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Sample records for atlantic menhaden brevoortia

  1. Infectivity and pathogenicity of the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiryu, Y.; Shields, J.D.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Kator, H.; Blazer, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus develop characteristic skin ulcers in response to infection by the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans. To investigate pathogenicity, we conducted a dose response study. Juvenile menhaden were inoculated subcutaneously with 0, 1, 5, 10, 100, and 500 secondary zoospores per fish and monitored for 37 d post-injection (p.i.). Survival rates declined with increasing zoospore dose, with significantly different survivorship curves for the different doses. Moribund and dead fish exhibited characteristic ulcerous lesions at the injection site starting at 13 d p.i. None of the sham-injected control fish (0 zoospore treatment) died. The LD50 (lethal dose killing 50% of exposed menhaden) for inoculated fish was estimated at 9.7 zoospores; however, some fish receiving an estimated single zoospore developed infections that resulted in death. Menhaden were also challenged by aqueous exposure and confirmed that A. invadans was highly pathogenic by this more environmentally realistic route. Fish that were acclimated to culture conditions for 30 d, and presumably free of skin damage, then aqueously exposed to 100 zoospores ml-1, exhibited 14% lesion prevalence with 11% mortality. Net-handled fish that were similarly infected had a significantly higher lesion prevalence (64%) and mortality (64%). Control fish developed no lesions and did not die. Scanning electron microscopy of fish skin indicated that zoospores adhered to intact epidermis, germinated and penetrated the epithelium with a germ tube. Our results indicate that A. invadans is a primary pathogen of menhaden and is able to cause disease at very low zoospore concentrations.

  2. Toxicity of ozonated estuarine water to juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and Juvenile Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus)

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, L.B.; Burton, D.T.

    1981-02-01

    Large quantitites of estuarine and marine water are treated with chlorine to prevent condenser system fouling at power plants. Chlorine and its residual by-products, however, are toxic to many forms of aquatic life. Ozone is one alternative oxidant which has proven to be an effective biocide and disinfectant in many fresh water applications. Ozonation of estuarine and marine waters, however, may produce residual compounds similar to those produced by chlorination. This study was initiated to provide baseline information on the toxicity of ozonated estuarine water to two representative estuarine species. The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, and the Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe, were selected because of their wide distribution and commercial importance. The toxicity of ozone has been compared with chlorine toxicity data from the literature in an effort to examine possible similarities in toxicity.

  3. Factors influencing the sporulation and cyst formation of Aphanomyces invadans, etiological agent of ulcerative mycosis in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiryu, Y.; Blazer, V.S.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Kator, H.; Shields, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Oomycete infections caused by Aphanomyces invadans occur in freshwater and estuarine fishes around the world. Along the east coast of the USA, skin ulcers caused by A. invadans are prevalent in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus. From laboratory observations low salinities appear crucial to transmission of the pathogen. To better understand aspects of transmission, we characterized sporulation and cyst formation of secondary zoospores of two isolates of A. invadans at different salinities and temperatures. Sporulation occurred only at low salinities. At room temperature (ca. 20-22 C), using "pond water" augmented with artificial sea salts, the endemic strain WIC and the Thailand strain PA7 of A. invadans produced free-swimming secondary zoospores at salinities of 0, 1 and 2 psu (practical salinity unit = ???), but not at 4 psu or higher. Secondary zoospores of another species, ATCC-62427 (Aphanomyces sp.), were observed at 1, 2, 4 and 8 psu but not at 0 and 12 psu. Secondary zoospores of all three isolates, especially WIC, were abundant and motile 1-2 d post-sporulation. Sporulation was temperature dependent and occurred over a relatively narrow range. No sporulation occurred at 4, 30 or 35 C for either WIC or PA7. For both strains zoospore production within 1-3 d after the initiation of sporulation was more prolific at 25 C than at 20 and 15 C. At 15 C production of zoospores was sustained over 11 d for WIC and 5 d for PA7. At room temperature single WIC secondary zoospores remained motile 12-18 h. Salinities exceeding 4 psu or vigorous shaking caused immediate cyst formation of WIC secondary zoospores. Exposure to menhaden tissue, but not tissues of other fishes to secondary zoospores (WIC), caused rapid (2 h) cyst formation. Cysts were capable of excysting when transferred to 1 psu water within 2-3 h of cyst formation. Cysts that had remained encysted in 6.5 psu for 24 h did not excyst when transferred to 1 psu water. Salinity and temperature requirements

  4. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN THE GULF MENHADEN, 'BREVOORTIA PATRONUS' GOODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The communication reports a case (RTLA 3618) of squamous cell carcinoma from the gulf menhaden, Brevoortia patronus Goode, the first tumor reported from the species. The affected fish was collected in a gill net on 15 January 1986 in the northern Gulf of Mexico near Round Island,...

  5. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  6. Etiology and pathogenesis of skin ulcers in menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannis: does Pfiesteria piscicida play a role?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Densmore, C.; Kator, H.; Zwerner, D.; Lilley, J.

    2000-01-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, is widely blamed for adverse human health effects, acute fish kills and skin lesion events in fishes, particularly menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannis, inhabiting coastal waters from Delaware to North Carolina, USA. In response, we initiated studies to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of presumed 'Pfiesteria-specific' menhaden skin lesions. Histopathologically, all lesions (>150 fish examined) were associated with a highly invasive and pathogenic fungus eliciting severe tissue necrosis and intense granulomatous inflammation. Severity and extent of the host response indicates that ulcers were at least 1 week old or older. Maryland and Virginia currently use menhaden ulcers as one of several indicators of local Pfiesteria activity. However, their chronic nature, advanced age, and consistent fungal involvement suggest that their use for this purpose may not be valid. We recently isolated an Aphanomyces sp. from the menhaden lesions which by appearance in culture, temperature growth curves, pathogenicity studies in snakehead and positive immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal antibodies suggest the infectious agent is A. invadans (cause of epizootic ulcerative syndrome in Asia, Japan and Australia) or a very closely related species. Ongoing research will address pathogenicity of the fungus in menhaden, genetic comparisons of isolates, and the role of environmental stressors, including P. piscicida, in initiation of the infection. Copyright (C) 2000.

  7. Assessing the trophic role and ecosystem impact of Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) with carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) are an important component species of the coastal ecosystem and the target of the largest fishery by landings in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). As filter feeders, they forage on a variety of plankton and detritus and, by grazing plankton stocks, ma...

  8. A sampler for capturing larval and juvenile Atlantic menhaden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.D.; Hedrick, L.R.; Margraf, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in capturing larval and juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus for use in laboratory studies required the design and construction of a sampling device that would allow us to make collections of live fish from open-water areas. Our device for capturing 1-2.5-in larval-juvenile fish was constructed of a stainless steel frame that supported a 9.84-ft-long (3-m-long)5 cone plankton net with a 3.28-ft-diameter (1-m-diameter) opening and a 0.04-in (1-mm) mesh size. Although the plankton net was similar to that used during typical larval fish collections, the cod end was constructed of Plexiglas and was nearly watertight; this prevented impingement and injury to larval fish and provided a calm-water environment. The cod end was designed for quick release from the plankton net, and the entire cod end could be submerged into a 75-gal onboard holding tank. This design and technique obviated the netting or emerging of fish from the water until they were returned to the laboratory. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  9. Assessment of the toxic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affecting Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) harvested from waters impacted by the BP Deepwater Horizon Spill.

    PubMed

    Olson, Gregory M; Meyer, Buffy M; Portier, Ralph J

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil and gas were released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill. This resulted in the possible contamination of marine organisms with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), USEPA identified constituents of concern. To determine the impact of the DWH oil spill, Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), a commercially harvested and significant trophic grazing species, was sampled from two Louisiana coastal regions between the years 2011-2013. Tissue extraction and GC/MS analysis demonstrated measurable concentrations of PAH within menhaden. Analysis yielded total PAHs, carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ), and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ) which provided an initial toxic potential assessment of this GoM Fishery. Gulf menhaden contained less total PAH concentrations in 2012 and significantly less in 2013 as compared to 2011 (p < 0.05) ranging from 7 ug/g tissue dry weight to 3 ng/g tissue dry weight. Carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs were also significantly reduced (p < 0.05) over the three year period. The reduction of total PAH concentrations and the reduction of BaP-TEQs and MEQs between 2011 and 2013 indicates a diminished input of new source PAHs along with a reduction of carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs in menhaden populations. The use of Gulf menhaden was successful in determining the acute toxic potential of PAHs contaminating the GoM in the years directly following the DWH spill event. PMID:26692508

  10. Chemical and histological comparisons between Brevoortia sp. (menhaden) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA and Delaware Bay, NJ following the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill.

    PubMed

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R; Olson, Gregory; Pena, Edwin A; Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J

    2015-12-01

    Body burdens of PAHs were compared to histological effects in menhaden (Family: Clupeidae, Genus: Brevoortia) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA (BBLA) and Delaware Bay, NJ (DBNJ). Barataria Bay was heavily oiled during the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, while Delaware Bay although urbanized had no reported recent oil spills. GCMS analyses of pre-spill 2009, BBLA and DBNJ fish found predominantly C2/C3 phenanthrene (1.28-6.52 ng/mg). However, BBLA also contained five higher molecular weight PAHs (0.06-0.34 ng/mg DW). Fluorescent aromatic compound spectroscopy (FACS) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue showed statistically higher levels of hydroxypyrene-like PAHs in DBNJ than BBLA fish. Histopathologic lesions were more prevalent in BBLA than DBNJ fish. The lesion prevalence (gill, trunk kidney, epidermis, stomach) in the BBLA menhaden were significantly higher and more severe than observed in the DBNJ menhaden. Reversible lesions included gill lamellar hyperplasia, adhesions, edema, and epidermal hyperplasia. The increased pigmented macrophage centers were indicative of activated macrophages responding to connective tissue damage or other antigens. The liver hepatic necrosis and renal tissue mineralization may well have undergone repair, but damage to the kidney nephrons and hepatic/biliary regions of the liver would be slower to resolve and apparently remained after elimination of PAHs. Therefore, a direct cause and effect between DWH oil spill and increased lesion prevalence in BBLA menhaden could not be established. PMID:26385175

  11. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.G.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1989-08-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. The Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) is an important commercial fish along the Atlantic coast. In the South Atlantic Region, Atlantic menhaden spawn during winter in continental shelf waters. Adults then move inshore and northward in spring; some move into estuaries as far as the brackish-freshwater boundary. Atlantic menhaden larvae in the South Atlantic Region enter estuaries after 1 to 3 months at sea. Young fish move into the shallow regions of estuaries and seem to prefer vegetated marsh habitats. Atlantic menhaden are size-selective plankton feeders as larvae, and filter feeders as juveniles and adults. Due to their large population size, individual growth rates, and seasonal movements, Atlantic menhaden annually consume and redistribute large amounts of energy and materials. They are also important prey for large game fishes such as bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). The Atlantic menhaden is associated with estuarine and nearshore systems during all phases of its life cycle. Young menhaden require these food-rich habitats to survive and grown. Destruction of estuarine wetlands has decreased nursery habitat available to Atlantic menhaden and other estuarine wetlands has decreased nursery habitat available to Atlantic menhaden and other estuarine-dependent species. 115 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Adaptation of Sonication-Assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion of Tissues for the Subsequent Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus)

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Gregory M.; Meyer, Buffy M.; Portier, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    A new adaptation based on matrix solid phase dispersion of tissue for the subsequent isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was developed and used for extractions of Gulf menhaden caught during the summer of 2011. Many Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) methods require specific cartridges and other clean-up materials in order to achieve proper extraction. For this study, the tissues were lyophilized prior to applying the adapted MSPD method allowing for a much more complete homogenization with the C18 silica. The tissue was spiked with phenanthrene d10 as a surrogate as a measure of PAH recovery prior to the lyophilisation process to determine if any target compounds were lost and prior to sonication as per the finalized adaptation procedure to determine method efficiency. This technique used C18 silica in a 1 : 1 ratio as the primary homogenizing material for the menhaden tissue matrix and was eluted with dichloromethane (DCM) until visibly clear. The overall study mean recovery was 88% ± 5% with method detection limits between 0.4 ng/g and 4.4 ng/g tissue dry weight. This adapted protocol has been used exclusively on the analysis of high lipid content fish stocks affected by dispersed and weathered oil from the BP Horizon incident. PMID:24738032

  13. Excitation-emission matrix scan analysis of raw fish oil from coastal New Jersey menhaden collected before and after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; DeFelice, Chelsea R; Murphy, Wyatt R

    2016-06-30

    The impact of Hurricane Sandy (October 29, 2012) on PAH exposure was investigated in adult Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) collected along the NJ coast. Collections were made in August, September and/or October of 2011, 2012 and 2013. PAHs were monitored in raw fish oil using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. Results showed that raw fish oils had relatively high levels of high molecular weight, PAH-like compounds (173 to 24,421ng/mL) compared to values reported for bile in other species. EEM profiles resembled that of crude oil and excluded matrix interference by some common biological molecules that also fluoresce. Concentrations and EEM profiles varied by collection; however, collection ship, month, year and fish size did not account for the data. Replicates showed that fish from the same catch had similar PAH exposure. Overall, Hurricane Sandy did not alter body burdens of PAHs in raw fish oil of menhaden. PMID:26849916

  14. Atlantic coast feeding habits of striped bass: A synthesis supporting a coast-wide understanding of trophic biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, J. F., III; Overton, A.S.; Ferry, K.H.; Mather, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The recent increase in the Atlantic coast population of striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), prompted managers to re-evaluate their predatory impact. Published and unpublished diet data for striped bass on the Atlantic Coast of North America were examined for geographical, ontogenetic and seasonal patterns in the diet and to assess diet for this species. Diets of young-of-the-year (YOY) striped bass were similar across the Upper Atlantic (UPATL), Chesapeake and Delaware Bays (CBDEL) and North Carolina (NCARO) areas of the Atlantic coast where either fish or mysid shrimp dominate the diet. For age one and older striped bass, cluster analysis partitioned diets based on predominance of either Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe), characteristic of striped bass from the CBDEL and NCARO regions, or non-menhaden fishes or invertebrates, characteristic of fish from the UPATL, in the diet. The predominance of invertebrates in the diets of striped bass in the UPATL region can be attributed to the absence of several important species groups in Northern waters, particularly sciaenid fishes, and to the sporadic occurrences of Atlantic menhaden to UPATL waters. In all regions, across most seasons and in most size classes of striped bass, the clupeiod fishes; menhaden, anchovies (Anchoa spp.) and river herrings (Alosa spp,) and Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., dominated the diets of striped bass above the first year of life.

  15. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in raw menhaden fish oil using fluorescence spectroscopy: Method development.

    PubMed

    Pena, Edwin A; Ridley, Lauren M; Murphy, Wyatt R; Sowa, John R; Bentivegna, Carolyn S

    2015-09-01

    Raw menhaden fish oil was developed for biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using fluorescence spectroscopy. Menhaden (Genus Brevoortia) were collected in 2010 and/or 2011 from Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA; James River, Virginia, USA; Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, USA (VBLA); and Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA (BBLA). Barataria Bay, Louisiana received heavy oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Method development included determining optimal wavelengths for PAH detection, fish oil matrix interferences, and influence of solvent concentration on extraction. Results showed that some fish oils contained high molecular weight PAH-like compounds in addition to other fluorescent compounds such as albumin and vitamin A and vitamin E. None of these naturally occurring compounds interfered with detection of high molecular weight PAHs. However, data suggested that the lipid component of fish oil was altering fluorescence spectra by supporting the formation of PAH excimers. For example, the most intense excitation wavelength for hydroxypyrene shifted from Ex285/Em430 to Ex340/Em430. Comparison of Deepwater Horizon crude oil and fish oil spectra indicated that some fish oils contained crude oil-like PAHs. Using wavelengths of Ex360/Em430, fish oil concentrations were calculated as 3.92 μg/g, 0.61 μg/g, and 0.14 μg/g for a Delaware Bay sample, BBLA 2011, and VBLA 2011, respectively. Overall, these results supported using menhaden fish oil to track PAH exposures spatially and temporally. PMID:25867932

  16. PFIESTERIA SHUMWAYAE KILLS FISH BY MICROPREDATION NOT ECOTOXIN SECRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Massive fish kills in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries involving several million Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus,have been attributed to dinoflagellates of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC). Potent ichthyotoxins secreted during Pfiesteria blooms are thought to be responsible fo...

  17. Particulate accumulations in the vital organs of wild Brevoortia patronus from the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J; Olson, Gregory; Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R

    2015-11-01

    Histopathologic lesions were observed in the commercially important filter-feeding fish, Brevoortia patronus (Gulf menhaden), along the Louisiana Gulf Coast. Menhaden collected from Louisiana waters in 2011 and 2012, 1 and 2 years following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, showed varying severities of gill lesions as well as an unusual accumulation of black particulates visible at necropsy in the heart and stomach vasculature. The PAH derived particulates were typically 1-4 µm in diameter, but larger aggregates were observed in the coronary vessels on the ventricle surfaces and their location and size was confirmed by light microscopy. Composited particulate composition was consistent with weathered petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures based on GC-MS analysis. Particulates were present in 63 and 80% of fish hearts and 70 and 89% of stomach muscularis collected in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Tissue embedded particulates can lead to localized cellular damage from bioavailable compounds, as well as chronic effects from occlusion of sensitive tissues' blood flow. The PAH derived particulates appeared to act as emboli in small capillaries, and could associated with localized inflammation, focal necrosis and inappropriate collagen and fibroblast tissue repair. We believe large volume filter feeding teleosts, such as menhaden (up to 3 million gallons per year/fish) with high lipid content, have a higher exposure risk and greater potential for toxicity from toxic particulates than other higher trophic level finfish. Suspended PAH derived particulates following an oil spill therefore, should be considered when assessing long-term ecological impacts and not be limited to physical contact (coating) or water soluble fractions for assessing toxicity (gill and neurologic). PMID:26209168

  18. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Menhaden oil. 184.1472 Section 184.1472 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Menhaden oil. 184.1472 Section 184.1472 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  20. Investigation to improve menhaden fishery prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughan, P. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. There are sufficient data to indicate that in at least one instance menhaden were found in a deepwater plume apparent from ERTS imagery. This association, discovered from an image acquired on 29 September, was retrospectively seen to have persisted for three days. Neither the prior history of the plume nor its persistence after the last day of fishing is known at this time. Some information may be forthcoming from examination of data taken by other participants in the experiment.

  1. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. (Principal Investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Leming, T.; Holley, H.; Faller, K. H.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievements thus far include the successful charting of high probability fishing areas from LANDSAT MSS data and the successful simulation of an operational satellite system to provide tactical information for the commercial harvest of menhaden.

  2. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. (Principal Investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Leming, T.; Holley, H.; Faller, K. H.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievement thus far includes the successful charting of high probability fishing areas from LANDSAT MSS data and the successful simulation of an operational satellite system to provide tactical information for the commercial harvest of menhaden.

  3. Bacillus licheniformis isolated during a fishkill is non-pathogenic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When a fish kill occurred in October 2006 in the Corsica River, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay located near Centreville, Maryland, USA, the event affected mostly white perch (Morone americana) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), and a study was performed to determine whether pathogenic o...

  4. A summary of selected early results from the ERTS-1 menhaden experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H. (Principal Investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Benigno, J. A.; Reese, G. B.; Minkler, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Imagery from ERTS-1 satellite was used in conjunction with aerial photographically-sensed menhaden distribution information, sea truth oceanographic measurements, and commercial fishing information from a 8685 square kilometer study area in the north-central portion of the Gulf of Mexico to demonstrate relationships between selected oceanographic parameters and menhaden distribution, ERTS-1 imagery and menhaden distribution, and ERTS-1 imagery and oceanographic parameters. ERTS-1, MSS band 5 imagery density levels correlated with photographically detected menhaden distribution patterns and could be explained based on sea truth Secchi disc transparency and water depth measurements. These two parameters, together with surface salinity, Forel-Ule color, and chlorophyll-a also were found to correlate significantly with menhaden distribution. Eight empirical models were developed which provided menhaden distribution predictions for the study area on combinations of Secchi disc transparency, water depth, surface salinity, and Forel-Ule color measurements.

  5. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation. [Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerer, A. J. (Principal Investigator); Brucks, J. T.; Butler, J. A.; Faller, K. H.; Holley, H. J.; Leming, T. D.; Savastano, K. J.; Vanselous, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The relationship between the distribution of menhaden and selected oceanographic parameters (water color, turbidity, and possibly chlorophyll concentrations) was established. Similar relationships for thread herring were not established nor were relationships relating to the abundance of either species. Use of aircraft and LANDSAT remote sensing instruments to measure or infer a set of basic oceanographic parameters was evaluated. Parameters which could be accurately inferred included surface water temperature, salinity, and color. Water turbidity (Secchi disk) was evaluated as marginally inferrable from the LANDSAT MSS data and chlorophyll-a concentrations as less than marginal. These evaluations considered the parameters only as experienced in the two test areas using available sensors and statistical techniques.

  6. Influence of dietary menhaden oil on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.P.; Peterson, F.; Campbell, T.C.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of dietary menhaden oil on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) induced mammary tumorigenesis was examined in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were obtained at age 28 days and acclimated until age 50 days when they received a single i.g. dose of 5 mg DMBA dissolved in 1 ml corn oil. Rats were then randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups with 25 rats per group. One group was fed a diet based on fish protein (freeze-dried cod) and corn oil (F/C). The second group received a diet based on fish protein and menhaden oil (F/M). The third group received a casein based diet with corn oil as the lipid source (C/C). The fourth group was fed a casein based diet with menhaden oil as the lipid source (C/M). Both the protein and lipid sources were fed at a level of 20% by weight of the diets. Rats were palpated weekly to check for mammary tumor development and the experiment was terminated 24 weeks after DMBA administration. Rats fed menhaden oil as a lipid source (F/M and C/M groups) developed significantly fewer mammary tumors than animals on the corn oil based diets (F/C and C/C groups, respectively). Thus, menhaden oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, significantly inhibited the development of DMBA induced mammary tumors in this experiment.

  7. Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.

    1994-08-01

    Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

  8. Infection experiments with Aphanomyces invadans in four species of estuarine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.A.; Zabrecky, J.; Kiryu, Y.; Shields, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Along the eastern seaboard of the US, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, develop characteristic ulcerative lesions, a condition termed ulcerative mycosis. These lesions are identical to those seen across Asia in fish affected by epizootic ulcerative syndrome, a condition caused by the fungus-like oomycete Aphanomyces Invadans. Young-of-the-year menhaden inhabiting estuarine environments are the primary species affected in the USA and little is known about the factors involved in the initiation of the lesions, or why menhaden are predominantly infected. Atlantic menhaden, hogchoker, Trinectus maculatus, striped killifish, Fundulus majalis, and mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were inoculated with A. invadans (80 zoospores per fish) to explore species differences in infection and lesion development. All four species developed lesions. Killifish developed frank lesions similar to those observed in menhaden but the gross lesions occurred later, approximately 5-10 days after those on menhaden. Hogchoker and mummichog did not develop gross skin ulcers; rather, their lesions appeared as reddened areas under the epidermis. Mummichogs also showed evidence of significant healing with a well-developed granuloma and significant myocyte regeneration. These experiments show that species barriers as well as ecological barriers can explain some of the factors involved in the development of lesions in, and specificity of the water mould for, menhaden.

  9. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of menhaden oil with conjugated linoleic acid: effect of water content.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos F; Hill, Charles G

    2002-06-01

    The effect of the water content on the lipase-catalyzed (Candida rugosa) interesterification (acidolysis) of menhaden oil with conjugated linoleic acid was studied for amounts of added water ranging from 0-4% (w/w). The rate of the acidolysis reaction increased with increasing water content, but the corresponding percentage of n-3 fatty acids liberated also increased. The implications of water content for minimization of the release of n-3 fatty acid residues while maximizing incorporation of CLA are discussed. PMID:12115120

  10. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation. [Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerer, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievement realized thus far has been the successful completion of the data acquisition phase. This success must be attributed to the interest, support, and competency of the participants. The apparent consistency of water color and turbidity condition over time and between test sites at sites of menhaden capture is significant especially since color is readily measured with satellite and aircraft sensors and a LANDSAT MSS based computer model for inferring tubidity has been developed.

  11. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to the harvest model of the US Menhaden fishery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughan, P. M.; Marmelstein, A. D.; Temple, O. R.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary results of an experiment to demonstrate the utility of ERTS-1 imagery for providing significant information to the harvest model of the menhaden industry are reported. Fisheries and related environmental data were obtained discontinuously throughout the 1973 menhaden (a surface schooling, coastal species) fishing season in Mississippi Sound. The unexpected complexity of the physical environment in Mississippi Sound precluded simplistic analysis of fish/environment relationships. Preliminary indications are that an association does exist between fish availability and differences in water transparency (turbidity) within the Sound. A clearer relationship is developing between major turbid features, imaged by ERTS-1 and location of successful fishing attempts. On all occasions where relatively cloudfree ERTS-1 overflight days coincided with fishery activity, overlays of catch location of ERTS-1 images show an association of school position with interfaces between imaged turbid features. Analysis is currently underway to determine persistence of such associations in an attempt to define minimum satellite return time necessary to maintain continuity of associations.

  12. EFFECT OF MENHADEN FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION AND STARTER DIET COMPLEXITY ON THE PERFORMANCE AND IMMUNE RESPONSE OF NURSERY PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial using 64 weanling pigs (TR4 x PIC C22) was conducted to determine the effects of menhaden fish oil supplementation and diet complexity on performance and immune response of nursery pigs. Pigs (17 d and 6.27±1.16 kg) were weaned into a SEW facility and given free access to a complex diet for...

  13. Menhaden-fish oil in a vitamin E-deficient diet: protection against chloroquine-resistant malaria in mice.

    PubMed

    Levander, O A; Ager, A L; Morris, V C; May, R G

    1989-12-01

    Feeding a vitamin E-deficient diet containing 5% menhaden oil to mice affords significant protection against both a chloroquine-sensitive and a chloroquine-resistant line of the malarial parasite. Nutritional manipulation may offer a new approach to the problem of drug-resistant malaria, a rapidly emerging global threat to public health. PMID:2688393

  14. Partial replacement of menhaden oil with Alaskan pollack viceral meal in diets for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing menhaden fish meal and oil with APVM in practical diets of largemouth bass (LMB) to sustain or improve general performance while maintaining substantial amounts of the n-3 fatty acids in the fillets. The n-3 highly unsaturated fat...

  15. LANDSAT follow-on experiment: Gulf of Mexico menhaden and thread herring resources investigation. [Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. J. (Principal Investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Leming, T. D.; Holley, H.; Faller, K.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievements realized thus far include the successful charting of high probability fishing areas from LANDSAT MSS data and the successful simulation of an operational satellite system to provide tactical information for the commercial harvest of menhaden.

  16. Effect of menhaden fish oil on plasma cholesterol in copper-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.C.; Koo, S.I. )

    1989-02-09

    Weanling male rats were divided into 2 groups: one fed a copper-deficient (CuD) diet and the other fed a copper-adequate (CuA) diet. Both contained 5% corn oil. At 8 wk, each of the 2 groups was divided into two subgroups: one fed the above diet supplemented with 1% refined menhaden-fish oil (FO) and the other with 1% corn oil (CO). Time-course effect of FO on plasma cholesterol (CH) were compared in CuD and CuA groups at 14, 33, 77 and 120 days. FO feeding did not affect plasma CH in CuD rats at any time point, but markedly lowered plasma CH in CuA rats at 77 and 120 days, compared with the CO-fed respective controls. The lack of hypolipidemic effect of FO in CuD rats was due to its inability to lower plasma VLDL. Plasma HDL were not affected by FO. The lipoprotein lipase activity in skeletal muscle was lowered by FO in both CuD and CuA rats, compared with CO-fed counterparts, while no such change was noted in adipose tissue. The failure of FO to lower VLDL in CuD rats suggests that the hypercholesterolemia in copper deficiency may be partly linked to a change in the rate of VLDL output and/or catabolism.

  17. Investigation using data from ERTS-1 to develop and implement utilization of living marine resources. [availability and distribution of menhaden fish in Mississippi Sound and Gulf waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H. (Principal Investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This 15-month ERTS-1 investigation produced correlations between satellite, aircraft, menhaden fisheries, and environmental sea truth data from the Mississippi Sound. Selected oceanographic, meteorological, and biological parameters were used as indirect indicators of the menhaden resource. Synoptic and near real time sea truth, fishery, satellite imagery, aircraft acquired multispectral, photo and thermal IR information were acquired as data inputs. Computer programs were developed to manipulate these data according to user requirements. Preliminary results indicate a correlation between backscattered light with chlorophyll concentration and water transparency in turbid waters. Eight empirical menhaden distribution models were constructed from combinations of four fisheries-significant oceanographic parameters: water depth, transparency, color, and surface salinity. The models demonstrated their potential for management utilization in areas of resource assessment, prediction, and monitoring.

  18. An investigation to improve the Menhaden fishery prediction and detection model through the application of ERTS-A data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughan, P. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analyses indicate that several important relationships have been observed utilizing ERTS-1 imagery. Of most significance is that in the Mississippi Sound, as elsewhere, considerable detail exists as to turbidity patterns in the water column. Simple analysis is complicated by the apparent interaction between actual turbidity, turbidity induced by shoal water, and actual imaging of the bottom in extreme shoal water. A statistical approach is being explored which shows promise of at least partially separating these effects so that partitioning of true turbid plumes can be accomplished. This partitioning is of great importance to this program in that supportive data seem to indicate that menhaden occur more frequently in turbid areas. In this connection four individual captures have been associated with a major turbid feature imaged on 6 August. If a significant relationship between imaged turbid features and catch distribution can be established, for example by graphic and/or numeric analysis, it will represent a major advancement for short term prediction of commercially accessible menhaden.

  19. The effects of menhaden oil, flaxseed oil and a dairy-yeast prebiotic on growth , health , feed conversion , survival , critical maximum temperature, and body composition of sunshine bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with juvenile "sunshine bass" female Morone chrysops x male M. saxatilis using four diets containing two levels of a dairy-yeast prebiotic (0 or 2%) and either menhaden fish oil or flaxseed oil as a lipid source. The objective was to determine the main and inte...

  20. Effect of replacing dietary menhaden oil with pollock or soybean oil on muscle fatty acid composition and growth performance of juvenile pacific threadfin (polyactylus sexfilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the nutritional values of menhaden fish oil and pollock oil; and studied the potential of replacing dietary pollock oil by soybean oil based on the effect of pollock oil on growth performance, body composition, and muscle fatty acid profiles of juvenile Pacific threadfin. All te...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.73 - Terminal facilities handling menhaden and similar species of fish (see also § 1917.2, definition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Terminal facilities handling menhaden and similar species of fish (see also § 1917.2, definition of hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917..., material, substance or atmosphere). (a)(1) Tanks in terminal areas used for receiving or storing...

  2. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  3. Effect of enriching the diet with menhaden oil or daily treatment with resolvin D1 on neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shevalye, Hanna; Yorek, Matthew S; Coppey, Lawrence J; Holmes, Amey; Harper, Matthew M; Kardon, Randy H; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of a mouse model of type 2 diabetes with menhaden (fish) oil or daily treatment with resolvin D1 on diabetic neuropathy. The end points evaluated included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal sensitivity, innervation of sensory nerves in the cornea and skin, and the retinal ganglion cell complex thickness. Menhaden oil is a natural source for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have been shown to have beneficial effects in other diseases. Resolvin D1 is a metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid and is known to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. To model type 2 diabetes, mice were fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk followed by a low dosage of streptozotocin. After 8 wk of hyperglycemia, mice in experimental groups were treated for 6 wk with menhaden oil in the diet or daily injections of 1 ng/g body wt resolvin D1. Our findings show that menhaden oil or resolvin D1 did not improve elevated blood glucose, HbA1C, or glucose utilization. Untreated diabetic mice were thermal hypoalgesic, had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, had decreased innervation of the cornea and skin, and had thinner retinal ganglion cell complex. These end points were significantly improved with menhaden oil or resolvin D1 treatment. Exogenously, resolvin D1 stimulated neurite outgrowth from primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons from normal mice. These studies suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from fish oil could be an effective treatment for diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25925322

  4. Effect of enriching the diet with menhaden oil or daily treatment with resolvin D1 on neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shevalye, Hanna; Coppey, Lawrence J.; Holmes, Amey; Harper, Matthew M.; Kardon, Randy H.; Yorek, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of a mouse model of type 2 diabetes with menhaden (fish) oil or daily treatment with resolvin D1 on diabetic neuropathy. The end points evaluated included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal sensitivity, innervation of sensory nerves in the cornea and skin, and the retinal ganglion cell complex thickness. Menhaden oil is a natural source for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have been shown to have beneficial effects in other diseases. Resolvin D1 is a metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid and is known to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. To model type 2 diabetes, mice were fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk followed by a low dosage of streptozotocin. After 8 wk of hyperglycemia, mice in experimental groups were treated for 6 wk with menhaden oil in the diet or daily injections of 1 ng/g body wt resolvin D1. Our findings show that menhaden oil or resolvin D1 did not improve elevated blood glucose, HbA1C, or glucose utilization. Untreated diabetic mice were thermal hypoalgesic, had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, had decreased innervation of the cornea and skin, and had thinner retinal ganglion cell complex. These end points were significantly improved with menhaden oil or resolvin D1 treatment. Exogenously, resolvin D1 stimulated neurite outgrowth from primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons from normal mice. These studies suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from fish oil could be an effective treatment for diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25925322

  5. Origin of resources and trophic pathways in a large SW Atlantic estuary: An evaluation using stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botto, Florencia; Gaitán, Esteban; Mianzan, Hermes; Acha, Marcelo; Giberto, Diego; Schiariti, Agustín; Iribarne, Oscar

    2011-03-01

    The Río de la Plata (34° 36' S, 55° 58' W; Argentina and Uruguay) estuary, one of the most important South American estuarine environments, is characterized by weak seasonal freshwater discharge, low tidal amplitude (<1 m), a wide and permanent connection to the sea, and a salt-wedge regime. Using stable isotope analysis, we explored the relative importance of the different sources of primary production in the food web. Our results show that phytoplankton and macrodetritus from terrestrial salt and freshwater marshes both contribute to the food web of the Río de la Plata estuary. On the basis of the sampled species, we identified four trophic levels. The clam Mactra isabelleana, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, and the opossum shrimp Neomysis americana are the primary consumers. The rays Atlantoraja castelnaui and Squatina guggenheim and the shark Galeorhinus galeus are the top predators. The Río de la Plata food web shows an important input of nutrients derived from phytoplankton. Rays, sharks, and predatory gastropods reveal an important contribution of C4 plants (likely Spartina spp.). However, production derived from C3 plants is also important for some species. The fishes Brazilian menhaden, Brevoortia aurea; the stripped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa; and the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri, showed differences in their isotopic signatures as juveniles and adults, indicating different food sources, and they were therefore treated as different components of the food web. Our data suggest that detritus from salt and freshwater marshes is reaching the Río de la Plata estuary and can be an important allocthonous source of energy to this environment.

  6. Effect of combination therapy consisting of enalapril, α-lipoic acid, and menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy in a high fat/low dose streptozotocin treated rat.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric P; Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-10-15

    We have previously demonstrated that treating diabetic rats with enalapril, an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, α-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, or menhaden oil, a natural source of omega-3 fatty acids can partially improve diabetic peripheral neuropathy. In this study we sought to determine the efficacy of combining these three treatments on vascular and neural complications in a high fat fed low dose streptozotocin treated rat, a model of type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks followed by a 30 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin. Eight weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia diabetic rats were treated with a combination of enalapril, α-lipoic acid and menhaden oil. Diabetic rats not receiving treatment were continued on the high fat diet. Glucose clearance was impaired in diabetic rats and significantly improved with treatment. Diabetes caused steatosis, elevated serum lipid levels, slowing of motor and sensory nerve conduction, thermal hypoalgesia, reduction in intraepidermal nerve fiber profiles, decrease in cornea sub-basal nerve fiber length and corneal sensitivity and impairment in vascular relaxation to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide in epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve. Treating diabetic rats with the combination of enalapril, α-lipoic acid and menhaden oil reversed all these deficits to near control levels except for motor nerve conduction velocity which was also significantly improved compared to diabetic rats but remained significantly decreased compared to control rats. These studies suggest that a combination therapeutic approach may be most effective for treating vascular and neural complications of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26291662

  7. Alterations in benzo(A)pyrene metabolism and in vivo binding to hepatic DNA in rats red diets containing menhaden oil

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, A.E.; Dharwadkar, S.

    1987-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-6 type have been shown to support the mixed function oxidases (MFO) responsible for carcinogen activation and to promote tumorigenesis in laboratory animals. The omega-3 fatty acids contained in menhaden oil (MO) have been shown to enhance MFO activity and increase the binding of Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) metabolites to calf thymus DNA in an in vitro microsomal system. Rats fed two levels of MO (0.5% and 20%) for 11 days received a single i.p. dose of (/sup 3/H)B(a)P (5 m Ci/kg) dissolved in DMSO. At selected time intervals thereafter rats were killed, blood withdrawn, livers removed and DNA extracted. Hepatic microsomes were recovered from control rats on each diet at the time of B(a)P administration to assess MFO activities. Binding of B(a)P to DNA was higher in rats fed the 20% MO diet suggesting an increased rate of B(a)P activation. Blood levels of B(a)P were elevated at 16 and 24 hours post B(a)P, however no differences in urine concentrations were observed. Elevations in concentration of cytochrome P-450, ethoxycoumarin dealkylase, and glutathione S-transferase suggest that omega-3 fatty acids of menhaden fish oil support MFO related reactions not unlike the omega-6 fatty acids.

  8. A comparison of two fecal collection methods for protein and amino acid digestibility coefficients for menhaden fish meal and two grades of pultry-by-product meals in market-size sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent digestibility and availability coefficients for protein and amino acids in menhaden fish meal (MEN), pet-food grade (PBM-pet,) and feed-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM-feed) were determined for market-size (500 g) sunshine bass using passive netting or manual stripping of feces. A refer...

  9. Growth performance, and proximate and fatty acid composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, fed for different duration with a commercial diet supplemented with various levels of menhaden fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental menhaden fish oil at levels of 0, 3, 6 and 9% to a commercial diet and feeding duration on growth performance, proximate body and tissue fatty acid (FA) composition of juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Each diet was fed to ...

  10. EFFECT OF MENHADEN FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE EXPOSURE ON NURSERY PIGS: II. EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE AXIS WHEN FED SIMPLE OR COMPLEX DIETS CONTAINING NO SPRAY-DRIED PLASMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial using 64 weanling pigs (TR4 x PIC C22) was conducted to determine the effects of menhaden fish-oil supplementation and diet complexity on performance and immune response of nursery pigs. Pigs (17 d and 6.27 +/- 1.16 kg) were weaned into a segregated early wean facility and given free access...

  11. Larval Transport on the Atlantic Continental Shelf of North America: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epifanio, C. E.; Garvine, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review considers transport of larval fish and crustaceans on the continental shelf. Previous reviews have contained only limited treatments of the physical processes involved. The present paper provides a physical background that is considerably more comprehensive. It includes a discussion of three principal forcing agents: (1) wind stress; (2) tides propagating from the deep ocean; and (3) differences in density associated with the buoyant outflow of estuaries, surface heat flux, or the interaction of coastal and oceanic water masses at the seaward margin of the shelf. The authors discuss the effects of these forcing agents on transport of larvae in the Middle Atlantic and South Atlantic Bights along the east coast of North America. The discussion concentrates on three species (blue crab, menhaden, bluefish) that have been the subject of a very recent multi-disciplinary study. Taken as a whole, the reproductive activities of these three species span the entire year and utilize the entire shelf, from the most seaward margin to the estuarine nursery. The blue crab is representative of species affected by physical processes occurring during summer and early autumn on the inner and mid-shelf. Menhaden are impacted by processes occurring in winter on the outer and mid-shelf. Bluefish are influenced primarily by processes occurring during early spring at the outer shelf margin near the western boundary current. The authors conclude that alongshore wind stress and density differences, i.e. buoyancy-driven flow, are the primary agents of larval transport in the region. Circulation associated with the western boundary current is only important at the shelf margin and tidally driven processes are generally inconsequential.

  12. INDUCTION OF SKIN ULCERS IN ATLANTIC MENHADEN BY INJECTION AND WATER-BORNE EXPOSURE TO THE ZOOSPORES OF APHANOMYCES INVADANS. (R828225)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Spatial and Temporal Entry Patterns of Fish Larvae into North Carolina Estuaries: Comparisons Among One Pelagic and Two Demersal Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyeux, J.-C.

    1998-12-01

    A sampling programme targeting larvae of winter spawning fishes immigrating from the oceanic domain into the Pamlico-Albemarle Sounds system (NC, U.S.A.) was performed at the four major inlets of the lagoon system. Sampling yielded abundant catches of three species, a Clupeid (Atlantic menhaden,Brevoortia tyrannus) and two Sciaenids (Atlantic croaker,Micropogonias undulatusand spot,Leiostomus xanthurus). In this article, the author documents the differences in the mechanisms developed for estuarine recruitment among the three species. Abundance at the tidal inlets was dependent upon numerous factors, such as sampling month, inlet, luminosity, tide flow direction and depth. The spatial and temporal positioning of the larvae differed among the species and affected their capabilities to be transported through the inlets. More specifically, spot and croaker migrated vertically within the water column in accordance with the direction of the water flow. Sciaenids minimized the outwelling effects of ebb tides by migrating into the slowest ebbing currents, near the bottom. Menhaden did not rely on vertical migrations for estuarine transport and retention. For this species, landward transport is provided either when dusk and flood onset are coincident or through non-tidal flows developing under meteorological forcing. The Sciaenids were less, or not, dependent upon these conditions. In one inlet, the retention was dependent upon the strength of the flooding and ebbing flows. In this case, the retention of the pelagic species was lower than the retention of demersal species.

  14. Molecular Assays for Detecting Aphanomyces invadans in Ulcerative Mycotic Fish Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vandersea, Mark W.; Litaker, R. Wayne; Yonnish, Bryan; Sosa, Emilio; Landsberg, Jan H.; Pullinger, Chris; Moon-Butzin, Paula; Green, Jason; Morris, James A.; Kator, Howard; Noga, Edward J.; Tester, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is the primary etiological agent in ulcerative mycosis, an ulcerative skin disease caused by a fungus-like agent of wild and cultured fish. We developed sensitive PCR and fluorescent peptide nucleic acid in situ hybridization (FISH) assays to detect A. invadans. Laboratory-challenged killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were first tested to optimize and validate the assays. Skin ulcers of Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) from populations found in the Pamlico and Neuse River estuaries in North Carolina were then surveyed. Results from both assays indicated that all of the lesioned menhaden (n = 50) collected in September 2004 were positive for A. invadans. Neither the FISH assay nor the PCR assay cross-reacted with other closely related oomycetes. These results provided strong evidence that A. invadans is the primary oomycete pathogen in ulcerative mycosis and demonstrated the utility of the assays. The FISH assay is the first molecular assay to provide unambiguous visual confirmation that hyphae in the ulcerated lesions were exclusively A. invadans. PMID:16461710

  15. Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters from Menhaden Oil Using Proteus vulgaris Lipase-Mediated One-Step Transesterification and Urea Complexation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2016-05-01

    An organic solvent-stable lipase from Proteus vulgaris K80 was used to produce the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters (ω-3 PUFA EEs). First, the lyophilized recombinant lipase K80 (LyoK80) was used to perform the transesterification reaction of menhaden oil and ethanol. LyoK80 produced the ω-3 PUFA EEs with a conversion yield of 82 % in the presence of 20 % water content via a three-step ethanol-feeding process; however, in a non-aqueous condition, LyoK80 produced only a slight amount of the ω-3 PUFA EEs. To enhance its reaction properties, the lipase K80 was immobilized on a hydrophobic bead to derive ImmK80; the biochemical properties and substrate specificity of ImmK80 are similar to those of LyoK80. ImmK80 was then used to produce ω-3 PUFA EEs in accordance with the same transesterification reaction. Unlike LyoK80, ImmK80 achieved a high ω-3 PUFA EE conversion yield of 86 % under a non-aqueous system via a one-step ethanol-feeding reaction. The ω-3 PUFA EEs were purified up to 92 % using a urea complexation method. PMID:26842598

  16. Chronicling long-term predator responses to a shifting forage base in Chesapeake Bay: an energetics approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, Anthony S.; Griffin, Jennifer C.; Margraf, F. Joseph; May, Eric B.; Hartman, Kyle J.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Striped Bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay has increased significantly since the 1980s because of management efforts while the relative abundance of some key prey fish has declined since the 1970s. We examined the trophic interactions and prey consumption patterns of Striped Bass in Chesapeake Bay to determine how Striped Bass have responded to changing prey resources. Seasonal diet, growth, and thermal data were collected from 1955 to 1959, 1990 to 1992, and 1998 to 2001; these data were coupled with a bioenergetics model approach to characterize temporal patterns in prey consumption for Striped Bass. The estimates were compared across each period to build a historical prey consumption profile from 1955 to 2001. Prey consumption dynamics for Striped Bass have changed dramatically between 1955 and 2001. In general, Striped Bass in the early and late 1990s consumed less Atlantic Menhaden Brevoortia tyranus and more Bay Anchovy Anchoa mitchilli than during the 1950s. The largest differences in consumption were observed in the younger age-classes. During 1998–2001, age-1 and age-2 Striped Bass consumed, respectively, 15.5 and 11.9 times less Atlantic Menhaden than during the 1950sand 12.2 and 7.2 less than during 1990–1992. Bay Anchovy were almost absent in the diet of bass age 3 and older during the 1950s but were consumed by the age-3+ group during 1990–1992 and to a greater extent during 1998–2001. Age-3+ Striped Bass during 1998–2001, on average, consumed twice as much Bay Anchovy than during 1990–1992. Blue crab Callinectes sappidus were consumed only by age 2 in the 1950s and 1990–1992 and by ages 2 and older in 1998–2001. Age-2 bass consumed 8.8 more blue crab in 1990–1992 and 7.5 times more in 1998–2001 than during the 1950s. The patterns in the consumption of Atlantic Menhaden coincided with increased consumption of Bay Anchovy and blue crab, possibly as a result of the declines in Atlantic Menhaden

  17. Optimizing dietary levels of menhaden and soybean oils and soybean lecithin for pre-gonadal somatic growth in juveniles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Victoria K.; Heflin, Laura E.; Jones, Warren T.; Powell, Mickie L.; Lawrence, Addison L.; Makowsky, Robert; Watts, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary lipids serve as important sources of energy and essential fatty acids for aquatic animals. Sources of animal and plant oils are increasingly limited as well as expensive, and dietary requirements associated with the inclusion of these oils must be carefully evaluated to facilitate sustainable and affordable formulations. In this study, we investigated quantities of menhaden oil (MO) with and without soybean lecithin or soybean oil (SO) to determine appropriate levels for optimal somatic growth for pre-gonadal juvenile Lytechinus variegatus. We prepared semi-purified diets that varied in neutral lipid content (0, 2, 4, or 8% dry matter) and soy lecithin (0 or 2%) and exchanged lipids reciprocally with purified starch while holding constant all other nutrients. We maintained laboratory-reared juvenile L. variegatus (average initial wet weight 82 ± 0.7 mg, mean ± SE , n = 9 treatment−1) in recirculating seawater systems and fed each daily a sub-satiation ration for five weeks. We assessed wet weights and test diameters every two weeks and at the end of the experiment (5 wk). Level of MO with or without soybean lecithin did not significantly affect wet weight gain; however, increasing levels of SO in the diet reduced wet weight gain and dry matter production efficiency and increased feed conversion ratio. Dry gut weight was positively correlated with level of MO. Lipid level in the gut increased with increasing dietary lipid level, regardless of source. These data suggest the composition of the SO is inhibitory for either nutrient absorption or metabolic processes associated with growth at this life stage. Diets containing total lipid levels of approximately 5 to 6% that include sources of n-3 fatty acids may support optimal growth for pre-gonadal juvenile L. variegatus. PMID:26146422

  18. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL ATLANTIC WITH ATLANTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL ATLANTIC WITH ATLANTIC OCEAN IN THE FOREGROUND. DENNIS HOTEL, BLENHEIM HOTEL, AND MARLBOROUGH HOTEL (LEFT TO RIGHT) ARE LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CLARIDGE HOTEL IS THE HIGHRISE IMMEDIATELY TO THE RIGHT OF THE MARLBOROUGH HOTEL - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  19. South Atlantic interbasin exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rintoul, Stephen Rich

    1991-01-01

    The exchange of mass and heat between the South Atlantic and the neighboring ocean basins was estimated using hydrographic data and inverse methods, in order to gain information on the links between the deep-water formation processes occurring within the Atlantic and the global thermohaline circulation. Results demonstrate that the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation and export of North Atlantic deep water (NADW) is closed primarily by a 'cold water path' in which deep water leaving the Atlantic ultimately returns as intermediate water entering the basin through Drake Passage. This conclusion conflicts with the suggestion by Gordon (1986) that the global thermohaline circulation associated with the formation of NADW is closed primarily by a 'warm water path', in which the export of NADW is compensated by an inflow of warm Indian Ocean thermocline water south of Africa.

  20. 76 FR 1153 - Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations D LLC and Atlantic Grid Operations E LLC; Notice of... (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, and Order No. 679,\\1\\ Atlantic Grid Operations...

  1. Atlantic City memories.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Franklin H

    2008-04-01

    Fifty years ago, the Atlantic City meetings, held the first week in May of every year, were attended by all the elite of American academic medicine and all who wanted to join that group. Part of the magic of those meetings was that professors and neophytes took each other seriously and talked to each other. PMID:18382726

  2. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) metabolism and in vitro formation of B(a)P-DNA adducts by hepatic microsomes from rats fed diets containing corn and menhaden oils

    SciTech Connect

    Dharwadkar, S.; Bellow, J.; Ramanathan, R.; Wade, A.

    1986-03-01

    Dietary unsaturated fat is required for maximum induction of hepatic mixed function oxidases responsible for activating carcinogens which may bind covalently to DNA. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of dietary fat type on in vitro B(a)P metabolism and B(a)P-DNA adduct formation. Male rats were starved 2 days and refed diet devoid of fat, or containing 20% corn oil (CO) or 20% menhaden oil (MO) for 4 days. Both dietary fats increased Vmax for B(a)P hydroxylation without affecting Km. Phenobarbital (PB) administration increased Vmax in all animals but Km was increased only in rats fed the fat diets. PB resulted in decreased B(a)P metabolism when conducted at 15 =M only in rats fed the two fat diets even in the presence of increased cytochrome P-450 (P-450). This effect was due to a decrease in B(a)P metabolism at low substrate concentrations in PB treated fat-fed animals. Binding of B(a)P to calf-thymus DNA was increased in animals fed both fats which was enhanced further by PB only in rats fed the CO and MO diets. When the data are calculated as B(a)P metabolized per unit of P-450, PB seems to induce a P-450 in fat-fed animals having lower affinity and capacity for B(a)P metabolism and activation.

  3. Atlantic tropical cyclones revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Michael E.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Holland, Greg J.; Webster, Peter J.

    Vigorous discussions have taken place recently in Eos [e.g., Mann and Emanuel, 2006; Landsea, 2007] and elsewhere [Emanuel, 2005; Webster et al., 2005; Hoyos et al., 2006; Trenberth and Shea, 2006; Kossin et al., 2007] regarding trends in North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity and their potential connection with anthropogenic climate change. In one study, for example [Landsea, 2007], it is argued that a substantial underestimate of Atlantic tropical cyclone counts in earlier decades arising from insufficient observing systems invalidates the conclusion that trends in TC behavior may be connected to climate change. Here we argue that such connections are in fact robust with respect to uncertainties in earlier observations.Several recent studies have investigated trends in various measures of TC activity. Emanuel [2005] showed that a measure of total power dissipation by TCs (the power dissipation index, or PDI) is highly correlated with August-October sea surface temperatures (SST) over the main development region (MDR) for Atlantic TCs over at least the past half century. Some support for this conclusion was provided by Sriver and Ruber [2006]. Webster et al. [2005] demonstrated a statistically significant increase in recent decades in both the total number of the strongest category cyclones (categories 4 and 5) and the proportion of storms reaching hurricane intensity. Hoyos et al. [2006] showed that these increases were closely tied to warming trends in tropical Atlantic SST, while, for example, the modest decrease in vertical wind shear played a more secondary role. Kossin et al. [2007] called into question some trends in other basins, based on a reanalysis of past TC data, but they found the North Atlantic trends to be robust.

  4. Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific. PMID:19909394

  5. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  6. MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

  7. Atlantic circulation keeps turning.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2012-10-23

    Two major research projects that are running out in November have investigated the Atlantic circulation system that includes the Gulf Stream and come to the conclusion that there is no immediate risk of it shutting down, allaying fears that were raised seven years ago. Yet a better understanding of the interaction between ocean circulation and climate change is still needed, so two new research projects are going to continue this work and extend it to the implications for fisheries and urban environments. Michael Gross reports. PMID:23256201

  8. 76 FR 18504 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    .... See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for further details. ADDRESSES: As published on March 14, 2011 (76 FR... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries Management Measures AGENCY: National... bluefin tuna (BFT) base quotas for all domestic fishing categories; establish BFT quota specifications...

  9. North Atlantic Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Reminiscent of the distinctive swirls in a Van Gogh painting, millions of microscopic plants color the waters of the North Atlantic with strokes of blue, turquoise, green, and brown. Fed by nutrients that have built up during the winter and the long, sunlit days of late spring and early summer, the cool waters of the North Atlantic come alive every year with a vivid display of color. The microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, that give the water this color are the base of the marine food chain. Some species of phytoplankton are coated with scales of calcium (chalk), which turn the water electric blue. Chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments in others give the water a deep green hue. The proliferation of many different species in various stages of growth and decay provides many nuances of color in this concentrated bloom. The bloom stretches across hundreds of kilometers, well beyond the edges of this photo-like image, captured on June 23, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The upper left edge of the image is bounded by Greenland. Iceland is in the upper right. Plumes of dust are blowing off the island, probably adding nutrients to the surface waters to its south. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  10. Spatial and temporal diet patterns of subadult and small adult striped bass in Massachusetts estuaries: Data, a synthesis, and trends across scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferry, K.H.; Mather, Martha E.

    2012-01-01

    Subadult and small adult (375–475 mm total length) striped bass Morone saxatilis are abundant and represent an important component of the recovered U.S. Atlantic coast stocks. However, little is known about these large aggregations of striped bass during their annual foraging migrations to New England. A quantitative understanding of trends in the diets of subadult and small adult migrants is critical to research and management. Because of the complexity of the Massachusetts coast, we were able to compare diets at multiple spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales and evaluate which of these provided the greatest insights into the foraging patterns of this size of fish. Specifically, during spring through autumn, we quantified the diets of 797 migratory striped bass collected from 13 Massachusetts estuaries distributed among three geographic regions in two biogeographic provinces. Our data provided three useful results. First, subadult and young adult striped bass ate a season-specific mixture of fish and invertebrates. For example, more juvenile Atlantic herring Clupea harengus were eaten in spring than in summer or autumn, more juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus were eaten in autumn than in spring or summer, amphipods were eaten primarily in the southern biogeographic province, and shrimp Crangon sp. were eaten in all locations and seasons. Second, examining diets by season was essential because of the temporal variability in striped bass prey. Grouping prey by fish and invertebrates revealed the potential for predictable differences in growth across geographic locations and seasons, based on the output from simple bioenergetics simulations. Third, of the three spatial scales examined, region provided the most quantitative and interpretable ecological trends. Our results demonstrate the utility of comparing multiple scales to evaluate the best way to depict diet trends in a migrating predator that seasonally uses different geographic locations.

  11. Enhanced Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during Atlantic freshening phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogerson, M.; Colmenero-Hidalgo, E.; Levine, R. C.; Rohling, E. J.; Voelker, A. H. L.; Bigg, G. R.; SchöNfeld, J.; Cacho, I.; Sierro, F. J.; LöWemark, L.; Reguera, M. I.; de Abreu, L.; Garrick, K.

    2010-08-01

    The Atlantic-Mediterranean exchange of water at Gibraltar represents a significant heat and freshwater sink for the North Atlantic and is a major control on the heat, salt and freshwater budgets of the Mediterranean Sea. Consequently, an understanding of the response of the exchange system to external changes is vital to a full comprehension of the hydrographic responses in both ocean basins. Here, we use a synthesis of empirical (oxygen isotope, planktonic foraminiferal assemblage) and modeling (analytical and general circulation) approaches to investigate the response of the Gibraltar Exchange system to Atlantic freshening during Heinrich Stadials (HSs). HSs display relatively flat W-E surface hydrographic gradients more comparable to the Late Holocene than the Last Glacial Maximum. This is significant, as it implies a similar state of surface circulation during these periods and a different state during the Last Glacial Maximum. During HS1, the gradient may have collapsed altogether, implying very strong water column stratification and a single thermal and δ18Owater condition in surface water extending from southern Portugal to the eastern Alboran Sea. Together, these observations imply that inflow of Atlantic water into the Mediterranean was significantly increased during HS periods compared to background glacial conditions. Modeling efforts confirm that this is a predictable consequence of freshening North Atlantic surface water with iceberg meltwater and indicate that the enhanced exchange condition would last until the cessation of anomalous freshwater supply into to the northern North Atlantic. The close coupling of dynamics at Gibraltar Exchange with the Atlantic freshwater system provides an explanation for observations of increased Mediterranean Outflow activity during HS periods and also during the last deglaciation. This coupling is also significant to global ocean dynamics, as it causes density enhancement of the Atlantic water column via the

  12. The Atlantic Climate Change Program

    SciTech Connect

    Molinari, R.L. ); Battisti, D. ); Bryan, K. ); Walsh, J. )

    1994-07-01

    The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include (1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North Atlantic; (2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North Atlantic air-sea interaction; (3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and (4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Dual Hurricanes in the Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cameras on the International Space Station show views of Hurricane Julia and Hurricane Igor, both moving west-northwest across the Atlantic on Sept. 14, 2010. At the time the video was captured, Ju...

  14. North Atlantic Coastal Tidal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic coastal wetlands. The book c...

  15. North Atlantic Deep Water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, T. (Editor); Broecker, W. S. (Editor); Hansen, J. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various studies concerning differing aspects of the North Atlantic are presented. The three major topics under which the works are classified include: (1) oceanography; (2) paleoclimate; and (3) ocean, ice and climate modeling.

  16. On the North Atlantic circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, W.J. Jr.; McCartney, M.S. )

    1993-02-01

    A summary for North Atlantic circulation is proposed to replace the circulation scheme hypothesized by Worthington in 1976. Divergences from the previous model are in thermohaline circulation, cross-equatorical transport and Florida Current sources, flow in the eastern Atlantic, circulation in the Newfoundland Basin, slope water currents, and flow pattern near the Bahamas. The circulation patterns presented here are consistent with the majority of of published accounts of flow components. 77 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. The North Atlantic Cold Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greatbatch, Richard; Drews, Annika; Ding, Hui; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic cold bias, associated with a too zonal path of the North Atlantic Current and a missing "northwest corner", is a common problem in coupled climate and forecast models. The bias affects the North Atlantic and European climate mean state, variability and predictability. We investigate the use of a flow field correction to adjust the path of the North Atlantic Current as well as additional corrections to the surface heat and freshwater fluxes. Results using the Kiel Climate Model show that the flow field correction allows a northward flow into the northwest corner, largely eliminating the bias below the surface layer. A surface cold bias remains but can be eliminated by additionally correcting the surface freshwater flux, without adjusting the surface heat flux seen by the ocean model. A model version in which only the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater are corrected continues to exhibit the incorrect path of the North Atlantic Current and a strong subsurface bias. Removing the bias impacts the multi-decadal time scale variability in the model and leads to a better representation of the SST pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability than the uncorrected model.

  18. 78 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... stock of Blueline Tilefish and Gulf of Mexico stock of Menhaden will consist of one workshop. See... workshop will begin at 9 a.m. and conclude no later than 1 p.m. EDT on the final day. See SUPPLEMENTARY... with disabilities. Requests for auxiliary aids should be directed to the SEDAR office (see...

  19. Granger causality and Atlantic hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, James B.

    2007-08-01

    Atlantic tropical cyclones have been getting stronger recently with a trend that is related to an increase in the late summer/early fall sea-surface temperature over the North Atlantic. Some studies attribute the increasing ocean warmth and hurricane intensity to a natural climate fluctuation, known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation; others suggest that climate change related to anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions is the cause. Noting that the only difference between these two hypotheses is the causal connection between global mean near-surface air temperature (GT) and Atlantic sea-surface temperature (SST), the author previously showed how to use statistical tests to examine this hypothesis. Here the author expands on this research. In particular, a more comprehensive explanation of the techniques and additional tests and checks against misspecification are provided. The earlier results are confirmed in showing that preceding GT anomalies have a significant statistical relationship to current SST anomalies but not conversely so that if causality exists between Atlantic SST and global temperature, the causal direction likely goes from GT to SST. The result is robust against a small amount of noise added to the data. Identical tests applied to surrogate time series fail to identify causality as expected. The work underscores the importance of using data models to understand relationships between hurricanes and climate.

  20. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  1. South Atlantic meridional fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzoli, Silvia L.; Baringer, Molly O.; Dong, Shenfu; Perez, Renellys C.; Yao, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The properties of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and associated meridional heat transport (MHT) and salt fluxes are analyzed in the South Atlantic. The oceanographic data used for the study consist of Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data collected along 27 sections at nominally 35°S for the period of time 2002-2011, and Argo profile data collected in the region. Previous estimates obtained with a shorter record are improved and extended, using new oceanographic sections and wind fields. Different wind products are analyzed to determine the uncertainty in the Ekman component of the MHT derived from their use. Results of the analysis provide a 9-year time series of MHT, and volume transport in the upper layer of the MOC. Salt fluxes at 35°S are estimated using a parameter introduced by numerical studies, the Mov that represents the salt flux and helps determine the basin scale salt feedback associated with the MOC. Volume and heat transport by the western and eastern boundary currents are estimated, and their covariablity is examined. Analysis of the data shows that the South Atlantic is responsible for a northward MHT with a mean value of 0.54±0.14 PW. The MHT exhibits no significant trend from 2002 to 2011. The MOC varies from 14.4 to 22.7 Sv with a mean value of 18.1±2.3 Sv and the maximum overturning transport is found at a mean depth of 1250 m. Statistical analysis suggests that an increase of 1 Sv in the MOC leads to an increase of the MHT of 0.04±0.02 PW. Estimates of the Mov from data collected from three different kinds of observations, contrary to those obtained from models, feature a positive salt advection feedback (Mov<0) suggesting that freshwater perturbations will be amplified and that the MOC is bistable. In other words, the MOC might collapse with a large enough freshwater perturbation. Observations indicate that the mean value of the Brazil Current is -8.6±4.1 Sv at 24°S and -19.4±4.3 Sv at 35°S, increasing towards the

  2. Climatic Variability over the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurrell, J.; Hoerling, M. P.; Folland, C. K.

    INTRODUCTION WHAT IS THE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION AND HOW DOES IT IMPACT REGIONAL - CLIMATE? WHAT ARE THE MECHANISMS THAT GOVERN NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION VARIABILITY? Atmospheric Processes Ocean Forcing of the Atmosphere CONCLUDING COMMENTS ON THE OTHER ASPECTS OF NORTH ATLANTIC CLIMATE - VARIABILITY REFERENCES

  3. Atlantic opportunities for ENSO prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rey, Marta Martin; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Polo, Irene

    2015-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of tropical climate variability with worldwide impacts. Major advances in ENSO research have been done in the last decades, focusing on the mechanisms involved in its onset and development, as well as, its global climate teleconnections. Although modelling efforts have been made in ENSO forecast, the prediction of these episodes still remains a challenge for the scientific community. Recent studies put forward the role of extra-tropical and tropical regions as precursors of ENSO, but these teleconnections have changed along the 20th century. In particular, an Atlantic Niño precedes the development of a Pacific La Niña (and vice versa) 6 months in advance, taking part of an air-sea coupled mode of variability which only shows up during negative phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The non-stationarity of this mode opens window opportunities for ENSO forecast, using the Tropical Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature (SST) as the predictor field. Here, we present for the first time a statistical crossvalidated hindcast of ENSO events based on an Extended Multiple Maximum Covariance Analysis (EMMCA). This method considers a unique predictor field, the summer Atlantic SSTs, and a set of predictant fields in different regions and seasons, according to the Atlantic-Pacific mechanism. The predicted tropical Pacific variables involved in ENSO development, show a good agreement with the observed ones during negative AMO phases, with a remarkable increase of the predictability skill based on correlations. During those negative AMO decades, the hindcast reproduces quite well the observed Atlantic-modulated ENSO episodes, but with stronger signal than observations. This AMO-dependency of the ENSO predictability could help to resolve some open questions about the seasonal to decadal ENSO forecast and its impacts.

  4. Atlantic opportunities for ENSO prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Rey, Marta; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén.; Polo, Irene

    2015-08-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of interannual climate variability with worldwide impacts. The knowledge of ENSO drivers and the underlying mechanisms is crucial to improve ENSO prediction, which still remains a challenge. The recently discovered connection between an Atlantic Niño (Niña) and a Pacific Niña (Niño), through an air-sea coupled mechanism during the first and last decades of the twentieth century, highlights an opportunity for ENSO prediction. Here a statistical cross-validated hindcast of ENSO along the twentieth century is presented, considering the Atlantic sea surface temperatures as the unique predictor field, and a set of atmospheric and oceanic variables related to the Atlantic-Pacific connection as the predictand field. The observed ENSO phase is well reproduced, and the skill is enhanced at the beginning and the end of the twentieth century. Understanding this multidecadal modulation of the Atlantic-Pacific connection could help to improve seasonal-to-decadal forecasts of ENSO and its associated impacts.

  5. FLORIDA ATLANTIC COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Florida Atlantic Coastal Environmental Initiative (FACEI) will consist of a multiyear, multidisciplinary research and monitoring program designed to detect and trace a variety of nutrient sources (point and non-point sources) and other major environmental stressors to the coa...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication are... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The availability of this incorporation by reference is... 1989), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication are available from the Office of Food... CFR part 51. The availability of this incorporation by reference is given in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of... by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The availability of...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication are... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The availability of this incorporation by reference is... 1989), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51....

  9. 75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic Red Snapper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 24 Assessment Stage 2, Webinar 3. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the South Atlantic stock of...

  10. 75 FR 43928 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... preparing and implementing FMPs or FMP amendments for Atlantic tunas, swordfish, billfish, and sharks. The... related to the Atlantic bluefin tuna, shark, and swordfish fisheries, as well as options for...

  11. Saharan Dust over the Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Fierce winds ripped across the Sahara Desert this past weekend and blew a large plume of dust out over the Atlantic Ocean. This true color image of the dust event was acquired on February 11, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The light brown dust trail can be seen forming an arc a few hundred miles off the coast of Western Sahara and Mauritania. Northeasterly winds blowing across the Atlantic have redirected the dust towards Europe where it will likely settle. For more information and current images of dust storms, visit Natural Hazards on the Earth Observatory . Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. 75 FR 39918 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic red snapper. AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 24 Assessment Webinars 3 & 4 and Review Workshop for South Atlantic red snapper. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the South Atlantic stock of red snapper will consist of a series of workshops and webinars:...

  13. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...In accordance with the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Act), NMFS, upon a delegation of authority from the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary), has determined that the State of New Jersey has failed to carry out its responsibilities under the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission's (Commission) Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and......

  14. 76 FR 37788 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Catch (ABC) recommendation for Atlantic Migratory Group Spanish mackerel and assessment priorities for... deriving ABC for Atlantic Migratory Group Spanish Mackerel and SEDAR assessment priorities for...

  15. Atlantic Air-Sea Interaction Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodwell, M. J.

    INTRODUCTION DATA AND MODELS THE ANALYSIS METHOD ATMOSPHERIC FORCING OF NORTH ATLANTIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES NORTH ATLANTIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE FORCING OF THE ATMOSPHERE Observational Evidence Model Results POTENTIAL SEASONAL PREDICTABILITY BASED ON THE ATMOSPHERE GENERAL - CIRCULATION MODEL CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION REFERENCES

  16. MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT: OVERVIEW REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This peer-reviewed report summarizes the findings of the first Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment was led by a team from The Pennsylvania State University. The assessment was sponsored by and conducted in partnership with the U.S. Environmental...

  17. Ecosystem Effects of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multidecadal variability in the Atlantic Ocean and its importance to the Earth’s climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillati...

  18. Teaching Atlantic Studies in American High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Charles R.

    1980-01-01

    Stresses the importance of Atlantic studies within the framework of United States history, European history, and the contemporary world scene. Ways of integrating Atlantic studies into the high school social studies curriculum are suggested. Topics discussed include objectives, audiovisual aids, supplementary reading material, and global political…

  19. The Red Atlantic: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Jace

    2011-01-01

    The development of David Armitage's "white Atlantic" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black Atlantic" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads his review of Peter Linebaugh and…

  20. 50 CFR 223.211 - Atlantic sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic sturgeon. 223.211 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Atlantic sturgeon. (a) Prohibitions. The... sturgeon listed in § 223.102(c)(29). (b)...

  1. Origin of the northern Atlantic`s Heinrich events

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.; Bond, G.; Klas, M.

    1992-01-01

    As first noted by Heinrich, 1988, glacial age sediments in the eastern part of the northern Atlantic contain layers with unusually high ratios of ice-rafted lithic fragments of foraminifera shells. He estimated that these layers are spaced at intervals of roughly 10000 years. In this paper we present detailed information documenting the existence of the upper five of these layers in ODP core 609 from 50{degrees}N and 24{degrees}W. Their ages are respectively 15000 radiocarbon years, 20000 radiocarbon years, 27000 radiocarbon years, about 40000 years, and about 50000 years. We also note that the high lithic fragment to foram ratio is the result of a near absence of shells in these layers. Although we are not of one mind regarding the origin of these layers, we lean toward an explanation that the Heinrich layers are debris released during the melting of massive influxes of icebergs into the northern Atlantic. These sudden inputs may be the result of surges along the eastern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The North Atlantic Population Project

    PubMed Central

    RUGGLES, STEVEN; ROBERTS, EVAN; SARKAR, SULA; SOBEK, MATTHEW

    2011-01-01

    The North Atlantic Population Project (NAPP) is a massive database of historical census microdata from European and North American countries. The backbone of the project is the unique collection of completely digitized censuses providing information on the entire enumerated populations of each country. In addition, for some countries, the NAPP includes sample data from surrounding census years. In this article, the authors provide a brief history of the project, describe their progress to data and plans for the future, and discuss some potential implications of this unique data resource for social and economic research. PMID:22199411

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Juvenile Atlantic Croaker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Robert J.; Onuf, Christopher P.

    1982-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Atlantic croaker is an important commercial and recreational species. In the 1940's, the foodfish catch of Atlantic croakers was concentrated in Chesapeake Bay; in the 1950's and early 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico; and in the late 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the South Atlantic States (Wilk 1981). Industrial and recreational catches of Atlantic croakers have been concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico, where the Atlantic croaker is the most important species of bottomfish for industrial uses (Knudsen and Herke 1978), and has ranked first, second, or third in number caught by recreational anglers, depending on survey year (Nakamura 1981). Today, Virginia or Delaware is considered to be the northern extent of the species. During climatically warmer periods, such as the 1930's and 1940's, the croaker extended its range north at least to New York, where it was commercially fished. The southern extent of its range is Argentina.

  4. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  5. Atlantic forcing of Pacific decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharski, Fred; Ikram, Farah; Molteni, Franco; Farneti, Riccardo; Kang, In-Sik; No, Hyun-Ho; King, Martin P.; Giuliani, Graziano; Mogensen, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the Atlantic Ocean influence on equatorial Pacific decadal variability. Using an ensemble of simulations, where the ICTPAGCM ("SPEEDY") is coupled to the NEMO/OPA ocean model in the Indo-Pacific region and forced by observed sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic region, it is shown that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) has had a substantial influence on the equatorial Pacific decadal variability. According to AMO phases we have identified three periods with strong Atlantic forcing of equatorial Pacific changes, namely (1) 1931-1950 minus 1910-1929, (2) 1970-1989 minus 1931-1950 and (3) 1994-2013 minus 1970-1989. Both observations and the model show easterly surface wind anomalies in the central Pacific, cooling in the central-eastern Pacific and warming in the western Pacific/Indian Ocean region in events (1) and (3) and the opposite signals in event (2). The physical mechanism for these responses is related to a modification of the Walker circulation because a positive (negative) AMO leads to an overall warmer (cooler) tropical Atlantic. The warmer (cooler) tropical Atlantic modifies the Walker circulation, leading to rising (sinking) and upper-level divergence (convergence) motion in the Atlantic region and sinking (rising) motion and upper-level convergence (divergence) in the central Pacific region.

  6. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  7. Dual Annual Spawning Races in Atlantic Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  8. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications... Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea (DAS) allocation. The implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab...

  9. Anisotropic tomography of the Atlantic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, G.; Stutzmann, E.

    2003-04-01

    We present a regional tri-dimensional model of the Atlantic Ocean with anisotropy. The model, derived from Rayleigh and Love phase velocity measurements, is defined from the Moho down to 300 km depth with a lateral resolution of about 500 km and is presented in terms of average isotropic S-wave velocity, azimuthal anisotropy and transverse isotropy. The cratons beneath North America, Brazil and Africa are clearly associated with fast S-wave velocity anomalies. The Mid Atlantic Ridge is a shallow structure in the North Atlantic corresponding to a negative velocity anomaly down to about 150 km depth. In contrast, the ridge negative signature is visible in the South Atlantic down to the deepest depth inverted, that is 300~km depth. This difference is probably related to the presence of hot-spots along or close to the ridge axis in the South Atlantic and may indicate a different mechanism for the ridge between the North and South Atlantic. Negative velocity anomalies are clearly associated with hot-spots from the surface down to at least 300km depth, they are much broader that the supposed size of the hot-spots and seem to be connected along a North-South direction. Down to 100 km depth, a fast S-wave velocity anomaly is extenting from Africa into the Atlantic Ocean within the zone defined as the Africa superswell area. This result indicates that the hot material rising from below does not reach the surface in this area but may be pushing the lithosphere upward. In most parts of the Atlantic, the azimuthal anisotropy directions remain stable with increasing depth. Close to the ridge, the fast S-wave velocity direction is roughly parallel to the sea floor spreading direction. The hot-spot anisotropy signature is striking beneath Bermuda, Cape Verde and Fernando Noronha islands where the fast S-wave velocity direction seems to diverge radially from the hot-spots. The Atlantic average radial anisotropy is similar to that of the PREM model, that is positive down to about

  10. 78 FR 64199 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee... specifically listed in this notice and any issues arising after publication of this notice that...

  11. MID-ATLANTIC LANDCOVER CHANGE DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic region is comprised of southern New York, southern and western New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, northeastern North Carolina, Delaware, and Washington, DC. It is an ecosystem rich in streams, wetlands, forests, estuaries, breeding birds...

  12. Ocean science: Vagaries of Atlantic overturning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, Thomas W. N.

    2016-07-01

    A weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation has emerged from noise after years of painstaking measurements. Three independent lines of evidence suggest that an anthropogenic influence on this overturning is not yet detectable.

  13. Millennial changes in North Atlantic oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Barker, S.

    2015-08-01

    Glacial-interglacial changes in bottom water oxygen concentrations [O2] in the deep Northeast Atlantic have been linked to decreased ventilation relating to changes in ocean circulation and the biological pump (Hoogakker et al., 2015). In this paper we discuss seawater [O2] changes in relation to millennial climate oscillations in the North Atlantic ocean over the last glacial cycle, using bottom water [O2] reconstructions from 2 cores: (1) MD95-2042 from the deep northeast Atlantic (Hoogakker et al., 2015), and (2) ODP 1055 from the intermediate northwest Atlantic. Deep northeast Atlantic core MD95-2042 shows decreased bottom water [O2] during millennial scale cool events, with lowest bottom water [O2] of 170, 144, and 166 ± 17 μmol kg-1 during Heinrich ice rafting events H6, H4 and H1. Importantly, at intermediate core ODP 1055 bottom water [O2] was lower during parts of Marine Isotope Stage 4 and millennial cool events, with lowest values of 179 and 194 μmol kg-1 recorded during millennial cool events C21 and a cool event following Dansgaard-Oeschger event 19. Our reconstructions agree with previous model simulations suggesting that glacial cold events may be associated with lower seawater [O2] across the North Atlantic below ~1 km (Schmittner et al., 2007), although in our reconstructions the changes are less dramatic. The decreases in bottom water [O2] during North Atlantic Heinrich events and earlier cold events at the deep site can be linked to water mass changes in relation to ocean circulation changes, and possibly productivity changes. At the intermediate depth site a strong North Atlantic Intermediate Water cell precludes water mass changes as a cause for decreased bottom water [O2]. Instead we propose that the lower bottom [O2] there can be linked to productivity changes through increased export of organic material from the surface ocean.

  14. 78 FR 34879 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Atlantic City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... amend the Table to Sec. 100.501, as revised May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29632), as follows: 0 a. Under ``(a... City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...

  15. 77 FR 19175 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... INFORMATION for further details. ADDRESSES: As published on March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15712), you may submit... Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Atlantic bluefin tuna, bigeye tuna, albacore tuna, yellowfin tuna, and skipjack...

  16. 77 FR 31546 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Species Fishery Management Plan (Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006) and subsequent... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... area fishery for large medium and giant Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) for the remainder of 2012....

  17. 75 FR 33731 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-AY77 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications Correction In rule document 2010-13207...

  18. 75 FR 10450 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...NMFS proposes specifications for the 2010 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including State-by-State commercial quotas, a recreational harvest limit, and recreational possession limits for Atlantic bluefish off the east coast of the United States. The intent of these specifications is to establish the allowable 2010 harvest levels and possession limits to attain the target fishing mortality rate (F),......

  19. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393... rule implementing the Atlantic HMS electronic dealer ] reporting system (76 FR 37750; June 28, 2011) or...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National...

  20. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... on April 27, 2010 (75 FR 22103), and are not repeated here. Activities Pursuant to the Atlantic... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the moratorium, as required by...

  1. 75 FR 57698 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Sharks (43 FR 3818), which was supported by an Environmental Impact Statement (42 FR 57716). The... Billfishes (53 FR 21501). This plan was jointly developed by five Atlantic Regional Fishery Management... (53 FR 37765). The 1988 FMP defined the Atlantic billfish management unit to include sailfish from...

  2. 78 FR 62587 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Atlantic Fishery Management Council's Habitat and Environmental Protection (Habitat) Advisory Panel (AP). SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Habitat AP in...: The Habitat AP will work on development of the Council's Essential Fish Habitat Policy Statements...

  3. 77 FR 65498 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to the Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). Due to an over-harvest in Area 1A in 2010, the FY 2012 sub-ACL in Area 1A was revised to 24,668 mt on February 24, 2012 (77 FR 10978, February 24, 2012). An additional 295... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to the Atlantic Herring Management Area 1A...

  4. 75 FR 35432 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929). The proposed adjusted quota for the South Atlantic swordfish, after... certification reads: NMFS published a final rule on October 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929) that established the...

  5. 76 FR 62042 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Coral Advisory... INFORMATION: Members of the Coral AP will meet from 8:30 a.m. until 5 p.m. on October 25, 2011 and from 8:30 a... coral research and activity in the South Atlantic region; a discussion of measures to be included in...

  6. Influence of the Atlantic subpolar gyre on the thermohaline circulation.

    PubMed

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Sandø, Anne Britt; Drange, Helge; Hansen, Bogi; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2005-09-16

    During the past decade, record-high salinities have been observed in the Atlantic Inflow to the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean, which feeds the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). This may counteract the observed long-term increase in freshwater supply to the area and tend to stabilize the North Atlantic THC. Here we show that the salinity of the Atlantic Inflow is tightly linked to the dynamics of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre circulation. Therefore, when assessing the future of the North Atlantic THC, it is essential that the dynamics of the subpolar gyre and its influence on the salinity are taken into account. PMID:16166513

  7. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  8. Atlantic reef fish biogeography and evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Floeter, S.R.; Rocha, L.A.; Robertson, D.R.; Joyeux, J.C.; Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Wirtz, P.; Edwards, A.J.; Barreiros, J.P.; Ferreira, C.E.L.; Gasparini, J.L.; Brito, A.; Falcon, J.M.; Bowen, B.W.; Bernardi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To understand why and when areas of endemism (provinces) of the tropical Atlantic Ocean were formed, how they relate to each other, and what processes have contributed to faunal enrichment. Location: Atlantic Ocean. Methods: The distributions of 2605 species of reef fishes were compiled for 25 areas of the Atlantic and southern Africa. Maximum-parsimony and distance analyses were employed to investigate biogeographical relationships among those areas. A collection of 26 phylogenies of various Atlantic reef fish taxa was used to assess patterns of origin and diversification relative to evolutionary scenarios based on spatio-temporal sequences of species splitting produced by geological and palaeoceanographic events. We present data on faunal (species and genera) richness, endemism patterns, diversity buildup (i.e. speciation processes), and evaluate the operation of the main biogeographical barriers and/or filters. Results: Phylogenetic (proportion of sister species) and distributional (number of shared species) patterns are generally concordant with recognized biogeographical provinces in the Atlantic. The highly uneven distribution of species in certain genera appears to be related to their origin, with highest species richness in areas with the greatest phylogenetic depth. Diversity buildup in Atlantic reef fishes involved (1) diversification within each province, (2) isolation as a result of biogeographical barriers, and (3) stochastic accretion by means of dispersal between provinces. The timing of divergence events is not concordant among taxonomic groups. The three soft (non-terrestrial) inter-regional barriers (mid-Atlantic, Amazon, and Benguela) clearly act as 'filters' by restricting dispersal but at the same time allowing occasional crossings that apparently lead to the establishment of new populations and species. Fluctuations in the effectiveness of the filters, combined with ecological differences among provinces, apparently provide a mechanism

  9. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  10. Petroleum exploration and the Atlantic OCS

    SciTech Connect

    Edson, G.; Adinolfi, F.; Gray, F.; Ibrahim, M.; Kienzle, J.; Lishman, F.; Huang, K. )

    1993-08-01

    The largest Atlantic outer continental shelf (OCS) lease sale was the first one, Sale 40 in 1976. Ninety-three Baltimore Canyon Trough petroleum leases were issued, and industry's winning bids total $1.1 billion. The highest bonus bids were for leases overlying the Schlee Dome, then called Great Stone Dome, a large structure with a very large fetch area. By 1981, seven dry wells on the dome moderated this initial flush of optimism. However, subeconomic quantities of gas and light oil were discovered on the nearby Hudson Canyon Block 598-642 structure. Now after 9 lease sales, 410 lease awards, and 46 exploration wells, United States Atlantic petroleum exploration activity is in a hiatus. Fifty-three leases remain active under suspensions of operation. Twenty-one lease blocks, about 50 mi offshore from Cape Hatteras, have been combined as the Manteo Exploration Unit. Mobil and partners submitted an exploration plant for the unit in 1989. The Atlantic OCS has petroleum potential, especially for gas. With only 46 exploration wells, entire basins and plays remain untested. During the present exploration inactivity, some petroleum evaluation of the Atlantic OCS continues by the Minerals Management Service and others. Similarities and differences are being documented between United States basins and the Canadian Scotian Basin, which contains oil and gas in commercial quantities. Other initiatives include geochemical, thermal history, seismic stratigraphic, and petroleum system modeling studies. The gas-prone Atlantic OCS eventually may make an energy contribution, especially to nearby East Coast markets.

  11. Bromoform in the tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quack, B.; Wallace, D.

    2003-04-01

    Sea-to-air emissions of reactive, brominated halocarbons, of which bromoform (CHBr3) is the major organic source for atmospheric reactive bromine, are controlled by biotic and abiotic production and consumption processes in the water. These compounds affect the 'oxidising capacity' of the lower atmosphere, primarily as a result of their influence on the ozone concentration. Besides a large macroalgal source in coastal regions, oversaturation in the worlds open oceans contributes significantly to the global emissions, suggesting an yet unknown open ocean source. Atmospheric studies in the Pacific and Atlantic have revealed maxima of tropospheric bromoform concentrations in equatorial regions, suggesting enhanced surface sources in these waters. The responsible processes and fluxes in the open ocean are generally poorly characterised. A west to east transect along 10°N including a short meridional transect into the equatorial upwelling was conducted in the tropical Atlantic Ocean from Curacao to Doualla with R/V Meteor in October /November 2002 (ME55). Surface samples and samples from shallow hydro casts (<500 m) were analysed on board for the brominated compounds dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl), dichlorobromomethane (CHBrCl2) and bromoform (CHBr3), using purge-and-trap gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Preliminary results for bromoform show background concentrations of 2-4 pmol/L in the surface ocean and 1-2 pmol/L in deeper layers. Elevated concentrations of 8 to 14 pmol/L bromoform were observed in the area of equatorial upwelling. Maxima up to 30 pmol/L bromoform were always found underneath the mixed layer and seem to be associated with the chlorophyll maximum in 40 to 70 m depth. The highest concentrations of CHBr3 (2nmol/L) as well as of CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CHCl3 were discovered in the Amazone river plume at the boundary between the river and ocean waters around 40 m depth. Ancillary profile data such as productivity

  12. PRISM3 DOT1 Atlantic Basin Reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, Harry; Robinson, Marci; Dwyer, Gary; Chandler, Mark; Cronin, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    PRISM3 DOT1 (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping 3, Deep Ocean Temperature 1) provides a three-dimensional temperature reconstruction for the mid-Pliocene Atlantic basin, the first of several regional data sets that will comprise a global mid-Pliocene reconstruction. DOT1 is an alteration of modern temperature values for the Atlantic Ocean in 4 degree x 5 degree cells in 13 depth layers for December 1 based on Mg/Ca-derived BWT estimates from seventeen DSDP and ODP Sites and SST estimates from the PRISM2 reconstruction (Dowsett et al., 1999). DOT1 reflects a vaguely modern circulation system, assuming similar processes of deep-water formation; however, North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production is increased, and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production is decreased. Pliocene NADW was approximately 2 degreesC warmer than modern temperatures, and Pliocene AABW was approximately 0.3 degreesC warmer than modern temperatures.

  13. Evolutionary diversity among Atlantic coast mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Richard S.; Rafii, Zara A.; Fromard, François; Blasco, François

    1998-06-01

    Current knowledge of intraspecific variation of mangrove species is limited in terms of rangewide distributions and is mostly restricted to morphological analyses, which have indicated a high degree of homogeneity. However, our analyses of the aliphatic hydrocarbon and triterpenoid fraction of foliar waxes (by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) of mangrove species ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa) from Gabon in West Africa and French Guiana in South America show significant genetic differentiation between eastern and western Atlantic provenances. The greater diversity in lipid composition, and the tendency for longer carbon chain lengths in all taxa from Africa, may suggest that American mangroves exhibit derived characteristics. A consequence of this hypothesis would be that Atlantic mangroves are unlikely to have dispersed from the Tethys via the Pacific, as has been proposed by some authors. More widespread sampling within the Atlantic and east Pacific region is needed to support and confirm these results.

  14. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  15. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  16. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  17. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  18. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  19. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3....04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised of... Districts and the ocean areas lying east of a line extending from the North Pole south along 95°...

  20. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3....04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised of... Districts and the ocean areas lying east of a line extending from the North Pole south along 95°...

  1. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3....04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised of... Districts and the ocean areas lying east of a line extending from the North Pole south along 95°...

  2. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3....04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised of... Districts and the ocean areas lying east of a line extending from the North Pole south along 95°...

  3. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3....04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised of... Districts and the ocean areas lying east of a line extending from the North Pole south along 95°...

  4. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  5. 2. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROUGH, BLENHEIM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROUGH, BLENHEIM AND DENNIS HOTELS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE LFET OF THE HIGHROSE CLARIDGE HOTEL IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  6. 1. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROGH, BLENHEIM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROGH, BLENHEIM, AND DENNIS HOTELS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE LEFT OF THE HIGHRISE CLARIDGE HOTEL IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  7. 76 FR 65699 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA779 South Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public hearing series. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management... Snapper Grouper Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the South Atlantic Region. See SUPPLEMENTARY...

  8. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  9. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  10. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  11. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  12. 75 FR 80797 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA108 South Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a series of public hearings regarding Regulatory Amendment 9 to the Snapper Grouper Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the South Atlantic Region,...

  13. Recent changes in the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert R; Curry, Ruth; Yashayaev, Igor

    2003-09-15

    It has long been recognized that the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is potentially sensitive to greenhouse-gas and other climate forcing, and that changes in the MOC have the potential to cause abrupt climate change. However, the mechanisms remain poorly understood and our ability to detect these changes remains incomplete. Four main (interrelated) types of ocean change in particular are associated in the literature with greenhouse-gas forcing. These are: a slowing of MOC overturning rate; changes in northern seas which might effect a change in Atlantic overturning, including changes in the freshwater flux from the Arctic, and changes in the transport and/or hydrographic character of the northern overflows which ventilate the deep Atlantic; a change in the trans-ocean gradients of steric height (both zonal and meridional) which might accompany a change in the MOC; and an intensification of the global water cycle. Though as yet we have no direct measure of the freshwater flux passing from the Arctic to the Atlantic either via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago or along the East Greenland Shelf, and no direct measure yet of the Atlantic overturning rate, we examine a wide range of time-series from the existing hydrographic record for oceanic evidence of the other anticipated responses. Large amplitude and sustained changes are found (or indicated by proxy) over the past three to four decades in the southward transport of fresh waters along the Labrador shelf and slope, in the hydrography of the deep dense overflows from Nordic seas, in the transport of the eastern overflow through Faroe Bank Channel, and in the global hydrologic cycle. Though the type and scale of changes in ocean salinity are consistent with an amplification of the water cycle, we find no convincing evidence of any significant, concerted slowdown in the Atlantic overturning circulation. PMID:14558901

  14. Millennial changes in North Atlantic oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Barker, S.

    2016-01-01

    Glacial-interglacial changes in bottom water oxygen concentrations [O2] in the deep northeast Atlantic have been linked to decreased ventilation relating to changes in ocean circulation and the biological pump (Hoogakker et al., 2015). In this paper we discuss seawater [O2] changes in relation to millennial climate oscillations in the North Atlantic over the last glacial cycle, using bottom water [O2] reconstructions from 2 cores: (1) MD95-2042 from the deep northeast Atlantic (Hoogakker et al., 2015) and (2) ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 1055 from the intermediate northwest Atlantic. The deep northeast Atlantic core MD95-2042 shows decreased bottom water [O2] during millennial-scale cool events, with lowest bottom water [O2] of 170, 144, and 166 ± 17 µmol kg-1 during Heinrich ice rafting events H6, H4, and H1. Importantly, at intermediate depth core ODP Site 1055, bottom water [O2] was lower during parts of Marine Isotope Stage 4 and millennial cool events, with the lowest values of 179 and 194 µmol kg-1 recorded during millennial cool event C21 and a cool event following Dansgaard-Oeschger event 19. Our reconstructions agree with previous model simulations suggesting that glacial cold events may be associated with lower seawater [O2] across the North Atlantic below ˜ 1 km (Schmittner et al., 2007), although in our reconstructions the changes are less dramatic. The decreases in bottom water [O2] during North Atlantic Heinrich events and earlier cold events at the two sites can be linked to water mass changes in relation to ocean circulation changes and possibly productivity changes. At the intermediate depth site a possible strong North Atlantic Intermediate Water cell would preclude water mass changes as a cause for decreased bottom water [O2]. Instead, we propose that the lower bottom [O2] there can be linked to productivity changes through increased export of organic material from the surface ocean and its subsequent remineralization in the water column

  15. Correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity biases in the Kiel Climate Model: influences on ocean circulation and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, T.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing problem in climate models is the large sea surface salinity (SSS) biases in the North Atlantic. In this study, we describe the influences of correcting these SSS biases on the circulation of the North Atlantic as well as on North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal to multidecadal variability. We performed integrations of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) with and without applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  16. 75 FR 27219 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications...), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues final specifications for the 2010 Atlantic deep- sea red... document is also accessible via the Internet at http://www.nefmc.org . NMFS prepared a Final...

  17. 78 FR 44095 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Atlantic tunas, swordfish, billfish, and sharks. The AP has previously consulted with NMFS on: Amendment 1...), rebuilding dusky sharks (Amendment 5b), and shark catch shares (Amendment 6); and swordfish...

  18. 75 FR 19369 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ..., swordfish, billfish, and sharks. The AP has previously consulted with NMFS on Amendment 1 to the Billfish... smoothhound sharks, and conduct working group sessions regarding Atlantic bluefin tuna, sharks, and...

  19. 76 FR 62042 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Information and Education Advisory Panel (AP) and a Social Media Workshop in conjunction with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium in North Charleston,...

  20. 75 FR 5284 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... and, (2) the condition of the pink shrimp stock in the South Atlantic Region. The Fishery Management... necessary to bring the pink shrimp stock back above the MSST level. The Panel will prepare a...

  1. 75 FR 65298 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Members of the Habitat Advisory Panel will meet from 9 a.m.-5 p.m. on November 16... Fish Habitat review, the Governor's South Atlantic Alliance Action Plan, a status report on Gulf...

  2. 75 FR 57407 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... specific measures laid out in the proposed rule can be found in 75 FR 35432 (June 22, 2010) and are...

  3. 77 FR 52314 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... items contained in the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that published on June 1, 2009 (74 FR... comments and views of AP members when preparing and implementing FMPs or FMP amendments for Atlantic...

  4. 76 FR 45781 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... items contained in the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that published June 1, 2009 (74 FR 26174... views of AP members when preparing and implementing FMPs or FMP amendments for Atlantic tunas,...

  5. 75 FR 11133 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Shareholders for the South Atlantic region. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES: The meeting will take place... should be directed to the council office (see ADDRESSES) 3 days prior to the meetings. Note: The...

  6. 78 FR 59916 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of its Scientific and... after publication of this notice that require emergency action under section 305(c) of the...

  7. Turbidity distribution in the Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, S.; Thorndike, E.M.; Sullivan, L.

    1976-01-01

    The regional coverage of Lamont nephelometer data in the North and South Atlantic can be used to map seawater turbidity at all depths. At the level of the clearest water, in the mid-depth regions, the turbidity distribution primarily reflects the pattern of productivity in the surface waters. This suggests that the 'background' turbidity level in the oceans is largely a function of biogenic fallout. The bottom waters of the western Atlantic generally exhibit large increases in turbidity. The most intense benthic nepheloid layers are in the southwestern Argentine basin and northern North American basin; the lowest bottom water turbidity in the western Atlantic is in the equatorial regions. Both the Argentine and North American basin bottom waters appear to derive their high turbidity largely from local resuspension of terrigenous input in these basins. In contrast to the west, the eastern Atlantic basins show very low turbidities with the exception of three regions: the Mediterranean outflow area, the Cape basin, and the West European basin. ?? 1976.

  8. Sustainability in Higher Education in Atlantic Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringer, Almut; Wright, Tarah; Malone, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose is to ascertain the state of sustainability in higher education (SHE) in Atlantic Canada (sustainability education/curriculum; research and scholarship; operations; faculty/staff development and rewards; community outreach and service; student opportunities; and institutional mission, structure and planning).…

  9. The Evolution of the South Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Floyd W.; Rabinowitz, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the South Atlantic continental margins through geological time is discussed in a series of three time slices, all of which depict various characteristics in the initial formation of this margin during the Cretaceous period (180 to 65 million years ago) of the Mesozoic era. (BT)

  10. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  11. MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the USGCRP's First National Assessment effort, EPA's Global Change Research Program sponsored the first Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment. A multi-disciplinary team of 14 Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) faculty members led this regional assessment effort.

  12. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  13. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization at 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys the history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) on the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty. Highlights milestones in the Organization's history of dealing with the Soviet Union, from containment to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Discusses needs, tasks, and challenges that NATO faces in the 1990s.…

  14. Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotter, Andrew J.

    1983-01-01

    The author is persuaded that the main purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was to raise the confidence of moderate ruling groups in Western Europe. Today NATO is an expression of support between troubled allies with a number of common interests. (RM)

  15. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  16. Economic Industrial Survey of Atlantic County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullo, Philip T.; McDaniel, Walter A.

    Of the 116 firms involved in an economic industrial survey of Atlantic County (New Jersey), 92 (78%) firms responded. The major activity of 91% of the responding firms was of the light industry type, within which there was some diversity. Findings of the study include the following: a greater number of full-time employees were employed than…

  17. Ecosystem effects of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Janet A.; Baker, Matthew R.; Bell, Richard; Kenny, Andrew; Kilbourne, K. Halimeda; Friedland, Kevin D.; Martino, Edward; Stachura, Megan M.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.; Wood, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Multidecadal variability in the Atlantic Ocean and its importance to the Earth's climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation or AMO, been recognized by ecologists as an important factor influencing ecosystem state. A growing body of literature suggests that AMO-related fluctuations are associated with shifts in ecological boundaries, primary productivity, and a number of ecologically and economically important coastal and marine populations across the Atlantic basin. Although the AMO is a basin-wide index of SST, the drivers of ecosystem change encompass more than temperature anomalies and the mode of action differs within each ecosystem. A common theme in assessing ecosystem change indicates that fluctuations in water masses and circulation patterns drive shifts in ecosystem states, but the magnitude and rate of change is dependent on the physical characteristics of the region. Because of the wide ranging geographic effects of the AMO, and considering its multidecadal nature, a more complete understanding of its causes and effects would allow scientists and managers to more effectively inform ecosystem-based management across the Atlantic Basin.

  18. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-01-01

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888. PMID:25543942

  19. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  20. Atlantic and Indian Oceans Pollution in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  1. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  2. Population structure of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).

    PubMed

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults ("twinning"). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management. PMID:23741381

  3. Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Kevin D.; Shank, Burton V.; Todd, Christopher D.; McGinnity, Philip; Nye, Janet A.

    2014-05-01

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the North Atlantic are managed as a set of population complexes distributed in North America and Europe. In recent years, these complexes have experienced reduced marine survival and many populations within the complexes are at risk, especially those at the southern ends of the species amphi-Atlantic range. Atlantic salmon is an anadromous fish dividing its life history between residence in freshwater and the marine environment. The freshwater portion of the life history includes spawning and the rearing of juveniles where in-river production has tended to be relatively stable, whereas the first year at sea, termed the post-smolt year, is characterized by more variable rates of mortality. Although their habitats are widely separated geographically along the North Atlantic seaboards, strong recruitment coherence exists between North American and European stock complexes. This recruitment coherence is correlated with ocean temperature variation associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) appears to be relatively unimportant as a driver of salmon abundance. The mechanism determining the link between AMO-related thermal variation and abundance appears to differ fundamentally for the two continental stock groupings. Whereas ocean climate variability during the first springtime months of juvenile salmon migration to sea appears to be important to the survival of North American stocks, summer climate variation appears to be central to adult recruitment variation for European stocks. This contrast in seasonal effects appears to be related to the varying roles of predation pressure and size-related mortality on the continental stock complexes. The anticipated warming due to global climate change will impose thermal conditions on salmon populations outside historical context and challenge the ability of many populations to persist.

  4. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  5. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  6. Teleconnections of Indian monsoon rainfall with AMO and Atlantic tripole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmi; Krishnamurthy, V.

    2016-04-01

    The teleconnections between the decadal modes in the Indian monsoon rainfall (IMR) and the North Atlantic sea surface temperature are investigated. The two decadal modes of variability in the North Atlantic, the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) and the Atlantic tripole, have opposite relation with the two decadal modes of IMR. The AMO has positive correlation with the monsoon rainfall while the Atlantic tripole has negative correlation. This study has put forward hypotheses for the mechanisms involved in the teleconnections of the AMO and the Atlantic tripole with the IMR. The warm phase of AMO may influence the monsoon through the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO) and further through the equatorial zonal winds which increase the moisture flow over India by enhancing the southwesterly flow. The warm phase of Atlantic tripole may impact the monsoon through the all-season NAO, leading to decreased moisture flow over India through the equatorial wind pattern. The observed relations between the decadal modes in the North Atlantic and the Indian monsoon are explored in the simulations of National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) model. Although the model supports the observed decadal teleconnection between the Atlantic Ocean and Indian monsoon, it has limitations in capturing the details of the spatial pattern associated with the teleconnection. The teleconnections of AMO and Atlantic tripole with the Indian monsoon is further demonstrated through an experiment with CCSM4 by decoupling the North Atlantic Ocean. The hypotheses for the mechanisms of the Atlantic teleconnections are also explored in the CCSM4 simulation.

  7. From Europe to America: pliocene to recent trans-atlantic expansion of cold-water north atlantic molluscs.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Geerat J

    2005-12-01

    Data on the geographical distribution, phylogeny and fossil record of cool-temperate North Atlantic shell-bearing molluscs that live in waters shallower than 100 m depth belong to two biogeographic provinces, one in eastern North America north of Cape Cod, the other in northern Europe. Amphi-Atlantic species, which are found in both provinces, comprise 30.8% of the 402 species in the northeastern Atlantic and 47.3% of the 262 species in the northwestern Atlantic. Some 54.8% of these amphi-Atlantic species have phylogenetic origins in the North Pacific. Comparisons among fossil Atlantic faunas show that amphi-Atlantic distributions became established in the Middle Pliocene (about 3.5 million years ago), and that all represent westward expansions of European taxa to North America. No American taxa spread eastward to Europe without human assistance. These results are in accord with previous phylogeographic studies among populations within several amphi-Atlantic species. Explanations for the unidirectional expansion of species across the Atlantic remain uncertain, but may include smaller size and greater prior extinction of the North American as compared to the European fauna and biased transport mechanisms. Destruction of the European source fauna may jeopardize faunas on both sides of the Atlantic. PMID:16271981

  8. Hydrographic observations in the western tropical and subtropical north atlantic ocean: Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) and western tropical atlantic experiment (WESTRAX) during 1990. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, E.; Wilburn, A.M.

    1993-03-01

    Data collected during the 1990 Atlantic Climate Change Program and the Western Tropical Atlantic Experiment were presented. The goals of the programs were to increase the understanding of the roles of the regional circulation and ocean circulation in global climate. Salinity, ocean temperature as a function of depth, and other hydrographic data were collected from shipborne platforms.

  9. Hydrographic observations in the western tropical and subtropical north atlantic ocean: Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) and western tropical atlantic experiment (WESTRAX) during 1991. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, E.; Wilburn, A.M.

    1993-03-01

    Data collected during the 1991 Atlantic Climate Change Program and the Western Tropical Atlantic Experiment were presented. The goals of the programs were to increase the understanding of the roles of regional circulation and ocean circulation in global climate. Salinity, ocean temperature as a function depth and other hydrographic data were collected from shipborne platforms.

  10. Diagnosing overflow waters in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2015-04-01

    Danmark Strait overflow water (DSOW) and Iceland Faroe overflow water (ISOW) are important for the formation and transformation of deep waters in the North Atlantic. In this work the volume transport, variability, and pathways of DSOW and ISOW are diagnosed using the one degree ocean-ice coupled Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) that is forced by CORE2 inter-annual forcing. The oceanic component (MICOM) features an isopycnal coordinate that is referenced to 2000 db. The issues related to the coarse resolution such as the southward transport of ISOW to the western European Basin, the lack of overflow water in the western North Atlantic, and the western boundary detachment of the deep western boundary current are addressed. The effects of diapycnal mixing on the behavior of overflow descent at Denmark Strait and Faroe Bank Channel and its downstream evolution are examined.

  11. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multidecadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by affecting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially 1996 to 2010). It also describes much longer time scale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme pre-greenhouse-gas northern warming of the 1930s to 1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  12. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Gregersen, S. ); Basham, P.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The main focus of this volume is the earthquakes that occur at and near the continental margins on both sides of the North Atlantic. The book, which contains the proceedings of the NATO workshop on Causes and Effects of Earthquakes at Passive Margins and in Areas of Postglacial Rebound on Both Sides of the North Atlantic, draws together the fields of geophysics, geology and geodesy to address the stress and strain in the Earth's crust. The resulting earthquakes produced on ancient geological fault zones and the associated seismic hazards these pose to man are also addressed. Postglacial rebound in North America and Fennoscandia is a minor source of earthquakes today, during the interglacial period, but evidence is presented to suggest that the ice sheets suppressed earthquake strain while they were in place, and released this strain as a pulse of significant earthquakes after the ice melted about 9000 years ago.

  13. Mixotrophic basis of Atlantic oligotrophic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Tarran, Glen A; Martin, Adrian P; Burkill, Peter H; Scanlan, David J; Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2012-04-10

    Oligotrophic subtropical gyres are the largest oceanic ecosystems, covering >40% of the Earth's surface. Unicellular cyanobacteria and the smallest algae (plastidic protists) dominate CO(2) fixation in these ecosystems, competing for dissolved inorganic nutrients. Here we present direct evidence from the surface mixed layer of the subtropical gyres and adjacent equatorial and temperate regions of the Atlantic Ocean, collected on three Atlantic Meridional Transect cruises on consecutive years, that bacterioplankton are fed on by plastidic and aplastidic protists at comparable rates. Rates of bacterivory were similar in the light and dark. Furthermore, because of their higher abundance, it is the plastidic protists, rather than the aplastidic forms, that control bacterivory in these waters. These findings change our basic understanding of food web function in the open ocean, because plastidic protists should now be considered as the main bacterivores as well as the main CO(2) fixers in the oligotrophic gyres. PMID:22451938

  14. Atlantic forcing of the Mediterranean oligotrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, I. E.; RíOs, A. F.; GarcíA-Lafuente, J.; Navarro, G.; Makaoui, A.; SáNchez-RomáN, A.; Rodriguez-Galvez, S.; Orbi, A.; RuíZ, J.; PéRez, F. F.

    2012-06-01

    The Mediterranean Sea shows a peculiar anomaly in its nutrient pattern compared to the global ocean, as there is decrease in nutrient concentration from west to east. This feature has been attributed to the antiestuarine circulation at the Strait of Gibraltar, where an eastward flow of Atlantic nutrient-poor surface waters is compensated by a westward countercurrent of Mediterranean nutrient-rich deep waters. This water exchange has been suggested as the ultimate cause for the oligotrophy of the Mediterranean basin, even though only a few studies have accurately examined the magnitude of the nutrient flux through the Strait of Gibraltar. In this work, data from the Gibraltar Fixed Time series (GIFT) between 2005 and 2008 were used to assess nutrient distributions. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange and using the Mediterranean outflow recorded in situ, the net export of nutrients from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic was calculated as 139 and 4.8 Gmol yr-1 of nitrate and phosphate, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the Atlantic inflow is not nutrient depleted and in particular contains significant levels of phosphate, which is the limiting factor for biological productivity in the eastern Mediterranean. The distribution of the quasi-conservative parameter N* in the western and eastern basins indicated that nitrate-deficient surface waters are transformed into phosphate-deficient bottom waters by internal cycling processes. Therefore, phosphate depletion in the Mediterranean does not have its origin in the entry of a phosphorus-impoverished Atlantic inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar.

  15. Fisheries. Population of origin of Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, E E; Hansen, M M; Schmidt, C; Meldrup, D; Grønkjaer, P

    2001-09-20

    Most of the world's cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries are now tightly regulated or closed altogether. Being able to link individual fish to their population of origin would assist enormously in policing regulations and in identifying poachers. Here we show that microsatellite genetic markers can be used to assign individual cod from three different populations in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean to their population of origin. PMID:11565021

  16. Cyclic growth in Atlantic region continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, A. M.

    1986-01-01

    Atlantic region continental crust evolved in successive stages under the influence of regular, approximately 400 Ma-long tectonic cycles. Data point to a variety of operative tectonic processes ranging from widespread ocean floor consumption (Wilson cycle) to entirely ensialic (Ampferer-style subduction or simple crustal attenuation-compression). Different processes may have operated concurrently in some or different belts. Resolving this remains the major challenge.

  17. North Atlantic, ITCZ, and Monsoonal Climate Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, G. H.; Deplazes, G.; Peterson, L. C.; Brauer, A.; Mingram, J.; Dulski, P.; Sigman, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    Major element chemistry and color data from sediment cores in the anoxic Cariaco Basin off Venezuela record with (sub)annual resolution large and abrupt shifts in the hydrologic cycle of the tropical Atlantic during the last 80 ka. These data suggest a direct connection between the position of the ITCZ over northern South America, the strength of trade winds, and the temperature gradient to the high northern latitudes, ENSO, and monsoonal climate in Asia. The mechanisms behind these decadal-scale ITCZ-monsoon swings can be further explored at major climate transitions such as the onset of Younger Dryas cooling at ~12.7 ka, one of the most abrupt climate changes observed in ice core, lake and marine records in the North Atlantic realm and much of the Northern Hemisphere. Annually laminated sediments from ideally record the dynamics of abrupt climate changes since seasonal deposition immediately responds to climate and varve counts accurately estimate the time of change. We compare sub-annual geochemical data from a lake in Western Germany, which provides one of the best-dated records currently available for this climate transition, with the new the Cariaco Basin record and a new and higher resolution record from Lake Huguang Maar in China, and the Greenland ice core record. The Lake Meerfelder Maar record indicates an abrupt increase in storminess, occurring from one year to the next at 12,678 ka BP, coincident with other observed climate changes in the region. We interpret this shift of the wintertime winds to signify an abrupt change in the North Atlantic westerlies to a stronger and more zonal jet. The observed wind shift provides the atmospheric mechanism for the strong temporal link between North Atlantic overturning and European climate during the last deglaciation, tightly coupled to ITCZ migrations observed in the Cariaco Basin sediments, and a stronger east Asian Monsoon winter monsoon as seen in lake Huguang Maar, when cave stalagmite oxygen isotope data

  18. NOAA Research Vessel Explores Atlantic Ocean Seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-10-01

    Mike Ford, a biological oceanographer with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), sat rapt in front of a bank of high-definition monitors. They provided live video and data feeds from a tethered pair of instrument-laden remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) that were descending 4692 meters on their deepest dive ever. Their target: an unnamed and unexplored New England seamount discovered in the North Atlantic last year.

  19. Hurricane Bonnie, Northeast of Bermuda, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Hurricane Bonnie was over the North Atlantic Ocean about 500 miles northeast of Bermuda (39.0N, 56.5W) when this photo was taken. Compare this view with Hurricane Iniki, also photographed on this mission (STS-47-77-058). Bonnie is small but in her prime, having a well defined eye, a tight spiral gyre indicating high wind speeds and numerous thunderheads. Iniki, on the other hand, was decaying when photographed and no longer presented a threat.

  20. Ocean Modeling of the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seminar, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Present modeling of the North Atlantic is inadequate and can be improved in a number of ways. A number of important physical processes are listed in five categories from the viewpoints of how they are treated in isolation, how they are usually represented in present ocean basin models, and how they may be better represented in future models. In the first two categories of vertical boundary processes and internal vertical mixing, parameterizations exist which can easily be incorporated into models and which will have important effects on the simulated structure of the North Atlantic. For the third catagory (mesoscale eddy effects), adequate parameterizations do not exist; but the order of magnitude of the effects is known from observational and process-model studies. A horizontal grid spacing of 100 km or less in required to allow parameterizations with this order of magnitude, as well as to resolve the time-averaged ocean fields. In the fourth category of large scale transports improvements are suggested by way of increased vertical resolution and by the requirement that lateral mixing due to eddies takes place on isopycnal surfaces. Model incorporation of the latter phenomenta is underway. In the fifth category of miscellaneous high-latitude processes, formulations for the treatment of sea ice are available for use. However, the treatment of gravitational instability, which is crucial to deepwater formation in the Atlantic Ocean, will require additional refinements to account for the unresolved physics of chimney formations in the open ocean and buoyant plumes near ocean boundaries.

  1. In Brief: Atlantic seasonal hurricane forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Two hurricane forecasters are predicting that 2008 will be an above-average Atlantic basin tropical cyclone season with an above-average probability of a major hurricane making landfall in the United States. During 2008, there could be about seven hurricanes (the annual average is 5.9) and 13 named storms (the average is 9.6), according to a 7 December report by Philip Klotzbach, research scientist at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, and William Gray, university professor emeritus of atmospheric sciences. The forecasters indicate that they believe the Atlantic basin is in an active hurricane cycle that is associated with a strong thermohaline circulation and an active phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The report notes that, ``real-time operational early December forecasts have not shown forecast skill over climatology during this 16-year period [1992-2007]. This has occurred despite the fact that the skill over the hindcast period...showed appreciable skill.'' For more information, visit the Web site: http://hurricane.atmos.colostate.edu/Forecasts/2007/dec2007/dec2007.pdf.

  2. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  3. Review of North Atlantic Source Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) ventilates the deep World Ocean. It not only carries relatively well-oxygenated waters, but also other substances derived from recent sea-surface exchanges. There are five regional sources for NADW: (1) derivatives of the salty Mediterranean Sea outflow, (2) products of open-ocean convection in the Labrador Sea, (3) Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water from the Norwegian Sea - salty by virtue of mixing with saline water near the sills, (4) Denmark Strait Overflow Water from the Iceland and Greenland Seas - which retains a high-density, relatively low-salinity signal, and (5) remnants of deep water from the Antarctic circumpolar region - freshest of the bottom waters. Despite the differences of characteristics of the source waters, the NADW is relatively uniform. Because the formation of each of the five source waters may be viewed as a response to a complex series of events, it is difficult to examine the sensitivity of NADW to environmental fluctuations. It is known that the deep northern North Atlantic is relatively closely coupled to the sea surface in the Greenland and Iceland seas. The most recent studies indicate a minimum response time of only two years between the introduction of a passive signal north of Iceland and its appearance in the deep northwest Atlantic.

  4. Continuous observations of North Atlantic heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-02-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which transports warm water northward and cold water back southward, is important in transferring heat to the North Atlantic Ocean. Some models predict that AMOC will slow down as Earth's temperatures rise due to anthropogenic warming, which could have serious climate consequences for the Northern Hemisphere. However, the response of AMOC to global warming is uncertain—different models predict different rates of slowdown—and there have been few continuous observations of AMOC heat transport. Hobbs and Willis used temperature, salinity, and displacement data measured from foats in the Argo array, combined with sea surface heights measured by satellites, to estimate a continuous time series of Atlantic meridional heat transport from 2002 to 2010 at 41°N latitude. They found that the mean heat transport was about 0.5 petawatt. The authors note that this estimate is consistent with previous studies in similar latitudes based on atmospheric flux data but is lower than most hydrographic estimates. Heat transport varied on an annual cycle as well as on shorter time scales, with atmospheric variability explaining most of the short-term variance. The researchers note that the period of study was too short to infer any long-term trends, and they emphasize the need for continued monitoring of AMOC. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2011JC007039, 2012)

  5. Population Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Bycaught in U.S. Atlantic Coast Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Wirgin, I.; Maceda, L.; Grunwald, C.; King, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite DNA and mitochondrial DNA control region sequence analyses were used to determine the population and Distinct Population Segment (DPS) origin of 173 Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus encountered from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in NOAA's Northeast Fisheries Observer Program. It was found that the Hudson River was by far the greatest contributor to this coastal bycatch, with 42.2-46.3% of specimens originating there. Generally, specimens respected the geographic province of the river in which they were spawned, but some specimens, particularly those originating in the South Atlantic DPS, moved great distances. Genetic mixed stock analyses provides an accurate approach to determine the DPS and population origin of Atlantic sturgeon bycaught in coastal waters but most informative management requires that these results be partitioned by locale, season, target fishery, and gear type. PMID:25727098

  6. North Atlantic Current long-term transport observations at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, Achim; Rhein, Monika; Kieke, Dagmar; Mertens, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic Current (NAC) brings warm and saline water, exported by the Gulf Stream from the tropics/subtropics, from the western in the eastern basin. Four Inverted Echo Sounders were moored between 47°40'N and 52°30'N to study the transport variations of the NAC at the gateway between western and eastern Atlantic. The separation in three segments (northern, central, and southern) allows to resolve the meandering of the NAC between the spreading paths through the different fracture zones. We utilise the correlation between the NAC transport inferred from the 2006 to 2010 moored instruments and the geostrophic surface velocity from altimeter data to construct a time series of NAC transports from 1992 to 2013. By analysing the two time series we compute the transport means and trends, resolve the variations from daily to inter-annual time scales, and calculate transport composites to investigate the relation between the North Atlantic Oscillation and NAC transport variations.

  7. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  8. Decadal variability in the Eastern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Rhein, Monika; Roessler, Achim; Denker, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the subpolar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the subtropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. We examine the decadal variability in the eastern North Atlantic based on Argo data from 2000-2015 and have constructed time series for four water masses (Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), Intermediate Water (IW), upper Labrador Sea Water (uLSW) and deep Labrador Sea Water (dLSW)) at selected locations along the Northwest European shelf. Data from the Rockall Trough and the Iceland Basin are chosen to represent advective pathways in the subpolar gyre at two major branches of the North Atlantic Current towards the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. Temporal variability of subtropical waters transported northward along the eastern boundary is studied at Goban Spur around 48°N. The Argo data are extended in time with long-term hydrographic observations such as the Extended Ellet Line data and other climatological sources in the region. For the study of transport fluctuations time series from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) program (2012-2015) and predecessor programs have been used. These programs have monitored the subpolar gyre in the western basin and provide time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). First results show that the temperatures and salinities remained at high levels for the upper waters (SPMW and IW) until 2010 and have been decreasing since

  9. 78 FR 57339 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions to Headboat Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...; Amendment 6 to the FMP for the Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery of the Atlantic; and Amendment 22 to the FMP for... electronic reporting for headboat vessels in the South Atlantic snapper-grouper, Atlantic dolphin and wahoo... harvest and possess South Atlantic snapper-grouper, Atlantic dolphin and wahoo, and South Atlantic...

  10. Combined influences of seasonal East Atlantic Pattern and North Atlantic Oscillation to excite Atlantic multidecadal variability in a climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Cassou, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The physical processes underlying the internal component of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) are investigated from a 1,000-yr pre-industrial control simulation of the CNRM-CM5 model. The low-frequency fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are shown to be the main precursor for the model AMV. The full life cycle of AMOC/AMV events relies on a complex time-evolving relationship with both North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) that must be considered from a seasonal perspective in order to isolate their action; the ocean is responsible for setting the multidecadal timescale of the fluctuations. AMOC rise leading to a warm phase of AMV is statistically preceded by wintertime NAO+ and EAP+ from ~Lag -40/-20 yrs. Associated wind stress anomalies induce an acceleration of the subpolar gyre (SPG) and enhanced northward transport of warm and saline subtropical water. Concurrent positive salinity anomalies occur in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas in link to local sea-ice decline; those are advected by the Eastern Greenland Current to the Labrador Sea participating to the progressive densification of the SPG and the intensification of ocean deep convection leading to AMOC strengthening. From ~Lag -10 yrs prior an AMOC maximum, opposite relationship is found with the NAO for both summer and winter seasons. Despite negative lags, NAO- at that time is consistent with the atmospheric response through teleconnection to the northward shift/intensification of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone in link to the ongoing warming of tropical north Atlantic basin due to AMOC rise/AMV build-up. NAO- acts as a positive feedback for the full development of the model AMV through surface fluxes but, at the same time, prepares its termination through negative retroaction on AMOC. Relationship between EAP+ and AMOC is also present in summer from ~Lags -30/+10 yrs while winter EAP- is favored around the AMV peak. Based on

  11. Reconstructing past particle fluxes in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, W. B.; Lohmann, G. P.

    1990-08-01

    Using a research strategy analogous to modern sediment trap studies, sediment accumulation patterns on submarine rises can be interpreted in terms of past ocean chemistry and circulation. We have followed this research strategy to reconstruct the history of surface water productivity and deep-water chemistry and circulation in the eastern equatorial Atlantic (Sierra Leone Rise) and western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) during the last glacial maximum (˜18,000 B.P.). On shallow sections of these rises, at depths with little carbonate particle degradation, we assume that the accumulation of skeletal carbonate approximates the carbonate production rate in surface water. During the last glacial maximum, the rate of carbonate productivity was lower in the eastern Atlantic than it is today, while the western Atlantic exhibited no glacial-interglacial difference in carbonate productivity. Based on the difference in carbonate accumulation rates between shallow and deep cores on the rises, we observed greater dissolution in both basins during the last glaciation. The eastern Atlantic always had a lower rate of dissolution than the western Atlantic, despite having deep water with a lower δ13C during the last glacial maximum. Organic carbon accumulation in the eastern Atlantic increased with depth in the water column during the last glaciation, suggesting that there was a bathymetric decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration at that time. These observations are consistent with a glacial decrease in the production rate of northern source deep water during the last glaciation. At that time, the mixing zone between northern source and southern source deep water migrated to the north in the Atlantic, resulting in a greater proportion of corrosive, southern source deep water in the western Atlantic, and entering the eastern Atlantic through low-latitude fracture zones. Today the ratio of northern and southern components entering the eastern Atlantic is about 4:1. Based on

  12. 76 FR 36892 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2011 North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... 2003 swordfish quotas for the North and South Atlantic fisheries (68 FR 36967; June 20, 2003), NMFS... inadvertently removed in the final rule (69 FR 68090; November 23, 2004) that finalized the swordfish quotas for... Final Rule published on October 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929). While the 2011 baseline quota for South...

  13. 76 FR 7547 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that published on June 1, 2009 (74 FR 26174). Information... views of AP members when preparing and implementing FMPs or FMP amendments for Atlantic tunas, swordfish..., and permitting and management options for swordfish and smoothhound in the trawl fisheries....

  14. 77 FR 4282 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that published on June 1, 2009 (74 FR 26174), which considered a variety of... FMP amendments for Atlantic tunas, swordfish, billfish, and sharks. The AP has previously consulted... tuna management; revitalizing the swordfish fishery; shark management measures such as...

  15. 76 FR 17382 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council will hold a meeting of its Spiny Lobster Advisory...: (843) 769-4520; e-mail: kim.iverson@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Members of the Spiny Lobster AP will meet from 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. on April 20, 2011. The Spiny Lobster AP will receive...

  16. 77 FR 53150 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... established in the 2006 Consolidated Atlantic HMS Fishery Management Plan (Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058...). The 2011 BFT quota rule (76 FR 39019, July 5, 2011) established a quota of 435.1 mt for the General... adjustments to the BFT General and Harpoon category regulations (76 FR 74003, November 30, 2011), the...

  17. 77 FR 15712 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... implementing the BFT quotas and Atlantic tuna fisheries management measures (76 FR 39019, July 5, 2011), NMFS... Federal Register (64 FR 29090) final regulations, effective July 1, 1999, implementing the Fishery... in the Federal Register (71 FR 58058) a final rule, effective November 1, 2006, implementing the...

  18. 78 FR 11788 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Species Fishery Management Plan (Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006) and subsequent... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... tuna (BFT) until the General category reopens on June 1, 2013. This action is being taken to...

  19. 77 FR 38011 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006) and subsequent rulemaking. Under Sec. 635.27(a)(3), the total... announced a closure of the Longline category southern area BFT fishery, effective May 29, 2012 (77 FR 31546... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  20. 75 FR 33531 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006). The 2010 BFT fishing year, which is managed on a calendar... categories (75 FR 30732, June 2, 2010). The final 2010 Angling category quota is 225.4 mt (97.7 mt for school... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  1. 77 FR 21015 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... categories, per the allocations established in the Consolidated HMS FMP (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006) and in... remainder of the respective fishing years (75 FR 33531, June 14, 2010, and 76 FR 18416, April 4, 2011... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  2. 77 FR 3637 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management Plan (Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... tuna (BFT) until the General category reopens on June 1, 2012. This action is being taken to...

  3. 76 FR 14377 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Dolphin Wahoo... INFORMATION: Members of the Dolphin Wahoo AP will meet from 1 p.m.-5 p.m. on April 7, 2010 and from 8:30 a.m... Catch Limit (ACL) Amendment relative to dolphin and wahoo including the establishment of ACLs...

  4. 78 FR 14983 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Dolphin Wahoo..., March 27, 2013 1. Approve the current agenda as well as the minutes from the April 2012 Dolphin Wahoo AP meeting. 2. Receive a presentation on dolphin research from the Cooperative Sciences Center. 3. Receive...

  5. 76 FR 81480 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Fishery Management Council's (Council) Golden Crab Advisory Panel (AP). SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council will hold a meeting of its Golden Crab AP in Ft. Lauderdale, FL. DATES: The... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Members of the Golden Crab AP will meet from 1 p.m.-5 p.m. on Sunday, January...

  6. 77 FR 77037 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Fishery Management Council's (Council) Golden Crab Advisory Panel (AP). SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of Golden Crab Advisory Panel (AP) in Fort... fishery. 2. Receive an overview of Council actions regarding golden crab management since the last...

  7. 78 FR 19460 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold meetings of the King & Spanish... discussion in the individual meeting agendas are as follows: King & Spanish Mackerel AP Agenda: Monday, April... Mackerel Amendment 19, which addresses bag limit sales of king and Spanish mackerel, reduces inactive...

  8. 76 FR 17789 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2011 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Register on January 14, 2011 (76 FR 2640), with a 15-day comment period which ended on January 31, 2011...), the NMFS Assistant Administrator has determined that this final rule is consistent with the Atlantic... Assistant Administrator for Regulatory Programs, National Marine Fisheries Service. For the reasons set...

  9. 77 FR 44161 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... of the Center's comment that are relevant to this rulemaking. Deepwater Horizon/BP Oil Spill In 2010... information about the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill and alleged illegal fishing on the eastern Atlantic and... the effects of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill and the effects of mixing of eastern and western...

  10. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic) - Atlantic sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1984-07-01

    The Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus, is an anadromous species that occupies rivers, estuaries, and nearshore waters along the entire Atlantic coast of the United States. The species once supported significant commercial fisheries throughout its range, but stocks have declined because of overfishing, deterioration of water quality, and damming of rivers. Atlantic sturgeon spawn in rivers and the young remain in freshwater for several years prior to emigration to the ocean. Little is known about spawning areas and associated environmental factors. Females typically do not mature until age X and the age at first spawning ranges from 5 to 13 years for males and 7 to 19 years for females. Longevity may frequently exceed 25 years. Immature and adult sturgeons are bottom feeders and consume a variety of mollusks, crustaceans, worms, and other small bottom-dwelling invertebrates and fishes. Little is know about competitors, predators, or effects of environmental factors on recruitment. The long period required to reach maturity, possibly irregular spawning thereafter, and prolonged reliance on river systems make juvenile and adult Atlantic sturgeon highly susceptible to habitat alterations, pollution, and over exploitation. 49 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  11. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... implemented and analyzed in the 2013 shark quota final rule (77 FR 75896, December 26, 2013) and in the final... Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS is transferring 68 metric tons (mt) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal...

  12. 76 FR 23935 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... published in the Federal Register (71 FR 58058) final regulations, effective November 1, 2006 that... regulations to end overfishing and rebuild the scalloped hammerhead shark stock within two years as mandated... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  13. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... accompanied the 2011 shark quota specifications rule (75 FR 76302; December 8, 2010). Thus, NMFS proposes to.... Shark stocks that are overfished, have overfishing occurring, or that have an unknown stock status, or... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  14. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...This document corrects an October 7, 2011, notice that announced the stock status of several Atlantic shark stocks and announced NMFS' intent to amend the 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) via the rulemaking process to rebuild these shark stocks and end overfishing, as necessary. The notice provided an incorrect date for a scoping meeting held in......

  15. 76 FR 57709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...This notice announces the National Marine Fisheries Service's (NMFS) intent to prepare an EIS and FMP Amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark fisheries. NMFS published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on September 20, 2010, that provided background information and requested public comment on potential adjustments to the regulations governing the U.S.......

  16. 77 FR 31562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... October 7, 2011(76 FR 62331). This amendment is designed to rebuild and/or end overfishing on several shark stocks that were determined to be overfished and/or have overfishing occurring. We anticipate... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  17. 78 FR 70500 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...This final rule establishes opening dates and adjusts quotas for the 2014 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. The quota adjustments are based on over- and/or underharvests experienced during 2013 and previous fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS establishes season opening dates based on adaptive management measures to provide, to the extent practicable, fishing......

  18. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ...NMFS issues this advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPR) to provide background information and request public comment on potential adjustments to the regulations governing the U.S. Atlantic shark fishery to address several specific issues currently affecting management of the shark fishery and to identify specific goals for management of fishery in the future. NMFS is requesting public......

  19. 77 FR 45273 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas and Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... a CK minimum size measurement of 25 inches. The proposed rule (77 FR 25669, May 1, 2012) and draft... FR 56929) analyzed the impacts resulting from Recommendation 06-03 for South Atlantic swordfish... 9: Swordfish are experiencing overfishing and NMFS should prohibit fishing for the...

  20. 78 FR 12705 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic 2013 Commercial Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT... prepared for the 2012 Swordfish Quota Specifications Final Rule (July 31, 2012; 77 FR 45273). The impacts... were prepared for the 2007 Swordfish Quota Specification Final Rule (October 5, 2007; 72 FR 56929)....

  1. 78 FR 28758 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic 2013 Commercial Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ..., including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT recommendations, consistent... Specifications Final Rule (July 31, 2012; 77 FR 45273). The impacts resulting from the 2013 South Atlantic... Quota Specification Final Rule (October 5, 2007; 72 FR 56929). The quota adjustments in this final...

  2. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... environmental community active in the conservation and management of Atlantic HMS, and the academic community... determined by NMFS and SEDAR staff. Meetings and meeting logistics will be determined according to the SEDAR... recreational and commercial fishing and related industries, environmental community, academia, and...

  3. 77 FR 69596 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... sharks, and the academic community that have relevant expertise either with sharks or shark-like species... determined by NMFS and SEDAR staff. Currently, NMFS anticipates holding stock assessments for Atlantic..., environmental community, academia, and non-governmental organizations will be considered for membership on...

  4. Polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity patterns at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Mark A.; Blanco-Perez, Raimundo

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in the North Atlantic Ocean accounts for a large proportion of available bathyal soft-sediment habitat. When comparing the MAR to the continental margins of the North Atlantic, it is apparent that very little is known about the soft-sediment macrofaunal community associated with the MAR. In the present study, as part of the ECOMAR (Ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the Sub-Polar Front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone) project, the polychaete component of the MAR macrofaunal community was investigated. A total of 751 polychaete specimens and 133 species were identified from megacorer samples collected at four MAR sites (48-54°N, depth: 2500-2800 m) sampled during the RRS James Cook 48 cruise in the summer of 2010. Polychaetes were the most abundant member of the macrofaunal community, and there was no significant difference in polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity between any of the MAR sites. In addition, the MAR did not appear to provide a physical barrier to the distribution of bathyal polychaetes either side of the ridge.

  5. 76 FR 16730 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... the Spiny Lobster FMP for the Gulf and South Atlantic Region. Public hearings in Duck Key and Key West...Amend10Comment@safmc.net for Amendment 10 to the Spiny Lobster FMP. Written comments will be received from March... 10 to the Spiny Lobster FMP for the Gulf and South Atlantic Regions also establishes ACLs and AMs...

  6. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  7. Behavioral ecology of euglossine bees of the Atlantic rain forest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before the colonization of Brazil, the Atlantic rain forest extended from Rio Grande do Norte to Rio Grande do Sul. Today, however, the Atlantic forest has been reduced to only 8% of its original size and is highly fragmented. Because of its biological diversity, endemism and number of endangered ...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy horses in Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Shelly; Reid-Smith, Richard; McClure, J. Trenton; Weese, J. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization was not identified in any of 497 horses from Atlantic Canada. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated from a subsample of 19/242 (7.9%) horses. Colonization with MSSA is relatively common in healthy horses in Atlantic Canada, but MRSA is currently rare or absent. PMID:18978975

  9. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (56 FR 14920, 14921). Following five-year reviews... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (71 FR 7512). The Commission is now conducting...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request...

  10. 77 FR 64318 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... maintain diversity and balance in representation among fishing regions and species; the AP SOPPs only... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC292 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory... the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP). NMFS consults with and considers...