line azimuth in arbitrary strong or weak ATI media. It can replace the time-consuming, multi-offset, and multi-azimuth ray tracing method for forward modeling of longoffset reflection traveltimes in ATI media, which is useful to further anisotropic parameter inversion using long-offset nonhyperbolic moveout.

  19. N-terminal Proteomics and Ribosome Profiling Provide a Comprehensive View of the Alternative Translation Initiation Landscape in Mice and Men*

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Petra; Gawron, Daria; Van Criekinge, Wim; Menschaert, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Usage of presumed 5′UTR or downstream in-frame AUG codons, next to non-AUG codons as translation start codons contributes to the diversity of a proteome as protein isoforms harboring different N-terminal extensions or truncations can serve different functions. Recent ribosome profiling data revealed a highly underestimated occurrence of database nonannotated, and thus alternative translation initiation sites (aTIS), at the mRNA level. N-terminomics data in addition showed that in higher eukaryotes around 20% of all identified protein N termini point to such aTIS, to incorrect assignments of the translation start codon, translation initiation at near-cognate start codons, or to alternative splicing. We here report on more than 1700 unique alternative protein N termini identified at the proteome level in human and murine cellular proteomes. Customized databases, created using the translation initiation mapping obtained from ribosome profiling data, additionally demonstrate the use of initiator methionine decoded near-cognate start codons besides the existence of N-terminal extended protein variants at the level of the proteome. Various newly identified aTIS were confirmed by mutagenesis, and meta-analyses demonstrated that aTIS reside in strong Kozak-like motifs and are conserved among eukaryotes, hinting to a possible biological impact. Finally, TargetP analysis predicted that the usage of aTIS often results in altered subcellular localization patterns, providing a mechanism for functional diversification. PMID:24623590

  20. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) program: Study of geological structure of Sicily and other Italian areas. [Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. (Principal Investigator); Zilioli, E.; Marini, A.; Brivio, P. A.; Tosi, N.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of thermal inertia mapping in discriminating geolithological units was investigated using Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei as test sites. Software designed for LANDSAT data were modified and improved for HCMM tapes. A first attempt was made to compare the geological cross section, the topography, the IR radiance, and the thermal inertia along selected profiles of the test site. Thermal inertia profiles appear smoothed in comparison with the thermal radiance. The lowest apparent thermal inertia (ATI) was found on granitic and basaltic outcrops where their image is of sufficient extent, while ATI is higher on carbonatic and dolomitic or moist deposits. Almost every fault is marked by a jump of ATI, the interval being sometimes of the order of one pixel. This seems to demonstrate the ability of ATI to detect contacts or tectonically disturbed zones with a good resolution. It seems more difficult to measure the differences in ATI between homogeneous materials having different lithology. Ground surveys conducted and a simulation model of diurnal temperatures of rocks having different thermal inertia are discussed.

  1. Alternative translation initiation augments the human mitochondrial proteome

    PubMed Central

    Kazak, Lawrence; Reyes, Aurelio; Duncan, Anna L.; Rorbach, Joanna; Wood, Stuart R.; Brea-Calvo, Gloria; Gammage, Payam A.; Robinson, Alan J.; Minczuk, Michal; Holt, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative translation initiation (ATI) is a mechanism of producing multiple proteins from a single transcript, which in some cases regulates trafficking of proteins to different cellular compartments, including mitochondria. Application of a genome-wide computational screen predicts a cryptic mitochondrial targeting signal for 126 proteins in mouse and man that is revealed when an AUG codon located downstream from the canonical initiator methionine codon is used as a translation start site, which we term downstream ATI (dATI). Experimental evidence in support of dATI is provided by immunoblotting of endogenous truncated proteins enriched in mitochondrial cell fractions or of co-localization with mitochondria using immunocytochemistry. More detailed cellular localization studies establish mitochondrial targeting of a member of the cytosolic poly(A) binding protein family, PABPC5, and of the RNA/DNA helicase PIF1α. The mitochondrial isoform of PABPC5 co-immunoprecipitates with the mitochondrial poly(A) polymerase, and is markedly reduced in abundance when mitochondrial DNA and RNA are depleted, suggesting it plays a role in RNA metabolism in the organelle. Like PABPC5 and PIF1α, most of the candidates identified by the screen are not currently annotated as mitochondrial proteins, and so dATI expands the human mitochondrial proteome. PMID:23275553

  2. Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors drive intestinal inflammation via activation of toll-like receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Yvonne; Zeissig, Sebastian; Kim, Seong-Jun; Barisani, Donatella; Wieser, Herbert; Leffler, Daniel A.; Zevallos, Victor; Libermann, Towia A.; Dillon, Simon; Freitag, Tobias L.; Kelly, Ciaran P.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of wheat, barley, or rye triggers small intestinal inflammation in patients with celiac disease. Specifically, the storage proteins of these cereals (gluten) elicit an adaptive Th1-mediated immune response in individuals carrying HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 as major genetic predisposition. This well-defined role of adaptive immunity contrasts with an ill-defined component of innate immunity in celiac disease. We identify the α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) CM3 and 0.19, pest resistance molecules in wheat, as strong activators of innate immune responses in monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. ATIs engage the TLR4–MD2–CD14 complex and lead to up-regulation of maturation markers and elicit release of proinflammatory cytokines in cells from celiac and nonceliac patients and in celiac patients’ biopsies. Mice deficient in TLR4 or TLR4 signaling are protected from intestinal and systemic immune responses upon oral challenge with ATIs. These findings define cereal ATIs as novel contributors to celiac disease. Moreover, ATIs may fuel inflammation and immune reactions in other intestinal and nonintestinal immune disorders. PMID:23209313

  3. Assessment of penetration of Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate into biological membranes by molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Machado, N C F; Dos Santos, L; Carvalho, B G; Singh, P; Téllez Soto, C A; Azoia, N G; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Martin, A A; Favero, P P

    2016-08-01

    The present work, involves the simulation of the transport of a vitamin C derivative, Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate (ATI), through human skin by molecular dynamics. Percutaneous absorption of the ATI molecule through the infundibulum, an important route of absorption into the hair follicle of the human skin, has been modeled and compared with the stratum corneum membrane. The comparative study was done using molecular dynamics with Martini force field. In infundibulum, a single ATI molecule require more time to penetrate, and the data obtained suggested that a high concentration of ATI molecule accelerated the process of penetration. In conclusion, the ATI molecule was found to have more affinity towards the stratum corneum as compared with the infundibulum, and it followed a straight pathway to penetrate (until 600ns of simulation). In the infundibulum, it showed less affinity, more mobility and followed a lateral pathway. Thus, this work contributes to a better understanding of the different molecular interactions during percutaneous absorption of active molecules in these two different types of biological membranes. PMID:27289538

  4. Interaction between wheat alpha-amylase/trypsin bi-functional inhibitor and mammalian digestive enzymes: Kinetic, equilibrium and structural characterization of binding.

    PubMed

    Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Ali, Ishtiaq; Bonfili, Laura; Cecarini, Valentina; Eleuteri, Anna Maria; Angeletti, Mauro

    2016-12-15

    Alpha-amylase/trypsin bi-functional inhibitors (ATIs) are non-gluten protein components of wheat and other cereals that can hypersensitise the human gastrointestinal tract, eventually causing enteropathies in predisposed individuals. These inhibitory proteins can act both directly by targeting specific pro-inflammatory receptors, and indirectly by impairing the activity of digestive enzymes, the latter event causing the accumulation of undigested peptides with potential immunogenic properties. Herein, according to a concerted approach based on in vitro and in silico methods we characterized kinetics, equilibrium parameters and modes of binding of the complexes formed between wheat ATI and two representative mammalian digestive enzymes, namely trypsin and alpha-amylase. Interestingly, we demonstrated ATI to target both enzymes with independent binding sites and with moderately high affinity. PMID:27451220

  5. Atomic tunneling ionization in a photon picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujun; Esry, B. D.

    2015-05-01

    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) and high-harmonic generation (HHG) are studied by the photon-phase formalism in the tunneling regime. Different from the commonly used three-step model for understanding such strong-field phenomena, we show that each order of the ATI or HHG peaks is strongly associated with a single ``photon channel'' in the photon-phase picture. This simplicity allows an identification of pathways for each of the orders. This picture not only provides a convenient means to understand the electron dynamics in the strong field, but also gives insights that may help engineer laser pulses to manipulate the output of the ATI or HHG. We apply this method to quantify the strong-field-induced ionization threshold shift and study the carrier-envelope phase dependence of the HHG. Supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy

  6. Biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of alkaline textile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana H; Keshri, Jitendra; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-07-15

    The present work was aimed to secure biological neutralization and biosorption of dyes of an alkaline textile industrial effluent (ATIE) using an alkaliphilic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis strain R-16 isolated from Gujarat coast. The isolate was capable and competent to bring down the pH of ATIE from 12.1 to 7.0 within 2 h in the presence of carbon and nitrogen sources. Carboxylic group concentration (CGC), NMR and FT-IR analysis revealed production of carboxylic acid as a result of neutralization. The unconventional carbon and nitrogen sources like Madhuca indica flowers or sugar cane bagasse supported the growth of bacterium with effective neutralization and biosorption of dyes from ATIE. The process proved to be efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly as compared to conventional chemical neutralization process. PMID:24910184

  7. ent-Atisane diterpenoids from Euphorbia fischeriana inhibit mammosphere formation in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xinzhu; Li, Wei; Kanno, Yuichiro; Yamashita, Naoya; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Asada, Yoshihisa; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of new drugs that target cancer stem cells (CSCs) is a critical approach to overcome the major difficulties of the metastasis, chemotherapeutic resistance and recurrence for successful cancer therapy. Chemical investigation of the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana resulted in the isolation of eight ent-atisane diterpenoids (1-8), including two new compounds: 19-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-ent-atis-16-ene-3,14-dione (7) and 19-O-(6-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-ent-atis-16-ene-3,14-dione (8). The structures were elucidated on extensive spectroscopic analyses, as well as chemical transformations. ent-3β-Hydroxyatis-16-ene-2,14-dione (5), 7 and its aglycon, ent-19-hydroxy-atis-16-ene-3,14-dione (7a), showed significant inhibitory activity on mammosphere formation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells at a final concentration of 10 μM. PMID:26411465

  8. Design and Synthesis of 2-Heterocyclyl-3-arylthio-1H-indoles as Potent Tubulin Polymerization and Cell Growth Inhibitors with Improved Metabolic Stability

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Rensen, Willeke; Coluccia, Antonio; Piscitelli, Francesco; Gatti, Valerio; Bolognesi, Alessio; Lavecchia, Antonio; Granata, Ilaria; Porta, Amalia; Maresca, Bruno; Soriani, Alessandra; Iannitto, Maria Luisa; Mariani, Marisa; Santoni, Angela; Brancale, Andrea; Ferlini, Cristiano; Dondio, Giulio; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Novellino, Ettore; Silvestri, Romano

    2011-01-01

    New arylthioindoles (ATIs) were obtained by replacing the 2-alkoxycarbonyl group with a bioisosteric 5-membered heterocycle nucleus. The new ATIs 5, 8, and 10 inhibited tubulin polymerization, reduced cell growth of a panel of human transformed cell lines, and showed higher metabolic stability than the reference ester 3. These compounds induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis at a similar level as combretastatin A-4 and vinblastine and triggered caspase-3 expression in a significant fraction of cells in both p53-proficient and p53-defective cell lines. Importantly, ATIs 5, 8, and 10 were more effective than vinorelbine, vinblastine, and paclitaxel as growth inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing cell line NCI/ADR-RES. Compound 5 was shown to have medium metabolic stability in both human and mouse liver microsomes, in contrast to the rapidly degraded reference ester 3, and a pharmacokinetic profile in the mouse characterized by a low systemic clearance and excellent oral bioavailability. PMID:22044164

  9. Blind phase calibration for along-track interferometry: application to Gotcha data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Faruk; Murthy, Vinay; Scarborough, Steven M.

    2014-06-01

    Along-Track Interferometry (ATI) has been widely used for ground moving target indication (GMTI) in airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. In ideal cases, the ATI phase obtained using two phase centers that are aligned in the along-track dimension yield clutter-only pixels with zero phase. However, the platform's motion may create a cross-track displacement between the two phase centers and in turn offset the phase centers' baseline from the along track dimension. This cross-track offset leads to non-zero phase for clutter-only pixels, necessitating calibration for accurate GMTI. This paper proposes a blind calibration method to correct the along-track baseline error in ATI-SAR systems. The success of the proposed method is shown on a set of measured data from the Gotcha sensor.

  10. Brief Report: Relationship Among Viral Load Outcomes in HIV Treatment Interruption Trials.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Graham C; Aga, Evgenia; Bosch, Ronald J; Mellors, John W; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Para, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Li, Jonathan Z

    2016-07-01

    Viral load (VL) rebound timing and set point were analyzed in 235 participants undergoing analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in 6 AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies. There was no significant association between rebound timing and ATI VL set point for those who rebounded ≤12 weeks. VL set points were lower in participants with rebound >12 weeks (P < 0.001) and participants treated during early infection (P < 0.001). Pre-antiretroviral therapy VL correlated with set point, though 68% of participants had a set point lower than pre-antiretroviral therapy VL. These results illustrate complex relationships between post-ATI virologic outcomes and the potential presence of biological factors mediating rebound timing and set point. PMID:26910502

  11. Brief Report: Relationship Among Viral Load Outcomes in HIV Treatment Interruption Trials

    PubMed Central

    Treasure, Graham C.; Aga, Evgenia; Bosch, Ronald J.; Mellors, John W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Para, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Viral load (VL) rebound timing and set point were analyzed in 235 participants undergoing analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in 6 AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies. There was no significant association between rebound timing and ATI VL set point for those who rebounded ≤12 weeks. VL set points were lower in participants with rebound >12 weeks (P < 0.001) and participants treated during early infection (P < 0.001). Pre-antiretroviral therapy VL correlated with set point, though 68% of participants had a set point lower than pre-antiretroviral therapy VL. These results illustrate complex relationships between post-ATI virologic outcomes and the potential presence of biological factors mediating rebound timing and set point. PMID:26910502

  12. Effects of an anesthetic mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol in rats-strain difference and antagonism by atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Saito, Yoji; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    An anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID), and butorphanol (BUT) has been used in laboratory animals. We previously reported that this anesthetic mixture produced closely similar anesthetic effects in BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. We also demonstrated the efficacy of atipamezole (ATI), an antagonist of MED that produced quick recovery from anesthesia in mice. Anesthetics have various anesthetic effects among animal strains. However, the differences in the effects of anesthetic mixtures in rats are unclear. In the present study, we first examined effects of the abovementioned anesthetic mixture using three different rat strains: Wistar (WST), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344). Second, we examined how different dosages and optimum injection timing of ATI affected recovery from anesthesia in rats. We used the anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs. We found no significant differences in anesthetic duration among the three different strains. However, recovery from anesthesia in the SD strain took significantly longer than in the other strains. The antagonistic effects of ATI (0.15 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg) were equivalent when administered at 30 min after anesthetic mixture administration. The antagonistic effects of ATI 0.75 mg/kg were stronger than those of ATI 0.15 mg/kg at 10 min after anesthetic mixture administration. This anesthetic mixture is a useful drug that can induce similar anesthetic effects in three different strains and has an antagonist, ATI, that makes rats quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals. PMID:26424468

  13. Anesthetic effects of a three-drugs mixture--comparison of administrative routes and antagonistic effects of atipamezole in mice.

    PubMed

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Saito, Yoji; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and butorphanol (BUT) produced anesthetic duration of around 40 minutes (min) in ICR mice. We reported that this anesthetic mixture produced almost the same anesthetic effects in both male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of drugs has been widely used in mice. However, various injectable routes of the anesthetic mixture may cause different anesthetic effects. First, we examined effects of the anesthetic mixture by subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) injection compared to IP injection. After injection of the anesthetic mixture, administration of atipamezole (ATI) induced mice recovery from anesthesia. Secondly, we examined how different dosage and optimum injection timing of ATI affected mice recovery from anesthesia. We used an anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs under anesthesia. Usually, drugs from SC injection work more weakly than IP or IV injection. However, we found no significant differences of anesthetic duration among the three different injection routes. Antagonistic effects of ATI (0.3 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) worked equally when administered at 30 min after injection of the anesthetic mixture. Antagonistic effects of ATI (1.5 mg/kg) were stronger than ATI (0.3 mg/kg) at 10 min after injection of the anesthetic mixture. The anesthetic mixture is a useful drug to induce nearly the same anesthetic effects by different injection routes and has an antagonist of ATI which helps mice quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals. PMID:25223384

  14. Anesthetic effects of a three-drugs mixture —comparison of administrative routes and antagonistic effects of atipamezole in mice—

    PubMed Central

    KIRIHARA, Yumiko; TAKECHI, Mayumi; KUROSAKI, Kaoru; KOBAYASHI, Yuta; SAITO, Yoji; TAKEUCHI, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and butorphanol (BUT) produced anesthetic duration of around 40 minutes (min) in ICR mice. We reported that this anesthetic mixture produced almost the same anesthetic effects in both male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of drugs has been widely used in mice. However, various injectable routes of the anesthetic mixture may cause different anesthetic effects. First, we examined effects of the anesthetic mixture by subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) injection compared to IP injection. After injection of the anesthetic mixture, administration of atipamezole (ATI) induced mice recovery from anesthesia. Secondly, we examined how different dosage and optimum injection timing of ATI affected mice recovery from anesthesia. We used an anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs under anesthesia. Usually, drugs from SC injection work more weakly than IP or IV injection. However, we found no significant differences of anesthetic duration among the three different injection routes. Antagonistic effects of ATI (0.3 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) worked equally when administered at 30 min after injection of the anesthetic mixture. Antagonistic effects of ATI (1.5 mg/kg) were stronger than ATI (0.3 mg/kg) at 10 min after injection of the anesthetic mixture. The anesthetic mixture is a useful drug to induce nearly the same anesthetic effects by different injection routes and has an antagonist of ATI which helps mice quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals. PMID:25223384

  15. Effects of an anesthetic mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol in rats—strain difference and antagonism by atipamezole

    PubMed Central

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Saito, Yoji; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID), and butorphanol (BUT) has been used in laboratory animals. We previously reported that this anesthetic mixture produced closely similar anesthetic effects in BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. We also demonstrated the efficacy of atipamezole (ATI), an antagonist of MED that produced quick recovery from anesthesia in mice. Anesthetics have various anesthetic effects among animal strains. However, the differences in the effects of anesthetic mixtures in rats are unclear. In the present study, we first examined effects of the abovementioned anesthetic mixture using three different rat strains: Wistar (WST), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344). Second, we examined how different dosages and optimum injection timing of ATI affected recovery from anesthesia in rats. We used the anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs. We found no significant differences in anesthetic duration among the three different strains. However, recovery from anesthesia in the SD strain took significantly longer than in the other strains. The antagonistic effects of ATI (0.15 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg) were equivalent when administered at 30 min after anesthetic mixture administration. The antagonistic effects of ATI 0.75 mg/kg were stronger than those of ATI 0.15 mg/kg at 10 min after anesthetic mixture administration. This anesthetic mixture is a useful drug that can induce similar anesthetic effects in three different strains and has an antagonist, ATI, that makes rats quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals. PMID:26424468

  16. Analytic model for the description of above-threshold ionization by an intense short laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, M. V.; Knyazeva, D. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Geng, Ji-Wei; Peng, Liang-You; Starace, Anthony F.

    2014-06-01

    We present an analytic model for the description of above-threshold ionization (ATI) of an atom by an intense, linearly polarized short laser pulse. Our treatment is based upon a description of ATI by an infinitely long train of short laser pulses whereupon we take the limit that the time interval between pulses becomes infinite. In the quasiclassical approximation, we provide detailed quantum-mechanical derivations, within the time-dependent effective range (TDER) model, of the closed-form formulas for the differential probability P (p) of ATI by an intense, short laser pulse that were presented briefly by Frolov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213002 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.213002] and that were used to describe key features of the high-energy part of ATI spectra for H and He atoms in an intense, few-cycle laser pulse, using a phenomenological generalization of the physically transparent TDER results to the case of real atoms. Moreover, we extend these results here to the case of an electron bound initially in a p state; we also take into account multiple-return electron trajectories. The ATI amplitude in our approach is given by a coherent sum of partial amplitudes describing ionization by neighboring optical cycles near the peak of the intensity envelope of a short laser pulse. These results provide an analytical explanation of key features in short-pulse ATI spectra, such as the left-right asymmetry in the ionized electron angular distribution, the multiplateau structures, and both large-scale and fine-scale oscillation patterns resulting from quantum interferences of electron trajectories. Our results show that the shape of the ATI spectrum in the middle part of the ATI plateau is sensitive to the spatial symmetry of the initial bound state of the active electron. This sensitivity originates from the contributions of multiple-return electron trajectories. Our analytic results are shown to be in good agreement with results of numerical solutions of the

  17. Advanced Sensors Boost Optical Communication, Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Brooklyn, New York-based Amplification Technologies Inc. (ATI), employed Phase I and II SBIR funding from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to forward the company's solid-state photomultiplier technology. Under the SBIR, ATI developed a small, energy-efficient, extremely high-gain sensor capable of detecting light down to single photons in the near infrared wavelength range. The company has commercialized this technology in the form of its NIRDAPD photomultiplier, ideal for use in free space optical communications, lidar and ladar, night vision goggles, and other light sensing applications.

  18. The Advice Taker/Inquirer, a system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntactic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  19. The advice taker/inquirer: A system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntatic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  20. A real-time spoken-language system for interactive problem-solving, combining linguistic and statistical technology for improved spoken language understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert C.; Cohen, Michael H.

    1993-09-01

    Under this effort, SRI has developed spoken-language technology for interactive problem solving, featuring real-time performance for up to several thousand word vocabularies, high semantic accuracy, habitability within the domain, and robustness to many sources of variability. Although the technology is suitable for many applications, efforts to date have focused on developing an Air Travel Information System (ATIS) prototype application. SRI's ATIS system has been evaluated in four ARPA benchmark evaluations, and has consistently been at or near the top in performance. These achievements are the result of SRI's technical progress in speech recognition, natural-language processing, and speech and natural-language integration.

  1. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  2. Mineralogic context of the final four, circum-Chyrse candidate landing sites for the ExoMars rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J.; Loizeau, D.; Quantin, C.; Balme, M.; Poulet, F.; Gupta, S.; Vago, J.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2015-10-01

    The ExoMars rover mission [1] will sample ancient, aqueously altered terrains to search for traces of extinct life and characterize the water history of Early Mars. These objectives translate into site-specific constraints in order to maximize the opportunity to access morphological and/or chemical markers for past aqueous environments and possibly life [2]. Currently, four candidate landing sites are being considered, all located on or near the margin the Chryse Planitia impact basin and all exhibiting hydrous clays within or near the ellipse: Mawrth Vallis[3] Oxia Planum[4], Aram Dorsum[5]and Hypanis Vallis[6]. Assessing the composition and morphologic/stratigraphic context of these clays is necessary to narrow down possible formation scenarios and help rank the sites according to their relevance to the science goals. This work investigates the aqueous mineralogy of the circum-Chyrse region -where the LS are proposed-, in order to provide a framework for future in-depth investigations.

  3. "Where On Mars?": A Web Map Visualisation of the ExoMars 2018 Rover Candidate Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Boix, O.; Vago, J.; Hill, A.; Iriberri, C.; Carrión, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will deliver a European rover and a Russian surface platform to the surface of Mars. Armed with a drill that can bore 2 metres into rock, the ExoMars rover will travel across the Martian surface to search for signs of life, past or present. But where on Mars to land? - The search for a suitable ExoMars rover landing site began in December 2013, when the planetary science community was asked to propose candidates. Eight proposals were considered during a workshop held by the ExoMars Landing Site Selection Working Group (LSSWG). By the end of the workshop, there were four clear front-runners. Following additional review, the four sites have now been formally recommended for further detailed analysis [1]: Mawrth Vallis, Oxia Planum, Hypanis Vallis and Aram Dorsum. Scientists will continue working on the characterisation of these four sites until they provide their final recommendation in October 2017.

  4. Fluvial to Lacustrine Facies Transitions in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Schieber, Juergen; Palucis, Marisa C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Mangold, Nicolas; Kah, Linda C.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Grotzinger, John P.; Grant, John A., III; Edgar, Lauren A.; Dietrich, William E.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Curiosity rover has documented predominantly fluvial sedimentary rocks along its path from the landing site to the toe of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan (0.5 km to the east) and then along its 8 km traverse across Aeolis Palus to the base of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp). Lacustrine facies have been identified at the toe of the Peace Vallis fan and in the lowermost geological unit exposed on Aeolis Mons. These two depositional systems provide end members for martian fluvial/alluvial-lacustrine facies models. The Peace Vallis system consisted of an 80 square kilometers alluvial fan with decimeter-thick, laterally continuous fluvial sandstones with few sedimentary structures. The thin lacustrine unit associated with the fan is interpreted as deposited in a small lake associated with fan runoff. In contrast, fluvial facies exposed over most of Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons consist of sandstones with common dune-scale cross stratification (including trough cross stratification), interbedded conglomerates, and rare paleochannels. Along the southwest portion of the traverse, sandstone facies include south-dipping meter-scale clinoforms that are interbedded with finer-grained mudstone facies, interpreted as lacustrine. Sedimentary structures in these deposits are consistent with deltaic deposits. Deltaic deposition is also suggested by the scale of fluvial to lacustrine facies transitions, which occur over greater than 100 m laterally and greater than 10 m vertically. The large scale of the transitions and the predicted thickness of lacustrine deposits based on orbital mapping require deposition in a substantial river-lake system over an extended interval of time. Thus, the lowermost, and oldest, sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater suggest the presence of substantial fluvial flow into a long-lived lake. In contrast, the Peace Vallis alluvial fan onlaps these older deposits and overlies a major unconformity. It is one of the youngest deposits in the crater, and

  5. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  6. Dust Devil Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark squiggles and streaks created by passing spring and summer dust devils near Pallacopas Vallis in the martian southern hemisphere.

    Location near: 53.9oS, 17.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  7. 3D reconstruction of the source and scale of buried young flood channels on Mars.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gareth A; Campbell, Bruce A; Carter, Lynn M; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Phillips, Roger J

    2013-05-01

    Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (<500 million years old), is embayed by lava flows that hinder detailed studies and comparisons with older channel systems. Understanding Marte Vallis is essential to our assessment of recent Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates. PMID:23470730

  8. Application of capillary affinity electrophoresis and density functional theory to the investigation of valinomycin-lithium complex.

    PubMed

    Ehala, Sille; Dybal, Jirí; Makrlík, Emanuel; Kasicka, Václav

    2009-04-24

    Capillary affinity electrophoresis (CAE) and quantum mechanical density functional theory (DFT) have been applied to the investigation of interactions of valinomycin (Val), a macrocyclic dodecadepsipeptide antibiotic ionophore, with lithium cation Li(+). Firstly, from the dependence of effective electrophoretic mobility of Val on the Li(+) ion concentration in the background electrolyte (BGE) (methanolic solution of 50mM chloroacetic acid, 25 mM Tris, pH(MeOH) 7.8, 0-40 mM LiCl), the apparent binding (stability) constant (K(b)) of Val-Li(+) complex in methanol was evaluated as logK(b)=1.50+/-0.24. The employed CAE method include correction of the effective mobilities measured at ambient temperature, at different input power (Joule heating) and at variable ionic strength of the BGEs to the mobilities related to the reference temperature 25 degrees C and to the constant ionic strength 25 mM. Secondly, using DFT calculations, the most probable structures of the non-hydrated Val-Li(+) and hydrated Val-Li(+) x 3H(2)O complex species were predicted. PMID:19233367

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Hydrology, Drainage, and Valley Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Analysis of Orientation Dependence of Martian Gullies; 2) A Preliminary Relationship between the Depth of Martian Gullies and the Abundance of Hydrogen on Near-Surface Mars; 3) Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars; 4) The Distribution of Gullies and Tounge-shaped Ridges and Their Role in the Degradation of Martian Craters; 5) A Critical Evaluation of Crater Lake Systems in Memnonia Quadrangle, Mars; 6) Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at Gusev Crater: Implications for the Spirit Mission; 7) Characterization of the Distributary Fan in Holden NE Crater using Stereo Analysis; 8) Computational Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars: Appraising the Drainage Density; 9) Hypsometric Analyses of Martian Basins: A Comparison to Terrestrial, Lunar, and Venusian Hypsometry; 10) Morphologic Development of Harmakhis Vallis, Mars; 11) Mangala Valles, Mars: Investigations of the source of Flood Water and Early Stages of Flooding; 12) The Formation of Aromatum Chaos and the Water Discharge Rate at Ravi Vallis; 13) Inferring Hydraulics from Geomorphology for Athabasca Valles, Mars; 14) The Origin and Evolution of Dao Vallis: Formation and Modification of Martian Channels by Structural Collapse and Glaciation; 15) Snowmelt and the Formation of Valley Networks on Martian Volcanoes; 16) Extent of Floating Ice in an Ancient Echus Chasma/Kasei Valley System, Mars.

  10. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 3: Valley Types and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Three major valley tapes were identified in the SW Margaritefer Sinus and Argyre regions. Two are restricted to specific geologic units while the third is independent of the geology. The first type (the small valley networks) are found within the channeled and subdued plains unit in the eastern half of the map, in the grooved and channeled plains unit north of Nirgal Vallis, and in scattered instances in the cratered plateau unit north of Argyre. The even smaller valleys just inside Argyre's rim and on the inner slopes of many large craters are not directly related to the processes which formed the small valleys but are a result, instead, of post-impact modification of the crater walls. The second type of valley network is represented by Nirgal Vallis and the similar, shorter continuation of it to the west. This type is found only in the smooth plains material west of Uzboi Vallis in the map area. The third type of valley network is that of the Uzbol-Holden-Ladon valles system. This system is related to catastrophic outflow from Argyre Basin and is topographically rather than geologically controlled.

  11. Fluvial drainage systems: Margaritifer Sinus and Agyre (NC, NE) quadrangles, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, J. C.; Grant, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Fluvial drainage systems, delineated by mapping on stereo pairs of Viking Orbiter images, have developed in various-sized basins in the Margaritifer Sinus (MC-19) and Agyre (MC-26) Quadrangles, Mars. The Ladon Valles system is the largest, draining into and through two multi-ringed impact basins. Smaller fluvial basins to the southeast of the Ladon structural basin appear to have internal drainage. An intermediate-scale fluvial basin containing Himera Vallis extends along a north-south axis at 22 W and opens northward toward outflow channels south of Margaritifer Chaos. Stereo-pair mapping was extended furhter to the east, in MC-19 Ne, Se, and MC-26 NE, to investigate sources of outflow to the Ares Vallis system. The direction of flow in the channel at the northeast quadrant of the Ladon Basin is unresolved at present because of the poor quality of images available to form stereo pairs. However, an easterly drainage basin boundary running north-south along longitude 9 W, and extending westward at latitude 32-35 S, encloses a series of longitudinal drainage systems. Both the Parana Valles-Loire Vallis system and the Samara Valles system appear to drain in a northwesterly direction. The Samara flows to the Himera drainage basin, and the Parana-Loire to the northeast Ladon channel area.

  12. Interpersonal and Relational Orientation among Pre-Service Educators: Differential Effects on Attitudes toward Inclusion of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Brandes, Joyce A.; Williams-Diehm, Kendra L.; Hackett, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which pre-service educators' interpersonal characteristics affected their attitudes toward teaching students with disabilities (inclusion), as measured by the FIRO-B and ATIES pre- and post-course. The FIRO-B was administered to assess expressed and wanted aspects of three…

  13. Quantifying Assemblage Turnover and Species Contributions at Ecologic Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Not all boundaries, whether stratigraphical or geographical, are marked by species-level changes in community composition. For example, paleodata for some sites do not show readily discernible glacial-interglacial contrasts. Rather, the proportional abundances of species can vary subtly between glacials and interglacials. This paper presents a simple quantitative measure of assemblage turnover (assemblage turnover index, ATI) that uses changes in species' proportional abundances to identify intervals of community change. A second, functionally-related index (conditioned-on-boundary index, CoBI) identifies species contributions to the total assemblage turnover. With these measures we examine benthonic foraminiferal assemblages to assess glacial/interglacial contrasts at abyssal depths. Our results indicate that these measures, ATI and CoBI, have potential as sequence stratigraphic tools in abyssal depth deposits. Many peaks in the set of values of ATI coincide with terminations at the end of glaciations and delineate peak-bounded ATI intervals (PATIs) separated by boundaries that approximate to glacial terminations and to transgressions at neritic depths. These measures, however, can be used to evaluate the assemblage turnover and composition at any defined ecological or paleoecological boundary. The section used is from Ocean Drilling Program (OPD) Hole 994C, drilled on the Blake Ridge, offshore SE USA. PMID:24130679

  14. Community College Nursing Student Success on Professional Qualifying Examinations from Admission to Licensure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lenora; Sandiford, Janice

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to investigate variables associated with learning and performance as measured by the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN), (2) to validate the predictive value of the Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) achievement exit exam, and (3) to provide a model that could…

  15. An Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Approach to Writing-to-Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieft, Marleen; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; van den Bergh, Huub

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we propose to link the study of writing-to-learn to the theory of aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI). In an experimental study we examined the effects of a course on ''Writing-to-learn about literary stories'' consisting of writing tasks adapted to either a planning or a revising writing strategy. We hypothesized that the…

  16. An Empirical Assessment of the "Above the Influence" Advertising Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Holtz, Kristen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of "Above the Influence" (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall…

  17. E-SMARRT: Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    This factsheet describes the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) program developed by Advanced Technology Institute (ATI). E-SMARRT is a balanced portfolio of projects to address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry.

  18. Aptitude-Treatment Interactions during Creativity Training in E-Learning: How Meaning-Making, Self-Regulation, and Knowledge Management Influence Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu; Lin, Chun Fu

    2015-01-01

    The goal of aptitude-treatment interactions (ATIs) is to find the interactions between treatments and learners' aptitudes and therefore to achieve optimal learning. This study aimed at understanding whether the aptitudes of meaning-making, self-regulation, and knowledge management (KM) would interact with the treatment of 17-week KM-based training…

  19. Assessment of Cell Line Models of Primary Human Cells by Raman Spectral Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Robin J.; Kemp, Sarah J.; Goldstraw, Peter; Tetley, Teresa D.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Researchers have previously questioned the suitability of cell lines as models for primary cells. In this study, we used Raman microspectroscopy to characterize live A549 cells from a unique molecular biochemical perspective to shed light on their suitability as a model for primary human pulmonary alveolar type II (ATII) cells. We also investigated a recently developed transduced type I (TT1) cell line as a model for alveolar type I (ATI) cells. Single-cell Raman spectra provide unique biomolecular fingerprints that can be used to characterize cellular phenotypes. A multivariate statistical analysis of Raman spectra indicated that the spectra of A549 and TT1 cells are characterized by significantly lower phospholipid content compared to ATII and ATI spectra because their cytoplasm contains fewer surfactant lamellar bodies. Furthermore, we found that A549 spectra are statistically more similar to ATI spectra than to ATII spectra. The spectral variation permitted phenotypic classification of cells based on Raman spectral signatures with >99% accuracy. These results suggest that A549 cells are not a good model for ATII cells, but TT1 cells do provide a reasonable model for ATI cells. The findings have far-reaching implications for the assessment of cell lines as suitable primary cellular models in live cultures. PMID:20409492

  20. Spectral Monitoring of Surfactant Clearance during Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Robin J.; Kemp, Sarah J.; Goldstraw, Peter; Tetley, Teresa D.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we report on the noninvasive identification of spectral markers of alveolar type II (ATII) cell differentiation in vitro using Raman microspectroscopy. ATII cells are progenitor cells for alveolar type I (ATI) cells in vivo, and spontaneously differentiate toward an ATI-like phenotype in culture. We analyzed undifferentiated and differentiated primary human ATII cells, and correlated Raman spectral changes to cellular changes in morphology and marker protein synthesis (surfactant protein C, alkaline phosphatase, caveolin-1). Undifferentiated ATII cells demonstrated spectra with strong phospholipid vibrations, arising from alveolar surfactant stored within cytoplasmic lamellar bodies (Lbs). Differentiated ATI-like cells yielded spectra with significantly less lipid content. Factor analysis revealed a phospholipid-dominated spectral component as the main discriminator between the ATII and ATI-like phenotypes. Spectral modeling of the data revealed a significant decrease in the spectral contribution of cellular lipids—specifically phosphatidyl choline, the main constituent of surfactant, as ATII cells differentiate. These observations were consistent with the clearance of surfactant from Lbs as ATII cells differentiate, and were further supported by cytochemical staining for Lbs. These results demonstrate the first spectral characterization of primary human ATII cells, and provide insight into the biochemical properties of alveolar surfactant in its unperturbed cellular environment. PMID:18820234

  1. 78 FR 1799 - Next Generation 911; Text-to-911; Next Generation 911 Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... September 2011, the Commission released a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (Notice) (76 FR 63257, October 12... as well as equipment vendors, has formed a committee to ``create an ATIS standard(s) for SMS-to-9-1-1... completion of these standards in the first quarter of 2013. Most recently, as noted above and described...

  2. Above-threshold ionization and photoelectron spectra in atomic systems driven by strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Noslen; Chacón, Alexis; Ciappina, Marcelo F.; Biegert, Jens; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2015-12-01

    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) results from strong-field laser-matter interaction and it is one of the fundamental processes that may be used to extract electron structural and dynamical information about the atomic or molecular target. Moreover, it can also be used to characterize the laser field itself. Here we develop an analytical description of ATI, which extends the theoretical strong-field approximation (SFA), for both the direct and rescattering transition amplitudes in atoms. From a nonlocal, but separable potential, the bound-free dipole and the rescattering transition matrix elements are analytically computed. In comparison with the standard approaches to the ATI process, our analytical derivation of the rescattering matrix elements allows us to study directly how the rescattering process depends on the atomic target and laser-pulse features; we can turn on and off contributions having different physical origins or corresponding to different physical mechanisms. We compare SFA results with the full numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) within the few-cycle pulse regime. Good agreement between our SFA and TDSE model is found for the ATI spectrum. Our model captures also the strong dependence of the photoelectron spectra on the carrier envelope phase of the laser field.

  3. Assessment of Aptitude Interactions for the Most Common Science Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Stephen C.

    Aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) for the two most widely used science teaching strategies (lecture method and lecture method augmented with classroom activities) was investigated. The aptitude variables examined were cognitive ability level expressed in Piagetian terms and cognitive learning style (field independence/dependence). A sample of…

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope: Observatory Status and the Path to Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael; Bowers, Chuck; Clampin, Mark; Niedner, Mal

    2016-01-01

    JWST will carry out transformative science from the very early universe and across cosmic time. JWST OTE and ISIM have been combined to form OTIS, which will commence environmental testing. The full JWST team has made tremendous progress since the last AT+I meeting in 2014.JWST on track following 2011 replan and remains on schedule to launch in October 2018.

  5. Evaluation of bursal depth as an indicator of age class of harlequin ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, D.D.; Esler, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    We contrasted the estimated age class of recaptured Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) (n = 255) based on bursal depth with expected age class based on bursal depth at first capture and time since first capture. Although neither estimated nor expected ages can be assumed to be correct, rates of discrepancies between the two for within-year recaptures indicate sampling error, while between-year recaptures test assumptions about rates of bursal involution. Within-year, between-year, and overall discrepancy rates were 10%, 24%, and 18%, respectively. Most (86%) between-year discrepancies occurred for birds expected to be after-third-year (ATY) but estimated to be third-year (TY). Of these ATY-TY discrepancies, 22 of 25 (88%) birds had bursal depths of 2 or 3 mm. Further, five of six between-year recaptures that were known to be ATY but estimated to be TY had 2 mm bursas. Reclassifying birds with 2 or 3 mm bursas as ATY resulted in reduction in between-year (24% to 10%) and overall (18% to 11%) discrepancy rates. We conclude that age determination of Harlequin Ducks based on bursal depth, particularly using our modified criteria, is a relatively consistent and reliable technique.

  6. It's the Little Things: Exploring the Importance of Commonplace Events for Early-Career Teachers' Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitching, Karl; Morgan, Mark; O'Leary, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a rationale for further researching the everyday events that keep teachers motivated or that discourage them. We put forward the idea that routine Affect Triggering Incidents (ATIs) are an important area for researchers to investigate in terms of how they impact teacher motivation and resilience. Two groups of…

  7. Access to Information and Freedom of Information Requests: Neglected Means of Data Production in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walby, Kevin; Larsen, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Access to information (ATI) and freedom of information (FOI) mechanisms are now relevant features of governments in many liberal democracies today. Citizens, organizations, and permanent residents in several countries across the globe can request unpublished information from federal, provincial, state, county, and municipal government agencies.…

  8. 77 FR 33494 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment..., Lathrop, CA 05/17/12 05/16/12 California Corporation (State/One-Stop). 81626 ATI-Wah Chang...

  9. From rational design of organometallic precursors to optimized synthesis of core/shell Ge/GeO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Matioszek, D; Ojo, W-S; Cornejo, A; Katir, N; El Ezzi, M; Le Troedec, M; Martinez, H; Gornitzka, H; Castel, A; Nayral, C; Delpech, F

    2015-04-28

    The synthesis of germanium nanoparticles has been carried out, thanks to the design of novel aminoiminate germanium(II) precursors: (ATI)GeZ (with Z = OMe, NPh2, and ATI = N,N'-diisopropyl-aminotroponiminate) and (Am)2Ge (Am = N,N'-bis(trimethylsilyl)phenyl amidinate). These complexes were fully characterized by spectroscopic techniques as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermolysis of both complexes yielded NPs which display similar features that are a Ge/GeO2 core/shell structure with a mean diameter close to 5 nm with a narrow size distribution (<15%). Whereas the high temperatures (>300 °C) classically reported in the literature for the preparation of germanium-based NPs were necessary for thermolysis of the complexes (ATI)GeZ, the use of amidinate-based precursors allows the preparation at an unprecedented low temperature (160 °C) for the thermolytic route. As suggested by a mechanistic study, the lower reactivity of (ATI)GeZ (for which the concomitant use of high temperature and acidic reagent is required) was explained in terms of lower ring strain compared to the case of (Am)2Ge. PMID:25790067

  10. Apoptosis induced by ozone and oxysterols in human alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kosmider, Beata; Loader, Joan E.; Murphy, Robert C.; Mason, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of ozone-induced lung cell injury is poorly understood. One hypothesis is that ozone induces lipid peroxidation and that these peroxidased lipids produce oxidative stress and DNA damage. Oxysterols are lipid peroxide formed by the direct effect of ozone on pulmonary surfactant and cell membranes. We studied the effects of ozone and the oxysterol 5β,6β-epoxycholesterol (β-epoxide) and its metabolite cholestan-6-oxo-3,5-diol (6-oxo-3,5-diol) on human alveolar epithelial type I-like cells (ATI-like cells) and type II cells (ATII cells). Ozone and oxysterols induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity in ATI-like cells. They also generated reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. Ozone and β-epoxide were strong inducers of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1) protein expressions. Furthermore, we found higher sensitivity of ATI-like cells than ATII cells exposed to ozone or treated with β-epoxide or 6-oxo-3,5-diol. In general the response to the cholesterol epoxides was similar to the effect of ozone. The importance of understanding the response of human ATI-like cells and ATII cells to oxysterols may be useful for further studies, because these compounds may represent useful biomarkers in other diseases. PMID:20219673

  11. Confidence in Their Own Ability: Postgraduate Early Childhood Students Examining Their Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cologon, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores reflections of a group of postgraduate early childhood students in relation to their self-reported attitudes towards inclusive education. Participant self-reported attitudes towards inclusive education were measured using an adapted version of the Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) and an adapted version of the…

  12. Pisum sativum wild-type and mutant stipules and those induced by an auxin transport inhibitor demonstrate the entire diversity of laminated stipules observed in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Vishakha; Khan, Moinuddin; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-02-01

    About a quarter of angiosperm species are stipulate. They produce stipule pairs at stem nodes in association with leaves. Stipule morphology is treated as a species-specific characteristic. Many species bear stipules as laminated organs in a variety of configurations, including laterally free large foliaceous, small, or wholly leaf-like stipules, and as fused intrapetiolar, opposite, ochreate or interpetiolar stipules. In Pisum sativum, the wild-type and stipule-reduced and cochleata mutants are known to form free large, small, and leaf-like stipules, respectively. Auxin controls initiation and development of plant organs and perturbations in its availability and distribution in the meristems, caused by auxin transport inhibitor(s) (ATIs), lead to aberrations in leaf development. The effect(s) of ATI(s) on stipule development are unexplored. To study the effect of the ATI 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) on stipule morphogenesis, P. sativum explants were grown in vitro in presence of a sublethal concentration of NPA. The NPA-treated shoots produced fused stipules of all the different types described in angiosperms. The observations indicate that (a) the gene sets for stipule differentiation may be common in angiosperms and (b) the interspecies stipule architectural differences are due to mutations, affecting gene expression or activity that got selected in the course of evolution. PMID:22456952

  13. Aptitude-Dimension-Interactions--ADI's. Psychological dimensions within instructional treatments and their potential interaction with learners differing in verbal ability, field dependence and creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langrehr, John; And Others

    The psychological dimensions hypothesized to describe common instructional treatments and materials, and the relevant psychological characteristics assumed to describe students are discussed in their relationship to studies of aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI). The Annehurst Curriculum Classification System is described as a practical model…

  14. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of HCMM day-night thermal infrared (IR) data were selected during the 1978-79 winter to examine patterns of surface temperature and thermal inertia (TI) of peninsular Florida. The GOES and NOAA-6 thermal IR, as well as National Climatic Center temperatures and rainfall, were also used. The HCMM apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images closely corresponded to the general soil map of Florida, based on soil drainage classes. Areas with low ATI overlay well-drained soils, such as deep sands and drained organic soils, whereas with high ATI overlay areas with wetlands and bodies of water. The HCMM ATI images also corresponded well with GOES-detected winter nocturnal cold-prone areas. Use of HCMM data with Carlson's energy balance model showed both high moisture availability (MA) and high thermal inertia (TI) of wetland-type surfaces and low MA and low TI of upland, well-drained soils. Since soil areas with low TI develop higher temperatures during the day, then antecedent patterns of highest maximum daytime surface temperature can also be used to predict nocturnal cold-prone areas in Florida.

  15. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  16. Measurement of tidal current fields with SRTM along track interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, H.; Breit, H.; Eineder, M.; Flament, P.; Romeiser, R.

    2003-04-01

    Although the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, http://www.dfd.dlr.de/srtm/) SAR interferometer was designed to deliver Digital Elevation Models from across track interferometry it turned out that it contained also an Along Track Interferometer (ATI). The paper describes how the ATI can be used to determine the velocity of moving ground objects. These may be cars, trains and ships but the focus of the paper is on the measurement of fast tidal ocean surface currents. The big advantage of the SAR-ATI method over buoys is that the measurement covers a large area and "images" of surface currents can be obtained.The advatage over the well established altimeter measurements is the much higher geometrical resolution and that it works close to coasts and in river outflows. Finally, the advantages over coastal radars is that a spaceborne system can deliver data from round the world. In the paper the results from two test sites, near Brest in France and in the Dutch Waddenzee, will be presented. Comparisons of the SRTM current fields with available current models of these areas show both a very good agreement. The ATI-method will be used in future SAR missions like TerraSAR-X to provide high resolution current maps from many interesting parts of the world.

  17. The Interaction of Cognitive Styles with Varying Levels of Feedback in Multimedia Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khine, Myint Swe

    1996-01-01

    Study of 105 Brunei secondary school students investigating interactive effects of feedback levels using aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) approach and cognitive styles (field dependent-independent (FDI) in multimedia presentations found differences between no feedback (NF) and knowledge of results (KOR), NF and elaborated feedback (EF), none…

  18. Role of primary human alveolar epithelial cells in host defense against Francisella tularensis infection.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Megan; Taormina, Joanna; Pyles, Richard B; Yeager, Linsey; Kirtley, Michelle; Popov, Vsevolod L; Klimpel, Gary; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia

    2007-08-01

    Francisella tularensis, an intracellular pathogen, is highly virulent when inhaled. Alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells line the majority of the alveolar surface and respond to inhaled pathogenic bacteria via cytokine secretion. We hypothesized that these cells contribute to the lung innate immune response to F. tularensis. Results demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS) contacted ATI and ATII cells by 2 h following intranasal inoculation of mice. In culture, primary human ATI or ATII cells, grown on transwell filters, were stimulated on the apical (AP) surface with virulent F. tularensis Schu 4 or LVS. Basolateral (BL) conditioned medium (CM), collected 6 and 24 h later, was added to the BL surfaces of transwell cultures of primary human pulmonary microvasculature endothelial cells (HPMEC) prior to the addition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) or dendritic cells (DCs) to the AP surface. HPMEC responded to S4- or LVS-stimulated ATII, but not ATI, CM as evidenced by PMN and DC migration. Analysis of the AP and BL ATII CM revealed that both F. tularensis strains induced various levels of a variety of cytokines via NF-kappaB activation. ATII cells pretreated with an NF-kappaB inhibitor prior to F. tularensis stimulation substantially decreased interleukin-8 secretion, which did not occur through Toll-like receptor 2, 2/6, 4, or 5 stimulation. These data indicate a crucial role for ATII cells in the innate immune response to F. tularensis. PMID:17502386

  19. Role of Primary Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells in Host Defense against Francisella tularensis Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Megan; Taormina, Joanna; Pyles, Richard B.; Yeager, Linsey; Kirtley, Michelle; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Klimpel, Gary; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia

    2007-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, an intracellular pathogen, is highly virulent when inhaled. Alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells line the majority of the alveolar surface and respond to inhaled pathogenic bacteria via cytokine secretion. We hypothesized that these cells contribute to the lung innate immune response to F. tularensis. Results demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS) contacted ATI and ATII cells by 2 h following intranasal inoculation of mice. In culture, primary human ATI or ATII cells, grown on transwell filters, were stimulated on the apical (AP) surface with virulent F. tularensis Schu 4 or LVS. Basolateral (BL) conditioned medium (CM), collected 6 and 24 h later, was added to the BL surfaces of transwell cultures of primary human pulmonary microvasculature endothelial cells (HPMEC) prior to the addition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) or dendritic cells (DCs) to the AP surface. HPMEC responded to S4- or LVS-stimulated ATII, but not ATI, CM as evidenced by PMN and DC migration. Analysis of the AP and BL ATII CM revealed that both F. tularensis strains induced various levels of a variety of cytokines via NF-κB activation. ATII cells pretreated with an NF-κB inhibitor prior to F. tularensis stimulation substantially decreased interleukin-8 secretion, which did not occur through Toll-like receptor 2, 2/6, 4, or 5 stimulation. These data indicate a crucial role for ATII cells in the innate immune response to F. tularensis. PMID:17502386

  20. Identifying environmental features for land management decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of HCMM day-night thermal infrared (IR) data were selected to examine patterns of surface temperature and thermal inertia (TI) of peninsular Florida. GOES and NOAA-6 thermal IR, as well as National Climatic Center temperatures and rainfall, were also used. The HCMM apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images closely correspond to the General Soil Map of Florida, based on soil drainage classes. Areas with low ATI overlay well-drained soils, such as deep sands and drained organic soils. Areas with high ATI overlay areas with wetlands and bodies of water. The HCMM ATI images also correspond well with GOES-detected winter nocturnal cold-prone areas. Use of HCMM data with Carlson's energy balance model shows both high moisture availability (MA) and high thermal inertia (TI) of wetland-type surfaces and low MA and low TI of upland, well-drained soils. Since soil areas with low TI develop higher temperatures during the day, then antecedent patterns of highest maximum daytime surface temperature can also be used to predict nocturnal cold-prone areas in Florida.

  1. Women Empowerment through Access to Information: The Strategic Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyelude, Adetoun A.; Bamigbola, Alice A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been steady increasing awareness of the need to empower women in order to improve their socioeconomic status to be able to cope and also contribute effectively in this period of economic crisis. ATI (access to information) provision is a vital factor in empowerment, thus, many organizations, such as library,…

  2. Effects On Achievement from Programmed Instruction of Experimentally Induced Familiarization of Content and Different Response Modes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Theodore; Kagen, Edward

    A study of programed instruction sought to establish an attribute by treatment interaction (ATI) between prior familiarity of material and response mode. Two experimental variables (familiarization and response mode) and two subject attributes (sex and I.Q.) were employed. Junior High (JH) and graduate student (GS) were assigned to familiarization…

  3. Motivational Factors and Predictors for Attending a Continuing Education Program for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachioni, Meire; Nascimento Ordonez, Tiago; Lima da Silva, Thais Bento; Tavares Batistoni, Samila Sathler; Sanches Yassuda, Mônica; Caldeira Melo, Ruth; Rodrigues da Costa Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Lopes, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The objectives were to describe the stated motives of participants who enrolled in a program at the Open University for the Elderly (UnATI, in Portuguese), identify correlations between the stated motives and sociodemographic data, and find a set of predictors related to the listed motives. A total of 306 middle-aged and elderly adults aged 50 or…

  4. Educating Diverse Populations. Selected Papers. ERIC/CUE Urban Diversity Series, Number 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY.

    The papers in this document illustrate the need for educators to recognize the diverse populations they serve. Edmund W. Gordon and Stephanie Shipman discuss the confusion surrounding Aptitude/Treatment/Interaction (ATI) research and the educational equity controversy. They argue for educational programs which more appropriately address the…

  5. The Approaches to Teaching Inventory: A Critique of Its Development and Applicability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jan H. F.; Eley, Malcolm G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI) is structured as two main scales, reflecting a teacher-centred information-transmission approach versus a student-centred conceptual-change approach, each subdivided into intention and strategy subscales. Its use in higher education investigations is increasing and, by default, it is assuming…

  6. An examination of along-track interferometry for detecting ground moving targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis W.; Chapin, Elaine; Muellerschoen, Ron; Hensley, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Along-track interferometry (ATI) is an interferometric synthetic aperture radar technique primarily used to measure Earth-surface velocities. We present results from an airborne experiment demonstrating phenomenology specific to the context of observing discrete ground targets moving admidst a stationary clutter background.

  7. Enolase 1 (ENO1) and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3) regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mutze, Kathrin; Vierkotten, Sarah; Milosevic, Jadranka; Eickelberg, Oliver; Königshoff, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The alveolar epithelium represents a major site of tissue destruction during lung injury. It consists of alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells. ATII cells are capable of self-renewal and exert progenitor function for ATI cells upon alveolar epithelial injury. Cell differentiation pathways enabling this plasticity and allowing for proper repair, however, are poorly understood. Here, we applied proteomics, expression analysis and functional studies in primary murine ATII cells to identify proteins and molecular mechanisms involved in alveolar epithelial plasticity. Mass spectrometry of cultured ATII cells revealed a reduction of carbonyl reductase 2 (CBR2) and an increase in enolase 1 (ENO1) and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3) protein expression during ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation. This was accompanied by increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as analyzed by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Notably, ENO1 and PDIA3, along with T1α (podoplanin; an ATI cell marker), exhibited decreased protein expression upon pharmacological and molecular Wnt/β-catenin inhibition in cultured ATII cells, whereas CBR2 levels were stabilized. Moreover, we analyzed primary ATII cells from mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury, a model exhibiting activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vivo. We observed reduced CBR2 significantly correlating with surfactant protein C (SFTPC), whereas ENO1 and PDIA3 along with T1α were increased in injured ATII cells. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENO1, as well as PDIA3, in primary ATII cells led to reduced T1α expression, indicating diminished cell trans-differentiation. Our data thus identified proteins involved in ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation and suggest a Wnt/β-catenin-driven functional role of ENO1 and PDIA3 in alveolar epithelial cell plasticity in lung injury and repair. PMID:26035385

  8. Prior incarceration and barriers to receipt of services among entrants to alternative to incarceration programs: a gender-based disparity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Hess, Leona; Lee, Hae-Nim; Rowell, Tawandra L

    2012-04-01

    The high levels of health and psychosocial needs among correctional populations strongly shape the well-being of the urban communities from which a large number of criminal justice-involved individuals come or to which they return. The benefits of providing services to correction-involved individuals and linking them to providers such as with alternative to incarceration (ATI) programs may be limited if they encounter difficulties accessing such services. This study identified the types of barriers that have prevented entrants into ATI programs from receiving health and psychosocial services. We then tested the association between number of prior incarcerations and number of barriers by gender. From a random sample of adults (N = 322; 83 women and 239 men) entering ATI programs in New York City, data were collected via structured interviews that elicited self-reported sociodemographics, substance use, prior incarcerations, and barriers that had actually prevented a participant from visiting or returning to a service provider. Participants reported an average of 3.0 barriers that have prevented them from receiving health and psychosocial services. The most prevalent barriers predominantly concerned service providers' inability to accommodate constraints on participants' time availability or flexibility, transportation, and money. Compared to women, men had a significantly different association that was in the adverse direction--i.e., more prior incarcerations was associated with more barriers--between prior incarcerations and encountering service barriers. Findings indicate that ATI program entrants experience many barriers that have prevented them from receiving health and/or psychosocial services. Furthermore, men with more extensive incarceration histories particularly are disadvantaged. ATI programs can improve the public health of urban communities if such programs are prepared and resourced to facilitate the receipt of services among program participants

  9. A Thermal Infrared View of Altered Noachian Martian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J.; Noe, E.; Mustard, J.; Bibring, J.

    2007-12-01

    Exposures of altered, ancient Martian crust seemingly represent a distant epoch in Mars" history where aqueous surface processes were active and the planet may have been habitable. In this study, thermal infrared remote sensing data are analyzed in order to better understand these deposits and the geological conditions under which they formed. Three questions are addressed: 1) On surfaces where VNIR datasets detect clay minerals, do thermal IR datasets also detect clays? 2) Aside from clay minerals, what other minerals are detected in the clay-bearing deposits based on thermal IR spectroscopy? 3) What are the thermophysical properties of clay mineral-bearing deposits? Thermal IR data used include TES and THEMIS datasets. To date, one deposit has been detected in the Mawrth Vallis region where thermal IR spectra have features attributable to trioctahedral clay minerals - possibly serpentine. Many other deposits (elsewhere in Mawrth Vallis and the Nili Fossae region) have subtle features at long wavelengths (> 20 microns) suggestive of Mg- and/or Fe-bearing clay mineralogy. Most of the deposits that show strong clay mineral signatures in the VNIR have basaltic character in the thermal IR. Thermal inertia values for these altered deposits are consistent with a combination of bedrock and sand at subpixel levels - consistent with the interpretation of the clay minerals as bulk component of in situ bedrock. Understanding the bulk composition of ancient, clay-bearing bedrock is critical to unraveling the geologic formation mechanisms of these deposits and their significance related to ancient Martian climate and habitability. In the Mawrth Vallis region, the basaltic signatures from clay-bearing deposits are relatively weak. In the Nili Fossae region, the basaltic signatures are stronger with surface mineralogy dominated by plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, and in some cases, olivine. At this point, it is difficult to strongly constrain the abundance of clay minerals in

  10. High outflow channels on Mars indicate Hesperian recharge at low latitudes and the presence of Canyon Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Neil M.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Casteel, Kay

    2007-08-01

    A number of martian outflow channels were carved by discharges from large dilational fault zones. These channels were sourced by groundwater, not surface water, and when observed on high-standing plateaus they provide indicators of elevated paleo-groundwater levels. We identify three outflow channels of Hesperian age that issued from a 750-km-long fault zone extending from Candor Chasma to Ganges Chasma. Two of these channels, Allegheny Vallis and Walla Walla Vallis, have sources >2500 m above the topographic datum, too high to be explained by discharge from a global aquifer that was recharged solely in the south polar region. The indicated groundwater levels likely required regional sources of recharge at low latitudes. The floodwaters that erupted from Ophir Cavus to form Allegheny Vallis encountered two ridges that restricted the flow, forming temporary lakes. The flow probably breached or overtopped these obstructions quickly, catastrophically draining the lakes and carving several scablands. After the last obstacle had been breached, a single main channel formed that captured all subsequent flow. We performed hydrologic analyses of this intermediate phase of the flooding, prior to incision of the channel to its present depth. Using floodwater depths of 30-60 m, we calculated flow velocities of 6-15 m s -1 and discharges in the range of 0.7-3×10ms. Locally higher flow velocities and discharges likely occurred when the transient lakes were drained. Variable erosion at the channel and scabland crossing of MOLA pass 10644 suggests that the upper 25-30 m may consist of poorly consolidated surface materials underlain by more cohesive bedrock. We infer that an ice-covered lake with a surface elevation >2500 m probably existed in eastern Candor Chasma because this canyon is intersected by the Ophir Catenae fault system from which Allegheny Vallis and Walla Walla Vallis originated. We introduce a new hydrology concept for Mars in which the groundwater system was

  11. Selection of the Mars Pathfinder landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Cook, R. A.; Moore, H. J.; Parker, T. J.

    1997-02-01

    The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft will land on a depositional fan near the mouth of the catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis (19.5°N, 32.8°W). This site offers the prospect of analyzing a variety of rock types from the ancient cratered highlands, intermediate-age ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits. Analyses of these rocks by Pathfinder instruments will enable first-order scientific questions to be addressed, such as differentiation of the crust, the development of weathering products, and the nature of the early environment, as well as their subsequent evolution on Mars. Constraints imposed by (1) spacecraft and rover designs (which are robust), (2) entry, descent, and landing, (3) scientific potential at various sites, and (4) safety were important considerations in site selection. Engineering constraints require a 70 km by 200 km smooth, flat (low slopes) area located between 10° and 20°N that is below 0 km elevation, with average radar reflectivity, little dust, and moderate rock abundance. Three regions on Mars are between 10° and 20°N and below 0 km elevation: Chryse, Amazonis, and Isidis-Elysium. Science considerations favor sites at the mouths of outflow channels (grab bag sites offer an assay of rock types on Mars), highland sites (early crustal differentiation and climate), and sites covered with dark (unoxidized) material. Sites are considered safe if they are clearly below 0 km elevation, appear acceptably free of hazards in high-resolution (<50m/pixel) Viking orbiter images and have acceptable reflectivity and roughness at radar wavelengths, thermal inertia, rock abundance, red to violet ratio, and albedo. Recent 3.5-cm wavelength radar observations were used to verify elevation, reflectivity, and roughness within the landing ellipses. Three sites meet all of these criteria: Ares Vallis, Tritonis Lacus, and Isidis. Although Isidis appears to be safer than Tritonis and Ares, the greater scientific potential at Ares Vallis resulted in

  12. Channel geometry and discharge estimates for Dao and Niger Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand [1]. Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As [2] pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to [2] who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent [3]. Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer [4]. Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario [5]. Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow [5]. The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures

  13. Hydrographs of a Martian flood from the breach of Galilaei Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Neil M.

    2015-05-01

    Spectacular floods were spawned on Mars when large craters filled to overtopping and catastrophically breached. The wealth of data now available permits quantitative analysis of these ancient floods. Galilaei Crater is examined here, along with the likely sources of its water and the processes that formed Tana Vallis, its 1-km-deep outflow channel. Laser altimetry data, stereo-photogrammetry, and scaled images are used to reconstruct the lake volume and the geometry of the preserved breach. It is theorized that surface flows from Hydaspis Chaos eroded the rim and floor of Galilaei Crater and partly filled the basin, leading to degradation of the underlying cryosphere. Groundwater released from a confined aquifer then slowly filled Galilaei Crater until the enclosed lake overtopped its rim. The resulting flood breached the crater wall, rapidly drained the lake, and eroded Tana Vallis. The drainable lake volume was ≥ 1.110 × 1013 m3, based on laser altimetry data from Mars Global Surveyor. This volume was 90% of the volume in Lake Superior in the Great Lakes. Using the reconstructed breach and channel geometry, methods used to analyze terrestrial dam breaches were applied to produce hydrographs of lake stage and discharge. Peak flood discharge in Tana Vallis likely ranged from 1.5 to 4.7 × 107 m3 s- 1. Mean channel incision rates are estimated at 0.333, 0.133, and 0.0667 m min- 1 for scenarios in which Tana Vallis formed in 2, 5, and 10 days. For the 5-day breach erosion scenario, stream power per unit streambed area at the time of peak discharge was estimated at > 3.5 × 105 W m- 2. The volume of material eroded to form the vallis was only ~ 3% of the lake volume that drained in 5 days. Open-channel calculations were performed to compare with the dam breach hydrographs for Tana Vallis. The channel as seen today never flowed bank full or even at three-fourths its maximum depth because the implied flows would have exceeded peak discharges from the crater breach. I

  14. Change in the quantity and acute toxicity of pesticides sold in South African crop sectors, 1994 –1999

    PubMed Central

    Africa, Algernon; London, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND South African pesticide market sales data, for two years, 1994 and 1999, were audited to identify change in total and per hectare mass sold and acute toxicity indicator (ATI) (kg sold/rat oral LD50) in the grape, pome, stone fruit, potato and wheat sectors. RESULTS Total pesticide sales (62%), amount per hectare (42%) and number of active ingredients (23%) increased in 1999 compared to 1994 with the grape fruit sector, the most significant contributor over the two years. Total (14%) and per hectare ATI (19%) decreased in 1999, but not substantially with the potato sector the most significant contributor. CONCLUSIONS Toxic pesticides were still used in 1999 which highlights a need to develop alternative agricultural and non-chemical pest control methods that reduce usage of pesticides. PMID:19185919

  15. Graphene from Amorphous Titanium Carbide by Chlorination under 200°C and Atmospheric Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tao; Kou, Zongkui; Wu, Hui; Mu, Shichun

    2014-06-01

    The synthesis of graphene via decomposition of SiC has opened a promising route for large-scale production of graphene. However, extremely high requirements for almost perfectly ordered crystal SiC and harsh process conditions such as high temperatures (>1200°C) and ultra-high vacuum are two significant challenges hindering its wide use to synthesize graphene by decomposition of SiC. Here, we show that the readily available precursor of carbides, amorphous TiC (a-Ti1-xCx), can be transformed into graphene nanosheets (GNS) with tunable layers by chlorination method at very low temperatures (200°C) and ambient pressures. Moreover, freestanding GNS can be achieved by stripping off GNS from the surface of resulting particles. Therefore, our strategy, the direct transformation of a-Ti1-xCx into graphene, is simple and expected to be easily scaled up.

  16. Graphene from Amorphous Titanium Carbide by Chlorination under 200°C and Atmospheric Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tao; Kou, Zongkui; Wu, Hui; Mu, Shichun

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of graphene via decomposition of SiC has opened a promising route for large-scale production of graphene. However, extremely high requirements for almost perfectly ordered crystal SiC and harsh process conditions such as high temperatures (>1200°C) and ultra-high vacuum are two significant challenges hindering its wide use to synthesize graphene by decomposition of SiC. Here, we show that the readily available precursor of carbides, amorphous TiC (a-Ti1-xCx), can be transformed into graphene nanosheets (GNS) with tunable layers by chlorination method at very low temperatures (200°C) and ambient pressures. Moreover, freestanding GNS can be achieved by stripping off GNS from the surface of resulting particles. Therefore, our strategy, the direct transformation of a-Ti1-xCx into graphene, is simple and expected to be easily scaled up. PMID:24974942

  17. Transferring patients with Ebola by land and air: the British military experience.

    PubMed

    Ewington, Ian; Nicol, E; Adam, M; Cox, A T; Green, A D

    2016-06-01

    The Ebola epidemic of 2014/2015 led to a multinational response to control the disease outbreak. Assurance for British aid workers included provision of a robust treatment pathway including repatriation back to the UK. This pathway involved the use of both land and air assets to ensure that patients were transferred quickly, and safely, to a high-level isolation unit in the UK. Following a road move in Sierra Leone, an air transportable isolator (ATI) was used to transport patients for the flight and onward transfer to the Royal Free Hospital. There are several unique factors related to managing a patient with Ebola virus disease during prolonged evacuation, including the provision of care inside an ATI. These points are considered here along with an outline of the evacuation pathway. PMID:27177575

  18. Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d {sup 1}F{sup o} autoionizing state in magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Reber, A.; Baynard, T.; Berry, R.S.; Martin, F.; Bachau, H.

    2005-05-15

    Two-photon above-threshold ionization (ATI) relative cross sections from the 3 {sup 1}P state of Mg have been measured using two-color ionization in the focus of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and have been calculated using the Green's-function method in the Feshbach formalism and an L{sup 2}-integrable close-coupling approach, with a basis of L{sup 2}-integrable B-spline functions. We report these cross sections in the region of 3d4p {sup 1}F{sup o} autoionizing state, with photon energies of 3.3-3.6 eV. This is one of the few direct comparisons between ab initio theory and experiments in ATI in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. A good agreement between theory and experiment is found in the relative total cross sections.

  19. High-Resolution Radar Imagery of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    We present high-resolution radar images of Mars obtained during the 2005 and 2007 oppositions. The images were constructed from long-code delay-Doppler observations made with the Arecibo S-band (13-cm) radar. The average image resolution of 3 km represented a better than order-of-magnitude improvement over pre-upgrade Arecibo imagery of the planet. Images of depolarized reflectivity (an indicator primarily of wavelength-scale surface roughness) show the same bright volcanic flow features seen in earlier imagery, but with much finer detail. A new image of the Elysium region shows fine detail in the radar-bright channels of Athabasca Vallis, Marte Vallis, and Grjota Vallis. The new images of Tharsis and Olympus Mons also show a complex array of radar-bright and radar-dark features. Southern Amazonis exhibits some of the most complex and puzzling radar-bright structure on the planet. Another curiosity is the Chryse/Xanthe/Channels region, where we find some radar-bright features in or adjacent to fluvial chaos structures. Chryse/Xanthe is also the only region of Mars showing radar-bright craters (which are rare on Mars but common on the Moon and Mercury). We also obtained the first delay-Doppler image showing the enhanced backscatter from the residual south polar ice cap. In addition to the depolarized imagery, we were able to make the first delay-Doppler images of the circular polarization ratio (an important diagnostic for surface roughness texture). We find that vast areas of the radar-bright volcanic regions have polarization ratios close to unity. Such high ratios are rare for terrestrial lava flows and only seen for extremely blocky surfaces giving high levels of multiple scattering.

  20. Sequence and relative timing of large lakes in Gale crater (Mars) after the formation of Mount Sharp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palucis, Marisa C.; Dietrich, William E.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Parker, Tim; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Mangold, Nicolas; Lewis, Kevin; Newsom, Horton

    2016-03-01

    The quantification of lake levels in Gale crater is important to define the hydrologic and climatic history experienced by the sedimentary deposits found by Curiosity. We propose that there were at least three major lake stands within Gale, each persisted >1000 years, and all occurred after Mount Sharp reached close to its current topographic form. Deltaic deposits off the southern rim of Gale, derived from incision of Farah Vallis, and corresponding deposits off the southern flank of Mount Sharp define the highest lake level, which had a mean depth of 700 m. Canyons similar in form to Farah Vallis enter into craters and/or the crustal dichotomy near Gale from the south, suggesting that the highest lake was supplied by a large-scale flow system. The next lake level, established after a period of drying and rewetting, is defined by four deltaic features, three sourced from Mount Sharp and one from the western rim of Gale, as well as the termination of gullies around the northern rim of Gale. This second lake level had a mean depth of 300 m. The presence of the gullies suggests more locally sourced water. Lake levels then rose another 100 m, as evidenced by two deltaic deposits derived from the rim of Gale and the termination of a second set of gullies. Post-lake, reduced hydrologic activity continued, evidenced by a time of fan building (including Peace Vallis). The sequence of events suggests an episodic shift through time from relatively wet regional conditions to a drier environment with local runoff.

  1. New norms new policies: Did the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence scheme encourage new thinking about promoting well-being and Health in All Policies?

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Lawless, Angela; MacDougall, Colin; Delany, Toni; McDermott, Dennis; Harris, Elizabeth; Williams, Carmel

    2015-12-01

    Health systems have long been criticised for focussing on curing rather than preventing disease. This paper examines to what extent the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence (ATiR) scheme contributed to the change in norms whereby promoting well-being and a strategy to achieve this - Health in All Policies (HiAP)--was adopted by the South Australian (SA) State Government from 2007. The data presented in this paper are drawn from a five year (2012-2016) detailed mixed methods case study of the SA HiAP initiative which involved document analysis, interviews and workshops with public servants and political actors. We adapt the framework used by Finnemore and Sikkink (1998) which explains how norm changes can lead to political changes in international affairs. We also use Kingdon's concept of policy entrepreneurs to determine whether these ideas moved to an implementable initiative with the help of both a specific ATiR program on HiAP and the broader TiR scheme which promoted a series of innovations relevant to health. The process involved the ATiR reinforcing the work of local norm entrepreneurs with that of powerful external policy entrepreneurs, adapting the discourse about the value of prevention and promoting well-being so that it fitted with the dominant economic one. The powerful organisational platform of the ATiR, which was under the Department of the Premier and Cabinet and linked to the South Australian Strategic Plan (SASP) was used to advance these ideas. The case study offers important lessons for other jurisdictions on how to shift policy to encourage intersectoral approaches to health. PMID:26520058

  2. Laboratory evaluation of dynamic traffic assignment systems: Requirements, framework, and system design

    SciTech Connect

    Miaou, S.-P.; Pillai, R.S.; Summers, M.S.; Rathi, A.K.; Lieu, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    The success of Advanced Traveler Information 5ystems (ATIS) and Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) depends on the availability and dissemination of timely and accurate estimates of current and emerging traffic network conditions. Real-time Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) systems are being developed to provide the required timely information. The DTA systems will provide faithful and coherent real-time, pre-trip, and en-route guidance/information which includes routing, mode, and departure time suggestions for use by travelers, ATIS, and ATMS. To ensure the credibility and deployment potential of such DTA systems, an evaluation system supporting all phases of DTA system development has been designed and presented in this paper. This evaluation system is called the DTA System Laboratory (DSL). A major component of the DSL is a ground- truth simulator, the DTA Evaluation System (DES). The DES is envisioned to be a virtual representation of a transportation system in which ATMS and ATIS technologies are deployed. It simulates the driving and decision-making behavior of travelers in response to ATIS and ATMS guidance, information, and control. This paper presents the major evaluation requirements for a DTA Systems, a modular modeling framework for the DES, and a distributed DES design. The modeling framework for the DES is modular, meets the requirements, can be assembled using both legacy and independently developed modules, and can be implemented as a either a single process or a distributed system. The distributed design is extendible, provides for the optimization of distributed performance, and object-oriented design within each distributed component. A status report on the development of the DES and other research applications is also provided.

  3. Effect of oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Moreno, S R F; Silva, A L C; Diré, G; Honeycut, H; Carvalho, J J; Nascimento, A L; Pereira, M; Rocha, E K; Oliveira-Timóteo, M; Arnobio, A; Olej, B; Bernardo-Filho, M; Caldas, L Q A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) on the biodistribution of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. The animals (male Wistar rats, 2 months old, 180-220 g), were treated (1 mL) with an U. tomentosa extract (32 mg/mL, N = 5) or 0.9% NaCl solution (control, N = 5) for 7 days. After this period, Na99mTcO4 (3.7 MBq, 0.3 mL) was injected through the ocular plexus and after 10 min the rats were killed, the organs isolated and counted in a well-gamma counter. A significant (P < 0.05) alteration in Na99mTcO4 uptake i) from 0.57 +/- 0.008 to 0.39 +/- 0.06 %ATI/organ (P < 0.05) and from 0.57 +/- 0.17 to 0.39 +/- 0.14 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) was observed in the heart, ii) from 0.07 +/- 0.02 to 0.19 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g in the pancreas, and iii) from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 0.18 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) in muscle after treatment with this extract. Although these results were obtained with animals, caution is advisable in the interpretation of the nuclear medicine examination when the patient is using this herb. This finding is probably an example of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, a fact that could lead to misdiagnosis of the examination in clinical practice with unexpected consequences for the patient. PMID:17224999

  4. Robotic observatories. A handbook of remote-access personal-computer astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, R. M.; Hayes, D. S.; Epand, D. H.; Boyd, L. J.; Keller, D. F.

    Contents: 1. Astronomy while you sleep. 2. Remote-access automatic telescopes. 3. The next step. 4. Automatic telescopes in space. 5. An automatic observatory system. 6. Automatic telescopes. 7. Telescope control. 8. Instruments for automatic telescopes. 9. CCD cameras. 10. Automatic observatories. 11. Manual telescope control. 12. Automatic telescope instruction set (ATIS). 13. Automatic telescope control. 14. Differential photometry file generator. 15. Differential photometry data reduction. 16. Quality-control photometry.

  5. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Problems in briefing of relief by air traffic controllers are discussed, including problems that arise when duty positions are changed by controllers. Altimeter reading and setting errors as factors in aviation safety are discussed, including problems associated with altitude-including instruments. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is included, covering the topics of ATIS broadcasts an clearance readback problems. A selection of Alert Bulletins, with their responses, is included.

  6. Expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis seedlings with altered auxin status is regulated at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Sponsel, Valerie M

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) affect many biological processes including germination, stem growth, transition to flowering, and fruit development. The location, timing, and level of bioactive GA are finely tuned to ensure that optimal growth and development occur. The balance between GA biosynthesis and deactivation is controlled by external factors such as light and by internal factors that include auxin. The role of auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs) and auxins on GA homeostasis in intact light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings was investigated. Two ATIs, 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid (NPA) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) caused elevated expression of the GA biosynthetic enzyme AtGA20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in shoot but not in root tissues, and only at certain developmental stages. It was investigated whether enhanced AtGA20ox1 gene expression was a consequence of altered flow through the GA biosynthetic pathway, or was due to impaired GA signalling that can lead to enhanced AtGA20ox1 expression and accumulation of a DELLA protein, Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA). Both ATIs promoted accumulation of GFP-fused RGA in shoots and roots, and this increase was counteracted by the application of GA(4). These results suggest that in ATI-treated seedlings the impediment to DELLA protein degradation may be a deficiency of bioactive GA at sites of GA response. It is proposed that the four different levels of AtGA20ox1 regulation observed here are imposed in a strict hierarchy: spatial (organ-, tissue-, cell-specific) > developmental > metabolic > auxin regulation. Thus results show that, in intact auxin- and auxin transport inhibitor-treated light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, three other levels of regulation supersede the effects of auxin on AtGA20ox1. PMID:18440929

  7. Expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis seedlings with altered auxin status is regulated at multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Sponsel, Valerie M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) affect many biological processes including germination, stem growth, transition to flowering, and fruit development. The location, timing, and level of bioactive GA are finely tuned to ensure that optimal growth and development occur. The balance between GA biosynthesis and deactivation is controlled by external factors such as light and by internal factors that include auxin. The role of auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs) and auxins on GA homeostasis in intact light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings was investigated. Two ATIs, 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid (NPA) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) caused elevated expression of the GA biosynthetic enzyme AtGA20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in shoot but not in root tissues, and only at certain developmental stages. It was investigated whether enhanced AtGA20ox1 gene expression was a consequence of altered flow through the GA biosynthetic pathway, or was due to impaired GA signalling that can lead to enhanced AtGA20ox1 expression and accumulation of a DELLA protein, Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA). Both ATIs promoted accumulation of GFP-fused RGA in shoots and roots, and this increase was counteracted by the application of GA4. These results suggest that in ATI-treated seedlings the impediment to DELLA protein degradation may be a deficiency of bioactive GA at sites of GA response. It is proposed that the four different levels of AtGA20ox1 regulation observed here are imposed in a strict hierarchy: spatial (organ-, tissue-, cell-specific) > developmental > metabolic > auxin regulation. Thus results show that, in intact auxin- and auxin transport inhibitor-treated light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, three other levels of regulation supersede the effects of auxin on AtGA20ox1. PMID:18440929

  8. Comparison of two techniques for selection of master gutta-percha cone using micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, João Manoel; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; De-Bem, Samuel Henrique Câmara; Alfredo, Edson; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2013-01-01

    This study used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to evaluate the fit of the master gutta-percha cone at time of cone fit, gutta-percha volume in the filling material, and the filling material volume in relation to the canal at the apical limit of the working length. Root canals of 20 maxillary central incisors were prepared with rotary instruments and distributed into two groups (n=10). The gutta-percha cone tip was either plasticized (apical thermal impression technique - ATI) or not (conventional technique - CT), and its apical fit was checked. The apical 1 mm of working length was examined with a micro-CT, canals were filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and new micro-CT scans were obtained. In CT, gutta-percha filled 35.83 ± 15.05% of the canal at cone selection and 38.72 ± 11.64% after filling. In ATI, these values were 23.14 ± 7.74% and 26.98 ± 20.40%, respectively. Gutta-percha volume in the filling material, and filling material volume in relation to the canal were, respectively, 61.28 ± 11.64% and 87.76 ± 9.98% for CT, and 73.00 ± 20.41% and 89.96 ± 9.08% for ATI. No significant difference was found between cone selection and after canal filling, for either CT (p=0.593) or ATI (p=0.4975). The techniques did not differ significantly with respect to gutta-percha volume in the filling material (p=0.132) and filling material volume in relation to the canal (p=0.612). An ideal fit of the master gutta-percha cone at working length was not achieved regardless of the cone selection technique, and the material-filled area was similar for both techniques. PMID:24173258

  9. Assessing Resistance to Change During Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Denise

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have brought profound changes to the way the ATI community interacts. The purpose of the study was to identify the areas of resistance to change in the ATI community and the corresponding factors in change management requirements that minimize product development delays and lead to a successful and timely shift from legacy to open web-based systems in upgrading ATI operations. The research questions centered on product development team processes as well as the members' perceived need for acceptance of change. A qualitative case study approach rooted in complexity theory was employed using a single case of an intercultural product development team dispersed globally. Qualitative data gathered from questionnaires were organized using Nvivo software, which coded the words and themes. Once coded, themes emerged identifying the areas of resistance within the product development team. Results of follow-up interviews with team members suggests that intercultural relationship building prior to and during project execution; focus on common team goals; and, development of relationships to enhance interpersonal respect, understanding and overall communication help overcome resistance to change. Positive social change in the form of intercultural group effectiveness evidenced in increased team functioning during major project transitions is likely to result when global managers devote time to cultural understanding.

  10. Cellular Selenoprotein mRNA Tethering via Antisense Interactions with Ebola and HIV-1 mRNAs May Impact Host Selenium Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ethan Will; Ruzicka, Jan A; Premadasa, Lakmini; Zhao, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may be exploited by certain RNA viruses in order to tether the mRNAs of host selenoproteins, potentially exploiting the proximity of a captured host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element to enable the expression of virally-encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine. Computational analysis predicts thermodynamically stable ATIs between several widely expressed mammalian selenoprotein mRNAs (e.g., isoforms of thioredoxin reductase) and specific Ebola virus mRNAs, and HIV-1 mRNA, which we demonstrate via DNA gel shift assays. The probable functional significance of these ATIs is further supported by the observation that, in both viruses, they are located in close proximity to highly conserved in-frame UGA stop codons at the 3' end of open reading frames that encode essential viral proteins (the HIV-1 nef protein and the Ebola nucleoprotein). Significantly, in HIV/AIDS patients, an inverse correlation between serum selenium and mortality has been repeatedly documented, and clinical benefits of selenium in the context of multi-micronutrient supplementation have been demonstrated in several well-controlled clinical trials. Hence, in the light of our findings, the possibility of a similar role for selenium in Ebola pathogenesis and treatment merits serious investigation. PMID:26369818

  11. Cellular Selenoprotein mRNA Tethering via Antisense Interactions with Ebola and HIV-1 mRNAs May Impact Host Selenium Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ethan Will; Ruzicka, Jan A.; Premadasa, Lakmini; Zhao, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may be exploited by certain RNA viruses in order to tether the mRNAs of host selenoproteins, potentially exploiting the proximity of a captured host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element to enable the expression of virally-encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine. Computational analysis predicts thermodynamically stable ATIs between several widely expressed mammalian selenoprotein mRNAs (e.g., isoforms of thioredoxin reductase) and specific Ebola virus mRNAs, and HIV-1 mRNA, which we demonstrate via DNA gel shift assays. The probable functional significance of these ATIs is further supported by the observation that, in both viruses, they are located in close proximity to highly conserved in-frame UGA stop codons at the 3′ end of open reading frames that encode essential viral proteins (the HIV-1 nef protein and the Ebola nucleoprotein). Significantly, in HIV/AIDS patients, an inverse correlation between serum selenium and mortality has been repeatedly documented, and clinical benefits of selenium in the context of multi-micronutrient supplementation have been demonstrated in several well-controlled clinical trials. Hence, in the light of our findings, the possibility of a similar role for selenium in Ebola pathogenesis and treatment merits serious investigation. PMID:26369818

  12. The effects of dune slopes and material heterogeneity on the thermal behavior of dune fields in Mars' Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, P. M.; Putzig, N. E.; Van Kooten, S.; Fenton, L. K.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the effects of slopes on the thermal properties of three dune fields in Mars' southern hemisphere. Although slope has important thermal effects, it is not the main driver of observed apparent thermal inertia (ATI) for these dunes. Comparing the ATI seasonal behavior as derived from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data with that modeled for compositional heterogeneities, we found that TES results correlate best with models of duricrust overlying and/or horizontally mixing with fines. We measured slopes and aspects in digital terrain models created from High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of dunes within Proctor, Kaiser, and Wirtz craters. Using the MARSTHERM web toolset, we incorporated the slopes and aspects together with TES albedo, TES thermal inertia, surface pressure, and TES dust opacity, into models of seasonal ATI. Models that incorporate sub-pixel slopes show seasonal day and night ATI values that differ from the TES results by 0-300 J m-2 K-1 s-½. In addition, the models' day-night differences are opposite in sign from those of the TES results, indicating that factors other than slope are involved. We therefore compared the TES data to model results for a broad range of horizontally mixed and two-layered surfaces to seek other possible controls on the observed data, finding that a surface layer of higher thermal inertia is a likely contributor. However, it is clear from this study that the overall composition and morphology of the dune fields are more complex than currently available models allow. Future work will combine slopes with other model parameters such as multi-layered surfaces and lateral changes in layer thickness. Coupling these improvements with broader seasonal coverage from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) at more thermally favorable times of day would allow more accurate characterization of dune thermal behavior.

  13. Constructive inter-track interference (CITI) codes for perpendicular magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohammed Zaki; Davey, Paul J.; Kurihara, Yoshitake

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents new modulation codes to reduce the effect of adjacent track interference (ATI) also known as inter-track interference (ITI). New modulation codes, that is constructive inter-track interference (CITI) codes and partial response (PR) targets, are investigated using computer simulation in perpendicular magnetic channel. CITI codes have been found to increase the resilience of the perpendicular magnetic channel in the presence of ITI and jitter with no increased decoding complexity.

  14. Geology of -30247, -35247, and -40247 Quadrangles, Southern Hesperia Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles is being used to characterize Reull Vallis (RV) and examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives include 1) characterizing RV in its "fluvial zone," and evaluating its history of formation, 2) analyzing channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to RV, and 3) examining young, possibly sedimentary plains along RV.

  15. Diversity in Mawrth Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view shows diverse materials and morphologies in the region south of Mawrth Vallis on Mars. The color is composed of infrared, red, and blue-green color images, and has been enhanced to accentuate the color differences. The bright material may be rich in clays and date back to a time when Mars had a wetter environment. This is a sub-image of a larger view imaged by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on Oct. 1, 2006. The resolution is 25 centimeters (10 inches) per pixel, and the scene is 352 meters (385 yards) wide.

  16. Ripple Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    16 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows windblown materials that have collected and been shaped into large ripples in a valley in the Auqakuh Vallis system in northeastern Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Location near: 29.1oN, 299.6oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  17. Origin of Martian outflow channels - The eolian hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A.; Blasius, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    It has been recognized for many years that wind injects dust into the atmosphere on Mars and moves around thin layers of surface material. An investigation is conducted regarding the rates of eolian transport on Mars in the context of eolian channel formation. A model is developed for the formation of an erosional channel by sandblasting with materials transported by wind out of chaotic terrains. This model is applied to the interpretation of topographic measurements made in the chaotic terrain source area and channel of Aromatum Vallis, a small well-preserved channel system southwest of the Chryse basin, and constraints are developed on the eolian mechanism.

  18. The new Martian nomenclature of the international Astronomical Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de, Vaucouleur G.; Blunck, J.; Davies, M.; Dollfus, A.; Koval, I.K.; Kuiper, G.P.; Masursky, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Moroz, V.I.; Sagan, C.; Smith, B.

    1975-01-01

    A new nomenclature for Martian regions and topographic features uncovered by Mariner 9, as officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is described. About 180 craters, generally of diameters >100 km, have been named, as well as 13 classes of topographic features designated catena, chasma, dorsum, fossa, labyrinthus, mensa, mons, patera, planitia, planum, tholus, vallis, and vastitas. In addition seven craters and the Kepler Dorsum are named on Phobos, and two craters on Deimos. Coordinates and maps of each named features are displayed. ?? 1975.

  19. Braided alluvial fan in the Terra Sirenum region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, S.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Platz, T.; Fawdon, P.; Jaumann, R.

    2015-10-01

    Here we report the presence of an Amazonian-aged outflow channel located on the rim of the Ariadnes Colles basin (37°S/178°E) that has an alluvial fan on its downstream part. The study area is located in the Noachian highlands of Terra Sirenum, the site of a large hypothesized paleolake [3]. This so-called Eridania lake existed during the Late Noachian -Early Hesperian and drained into Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys on Mars. The Ariadnes Colles basin was part of the Eridania paleolake and hosted later a closed lake.

  20. Why has Mars uniquely preserved the record of its early (possibly habitable) times?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Forget, Francois

    2013-04-01

    Mars has preserved surface structures witnessing most steps of its evolution all along its History. Specifically, a few sites, such as Marwth Vallis, have kept the record of the sequence of events that occurred prior to the Late Heavy Bombardment, at a time Mars might have harboured habitable conditions. This study proposes a plausible reason of this unique feature of Mars, possibly in the entire solar system: water ice condensation in areas coupled to the dichotomy protected a few sites against the LHB gardening effects, offering to explore the most ancient times in inner solar system History, during which life might have emerged

  1. Mineral abundances at the final four curiosity study sites and implications for their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, F.; Carter, J.; Bishop, J. L.; Loizeau, D.; Murchie, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    A component of the landing site selection process for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) involved the presence of phyllosilicates as the main astrobiological targets. Gale crater was selected as the MSL landing site from among 4 down selected study sites (Gale, Eberswalde and Holden craters, Mawrth Vallis) that addressed the primary scientific goal of assessing the past habitability of Mars. A key constraint on the formation process of these phyllosilicate-bearing deposits is in the precise mineralogical composition. We present a reassessment of the mineralogy of the sites combined with a determination of the modal mineralogy of the major phyllosilicate-bearing deposits of the four final study sites from the modeling of near-infrared spectra using a radiative transfer model. The largest abundance of phyllosilicates (30-70%) is found in Mawrth Vallis, the lowest one in Eberswalde (<25%). Except for Mawrth Vallis, the anhydrous phases (plagioclase, pyroxenes and martian dust) are the dominant phases, suggesting formation conditions with a lower alteration grade and/or a post-formation mixing with anhydrous phases. The composition of Holden layered deposits (mixture of saponite and micas with a total abundance in the range of 25-45%) suggests transport and deposition of altered basalts of the Noachian crust without major chemical transformation. For Eberswalde, the modal mineralogy is also consistent with detrital clays, but the presence of opaline silica indicates that an authigenic formation occurred during the deposition. The overall composition including approximately 20-30% smectite detected by MSL in the rocks of Yellow-knife Bay area interpreted to be material deposited on the floor of Gale crater by channels (http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/msl/news/msl20130312.html) is consistent with the compositions modeled for the Eberswalde and Holden deltaic rocks. At Gale, the paucity, the small diversity and the low abundance of nontronite do not favor a complex and

  2. The discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.; the HiRISE TEam

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia–Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas.

  3. Granodiorite and alkaline suite at Gale crater: continental crust on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, V.; Toplis, M. J.; Cousin, A.; Fabre, C.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Pinet, P.; Rapin, W.; Fisk, M.; Le Deit, L.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Stolper, E.; Beck, P.; Wray, J.; Bridges, J. C.; Le Mouelic, S.

    2015-10-01

    The Curiosity rover landed at Gale, an early Hesperian age crater formed within Noachian terrains on Mars. The rover encountered a great variety of felsic igneous float rocks ranging from granodiorite to trachy andesite and trachyte during the first part of the traverse up to sol 550. They are the first in-situ evidence of low density early Noachian crust on Mars, sampled by Peace Vallis river cross-cutting the crater wall over a 2-3km thick vertical section, below the basaltic regolite.

  4. Phase space path-integral formulation of the above-threshold ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Milosevic, D. B.

    2013-04-15

    Atoms and molecules submitted to a strong laser field can emit electrons of high energies in the above-threshold ionization (ATI) process. This process finds a highly intuitive and also quantitative explanation in terms of Feynman's path integral and the concept of quantum orbits [P. Salieres et al., Science 292, 902 (2001)]. However, the connection with the Feynman path-integral formalism is explained only by intuition and analogy and within the so-called strong-field approximation (SFA). Using the phase space path-integral formalism we have obtained an exact result for the momentum-space matrix element of the total time-evolution operator. Applying this result to the ATI we show that the SFA and the so-called improved SFA are, respectively, the zeroth- and the first-order terms of the expansion in powers of the laser-free effective interaction of the electron with the rest of the atom (molecule). We have also presented the second-order term of this expansion which is responsible for the ATI with double scattering of the ionized electron.

  5. Rain Volume Estimation over Areas Using Satellite and Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, A. A.; Miller, J. R., Jr.; Johnson, L. R.; Vonderhaar, T. H.; Laybe, P.

    1984-01-01

    The application of satellite data to a recently developed radar technique used to estimate convective rain volumes over areas on a dry environment (the northern Great Plains) is discussed. The area time integral technique (ATI) provides a means of estimating total rain volumes over fixed and floating target areas of the order of 1,000 to 100,000 km(2) for clusters lasting 40 min. The basis of the method is the existence of a strong correlation between the area coverage integrated over the lifetime of the storm (ATI) and the rain volume. One key element in this technique is that it does not require the consideration of the structure of the radar intensities inside the area coverage to generate rain volumes, but only considers the rain event per se. This fact might reduce or eliminate some sources of error in applying the technique to satellite data. The second key element is that the ATI once determined can be converted to total rain volume by using a constant factor (average rain rate) for a given locale.

  6. Laser stimulation of the acupoint 'Zusanli' (ST.36) on the radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Frederico, Éric H F F; Santos, Ailton A; Sá-Caputo, Danubia C C; Neves, Rosane F; Guimarães, Carlos A S; Chang, Shyang; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Laser used to stimulate acupoints is called laser acupuncture (LA). It is generally believed that similar clinical responses to manual acupuncture can be achieved. Here we analysed the effects of the laser (904 nm) at the 'Zusanli' acupoint (ST.36) of the stomach meridian on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical Na(99m)TcO4. Wistar rats were divided into control (CG) and experimental groups (EG). The EG were exposed daily to the laser (904 nm) at ST.36 with 1 joule/min (40 mW/cm(2)) for 1 min. The animals of the CG were not exposed to laser at all. On the 8th day after LA, the animals were sedated and Na(99m)TcO4 was administered. After 10 min, the animals were all sacrificed and the organs removed. The radioactivity was counted in each organ to calculate the percentage of radioactivity of the injected dose per gram (%ATI/ g). Comparison of the %ATI/g in EG and CG was performed by Mann-Whitney test. The %ATI/g was significantly increased in the thyroid due to the stimulation of the ST.36 by laser. It is possible to conclude that the stimulation of ST.36 does lead to biological phenomena that interfere with the metabolism of the thyroid. PMID:26949088

  7. Influence of body-wave velocity characteristic on the seismic data interpretation in TI media with arbitrary spatial orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, C.; Yao, C.

    2007-12-01

    TI media with arbitrary spatial orientation (ATI) is the actual anisotropic model used to describe tilted PTL (period thin layers) and no vertical fractured rock. We devote our paper to study the Influence of body-wave velocity characteristic on the seismic data interpretation in the ATI media. Based on the method of coordinates transformation for the TI media with arbitrary strength of anisotropy and arbitrary spatial orientation, we present the characteristic of body-wave velocity with incident angle and azimuth variation in the ATI media. The result shows that patterns of body-wave velocity are fixed relative to the symmetry axis, and these fixed patterns are closely relative to Thomsen's anisotropic parameters. Body-wave velocity characteristic depends just on the angle between the propagation direction and the symmetry axis. Therefore, with variations of spatial orientation of the symmetry axis and the surveying line azimuth, patterns of body-wave velocity have a variety, and have some symmetries, gradual changes and repetitions. The result is useful to processing and explaining of seismic data.

  8. Controlling high-order harmonic generation and above-threshold ionization with an attosecond-pulse train

    SciTech Connect

    Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.; Salieres, P.; Villain, P.; Lewenstein, M.

    2006-11-15

    We perform a detailed analysis of how high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) can be controlled by a time-delayed attosecond-pulse train superposed to a strong, near-infrared laser field. In particular we show that the high-order harmonic and photoelectron intensities, the high-order harmonic plateau structure and cutoff energies, and the ATI angular distributions can be manipulated by changing this delay. This is a direct consequence of the fact that the attosecond pulse train can be employed as a tool for constraining the instant an electronic wave packet is ejected in the continuum. A change in such initial conditions strongly affects its subsequent motion in the laser field, and thus HHG and ATI. In our studies, we employ the strong-field approximation and explain the features observed in terms of interference effects between various electron quantum orbits. Our results are in agreement with recent experimental findings and theoretical studies employing purely numerical methods.

  9. Utility of Iron Staining in Identifying the Cause of Renal Allograft Dysfunction in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingchun; Doshi, Mona; Khan, Salman; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ping L

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) is associated with iron/heme deposition in proximal renal tubules and related acute tubular injury (ATI). Here we report the utility of iron staining in differentiating causes of renal allograft dysfunction in patients with a history of sickle cell disease. Case 1: the patient developed acute allograft dysfunction two years after renal transplant. Her renal biopsy showed ATI, supported by patchy loss of brush border and positive staining of kidney injury molecule-1 in proximal tubular epithelial cells, where diffuse increase in iron staining (2+) was present. This indicated that ATI likely resulted from iron/heme toxicity to proximal tubules. Electron microscope confirmed aggregated sickle RBCs in glomeruli, indicating a recurrent SCN. Case 2: four years after renal transplant, the patient developed acute allograft dysfunction and became positive for serum donor-specific antibody. His renal biopsy revealed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and diffuse positive C4d stain in peritubular capillaries. Iron staining was negative in the renal tubules, implying that TMA was likely associated with acute antibody-mediated rejection (AAMR, type 2) rather than recurrent SCN. These case reports imply that iron staining is an inexpensive but effective method in distinguishing SCN-associated renal injury in allograft kidney from other etiologies. PMID:26697257

  10. Preventing Posttraumatic Stress Following Pediatric Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Psycho-Educational Intervention for Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Kohser, Kristen L.; Winston, Flaura K.; Li, Yimei; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study objective is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a web-based intervention for parents (AfterTheInjury.org [ATI]) in promoting emotional recovery following pediatric injury. Methods 100 children with injuries requiring medical attention and their parents were randomly assigned to the intervention or usual care. Efficacy outcomes included parent knowledge and child and parent posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Results All parents in the intervention group completed the intervention (directed use of ATI) in the hospital. 56% reported using ATI online post-discharge, and 100% of these parents found it helpful. Parent knowledge increased immediately post-intervention, but there was no significant intervention impact on parent knowledge or PTSS at a 6-week follow-up. Relationships between knowledge and PTSS were identified. Conclusions Brief web-based interventions introduced during child hospitalization are a feasible strategy to reach many parents following pediatric injury. Preventing psychological symptoms may require more than parental education alone. PMID:23912164

  11. ACTG 5197: A Placebo Controlled Trial of Immunization of HIV-1 Infected Persons with a Replication Deficient Ad5 Vaccine Expressing the HIV-1 Core Protein

    PubMed Central

    Schooley, Robert T.; Spritzler, John; Wang, Hongying; Lederman, Michael M.; Havlir, Diane; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Pollard, Richard; Battaglia, Cathy; Robertson, Michael; Mehrotra, Devan; Casimiro, Danilo; Cox, Kara; Schock, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV-1 specific cellular immunity contributes to control of HIV-1 replication. HIV-1 infected volunteers on antiretroviral therapy received a replication defective Ad5 HIV-1 gag vaccine in a randomized, blinded therapeutic vaccination study. Methods HIV-1-infected vaccine or placebo recipients underwent a 16-wk analytical treatment interruption (ATI). The log10 HIV-1 RNA at the ATI set point and time averaged area under the curve (TA-AUC) served as co-primary endpoints. Immune responses were measured by intracellular cytokine staining and CFSE dye dilution. Results Vaccine benefit trends were seen for both primary endpoints, but did not reach a pre-specified p ≤ 0.025 level of significance. The estimated shift in TA-AUC and set point were 0.24 (unadjusted p=0.04) and 0.26 (unadjusted p=0.07) log10 copies lower in the vaccine than in the placebo arm. HIV-1 gag-specific CD4+ interferon-γ producing cells were an immunologic correlate of viral control. Conclusion The vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated. Despite a trend favoring viral suppression among vaccine recipients, differences in HIV-1 RNA levels did not meet the pre-specified level of significance. Induction of HIV-1 gag-specific CD4 cells correlated with control of viral replication in vivo. Future immunogenicity studies should require a substantially higher immunogenicity threshold before an ATI is contemplated. PMID:20662716

  12. The relation of radar to cloud area-time integrals and implications for rain measurements from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, David; Bell, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    The relationships between satellite-based and radar-measured area-time integrals (ATI) for convective storms are determined, and both are shown to depend on the climatological conditional mean rain rate and the ratio of the measured cloud area to the actual rain area of the storms. The GOES precipitation index of Arkin (1986) for convective storms, an area-time integral for satellite cloud areas, is shown to be related to the ATI for radar-observed rain areas. The quality of GPI-based rainfall estimates depends on how well the cloud area is related to the rain area and the size of the sampling domain. It is also noted that the use of a GOES cloud ATI in conjunction with the radar area-time integral will improve the accuracy of rainfall estimates and allow such estimates to be made in much smaller space-time domains than the 1-month and 5-deg boxes anticipated for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.

  13. Reactive spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nitride reinforced titanium alloy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Borkar, Tushar; Nag, Soumya; Ren, Yang; Tiley, Jaimie; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2014-12-25

    Coupled in situ alloying and nitridation of titanium–vanadium alloys, has been achieved by introducing reactive nitrogen gas during the spark plasma sintering (SPS) of blended titanium and vanadium elemental powders, leading to a new class of nitride reinforced titanium alloy composites. The resulting microstructure includes precipitates of the d-TiN phase with the NaCl structure, equiaxed (or globular) precipitates of a nitrogen enriched hcp a(Ti,N) phase with a c/a ratio more than what is expected for pure hcp Ti, and fine scale plate-shaped precipitates of hcp a-Ti, distributed within a bcc b matrix. During SPS processing, the d-TiN phase appears to form at a temperature of 1400 C, while only hcp a(Ti,N) and a-Ti phases form at lower processing temperatures. Consequently, the highest microhardness is exhibited by the composite processed at 1400 C while those processed at 1300 C or below exhibit lower values. Processing at temperatures below 1300 C, resulted in an incomplete alloying of the blend of titanium and vanadium powders. These d-TiN precipitates act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the a(Ti,N) precipitates that appear to engulf and exhibit an orientation relationship with the nitride phase at the center. Furthermore, fine scale a-Ti plates are precipitated within the nitride precipitates, presumably resulting from the retrograde solubility of nitrogen in titanium.

  14. UCA{trademark}/DAIS{trademark} demonstration project by Kansas City Power and Light Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Kansas City Power and Light (KCPL) demonstrated the use of EPRI`s Utility Communication Architecture (UCA{trademark}) and Database Access Integrated Services (DAIS{trademark}) to provide KCPL employees seamless and transparent access to corporate data resources from their desktops. The major components of the KCPL project are client workstations with a Graphical User Interface which builds the necessary Structured Query Language (SQL) requests from the user`s data directory selections and provides a Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) interface and programmer Application Program Interface (API). DAIS Directory Services provided data browsing and search capability and allows users to select data items for analysis. DAIS Servers provided database-related functions to both relational databases (customer data in Oracle) and non-relational data sources (PMAX performance monitoring system and PI historical database). The DAIS client software was provided by Automation Technology, Inc. (ATI); and the DAIS directory services software was provided by UNISYS. The Oracle DAIS server was provided by ATI, the PMAX non-relational DAIS server was developed by Black and Veatch, and the PI DAIS server was developed by ATI. The project was deemed a success as the corporate data was made available at the employee`s desktop for search and analysis, with the look and feel of a relational database, regardless of the source of the data.

  15. Multiparameter radar study of rainfall: Potential application to area-time integral studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, R.; Chandrasekar, V.

    1994-01-01

    Multiparameter radars measure one or more additional parameters in addition to the coventional reflectivity factor. The combination of radar observations from a multiparameter radar is used to study the time evolution of rainstorms. A technique is presented to self-consistently compare the area-time integral (ATI) and rainfall volume estimates from convective storms, using two different measurements from a multiparameter radar. Rainfall volumes for the lifetime of individual storms are computed using the reflectivity at S band (10-cm wavelength) as well as one-way specific attenuation at X band (3-cm wavelength). Area-time integrals are computed by summing all areas in each radar snapshot having reflectivities (S band) in excess of a preselected threshold. The multiparameter radar data used in this study were acquired by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CP-2 radar during the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment (COHMEX) and the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE), respectively. ATI studies were accomplished in this work using multiparameter radar data acquired during the lifetime of six convective events that occurred in the COHMEX radar coverage area. A case study from the COMHEX field campaign (20 July 1986) was selected to depict the various stages in the evolution of a storm over which the ATI and rainfall volume computations were performed using multiparameter radar data. Another case study from the CaPE field campaign (12 August 1991) was used to demonstrate the evolution of a convective cell based on differential reflectivity observations.

  16. Columbia Hills, Mars: Aeolian features seen from the ground and orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Whelley, P.L.; Neakrase, L.D.V.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bridges, N.T.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Di, K.; Foley, D.J.; Golombek, M.P.; Herkenhoff, K.; Knudson, A.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Li, R.; Michaels, T.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.; Thompson, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Abundant wind-related features occur along Spirit's traverse into the Columbia Hills over the basaltic plains of Gusev Crater. Most of the windblown sands are probably derived from weathering of rocks within the crater, and possibly from deposits associated with Ma'adim Vallis. Windblown particles act as agents of abrasion, forming ventifacts, and are organized in places, into various bed forms. Wind-related features seen from orbit, results from atmospheric models, and considerations of topography suggest that the general wind patterns and transport pathways involve: (1) winter nighttime winds that carry sediments from the mouth of Ma'adim. Vallis into the landing site area of Spirit, where they are mixed with locally derived sediments, and (2) winter daytime winds that transport the sediments from the landing site southeast toward Husband Hill; similar patterns occur in the summer but with weaker winds. Reversals of daytime flow out of Gusev Crater and nighttime wind flow into the crater can account for the symmetry of the bed forms and bimodal orientations of some ventifacts. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Columbia Hills, Mars: aeolian features seen from the ground and orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, Ronald; Whelley, Patrick L.; Neakrase, Lynn D.V.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Christensen, Philip R.; Di, Kaichang; Foley, Daniel J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knudson, Amy; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Li, Ron; Michaels, Timothy; Squyres, Steven W.; Sullivan, Robert; Thompson, Shane D.

    2008-01-01

    Abundant wind-related features occur along Spirit's traverse into the Columbia Hills over the basaltic plains of Gusev Crater. Most of the windblown sands are probably derived from weathering of rocks within the crater, and possibly from deposits associated with Ma'adim Vallis. Windblown particles act as agents of abrasion, forming ventifacts, and are organized in places into various bed forms. Wind-related features seen from orbit, results from atmospheric models, and considerations of topography suggest that the general wind patterns and transport pathways involve: (1) winter nighttime winds that carry sediments from the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis into the landing site area of Spirit, where they are mixed with locally derived sediments, and (2) winter daytime winds that transport the sediments from the landing site southeast toward Husband Hill; similar patterns occur in the summer but with weaker winds. Reversals of daytime flow out of Gusev Crater and nighttime wind flow into the crater can account for the symmetry of the bed forms and bimodal orientations of some ventifacts.

  18. Multispectral Imaging from Mars PATHFINDER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bishop, Janice L.; Morris, Richard V.

    2007-01-01

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was a mast-mounted instrument on the Mars Pathfinder lander which landed on Mars Ares Vallis floodplain on July 4, 1997. During the 83 sols of Mars Pathfinders landed operations, the IMP collected over 16,600 images. Multispectral images were collected using twelve narrowband filters at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) range. The IMP provided VNIR spectra of the materials surrounding the lander including rocks, bright soils, dark soils, and atmospheric observations. During the primary mission, only a single primary rock spectral class, Gray Rock, was recognized; since then, Black Rock, has been identified. The Black Rock spectra have a stronger absorption at longer wavelengths than do Gray Rock spectra. A number of coated rocks have also been described, the Red and Maroon Rock classes, and perhaps indurated soils in the form of the Pink Rock class. A number of different soil types were also recognized with the primary ones being Bright Red Drift, Dark Soil, Brown Soil, and Disturbed Soil. Examination of spectral parameter plots indicated two trends which were interpreted as representing alteration products formed in at least two different environmental epochs of the Ares Vallis area. Subsequent analysis of the data and comparison with terrestrial analogs have supported the interpretation that the rock coatings provide evidence of earlier martian environments. However, the presence of relatively uncoated examples of the Gray and Black rock classes indicate that relatively unweathered materials can persist on the martian surface.

  19. Geotourism, as a new approuch to expeloit geomorphical and geological attractions of mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehri, M.; Arezoo, S.

    2009-04-01

    Tourism is an industorial with cultural and social relationship beside minimal Enviromental contamination with income and economic scale that now is very important. Natural attractive places of each country have a famous role in absorbing & attracting the tourism. Iran is one of country with natural attractive & specific places that with historical civil that can use to attract the torism. Ecotouris is tourist that without damaging enviroment travels in nature. Some of tourist travel to see the science appearance and have scientific view. In adjacent of Hamdan and in SW of it there are place that in addiation to historical and cultural attractive has natural unique attractive so can absorb each Ecotourist. In Geologic & Geographic view this area is specific that can attract each Ecotourist that like natural science.This zone is reflecting of adjacent between,urban,rorul,tribial life & Metamophism,Magmatism , partial Melting , faulting and folding of layers. The new and famous researches carry out in thise area have suitable data with adjacent to Hamadan,Alvand Elevation,suitable way for claiming , security, Abundant water,agricultur greenvisage in this area that have cause to this place be a important &attractive place for Ecotourist & place for build a station,specially for Geotourism goals. valleys (case study Simin vally , south a Hamedan) Key words : Ecotourism , Geotourism , Simin Vally , igneous and Metamorphic Rocks , Migmati

  20. Sediment History Preserved in Gale Crater Central Mound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    While many of the layered outcrops in craters and chasms on Mars are seen as stair-stepped series of cliffs and benches composed of similar materials with similar thicknesses, other layer outcrops are expressed on relatively smooth, rounded slopes as alternating light and dark bands. The best example of this variety of layered sedimentary material is found in southern Holden Crater. Holden is located at 26.5oS, 33.9oW, and has a diameter of 141 km (88 mi). The context picture above, shows that a valley, Uzboi Vallis, enters the crater on its southwestern side. Not too far from where Uzboi Vallis meets Holden Crater, rounded slopes and buttes consisting of alternating light and dark bands are seen. The origin of these layers is not known, but like those found in other craters on Mars, they might have resulted from deposition of sediment in a lake that would have occupied Holden Crater. Alternatively, these are materials deposited by falling out of the air, the same way that volcanic ash is deposited on Earth. The Viking mosaic (above) images are illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The MOC image (top left) is illuminated from the upper left. North is up.

  1. Evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic HIV vaccines through analytical treatment interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Gina M; Angel, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development of an effective therapeutic HIV vaccine that induces immunologic control of viral replication, thereby eliminating or reducing the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART), would be of great value. Besides the obvious challenges of developing a therapeutic vaccine that would generate effective, sustained anti-HIV immunity in infected individuals is the issue of how to best assess the efficacy of vaccine candidates. Discussion This review discusses the various outcome measures assessed in therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials involving individuals receiving suppressive ART, with a particular focus on the role of analytical treatment interruption (ATI) as a way to assess the virologic control induced by an immunotherapy. This strategy is critical given that there are otherwise no readily available measures to determine the ability of a vaccine-induced immune response to effectively control HIV replication. The various outcome measures that have been used to assess vaccine efficacy in published therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials will also be discussed. Outcome measures have included the kinetics of viral rebound, the new viral set point and changes in the size of the viral reservoir. Clinically relevant outcomes such as the CD4 decline, the time to resume therapy or the time to meet the criterion to resume therapy, the proportion of participants who resume therapy and/or the development of clinical symptoms such as acute retroviral syndrome are also measures of vaccine efficacy. Conclusions Given the lack of consistency between therapeutic HIV vaccine trials in how efficacy is assessed, comparing vaccines has been difficult. It would, therefore, be beneficial to determine the most clinically relevant measure for use in future studies. Other recommendations for future clinical trials also include studying compartments in addition to blood and replacing ATIs with single-copy assays in situations in which the use of an ATI is not ideal

  2. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique. PMID:10903389

  3. Polypharmacology within CXCR4: Multiple binding sites and allosteric behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planesas, Jesús M.; Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I.; Borrell, José I.; Teixidó, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    CXCR4 is a promiscuous receptor, which binds multiple diverse ligands. As usual in promiscuous proteins, CXCR4 has a large binding site, with multiple subsites, and high flexibility. Hence, it is not surprising that it is involved in the phenomenon of allosteric modulation. However, incomplete knowledge of allosteric ligand-binding sites has hampered an in-depth molecular understanding of how these inhibitors work. For example, it is known that lipidated fragments of intracellular GPCR loops, so called pepducins, such as pepducin ATI-2341, modulate CXCR4 activity using an agonist allosteric mechanism. Nevertheless, there are also examples of small organic molecules, such as AMD11070 and GSK812397, which may act as antagonist allosteric modulators. Here, we give new insights into this issue by proposing the binding interactions between the CXCR4 receptor and the above-mentioned allosteric modulators. We propose that CXCR4 has minimum two topographically different allosteric binding sites. One allosteric site would be in the intracellular loop 1 (ICL1) where pepducin ATI-2341 would bind to CXCR4, and the second one, in the extracellular side of CXCR4 in a subsite into the main orthosteric binding pocket, delimited by extracellular loops n° 1, 2, and the N-terminal end, where antagonists AMD11070 and GSK812397 would bind. Prediction of allosteric interactions between CXCR4 and pepducin ATI-2341 were studied first by rotational blind docking to determine the main binding region and a subsequent refinement of the best pose was performed using flexible docking methods and molecular dynamics. For the antagonists AMD11070 and GSK812397, the entire CXCR4 protein surface was explored by blind docking to define the binding region. A second docking analysis by subsites of the identified binding region was performed to refine the allosteric interactions. Finally, we identified the binding residues that appear to be essential for CXCR4 (agonists and antagonists) allosteric

  4. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's "Flavor Monsters".

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes. PMID:26230971

  5. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's “Flavor Monsters”

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many “games for health” target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth® (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's “Flavor Monsters” gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13–24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes. PMID:26230971

  6. Urban Soil: Assessing Ground Cover Impact on Surface Temperature and Thermal Comfort.

    PubMed

    Brandani, Giada; Napoli, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The urban population growth, together with the contemporary deindustrialization of metropolitan areas, has resulted in a large amount of available land with new possible uses. It is well known that urban green areas provide several benefits in the surrounding environment, such as the improvement of thermal comfort conditions for the population during summer heat waves. The purpose of this study is to provide useful information on thermal regimes of urban soils to urban planners to be used during an urban transformation to mitigate surface temperatures and improve human thermal comfort. Field measurements of solar radiation, surface temperature (), air temperature (), relative humidity, and wind speed were collected on four types of urban soils and pavements in the city of Florence during summer 2014. Analysis of days under calm, clear-sky condition is reported. During daytime, sun-to-shadow differences for , apparent temperature index (ATI), and were significantly positive for all surfaces. Conversely, during nighttime, differences among all surfaces were significantly negative, whereas ATI showed significantly positive differences. Moreover, was significantly negative for grass and gravel. Relative to the shaded surfaces, was higher on white gravel and grass than gray sandstone and asphalt during nighttime, whereas gray sandstone was always the warmest surface during daytime. Conversely, no differences were found during nighttime for ATI and measured over surfaces that were exposed to sun during the day, whereas showed higher values on gravel than grass and asphalt during nighttime. An exposed surface warms less if its albedo is high, leading to a significant reduction of during daytime. These results underline the importance of considering the effects of surface characteristics on surface temperature and thermal comfort. This would be fundamental for addressing urban environment issues toward the heat island mitigation considering also the impact of urban

  7. Vapor-phase synthesis of a solid precursor for {alpha}-alumina through a catalytic decomposition of aluminum triisopropoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tu Quang; Park, Kyun Young; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Cho, Sung Baek

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new solid precursor for {alpha}-alumina was prepared at about 200 Degree-Sign C from aluminum tri-isopropoxide vapor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained precursor was calcined at 1200 Degree-Sign C to form {alpha}-alumina particles, 75 nm in surface area equivalent diameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The weight loss of the precursor upon calcination was 24%, lower than that of Al(OH){sub 3}, a conventional alumina precursor. -- Abstract: A new solid precursor, hydrous aluminum oxide, for {alpha}-alumina nanoparticles was prepared by thermal decomposition of aluminum triisopropoxide (ATI) vapor in a 500 mL batch reactor at 170-250 Degree-Sign C with HCl as catalyst. The conversion of ATI increased with increasing temperature and catalyst content; it was nearly complete at 250 Degree-Sign C with the catalyst at 10 mol% of the ATI. The obtained precursor particles were amorphous, spherical and loosely agglomerated. The primary particle size is in the range 50-150 nm. The ignition loss of the precursor was 24%, considerably lower than 35% of Al(OH){sub 3}, the popular precursor for alumina particles. Upon calcination of the precursor at 1200 Degree-Sign C in the air with a heating rate of 10 Degree-Sign C/min and a holding time of 2 h, the phase was completely transformed into {alpha}. The spherical particles composing the precursor turned worm-like by the calcination probably due to sintering between neighboring particles. The surface area equivalent diameter of the resulting {alpha}-alumina was 75 nm.

  8. Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

    2012-01-01

    Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for

  9. TiS3 nanoribbons: Width-independent band gap and strain-tunable electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jun; Sahin, Hasan; Ozaydin, H. Duygu; Senger, R. Tugrul; Peeters, François M.

    2015-08-01

    The electronic properties, carrier mobility, and strain response of TiS3 nanoribbons (TiS3 NRs) are investigated by first-principles calculations. We found that the electronic properties of TiS3 NRs strongly depend on the edge type (a or b). All a-TiS3 NRs are metallic with a magnetic ground state, while b-TiS3 NRs are direct band gap semiconductors. Interestingly, the size of the band gap and the band edge position are almost independent of the ribbon width. This feature promises a constant band gap in a b-TiS3 NR with rough edges, where the ribbon width differs in different regions. The maximum carrier mobility of b-TiS3 NRs is calculated by using the deformation potential theory combined with the effective mass approximation and is found to be of the order 103cm2V-1s-1 . The hole mobility of the b-TiS3 NRs is one order of magnitude lower, but it is enhanced compared to the monolayer case due to the reduction in hole effective mass. The band gap and the band edge position of b-TiS3 NRs are quite sensitive to applied strain. In addition we investigate the termination of ribbon edges by hydrogen atoms. Upon edge passivation, the metallic and magnetic features of a-TiS3 NRs remain unchanged, while the band gap of b-TiS3 NRs is increased significantly. The robust metallic and ferromagnetic nature of a-TiS3 NRs is an essential feature for spintronic device applications. The direct, width-independent, and strain-tunable band gap, as well as the high carrier mobility, of b-TiS3 NRs is of potential importance in many fields of nanoelectronics, such as field-effect devices, optoelectronic applications, and strain sensors.

  10. Development and evaluation of an in-vehicle information system

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; Tufano, D.R.; Knee, H.E.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) which will manage messages from a variety of Advanced Traveler Information Services (ATIS) devices which can be installed in a road vehicle. The IVIS serves as the interface between the driver and the driving information environment. Increasingly, aftermarket systems, such as routing and navigation aids, are becoming available which can be added to vehicles to aid in travel and/or the conduct of business in the vehicle. The installation of multiple devices, each with its own driver interface, increases the likelihood of driver distraction and thus the risk of an accident. The goal of this project is the development of a fully-integrated IVIS which will filter, prioritize and display highway and vehicle information safely and efficiently, while also providing an integrated driver interface to a variety of ATIS information sources. Because these devices will be integrated into IVIS as components, they are referred to in this paper as IVIS subsystems. Such a system, using modern digital technology, will tailor information both to the driver`s needs and to the driving environment. A variety of other efforts, both in the Us and abroad, either have been completed or are nearing completion, and the results of these efforts will be incorporated into this present system. IVIS must perform three high level functions (Tufano, et al, 1997). It must (1) interact with (ATIS) subsystems, (2) management information, and (3) interact with the driver. To safely develop and evaluate such a device, a platform must be devised which permits testing in an off-road setting.

  11. Benefits of immediate jejunostomy feeding after major abdominal trauma--a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Moore, E E; Jones, T N

    1986-10-01

    Benefits of immediate postinjury nutritional support remain ill defined. Seventy-five consecutive patients undergoing emergent celiotomy with an abdominal trauma index (A.T.I.) greater than 15 were randomized prospectively to a control group (no supplemental nutrition during first 5 days) or enteral-fed group. The enteral patients had a needle catheter jejunostomy (N.C.J.) placed at laparotomy with the constant infusion of an elemental diet (Vivonex HN) begun at 18 hours and advanced to 3,000 ml/day (3,000 kcal, 20 gm N2) within 72 hours. Control and enteral-fed groups were comparable with respect to demographic features, trauma mechanism, shock, colon injury, splenectomy, A.T.I., and initial nutritional assessment. Twenty (63%) of the enteral patients were maintained on the elemental diet greater than 5 days; four (12%) needed total parenteral nutrition (T.P.N.). Nine (29%) of the control patients required T.P.N. Nitrogen balance was markedly improved (p less than 0.001) in the enteral-fed group. Although visceral protein markers and overall complication rate were not significantly different, septic morbidity was greater (p less than 0.025) in the control group (abdominal infection in seven and pneumonia in two) compared to the enteral-fed patients (abdominal abscess in three). Analysis of patients with A.T.I. 15-40 disclosed sepsis in seven (26%) of the control versus one (4%) of the enteral-fed group (p less than 0.01). Our clinical experience demonstrates the feasibility of immediate postoperative enteral feeding via N.C.J. after major abdominal trauma, and suggests this early nutrition reduces septic complications in critically injured patients. PMID:3095557

  12. SHARAD Investigation of the Interaction Between Volcanism and Deep Water Release in Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, G. A.; Campbell, B. A.; Carter, L. M.; Plaut, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Situated between the equator and 12°N and extending from 130° to 180°E, Elysium Planitia is considered to be the youngest volcanic plain on Mars. Recent crater counts on individual lava units argue for multiple phases of activity over the last 230 Myrs, with the most recent volcanic features dating to just ~2 Ma. The region also contains the youngest outflow channels on the planet. Multiple channel systems which are present across the region are interpreted to have been carved by the release of deep ground water (>1 km) from the broadly east-west trending Cerberus Fossae graben system. Elysium Planitia is therefore a region of high scientific interest, as it represents an ideal site to investigate the interaction of lava and water both below and on the surface of Mars. Extensive geologic mapping of Elysium Planitia has provided detailed information concerning the stratigraphy of the major volcanic units in addition to the classification of other landforms attributed to volcanic (e.g. small shields), fluvial (e.g. outflow channels) and aeolian (e.g. yardangs) activity. Orbital sounding radar provides a means to take this work to the next level through the mapping of buried surfaces associated with a contrast in dielectric permittivity and thus can be used to investigate the 3-D structure of the subsurface. Previous studies using the SHARAD radar sounder onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have identified multiple subsurface reflectors below the plains of Elysium Planitia. We will present our investigation of SHARAD data covering the eastern portion of this region of Mars - an area that includes the upstream reaches of Marte Vallis and the eastern extent of Cerberus Fossae. Our subsurface mapping shows remarkable correlations with published geologic maps produced using visible orbital datasets. These similarities allow us to use SHARAD data to make estimates of the average permittivity values and imply density measurements of the volcanic units. We will

  13. New radiometric dating constrains the time for initiation of the Karakorum fault zone (KFZ), SW Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shifeng; Fang, Xiaomin; Lai, Qingzhou; Zheng, Dewen; Wang, Yanbin

    2009-10-01

    The Karakorum fault zone (KFZ), composed of strike-slip faults, has played an important role in intra-continental deformation during the Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates. However, the spatial and temporal evolution of the KFZ remains under debate. This paper reports new zircon U-Pb Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) and biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar ages for samples from the fault zone to clarify the timing of events. The ages of Zircon U-Pb fall mainly around 47-50 Ma, which corresponds to a period of important magmatic activity of the Gangdese granitic belt (also known as the Trans-Himalayan magmatic belt). A metamorphic event followed in the period around 32 Ma, and that was then followed by a medium temperature cooling event between about 12 and 7.7 Ma. Biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar ages provide evidence that the 12-7.7 Ma cooling event coincides with the initiation of the KFZ cutting through the Ayilari granite. The Ayilari granite pluton does not seem to have experienced the separate 25-23 Ma cooling event, as shown in previous studies 60-80 km west of the current study area [Lacassin, R., Valli, F., Arnaud, N., Leloup, P.H., Paquette, J.L., Li, H., Tapponnier, P., Chevalier, M.L., Guillot, S., Maheo, G., Xu, Z., 2004. Large-scale geometry, offset and kinematic evolution of the Karakorum fault, Tibet. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 219 (3-4), 255-269.; Valli, F., Arnaud, N., Leloup, H.P., Sobel, E.R., Maheo, G., Lacassin, R., Guillot, S., Li, H., Tapponnier, P., Xu, Z., 2007. Twenty million years of continuous deformation along the Karakorum fault, western Tibet: a thermochronological analysis. Tectonics 26, doi: 10.1029/2005TC001913.; Valli, F., Leloup, P., Paquette, J., Arnaud, N., Li, H., Tapponnier, P., Lacassin, R., Guillot, S., Liu, D., Deloule, E., Xu, Z., Mahéo, G., 2008. New U-Th/Pb constraints on timing of shearing and long-term slip-rate on the Karakorum fault. Tectonics 27, doi:10.1029/2007TC002184.]. We conclude that the

  14. Sand Flux Results for Aeolian Dunes at Current and Candidate Landing Sites on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnacki, M.; Urso, A.; Yingling, W.

    2015-12-01

    It is now known unambiguously that wind-driven bedform activity is occurring on Mars today. It has also been demonstrated the rapid aeolian abrasion of sedimentary deposits that potentially host ancient habitable environments may provide the best mechanism for exposing samples containing relatively undegraded organics (Farley et al. 2014). Thus, current processes operating on the surface of Mars are highly relevant to our understanding of the past. Here, we discuss new sand flux results of active dune across Mars, including several current and candidate landing sites with Meridiani Planum, Gale crater, Valles Marineris, and Mawrth Vallis. For this task, we have utilized multi-temporal images acquired annually by the HiRISE camera (25 cm/pixel) along with co-located HiRISE Digital Terrain Models. Falling dunes in Coprates Chasma (Mars 2020 candidate landing site) measuring 6-10 meters in height were detected migrating on average 0.5 m per Earth year, yielding crest fluxes of 3.1 m3 m-1 yr-1 (units hereafter assumed). Barchans near the MSL rover at Gale crater have slightly lower fluxes of 1.2, while earlier work in Endeavour crater, the current site of the Opportunity Rover, showed dome dunes with fluxes as high as 13 (average of 6.8; Chojnacki et al. 2015). New results of Mawrth Vallis (Mars 2020 candidate) dunes suggest these high rates are not uncommon, as barchans there possess average fluxes of 11.5. Assuming ripple reptation rates are 1/10th that of crest fluxes, total flux (saltation plus reptation) would range 3.2 to 12.7 m3 m-1 yr-1 for all sites studied herein. Active dunes and the abrasion susceptibility (Sa) of local rocks are relevant to assess how sand fluxes modify the landscape. Using the methodology and assumptions (Sa for basalt, mean trajectory height etc.) described in Bridges et al. (2012), we estimated abrasion rates of local basaltic bedrock. For example, sand blasting at Mawrth Vallis is estimated to produce 2-8 μm/yr for flat ground and 15

  15. Swimming Near the Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel; Moored, Keith; Dewey, Peter; Lauder, George; Smits, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    The aerodynamic loads on rectangular panels undergoing heave and pitch oscillations near a solid wall were measured using a 6-axis ATI sensor. Over a range of Strouhal numbers, reduced frequencies and flexibilities, swimming near the wall was found to increase thrust and therefore the self-propelled swimming speed. Experimental particle image velocimetry revealed an asymmetric wake structure with a momentum jet angled away from the wall. Both the thrust amplification and the asymmetric wake structure were verified and investigated further using an in-house inviscid panel method code. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N00014-08-1-0642.

  16. Real-time high definition H.264 video decode using the Xbox 360 GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo Baeza, Juan Carlos; Chen, William; Christoffersen, Eric; Dinu, Daniel; Friemel, Barry

    2007-09-01

    The Xbox 360 is powered by three dual pipeline 3.2 GHz IBM PowerPC processors and a 500 MHz ATI graphics processing unit. The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a special-purpose device, intended to create advanced visual effects and to render realistic scenes for the latest Xbox 360 games. In this paper, we report work on using the GPU as a parallel processing unit to accelerate the decoding of H.264/AVC high-definition (1920x1080) video. We report our experiences in developing a real-time, software-only high-definition video decoder for the Xbox 360.

  17. Modulation of K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 K+ channel sensitivity to carvedilol by alternative mRNA translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Kisselbach, J; Seyler, C; Schweizer, P A; Gerstberger, R; Becker, R; Katus, H A; Thomas, D

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The β-receptor antagonist carvedilol blocks a range of ion channels. K2P2.1 (TREK1) and K2P10.1 (TREK2) channels are expressed in the heart and regulated by alternative translation initiation (ATI) of their mRNA, producing functionally distinct channel variants. The first objective was to investigate acute effects of carvedilol on human K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 channels. Second, we sought to study ATI-dependent modulation of K2P K+ current sensitivity to carvedilol. Experimental Approach Using standard electrophysiological techniques, we recorded currents from wild-type and mutant K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 channels in Xenopus oocytes and HEK 293 cells. Key Results Carvedilol concentration-dependently inhibited K2P2.1 channels (IC50,oocytes = 20.3 μM; IC50,HEK = 1.6 μM) and this inhibition was frequency-independent. When K2P2.1 isoforms generated by ATI were studied separately in oocytes, the IC50 value for carvedilol inhibition of full-length channels (16.5 μM) was almost 5-fold less than that for the truncated channel variant (IC50 = 79.0 μM). Similarly, the related K2P10.1 channels were blocked by carvedilol (IC50,oocytes = 24.0 μM; IC50,HEK = 7.6 μM) and subject to ATI-dependent modulation of drug sensitivity. Conclusions and Implications Carvedilol targets K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 K+ channels. This previously unrecognized mechanism supports a general role of cardiac K2P channels as antiarrhythmic drug targets. Furthermore, the work reveals that the sensitivity of the cardiac ion channels K2P2.1 and K2P10.1 to block was modulated by alternative mRNA translation initiation. PMID:25168769

  18. Evaluation of an apparatus to be combined with a smartphone for the early detection of spinal deformities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile smartphones are equipped with inclinometers enabling them to acquire angular clinical measures. The Scolioscreen has been developed in conjunction with a smartphone APP to enable the measure of the angle of trunk inclination (ATI) thus offering a convenient and reliable means to measure and screen for spinal deformities. The objective was to compare the reliability and accuracy of a Scolioscreen-smartphone combination, a smartphone alone, and a Scoliometer, for measuring the angle of trunk inclination in spinal deformities under blinded conditions for intra- and inter-observer analyses. Methods A cohort of 39 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were recruited. Each had maximum ATI measured by 3 observers: attending spine surgeon, nurse, and parent presenting with patient. Two series of measurements were performed by each observer using Scolioscreen-smartphone, smartphone alone and Scoliometer. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) from two-way mixed model based on absolute agreement were used to assess intra- and inter-observer reliability as well as consistency between measurement techniques. Results Intra- and inter-observer reliability for measuring maximum ATI was 0.94-0.89 with Scolioscreen-smartphone, decreased to 0.89-0.75 for smartphone alone, and was 0.95- 0.89 for Scoliometer. Considering Scoliometer measurement taken by surgeon the gold standard, there was excellent consistency with measurements from Scolioscreen-smartphone taken by surgeon (ICC = 0.99), nurse (ICC = 0.95), and parent (ICC = 0.91). Conversely, consistency decreased when surgeon (ICC = 0.86), nurse (ICC = 0.86) and parent (ICC = 0.85) used smartphone alone. Conclusion Study shows the Scolioscreen-smartphone to overcome limitations associated with ATI measurements using smartphones alone. The Scolioscreen-smartphone provides a reliability and consistency similar to the gold standard (use of Scoliometer by spine surgeon) and enables a

  19. Seismic design spectra 200 West and East Areas DOE Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Tallman, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    This document presents equal hazard response spectra for the W236A project for the 200 East and West new high-level waste tanks. The hazard level is based upon WHC-SD-W236A-TI-002, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Spectral acceleration amplification is plotted with frequency (Hz) for horizontal and vertical motion and attached to this report. The vertical amplification is based upon the preliminary draft revision of Standard ASCE 4-86. The vertical spectral acceleration is equal to the horizontal at frequencies above 3.3Hz because of near-field, less than 15 km, sources.

  20. Thermal mapping of mountain slopes on Mars by application of a Differential Apparent Thermal Inertia technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, Marta; Mège, Daniel; Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Ciazela, Jakub

    2015-04-01

    Thermal inertia (P) is an important property of geologic surfaces that essentially describes the resistance to temperature (T) change as heat is added. Most remote sensing data describe the surface only. P is a volume property that is sensitive to the composition of the subsurface, down to a depth reached by the diurnal heating wave. As direct measurement of P is not possible on Mars, thermal inertia models (Fergason et al., 2006) and deductive methods (the Apparent Thermal Inertia: ATI and Differential Apparent Thermal Inertia: DATI) are used to estimate it. ATI is computed as (1 - A) / (Tday - Tnight), where A is albedo. Due to the lack of the thermal daytime images with maximum land surface temperature (LST) and nighttime images with minimum LST in Valles Marineris region, the ATI method is difficult to apply. Instead, we have explored the DATI technique (Sabol et al., 2006). DATI is calculated based on shorter time (t) intervals with a high |ΔT/Δt| gradient (in the morning or in the afternoon) and is proportional to the day/night temperature difference (ATI), and hence P. Mars, which exhibits exceptionally high |ΔT/Δt| gradients due to the lack of vegetation and thin atmosphere, is especially suitable for the DATI approach. Here we present a new deductive method for high-resolution differential apparent thermal inertia (DATI) mapping for areas of highly contrasted relief (e.g., Valles Marineris). Contrary to the thermal inertia models, our method takes local relief characteristics (slopes and aspects) into account. This is crucial as topography highly influences A and ΔT measurements. In spite of the different approach, DATI values in the flat areas are in the same range as the values obtained by Fergason et al. (2006). They provide, however, more accurate information for geological interpretations of hilly or mountainous terrains. Sabol, D. E., Gillespie, A. R., McDonald, E., and Danilina, I., 2006. Differential Thermal Inertia of Geological Surfaces. In

  1. Ridged Layer Outcrop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    15 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a strange ridged pattern developed in an eroding layer of material on the floor of a Labyrinthus Noctis depression in the Valles Marineris system. The ridges bear some resemblance to ripple-like dunes seen elsewhere on Mars, but they are linked to the erosion of a specific layer of material--i.e., something in the rock record of Mars. Similar ridged textures are found in eroded dark-toned mantling layers in regions as far away as northern Sinus Meridiani and Mawrth Vallis. The explanation for these landforms is as elusive as this image is evocative. The image is located near 8.2oS, 93.6oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  2. Mineralogy of the MSL Curiosity landing site in Gale crater as observed by MRO/CRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, Kimberly D.; Seelos, Frank P.; Viviano-Beck, Christina E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Fraeman, Abigail A.

    2014-07-01

    Orbital data acquired by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provide a synoptic view of compositional stratigraphy on the floor of Gale crater surrounding the area where the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity landed. Fractured, light-toned material exhibits a 2.2 µm absorption consistent with enrichment in hydroxylated silica. This material may be distal sediment from the Peace Vallis fan, with cement and fracture fill containing the silica. This unit is overlain by more basaltic material, which has 1 µm and 2 µm absorptions due to pyroxene that are typical of Martian basaltic materials. Both materials are partially obscured by aeolian dust and basaltic sand. Dunes to the southeast exhibit differences in mafic mineral signatures, with barchan dunes enhanced in olivine relative to pyroxene-containing longitudinal dunes. This compositional difference may be related to aeolian grain sorting.

  3. Topography of the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Frey, H. V.; Garvin, J. B.; Head, J. W.; Muhleman, D. O.; Pettengill, G. H.; Phillips, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Zwally, H. J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Duxbury, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    The first 18 tracks of laser altimeter data across the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft show that the planet at latitudes north of 50 degrees is exceptionally flat; slopes and surface roughness increase toward the equator. The polar layered terrain appears to be a thick ice-rich formation with a non-equilibrium planform indicative of ablation near the periphery. Slope relations suggest that the northern Tharsis province was uplifted in the past. A profile across Ares Vallis channel suggests that the discharge through the channel was much greater than previously estimated. The martian atmosphere shows significant 1-micrometer atmospheric opacities, particularly in low-lying areas such as Valles Marineris.

  4. Web-based Data Information and Sharing System Using Mars Remotely Sensed Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necsoiu, M.; Dinwiddie, C. L.; Colton, S.; Coleman, N. M.

    2004-05-01

    It is well known within the planetary science community that a considerable amount of time can be dedicated to Mars data preparation before one is able to actually conduct remote sensing analyses. A prototype system developed at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) reduces such time by optimizing the process of locating, preparing, and retrieving MOLA PEDR, MOLA MEGDR and Themis VIS/IR datasets. A graphical user interface allows for searching data spatially, temporally, or by keywords. Spatial searches are done either by drawing a box around a map location or by entering coordinate values in planetographic/planetocentric latitude and west/east longitude coordinate systems. Temporal searches may be conducted by searching for specific Themis IR and VIS release dates. Key word searches may be conducted by searching for a particular MOLA PEDR orbit number. The retrieved data is provided in either a native format (such as ASCII for MOLA PEDR datasets) or in a format selected by the user and based on the chosen value-added product. In the case of MOLA PEDR datasets, the user can choose between two interpolation methods (Delaunay-based or natural neighbor) and may receive data in a TIFF or raster grid format. Natural neighbor interpolation produces fewer artifacts, but it is computationally intensive. The time required (minutes or tens of minutes compared with fractions of seconds used by the first method) makes it necessary to provide the user with an email notification once the interpolated dataset becomes available. The interpolated data provide effective resolution that approaches ~150 m compared to the PEDR resolution of ~300 m. In the case of Themis IR and VIS, data may be provided as one B/W single band image or as three-band color composite image in several raster formats. This system was successfully used to analyze Walla Walla Vallis (approximately 305.3 to 305.6E, 9.4S to 9.9S) and Aromatum Chaos/Ravi Vallis (approximately 315E to 322E, 1N

  5. Gusev's Rim Revealed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image on sol 91 (April 5, 2004). Spirit is looking to the southeast, and through the martian haze has captured the rim of Gusev Crater approximately 80 kilometers (49.7 miles) away on the horizon.

    The right side of this image reveals the portion of the crater edge that descends into the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis, a channel that opens into Gusev Crater. Spirit is currently traveling toward the informally named 'Columbia Hills,' which lie to the left of the region pictured here.

    This image is similar to a panoramic camera image taken on sol 68, but Gusev's ridge is more visible here because the atmospheric dust caused by winter dust storms has settled. Scientists expect to get even clearer images than this one in upcoming sols.

    This image has been modified to make the crater rim more visible.

  6. Smectite deposits in Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater, Mars, identified using CRISM hyperspectral reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, V. K.; Arvidson, R. E.; Guinness, E. A.; McLennan, S. M.; Catalano, J. G.; Murchie, S. L.; Powell, K. E.

    2016-05-01

    The ~100 m wide Marathon Valley crosscuts the Cape Tribulation rim segment of the 22 km diameter, Noachian-age Endeavour impact crater on Mars. Single-scattering albedo spectra retrieved from three Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) Full-Resolution Targeted (FRT, regularized to 18 m/pixel) and two Along Track Oversampled (ATO, regularized to 12 m/pixel) observations indicate the presence of Fe3+-Mg2+ smectite exposures located in Marathon Valley with combination vibration metal-OH absorption strength comparable to smectite spectral signatures in Mawrth Vallis. The Opportunity rover was directed to the exposures and documented the presence of Shoemaker formation impact breccias that have been isochemically altered, likely by fracture-controlled aqueous fluids.

  7. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  8. Topography of the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Zuber, M T; Frey, H V; Garvin, J B; Head, J W; Muhleman, D O; Pettengill, G H; Phillips, R J; Solomon, S C; Zwally, H J; Banerdt, W B; Duxbury, T C

    1998-03-13

    The first 18 tracks of laser altimeter data across the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft show that the planet at latitudes north of 50 degrees is exceptionally flat; slopes and surface roughness increase toward the equator. The polar layered terrain appears to be a thick ice-rich formation with a non-equilibrium planform indicative of ablation near the periphery. Slope relations suggest that the northern Tharsis province was uplifted in the past. A profile across Ares Vallis channel suggests that the discharge through the channel was much greater than previously estimated. The martian atmosphere shows significant 1-micrometer atmospheric opacities, particularly in low-lying areas such as Valles Marineris. PMID:9497281

  9. The environmental model of Mars; Proceedings of the 2nd COSPAR Colloquium, Sopron, Hungary, Jan. 22-26, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szego, K.

    Consideration is given to Mars boundary layer simulations, Moessbauer spectroscopy of SNC meteorites, the NASA environmental models of Mars, exploration of the atmosphere and climate system of Mars by balloon, an algorithm for stereo pair matching, landing site selection for the Mars 94 mission, a technique for measuring the electric properties of planetary clouds, and the scientific rationale and technical elements of future Mars exploration in ESA. Attention is also given to the thermal environment of Mars, regolith formation on Phobos and Deimos, small mobile apparatus for Mars surface studies, accretion of meteoritic material onto Mars, exploration of the DAO Vallis-Hadriaca Patera region on Mars by a Mars balloon exploration vehicle, the robotic exploration missions at Mars, and the impact of Mars surface characteristics on rover design.

  10. Discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia-Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  11. The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: preliminary results from the X-ray mode.

    PubMed

    Rieder, R; Economou, T; Wänke, H; Turkevich, A; Crisp, J; Brückner, J; Dreibus, G; McSween, H Y

    1997-12-01

    The alpha proton x-ray spectrometer (APXS) on board the rover of the Mars Pathfinder mission measured the chemical composition of six soils and five rocks at the Ares Vallis landing site. The soil analyses show similarity to those determined by the Viking missions. The analyzed rocks were partially covered by dust but otherwise compositionally similar to each other. They are unexpectedly high in silica and potassium, but low in magnesium compared to martian soils and martian meteorites. The analyzed rocks are similar in composition to terrestrial andesites and close to the mean composition of Earth's crust. Addition of a mafic component and reaction products of volcanic gases to the local rock material is necessary to explain the soil composition. PMID:9388173

  12. Ripple Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    3 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the margin of a lava flow on a cratered plain in the Athabasca Vallis region of Mars. Remarkably, the cratered plain in this scene is essentially free of bright, windblown ripples. Conversely, the lava flow apparently acted as a trap for windblown materials, illustrated by the presence of the light-toned, wave-like texture over much of the flow. That the lava flow surface trapped windblown sand and granules better than the cratered plain indicates that the flow surface has a rougher texture at a scale too small to resolve in this image.

    Location near: 10.7oN, 204.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  13. Loire Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an active dust devil making its way across the rugged terrain of the Loire Vallis system. The dust devil, seen as a fuzzy, nearly-circular bright feature near the center of the picture, is casting a shadow toward the right/upper right (east/northeast). Unlike some martian dust devils, this one did not make a dark streak on the ground. Many more dust devils occur on Mars than there are dust devil streaks observed on the planet's surface.

    Location near: 18.2oS, 16.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  14. The timing of alluvial activity in Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, John A.; Wilson, Sharon A.; Mangold, Nicolas; Calef, Fred; Grotzinger, John P.

    2014-02-01

    The Curiosity rover's discovery of rocks preserving evidence of past habitable conditions in Gale crater highlights the importance of constraining the timing of responsible depositional settings to understand the astrobiological implications for Mars. Crater statistics and mapping reveal the bulk of the alluvial deposits in Gale, including those interrogated by Curiosity, were likely emplaced during the Hesperian, thereby implying that habitable conditions persisted after the Noachian. Crater counting data sets and upper Peace Vallis fan morphology also suggest a possible younger period of fluvial activation that deposited ~10-20 m of sediments on the upper fan after emplacement of the main body of the fan. If validated, water associated with later alluvial activity may have contributed to secondary diagenetic features in Yellowknife Bay.

  15. Preliminary Results from the Mars Pathfinder ASI/MET Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Schofield, J. T.; Crisp, D.; Barnes, J. R.; Magalhaes, J. A.; Murphy, J. R.; Seiff, A.; Wilson, G.; Larsen, S.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder successfully landed in the Ares Vallis flood plain (19.3 N, 33.6 W) on July 4, 1997. The spacecraft carried a suite of instruments to record the structure of the atmosphere during the entry, descent, and landing as well as for monitoring meteorological phenomenon while on the surface. Collectively, these instruments are known as the ASI/MET experiment (Atmospheric Structure Investigation/Meteorology). In this paper we present preliminary results from the ASI/MET experiment. As of this writing, the spacecraft is healthy and continues to take daily meteorological measurements. We expect this will continue for almost one more earth year. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Surface properties of the Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing sites: characterization from orbit and predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fergason, R.L.; Christensen, P.R.; Golombek, M.P.; Parker, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the interpretation of THEMIS-derived thermal inertia data at the Eberswalde, Gale, Holden, and Mawrth Vallis Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) candidate landing sites and determines how thermophysical variations correspond to morphology and, when apparent, mineralogical diversity. At Eberswalde, the proportion of likely unconsolidated material relative to exposed bedrock or highly indurated surfaces controls the thermal inertia of a given region. At Gale, the majority of the landing site region has a moderate thermal inertia (250 to 410 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), which is likely an indurated surface mixed with unconsolidated materials. The primary difference between higher and moderate thermal inertia surfaces may be due to the amount of mantling material present. Within the mound of stratified material in Gale, layers are distinguished in the thermal inertia data; the MSL rover could be traversing through materials that are both thermophysically and compositionally diverse. The majority of the Holden ellipse has a thermal inertia of 340 to 475 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and consists of bed forms with some consolidated material intermixed. Mawrth Vallis has a mean thermal inertia of 310 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 and a wide variety of materials is present contributing to the moderate thermal inertia surfaces, including a mixture of bedrock, indurated surfaces, bed forms, and unconsolidated fines. Phyllosilicates have been identified at all four candidate landing sites, and these clay-bearing units typically have a similar thermal inertia value (400 to 500 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), suggesting physical properties that are also similar.

  17. Repeated Aqueous Flooding from the Cerberus Fossae: Evidence for Very Recently Extant, Deep Groundwater on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burr, Devon M.; Grier, Jennifer A.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2002-09-01

    The geomorphology and topography of the Cerberus Plains region of Mars show three spatially and temporally distinct, young, aqueous flood channel systems. Flood geomorphology in each of these channels, as seen in Mars Orbiter Camera images, consists of streamlined forms, longitudinal lineations, and a single occurrence of transverse dunes, features similar to those in the flood-carved terrain of the Channeled Scabland in the northwestern United States. As additional geomorphic evidence of flooding, small cones (interpreted as phreatic) are found preferentially in the channels or at their distal ends. Glaciers, lava flows, and CO 2-charged density flows are each inconsistent with these geomorphic features. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data show two of the three channel systems (Athabasca Valles and an unnamed northern channel system) emanating from the Cerberus Fossae; we suggest that the third channel system (Marte Vallis) also originated at the fissures. The discharges for two of the three systems (Athabasca Valles and Marte Vallis) have been estimated from surface topography to have been on the order of 10 6 m 3/s. Crater counts indicate that the channels are not only young (extreme Late Amazonian), but also were carved asynchronously. Geomorphic evidence suggests that two of the channels (Athabasca and Marte Valles) experienced more than one flood. Emanation from volcanotectonic fissures instead of chaotic terrain distinguishes these Cerberus Plains channels from the larger, older circum-Chryse channels. Groundwater must have collected in a liquid state prior to flood onset to flow at the estimated discharge rates. Lack of large-scale subsidence near the channels' origination points along the Cerberus Fossae indicates that this groundwater was at least several kilometers deep.

  18. General geology and geomorphology of the Mars Pathfinder landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, A.W.; Gaddis, L.R.; Kirk, R.L.; Soderblom, L.A.; Tanaka, K.L.; Golombek, M.P.; Parker, T.J.; Greeley, Ronald; Kuzmin, R.O.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder (MPF) spacecraft landed on relatively young (late Hesperian-early Amazonian; 3.1-0.7 Ga) plains in Chryse Planitia near the mouth of Ares Vallis. Images returned from the spacecraft reveal a complex landscape of ridges and troughs, large hills and crater rims, rocks and boulders of various sizes and shapes, and surficial deposits, indicating a complex, multistage geologic history of the landing site. After the deposition of one or more bedrock units, depositional and erosional fluvial processes shaped much of the present landscape. Multiple erosional events are inferred on the basis of observations of numerous channels, different orientations of many streamlined tails from their associated knobs and hills, and superposition of lineations and streamlines. Medium- and small-scale features, interpreted to be related to late-stage drainage of floodwaters, are recognized in several areas at the landing site. Streamlined knobs and hills seen in Viking orbiter images support this inference, as they seem to be complex forms, partly erosional and partly depositional, and may also indicate a series of scouring and depositional events that, in some cases, further eroded or partially buried these landforms. Although features such as these are cited as evidence for catastrophic flooding at Ares Vallis, some of these features may also be ascribed to alternative primary or secondary depositional processes, such as glacial or mass-wasting processes. Close inspection of the landing site reveals rocks that are interpreted to be volcanic in origin and others that may be conglomeratic. If such sedimentary rocks are confirmed, fluvial processes have had a greater significance on Mars than previously thought. For the last several hundred million to few billion years, eolian processes have been dominant. Dunes and dune-like features, ventifacts, and deflation and exhumation features around several rocks probably are the most recent landforms. The relatively pristine

  19. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, San Antonio, TX, 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Kelley, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Geologic Mapping of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) Region of Venus: A Progress Report; Geologic Map of the Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle (V-1): Implications for Tectonic and Volcanic History of the North Polar Region of Venus; Preliminary Geological Map of the Fortuna Tessera (V-2) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of V-19; Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle; Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schr dinger Basin; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars; Geologic Mapping Investigations of the Northwest Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region of Mars; Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007; Geologic Mapping of Holden Crater and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava Outflow System; Mapping Tyrrhena Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of Athabaca Valles; Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars Topography of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting; Mars Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping along the Coprates Rise; Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan; Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: Second Year Results and Third Year Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done; New Geologic Map of the Scandia Region of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus; Volcanism on Io: Insights from Global Geologic Mapping; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009.

  20. Ectopic divisions in vascular and ground tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana result in distinct leaf venation defects

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, C. L.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf venation patterns vary considerably between species and between leaves within a species. A mechanism based on canalization of auxin transport has been suggested as the means by which plastic yet organized venation patterns are generated. This study assessed the plasticity of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf venation in response to ectopic ground or procambial cell divisions and auxin transport inhibition (ATI). Ectopic ground cell divisions resulted in vascular fragments between major veins, whereas ectopic procambial cell divisions resulted in additional, abnormal vessels along major veins, with more severely perturbed lines forming incomplete secondary and higher-order venation. These responses imply limited vascular plasticity in response to unscheduled cell divisions. Surprisingly, a combination of ectopic ground cell divisions and ATI resulted in massive vascular overgrowth. It is hypothesized that the vascular overproduction in auxin transport-inhibited wild-type leaves is limited by simultaneous differentiation of ground cells into mesophyll cells. Ectopic ground cell divisions may negate this effect by providing undifferentiated ground cells that respond to accumulated auxin by differentiation into vascular cells. PMID:22936832

  1. Alternative transcription initiation leads to expression of a novel ALK isoform in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Thomas; Lee, William; Obenauf, Anna C.; Ran, Leili; Murali, Rajmohan; Zhang, Qi Fan; Wong, Elissa W. P.; Hu, Wenhuo; Scott, Sasinya N.; Shah, Ronak H.; Landa, Iñigo; Button, Julia; Lailler, Nathalie; Sboner, Andrea; Gao, Dong; Murphy, Devan A.; Cao, Zhen; Shukla, Shipra; Hollmann, Travis J.; Wang, Lu; Borsu, Laetitia; Merghoub, Taha; Schwartz, Gary K.; Postow, Michael A.; Ariyan, Charlotte E.; Fagin, James A.; Zheng, Deyou; Ladanyi, Marc; Busam, Klaus J.; Berger, Michael F.; Chen, Yu; Chi, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Activation of oncogenes by mechanisms other than genetic aberrations such as mutations, translocations, or amplifications is largely undefined. Here we report a novel isoform of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) that is expressed in ~ 11% of melanomas and sporadically in other human cancer types, but not in normal tissues. The novel ALK transcript initiates from a de novo alternative transcription initiation (ATI) site in ALK intron 19, and was termed ALKATI. In ALKATI-expressing tumours, the ATI site is enriched for H3K4me3 and RNA polymerase II, chromatin marks characteristic of active transcription initiation sites1. ALKATI is expressed from both ALK alleles, and no recurrent genetic aberrations are found at the ALK locus, indicating that the transcriptional activation is independent of genetic aberrations at the ALK locus. The ALKATI transcript encodes three proteins with molecular weights of 61.1, 60.8 and 58.7 kilodaltons, consisting primarily of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. ALKATI stimulates multiple oncogenic signalling pathways, drives growth-factor-independent cell proliferation in vitro, and promotes tumorigenesis in vivo in mouse models. ALK inhibitors can suppress the kinase activity of ALKATI, suggesting that patients with ALKATI-expressing tumours may benefit from ALK inhibitors. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of oncogene activation in cancer through de novo alternative transcription initiation. PMID:26444240

  2. Ethnographic Assessment of an Alternative to Incarceration for Women with Minor Children

    PubMed Central

    Goshin, Lorie S.

    2015-01-01

    Allowing criminal justice-involved women to remain with their children in the community may decrease some of the negative intergenerational effects of incarceration. Little is known about potential program models to safely support community co-residence in this population. Ethnographic methods were used to explore the historical development of and life within a supportive housing alternative to incarceration (ATI) program for women with minor children and how they impact the health and social needs of resident families. Participants included 8 current and former adult tenant, 12 of the their resident children, 3 program staff, the program administrator, and 5 prosecutors who originally conceptualized it. Women also reported information about their 8 non-resident children. Analysis revealed three major themes: “The Cycle,” “This is My Home,” and “This Doesn’t Go With That.” While the program built on a core value of family preservation, results illustrate that keeping families together is only the beginning. Clinical and research implications for co-residence ATI programs are discussed in relation to the uniqueness of this context and population. PMID:26460706

  3. CLASSSTRONG: Classical simulations of strong field processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciappina, M. F.; Pérez-Hernández, J. A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2014-01-01

    A set of Mathematica functions is presented to model classically two of the most important processes in strong field physics, namely high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI). Our approach is based on the numerical solution of the Newton-Lorentz equation of an electron moving on an electric field and takes advantage of the symbolic languages features and graphical power of Mathematica. Like in the Strong Field Approximation (SFA), the effects of atomic potential on the motion of electron in the laser field are neglected. The SFA was proven to be an essential tool in strong field physics in the sense that it is able to predict with great precision the harmonic (in the HHG) and energy (in the ATI) limits. We have extended substantially the conventional classical simulations, where the electric field is only dependent on time, including spatial nonhomogeneous fields and spatial and temporal synthesized fields. Spatial nonhomogeneous fields appear when metal nanosystems interact with strong and short laser pulses and temporal synthesized fields are routinely generated in attosecond laboratories around the world. Temporal and spatial synthesized fields have received special attention nowadays because they would allow to exceed considerably the conventional harmonic and electron energy frontiers. Classical simulations are an invaluable tool to explore exhaustively the parameters domain at a cheap computational cost, before massive quantum mechanical calculations, absolutely indispensable for the detailed analysis, are performed.

  4. Nonlinear Reduced Order Random Response Analysis of Structures with Shallow Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures with shallow curvature under random loadings. For reduced order analysis, the modal basis selection must be capable of reflecting the coupling in both the linear and nonlinear stiffness. For the symmetric shallow arch under consideration, four categories of modal basis functions are defined. Those having symmetric transverse displacements (ST modes) can be designated as transverse dominated (ST-T) modes and in-plane dominated (ST-I) modes. Those having anti-symmetric transverse displacements (AT modes) can similarly be designated as transverse dominated (AT-T) modes and in-plane dominated (AT-I) modes. The response of an aluminum arch under a uniformly distributed transverse random loading is investigated. Results from nonlinear modal simulations made using various modal bases are compared with those obtained from a numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. While inclusion of ST-T modes is important for all response regimes, it is found that the ST-I modes become increasingly important in the nonlinear response regime, and that AT-T and AT-I modes are critical in the autoparametric regime.

  5. Nonlinear Reduced Order Random Response Analysis of Structures With Shallow Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures with shallow curvature under random loadings. For reduced order analysis, the modal basis selection must be capable of reflecting the coupling in both the linear and nonlinear stiffness. For the symmetric shallow arch under consideration, four categories of modal basis functions are defined. Those having symmetric transverse displacements (ST modes) can be designated as transverse dominated (ST-T) modes and in-plane dominated (ST-I) modes. Those having anti-symmetric transverse displacements (AT modes) can similarly be designated as transverse dominated (AT-T) modes and in-plane dominated (AT-I) modes. The response of an aluminum arch under a uniformly distributed transverse random loading is investigated. Results from nonlinear modal simulations made using various modal bases are compared with those obtained from a numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. While inclusion of ST-T modes is important for all response regimes, it is found that the ST-I modes become increasingly important in the nonlinear response regime, and that AT-T and AT-I modes are critical in the autoparametric regime.

  6. Simple, accurate, and efficient implementation of 1-electron atomic time-dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patchkovskii, Serguei; Muller, H. G.

    2016-02-01

    Modelling atomic processes in intense laser fields often relies on solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). For processes involving ionisation, such as above-threshold ionisation (ATI) and high-harmonic generation (HHG), this is a formidable task even if only one electron is active. Several powerful ideas for efficient implementation of atomic TDSE were introduced by H.G. Muller some time ago (Muller, 1999), including: separation of Hamiltonian terms into tri-diagonal parts; implicit representation of the spatial derivatives; and use of a rotating reference frame. Here, we extend these techniques to allow for non-uniform radial grids, arbitrary laser field polarisation, and non-Hermitian terms in the Hamiltonian due to the implicit form of the derivatives (previously neglected). We implement the resulting propagator in a parallel Fortran program, adapted for multi-core execution. Cost of TDSE propagation scales linearly with the problem size, enabling full-dimensional calculations of strong-field ATI and HHG spectra for arbitrary field polarisations on a standard desktop PC.

  7. Roles of resonances and recollisions in strong-field atomic phenomena. II. High-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Taieeb, Richard; Veniard, Valerie; Wassaf, Joseph; Maquet, Alfred

    2003-09-01

    The theoretical developments presented in a preceding companion paper by Wassaf et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 053405 (2003)], for simulating photoelectron spectra, are used to address several issues regarding the harmonic generation process. Both above-threshold Ionization (ATI) and high-order harmonic generation are observed when atoms are submitted to a laser field with intensity around I=10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}. Here, we demonstrate that the resonances, together with multiple recollisions processes, which have been shown to be at the origin of enhancements of the magnitudes of ATI peaks in the high-energy range, can also play a determining role on the magnitudes of harmonic lines within the plateau. These findings have been obtained via a set of quantum and classical simulations for two classes of one-dimensional model potentials, i.e., either long range (Coulomb-like) or short range (with an exponentially decreasing tail). They are confirmed by following the time evolution of the emission rate of selected harmonics with the help of a (waveletlike) Gabor time-frequency analysis.

  8. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N’goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  9. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract. PMID:16691636

  10. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  11. Expression and function of the epithelial sodium channel δ-subunit in human respiratory epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schwagerus, Elena; Sladek, Svenja; Buckley, Stephen T; Armas-Capote, Natalia; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Harvey, Brian J; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Huwer, Hanno; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2015-11-01

    Using human airway epithelial cell lines (i.e. NCI-H441 and Calu-3) as well as human alveolar epithelial type I-like (ATI) cells in primary culture, we studied the contribution of the epithelial sodium channel δ-subunit (δ-ENaC) to transepithelial sodium transport in human lung in vitro. Endogenous δ-ENaC protein was present in all three cell types tested; however, protein abundance was low, and no expression was detected in the apical cell membrane of these cells. Similarly, known modulators of δ-ENaC activity, such as capsazepine and icilin (activators) and Evans blue (inhibitor), did not show effects on short-circuit current (I SC), suggesting that δ-ENaC is not involved in the modulation of transcellular sodium absorption in NCI-H441 cell monolayers. Over-expression of δ-ENaC in NCI-H441 cells resulted in detectable protein expression in the apical cell membrane, as well as capsazepine and icilin-stimulated increases in I SC that were effectively blocked by Evans blue and that were consistent with δ-ENaC activation and inhibition, respectively. Consequently, these observations suggest that δ-ENaC expression is low in NCI-H441, Calu-3, and ATI cells and does not contribute to transepithelial sodium absorption. PMID:25677639

  12. Enhancing the formation of tetragonal phase in perovskite nanocrystals using an ultrasound assisted wet chemical method.

    PubMed

    Moghtada, Abdolmajid; Ashiri, Rouholah

    2016-11-01

    Synthesis of highly-pure tetragonal perovskite nanocrystals is the key challenge facing the development of new electronic devices. Our results have indicated that ultrasonication is able in enhancing the formation of tetragonal phase in perovskite nanocrystals. In the current research, multicationic oxide perovskite (ATiO3; A: Ba, Sr, Ba0.6Sr0.4) nanopowders are synthesized successfully by a general methodology without a calcination step. The method is able to synthesize high-purity nanoscale ATiO3 (BaTiO3, SrTiO3, Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3) with tetragonal symmetry at a lower temperature and in a shorter time span in contrast to the literature. To reach an in-depth understanding of the scientific basis of the proposed methodology, in-detail analysis was carried out via XRD, FTIR, FT-Raman, FE-SEM and HR-TEM. The effects of the sonication time and sonication (bath) temperature on the tetragonality of nanoscale products were examined. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy provides clear evidence for local tetragonal symmetries, in particular when a band is observed at 310cm(-1). PMID:27245965

  13. Resonancelike enhancement in high-order above-threshold ionization of polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Okunishi, M.; Hao, X.; Ito, Y.; Chen, J.; Yang, Y.; Lucchese, R. R.; Zhang, M.; Yan, B.; Li, W. D.; Ding, D.; Ueda, K.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the resonance-like enhancement (RLE) in high-order above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of the polyatomic molecules C2H4 and C2H6 . In the spectrum-intensity maps, strong and weak RLE areas emerge alternatively for both C2H4 and C2H6 but in different sequences. Theoretical calculations using the strong-field approximation reproduce the experimental observation and analysis shows that the different characteristics of the two molecules can be attributed to interference effects of molecular orbitals with different symmetries. For C2H4 , the RLE structures are attributed to C-C centers of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) orbital. For C2H6 , in contrast, the C-C centers of the HOMO and HOMO-1 orbitals do not contribute to the RLE due to destructive interference but the hydrogen centers of the bonding HOMO-1 orbital give rise to the multiple RLE regions. In addition, clear experimental evidence of the existence of two types of the RLE and their dependence on the parity of ground state is shown. Our result, which strongly supports the channel-closing mechanism of the RLE, for the first time reveals the important role of low-lying orbitals and the differing roles of different atomic centers in the high-order ATI spectrum of molecules.

  14. Astatine standard redox potentials and speciation in acidic medium.

    PubMed

    Champion, J; Alliot, C; Renault, E; Mokili, B M; Chérel, M; Galland, N; Montavon, G

    2010-01-14

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to define astatine (At) speciation in acidic aqueous solution and to answer the two main questions raised from literature data: does At(0) exist in aqueous solution and what is the chemical form of At(+III), if it exists. The experimental approach considers that a given species is characterized by its distribution coefficient (D) experimentally determined in a biphasic system. The change in speciation arising from a change in experimental conditions is observed by a change in D value. The theoretical approach involves quasi-relativistic quantum chemistry calculations. The results show that At at the oxidation state 0 cannot exist in aqueous solution. The three oxidation states present in the range of water stability are At(-I), At(+I), and At(+III) and exist as At(-), At(+), and AtO(+), respectively, in the 1-2 pH range. The standard redox potentials of the At(+)/At(-) and AtO(+)/At(+) couples have been determined, the respective values being 0.36 +/- 0.01 and 0.74 +/- 0.01 V vs NHE. PMID:20014840

  15. Velocity estimation of slow moving targets in AT-InSAR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budillon, A.; Pascazio, V.; Schirinzi, G.

    2007-10-01

    Along Track Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (AT-InSAR) systems use more than one SAR antennas (typically two), mounted on the same platform and displaced along the platform moving direction, to detect slow ground moving targets. The phase of the ATI signal is related to the target motion parameters and may thus be used to estimate the radial velocity. In this paper we approach the velocity estimation problem using statistical techniques based on the statistical distribution of the measured interferometric phases. We analyze the radial velocity estimation with respect to ATI system parameters, such as velocity values, the signal to clutter ratio (SCR), the clutter to noise ratio (CNR), considering a deterministic target whose velocity is estimated using a Gaussian model. This model allows to take into account the lack of knowledge of the target radar cross section (RCS) values and provides an analytical form for the interferometric phase probability density function. Simulations results show that the adoption of Maximum Likelihood (ML) techniques, to perform a joint estimation of velocity and SCR, and multi-channel configurations, to overcome ambiguities problems, provide very good velocity estimation accuracy.

  16. Optimal learning in a virtual patient simulation of cranial nerve palsies: The interaction between social learning context and student aptitude

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, TERESA R.; LYONS, REBECCA; CHUAH, JOON HAO; KOPPER, REGIS; LOK, BENJAMIN C.; CENDAN, JUAN C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Simulation in medical education provides students with opportunities to practice interviews, examinations, and diagnosis formulation related to complex conditions without risks to patients. Aim To examine differences between individual and team participation on learning outcomes and student perspectives through use of virtual patients (VPs) for teaching cranial nerve (CN) evaluation. Methods Fifty-seven medical students were randomly assigned to complete simulation exercises either as individuals or as members of three-person teams. Students interviewed, examined, and diagnosed VPs with possible CN damage in the Neurological Exam Rehearsal Virtual Environment (NERVE). Knowledge of CN abnormalities was assessed pre- and post-simulation. Student perspectives of system usability were evaluated post-simulation. Results An aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) effect was detected; at pre-test scores ≤50%, students in teams scored higher (83%) at post-test than did students as individuals (62%, p = 0.02). Post-simulation, students in teams reported greater confidence in their ability to diagnose CN abnormalities than did students as individuals (p = 0.02; mean rating = 4.0/5.0 and 3.4/5.0, respectively). Conclusion The ATI effect allows us to begin defining best practices for the integration of VP simulators into the medical curriculum. We are persuaded to implement future NERVE exercises with small teams of medical students. PMID:22938679

  17. Arylthioindole inhibitors of tubulin polymerization. 3. Biological evaluation, structure-activity relationships and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Edler, Michael C; Brancale, Andrea; Kandil, Sahar; Coluccia, Antonio; Piscitelli, Francesco; Hamel, Ernest; De Martino, Gabriella; Matesanz, Ruth; Díaz, José Fernando; Scovassi, Anna Ivana; Prosperi, Ennio; Lavecchia, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Artico, Marino; Silvestri, Romano

    2007-06-14

    The new arylthioindole (ATI) derivatives 10, 14-18, and 21-24, which bear a halogen atom or a small size ether group at position 5 of the indole moiety, were compared with the reference compounds colchicine and combretastatin A-4 for biological activity. Derivatives 10, 11, 16, and 21-24 inhibited MCF-7 cell growth with IC50 values <50 nM. A halogen atom (14-17) at position 5 caused a significant reduction in the free energy of binding of compound to tubulin, with a concomitant reduction in cytotoxicity. In contrast, methyl (21) and methoxy (22) substituents at position 5 caused an increase in cytotoxicity. Compound 16, the most potent antitubulin agent, led to a large increase (56%) in HeLa cells in the G2/M phase at 24 h, and at 48 h, 26% of the cells were hyperploid. Molecular modeling studies showed that, despite the absence of the ester moiety present in the previously examined analogues, most of the compounds bind in the colchicine site in the same orientation as the previously studied ATIs. Binding to beta-tubulin involved formation of a hydrogen bond between the indole and Thr179 and positioning of the trimethoxy phenyl group in a hydrophobic pocket near Cys241. PMID:17497841

  18. The effects of a Web-based physics software program on students' achievement and misconceptions in force and motion concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Neset

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a web-based physics software program on students' achievement and misconceptions in force and motion concepts. During the fall of 1999, a total 125 students (54.4% female and 45.6% male) from two public high schools in Brevard County, Florida, were selected by a sample of convenience to participate in this quasi-experimental study. The MANCOVA analysis yielded a significant interaction for pretest (covariate = priory physics knowledge) and gender for each dependent variable (Y 1 = Achievement, and Y2 = Misconception). Thus, the test for homogeneity of regression failed rendering an invalid MANCOVA model. As a result, separate ATI's were performed for each dependent variable. ATI interaction between pretest and gender relative to achievement and misconception was significant. Of the six initial hypotheses, only hypothesis 2, which examined differences in-group misconception scores, was rejected. Specifically, group membership contributed 12.6% additional knowledge of posttest misconception score variability, which was statistically significant (F1,9 = 20.03, p < .05). Based on this result, it can be concluded that incorporating the web-based physics program with traditional lecturing did have a significant effect on dispelling students' physics misconceptions about force and motion concepts. Thus, only the test for this hypothesis and the two interactions, which were not initially considered as research hypotheses, were significant. All other tests of hypotheses were not statistically significant and hence were not rejected.

  19. Compartmentation of Redox Metabolism in Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Rahlfs, Stefan; Przyborski, Jude M.; Becker, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Malaria, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium, still represents a major threat to human health and welfare and leads to about one million human deaths annually. Plasmodium is a rapidly multiplying unicellular organism undergoing a complex developmental cycle in man and mosquito – a life style that requires rapid adaptation to various environments. In order to deal with high fluxes of reactive oxygen species and maintain redox regulatory processes and pathogenicity, Plasmodium depends upon an adequate redox balance. By systematically studying the subcellular localization of the major antioxidant and redox regulatory proteins, we obtained the first complete map of redox compartmentation in Plasmodium falciparum. We demonstrate the targeting of two plasmodial peroxiredoxins and a putative glyoxalase system to the apicoplast, a non-photosynthetic plastid. We furthermore obtained a complete picture of the compartmentation of thioredoxin- and glutaredoxin-like proteins. Notably, for the two major antioxidant redox-enzymes – glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase – Plasmodium makes use of alternative-translation-initiation (ATI) to achieve differential targeting. Dual localization of proteins effected by ATI is likely to occur also in other Apicomplexa and might open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21203490

  20. Compartmentation of redox metabolism in malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Kehr, Sebastian; Sturm, Nicole; Rahlfs, Stefan; Przyborski, Jude M; Becker, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Malaria, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium, still represents a major threat to human health and welfare and leads to about one million human deaths annually. Plasmodium is a rapidly multiplying unicellular organism undergoing a complex developmental cycle in man and mosquito - a life style that requires rapid adaptation to various environments. In order to deal with high fluxes of reactive oxygen species and maintain redox regulatory processes and pathogenicity, Plasmodium depends upon an adequate redox balance. By systematically studying the subcellular localization of the major antioxidant and redox regulatory proteins, we obtained the first complete map of redox compartmentation in Plasmodium falciparum. We demonstrate the targeting of two plasmodial peroxiredoxins and a putative glyoxalase system to the apicoplast, a non-photosynthetic plastid. We furthermore obtained a complete picture of the compartmentation of thioredoxin- and glutaredoxin-like proteins. Notably, for the two major antioxidant redox-enzymes--glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase--Plasmodium makes use of alternative-translation-initiation (ATI) to achieve differential targeting. Dual localization of proteins effected by ATI is likely to occur also in other Apicomplexa and might open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21203490

  1. Electron-momentum distributions and photoelectron spectra of atoms driven by an intense spatially inhomogeneous field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciappina, M. F.; Pérez-Hernández, J. A.; Shaaran, T.; Roso, L.; Lewenstein, M.

    2013-06-01

    We use the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation (3 D-TDSE) to calculate angular electron momentum distributions and photoelectron spectra of atoms driven by spatially inhomogeneous fields. An example for such inhomogeneous fields is the locally enhanced field induced by resonant plasmons, appearing at surfaces of metallic nanoparticles, nanotips, and gold bow-tie shaped nanostructures. Our studies show that the inhomogeneity of the laser electric field plays an important role on the above-threshold ionization process in the tunneling regime, causing significant modifications on the electron momentum distributions and photoelectron spectra, while its effects in the multiphoton regime appear to be negligible. Indeed, through the tunneling above-threshold ionization (ATI) process, one can obtain higher energy electrons as well as a high degree of asymmetry in the momentum space map. In this study we consider near infrared laser fields with intensities in the mid- 1014 W/cm2 range and we use a linear approximation to describe their spatial dependence. We show that in this case it is possible to drive electrons with energies in the near-keV regime. Furthermore, we study how the carrier envelope phase influences the emission of ATI photoelectrons for few-cycle pulses. Our quantum mechanical calculations are fully supported by their classical counterparts.

  2. Observation of Planetary Oceans with Fully Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Wooil M.

    waves observed in the western part of the East Sea test area were also estimated from more than 140 SAR images. On the other hand, very long wave patterns (13-10 km) were observed in two successively acquired ENVISAT ASAR images and interpreted as near-inertial internal waves based on the hydrographic data. The Along Track Interferometric SAR (ATI-SAR), utilizing two SAR antennas separated along the platform flight direction and combined interferometrically, was also tested and validated to derive ocean surface current and wave information. The phase of ATI-SAR is related to the line-of-sight velocity of the water scatterers. The surface current extraction from the ATI-SAR velocity is still an open question, because the Doppler shift is not simply proportional to the component of the mean surface current. It also includes other types of contributions associated with the phase velocity of the Bragg waves and orbital motions of all ocean waves that are longer than Bragg waves. For accurate current estimation, a new and practically useful method was developed using simultaneously measured L- and C-band ATI-SAR data. The influence of Bragg resonant waves and long ocean wave motions on the ATI-SAR velocity according to the radar-frequency was analyzed and effectively eliminated. The method was applied to NASA(JPL) L- and C-band ATI-SAR measurements. The resulting ocean surface current vectors were compared with in situ measurements collected by an RCM (Recording Current Meter). Furthermore, ocean surface wave information was extracted from the ATI-SAR data using a quasi-linear transform. The limitations of the transform were also discussed. The basic principles and the results of these multi-disciplinary observation approaches on the Earth's ocean may be extended to investigate other terrestrial planetary surface observation in the solar system. With recent launching of several fully polarimetric SAR systems such as ALOS, TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2, we now have the real

  3. Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT/SLCO2A1) Protects the Lung from Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Takeo; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Uetoko, Yuka; Komori, Hisakazu; Akanuma, Shin-ichi; Hosoya, Ken-ichi; Tamai, Ikumi

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 exhibits an anti-fibrotic effect in the lung in response to inflammatory reactions and is a high-affinity substrate of PG transporter (SLCO2A1). The present study aimed to evaluate the pathophysiological relevance of SLCO2A1 to bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Slco2a1 protein was expressed in airway and alveolar type I (ATI) and II (ATII) epithelial cells, and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry further demonstrated cell surface expression of Slco2a1 in ATI cells in wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. PGE2 uptake activity was abrogated in ATI-like cells from Slco2a1-deficient (Slco2a1-/-) mice, which was clearly observed in the cells from WT mice. Furthermore, the PGE2 concentrations in lung tissues were lower in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice. The pathological relevance of SLCO2A1 was further studied in mouse BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis models. BLM (1 mg/kg) or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline) was intratracheally injected into WT and Slco2a1-/- mice, and BLM-induced fibrosis was evaluated on day 14. BLM induced more severe fibrosis in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice, as indicated by thickened interstitial connective tissue and enhanced collagen deposition. PGE2 levels were higher in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but lower in lung tissues of Slco2a1-/- mice. Transcriptional upregulation of TGF-β1 was associated with enhanced gene transcriptions of downstream targets including plasminogen activator inhitor-1. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant activation of protein kinase C (PKC) δ along with a modest activation of Smad3 in lung from Slco2a1-/- mice, suggesting a role of PKCδ associated with TGF-β signaling in aggravated fibrosis in BLM-treated Slco2a1-/- mice. In conclusion, pulmonary PGE2 disposition is largely regulated by SLCO2A1, demonstrating that SLCO2A1 plays a critical role in protecting the lung from BLM-induced fibrosis. PMID:25923111

  4. Novel Apo E-Derived ABCA1 Agonist Peptide (CS-6253) Promotes Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Induces Formation of preβ-1 HDL In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Genest, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  5. Temporal Assemblage Turnovers of Foraminiferal Communities from the Caribbean, United Kingdom and Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent

    2016-04-01

    Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities were quantitatively determined using the assemblage turnover index (ATI), and contributing species were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). The live foraminiferal communities were examined as metacommunities (all stations) and assemblages (groups of stations defined by cluster analysis) over one and two year periods at Caroni Swamp, Claxton Bay (E Trinidad), Cowpen Marsh (NE England) and Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain). Major assemblage turnovers (when ATI > x + σ) of the Caroni Swamp metacommunity and assemblages coincided with seasonal changes from dry to wet conditions in 2011 and 2012. The abundant species (Ammonia tepida, Ammotium salsum, Arenoparella mexicana, Trochammina advena, Trochammina laevigata and Trochammina inflata) contributed the most to assemblage turnovers but showed no preference to either dry or wet conditions. At Claxton Bay major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity and mid assemblage coincided with seasonal change and calcareous species (A. tepida and Triloculina oblonga) increased during wet conditions and decreased during dry conditions, while agglutinated species (T. advena and A. salsum) fluctuated oppositely. At Cowpen Marsh major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity coincided with the start of summer and winter. Assemblages at higher elevations (mainly Jadammina macrescens and Haplophragmoides spp.) were responsible for the summer turnover, while the winter turnover was led by the assemblage at lower elevations (mainly Haynesina germanica, Elphidium earlandi, Elphidium williamsoni, Elphidium excavatum and Quinqueloculina spp.). At Bay of Cádiz, the foraminiferal assemblage at a tidal height of 1.5 to 1.7 m above the hydrographic zero was examined within three separate plots, and the seasonal occurrence of assemblage turnovers differed between plots. Thus, replicate samples and multiple plots may be necessary to overcome spatial

  6. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S P; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Tetley, Teresa D

    2015-06-21

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  7. Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    James M. Rakowski

    2006-09-30

    This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost

  8. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Genest, Jacques; Zhu, Xuewei

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These

  9. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Genest, Jacques; Zhu, Xuewei

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from themore » carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  10. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Martina; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  11. A recent, equatorial, periglacial environment on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, M. R.; Gallagher, C.; Murray, J. B.; Muller, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    During the Viking era, Mars' recent climatic history was held to be cold and dry with little evidence for long-lived liquid water near the surface; signs of a past wetter, warmer climate were confined to ancient Noachian or Hesperian-aged terrains. Recent missions have revealed contemporary near-surface water-ice to be abundant at high latitudes, and a population of mid-latitude fluvial-like gullies that appear to have formed by transient melting of ice or snow. Thus today's view of Mars' recent surface evolution is one of global permafrost existing within a framework of climate change, the timescales of which are governed by obliquity cycles with periods of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. However, in recent mapping work of the equatorial Elysium Planitia region using the latest very high resolution images of Mars (HiRISE; 25cm/pixel) we have found evidence for longer-lived, geologically recent liquid water at the martian surface. This suggests that there was a recent period when the climate was warmer than current obliquity cycle-based models predict. The Elysium Planitia region of Mars is both geologically young (late Amazonian period; <100 Ma) and hosts a variety of landforms that are morphologically similar to those of periglacial and permafrost environments on Earth. The region was exposed to massive flooding from deep underground sources during the late Amazonian, as demonstrated by the distinctive fluvial morphologies seen in the outflow channel Athabasca Vallis. These floods would have provided both the source of ice and particulate material required for a periglacial or permafrost landscape and there was probably a long-lived, but slowly freezing, lake or sea in the downstream Elysium basin. However, the provenance of the materials and landforms of this region is disputed: many authors still regard the Athabasca Vallis and Elysium basin as being flood lava provinces, with effusive volcanic materials reoccupying earlier flood landscapes (a classic

  12. ExoMars 2018: the four final candidate Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, Damien; Flahaut, Jessica; Vago, Jorge L.; Hauber, Ernst; Bridges, John C.

    2015-04-01

    December 2014. The Aram Dorsum site comprises Noachian layered sedimentary rocks with a prominent inverted channel system (>80 km long). Potential targets include the inverted channel, the channel margins, a channel transition unit, and pits present within the floodplain. The Hypanis Vallis site lies near two fluvial fan/deltaic systems at the termination of Hypanis and Sabrina Valles. Potential targets include mainly outcrops of expected fine-grained sediments on the smooth transition unit that surrounds the delta/fan, and units around the rim of Magong crater. The Mawrth Vallis site contains one of the largest exposures of phyllosilicates detected on the Martian surface, in Noachian terrain [8]. Potential targets include the mineralogically diverse clay-rich outcrops and ancient channels. The Oxia Planum site lies on Fe/Mg phyllosilicates-rich exposures associated to layered rocks that may be related to the Mawrth Vallis sequence. Potential targets include the clay-rich outcrops as well as channels and inverted channels and delta-fan deposits. New data are being actively acquired by the HiRISE, CRISM and HRSC teams to support the ExoMars 2018 landing site selection process. The ellipses are large and new data are important for characterizing the potential targets and evaluating the safety of the sites. The proposing teams, the ExoMars project team and the LSSWG will continue their analysis and comparison of the sites, aiming to complete the certification of at least one site by September 2016 -- in time for the start of the mission's Critical Design Review (CDR). The final selection of the landing site is expected within 2017. References: [1] http://exploration.esa.int/mars/48088-mission-overview/ [2] http://exploration.esa.int/mars/53462-call-for-exo mars-2018-landing-site-selection/ [3] ExoMars 2018 LSSWG recommendation: http://exploration.esa.int/mars/54707-recommendation-for-the-narrowing-of-exomars-2018-landing-sites/

  13. Geomorphic constraints on the geologic history of Gale Crater (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palucis, M. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Hayes, A. G.; Williams, R. M.; Calef, F. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Parker, T. J.; Bridges, N. T.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    On August 5, 2012, the Curiosity rover landed in Gale Crater near the Peace Vallis (PV) alluvial fan system. Gale is located on the crustal dichotomy of Mars between the heavily cratered southern highlands and the smoother northern lowlands. Recent crater counts on Gale's ejecta give an age estimate of ~3.6 Ga, corresponding to the Early Hesperian or possibly the Late Noachian (Le Deit et al., 2012). In the region to the south of Gale are similarly-sized craters (e.g. Hershel and Wien) that appear substantially more degraded, are partially to nearly buried, and have subtle rims, indicating that they likely pre-date Gale. Farah Vallis (FV), a large v-shaped channel incised into the southwestern rim of Gale, may have been part of a large regional drainage system (~270,000 km2) originating near Hershel Crater. Ejecta from Gale appear to have partly buried this valley network, implying it was active before the formation of Gale itself (Irwin et al., 2005). Gale also contains an ~5 km high central mound composed of layered material, whose age based on crater counts and superposition relationships, is ~3.6 to 3.8 Ga (Thomson et al., 2011). Here, we use crater counting and geomorphological relationships from mapped features within Gale to extend the work of others in providing a chronology of Gale's multi-stage geologic history. Using CTX imagery we have identified several large fan/delta features within Gale, in addition to those previously identified. These features, combined with topographic benches and morphologic changes from canyons to local fan deposition, suggest a series of large lakes. The largest (-2100 m) would have filled Gale entirely, and the smallest would have been a shallow lake at the distal end of the PV fan. The simplest interpretation, and the one supported by the geomorphology, is that Gale was sourced in part with water from FV and then progressively fell, creating weak shoreline features at several elevations. In addition, we performed a crater

  14. The potential of hydrodynamic analysis for the interpretation of Martian fluvial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungrack; Schumann, Guy; Neal, Jeffrey; Lin, Shih-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    After liquid water was identified as the agent of ancient Martian fluvial activities, the valley and channels on the Martian surface were investigated by a number of remote sensing and in-situ measurements. In particular, the stereo DTMs and ortho images from various successful orbital sensors are being effectively used to trace the origin and consequences of Martian hydrological channels. For instance, to analyze the Martian fluvial activities more quantitatively using the topographic products, Burr et al. (2003) employed 1D hydrodynamic models such as HEC-RAS together with the topography by MOLA to derive water flow estimates for the Athabasca Valles area on Mars [1]. Where extensive floodplain flows or detailed 2D bathymetry for the river channel exist, it may be more accurate to simulate flows in two dimensions, especially if the direction of flow is unclear a priori. Thus in this study we demonstrated a quantitative modeling method utilizing multi-resolution Martian DTMs, constructed in line with Kim and Muller's (2009) [2] approach, and an advanced hydraulics model LISFLOOD-FP (Bates et al., 2010) [3], which simulates in-channel dynamic wave behavior by solving for 2D shallow water equations without advection. Martian gravitation and manning constants were adjusted in the hydraulic model and the inflow values were iteratively refined from the outputs of the coarser to the finer model. Then we chose the target areas among Martian fluvial geomorphologies and tested the effectiveness of high resolution hydraulic modeling to retrieve the characteristics of fluvial systems. Test sites were established in the Athabasca Valles, Bahram Vallis, and Naktong Vallis respectively. Since those sites are proposed to be originated by different fluvial mechanisms, it is expected that the outputs from hydraulics modeling will provide important clues about the evolution of each fluvial system. Hydraulics modeling in the test areas with terrestrial simulation parameters was also

  15. Studying the NE Eridania sedimentary sequence through the Mars 2020 rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Carter, J.; Rossato, S.; Baratti, E.; Mangili, C.; Coradini, M.; McBride, K. S.

    2014-04-01

    The landing sites we are proposing for the next Mars 2020 rover span between 28°29'30"S-28°53'0"S Latitude and 178°56'30"W°178°28'0"W Longitude, i.e. on the NE floor of a 1.1×106 km2 closed drainage basin [1]. This area, see Fig. 1, belongs to the bigger (3×106 km2) Eridania basin that gave birth to the Ma'adim Vallis through catastrophic overflow, and presenting a water table between 950 and 1250 m [1,2,3]. The crater counting chronology for this area gives an age between Early to Middle Noachian [4]. By means of OMEGA [5] and CRISM [6] data, a large clay-bearing sedimentary unit has been identified over almost the entire margin of the Eridania basin [7]. On our specific site, i.e. the NE margin of the Eridania basin, sequences of aqueous minerals are observed. Such sedimentary minerals are accessible through erosional windows into the first several tens of meters of the sedimentary sequence. The top-down mineral sequence identified on the landing sites area presents an unaltered capping unit that is overlying an Al-rich clay stratum (see Fig. 2) akin to Al-smectite and/or kaolins with a <1 m thickness. A third sedimentary Fe-rich clay layer (akin to the nontronite smectite) is found, presenting a thickness of <10 m and overlying a mineral at the base of the exposed strata, which could be either a zeolite (favoured scenario) or a hydrated sulfate. On Earth, the thicknesses and compositions of the clay-rich strata have been used to constrain the paleoclimate [8,9], hence, the in situ exploration of the proposed sedimentary sequences at Eridania would provide fundamental observables of the early era (> 3.8 Ga) during which liquid water was durably stable at the surface. The most valuable candidates for ancient Martian microbial life sustainability and preservation are longlasting environments, characterized by the presence of ponding water [10,11,12]: hence, the proposed site presents a high exobiological potential that is just waiting to be unveiled. Besides

  16. Vocal correlates of individual sooty mangabey travel speed and direction

    PubMed Central

    Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Many group-living animals coordinate movements with acoustic signals, but so far most studies have focused on how group movements are initiated. In this study, we investigated movement patterns of wild sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), a mostly terrestrial, forest-dwelling primate. We provide quantitative results showing that vocalization rates of mangabey subgroups, but not of focal individuals, correlated with focal individuals’ current movement patterns. More interestingly, vocal behaviour predicted whether individuals changed future speed, and possibly future travel direction. The role of vocalizations as a potential mechanism for the regulation of group movement was further highlighted by interaction effects that include subgroup size and the quality of poly-specific associations. Collectively, our results suggest that primate vocal behaviour can function beyond travel initiation in coordination and regulation of group movements. PMID:27547587

  17. Traffic Speed Data Imputation Method Based on Tensor Completion

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Bin; Feng, Jianshuai; Liu, Ying; Wang, Wuhong

    2015-01-01

    Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS); however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC), an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS) database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches. PMID:25866501

  18. NRES: The Network of Robotic Echelle Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siverd, Robert; Eastman, Jason D.; Brown, Timothy M.; Hygelund, John; Henderson, Todd; Tufts, Joseph; Van Eyken, Julian C.; Barnes, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Network (LCOGT) is building the Network of Robotic Echelle Spectrographs (NRES), which will consist of six identical, optical (390 - 860 nm) high-precision spectrographs, each fiber-fed simultaneously by two 1 meter telescopes and a thorium argon calibration source, one at each of our observatory sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Thus, NRES will be a single, globally-distributed, autonomous observing facility using twelve 1-m telescopes. Simulations suggest we will achieve long-term radial velocity precision of better than 3 m/s in less than an hour for stars brighter than V = 12. We have been funded with NSF MRI and ATI grants, and expect our first spectrograph to be deployed in mid 2015, with the full network operation of all 6 units beginning in 2016. We will discuss the NRES design, goals, robotic operation, and status, as well as the early results from our prototype spectrograph.

  19. Grain Boundary Engineering the Mechanical Properties of Allvac 718Plus(Trademark) Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Garg, Anita; Lin, Peter; Provenzano, virgil; Heard, Robert; Miller, Herbert M.

    2010-01-01

    Grain Boundary Engineering can enhance the population of structurally-ordered "low S" Coincidence Site Lattice (CSL) grain boundaries in the microstructure. In some alloys, these "special" grain boundaries have been reported to improve overall resistance to corrosion, oxidation, and creep resistance. Such improvements could be quite beneficial for superalloys, especially in conditions which encourage damage and cracking at grain boundaries. Therefore, the effects of GBE processing on high-temperature mechanical properties of the cast and wrought superalloy Allvac 718Plus (Allvac ATI) were screened. Bar sections were subjected to varied GBE processing, and then consistently heat treated, machined, and tested at 650 C. Creep, tensile stress relaxation, and dwell fatigue crack growth tests were performed. The influences of GBE processing on microstructure, mechanical properties, and associated failure modes are discussed.

  20. The associate principal astronomer telescope operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Edgington, Will; Henry, Greg

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with ATIS, a language for commanding remotely located automatic telescopes. This paper introduces the notion of an Associate Principal Astronomer, or APA. At the heart of the APA is automatic observation loading and scheduling software, and it is this software that is expected to help achieve efficient and productive telescope operations. The purpose of the APA system is to make it possible for astronomers to submit observation requests to and obtain resulting data from remote automatic telescopes, via the Internet, in a highly-automated way that minimizes human interaction with the system and maximizes the scientific return from observing time.

  1. The Associate Principal Astronomer for AI Management of Automatic Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    This research program in scheduling and management of automatic telescopes had the following objectives: 1. To field test the 1993 Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS93) programming language, which was specifically developed to allow real-time control of an automatic telescope via an artificial intelligence scheduler running on a remote computer. 2. To develop and test the procedures for two-way communication between a telescope controller and remote scheduler via the Internet. 3. To test various concepts in Al scheduling being developed at NASA Ames Research Center on an automatic telescope operated by Tennessee State University at the Fairborn Observatory site in southern Arizona. and 4. To develop a prototype software package, dubbed the Associate Principal Astronomer, for the efficient scheduling and management of automatic telescopes.

  2. GMTI for Squint Looking XTI-SAR with Rotatable Forward-Looking Array

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Kai; Xu, Jia; Huang, Zuzhen; Yao, Di; Long, Teng

    2016-01-01

    To realize ground moving target indication (GMTI) for a forward-looking array, we propose a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, called rotatable cross-track interferometry SAR (Ro-XTI-SAR), for squint-looking application in this paper. By changing the angle of the cross-track baseline, the interferometry phase component of squint-looking Ro-XTI-SAR caused by the terrain height can be approximately adjusted to zero, and then the interferometry phase of Ro-XTI-SAR is only sensitive to targets’ motion and can be equivalent to the along track interferometry SAR (ATI-SAR). Furthermore, the conventional displaced phase center array (DPCA) method and constant false alarm (CFAR) processing can be used to accomplish the successive clutter suppression, moving targets detection and relocation. Furthermore, the clutter suppressing performance is discussed with respect to different system parameters. Finally, some results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:27314350

  3. Traffic flow in a Manhattan-like urban system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Ding, Zhong-Jun; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a cellular automaton model of vehicular traffic in a Manhattan-like urban system is proposed. In this model, the origin-destination trips and traffic lights have been considered. The system exhibits three different states, i.e. moving state, saturation state and global deadlock state. With a grid coarsening method, vehicle distribution in the moving state and the saturation state has been studied. Interesting structures (e.g. windmill-like ones, T-shirt-like ones, Y-like ones) have been revealed. A metastability of the system is observed in the transition from the saturation state to the global deadlock state. The effect of an advanced traveller information system (ATIS), the traffic light period and the traffic light switch strategy have also been investigated.

  4. Roles of resonances and recollisions in strong-field atomic phenomena: Above-threshold ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Wassaf, Joseph; Veniard, Valerie; Taieeb, Richard; Maquet, Alfred

    2003-05-01

    We present the results of a set of quantal and classical calculations designed for simulating the photoelectron spectra observed when atoms are submitted to an intense laser field. We have concentrated the discussion on the range of parameters where conspicuous enhancements are observed in the high-energy part of the above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra. Our results confirm that these enhancements result from a resonant transfer of population into the Rydberg states. Subsequent multiple returns, with elastic or inelastic recollisions of the electrons with the nucleus, when they are released in the continuum, also play an essential part. Our analysis highlights also the similarities as well as the differences observed in simulations, depending on the choice of the model potential, i.e., if it is either long range (Coulomb-like) or short range (with an exponentially decreasing tail)

  5. Intelligent transportation systems strategic plan: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This interim report on an Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Strategic Plan has been developed as documentation of the process of offering a vision for ITS and recommending an outline for organizational structure, infrastructure, and long-term planning for ITS in Kentucky. This plan provides an overview of the broad scope of ITS and relationships between various Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) functional areas and ITS user service areas. Three of the functional areas of ITS have been addressed in this interim report with sections devoted to mission, vision, goals, and potential technology applications. Within each of the three areas, recommendations have been made for applications and technologies for deployment. A more formalized business plan for ITS will be developed to recommend specific projects for implementation. Those three functional areas are: (1) Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS), (2) Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS), and (3) Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO).

  6. Vocal correlates of individual sooty mangabey travel speed and direction.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Christof; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Many group-living animals coordinate movements with acoustic signals, but so far most studies have focused on how group movements are initiated. In this study, we investigated movement patterns of wild sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), a mostly terrestrial, forest-dwelling primate. We provide quantitative results showing that vocalization rates of mangabey subgroups, but not of focal individuals, correlated with focal individuals' current movement patterns. More interestingly, vocal behaviour predicted whether individuals changed future speed, and possibly future travel direction. The role of vocalizations as a potential mechanism for the regulation of group movement was further highlighted by interaction effects that include subgroup size and the quality of poly-specific associations. Collectively, our results suggest that primate vocal behaviour can function beyond travel initiation in coordination and regulation of group movements. PMID:27547587

  7. New anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Sobieraj-Teague, Magdalena; O'Donnell, Martin; Eikelboom, John

    2009-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation is already the most common clinically significant cardiac arrhythmia and a common cause of stroke. Vitamin K antagonists are very effective for the prevention of cardioembolic stroke but have numerous limitations that limit their uptake in eligible patients with AF and reduce their effectiveness in treated patients. Multiple new anticoagulants are under development as potential replacements for vitamin K antagonists. Most are small synthetic molecules that target factor IIa (e.g., dabigatran etexilate, AZD-0837) or factor Xa (e.g., rivaroxaban, apixaban, betrixaban, DU176b, idrabiotaparinux). These drugs have predictable pharmacokinetics that allow fixed dosing without laboratory monitoring, and are being compared with vitamin K antagonists or aspirin in phase III clinical trials [corrected]. A new vitamin K antagonist (ATI-5923) with improved pharmacological properties compared with warfarin is also being evaluated in a phase III trial. None of the new agents have as yet been approved for clinical use. PMID:19739042

  8. Super VGA Primitives Graphics System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-05-14

    Version 00 These primitives are the lowest level routines needed to perform super VGA graphics on a PC. A sample main program is included that exercises the primitives. Both Lahey and Microsoft FORTRAN's have graphics libraries. However, the libraries do not support 256 color graphics at resolutions greater than 320x200. The primitives bypass these libraries while still conforming to standard usage of BIOS. The supported graphics modes depend upon the PC graphics card and itsmore » memory. Super VGA resolutions of 640x480 and 800x600 have been tested on an ATI VGA Wonder card with 512K memory and on several 80486 PC's (unknown manufacturers) at retail stores.« less

  9. Emerging small molecule drugs.

    PubMed

    Colin, Sophie; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Kuivenhoven, Jan A; Staels, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Dyslipidaemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Pharmacological lowering of LDL-C levels using statins reduces cardiovascular risk. However, a substantial residual risk persists especially in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because of the inverse association observed in epidemiological studies of HDL-C with the risk for cardiovascular diseases, novel therapeutic strategies to raise HDL-C levels or improve HDL functionality are developed as complementary therapy for cardiovascular diseases. However, until now most therapies targeting HDL-C levels failed in clinical trials because of side effects or absence of clinical benefits. This chapter will highlight the emerging small molecules currently developed and tested in clinical trials to pharmacologically modulate HDL-C and functionality including new CETP inhibitors (anacetrapib, evacetrapib), novel PPAR agonists (K-877, CER-002, DSP-8658, INT131 and GFT505), LXR agonists (ATI-111, LXR-623, XL-652) and RVX-208. PMID:25523004

  10. Effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving with an advanced traveler information system.

    PubMed

    Dingus, T A; Hulse, M C; Mollenhauer, M A; Fleischman, R N; McGehee, D V; Manakkal, N

    1997-06-01

    This paper explores the effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving, navigation performance, and safety for drivers who used TravTek, an Advanced Traveler Information System. The first two studies investigated various route guidance configurations on the road in a specially equipped instrumented vehicle with an experimenter present. The third was a naturalistic quasi-experimental field study that collected data unobtrusively from more than 1200 TravTek rental car drivers with no in-vehicle experimenter. The results suggest that with increased experience, drivers become familiar with the system and develop strategies for substantially more efficient and safer use. The results also showed that drivers over age 65 had difficulty driving and navigating concurrently. They compensated by driving slowly and more cautiously. Despite this increased caution, older drivers made more safety-related errors than did younger drivers. The results also showed that older drivers benefited substantially from a well-designed ATIS driver interface. PMID:9302887

  11. Rain volume estimation over areas using satellite and radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, A. A.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of rain volume estimation over fixed and floating areas was investigated using rapid scan satellite data following a technique recently developed with radar data, called the Area Time Integral (ATI) technique. The radar and rapid scan GOES satellite data were collected during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) and North Dakota Cloud Modification Project (NDCMP). Six multicell clusters and cells were analyzed to the present time. A two-cycle oscillation emphasizing the multicell character of the clusters is demonstrated. Three clusters were selected on each day, 12 June and 2 July. The 12 June clusters occurred during the daytime, while the 2 July clusters during the nighttime. A total of 86 time steps of radar and 79 time steps of satellite images were analyzed. There were approximately 12-min time intervals between radar scans on the average.

  12. Aviation Data Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Keller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During the analysis of flight data and safety reports done in ASAP and FOQA programs, airline personnel are not able to access relevant aviation data for a variety of reasons. We have developed the Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS), a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support safety analysis. Types of data available in ADIS include weather, D-ATIS, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts, and flight data. We developed three versions of ADIS to support airlines. The first version has been developed to support ASAP teams. A second version supports FOQA teams, and it integrates aviation data with flight data while keeping identification information inaccessible. Finally, we developed a prototype that demonstrates the integration of aviation data into flight data analysis programs. The initial feedback from airlines is that ADIS is very useful in FOQA and ASAP analysis.

  13. GMTI for Squint Looking XTI-SAR with Rotatable Forward-Looking Array.

    PubMed

    Jing, Kai; Xu, Jia; Huang, Zuzhen; Yao, Di; Long, Teng

    2016-01-01

    To realize ground moving target indication (GMTI) for a forward-looking array, we propose a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, called rotatable cross-track interferometry SAR (Ro-XTI-SAR), for squint-looking application in this paper. By changing the angle of the cross-track baseline, the interferometry phase component of squint-looking Ro-XTI-SAR caused by the terrain height can be approximately adjusted to zero, and then the interferometry phase of Ro-XTI-SAR is only sensitive to targets' motion and can be equivalent to the along track interferometry SAR (ATI-SAR). Furthermore, the conventional displaced phase center array (DPCA) method and constant false alarm (CFAR) processing can be used to accomplish the successive clutter suppression, moving targets detection and relocation. Furthermore, the clutter suppressing performance is discussed with respect to different system parameters. Finally, some results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:27314350

  14. System design description for the LDUA common video end effector system (CVEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, A.F.

    1998-01-27

    The Common Video End Effector System (CVEE), system 62-60, was designed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to provide the control interface of the various video end effectors used on the LDUA. The CVEE system consists of a Support Chassis which contains the input and output Opto-22 modules, relays, and power supplies and the Power Chassis which contains the bipolar supply and other power supplies. The combination of the Support Chassis and the Power Chassis make up the CVEE system. The CVEE system is rack mounted in the At Tank Instrument Enclosure (ATIE). Once connected it is controlled using the LDUA supervisory data acquisition system (SDAS). Video and control status will be displayed on monitors within the LDUA control center.

  15. To Pluto by way of a postage stamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Terrile, Richard J.; Weinstein, Stacy S.

    1994-01-01

    In this time of constrained budgets, the primary question facing planetary explorers is not 'Can we do it?' but 'Can we do it cheaply?' Taunted by words on a postage stamp, a group of mission designers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is struggling to find a cheap way to go to Pluto. Three primary goals were set by the science community: (1) imaging of Pluto and Charon, (2) mapping their surface composition, and (3) characterizing Pluto's atmosphere. The spacecraft will be designed around these primary goals. With the help of the Advanced Technology Insertion (ATI) process $5 million was alloted for two years to shop for lightweight components and subsystems using new technology never tried on a planetary mission. The process for this search and development is described.

  16. Age-dependent changes in T cell homeostasis and SIV load in sooty mangabeys.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, L A; Lewin, S R; Zhang, L; Gettie, A; Luckay, A; Martin, L N; Skulsky, E; Ho, D D; Cheng-Mayer, C; Marx, P A

    2000-08-01

    Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) showed age-dependent changes in T cell regeneration. Younger animals had a high percentage of CD4+ CD45RA + T cells and a high concentration of T cell receptor excisional circles (TRECs) in peripheral blood, which indicated active thymopoiesis. In contrast, older animals had an increased T cell turnover, which suggested that most T cell production occurred in the periphery. In addition, the number of peripheral CD4+ T cells naturally decreased with age. Non-pathogenic SIVsm infection did not significantly change the T cell proliferation rate or the TREC concentration, though it did cause a moderate loss of peripheral CD4 + T cells. The viral load correlated negatively with age, which could be accounted for by the reduced availability of CD4 + target cells in older mangabeys. Thus, the number of susceptible target cells may be a limiting factor in natural SIV infection. PMID:11085578

  17. MTP Observations During the ATTREX Integration and Test Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    MTP temperature calibration is excellent and agrees with the MMS calbration (or MMS agrees with MTP, since its calibration was com pleted long before that of MMS!) center dot Having radiosondes laun ched from the Global Hawk base is extremely important for accurate tem pe rature calibration in radiosonde - sparse oceanic regions center. The MTP measurement of the cold-point will make an important contribution to the future ATTREX field campaigns because the demonstrated sp ati al variation of cold- point requires continuous measurements which only the MTP can provide. Profiling with the aircraft is not adequate. The MTP-measured isentropes will be important in studying atmospheric dynamics in the TTL, and how t his dynamics affects both the composition and (possibly) the thermal structure of the TTL.

  18. Inducing and Probing Attosecond-Time-Scale Electronic Wavefunction Beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Christian; Raith, Philipp; Pfeifer, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Much of the current interest in the field of ultrafast science focuses on the observation of attosecond dynamics of electronic wavepackets. These experiments typically require attosecond pulses either for pumping or probing such dynamics and/or are limited to observing electronic states embedded in the ionization continuum of atoms. Here, we present numerical evidence---based on solutions of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for a 1-dimensional model atom---that a pump--probe scheme with two few-cycle femtosecond laser pulses provides interferometric access to sub-femtosecond electron wavepacket dynamics. Both continuum- and bound-state electronic wavepacket interference can be simultaneously observed by recording and analyzing time-delay dependent interferences in the ATI spectrum of an atom. Both dipole-allowed and forbidden electronic transition information can be extracted from the data, making this approach a versatile and comprehensive spectroscopic method for probing the bound electronic level structure of an atom.

  19. An application of artificial intelligence to automatic telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Keith; Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John

    1992-01-01

    Automatic Photoelectric Telescopes (APT's) allow an astronomer to be removed form the telescope site in both time and space. APT's 'execute' an observation program (a set of observation requests) expressed in an ASCII-based language (ATIS) and collect observation results expressed in this same language. The observation program is currently constructed by a Principal Astronomer from the requests of multiple users; the execution is currently controlled by a simple heuristic dispatch scheduler. Research aimed at improving the use of APT's is being carried out by the Entropy Reduction Engine (ERE) project at NASA Ames. The overall goal of the ERE project is the study and construction of systems that integrate planning, scheduling, and control. This paper discusses the application of some ERE technical results to the improvement of both the scheduling and the operation of APT's.

  20. Wigner representation of ionization and scattering in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, C.; Kull, H.-J.; Fraiman, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of single-electron atoms with a strong laser field is studied in the Wigner representation. The Wigner function is a quasiprobability function in phase space that allows one to study position-momentum correlations. These correlations give a physical interpretation of the emergence of the above-threshold-ionization (ATI) energy spectrum. Conversely, the quantum-mechanical interference between electrons from neighboring photon orders can explain the spatial bunching of the electron density by the laser field. Furthermore, the Wigner function offers one a rather accurate and relatively efficient quasiclassical estimate of the bound-state population. This method is applied to laser-induced electron-ion scattering and the stationary regime of the bound-state population can be determined. The present calculations are performed for a one-dimensional Rosen-Morse potential. Extensions to general spherically symmetric atomic potentials are indicated.

  1. DYNAMIC PROJECT COLLABORATION TOOLS FOR UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE (UXO) REMOVAL Case Study: Jefferson Proving Ground UXO Removal Projector

    SciTech Connect

    Daffron, James Y.

    2003-02-27

    Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) removal and investigation projects typically involve multiple organizations including Government entities, private contractors, and technical experts. Resources are split into functional ''teams'' who perform the work and interface with the clients. The projects typically generate large amounts of data that must be shared among the project team members, the clients, and the public. The ability to efficiently communicate and control information is essential to project success. Web-based project collaboration is an effective management and communication tool when applied to ordnance and explosives (OE) projects. During a recent UXO/OE removal project at the Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) in Madison, IN, American Technologies, Inc. (ATI) successfully used the Project Commander(reg sign) (www.ProCommander.com) project collaboration website as a dynamic project and information management tool.

  2. Mastitis prevention and control practices and mastitis treatment strategies associated with the consumption of (critically important) antimicrobials on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent variations in herd-level antimicrobial consumption (AMC) can be explained by differences in management practices that are consistently effective in the prevention of (sub)clinical mastitis, on the one hand, and by differences in mastitis treatment strategies, on the other hand. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained during 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidences (ATI) for all compounds combined (total ATI) and for the critically important antimicrobials for human health separately. Data on mastitis prevention and control practices were obtained via face-to-face interviews performed during herd visits in March 2013. Some management practices and treatment strategies related to udder health were associated with the total AMC. However, the results demonstrated that implementing effective udder health management practices does not necessarily imply a low AMC and vice versa. Herds participating in a veterinary herd health management program and herds selectively drying off cows used fewer antimicrobials compared with herds not participating in such a program or applying blanket dry-cow therapy. Moreover, herds treating (some) (sub)clinical mastitis cases with intramammary homeopathic substances consumed fewer antimicrobials than herds not applying such homeopathic treatments. Besides these factors, no other direct association was found between effective udder health management practices on the one hand and AMC on the other hand. Also, the use of critically important antimicrobials was only associated with the way in which subclinical mastitis cases were treated. The latter indicates that the AMC of critically important antimicrobials is potentially driven by factors other than those included in this study such as those related to the "mindset" of the veterinarians and their farmers. Future research should therefore aim to unravel the reasoning of

  3. TNF-α Involvement in Insulin Resistance Induced by Experimental Scorpion Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Ait-Lounis, Aouatef; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2012-01-01

    Background Scorpion venom induces systemic inflammation characterized by an increase in cytokine release and chemokine production. There have been few experimental studies assessing the effects of scorpion venom on adipose tissue function in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the adipose tissue inflammation (ATI) induced by Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom and to assess possible mechanisms of ATI, mice (n = 6, aged 1 month) were injected with Aah (0.45 mg/kg), toxic fraction of Aah (FTox-G50; 0.2 mg/kg) or saline solution (control). Inflammatory responses were evaluated by ELISA and cell sorting analyses in adipose tissue 45 minutes and 24 hours after injection. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess the regulation of genes implicated in glucose uptake. The titers of selected inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) were also determined in sera and in insulin target tissues. The serum concentration of IL-1β rose 45 minutes after envenomation and returned to basal level after 24 hours. The pathophysiological effects of the venom after 24 hours mainly involved M1-proinflammatory macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue combined with high titers of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Indeed, TNF-α was strongly induced in both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. We studied the effects of Aah venom on genes implicated in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Insulin induced a significant increase in the expression of the mRNAs for hexokinase 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in control mice; this upregulation was completely abolished after 24 hours in mice envenomed with Aah or FTox-G50. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that Aah venom induces insulin resistance by mechanisms involving TNF-α-dependent Map4k4 kinase activation in the adipose tissue. PMID:22816003

  4. Remote Observing with Robotic Telescopes on Mt. Hopkins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, G. W.

    1994-12-01

    Tennessee State University conducts remote, automatic observing with four robotic telescopes located at the Fairborn Observatory site on Mt. Hopkins, 30 miles south of Tucson. These telescopes run completely unattended; a site control computer monitors the time of day and weather conditions, opens the roof at the beginning of the night, informs each telescope's control computer when observations can begin, and shuts down the site when morning twilight or bad weather intervenes. The Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS) allows us to program the telescopes and to retrieve data via ASCII file transfers over the Internet. ATIS also includes a set of target selection rules that allow the telescopes to operate autonomously for many weeks or months without our intervention. Over the past several years, Tennessee State University has collaborated with Fairborn to develop precision photometers, software, observing techniques and quality control procedures that have culminated in the automatic acquisition and reduction of high volumes of data with millimagnitude precision. The telescopes are being used for a variety long-term monitoring programs that would be difficult or impossible (and prohibitively expensive) to conduct by traditional manual methods. A 10-inch telescope is dedicated to observations of semi-regular variable stars to uncover their multiple periods. A 16-inch telescope is dedicated to long-term observations of chromospherically active (single and binary) stars to search for activity cycles. Solar-type stars are being monitored by 30-inch and 32-inch telescopes to measure the subtle luminosity variations of these stars associated with their long-term magnetic variations as measured by the HK Project at Mt. Wilson Observatory. An additional project in collaboration with the NASA Ames Research Center seeks to apply artificial intelligence techniques to improve the scheduling of the observations on these telescopes and to develop a software package to

  5. Sequential CCR5-Tropic HIV-1 Reactivation from Distinct Cellular Reservoirs following Perturbation of Elite Control

    PubMed Central

    Watters, Sarah A.; Mlcochova, Petra; Maldarelli, Frank; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Pillay, Deenan; Gupta, Ravindra K.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV Elite Controllers may reveal insights into virus persistence given they harbour small reservoir sizes, akin to HIV non-controllers treated early with combination antiretroviral therapy. Both groups of patients represent the most promising candidates for interventions aimed at sustained remission or ‘cure’. Analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in the latter group leads to stochastic rebound of virus, though it is unclear whether loss of elite control is also associated with similar rebound characteristics. Methods We studied three discrete periods of virus rebound during myeloma related immune disruption over 2.5 years in an elite controller who previously underwent autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in the absence of any antiretroviral therapy. Single genome sequencing of the V1-V4 region of env in PBMC and plasma was performed and phylogenies reconstructed. Average pairwise distance (APD) was calculated and non-parametric methods used to assess compartmentalisation. Coreceptor usage was predicted based on genotypic algorithms. Results 122 single genome sequences were obtained (median 26 sequences per rebound). The initial rebounding plasma env sequences following ASCT represented two distinct lineages, and clustered with proviral DNA sequences isolated prior to ASCT. One of the lineages was monophyletic, possibly indicating reactivation from clonally expanded cells. The second rebound occurred 470 days after spontaneous control of the first rebound and was phylogenetically distinct from the first, confirmed by compartmentalisation analysis, with a different cellular origin rather than ongoing replication. By contrast, third rebound viruses clustered with second rebound viruses, with evidence for ongoing evolution that was associated with lymphopenia and myeloma progression. Following ASCT a shift in tropism from CXCR4-tropic viruses to a CCR5-tropic population was observed to persist through to the third rebound. Conclusions Our data

  6. Coexpression patterns indicate that GPI-anchored non-specific lipid transfer proteins are involved in accumulation of cuticular wax, suberin and sporopollenin.

    PubMed

    Edstam, Monika M; Blomqvist, Kristina; Eklöf, Anna; Wennergren, Uno; Edqvist, Johan

    2013-12-01

    The non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) are unique to land plants. The nsLTPs are characterized by a compact structure with a central hydrophobic cavity and can be classified to different types based on sequence similarity, intron position or spacing between the cysteine residues. The type G nsLTPs (LTPGs) have a GPI-anchor in the C-terminal region which attaches the protein to the exterior side of the plasma membrane. The function of these proteins, which are encoded by large gene families, has not been systematically investigated so far. In this study we have explored microarray data to investigate the expression pattern of the LTPGs in Arabidopsis and rice. We identified that the LTPG genes in each plant can be arranged in three expression modules with significant coexpression within the modules. According to expression patterns and module sizes, the Arabidopsis module AtI is functionally equivalent to the rice module OsI, AtII corresponds to OsII and AtIII is functionally comparable to OsIII. Starting from modules AtI, AtII and AtIII we generated extended networks with Arabidopsis genes coexpressed with the modules. Gene ontology analyses of the obtained networks suggest roles for LTPGs in the synthesis or deposition of cuticular waxes, suberin and sporopollenin. The AtI-module is primarily involved with cuticular wax, the AtII-module with suberin and the AtIII-module with sporopollenin. Further transcript analysis revealed that several transcript forms exist for several of the LTPG genes in both Arabidopsis and rice. The data suggests that the GPI-anchor attachment and localization of LTPGs may be controlled to some extent by alternative splicing. PMID:23893219

  7. Restoration of alveolar type II cell function contributes to simvastatin-induced attenuation of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaqin; Lv, Junjie; Feng, Dongjie; Jiang, Feng; Fan, Xiaohu; Zhang, Zhi; Yin, Rong; Xu, Lin

    2012-12-01

    Alveolar type (AT) II cells transdifferentiate into ATI cells and as such represent a promising source for regenerating lung epithelium following lung injury. ATII cells are characterized by the presence of lamellar bodies (LBs), which store and secrete the surfactant protein-C (SP-C). Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) causes a distinct impairment of the ATII cell function, subsequently hindering lung repair by loss of ATI transdifferentiation. In this study, we provide new evidence that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor simvastatin may restore the function of impaired ATII cells in vitro and in vivo. ATII cell lines, A549 (human) and MLE-12 (mouse), were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) injury. Simvastatin pretreatment at low (5-20 µM), but not high (50-100 µM) doses markedly reduced apoptosis and increased proliferation and SP-C expression. In a rat lung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model, simvastatin treatment also increased ATII cell proliferation in vivo, as demonstrated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen/SP-C double staining. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the number and volume density of LBs were significantly increased in the simvastatin-treated rat lungs. The protective effects of simvastatin were reversed in vitro by PI3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin and L-mevalonate, indicating that the PI3K/Akt and mevalonate pathways may be involved in simvastatin-induced ATII cell function restoration. These data demonstrate that an appropriate dose of simvastatin has a protective effect on LIRI in vitro and in vivo, due at least partially to restored ATII cell function via the HMG-CoA reductase pathway-dependent activation of PI3K/Akt signaling in a mevalonate pathway-dependent manner. PMID:23076613

  8. Regulation of Alveolar Epithelial Na+ Channels by ERK1/2 in Chlorine-Breathing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lazrak, Ahmed; Chen, Lan; Jurkuvenaite, Asta; Doran, Stephen F.; Liu, Gang; Li, Qian; Lancaster, Jack R.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the exposure of mice to Cl2 decreases vectorial Na+ transport and fluid clearance across their distal lung spaces have not been elucidated. We examined the biophysical, biochemical, and physiological changes of rodent lung epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) after exposure to Cl2, and identified the mechanisms involved. We measured amiloride-sensitive short-circuit currents (Iamil) across isolated alveolar Type II (ATII) cell monolayers and ENaC single-channel properties by patching ATII and ATI cells in situ. α-ENaC, γ-ENaC, total and phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2, and advanced products of lipid peroxidation in ATII cells were measured by Western blot analysis. Concentrations of reactive intermediates were assessed by electron spin resonance (ESR). Amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels with conductances of 4.5 and 18 pS were evident in ATI and ATII cells in situ of air-breathing mice. At 1 hour and 24 hours after exposure to Cl2, the open probabilities of these two channels decreased. This effect was prevented by incubating lung slices with inhibitors of ERK1/2 or of proteasomes and lysosomes. The exposure of ATII cell monolayers to Cl2 increased concentrations of reactive intermediates, leading to ERK1/2 phosphorylation and decreased Iamil and α-ENaC concentrations at 1 hour and 24 hours after exposure. The administration of antioxidants to ATII cells before and after exposure to Cl2 decreased concentrations of reactive intermediates and ERK1/2 activation, which mitigated the decrease in Iamil and ENaC concentrations. The reactive intermediates formed during and after exposure to Cl2 activated ERK1/2 in ATII cells in vitro and in vivo, leading to decreased ENaC concentrations and activity. PMID:21997487

  9. BOTH ENDOGENOUS AND EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE DECREASE MYOCARDIAL STAT3 ACTIVATION AND SOCS3 EXPRESSION FOLLOWING ACUTE ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meijing; Wang, Yue; Abarbanell, Aaron; Tan, Jiangjing; Weil, Brent; Herrmann, Jeremy; Meldrum, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Signal transducer and activator of transduction 3 (STAT3) pathway has been shown to be cardioprotective. We observed decreased STAT3/suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in male hearts, which was associated with worse post-ischemic myocardial function compared to females. However, it is unclear whether this down-regulation of myocardial STAT3/SOCS3 is due to testosterone in males. We hypothesized that following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R): 1) endogenous testosterone decreases myocardial STAT3 and SOCS3 in males; 2) administration of exogenous testosterone reduces myocardial STAT3/SOCS3 in female and castrated male hearts. Methods To study this, hearts from I/R injury (Langendorff) were homogenized and assessed for phosphorylated-STAT3 (p-STAT3), total-STAT3 (T-STAT3), SOCS3 and GAPDH by western blot. Groups: age-matched adult males, females, castrated males, males with androgen receptor blocker-flutamide implantation, females and castrated males with chronic (3-week) 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) release pellet implantation or acute (5-minute) testosterone infusion (ATI) prior to ischemia (n=5–9/group). Results Castration or flutamide treatment significantly increased SOCS3 expression in male hearts after I/R. However, only castration increased myocardial STAT3 activation. Notably, DHT replacement or ATI markedly decreased myocardial STAT3/SOCS3 in castrated males and females subjected to I/R. Conclusion These results suggest that endogenous and exogenous testosterone decrease myocardial STAT3 activation and SOCS3 expression following I/R. This represents the initial demonstration of testosterone-downregulated STAT3/SOCS3 signaling in myocardium. PMID:19628067

  10. Pharmacovigilance Analysis of Serious Adverse Events Reported for Biologic Response Modifiers Used as Prophylaxis against Transplant Rejection: a Real-World Postmarketing Experience from the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS)

    PubMed Central

    Ali, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Immunosuppression by biologic response modifiers (BRM) is a crucial component for successful organ transplantation. In addition to their variable effectiveness in the prevention of organ rejection, these medications have safety concerns that complicate therapeutic outcomes in organ transplant patients. Objective: This study aims at identifying and characterizing safety signals of serious adverse events associated with exposure to BRM among organ transplant patients in a real-world environment. Methods: The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System was utilized to apply a pharmacovigilance disproportionality analysis to indentify serious adverse events. Associations between drugs and events were measured by empirical Bayes geometric mean (EBGM) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (EB05–EB95). Associations with EBGM≥2 were considered significant safety signals. Results: From 1997 to 2012, a total of 12,151 serious adverse event reports for BRM were reported; 15.6% of them (n=1,711) met the safety signal threshold of EB05>1, and 11.6% of these signals (n=199) were significant (EBGM≥2). Sirolimus and mycophenolate accounted for the majority of all signals; antithymocyte immunoglobulin (ATI) and cyclosporine contributed to the majority of significant signals. The following significant signals were identified for ATI (reduced therapeutic response, pulmonary edema, hypotension, serum sickness, infusion-related reaction, and anaphylactic reaction); for azathioprine (alternaria infection, fungal skin infection, and lymphoproliferative disorder); for cyclosporine (neurotoxicity, graft vs. host disease, and thyroid cancer); for cyclophosphamide (disease progression); for daclizumab (cytomegalovirus infection); and for tacrolimus (coma and tremor). 33.6% of these events contributed to patient death (n=67); 6.5% were life-threatening (n=13); 32.1% lead to hospitalization (n=64); and 27.6% resulted in other serious outcomes (n=55). Conclusion: Utilization

  11. The University Scientist's Role in Promoting Collaborative K-12 Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, D.; Brown, L. L.; Carlsen, W. S.

    2004-12-01

    Comprehensive K-12 science teacher professional development is dependent upon the successful interaction between the university and K-12 communities (National Research Council, 2001), which can be realized through partnerships between university scientists and K-12 science teachers. This paper will identify some best practices of university scientists in the professional development of science teachers, first by citing the professional development and science education literature (Loucks-Horsley, Hewson, Love, & Stiles, 1998; National Research Council, 1996a, 1996b), and then by highlighting how these best practices were actualized in summer workshops for science educators offered at Penn State. Each summer the Pennsylvania Space Grant Consortium supports seven one-week courses for secondary science teachers taught by university scientists from disciplines representative of NASA's research interests. Approximately 100 teachers enroll in these two-credit, graduate-level workshops from a variety of locations and contexts throughout the United States. These summer courses share a number of important features (duration, general format, teacher recruitment and admission, location, number of participants, etc.), making them a unique dataset for comparative research on science teacher professional development. By recognizing the role of university scientists relating to both practice and standards of professional development, we identify areas in which teachers could be empowered to lead and, alternatively, where scientists and administrators should improve and continue to direct-- both supporting a culture of collaboration that builds K-12 science teacher capacity (Fullan, 2001, 2003; Hawley & Valli, 1999). In our observations and analysis of the evaluations, three best practices, as defined by the literature, appeared to distinguish the exceptional workshops: First, teachers give high marks and make affirmative comments about workshops with clearly presented curricular

  12. Megafans as Hydrous Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. Justin; Miller, R. McG.; Allen, C. C.; Kreslavsky, M. H.; Eckardt, F.

    2009-01-01

    The mesoscale sedimentary environment known as the megafan, is a low-angle, partial cone of fluvial sediment generated where a river enters an unconfined basin where it begins the process of avulsing over wide areas. In shifting to different positions, the river lays down a partial cone of sediment and establishes a characteristic radial pattern of paleo courses. The apparent paucity of sedimentary bodies obviously tied to martian outflow channels may also relate to the difficulty of recognition due to their sheer size and featurelessness. However, the existence of megafans on Mars is being examined now that their ubiquity and characteristics on Earth are better understood. Accordingly we suggest two likely candidates on Mars: Maja Valles fluvial cone and Amazonis Planitia fluvial sedimentary bodies. Two cryptic examples from Amazonis Planitia may be important for understanding subsurface hydrous accumulation. For at least some of its history, discharges from Mangala Valles likely resulted in megafans. Distances from the end of Mangala Valles to the northern (low) margin of the planitia are very large, a fact that has suggested that fluvial emplacement was unlikely. However, the megafan model shows that long megafan radii are indeed feasible. It has been suggested further that discharge from Labou Vallis (8.5S 154.5W) must have led to fluvial sedimentation in the planitia. We suggest that during locally non-lacustrine/ocean phases, this sedimentation would have occurred in the form of megafans. However, the megafan model shows that long megafan radii are indeed feasible. It has been suggested further that discharge from Labou Vallis (8.5S 154.5W) must have led to fluvial sedimentation in the planitia. We suggest that during locally non-lacustrine/ocean phases, this sedimentation would have occurred in the form of megafans. Megafans emanating from Marte, Mangala and Labou valles have probably contributed to hydrous near-subsurface environments--in their distal

  13. Authentic Mars Research in the High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortekaas, Katie; Leach, Dani

    2015-01-01

    As a 11th and 12th grade Astrobiology class we were charged with developing a scientific research question about the potential for life on Mars. We narrowed our big picture question to, 'Where should the next Mars rover land in order to study the volcanic and water features to find evidence of past or present extremophiles on Mars?'After a lot of searching through images on JMARS (although not extensive due to high school time constraints) we narrowed our interest to three areas of Mars we thought could be good candidates to land a rover there to do further research. We know from extremophiles on Earth that microscopic life need water and energy. It seems reasonable that Mars would be no different. We developed a research question, 'Does Kasei Valles, Dzigai Vallis and Hecate Tholus have volcanic features (lava flow, fractures, volcanoes, cryovolcanoes) and water features (layers of ice, hematite, carbonate, chaos)?'This question is important and interesting because by having a deeper understanding of whether these places have evidence of volcanic and water features, we will be able to decide where the best place to land a future rover would be. Evidence of volcanic and water features are important to help determine where to land our rover because in those areas, temperatures could have been warm and the land could be wet. In these conditions, the probability of life is higher.We individually did research through JMARS (CTX, THEMIS) in order to establish if those three areas could contain certain land features (volcanic and water features) that could possibly lead to the discovery of extremophiles. We evaluated the images to determine if the three areas have evidence of those volcanic and water features.Although we are not experts at identifying features we believe we have evidence to say that all three areas are interesting, astrobiologically, but Dzigai Vallis shows the most number of types of volcanic and water features. More importantly, through this process we

  14. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Flagstaff, AZ, 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L. (Editor); Kelley, Michael S. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Merging of the USGS Atlas of Mercury 1:5,000,000 Geologic Series; Geologic Mapping of the V-36 Thetis Regio Quadrangle: 2008 Progress Report; Structural Maps of the V-17 Beta Regio Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of Isabella Quadrangle (V-50) and Helen Planitia, Venus; Renewed Mapping of the Nepthys Mons Quadrangle (V-54), Venus; Mapping the Sedna-Lavinia Region of Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Guinevere Planitia Quadrangle of Venus; Geological Mapping of Fortuna Tessera (V-2): Venus and Earth's Archean Process Comparisons; Geological Mapping of the North Polar Region of Venus (V-1 Snegurochka Planitia): Significant Problems and Comparisons to the Earth's Archean; Venus Quadrangle Geological Mapping: Use of Geoscience Data Visualization Systems in Mapping and Training; Geologic Map of the V-1 Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle: Progress Report; The Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus: Characterization of the Venus Midlands; Formation and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological Mapping; Geologic Map of the Meskhent Tessera Quadrangle (V-3), Venus: Evidence for Early Formation and Preservation of Regional Topography; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus: A Progress Report; Geology of the Lachesis Tessera Quadrangle (V-18), Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Juno Chasma Quadrangle, Venus: Establishing the Relation Between Rifting and Volcanism; Geologic Mapping of V-19, V-28, and V-53; Lunar Geologic Mapping Program: 2008 Update; Geologic Mapping of the Marius Quadrangle, the Moon; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report; New Geologic Map of the Argyre Region of Mars; Geologic Evolution of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002, and -25007; Mapping Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region, Mars; Geology of Holden Crater and the Holden and Ladon Multi

  15. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in

  16. DOE-Imaging grant FG02-06ER15829, entitled "Developing Laser-Induced Re-Collision Electron Self-Diffraction" Brief summary of accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Igor V. Litvinyuk, and Itzik Ben-Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Our principal goal was the experimental demonstration of Laser-Induced Electron Diffraction (LIED). Key steps along the development of this experimental technique have been accomplished and reported in the publications listed in this brief report. We started with measuring 3D electron momenta spectra in aligned nitrogen and oxygen molecules. Chakra Maharjan (Ph.D. student of Lew Cocke) was a lead researcher on this project. Although Chakra succeeded in obtaining those spectra, we were scooped by the publication of identical results in Science by the NRC Ottawa group. Our results were never published as a refereed article, but became a part of Chakra's Ph.D. dissertation. That Science paper was the first experimental demonstration of Laser-Induced Electron Diffraction (LIED). Chakra also worked on wavelength dependence of 3D ATI spectra of atoms and molecules using tunable OPA pulses. Another Ph.D. student, Maia Magrakvelidze (her GRA was funded by the grant), started working on COLTRIMS experiments using OPA pulses (1800 nm wavelength). After some initial experiments it became apparent that COLTRIMS did not yield sufficient count rates of electrons in the high-energy part of the spectrum to see diffraction signatures with acceptable statistics (unfavorable scaling of the electron yield with laser wavelength was partly to blame). Nevertheless, Maia managed to use COLTRIMS and OPA to measure the angular dependence of the tunneling ionization rate in D{sub 2} molecules. Following the initial trial experiments, the decision was made to switch from COLTRIMS to VMI in order to increase the count rates by a factor of {approx}100, which may have given us a chance to see LIED. Research Associate Dr. Sankar De (his salary was funded by the grant), in collaboration with Matthias Kling's group (then at MPQ Garching), proceeded to design a special multi-electrode VMI spectrometer for capturing high-energy ATI electrons and to install it in place of COLTRIMS inside our

  17. Surficial Geology of the Spirit Rover Traverse in Gusev Crater: Dry and Desiccating Since the Hesperian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Spirit rover landed successfully in a low albedo portion of Gusev crater at 14.5692 deg S, 175.4729 deg E on January 3, 2004 and has traversed about 3.5 km over 180 sols through cratered plains to Bonneville crater and the Columbia Hills. Gusev, a 160 km diameter Noachian crater that lies at the terminus of the 900 km long Ma'adim Vallis, was selected as a landing site to search for evidence of previous liquid water flow and/or ponding. Although no clear evidence of fluvial or lacustrine activity has been identified in the cratered plains (excepting rocks in the Columbia Hills), their surficial geology strongly limits any warmer and/or wetter period of Mars history (e.g., observed at Meridiani Planum) to be pre-Late Hesperian. This paper will review the surficial geology of Gusev crater as observed along the traverse by Spirit with special reference to the derived gradation history that strongly argues for a dry and desiccating environment since the Late Hesperian.

  18. Origins of Sinuous and Braided Channels on Ascraeus Mons, Mars - A Keck Geology Consortium Undergraduate Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Water has clearly played an important part in the geological evolution of Mars. There are many features on Mars that were almost certainly formed by fluvial processes -- for example, the channels Kasei Valles and Ares Vallis in the Chryse Planitia area of Mars are almost certainly fluvial features. On the other hand, there are many channel features that are much more difficult to interpret -- and have been variously attributed to volcanic and fluvial processes. Clearly unraveling the details of the role of water on Mars is extremely important, especially in the context of the search of extinct or extant life. In this project we built on our recent work in determining the origin of one channel on the southwest rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. This project, funded by the Keck Geology Consortium and involving 4 undergraduate geology majors took advantage of the recently available datasets to map and analyze similar features on Ascraeus Mons and some other areas of Mars. A clearer understanding of how these particular channel features formed might lead to the development of better criteria to distinguish how other Martian channel features formed. Ultimately this might provide us with a better understanding of the role of volcanic and fluvial processes in the geological evolution of Mars.

  19. SHARAD soundings and surface roughness at past, present, and proposed landing sites on Mars: Reflections at Phoenix may be attributable to deep ground ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Mellon, Michael T.; Holt, John W.; Brothers, T. Charles

    2014-08-01

    We use the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to search for subsurface interfaces and characterize surface roughness at the landing sites of Viking Landers 1 and 2, Mars Pathfinder, the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, the Phoenix Mars lander, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, and three other sites proposed for Curiosity. Only at the Phoenix site do we find clear evidence of subsurface radar returns, mapping out an interface that may be the base of ground ice at depths of ~15-66 m across 2900 km2 in the depression where the lander resides. At the Opportunity, Spirit, and candidate Curiosity sites, images and altimetry show layered materials tens to hundreds of meters thick extending tens to hundreds of kilometers laterally. These scales are well within SHARAD's resolution limits, so the lack of detections is attributable either to low density contrasts in layers of similar composition and internal structure or to signal attenuation within the shallowest layers. At each site, we use the radar return power to estimate surface roughness at scales of 10-100 m, a measure that is important for assessing physical properties, landing safety, and site trafficability. The strongest returns are found at the Opportunity site, indicating that Meridiani Planum is exceptionally smooth. Returns of moderate strength at the Spirit site reflect roughness more typical of Mars. Gale crater, Curiosity's ultimate destination, is the smoothest of the four proposed sites we examined, with Holden crater, Eberswalde crater, and Mawrth Vallis exhibiting progressively greater roughness.

  20. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site: Evidence for a Change in Wind Regime from Lander and Orbiter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Kraft, Michael D.; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Bridges, Nathan T.

    2000-01-01

    Surface features related to the wind are observed in the vicinity of the Mars Pathfinder (MPR landing site data from the lander and in data from orbit by the Viking Orbiter and Mars Global Surveyor missions. Features seen from the surface include wind tails associated with small rocks, barchanoid duneforms, ripplelike patterns, and ventifact flutes cut into some rocks. Features seen from orbit include wind tails associated with impact craters, ridges inferred to be duneforms, and modified crater rims interpreted to have been eroded and mantled by windblown material. The orientations of these features show two prevailing directions. One is inferred to represent winds from the northeast, which is consistent with strongest winds predicted by a general circulation model to occur during the Martian northern winter under current conditions. A second wind blowing from the ESE was responsible for modifying the crater rims and cutting some of the ventifacts. The two wind regimes could reflect a change in climate related to Mars' obliquity or some other, unknown factor. Regardless of the cause, the MPF area has been subjected to a complex pattern of winds and supply of small particles, and the original surface formed by sedimentary processes from Tiu and Ares Vallis flooding events has been modified by repeated burial and exhumation.

  1. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site: Evidence for a Change in Wind Regime and Climate from Lander and Orbiter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Kraft, M. D.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Bridges, N. T.

    1999-01-01

    Surface features related to the wind are observed in data from the Mars Pathfinder lander and from orbit by the Viking Orbiter and Mars Global Surveyor missions. Features seen from the surface include wind tails associated with small rocks, barchanoid duneforms, ripplelike patterns, and ventifact flutes cut into some rocks. Features seen from orbit include wind tails associated with impact craters, ridges inferred to be duneforms, and modified crater rims interpreted to have been eroded and mantled by windblown material. The orientations of these features show two prevailing directions, one inferred to represent winds from the northeast which is consistent with strongest winds predicted by a general circulation model to occur during the Martian northern winter under current conditions, and a second wind pattern oriented approx. 90 degrees to the first. This latter wind could be from the W-NW or from the E-SE and was responsible for cutting the ventifacts and modifying the crater rims. The two wind regimes could reflect a change in climate related to Mars' obliquity or some other, unknown factor. Regardless of the cause, the MPF area has been subjected to a complex pattern of winds and supply of small particles, in which the original surface formed by sedimentary processes from Tiu and Ares Vallis events has been modified by repeated burial and exhumation.

  2. Relative Time-scale for Channeling Events Within Chaotic Terrains, Margaritifer Sinus, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janke, D.

    1985-01-01

    A relative time scale for ordering channel and chaos forming events was constructed for areas within the Margaritifer Sinus region of Mars. Transection and superposition relationships of channels, chaotic terrain, and the surfaces surrounding them were used to create the relative time scale; crater density studies were not used. Channels and chaos in contact with one another were treated as systems. These systems were in turn treated both separately (in order to understand internal relationships) and as members of the suite of Martian erosional forms (in order to produce a combined, master time scale). Channeling events associated with chaotic terrain development occurred over an extended geomorphic period. The channels can be divided into three convenient groups: those that pre-date intercrater plains development post-plains, pre-chasma systems; and those associated with the development of the Vallis Marineris chasmata. No correlations with cyclic climatic changes, major geologic events in other regions on Mars, or triggering phenomena (for example, specific impact events) were found.

  3. Sulfate Formation From Acid-Weathered Phylosilicates: Implications for the Aqueous History of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, P. I.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.

    2014-01-01

    Most phyllosilicates on Mars are thought to have formed during the planet's earliest Noachian era, then Mars underwent a global change making the planet's surface more acidic [e.g. 1]. Prevailing acidic conditions may have affected the already existing phyllosilicates, resulting in the formation of sulfates. Both sulfates and phyllosilicates have been identified on Mars in a variety of geologic settings [2] but only in a handful of sites are these minerals found in close spatial proximity to each other, including Mawrth Vallis [3,4] and Gale Crater [5]. While sulfate formation from the acidic weathering of basalts is well documented in the literature [6,7], few experimental studies investigate sulfate formation from acid-weathered phyllosilicates [8-10]. The purpose of this study is to characterize the al-teration products of acid-weathered phyllosilicates in laboratory experiments. We focus on three commonly identified phyllosilicates on Mars: nontronite (Fe-smectite), saponite (Mg-smectite), and montmorillonite (Al-smectite) [1, and references therein]. This information will help constrain the formation processes of sulfates observed in close association with phyllosilicates on Mars and provide a better understanding of the aqueous history of such regions as well as the planet as a whole.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Impact Metamorphism of Subsurface Organic Matter on Mars: A Potential Source for Methane and Surface Alteration. Preliminary Study of Polygonal Impact Craters in Argyre Region, Mars. Geochemistry of the Dark Veinlets in the Granitoids from the Souderfjarden Impact Structure, Finland: Preliminary Results. An Experimental Method to Estimate the Chemical Reaction Rate in Vapor Clouds: An Application to the K/T Impact. Study of the Apollo 16 Landing Site: Re-Visit as a Standard Site for the SELENE Multiband Imager. First X-Ray Observation of Lunar Farside from Hayabusa X-Ray Spectrometer. Lunar X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry from SELENE Lunar Polar Orbiter. Origin and Thermal History of Lithic Materials in the Begaa LL3 Chondrite. Evidence of Normal Faulting and Dike Intrusion at Valles Marineris from Pit Crater Topography. Evidence of Tharsis-Radial Dike Intrusion in Southeast Alba Patera from MOLA-based Topography of Pit Crater Chains. Are They Really Intact? Evaluation of Captured Micrometeoroid Analogs by Aerogel at the Flyby Speed of Stardust. Numerical Simulations of Impactor Penetration into Ice-Over-Water Targets. A Probable Fluid Lava Flow in the Hebes Mensa (Mars) Studied by HRSC Images. New Drill-Core Data from the Lockne Crater, Sweden: The Marine Excavation and Ejection Processes, and Post-Impact Environment. Cross-Sectional Profile of Baltis Vallis Channel on Venus: Reconstruction from Magellan SAR Brightness Data.

  5. Pavonis Mons Summit Caldera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image shows part of the summit caldera of Pavonis Mons. Pavonis the middle of three Tharsis volcanos that form a line southeast of Olympus Mons and northwest of Vallis Marineris. On Earth volcanic calderas usually form when a massive eruption has emptied out the magma chamber and the 'roof' of the chamber collapses into the resultant space. It is likely that summit calderas on Martian volcanoes form in a similar manner.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD APPLIED TO A FLOW PROBLEM Norberto C. Vera Guzmán Institute of Geophysics, UNAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, N. C.; GMMC

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present the results of macrohybrid mixed Darcian flow in porous media in a general three-dimensional domain. The global problem is solved as a set of local subproblems which are posed using a domain decomposition method. Unknown fields of local problems, velocity and pressure are approximated using mixed finite elements. For this application, a general three-dimensional domain is considered which is discretized using tetrahedra. The discrete domain is decomposed into subdomains and reformulated the original problem as a set of subproblems, communicated through their interfaces. To solve this set of subproblems, we use finite element mixed and parallel computing. The parallelization of a problem using this methodology can, in principle, to fully exploit a computer equipment and also provides results in less time, two very important elements in modeling. Referencias G.Alduncin and N.Vera-Guzmán Parallel proximal-point algorithms for mixed _nite element models of _ow in the subsurface, Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng 2004; 20:83-104 (DOI: 10.1002/cnm.647) Z. Chen, G.Huan and Y. Ma Computational Methods for Multiphase Flows in Porous Media, SIAM, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, 2006. A. Quarteroni and A. Valli, Numerical Approximation of Partial Differential Equations, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994. Brezzi F, Fortin M. Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element Methods. Springer: New York, 1991.

  7. Spirit at Gusev Crater: Preliminary Observations, Potential Processes and Hypotheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; desMarais, D.; Farmer, J.; Crumpler, L.; Grin, E. A.; Milam, K.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, R. C.; Grotzinger, J.

    2004-01-01

    Spirit landed in a flat plain in Gusev crater with local undulations at meters scales generated by ridges covered with blocks, some of them looking rounded. Several, flat-topped, mesas are visible in the far field in direction of Ma adim Vallis. A set of north/south oriented hills reaches approximately 150 m elevation to the east of the landing site (LS). A dipping brighter unit with possibly some scarps is associated with it. This setting could be consistent with layering observed on the MOC images of the hills, local exposure of material with variable dust cover, or deflated or allochtonous material. Numerous small depressions are visible from LS referred to as "Columbia Memorial Station"* (CMS). Floors are partially filled with finer-grained, high albedo material. At least one of them, nicknamed "Sleepy Hollow"* (approximately 30 m diameter) may be an eroded secondary impact crater. It is unclear if they can all be related to small impact structures. Some of them are elongated and aligned with the ridges. The morphology of rocks and soil at this Gusev Crater is presented. Evidence of dynamic aeolian action along this Crater is also discussed.

  8. Outflow activity near Hadriaca Patera, Mars: Fluid-tectonic interaction investigated with High Resolution Stereo Camera stereo data and finite element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; Cailleau, B.; Platz, T.; Kneissl, T.; Dumke, A.; Neukum, G.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the formation of the outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles near the eastern rim of the Hellas impact basin, Mars. Methods used include image and topography analysis, surface age determination, and finite element modeling. Observations show that deep depressions, source regions for Dao and Niger Valles, are located in an area of shallow subsidence to the south and east of the volcano Hadriaca Patera. Cratering model ages allow for fluvial processes triggered by volcanic loading. Based on the observations, we develop a numerical model of volcanic loading on top of a poroelastic plate leading to flexure and fracturing of the lithosphere. Modeling results show that fracturing may occur up to a depth of about 6 km within an area of shallow subsidence, i.e., the moat surrounding the volcano. Depending on initial aquifer pressurization, groundwater could have reached the surface. Model discharges and channel morphometry suggest that the Dao Vallis channel never reached bankfull flow and that the wetted channel perimeter may have formed during multiple outflow events. The following scenario is proposed: (1) emplacement of a volcanic load on top of a confined, overpressurized aquifer in the early Hesperian, (2) fracturing around the load, possibly reactivated during various stages of volcanic activity, (3) channeling of groundwater to the surface along fractures and outflow channel formation during several events in the Hesperian, and (4) collapse, mass wasting and modification of depressions in the Amazonian.

  9. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetary Science, Volume 22; Conference, Houston, TX, Mar. 18-22, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham (Editor); Sharpton, Virgil L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented. Individual topics addressed include: analysis of Phobos Mission Gamma ray spectra from Mars, comparison of volcanic and modified landforms from Tharsis Montes on Mars, polygenetic origin of Hrad Vallis region of Mars, new evidence of lacustrine basins on Mars, flood surge through the Lunae Planum Outflow Complex on Mars, interpretation of canyon materials and flood sources on Kasei Valles on Mars, geochemistry of Manson Impact structure rocks, micrometer-sized glass spheres in Apollo 16 soil 61181, isotopic abundances in Pesyanoe of solar-type xenon, mineralogy of 12 large 'chondritic' interplanetary dust particles. Also discussed are: trace elements in chondritic stratospheric particles, evolution of isotopic signatures in lunar regolith nitrogen, pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon, origin of picritic green glass magmas by polybaric fractional fusion, origin of yellow glasses associated with Apollo 15 KREEP basalt fragments, trace elements in 59 mostly highland moon rocks, mineralization on the moon, relation between diogenite cumulates and eucrite magmas.

  10. Insights Into the Aqueous History of Mars from Acid-Sulfate Weathered Phyllosilicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, P. I.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllosilicates on Mars are thought to have formed during Mars' earliest Noachian geologic era (approx. 4.1-3.7 Ga). Sulfate formation, on the other hand, requires more acidic conditions which are thought to have occurred later during Mars' Hesperian era (approx. 3.7-3.0 Ga). Therefore, regions on Mars where phyllosilicates and sulfates are found in close proximity to each other provide evidence for the aqueous conditions during this global transition. Both phyllosilicates and sulfates form in the presence of water and thus give clues to the aqueous history of Mars and its potential for habitability. Phyllosilicates that formed during the Noachian era would have been weathered by the prevailing acidic conditions that define the Hesperian. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to characterize the alteration products of acid-sulfate weathered phyllosilicates in laboratory experiments, focusing on the Fe/Mg-smectites commonly identified on Mars. We also compare our results to observations of phyllosilicates and sulfates on Mars in regions such as Endeavour Crater and Mawrth Vallis to understand the formation process of sulfates and constrain the aqueous history of these regions.

  11. A Comparative Lab-field-aerial Spectral Study of the Painted Desert, AZ: Implications for CRISM Data Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.

    2011-12-01

    The Painted Desert, AZ has been proposed as an analog site for Mawrth Vallis, Mars [1]. In this study, we compare spectra of the Painted Desert from HyMap, from an ASD spectrometer in the field, and of Painted Desert samples measured in the lab. This comparison will aid in the interpretation of CRISM data by identifying consistent differences between lab measurements, field measurements, and aerial measurements of the same site. Our field sites were located near Five Buttes on Navajo land and at the Teepee site of the Petrified Forest National Park. Rocks in these areas are composed of feldspar, chert, smectite, kaolinite, calcite and dolomite. In comparing our three datasets, the most consistent difference is that the absorption band near 2.2 μm is weaker in the aerial (HyMap) data than both the field and lab data, which are of similar magnitude (Figs. 1 and 2). The weaker bands could be due to the larger footprint of the aerial data (4 m x 4 m), resulting in spectra that may sample a larger variety of materials. The spectral features in the 2-2.5 μm region are due to combinations and overtones of the metal-OH vibration within the mineral structure. That the bands are consistently weaker in the aerial data than the lab and field data could mean that modal estimates based on satellite data from Mars could be underestimating the percentage of phyllosilicates.

  12. Dunes on Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03047 Dunes on Plains

    These dunes are located on the plains around Doanus Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 62.3S, Longitude 335.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Valley Divide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03664 Valley Divide

    These small channels join to become Sabis Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -35.3N, Longitude 159.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Using a terrestrial paleosol sequence to evaluate a weathering origin for clays on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, B. H. N.

    2015-12-01

    Soils provide abundant geochemical sources of energy for life, and when soils are buried as paleosols, their mineralogy and geochemistry can be used to reconstruct ancient surface environments and paleoclimates. Here we analyze how the clay mineralogy and spectral properties of the paleosol sequence preserved in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in eastern Oregon relate to environmental and climatic conditions at the time of soil formation. This 440-meter thick volcaniclastic deposit contains over 500 individual clay-rich (30-90%) paleosols. The deposits span 15 My around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, a period of global cooling. The paleosol mineralogy reflects this climatic shift by transitioning from kaolinites, to smectites, to poorly-crystalline phases, with local variations due to environmental variables like water saturation, pH, salinity, and organic content. Analog studies of this and other paleosol sequences are helping us to better understand surface environments and climates on ancient Mars. Possible paleosol sequences on Mars are best exemplified by the regionally extensive clay-rich deposits in the region of Mawrth Vallis. Using our terrestrial analogs, we can interpret the mineralogy and physical stratigraphy at Mawrth. Under a paleosol framework, the Mawrth clays are consistent with regional paleosols formed under a temperate climate, with local variations due to chemical gradients in a wetlands-like surface environment, providing many energy pathways for life and high preservation potential.

  15. Assessing Layered Materials in Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, N. T.

    2001-01-01

    The recent analysis of high resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of layered outcrops in equatorial regions reinforces two important ideas, which will probably eventually become paradigms, about Mars: 1) It has had a long, complex geologic history marked by change, as manifested in the different layers observed, and 2) Standing bodies of water existed for substantial lengths of time, indicating clement conditions possibly conducive to life. Although observations of layering and evidence for lakes and oceans has been reported for years based on Mariner 9 and Viking data, the MOC data show that this layering is much more pervasive and complex than previously thought. These layered sites are ideal for studying the geologic, and possibly biologic, history of Mars. Here, a layered site within Gale Crater is advocated as a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) target. This is one of the few layered areas within closed depressions (e.g., other craters and Vallis Marineris) that meets the landing site constraints and is accessible to both MER A and B.

  16. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A

    1992-06-01

    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible. PMID:1620774

  17. 3D structure of the Gusev Crater region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Mirjam van Kan; Zegers, Tanja; Kneissl, Thomas; Ivanov, Boris; Foing, Bernard; Neukum, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    Gusev Crater lies within the Aeolis Quadrangle of Mars at the boundary between the northern lowlands and southern highlands. The ancient valley Ma'adim Vallis dissects the highlands south of Gusev Crater and is thought to have fed the crater with sediments. High Resolution Stereo Camera data and Digital Elevation Models were used to construct a geologic-geomorphic map (173.5-178.5° E, 10-18° S) and cross-sections, complemented by data from Mars Orbiter Camera, Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter and Thermal Emission Imaging System. Three geologic domains are recognised: the highlands in the south, Gusev Crater and lowlands in the north. Twelve units are mapped, with thicknesses ranging from hundred meters to several kilometres. Thicknesses of units, and their bedding attitude, are estimated combining the geologic map and topographic information. Relative ages are determined from crater counts, ranging from Early Noachian for highland units to Middle Amazonian for units in Gusev Crater and in lowlands. Episodes of intense geologic activity (deposition, volcanism, deformation) occur at around 4.0 Ga, 3.7 Ga, and 3.5 Ga. Comparing the geometry of the Gusev Crater with similar sized, filled and un-filled, Martian craters, suggests that the Columbia Hills are relics of the original central peak of Gusev Crater.

  18. Fluvial Drainage Basins and Valley Networks: Eastern Margaritifer Sinus, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, J. C.; Grant, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The fluvial drainage of the eastern Margaritifer Sinus (MC-19NE, SE) and northeastern Argyre (MC-26NE) Quadrangles is dominated by two major longitudinal valley networks, the Parana/Loire system on the east, and the Samara Himera system to the west. It is believed that both of these drainages are through-going to the northwest and debouch into Margaritifer Chaos (general location: 12S, 22.5W). The Parana/Loire drainage is bounded on the east in part by an ancient multi-ringed impact basin. The Parana multi-digitate network drains northwest into a depositional basin, and impact basin floor, characterized by positive relief chaos. It is believed that Loire Vallis heads in the basin; thus Parana and Loire Valles may be treated as one system. Samara Valles heads in the northeastern Argyre Quadrangle and extends as a major truck valley to the northwest. Samara Valles cuts through the hills forming one of the concentric rings of the Ladon impact basin and joins the Himera drainage to trend in a more northerly direction to Margaritifer Chaos. The downstream portion of Himera is considered to be part of the Samara

  19. Floor of Juventae Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 30 May 2002) Juventae Chasma is an enormous box canyon (250 km X 100 km) which opens to the north and forms the outflow channel Maja Vallis. Most Martian outflow channels such as Maja, Kasei, and Ares Valles begin at point sources such as box canyons and chaotic terrain and then flow unconfined into a basin region. This image captures a portion of the western floor of Juventae Chasma and shows a wide variety of landforms. Conical hills, mesas, buttes and plateaus of layered material dominate this scene and seem to be 'swimming' in vast sand sheets. The conical hills have a spur and gully topography associated with them while the flat topped buttes and mesas do not. This may be indicative of different materials that compose each of these landforms or it could be that the flat-topped layer has been completely eroded off of the conical hills thereby exposing a different rock type. Both the conical hills and flat-topped buttes and mesas have extensive scree slopes (heaps of eroded rock and debris). Ripples, which are inferred to be dunes, can also be seen amongst the hills. No impact craters can be seen in this image, indicating that the erosion and transport of material down the canyon wall and across the floor is occurring at a relatively rapid rate, so that any craters that form are rapidly buried or eroded.

  20. From the South Pole to the Northern Plains: The Argyre Planitia Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Grant, J. A.; Anderson, F. S.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2003-01-01

    Parker (1985, 1994) first described evidence for catastrophic flooding from a large lake or sea within Argyre Planitia through the Uzboi-Holden- Ladon-Margaritifer Valles system during the Noachian. The channel connection to Argyre had been recognized during the mid-1970s, based primarily on Russian orbiter images taken at that time. The most critical reviews of these inferences related to the relative timing of the plains materials, sinuous ridges, and debris aprons in southern Argyre, and the connection, via Uzboi Vallis, of ponding within Argyre to flooding through the Chryse Trough. The prevailing "competing" hypothesis for formation of materials within Argyre is that they are a result of south circumpolar glacial processes, with glacial scour and stagnation producing the pitting and sinuous ridges (eskers) on the basin floor rather than lacustrine erosion and deposition followed much later by a process akin to rock glacier formation of the debris aprons in a colder Amazonian climate. Argyre was part of a larger surface hydrological system that also included two large valley networks draining the Margaritifer Sinus region northwest of Argyre. The morphometry of these systems suggest a combination of precipitation and groundwater sapping, with surface runoff for their formation.

  1. Planet Mars from Viking Orbiter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This color picture of Mars was made from three frames shuttered nine seconds apart by the Viking 1 Orbiter on June 18. Each of the three pictures was taken through a different filter - red, green and violet. Color reconstruction was done at the Image Processing Facility of the U. S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona. Just below the center of the picture and near the morning terminator is the large impact basin Argyre. Interior of the basin is bright, suggesting ground frost or a ground haze. Bright area south of Argyre probably is an area of discontinuous frost cover near the south pole. The pole, itself, is in the dark at lower left. North of Argyre, the 'Grand Canyon' of Mars, called Vallis Marineris, can be seen near the terminator. Markings elsewhere on the planet are mostly due to differences in brightness; however, color differences are present, suggesting compositional differences. Area at the top is the eastern side of the Tharsis volcanic region and is bright because of cloud activity. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 107), by James Schultz.

  2. Stop Sign Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With its rim eroded off by catastrophic floods in Tiu Vallis and its strangely angular shape, this 12 km diameter crater looks vaguely like a stop sign.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.6, Longitude 329.2 East (30.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  3. The Diversity of Martian Volcanic Features as Seen in MOC Images and MOLA Topographic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    This project focused on the evolution of the summit areas of Martian volcanoes. By using data collected from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instruments, we tried to better understand the diversity of constructional volcanism on Mars, and hence further understand eruption processes. We investigated the styles of volcanism on the major volcanic constructs (Olympus, Arsia, Pavonis, and Ascraeus Montes), and also studied the role of magma-volatile interactions within the shallow subsurface of these volcanoes and the surrounding areas. Theoretical models for internal processes within volcanoes, including the thermal influences of dike intrusions on pre-existing volatiles, were developed based on our identification of landform distributions. Our work provided new insights into the diversity of volcanism on Mars, and the distribution of Martian volatiles in space and time. Highlights of our results include: 1) The identification of large ash deposits at the summit of Arsia Mons; 2) The study of a large flank eruption on Elysium Mons and the estimation of the effusion rate needed to produce the observed lava channel; 3) The quantitative description of dike intrusion into volatile-rich terrain to explain the origin of Hrad Vallis; 4) The identification of constructional ridges on top of very young lava flows from Olympus Mons, with the interpretation that these ridges were formed by very recent phreatomagmatic eruptions; and 5) The characterization of the dimensions and slope distributions on 18 volcanic edifices on Mars.

  4. Paleolake Deposits in Central Valles Marineris: A Unique Opportunity for 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Bruce

    1999-06-01

    Paleolake deposits have been mapped in Central Valles Marineris since Manner 9 and Viking. Accordingly, the region has been proposed as a priority target for landed payloads intended to detect diagnostic mineral evidence of a permanent lake environment, and, especially, biogenic signatures that could have survived from such promising candidate Martian habitats. Just-released MOLA data strongly buttress the hydrological case for long duration ice-covered lakes there during Hesperian times at least. And terrestrial discoveries within the last decade have extended the known subsurface distribution and seemingly ancient character of terrestrial chemotrophic microbes. These results, combined with the ground-water biogenic signature inferred by some from the Allen Hills meteorite, have strengthened significantly the scientific case for Central Valles Marineris. Until now, the difficulty has been the absence of a technical means within the Surveyor or New Millenium DS-2 capabilities for landing upon outcrops of interior layered deposits. Now the improved 2001 lander design brings exposures of interior paleolake deposits within the Surveyor program targeting capability for the first time. It is my purpose to argue here that several candidate paleolake deposits within the Central Vallis Marineris should be included as candidate landing sites pending definitive high-resolution MGS and Surveyor'98 observations.

  5. K-12 educator involvement in the Mars Pathfinder field trips in the Channeled Scabland of Washington and Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2000-03-01

    In September 1995, thirteen K-12 educators were completely immersed in an activity in which they worked with engineers and scientists as they assessed potential hazards and previewed the possible geology of the site that had been selected for the July 1997 landing of Mars Pathfinder. This site, located in the Ares Vallis outflow channel on Mars, was expected to be quite similar to the terrain of the Channeled Scabland of Washington and Idaho. The 13 educators were tasked with bringing their first-hand experience back to their hometowns and sharing what they had learned with local students, colleagues, and families. In addition, the educators helped conduct public outreach and teacher-training activities in the towns encountered during the field trips. For a wider outreach, the trip activities were also documented for television and print media. For many of the 13 educators, their connection to the Mars mission continued for more than two years, and some remain involved with this type of activity today. For some, these events changed the course and/or outlook of their careers. These activities and events can serve as a model for others considering ways to connect educators, children, and communities to high-visibility geoscience research projects.

  6. Observations at the Mars Pathfinder site: Do they provide "unequivocal" evidence of catastrophic flooding?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Kargel, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    After Mars Pathfinder landed at the mouth of Ares Vallis, a large channel that drains into the Chryse Planitia basin, the mission reports unanimously supported the interpretation that the lander site is the locus of catastrophic flooding by noting that all aspects of the scene are consistent with this interpretation. However, alternatives cannot be ruled out by any site observations, as all aspects of the scene are equally consistent with other interpretations of origin, namely, ice and mass-flow processes subsequently modified by wind erosion. The authors discuss alternative explanations for the geologic history of the channel based on a regional view of the circum-Chryse channels from Viking images (our best broad-scale information to date) and the local view from the recent Pathfinder landing site. Mega-indicators of channel origin, the regional geomorphology, geology, and planetary climatic conditions, taken together suggest some combination of flood, mass flow, glacial, and eolian processes. The macro-indicators of channel origin (sedimentologic) are also not indicative of one process of emplacement, either as single criteria or taken cumulatively. Finally, the micro-indicators of channel origin (geochemical and mineralogic composition) do not provide very tight constraints on the deposits' possible origins other than that water was in some way involved.

  7. Dike near Auqakuh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    13 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dike exhumed by erosion from beneath the cratered terrain near Auqakuh Vallis in northeastern Arabia Terra. The dike is the narrow, discontinuous ridge that cuts diagonally from the northwest (upper left) toward the southeast (lower right) across the scene. Typically, a dike is formed underground when molten rock -- magma -- is injected through a crack or fault. The magma eventually cools and hardens. A dike can also sometimes form in a non-volcanic setting by injection of wet sediment (which later hardens to rock) into an overlying sedimentary layer. The ridge is formed later, when surrounding rocks are eroded away, leaving the more erosion-resistant rock behind as a ridge. For an example on Earth, the famous Shiprock in northwestern New Mexico, U.S.A., has several dikes associated with it.

    Location near: 31.4oN, 299.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  8. Possible sub-glacial eruptions in the Galaxias Quadrangle, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Wilson, Lionel

    2016-03-01

    We have identified several landforms in the Galaxias Quadrangle of Mars (MTM 35217), 33.0-35.5°N, 216.0-218.0°W which are consistent with this area having been covered by an ancient ice sheet concurrent with volcanic eruptions. Volcanic activity was initiated by the intrusion of several large dikes measuring ∼50-100 m wide and protruding up to ∼35 m above the present-day surface. These dikes appear to have originated from Elysium Planitia ∼600 km to the SE. In one instance, a dike (at an elevation of -3750 m) appears to have produced a subglacial mound (referred to here as "Galaxias Mons 2") that evolved into an extrusive eruption and produced copious volumes of melt water that carved an outflow channel that extends almost 300 km to the north. At a lower elevation (-3980 m), a second putative dike may have failed to break the surface of the ice sheet and formed Galaxias Mons as a laccolithic intrusion. We numerically model the formation of Galaxias Mons and find that at least 200 m of ice may once have existed at this latitude at the time of the dike intrusions. Such a conclusion supports the idea that enigmatic small domes in the area may be pingoes. Collectively, these observations suggest that the previous interpretations for the origin of near-by Hrad Vallis as a sub-aerial eruption may need to be revised.

  9. A potential Mars 2020 rover landing site at a delta in Magong Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Platz, T.; Le Deit, L.; van Gasselt, S.; Kinch, K.; Madsen, M. B.; Rosenberg, H.

    2015-10-01

    For the upcoming NASA 2020 Mars rover mission we identified a potential landing site that meets all geological criteria including the presence of Noachian/Early Hesperian aqueous sediments and mineral phases and access to unaltered igneous rocks. Our proposed landing site is located at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis in Magong crater. The 25 km×20 km landing ellipse is centred at 11.990°N, 313.425°E. This site features deltaic sediments and distal lacustrine sediments. Weak signatures of Fe/Mg-bearing phyllosilicates were detected at central delta cliff sections. Lacustrine sediments are cut by a partially exhumed igneous dyke. On the crater floor of Magong crater remnants of an approximately 1m thick dark deposit are observed, which is interpreted to be a tephra layer sourced from an adjacent volcanic field within Lederberg crater. Detailed terra in analysis of the landing site shows that engineering constraints are met with respect to slope and relief.

  10. Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial species and symbiovars nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rouhrazi, Kiomars; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Velázquez, Encarna

    2016-03-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of 29 rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran was analysed on the basis of their core and symbiotic genes. These strains displayed five 16S rRNA-RFLP patterns and belong to eight ERIC-PCR clusters. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA and atpD core genes allowed the identification of several strains as Rhizobium sophoriradicis, R. leguminosarum, R. tropici and Pararhizobium giardinii, whereas other strains represented a new phylogenetic lineage related to R. vallis. These strains and those identified as R. sophoriradicis and R. leguminosarum belong to the symbiovar phaseoli carrying the γ nodC allele distributed in P. vulgaris endosymbionts in America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as R. tropici belongs to the symbiovar tropici carried by strains of R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum and R. freirei nodulating P. vulgaris in America, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as P. giardinii belongs to the symbiovar giardinii together with the type strain of this species nodulating P. vulgaris in France. It is remarkable that the recently described species R. sophoriradicis is worldwide distributed in P. vulgaris nodules carrying the γ nodC allele of symbiovar phaseoli harboured by rhizobia isolated in the American distribution centers of this legume. PMID:26832644

  11. Exploring Gusev Crater with Spirit: Review of science objectives and testable hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, N.A.; Grin, E.A.; Carr, M.H.; Sutter, B.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Farmer, J.D.; Greeley, R.; Kuzmin, R.O.; DesMarais, D.J.; Kramer, M.G.; Newsom, H.; Barber, C.; Thorsos, I.; Tanaka, K.L.; Barlow, N.G.; Fike, D.A.; Urquhart, M.L.; Grigsby, B.; Grant, F.D.; de Goursac, O.

    2003-01-01

    Gusev Crater was selected as the landing site for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit mission. Located at the outlet of Ma'adim Vallis and 250 km south of the volcano Apollinaris Patera, Gusev is an outstanding site to achieve the goals of the MER mission. The crater could have collected sediments from a variety of sources during its 3.9 Ga history, including fluvial, lacustrine, volcanic, glacial, impact, regional and local aeolian, and global air falls. It is a unique site to investigate the past history of water on Mars, climate and geological changes, and the potential habitability of the planet, which are central science objectives of the MER mission. Because of its complex history and potential diversity, Gusev will allow the testing of a large spectrum of hypotheses with the complete suite of MER instruments. Evidence consistent with long-lived lake episodes exist in the landing ellipse area. They might offer a unique opportunity to study, for the first time, Martian aqueous sediments and minerals formed in situ in their geological context. We review the geological history and diversity of the landing site, the science hypotheses that can be tested during the MER mission, and the relevance of Gusev to the MER mission objectives and payload. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetary Science, Volume 22; Conference, Houston, TX, Mar. 18-22, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Graham; Sharpton, Virgil L.

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented. Individual topics addressed include: analysis of Phobos Mission Gamma ray spectra from Mars, comparison of volcanic and modified landforms from Tharsis Montes on Mars, polygenetic origin of Hrad Vallis region of Mars, new evidence of lacustrine basins on Mars, flood surge through the Lunae Planum Outflow Complex on Mars, interpretation of canyon materials and flood sources on Kasei Valles on Mars, geochemistry of Manson Impact structure rocks, micrometer-sized glass spheres in Apollo 16 soil 61181, isotopic abundances in Pesyanoe of solar-type xenon, mineralogy of 12 large 'chondritic' interplanetary dust particles. Also discussed are: trace elements in chondritic stratospheric particles, evolution of isotopic signatures in lunar regolith nitrogen, pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon, origin of picritic green glass magmas by polybaric fractional fusion, origin of yellow glasses associated with Apollo 15 KREEP basalt fragments, trace elements in 59 mostly highland moon rocks, mineralization on the moon, relation between diogenite cumulates and eucrite magmas.

  13. Channel geometry and discharge estimates for Dao and Niger Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand [1]. Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As [2] pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to [2] who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent [3]. Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer [4]. Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario [5]. Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow [5]. The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures

  14. Scaled Strong Field Interactions at Long Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistrunk, Emily Frances

    The strong field regime describes interactions between light and matter where the electric field of the laser is a significant fraction of the binding field of the atom. Short pulsed lasers are capable of producing local fields on the order of the atomic unit of electric field. Under the influence of such strong fields, the ionization regime and electron dynamics are highly dependent on the wavelength used to drive the interaction. Few studies have been performed in the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral range. Using MIR wavelengths, the ponderomotive energy, Up, imposed on the electrons can be a factor of 20 greater than in the visible and near-infrared. Experiments on above threshold ionization (ATI) of cesium, nonsequential ionization (NSI) of noble gases, and high harmonic generation (HHG) in condensed phase media highlight the benefits of performing strong field investigations in the MIR. The photoelectron energy spectrum from above threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms provides details about the strong field interaction. Cesium atoms driven by a 3.6 mum laser indicate that excited states can play a large role in ionization from the ground state. Previous experiments on argon in the near-infrared can be compared to cesium at 3.6 im due to their similar Keldysh-scaling. Unlike argon, the measured ionization yield in cesium saturates at a higher intensity than predicted due to the Stark shift of the ground state. Such shifts have not been detected in argon. The low-lying 6P excited states of cesium produce a strong effect on the photoelectron energy spectrum, resulting in a splitting of each ATI peak. Enhancements in the photoelectron energy spectrum similar to those found in argon are observed in cesium. These enhancements are relatively insensitive to ellipticity of the drive laser. To take advantage of the large ponderomotive energy associated with Mid-IR lasers, ionization of argon, krypton and xenon is studied at 3.6 im. The factor of 20 increase in Up between the

  15. The Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida exoproteome: determination of the complete repertoire of Type-Three Secretion System effectors and identification of other virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiologic agent of furunculosis, is a major pathogen of fisheries worldwide. Several virulence factors have been described, but the type-three secretion system (T3SS) is recognized as having a major effect on virulence by injecting effectors directly into fish cells. In this study we used high-throughput proteomics to display the differences between in vitro secretome of A. salmonicida wild-type (wt, hypervirulent, JF2267) and T3SS-deficient (isogenic ΔascV, extremely low-virulent, JF2747) strains in exponential and stationary phases of growth. Results Results confirmed the secretion of effectors AopH, AexT, AopP and AopO via T3SS, and for the first time demonstrated the impact of T3SS in secretion of Ati2, AopN and ExsE that are known as effectors in other pathogens. Translocators, needle subunits, Ati1, and AscX were also secreted in supernatants (SNs) dependent on T3SS. AopH, Ati2, AexT, AopB and AopD were in the top seven most abundant excreted proteins. EF-G, EF-Tu, DnaK, HtpG, PNPase, PepN and MdeA were moderately secreted in wt SNs and predicted to be putative T3 effectors by bioinformatics. Pta and ASA_P5G088 were increased in wt SNs and T3-associated in other bacteria. Ten conserved cytoplasmic proteins were more abundant in wt SNs than in the ΔascV mutant, but without any clear association to a secretion system. T1-secreted proteins were predominantly found in wt SNs: OmpAI, OmpK40, DegQ, insulinase ASA_0716, hypothetical ASA_0852 and ASA_3619. Presence of T3SS components in pellets was clearly decreased by ascV deletion, while no impact was observed on T1- and T2SS. Our results demonstrated that the ΔascV mutant strain excreted well-described (VapA, AerA, AerB, GCAT, Pla1, PlaC, TagA, Ahe2, GbpA and enolase) and yet uncharacterized potential toxins, adhesins and enzymes as much as or even more than the wt strain. Other putative important virulence factors were not detected. Conclusions We

  16. Selection and Assessment of Predictions of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Moore, H. J.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Cook, R. A.; Parker, T. J.; Schofield, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    The successful landing of the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft on Mars allows the review of the process of selecting the landing site and assessing predictions made for the site based on Viking and Earth-based data. Selection of the landing site for Mars Pathfinder was a two-phase process. The first phase took place from October 1993 to June 1994 and involved: initial identification of engineering constraints, definition of environmental conditions at the site for spacecraft design, and evaluation of the scientific potential of different landing sites. This phase culminated with the first "Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop", held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas on April 18-19, 1994, in which suggested approaches and landing sites were solicited from the entire scientific community. A preliminary site was selected by the project for design purposes in June 1994. The second phase took place from July 1994 to March 1996 and involved: developing criteria for evaluating site safety using images and remote sensing data, testing of the spacecraft and landing subsystems (with design improvements) to establish quantitative engineering constraints on landing site characteristics, evaluating all potential landing sites on Mars, and certification of the site by the project. This phase included a second open workshop, "Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington" held in Spokane and Moses Lake September 24-30, 1995 and formal acceptance of the site by NASA Headquarters. Engineering constraints on Pathfinder landing sites were developed from the initial design of the spacecraft and the entry, descent and landing scenario. The site must be within 5 degrees of the subsolar latitude at the time of landing (15N for maximum solar power and flexible communications with Earth. It also must be below 0 km elevation to enable enough time for the parachute to bring the lander

  17. Genome Wide assessment of Early Osseointegration in Implant-Adherent Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalji, Ghadeer N.

    Objectives: To determine the molecular processes involved in osseointegration. Materials and methods: A structured literature review concerning in vitro and in vivo molecular assessment of osseointegration was performed. A rat and a human model were then used to identify the early molecular processes involved in osseointegration associated with a micro roughened and nanosurface superimposed featured implants. In the rat model, 32 titanium implants with surface topographies exhibiting a micro roughened (AT-II) and nanosurface superimposed featured implants (AT-I) were placed in the tibiae of 8 rats and subsequently harvested at 2 and 4 days after placement. Whereas in the human model, four titanium mini-implants with either a moderately roughened surface (TiOblast) or super-imposed nanoscale topography (Osseospeed) were placed in edentulous sites of eleven systemically healthy subjects and subsequently removed after 3 and 7 days. Total RNA was isolated from cells adherent to retrieved implants. A whole genome microarray using the Affymetrix 1.1 ST Array platform was used to describe the gene expression profiles that were differentially regulated by the implant surfaces. Results: The literature review provided evidence that particular topographic cues can be specifically integrated among the many extracellular signals received by the cell in its signal transduction network. In the rat model, functionally relevant categories related to ossification, skeletal system development, osteoblast differentiation, bone development and biomineral tissue development were upregulated and more prominent at AT-I compared to AT-II. In the human model, there were no significant differences when comparing the two-implant surfaces at each time point. However, the microarray identified several genes that were differentially regulated at day 7 vs. day 3 for both implant surfaces. Functionally relevant categories related to the extracellular matrix, collagen fibril organization and

  18. Multi-photon ionization of atoms in intense short-wavelength radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The unprecedented characteristics of XUV and X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) have stimulated numerous investigations focusing on the detailed understanding of fundamental photon-matter interactions in atoms and molecules. In particular, the high intensities (up to 106 W/cm2) giving rise to non-linear phenomena in the short wavelength regime. The basic phenomenology involves the production of highly charged ions via electron emission to which both sequential and direct multi-photon absorption processes contribute. The detailed investigation of the role and relative weight of these processes under different conditions (wavelength, pulse duration, intensity) is the key element for a comprehensive understanding of the ionization dynamics. Here the results of recent investigations are presented, performed at the FELs in Hamburg (FLASH) and Trieste (FERMI) on atomic systems with electronic structures of increasing complexity (Ar, Ne and Xe). Mainly, electron spectroscopy is used to obtain quantitative information about the relevance of various multi-photon ionization processes. For the case of Ar, a variety of processes including above threshold ionization (ATI) from 3p and 3s valence shells, direct 2p two-photon ionization and resonant 2p-4p two-photon excitations were observed and their role was quantitatively determined comparing the experimental ionization yields to ab-initio calculations of the cross sections for the multi-photon processes. Using Ar as a benchmark to prove the reliability of the combined experimental and theoretical approach, the more complex and intriguing case of Xe was studied. Especially, the analysis of the two-photon ATI from the Xe 4d shell reveals new insight into the character of the 4d giant resonance, which was unresolved in the linear one-photon regime. Finally, the influence of intense XUV radiation to the relaxation dynamics of the Ne 2s-3p resonance was investigated by angle-resolved electron spectroscopy, especially be observing

  19. Portuguese Participation In The Mars Express/beagle2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, E. I.; Portuguese Mx Teams

    Three Portuguese groups responded to the European Space Agency (ESA) second an- nouncement of opportunities for the Mars Express Mission. Projects were submitted in the fields Atmosphere and Surface/Atmosphere Interaction, Exobiology and Geologi- cal Evolution. Contacts among the groups revealed large areas of potential interaction and a necessity of active data, methods and analysis interchange. The projects will be executed in the period 2002-2006, and aim to analyse the information that will be conveyed by instruments aboard the Mars Express Orbiter and Beagle 2 Lander. Our combined projects propose to yield seven products: the Mars Orbital Viewer U MOVie U ; an apparent thermal inertia (ATI) map; a high-resolution water stability map; a lithostructural map; a hydrological potential map; a local assessment of poten- tial biomarkers; a geological map of Mars. MOVie will be a virtual-reality addressable map of Mars, based on stereoscopic images from the HSRC camera. The ATI map will draw on data from both the OMEGA (VNIR band) and PFS (NIR/TIR band) instru- ments. This map will enrich the existing atmospheric circulation models and help in the discrimination of lithotypes and hydric potential. One of our main objectives is to address the question whether water release does occur in the present epoch, which will be done by analysing the water vapour content in the low atmosphere. Data ar- riving from Beagle 2 will also be the basis for the assessment of methane contents on low martian atmosphere and soil-adsorbed gases. Atmosphere, soil and rock compo- sition data from the lander will allow for the correction of remotely sensed spectra. Classification will proceed in two phases: first an expert system will evaluate point lithologies from mineral and rock spectra; then those point lithologies will be mapped onto the planetary surface by a self-organising neural network. Mathematical mor- phology operators will also be used to perform the classification of Mars

  20. Out of the Reservoir: Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of a Novel Cowpox Virus Isolated from a Common Vole

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Donata; Franke, Annika; Jenckel, Maria; Tamošiūnaitė, Aistė; Schluckebier, Julia; Granzow, Harald; Hoffmann, Bernd; Fischer, Stefan; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Höper, Dirk; Goller, Katja; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The incidence of human cowpox virus (CPXV) infections has increased significantly in recent years. Serological surveys have suggested wild rodents as the main CPXV reservoir. We characterized a CPXV isolated during a large-scale screening from a feral common vole. A comparison of the full-length DNA sequence of this CPXV strain with a highly virulent pet rat CPXV isolate showed a sequence identity of 96%, including a large additional open reading frame (ORF) of about 6,000 nucleotides which is absent in the reference CPXV strain Brighton Red. Electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that the vole isolate, in contrast to the rat strain, forms A-type inclusion (ATI) bodies with incorporated virions, consistent with the presence of complete ati and p4c genes. Experimental infections showed that the vole CPXV strain caused only mild clinical symptoms in its natural host, while all rats developed severe respiratory symptoms followed by a systemic rash. In contrast, common voles infected with a high dose of the rat CPXV showed severe signs of respiratory disease but no skin lesions, whereas infection with a low dose led to virus excretion with only mild clinical signs. We concluded that the common vole is susceptible to infection with different CPXV strains. The spectrum ranges from well-adapted viruses causing limited clinical symptoms to highly virulent strains causing severe respiratory symptoms. In addition, the low pathogenicity of the vole isolate in its eponymous host suggests a role of common voles as a major CPXV reservoir, and future research will focus on the correlation between viral genotype and phenotype/pathotype in accidental and reservoir species. IMPORTANCE We report on the first detection and isolation of CPXV from a putative reservoir host, which enables comparative analyses to understand the infection cycle of these zoonotic orthopox viruses and the relevant genes involved. In vitro studies, including whole-genome sequencing as well as in

  1. Origin of Rebound Plasma HIV Includes Cells with Identical Proviruses That Are Transcriptionally Active before Stopping of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Ann; Shao, Wei; Coffin, John M.; Mellors, John W.; Lederman, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Keele, Brandon F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the origin of HIV variants during viral rebound may provide insight into the composition of the HIV reservoir and has implications for the design of curative interventions. HIV single-genome sequences were obtained from 10 AIDS Clinical Trials Group participants who underwent analytic antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption (ATI). Rebounding variants were compared with those in pre-ART plasma in all 10 participants and with on-ART peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated DNA and RNA (CA-RNA) in 7/10 participants. The highest viral diversities were found in the DNA and CA-RNA populations. In 3 of 7 participants, we detected multiple, identical DNA and CA-RNA sequences during suppression on ART that exactly matched plasma HIV sequences. Hypermutated DNA and CA-RNA were detected in four participants, contributing to diversities in these compartments that were higher than in the pre-ART and post-ATI plasma. Shifts in the viral rebound populations could be detected in some participants over the 2- to 3-month observation period. These findings suggest that a source of initial rebound viremia could be populations of infected cells that clonally expanded prior to and/or during ART, some of which were already expressing HIV RNA before treatment was interrupted. These clonally expanding populations of HIV-infected cells may represent an important target for strategies aimed at achieving reservoir reduction and sustained virologic remission. IMPORTANCE Antiretroviral therapy alone cannot eradicate the HIV reservoir, and viral rebound is generally rapid after treatment interruption. It has been suggested that clonal expansion of HIV-infected cells is an important mechanism of HIV reservoir persistence, but the contribution of these clonally proliferating cells to the rebounding virus is unknown. We report a study of AIDS Clinical Trials Group participants who underwent treatment interruption and compared rebounding plasma virus with that

  2. Prevalence and genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) from the Taï forest, Côte d'Ivoire SIVwrc in wild-living western red colobus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Liegeois, Florian; Lafay, Bénédicte; Roeder, Amy D; Bruford, Michael W; Formenty, Pierre; Noë, Ronald; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2008-01-01

    Numerous African primates are infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). It is now well established that the clade of SIVs infecting west-central African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) represent the progenitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), whereas HIV-2 results from different cross-species transmissions of SIVsmm from sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys). We present here the first molecular epidemiological survey of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVwrc) in wild-living western red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) which are frequently hunted by the human population and represent a favourite prey of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). We collected faecal samples (n=88) and we assessed individual discrimination by microsatellite analyses and visual observation. We tested the inferred 53 adult individuals belonging to two neighbouring habituated groups for presence of SIVwrc infection by viral RNA (vRNA) detection. We amplified viral polymerase (pol) (650 bp) and/or envelope (env) (570 bp) sequences in 14 individuals, resulting in a minimal prevalence of 26% among the individuals sampled, possibly reaching 50% when considering the relatively low sensitivity of viral RNA detection in faecal samples. With a few exceptions, phylogenetic analysis of pol and env sequences revealed a low degree of intragroup genetic diversity and a general viral clustering related to the social group of origin. However, we found a higher intergroup diversity. Behavioural and demographic data collected previously from these communities indicate that red colobus monkeys live in promiscuous multi-male societies, where females leave their natal group at the sub-adult stage of their lives and where extra-group copulations or male immigration have been rarely observed. The phylogenetic data we obtained seem to reflect these behavioural characteristics. Overall, our results indicate that

  3. Application of Statistical Methods of Rain Rate Estimation to Data From The TRMM Precipitation Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.; Jones, J. A.; Iguchi, T.; Okamoto, K.; Liao, L.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The TRMM Precipitation Radar is well suited to statistical methods in that the measurements over any given region are sparsely sampled in time. Moreover, the instantaneous rain rate estimates are often of limited accuracy at high rain rates because of attenuation effects and at light rain rates because of receiver sensitivity. For the estimation of the time-averaged rain characteristics over an area both errors are relevant. By enlarging the space-time region over which the data are collected, the sampling error can be reduced. However. the bias and distortion of the estimated rain distribution generally will remain if estimates at the high and low rain rates are not corrected. In this paper we use the TRMM PR data to investigate the behavior of 2 statistical methods the purpose of which is to estimate the rain rate over large space-time domains. Examination of large-scale rain characteristics provides a useful starting point. The high correlation between the mean and standard deviation of rain rate implies that the conditional distribution of this quantity can be approximated by a one-parameter distribution. This property is used to explore the behavior of the area-time-integral (ATI) methods where fractional area above a threshold is related to the mean rain rate. In the usual application of the ATI method a correlation is established between these quantities. However, if a particular form of the rain rate distribution is assumed and if the ratio of the mean to standard deviation is known, then not only the mean but the full distribution can be extracted from a measurement of fractional area above a threshold. The second method is an extension of this idea where the distribution is estimated from data over a range of rain rates chosen in an intermediate range where the effects of attenuation and poor sensitivity can be neglected. The advantage of estimating the distribution itself rather than the mean value is that it yields the fraction of rain contributed by

  4. Premolar microwear and tooth use in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Delezene, Lucas K; Zolnierz, Melissa S; Teaford, Mark F; Kimbel, William H; Grine, Frederick E; Ungar, Peter S

    2013-09-01

    The mandibular third premolar (P3) of Australopithecus afarensis is notable for extensive morphological variability (e.g., metaconid presence/absence, closure of the anterior fovea, root number) and temporal trends in crown length and shape change over its 700 Ka time range. Hominins preceding A. afarensis have unicuspid, mesiodistally elongated P3s with smaller talonids, and subsequent australopiths have bicuspid, more symmetrically-shaped P3 crowns with expanded talonids. For these features, A. afarensis is intermediate and, thus, evinces the incipient stages of P3 molarization. Here, we examine A. afarensis P3 Phase II microwear and compare it with that of Australopithecus africanus and Cercocebus atys, an extant hard-object specialist, to assess whether the role of the P3 in food processing changed over time in A. afarensis. Premolar Phase II microwear textures are also compared with those of the molars to look for evidence of functional differentiation along the tooth row (i.e., that foods with different mechanical properties were processed by separate regions of the postcanine battery). Microwear textures were also examined along the mesial protoconid crest, the site of occlusion with the maxillary canine, of the A. afarensis P3 and compared with the same region in Pan troglodytes to determine whether microwear can be useful for identifying changes in the occlusal relationship between the P3 and maxillary canine in early Australopithecus. Finally, temporal trends in P3 Phase II and mesial microwear are considered. Results indicate that 1) both the P3 and molar Phase II facets of A. afarensis have less complex microwear textures than in A. africanus or C. atys; 2) A. afarensis P3 and molar Phase II textures differ, though not to the extent seen in taxa that eat hard and tough items; 3) microwear along the A. afarensis mesial protoconid crest is clearly distinct from that of the P. troglodytes, indicating that there is no honing equivalent in A. afarensis; and

  5. Ostracoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea) in a Miocene oxygen minimum zone, Trinidad, West Indies: A test of the Platycopid Signal Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brent; Coimbra, João C.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.

    2014-10-01

    turnover of both ostracodal and foraminiferal assemblages were compared and contrasted quantitatively using a total assemblage turnover index (ATI) and the paleoenvironmental importance evaluated. The correlated between-sample ATI is for both groups lowest within the OMZ.

  6. Mineralogic Context of the Circum-Chryse Planitia Candidate Landing Sites for the ExoMars Rover Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, John; Loizeau, Damien; Quantin, Cathy; Balme, Matt; Poulet, Francois; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vago, Jorge; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The ExoMars rover mission [1] will sample ancient, aqueously altered terrains to search for traces of extinct life and characterize the water history of Early Mars. These objectives translate into site-specific constraints in order to maximize the opportunity to access morphological and/or chemical markers for past aqueous environments and possibly life [2]. Currently, four candidate landing sites are being considered, all located on the margin of Chryse Planitia and all exhibiting hydrous clays within or near the ellipse. Assessing the composition and morphologic/stratigraphic context of these clays is necessary to narrow down possible formation scenarios and help rank the sites according to their relevance to the science goals. This work investigates the aqueous mineralogy of the circum-Chyrse region -where the LS are proposed-, in order to provide a framework for future in-depth investigations. Regional mapping of the clay mineralogy was performed using the OMEGA and CRISM NIR imaging spectrometers [3,4]. Global coverage of the circum-Chryse margin was achieved with OMEGA while detailed mapping was carried out locally with OMEGA and CRISM. Over 250 observations with pixel scales ranging 20 m - 4 km were investigated. Additionally, detailed analysis of the clay chemical composition was carried out using linear unmixing which provided the relative abundances of several Fe/Mg-rich phyllosilicate endmembers in the region. The analysis revealed large exposures of dominantly Fe/Mg-rich phyllosilicates over most of the preserved Noachian-aged margins of Chryse Planitia. These minerals have spectral features which are generally similar to what is found elsewhere on Mars [5], consistent with either vermiculites or smectite-bearing mixed-layered clays [6,7]. A regional outlier exists at and around the Mawrth Vallis LS: the most common clay there is likely Fe-rich nontronite associated with Al-rich phyllosilicates within layered deposits [8,9], indicating a different

  7. THEMIS Observations, Discoveries and Predictions for the MER A Landing Site in Gusev Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J. W.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-12-01

    THEMIS has "followed the water" and discovered the youngest water flow into the MER A landing site in Gusev crater. This flow has a rumpled looking texture and is interpreted to be viscous material emanating from the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis. The flow can be traced for over 150 km across the floor of Gusev. This flow is emplaced on top of the smooth plains material and covers the whole western half of the landing ellipse. The flow does not show up in THEMIS IR indicating that it is mantled with at least a few cm of dust. This flow is either a debris flow (15-40% water volume content) or hyperconcentrated flow (40-80% water volume content) and not a lava flow based on its morphology, geologic setting, and lack of nearby volcanic sources. Debris flow deposits can be differentiated from hyperconcentrated flows on the basis of particle sorting, sedimentary structures, and inferred rheological properties. Access to this deposit will allow sampling of the most recent water related sediment in the basin. A very interesting relationship has been found to exist for many craters in the region of Gusev. These craters contain stacks of layered sedimentary deposits. It should be noted that these craters lack a large inflowing channel system. A similar layered morphology is seen on the floor of Gusev, especially the SE portion of the crater, where a 190 m thick deposit is being eroded. We propose that this material in Gusev is the remnant of a formerly more extensive regional unit related to the layered deposits seen in the many nearby craters. This observation suggests that the region was formerly buried by several hundred meters of material that is now being exhumed. This also implies that Ma'adim Vallis was a superposed channel that cut down from above and across Gusev. We also offer another scenario for Gusev in that it received periodic outwash deposits and may have contained shallow ephemeral playas with short lifetimes and not deep long lived lakes as suggested by some

  8. Provenance of the Fluvial-deltaic Sedimentary Deposits Within the Eberswalde Crater Catchment, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N.; Warner, N. H.; Rice, M. S.; Grindrod, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Eberswalde crater is one of few locations on Mars where a clear source-to-sink sedimentary path can be identified [1]. While the delta in western Eberswalde crater has been extensively studied [e.g., 2-5], few studies have described the catchment geology. [e.g. 6-7]. Here we present a geologic and compositional study of the catchment in order to characterise the source region for the Eberswalde delta. We have used DTMs and images from MRO's Context Camera (CTX) to map the channels that feed the delta at a finer scale than has previously been possible and to identify the headwater regions. We find that all channels begin on local or regional topographic highs, suggesting precipitation or snowmelt as a source of water rather than mobilization of subsurface ice due to hot overlying ejecta from the Holden crater impact [6]. Comparisons of channel depth and estimated Holden crater ejecta thickness throughout the catchment, in addition to our geologic mapping, indicate that the source for the Eberswalde sediments is almost exclusively Holden crater ejecta. One exception is the northern catchment area where channel depths exceed Holden ejecta thicknesses and therefore likely sample underlying Eberswalde ejecta or Holden basin rim material. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of Fe-Mg phyllosilicates in both the Holden crater walls [8] and ejecta [1]. We have also identified Fe-Mg phyllosilicates in a sedimentary deposit in a local basin within the Eberswalde catchment which has been eroded by the main Eberswalde fluvial system [9]. Therefore, there are phyllosilicates within the source sediments for the main deltaic feature within Eberswalde crater. However, some of the channels erode into Noachian-age Eberswalde ejecta and possibly the Holden basin rim. [9-11] have identified a subsurface layer of phyllosilicates that is present throughout the plateau region south of Vallis Marineris, west of Holden and Eberswalde craters, and north of Nirgal Vallis. This layer

  9. Relationship Between Topography and the Eastern Equatorial Hydrogen Signal on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevy, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    Epithermal neutron flux data received from the Neutron Spectrometer, part of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite on board NASA's Mars Odyssey, indicates elevated equatorial hydrogen deposits partially encircle the Schiaparelli Basin. Deconvolution of the hydrogen signal statistically increased the resolution over the spectrometer's original 600 km footprint. The resulting map of hydrogen concentrations was further refined by ignoring all data <8.9% Water Equivalent Hydrogen (WEH). In so doing, this study provides the most detailed map to date of the hydrogen concentration maxima in this region and serves as a guide for future exploration. Projecting the Eastern Equatorial Hydrogen map onto the digital elevation model for the Schiaparelli Basin reveals several areas of interest. For simplification, these areas are identified by clock position relative to Schiaparelli. At the twelve o'clock position, a maximum exceeding 10% WEH occupies the upper, northern slope of a saddle between Henry Crater and unnamed craters west of Henry. Viking images of the nameless craters demonstrate wind streaks from the north veer to the southwest here, following topography. Surface drainage channels are apparent on the slope below the local WEH maximum. The 2:30 maximum lies over Tuscaloosa Crater and Verde Vallis. This >10% WEH maximum has the greatest aerial extent, roughly 200 km in diameter. At 5 o'clock, the fringing range adjacent to Brazos Valles lies within the surficially dark region called Sinus Sabaeus. It should be noted that projection of the albedo map over the terrain reveals dark grains concentrating in low areas, presumably having moved short distances by wind and gravity. The absence or presence of these grains does not seem to affect the measured WEH concentration as the signal's local maximum, about 10.2%, crosses areas of high and low albedo without an increase or decrease in signal strength. At 6 o'clock, two 10.4% WEH maxima line the north-facing slope of another

  10. Indicators and Methods to Understand Past Environments from ExoMars Rover Drills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, A.; Bradak, B.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Ujvari, G.

    2016-03-01

    Great advances are expected during the analysis of drilled material acquired from 2 m depth by ExoMars rover, supported by the comparison to local context, and the joint use of different instruments. Textural information might be less detailed relatively to what is usually obtained at outcrops during classical geological field work on the Earth, partly because of the lack of optical imaging of the borehole wall and also because the collected samples are crushed. However sub-mm scale layering and some other sedimentary features might be identified in the borehole wall observations, or in the collected sample prior to crushing, and also at nearby outcrops. The candidate landing sites provide different targets and focus for research: Oxia Planum requires analysis of phyllosilicates and OH content, at Mawrth Vallis the layering of various phyllosilicates and the role of shallow-subsurface leaching should be emphasized. At Aram Dorsum the particle size and fluvial sedimentary features will be interesting. Hydrated perchlorates and sulphates are ideal targets possibly at every landing sites because of OH retention, especially if they are mixed with smectites, thus could point to even ancient wet periods. Extensive use of information from the infrared wall scanning will be complemented for geological context by orbital and rover imaging of nearby outcrops. Information from the context is especially useful to infer the possible action of past H2O. Separation of the ice and liquid water effects will be supported by cation abundance and sedimentary context. Shape of grains also helps here, and composition of transported grains points to the weathering potential of the environment in general. The work on Mars during the drilling and sample analysis will provide brand new experience and knowledge for future missions.

  11. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew P.

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, one of the first Discovery-class missions (quick, low-cost projects with focused science objectives), will land a single spacecraft with a microrover and several instruments on the surface of Mars in 1997. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, carrying a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. In addition to the rover, which also performs a number of technology experiments, Pathfinder carries three science instruments: a stereoscopic imager with spectral filters on an extendable mast, an alpha proton X ray spectrometer, and an atmospheric structure instrument/meteorology package. The instruments, the rover technology experiments, and the telemetry system will allow investigations of the surface morphology and geology at submeter to a hundred meters scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations, and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis at 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products, and tile early environments and conditions on Mars.

  12. Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in a small canyon within a crater rim northeast of Naktong Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 7.1, Longitude 34.7 East (325.3 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  14. Remote detection of past habitability at Mars-analogue hydrothermal alteration terrains using an ExoMars Panoramic Camera emulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Gunn, M.; Grindrod, P. M.; Barnes, D.; Crawford, I. A.; Cross, R. E.; Coates, A. J.

    2015-05-01

    A major scientific goal of the European Space Agency's ExoMars 2018 rover is to identify evidence of life within the martian rock record. Key to this objective is the remote detection of geological substrates that are indicative of past habitable environments, which will rely on visual (stereo wide-angle, and high resolution images) and multispectral (440-1000 nm) data produced by the Panoramic Camera (PanCam) instrument. We deployed a PanCam emulator at four hydrothermal sites in the Námafjall volcanic region of Iceland, a Mars-analogue hydrothermal alteration terrain. At these sites, sustained acidic-neutral aqueous interaction with basaltic substrates (crystalline and sedimentary) has produced phyllosilicate, ferric oxide, and sulfate-rich alteration soils, and secondary mineral deposits including gypsum veins and zeolite amygdales. PanCam emulator datasets from these sites were complemented with (i) NERC Airborne Research and Survey Facility aerial hyperspectral images of the study area; (ii) in situ reflectance spectroscopy (400-1000 nm) of PanCam spectral targets; (iii) laboratory X-ray Diffraction, and (iv) laboratory VNIR (350-2500 nm) spectroscopy of target samples to identify their bulk mineralogy and spectral properties. The mineral assemblages and palaeoenvironments characterised here are analogous to neutral-acidic alteration terrains on Mars, such as at Mawrth Vallis and Gusev Crater. Combined multispectral and High Resolution Camera datasets were found to be effective at capturing features of astrobiological importance, such as secondary gypsum and zeolite mineral veins, and phyllosilicate-rich substrates. Our field observations with the PanCam emulator also uncovered stray light problems which are most significant in the NIR wavelengths and investigations are being undertaken to ensure that the flight model PanCam cameras are not similarly affected.

  15. Primary centers and secondary concentrations of tectonic activity through time in the western hemisphere of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Franklin, B.J.; Tanaka, K.L.; Lias, J.; Peer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Five main stages of radial and concentric structures formed around Tharsis from the Noachian through the Amazonian as determined by geologic mapping of 24,452 structures within the stratigraphic framework of Mars and by testing their radial and concentric orientations. Tectonic activity peaked in the Noachian (stage 1) around the largest center, Claritas, an elongate center extending more than 20?? in latitude and defined by about half of the total grabens which are concentrated in the Syria Planum, Thaumasia, and Tempe Terra regions. During the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian (stage 2), extensional structures formed along the length of present-day Valles Marineris and in Thaumasia (with a secondary concentration near Warrego Vallis) radial to a region just to the south of the central margin of Valles Marineris. Early Hesperian (stage 3) radial grabens in Pavonis, Syria, Ulysses, and Tempe Terra and somewhat concentric wrinkle ridges in Lunae and Solis Plana and in Thaumasia, Sirenum, Memnonia, and Amazonis are centered northwest of Syria with secondary centers at Thaumasia, Tempe Terra, Ulysses Fossae, and western Valles Marineris. Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian (stage 4) structures around Alba Patera, the northeast trending alignment of Tharsis Montes, and Olympus Mons appears centered on Alba Patera. Stage 5 structures (Middle-Late Amazonian) represent the last pulse of Tharsis-related activity and are found around the large shield volcanoes and are centered near Pavonis Mons. Tectonic activity around Tharsis began in the Noachian and generally decreased through geologic time to the Amazonian. Statistically significant radial distributions of structures formed during each stage, centered at different locations within the higher elevations of Tharsis. Secondary centers of radial structures during many of the stages appear related to previously identified local magmatic centers that formed at different times and locations throughout Tharsis. Copyright 2001 by

  16. Geochemical diversity in first rocks examined by the Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater: Evidence for and significance of an alkali and volatile-rich igneous source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Campbell, J. L.; Gellert, R.; Perrett, G. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Blaney, D. L.; Olilla, A.; Calef, F. J.; Edgar, L.; Elliott, B. E.; Grotzinger, J.; Hurowitz, J.; King, P. L.; Minitti, M. E.; Sautter, V.; Stack, K.; Berger, J. A.; Bridges, J. C.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Forni, O.; Leshin, L. A.; Lewis, K. W.; McLennan, S. M.; Ming, D. W.; Newsom, H.; Pradler, I.; Squyres, S. W.; Stolper, E. M.; Thompson, L.; VanBommel, S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    first four rocks examined by the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer indicate that Curiosity landed in a lithologically diverse region of Mars. These rocks, collectively dubbed the Bradbury assemblage, were studied along an eastward traverse (sols 46-102). Compositions range from Na- and Al-rich mugearite Jake_Matijevic to Fe-, Mg-, and Zn-rich alkali-rich basalt/hawaiite Bathurst_Inlet and span nearly the entire range in FeO* and MnO of the data sets from previous Martian missions and Martian meteorites. The Bradbury assemblage is also enriched in K and moderately volatile metals (Zn and Ge). These elements do not correlate with Cl or S, suggesting that they are associated with the rocks themselves and not with salt-rich coatings. Three out of the four Bradbury rocks plot along a line in elemental variation diagrams, suggesting mixing between Al-rich and Fe-rich components. ChemCam analyses give insight to their degree of chemical heterogeneity and grain size. Variations in trace elements detected by ChemCam suggest chemical weathering (Li) and concentration in mineral phases (e.g., Rb and Sr in feldspars). We interpret the Bradbury assemblage to be broadly volcanic and/or volcaniclastic, derived either from near the Gale crater rim and transported by the Peace Vallis fan network, or from a local volcanic source within Gale Crater. High Fe and Fe/Mn in Et_Then likely reflect secondary precipitation of Fe3+ oxides as a cement or rind. The K-rich signature of the Bradbury assemblage, if igneous in origin, may have formed by small degrees of partial melting of metasomatized mantle.

  17. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F., III; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  18. Ancient deltas on Mars: outstanding targets for martian habitability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Fawdon, P.; Grindrod, P. M.; Balme, M. R.; Hauber, E.; Warner, N. H.; Muller, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The identification of putative ancient deltaic sedimentary systems on Mars has been both exciting and controversial. Our excitement is elicted by the potential provided by deltas as evidence for standing bodies of water associated with the deltas, and the resulting implications for both the ancient climate of Mars and ancient habitability. The controversy stems from how confident can we be in the identification of ancient deltaic systems from orbital data, and how robust are our assertions about the habitability potential of such settings. Delta systems in particular are key astrobiological targets because at their distal toes fine-grained sediment (ie., clays) settle from suspension in a lower energy setting and they are commonly characterised by high rates of sedimentation. This leads to high preservation potential of biosignatures. Targeting of future Mars rovers to investigate deltaic landing sites requires better understanding of these issues to reduce exploration risk. In this presentation, we describe the key criteria that enable us to make robust interpretations of deltaic stratigraphy and constrain delta evolution for martian systems. In particular, the past 10 years has seen in a revolution in our process understanding of terrestrial delta systems through a combination of field, experimental and numerical modelling studies. Analysis of martian deltas has much to gain from these results. We go on to consider why deltaic systems offer potential as astrobiological target paleoenvironments. We use the exhumed delta system (Hypanis delta system) at the termination of Hypanis Vallis, 11.8°N, 314.96°E as a case example. This system, situated in Xanthe Terra, comprises layered sedimentary rocks with an overall multi-lobate geometry and associated inverted channel networks. The Hypanis 'delta' is a proposed landing site for the ExoMars rover and also for the NASA 2020 mission.

  19. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) during MRO's Primary Science Phase (PSP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Banks, M.E.; Baugh, N.; Becker, K.; Boyd, A.; Bergstrom, J.W.; Beyer, R.A.; Bortolini, E.; Bridges, N.T.; Byrne, S.; Castalia, B.; Chuang, F.C.; Crumpler, L.S.; Daubar, I.; Davatzes, A.K.; Deardorff, D.G.; DeJong, A.; Alan, Delamere W.; Dobrea, E.N.; Dundas, C.M.; Eliason, E.M.; Espinoza, Y.; Fennema, A.; Fishbaugh, K.E.; Forrester, T.; Geissler, P.E.; Grant, J. A.; Griffes, J.L.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Gulick, V.C.; Hansen, C.J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heyd, R.; Jaeger, W.L.; Jones, D.; Kanefsky, B.; Keszthelyi, L.; King, R.; Kirk, R.L.; Kolb, K.J.; Lasco, J.; Lefort, A.; Leis, R.; Lewis, K.W.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Mattson, S.; McArthur, G.; Mellon, M.T.; Metz, J.M.; Milazzo, M.P.; Milliken, R.E.; Motazedian, T.; Okubo, C.H.; Ortiz, A.; Philippoff, A.J.; Plassmann, J.; Polit, A.; Russell, P.S.; Schaller, C.; Searls, M.L.; Spriggs, T.; Squyres, S. W.; Tarr, S.; Thomas, N.; Thomson, B.J.; Tornabene, L.L.; Van Houten, C.; Verba, C.; Weitz, C.M.; Wray, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) acquired 8 terapixels of data in 9137 images of Mars between October 2006 and December 2008, covering ???0.55% of the surface. Images are typically 5-6 km wide with 3-color coverage over the central 20% of the swath, and their scales usually range from 25 to 60 cm/pixel. Nine hundred and sixty stereo pairs were acquired and more than 50 digital terrain models (DTMs) completed; these data have led to some of the most significant science results. New methods to measure and correct distortions due to pointing jitter facilitate topographic and change-detection studies at sub-meter scales. Recent results address Noachian bedrock stratigraphy, fluvially deposited fans in craters and in or near Valles Marineris, groundwater flow in fractures and porous media, quasi-periodic layering in polar and non-polar deposits, tectonic history of west Candor Chasma, geometry of clay-rich deposits near and within Mawrth Vallis, dynamics of flood lavas in the Cerberus Palus region, evidence for pyroclastic deposits, columnar jointing in lava flows, recent collapse pits, evidence for water in well-preserved impact craters, newly discovered large rayed craters, and glacial and periglacial processes. Of particular interest are ongoing processes such as those driven by the wind, impact cratering, avalanches of dust and/or frost, relatively bright deposits on steep gullied slopes, and the dynamic seasonal processes over polar regions. HiRISE has acquired hundreds of large images of past, present and potential future landing sites and has contributed to scientific and engineering studies of those sites. Warming the focal-plane electronics prior to imaging has mitigated an instrument anomaly that produces bad data under cold operating conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  20. A simple model of clastic sediments on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Malin, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    In preparation for the start of Mars Observer operations at Mars later this year, Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) observations were synthesized into a simple but geologically coherent conceptual model for use in establishing targets for coordinated Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Mars Observer Camera (MOC) observations. The model is based on three assumptions that are, at best, only partly true: that albedo is a measure of the presence or absence of dust; that thermal inertia is a measure of the weighted average particle size; and that rock abundance is a measure of the statistical thickness of fine sediment (i.e., that the observed areal abundance of rock reflects the whole or partial burial of rocks). Using this model, it is possible to show that, on the scale of 30 km, mantles of wind-transportable sediment (dust and sand) are at most about 1 m thick, and that on a global average such mantles are about 35 cm thick. It is shown that 3.8 x 10(exp 19) cu cm of such sediment covers Mars equatorward of +/- 60 deg latitude. Using the model, interpretation of digital maps of IRTM data focus attention not only on areas where dust is the primary sediment (e.g., Arabia Terra), but also on areas where sand is the primary sediment (e.g., eastern Valles Marineris) and where rocks and other coarse materials are abundant (e.g., eastern Kasei Vallis). Three IRTM data sets are used in the analysis: Viking 1 and 2 pre-dawn observations mosaiced into a global map of single-point thermal inertias at 0.5 deg/bin resolution; Pleskot and Miner's global albedo map using the best available, clear-period IRTM observations (1x/bin); and Christensen's 1 deg/bin rock abundance map. Uncertainty analyses indicate these data sets to be accurate to 5 percent, 2 percent, and 20 percent, respectively.