Science.gov

Sample records for atlantic trypanorhynch pterobothrium

  1. Terminology of the sucker-like organs of the scolex of trypanorhynch cestodes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Malcolm K; Beveridge, Ian; Campbell, Ron A; Palm, Harry W

    2004-10-01

    The literature associated with descriptions and definitions of the sucker-like attachment organs in trypanorhynchs, termed either bothria or bothridia, is reviewed. There are descriptions of 14 trypanorhynch species representing 10 families. In none of these trypanorhynchs was a membrane separating the attachment organ from the scolex parenchyma described, one of the definitions used to distinguish bothria from bothridia. Transmission electron microscopy of the bothria of the trypanorhynch species Nybelinia queenslandensis Beveridge & Jones, 1998 (Tentaculariidae) and Otobothrium mugilis Hiscock, 1954 (Otobothriidae) also failed to show any membranous structure separating the surface of the attachment organ from the cestode parenchyma. The sucker-like attachment organs of trypanorhynchan cestodes appear, therefore, to be bothria rather than bothridia. As a result, changes in the terminology of related features of the scolex are proposed here. Henceforth, the pars bothridialis should be referred to as the pars bothrialis and the bothridial pits should be referred to bothrial pits. PMID:15477752

  2. Diversity of trypanorhynch metacestodes in teleost fishes from coral reefs off eastern Australia and New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Ian; Bray, Rodney A.; Cribb, Thomas H.; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    Trypanorhynch metacestodes were examined from teleosts from coral reefs in eastern Australia and from New Caledonia. From over 12,000 fishes examined, 33 named species of trypanorhynchs were recovered as well as three species of tentacularioids which are described but not named. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, including more than 100 new host records. Lacistorhynchoid and tentacularioid taxa predominated with fewer otobothrioid and gymnorhynchoids. Five species, Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Floriceps minacanthus, Pseudotobothrium dipsacum, Pseudolacistorhynchus heroniensis and Ps. shipleyi, were particularly common and exhibited low host specificity. Limited data suggested a higher diversity of larval trypanorhynchs in larger piscivorous fish families. Several fish families surveyed extensively (Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Gobiidae, Kyphosidae and Scaridae) yielded no trypanorhynch larvae. The overall similarity between the fauna of the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia was 45%. Where available, information on the adult stages in elasmobranchs has been included. PMID:25402635

  3. Evolution of the trypanorhynch tapeworms: parasite phylogeny supports independent lineages of sharks and rays.

    PubMed

    Olson, Peter D; Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Overstreet, Robin M; Palm, Harry W; Beveridge, Ian

    2010-02-01

    Trypanorhynch tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) are among the most diverse and abundant groups of metazoan parasites of elasmobranchs and are a ubiquitous part of the marine food webs that include these apex predators. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of their phylogeny, character evolution and host associations based on 10years of sampling effort, including representatives of 12 of 15 and 44 of 66 currently recognized trypanorhynch families and genera, respectively. Using a combination of ssrDNA and lsrDNA (Domains 1-3) for 79 and 80 taxa, respectively, we maintain one-to-one correspondence between molecules and morphology by scoring 45 characters from the same specimens used for sequencing, and provide museum vouchers for this material. Host associations are examined through likelihood-based ancestral character state reconstructions (ACSRs) and by estimating dates of divergence using strict and relaxed molecular clock models in a Bayesian context. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses of rDNA produced well-resolved and strongly supported trees in which the trypanorhynchs formed two primary lineages and were monophyletic with respect to the diphyllidean outgroup taxa. These lineages showed marked differences in their rates of divergence which in turn resulted in differing support and stability characteristics within the lineages. Mapping of morphological characters onto the tree resulting from combined analysis of rDNA showed most traits to be highly plastic, including some previously considered of key taxonomic importance such as underlying symmetries in tentacular armature. The resulting tree was found to be congruent with the most recent morphologically based superfamily designations in the order, providing support for four proposed superfamilies, but not for the Tentacularioidea and Eutetrarhynchoidea. ACSRs based on the combined analysis of rDNA estimated the original hosts of the two primary parasite lineages to be alternatively

  4. Ultrastructure of vitellogenesis and vitellocytes in the trypanorhynch cestode Aporhynchus menezesi, a parasite of the velvet belly lanternshark Etmopterus spinax.

    PubMed

    Świderski, Zdzisław; Miquel, Jordi; Marigo, Adji Mama; Gibson, David I

    2012-09-01

    This is the first TEM examination of vitellogenesis in the cestode Aporhynchus menezesi, a parasite of the velvet belly lanternshark Etmopterus spinax and a member of a little-studied trypanorhynch family, the Aporhynchidae. The synthetic activity of vitellocytes plays two important functions in the developmental biology of cestodes: (1) their shell-globules serve in eggshell formation; and (2) their accumulated reserves of glycogen and lipids represent a food source for the developing embryo. In A. menezesi, vitelline follicles consist of cells at various stages of development, from peripheral, immature cells of the gonial type to mature cells towards the centre of the follicle. These stages are: (I) immature; (II) early differentiation; (III) advanced maturation; and (IV) mature. Gradual changes involved in this process occur within each stage. Vitellogenesis involves: (1) an increase in cell volume; (2) the development of a smooth endoplasmic reticulum and an accelerated formation and accumulation of both unsaturated and saturated lipid droplets, along with their continuous enlargement and fusion; (3) the formation of individual β-glycogen particles and their accumulation in the form of glycogen islands scattered among lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of maturing and mature vitellocytes; (4) the rapid accumulation of large, moderately saturated lipid droplets accompanied by dense accumulations of β-glycogen along with proteinaceous shell-globules or shell-globule clusters in the peripheral layer during the advanced stage of maturation; (5) the development of cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum that produce dense, proteinaceous shell-globules; (6) the development of Golgi complexes engaged in the packaging of this material; and (7) the progressive and continuous enlargement of shell-globules into very large clusters in the peripheral layer during the advanced stage of maturation. Vitellogenesis in A. menezesi, only to some extent, resembles that

  5. Eutetrarhynchid trypanorhynchs (Cestoda) from elasmobranchs off Argentina, including the description of Dollfusiella taminii sp. n. and Parachristianella damiani sp. n., and amended description of Dollfusiella vooremi (São Clemente et Gomes, 1989).

    PubMed

    Menoret, Adriana; Ivanov, Verónica A

    2014-10-01

    During a parasitological survey of teleosts and elasmobranchs in the Argentine Sea, 3 species of eutetrarhynchids were collected from the batoids Myliobatis goodei Garman and Psammobatis bergi Marini, and the shark Mustelus schmitti Springer. The specimens collected from Mu. schmitti were identified as Dollfusiela vooremi (Sπo Clemente et Gomes, 1989), whereas the specimens from My. goodei and Ps. bergi resulted in new species of Dollfusiella Campbell et Beveridge, 1994 and Parachristianella Dollfus, 1946, respectively. Dollfusiella taminii sp. n. from Ps. bergi is characterised by a distinct basal armature with basal swelling and a heteroacanthous homeomorphous metabasal armature with 7-9 falcate hooks per principal row. Parachristianella damiani sp. n. from My. goodei lacks a distinct basal armature, having 2-3 initial rows of uncinate hooks, a heteroacanthous heteromorphous metabasal armature with the first principal row of small hooks, followed by rows with 10-14 large hooks. This is the first record of Parachristianella in the southwestern Atlantic. The amended description of D. vooremi includes the detailed description of the tentacular armature, including SEM micrographs of all tentacular surfaces. This species is characterised by a basal armature consisting of rows of uncinate and falcate hooks, a basal swelling and a metabasal armature with billhooks on the antibothrial surface and uncinate hooks on the bothrial surface. The scolex peduncle of D. vooremi is covered with enlarged spinitriches. This species is restricted to carcharhiniform sharks, since the report of D. vooremi in Sympterygia bonapartii Müller et Henle off Bahia Blanca (Argentina) is dubious. PMID:25549498

  6. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL ATLANTIC WITH ATLANTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL ATLANTIC WITH ATLANTIC OCEAN IN THE FOREGROUND. DENNIS HOTEL, BLENHEIM HOTEL, AND MARLBOROUGH HOTEL (LEFT TO RIGHT) ARE LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CLARIDGE HOTEL IS THE HIGHRISE IMMEDIATELY TO THE RIGHT OF THE MARLBOROUGH HOTEL - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  7. South Atlantic interbasin exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rintoul, Stephen Rich

    1991-01-01

    The exchange of mass and heat between the South Atlantic and the neighboring ocean basins was estimated using hydrographic data and inverse methods, in order to gain information on the links between the deep-water formation processes occurring within the Atlantic and the global thermohaline circulation. Results demonstrate that the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation and export of North Atlantic deep water (NADW) is closed primarily by a 'cold water path' in which deep water leaving the Atlantic ultimately returns as intermediate water entering the basin through Drake Passage. This conclusion conflicts with the suggestion by Gordon (1986) that the global thermohaline circulation associated with the formation of NADW is closed primarily by a 'warm water path', in which the export of NADW is compensated by an inflow of warm Indian Ocean thermocline water south of Africa.

  8. 76 FR 1153 - Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations D LLC and Atlantic Grid Operations E LLC; Notice of... (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, and Order No. 679,\\1\\ Atlantic Grid Operations...

  9. Atlantic City memories.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Franklin H

    2008-04-01

    Fifty years ago, the Atlantic City meetings, held the first week in May of every year, were attended by all the elite of American academic medicine and all who wanted to join that group. Part of the magic of those meetings was that professors and neophytes took each other seriously and talked to each other. PMID:18382726

  10. Atlantic tropical cyclones revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Michael E.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Holland, Greg J.; Webster, Peter J.

    Vigorous discussions have taken place recently in Eos [e.g., Mann and Emanuel, 2006; Landsea, 2007] and elsewhere [Emanuel, 2005; Webster et al., 2005; Hoyos et al., 2006; Trenberth and Shea, 2006; Kossin et al., 2007] regarding trends in North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity and their potential connection with anthropogenic climate change. In one study, for example [Landsea, 2007], it is argued that a substantial underestimate of Atlantic tropical cyclone counts in earlier decades arising from insufficient observing systems invalidates the conclusion that trends in TC behavior may be connected to climate change. Here we argue that such connections are in fact robust with respect to uncertainties in earlier observations.Several recent studies have investigated trends in various measures of TC activity. Emanuel [2005] showed that a measure of total power dissipation by TCs (the power dissipation index, or PDI) is highly correlated with August-October sea surface temperatures (SST) over the main development region (MDR) for Atlantic TCs over at least the past half century. Some support for this conclusion was provided by Sriver and Ruber [2006]. Webster et al. [2005] demonstrated a statistically significant increase in recent decades in both the total number of the strongest category cyclones (categories 4 and 5) and the proportion of storms reaching hurricane intensity. Hoyos et al. [2006] showed that these increases were closely tied to warming trends in tropical Atlantic SST, while, for example, the modest decrease in vertical wind shear played a more secondary role. Kossin et al. [2007] called into question some trends in other basins, based on a reanalysis of past TC data, but they found the North Atlantic trends to be robust.

  11. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  12. MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

  13. Atlantic circulation keeps turning.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2012-10-23

    Two major research projects that are running out in November have investigated the Atlantic circulation system that includes the Gulf Stream and come to the conclusion that there is no immediate risk of it shutting down, allaying fears that were raised seven years ago. Yet a better understanding of the interaction between ocean circulation and climate change is still needed, so two new research projects are going to continue this work and extend it to the implications for fisheries and urban environments. Michael Gross reports. PMID:23256201

  14. 76 FR 18504 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    .... See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for further details. ADDRESSES: As published on March 14, 2011 (76 FR... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries Management Measures AGENCY: National... bluefin tuna (BFT) base quotas for all domestic fishing categories; establish BFT quota specifications...

  15. North Atlantic Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Reminiscent of the distinctive swirls in a Van Gogh painting, millions of microscopic plants color the waters of the North Atlantic with strokes of blue, turquoise, green, and brown. Fed by nutrients that have built up during the winter and the long, sunlit days of late spring and early summer, the cool waters of the North Atlantic come alive every year with a vivid display of color. The microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, that give the water this color are the base of the marine food chain. Some species of phytoplankton are coated with scales of calcium (chalk), which turn the water electric blue. Chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments in others give the water a deep green hue. The proliferation of many different species in various stages of growth and decay provides many nuances of color in this concentrated bloom. The bloom stretches across hundreds of kilometers, well beyond the edges of this photo-like image, captured on June 23, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The upper left edge of the image is bounded by Greenland. Iceland is in the upper right. Plumes of dust are blowing off the island, probably adding nutrients to the surface waters to its south. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  16. Enhanced Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during Atlantic freshening phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogerson, M.; Colmenero-Hidalgo, E.; Levine, R. C.; Rohling, E. J.; Voelker, A. H. L.; Bigg, G. R.; SchöNfeld, J.; Cacho, I.; Sierro, F. J.; LöWemark, L.; Reguera, M. I.; de Abreu, L.; Garrick, K.

    2010-08-01

    The Atlantic-Mediterranean exchange of water at Gibraltar represents a significant heat and freshwater sink for the North Atlantic and is a major control on the heat, salt and freshwater budgets of the Mediterranean Sea. Consequently, an understanding of the response of the exchange system to external changes is vital to a full comprehension of the hydrographic responses in both ocean basins. Here, we use a synthesis of empirical (oxygen isotope, planktonic foraminiferal assemblage) and modeling (analytical and general circulation) approaches to investigate the response of the Gibraltar Exchange system to Atlantic freshening during Heinrich Stadials (HSs). HSs display relatively flat W-E surface hydrographic gradients more comparable to the Late Holocene than the Last Glacial Maximum. This is significant, as it implies a similar state of surface circulation during these periods and a different state during the Last Glacial Maximum. During HS1, the gradient may have collapsed altogether, implying very strong water column stratification and a single thermal and δ18Owater condition in surface water extending from southern Portugal to the eastern Alboran Sea. Together, these observations imply that inflow of Atlantic water into the Mediterranean was significantly increased during HS periods compared to background glacial conditions. Modeling efforts confirm that this is a predictable consequence of freshening North Atlantic surface water with iceberg meltwater and indicate that the enhanced exchange condition would last until the cessation of anomalous freshwater supply into to the northern North Atlantic. The close coupling of dynamics at Gibraltar Exchange with the Atlantic freshwater system provides an explanation for observations of increased Mediterranean Outflow activity during HS periods and also during the last deglaciation. This coupling is also significant to global ocean dynamics, as it causes density enhancement of the Atlantic water column via the

  17. The Atlantic Climate Change Program

    SciTech Connect

    Molinari, R.L. ); Battisti, D. ); Bryan, K. ); Walsh, J. )

    1994-07-01

    The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include (1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North Atlantic; (2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North Atlantic air-sea interaction; (3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and (4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Dual Hurricanes in the Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cameras on the International Space Station show views of Hurricane Julia and Hurricane Igor, both moving west-northwest across the Atlantic on Sept. 14, 2010. At the time the video was captured, Ju...

  19. North Atlantic Coastal Tidal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic coastal wetlands. The book c...

  20. North Atlantic Deep Water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, T. (Editor); Broecker, W. S. (Editor); Hansen, J. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various studies concerning differing aspects of the North Atlantic are presented. The three major topics under which the works are classified include: (1) oceanography; (2) paleoclimate; and (3) ocean, ice and climate modeling.

  1. On the North Atlantic circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, W.J. Jr.; McCartney, M.S. )

    1993-02-01

    A summary for North Atlantic circulation is proposed to replace the circulation scheme hypothesized by Worthington in 1976. Divergences from the previous model are in thermohaline circulation, cross-equatorical transport and Florida Current sources, flow in the eastern Atlantic, circulation in the Newfoundland Basin, slope water currents, and flow pattern near the Bahamas. The circulation patterns presented here are consistent with the majority of of published accounts of flow components. 77 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The North Atlantic Cold Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greatbatch, Richard; Drews, Annika; Ding, Hui; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic cold bias, associated with a too zonal path of the North Atlantic Current and a missing "northwest corner", is a common problem in coupled climate and forecast models. The bias affects the North Atlantic and European climate mean state, variability and predictability. We investigate the use of a flow field correction to adjust the path of the North Atlantic Current as well as additional corrections to the surface heat and freshwater fluxes. Results using the Kiel Climate Model show that the flow field correction allows a northward flow into the northwest corner, largely eliminating the bias below the surface layer. A surface cold bias remains but can be eliminated by additionally correcting the surface freshwater flux, without adjusting the surface heat flux seen by the ocean model. A model version in which only the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater are corrected continues to exhibit the incorrect path of the North Atlantic Current and a strong subsurface bias. Removing the bias impacts the multi-decadal time scale variability in the model and leads to a better representation of the SST pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability than the uncorrected model.

  3. Granger causality and Atlantic hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, James B.

    2007-08-01

    Atlantic tropical cyclones have been getting stronger recently with a trend that is related to an increase in the late summer/early fall sea-surface temperature over the North Atlantic. Some studies attribute the increasing ocean warmth and hurricane intensity to a natural climate fluctuation, known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation; others suggest that climate change related to anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions is the cause. Noting that the only difference between these two hypotheses is the causal connection between global mean near-surface air temperature (GT) and Atlantic sea-surface temperature (SST), the author previously showed how to use statistical tests to examine this hypothesis. Here the author expands on this research. In particular, a more comprehensive explanation of the techniques and additional tests and checks against misspecification are provided. The earlier results are confirmed in showing that preceding GT anomalies have a significant statistical relationship to current SST anomalies but not conversely so that if causality exists between Atlantic SST and global temperature, the causal direction likely goes from GT to SST. The result is robust against a small amount of noise added to the data. Identical tests applied to surrogate time series fail to identify causality as expected. The work underscores the importance of using data models to understand relationships between hurricanes and climate.

  4. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  5. South Atlantic meridional fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzoli, Silvia L.; Baringer, Molly O.; Dong, Shenfu; Perez, Renellys C.; Yao, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The properties of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and associated meridional heat transport (MHT) and salt fluxes are analyzed in the South Atlantic. The oceanographic data used for the study consist of Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data collected along 27 sections at nominally 35°S for the period of time 2002-2011, and Argo profile data collected in the region. Previous estimates obtained with a shorter record are improved and extended, using new oceanographic sections and wind fields. Different wind products are analyzed to determine the uncertainty in the Ekman component of the MHT derived from their use. Results of the analysis provide a 9-year time series of MHT, and volume transport in the upper layer of the MOC. Salt fluxes at 35°S are estimated using a parameter introduced by numerical studies, the Mov that represents the salt flux and helps determine the basin scale salt feedback associated with the MOC. Volume and heat transport by the western and eastern boundary currents are estimated, and their covariablity is examined. Analysis of the data shows that the South Atlantic is responsible for a northward MHT with a mean value of 0.54±0.14 PW. The MHT exhibits no significant trend from 2002 to 2011. The MOC varies from 14.4 to 22.7 Sv with a mean value of 18.1±2.3 Sv and the maximum overturning transport is found at a mean depth of 1250 m. Statistical analysis suggests that an increase of 1 Sv in the MOC leads to an increase of the MHT of 0.04±0.02 PW. Estimates of the Mov from data collected from three different kinds of observations, contrary to those obtained from models, feature a positive salt advection feedback (Mov<0) suggesting that freshwater perturbations will be amplified and that the MOC is bistable. In other words, the MOC might collapse with a large enough freshwater perturbation. Observations indicate that the mean value of the Brazil Current is -8.6±4.1 Sv at 24°S and -19.4±4.3 Sv at 35°S, increasing towards the

  6. Climatic Variability over the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurrell, J.; Hoerling, M. P.; Folland, C. K.

    INTRODUCTION WHAT IS THE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION AND HOW DOES IT IMPACT REGIONAL - CLIMATE? WHAT ARE THE MECHANISMS THAT GOVERN NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION VARIABILITY? Atmospheric Processes Ocean Forcing of the Atmosphere CONCLUDING COMMENTS ON THE OTHER ASPECTS OF NORTH ATLANTIC CLIMATE - VARIABILITY REFERENCES

  7. Atlantic opportunities for ENSO prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rey, Marta Martin; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Polo, Irene

    2015-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of tropical climate variability with worldwide impacts. Major advances in ENSO research have been done in the last decades, focusing on the mechanisms involved in its onset and development, as well as, its global climate teleconnections. Although modelling efforts have been made in ENSO forecast, the prediction of these episodes still remains a challenge for the scientific community. Recent studies put forward the role of extra-tropical and tropical regions as precursors of ENSO, but these teleconnections have changed along the 20th century. In particular, an Atlantic Niño precedes the development of a Pacific La Niña (and vice versa) 6 months in advance, taking part of an air-sea coupled mode of variability which only shows up during negative phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The non-stationarity of this mode opens window opportunities for ENSO forecast, using the Tropical Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature (SST) as the predictor field. Here, we present for the first time a statistical crossvalidated hindcast of ENSO events based on an Extended Multiple Maximum Covariance Analysis (EMMCA). This method considers a unique predictor field, the summer Atlantic SSTs, and a set of predictant fields in different regions and seasons, according to the Atlantic-Pacific mechanism. The predicted tropical Pacific variables involved in ENSO development, show a good agreement with the observed ones during negative AMO phases, with a remarkable increase of the predictability skill based on correlations. During those negative AMO decades, the hindcast reproduces quite well the observed Atlantic-modulated ENSO episodes, but with stronger signal than observations. This AMO-dependency of the ENSO predictability could help to resolve some open questions about the seasonal to decadal ENSO forecast and its impacts.

  8. Atlantic opportunities for ENSO prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Rey, Marta; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén.; Polo, Irene

    2015-08-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of interannual climate variability with worldwide impacts. The knowledge of ENSO drivers and the underlying mechanisms is crucial to improve ENSO prediction, which still remains a challenge. The recently discovered connection between an Atlantic Niño (Niña) and a Pacific Niña (Niño), through an air-sea coupled mechanism during the first and last decades of the twentieth century, highlights an opportunity for ENSO prediction. Here a statistical cross-validated hindcast of ENSO along the twentieth century is presented, considering the Atlantic sea surface temperatures as the unique predictor field, and a set of atmospheric and oceanic variables related to the Atlantic-Pacific connection as the predictand field. The observed ENSO phase is well reproduced, and the skill is enhanced at the beginning and the end of the twentieth century. Understanding this multidecadal modulation of the Atlantic-Pacific connection could help to improve seasonal-to-decadal forecasts of ENSO and its associated impacts.

  9. FLORIDA ATLANTIC COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Florida Atlantic Coastal Environmental Initiative (FACEI) will consist of a multiyear, multidisciplinary research and monitoring program designed to detect and trace a variety of nutrient sources (point and non-point sources) and other major environmental stressors to the coa...

  10. 75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic Red Snapper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 24 Assessment Stage 2, Webinar 3. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the South Atlantic stock of...

  11. 75 FR 43928 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... preparing and implementing FMPs or FMP amendments for Atlantic tunas, swordfish, billfish, and sharks. The... related to the Atlantic bluefin tuna, shark, and swordfish fisheries, as well as options for...

  12. Saharan Dust over the Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Fierce winds ripped across the Sahara Desert this past weekend and blew a large plume of dust out over the Atlantic Ocean. This true color image of the dust event was acquired on February 11, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The light brown dust trail can be seen forming an arc a few hundred miles off the coast of Western Sahara and Mauritania. Northeasterly winds blowing across the Atlantic have redirected the dust towards Europe where it will likely settle. For more information and current images of dust storms, visit Natural Hazards on the Earth Observatory . Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. 75 FR 39918 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic red snapper. AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 24 Assessment Webinars 3 & 4 and Review Workshop for South Atlantic red snapper. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the South Atlantic stock of red snapper will consist of a series of workshops and webinars:...

  14. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...In accordance with the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Act), NMFS, upon a delegation of authority from the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary), has determined that the State of New Jersey has failed to carry out its responsibilities under the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission's (Commission) Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and......

  15. 76 FR 37788 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Catch (ABC) recommendation for Atlantic Migratory Group Spanish mackerel and assessment priorities for... deriving ABC for Atlantic Migratory Group Spanish Mackerel and SEDAR assessment priorities for...

  16. Atlantic Air-Sea Interaction Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodwell, M. J.

    INTRODUCTION DATA AND MODELS THE ANALYSIS METHOD ATMOSPHERIC FORCING OF NORTH ATLANTIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES NORTH ATLANTIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE FORCING OF THE ATMOSPHERE Observational Evidence Model Results POTENTIAL SEASONAL PREDICTABILITY BASED ON THE ATMOSPHERE GENERAL - CIRCULATION MODEL CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION REFERENCES

  17. MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT: OVERVIEW REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This peer-reviewed report summarizes the findings of the first Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment was led by a team from The Pennsylvania State University. The assessment was sponsored by and conducted in partnership with the U.S. Environmental...

  18. Ecosystem Effects of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multidecadal variability in the Atlantic Ocean and its importance to the Earth’s climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillati...

  19. Teaching Atlantic Studies in American High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Charles R.

    1980-01-01

    Stresses the importance of Atlantic studies within the framework of United States history, European history, and the contemporary world scene. Ways of integrating Atlantic studies into the high school social studies curriculum are suggested. Topics discussed include objectives, audiovisual aids, supplementary reading material, and global political…

  20. The Red Atlantic: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Jace

    2011-01-01

    The development of David Armitage's "white Atlantic" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black Atlantic" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads his review of Peter Linebaugh and…

  1. 50 CFR 223.211 - Atlantic sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic sturgeon. 223.211 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Atlantic sturgeon. (a) Prohibitions. The... sturgeon listed in § 223.102(c)(29). (b)...

  2. Origin of the northern Atlantic`s Heinrich events

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.; Bond, G.; Klas, M.

    1992-01-01

    As first noted by Heinrich, 1988, glacial age sediments in the eastern part of the northern Atlantic contain layers with unusually high ratios of ice-rafted lithic fragments of foraminifera shells. He estimated that these layers are spaced at intervals of roughly 10000 years. In this paper we present detailed information documenting the existence of the upper five of these layers in ODP core 609 from 50{degrees}N and 24{degrees}W. Their ages are respectively 15000 radiocarbon years, 20000 radiocarbon years, 27000 radiocarbon years, about 40000 years, and about 50000 years. We also note that the high lithic fragment to foram ratio is the result of a near absence of shells in these layers. Although we are not of one mind regarding the origin of these layers, we lean toward an explanation that the Heinrich layers are debris released during the melting of massive influxes of icebergs into the northern Atlantic. These sudden inputs may be the result of surges along the eastern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  4. The North Atlantic Population Project

    PubMed Central

    RUGGLES, STEVEN; ROBERTS, EVAN; SARKAR, SULA; SOBEK, MATTHEW

    2011-01-01

    The North Atlantic Population Project (NAPP) is a massive database of historical census microdata from European and North American countries. The backbone of the project is the unique collection of completely digitized censuses providing information on the entire enumerated populations of each country. In addition, for some countries, the NAPP includes sample data from surrounding census years. In this article, the authors provide a brief history of the project, describe their progress to data and plans for the future, and discuss some potential implications of this unique data resource for social and economic research. PMID:22199411

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Juvenile Atlantic Croaker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Robert J.; Onuf, Christopher P.

    1982-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Atlantic croaker is an important commercial and recreational species. In the 1940's, the foodfish catch of Atlantic croakers was concentrated in Chesapeake Bay; in the 1950's and early 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico; and in the late 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the South Atlantic States (Wilk 1981). Industrial and recreational catches of Atlantic croakers have been concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico, where the Atlantic croaker is the most important species of bottomfish for industrial uses (Knudsen and Herke 1978), and has ranked first, second, or third in number caught by recreational anglers, depending on survey year (Nakamura 1981). Today, Virginia or Delaware is considered to be the northern extent of the species. During climatically warmer periods, such as the 1930's and 1940's, the croaker extended its range north at least to New York, where it was commercially fished. The southern extent of its range is Argentina.

  6. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  7. Atlantic forcing of Pacific decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharski, Fred; Ikram, Farah; Molteni, Franco; Farneti, Riccardo; Kang, In-Sik; No, Hyun-Ho; King, Martin P.; Giuliani, Graziano; Mogensen, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the Atlantic Ocean influence on equatorial Pacific decadal variability. Using an ensemble of simulations, where the ICTPAGCM ("SPEEDY") is coupled to the NEMO/OPA ocean model in the Indo-Pacific region and forced by observed sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic region, it is shown that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) has had a substantial influence on the equatorial Pacific decadal variability. According to AMO phases we have identified three periods with strong Atlantic forcing of equatorial Pacific changes, namely (1) 1931-1950 minus 1910-1929, (2) 1970-1989 minus 1931-1950 and (3) 1994-2013 minus 1970-1989. Both observations and the model show easterly surface wind anomalies in the central Pacific, cooling in the central-eastern Pacific and warming in the western Pacific/Indian Ocean region in events (1) and (3) and the opposite signals in event (2). The physical mechanism for these responses is related to a modification of the Walker circulation because a positive (negative) AMO leads to an overall warmer (cooler) tropical Atlantic. The warmer (cooler) tropical Atlantic modifies the Walker circulation, leading to rising (sinking) and upper-level divergence (convergence) motion in the Atlantic region and sinking (rising) motion and upper-level convergence (divergence) in the central Pacific region.

  8. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  9. Dual Annual Spawning Races in Atlantic Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  10. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications... Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea (DAS) allocation. The implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab...

  11. Anisotropic tomography of the Atlantic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, G.; Stutzmann, E.

    2003-04-01

    We present a regional tri-dimensional model of the Atlantic Ocean with anisotropy. The model, derived from Rayleigh and Love phase velocity measurements, is defined from the Moho down to 300 km depth with a lateral resolution of about 500 km and is presented in terms of average isotropic S-wave velocity, azimuthal anisotropy and transverse isotropy. The cratons beneath North America, Brazil and Africa are clearly associated with fast S-wave velocity anomalies. The Mid Atlantic Ridge is a shallow structure in the North Atlantic corresponding to a negative velocity anomaly down to about 150 km depth. In contrast, the ridge negative signature is visible in the South Atlantic down to the deepest depth inverted, that is 300~km depth. This difference is probably related to the presence of hot-spots along or close to the ridge axis in the South Atlantic and may indicate a different mechanism for the ridge between the North and South Atlantic. Negative velocity anomalies are clearly associated with hot-spots from the surface down to at least 300km depth, they are much broader that the supposed size of the hot-spots and seem to be connected along a North-South direction. Down to 100 km depth, a fast S-wave velocity anomaly is extenting from Africa into the Atlantic Ocean within the zone defined as the Africa superswell area. This result indicates that the hot material rising from below does not reach the surface in this area but may be pushing the lithosphere upward. In most parts of the Atlantic, the azimuthal anisotropy directions remain stable with increasing depth. Close to the ridge, the fast S-wave velocity direction is roughly parallel to the sea floor spreading direction. The hot-spot anisotropy signature is striking beneath Bermuda, Cape Verde and Fernando Noronha islands where the fast S-wave velocity direction seems to diverge radially from the hot-spots. The Atlantic average radial anisotropy is similar to that of the PREM model, that is positive down to about

  12. 78 FR 64199 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee... specifically listed in this notice and any issues arising after publication of this notice that...

  13. MID-ATLANTIC LANDCOVER CHANGE DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic region is comprised of southern New York, southern and western New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, northeastern North Carolina, Delaware, and Washington, DC. It is an ecosystem rich in streams, wetlands, forests, estuaries, breeding birds...

  14. Ocean science: Vagaries of Atlantic overturning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, Thomas W. N.

    2016-07-01

    A weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation has emerged from noise after years of painstaking measurements. Three independent lines of evidence suggest that an anthropogenic influence on this overturning is not yet detectable.

  15. Millennial changes in North Atlantic oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Barker, S.

    2015-08-01

    Glacial-interglacial changes in bottom water oxygen concentrations [O2] in the deep Northeast Atlantic have been linked to decreased ventilation relating to changes in ocean circulation and the biological pump (Hoogakker et al., 2015). In this paper we discuss seawater [O2] changes in relation to millennial climate oscillations in the North Atlantic ocean over the last glacial cycle, using bottom water [O2] reconstructions from 2 cores: (1) MD95-2042 from the deep northeast Atlantic (Hoogakker et al., 2015), and (2) ODP 1055 from the intermediate northwest Atlantic. Deep northeast Atlantic core MD95-2042 shows decreased bottom water [O2] during millennial scale cool events, with lowest bottom water [O2] of 170, 144, and 166 ± 17 μmol kg-1 during Heinrich ice rafting events H6, H4 and H1. Importantly, at intermediate core ODP 1055 bottom water [O2] was lower during parts of Marine Isotope Stage 4 and millennial cool events, with lowest values of 179 and 194 μmol kg-1 recorded during millennial cool events C21 and a cool event following Dansgaard-Oeschger event 19. Our reconstructions agree with previous model simulations suggesting that glacial cold events may be associated with lower seawater [O2] across the North Atlantic below ~1 km (Schmittner et al., 2007), although in our reconstructions the changes are less dramatic. The decreases in bottom water [O2] during North Atlantic Heinrich events and earlier cold events at the deep site can be linked to water mass changes in relation to ocean circulation changes, and possibly productivity changes. At the intermediate depth site a strong North Atlantic Intermediate Water cell precludes water mass changes as a cause for decreased bottom water [O2]. Instead we propose that the lower bottom [O2] there can be linked to productivity changes through increased export of organic material from the surface ocean.

  16. 78 FR 34879 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Atlantic City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... amend the Table to Sec. 100.501, as revised May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29632), as follows: 0 a. Under ``(a... City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...

  17. 77 FR 19175 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... INFORMATION for further details. ADDRESSES: As published on March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15712), you may submit... Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Atlantic bluefin tuna, bigeye tuna, albacore tuna, yellowfin tuna, and skipjack...

  18. 77 FR 31546 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Species Fishery Management Plan (Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006) and subsequent... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... area fishery for large medium and giant Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) for the remainder of 2012....

  19. 75 FR 33731 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-AY77 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications Correction In rule document 2010-13207...

  20. 75 FR 10450 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...NMFS proposes specifications for the 2010 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including State-by-State commercial quotas, a recreational harvest limit, and recreational possession limits for Atlantic bluefish off the east coast of the United States. The intent of these specifications is to establish the allowable 2010 harvest levels and possession limits to attain the target fishing mortality rate (F),......

  1. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393... rule implementing the Atlantic HMS electronic dealer ] reporting system (76 FR 37750; June 28, 2011) or...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National...

  2. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... on April 27, 2010 (75 FR 22103), and are not repeated here. Activities Pursuant to the Atlantic... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the moratorium, as required by...

  3. 75 FR 57698 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Sharks (43 FR 3818), which was supported by an Environmental Impact Statement (42 FR 57716). The... Billfishes (53 FR 21501). This plan was jointly developed by five Atlantic Regional Fishery Management... (53 FR 37765). The 1988 FMP defined the Atlantic billfish management unit to include sailfish from...

  4. 78 FR 62587 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Atlantic Fishery Management Council's Habitat and Environmental Protection (Habitat) Advisory Panel (AP). SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Habitat AP in...: The Habitat AP will work on development of the Council's Essential Fish Habitat Policy Statements...

  5. 77 FR 65498 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to the Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). Due to an over-harvest in Area 1A in 2010, the FY 2012 sub-ACL in Area 1A was revised to 24,668 mt on February 24, 2012 (77 FR 10978, February 24, 2012). An additional 295... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to the Atlantic Herring Management Area 1A...

  6. 75 FR 35432 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929). The proposed adjusted quota for the South Atlantic swordfish, after... certification reads: NMFS published a final rule on October 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929) that established the...

  7. 76 FR 62042 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Coral Advisory... INFORMATION: Members of the Coral AP will meet from 8:30 a.m. until 5 p.m. on October 25, 2011 and from 8:30 a... coral research and activity in the South Atlantic region; a discussion of measures to be included in...

  8. Influence of the Atlantic subpolar gyre on the thermohaline circulation.

    PubMed

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Sandø, Anne Britt; Drange, Helge; Hansen, Bogi; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2005-09-16

    During the past decade, record-high salinities have been observed in the Atlantic Inflow to the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean, which feeds the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). This may counteract the observed long-term increase in freshwater supply to the area and tend to stabilize the North Atlantic THC. Here we show that the salinity of the Atlantic Inflow is tightly linked to the dynamics of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre circulation. Therefore, when assessing the future of the North Atlantic THC, it is essential that the dynamics of the subpolar gyre and its influence on the salinity are taken into account. PMID:16166513

  9. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  10. Atlantic reef fish biogeography and evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Floeter, S.R.; Rocha, L.A.; Robertson, D.R.; Joyeux, J.C.; Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Wirtz, P.; Edwards, A.J.; Barreiros, J.P.; Ferreira, C.E.L.; Gasparini, J.L.; Brito, A.; Falcon, J.M.; Bowen, B.W.; Bernardi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To understand why and when areas of endemism (provinces) of the tropical Atlantic Ocean were formed, how they relate to each other, and what processes have contributed to faunal enrichment. Location: Atlantic Ocean. Methods: The distributions of 2605 species of reef fishes were compiled for 25 areas of the Atlantic and southern Africa. Maximum-parsimony and distance analyses were employed to investigate biogeographical relationships among those areas. A collection of 26 phylogenies of various Atlantic reef fish taxa was used to assess patterns of origin and diversification relative to evolutionary scenarios based on spatio-temporal sequences of species splitting produced by geological and palaeoceanographic events. We present data on faunal (species and genera) richness, endemism patterns, diversity buildup (i.e. speciation processes), and evaluate the operation of the main biogeographical barriers and/or filters. Results: Phylogenetic (proportion of sister species) and distributional (number of shared species) patterns are generally concordant with recognized biogeographical provinces in the Atlantic. The highly uneven distribution of species in certain genera appears to be related to their origin, with highest species richness in areas with the greatest phylogenetic depth. Diversity buildup in Atlantic reef fishes involved (1) diversification within each province, (2) isolation as a result of biogeographical barriers, and (3) stochastic accretion by means of dispersal between provinces. The timing of divergence events is not concordant among taxonomic groups. The three soft (non-terrestrial) inter-regional barriers (mid-Atlantic, Amazon, and Benguela) clearly act as 'filters' by restricting dispersal but at the same time allowing occasional crossings that apparently lead to the establishment of new populations and species. Fluctuations in the effectiveness of the filters, combined with ecological differences among provinces, apparently provide a mechanism

  11. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  12. Petroleum exploration and the Atlantic OCS

    SciTech Connect

    Edson, G.; Adinolfi, F.; Gray, F.; Ibrahim, M.; Kienzle, J.; Lishman, F.; Huang, K. )

    1993-08-01

    The largest Atlantic outer continental shelf (OCS) lease sale was the first one, Sale 40 in 1976. Ninety-three Baltimore Canyon Trough petroleum leases were issued, and industry's winning bids total $1.1 billion. The highest bonus bids were for leases overlying the Schlee Dome, then called Great Stone Dome, a large structure with a very large fetch area. By 1981, seven dry wells on the dome moderated this initial flush of optimism. However, subeconomic quantities of gas and light oil were discovered on the nearby Hudson Canyon Block 598-642 structure. Now after 9 lease sales, 410 lease awards, and 46 exploration wells, United States Atlantic petroleum exploration activity is in a hiatus. Fifty-three leases remain active under suspensions of operation. Twenty-one lease blocks, about 50 mi offshore from Cape Hatteras, have been combined as the Manteo Exploration Unit. Mobil and partners submitted an exploration plant for the unit in 1989. The Atlantic OCS has petroleum potential, especially for gas. With only 46 exploration wells, entire basins and plays remain untested. During the present exploration inactivity, some petroleum evaluation of the Atlantic OCS continues by the Minerals Management Service and others. Similarities and differences are being documented between United States basins and the Canadian Scotian Basin, which contains oil and gas in commercial quantities. Other initiatives include geochemical, thermal history, seismic stratigraphic, and petroleum system modeling studies. The gas-prone Atlantic OCS eventually may make an energy contribution, especially to nearby East Coast markets.

  13. Bromoform in the tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quack, B.; Wallace, D.

    2003-04-01

    Sea-to-air emissions of reactive, brominated halocarbons, of which bromoform (CHBr3) is the major organic source for atmospheric reactive bromine, are controlled by biotic and abiotic production and consumption processes in the water. These compounds affect the 'oxidising capacity' of the lower atmosphere, primarily as a result of their influence on the ozone concentration. Besides a large macroalgal source in coastal regions, oversaturation in the worlds open oceans contributes significantly to the global emissions, suggesting an yet unknown open ocean source. Atmospheric studies in the Pacific and Atlantic have revealed maxima of tropospheric bromoform concentrations in equatorial regions, suggesting enhanced surface sources in these waters. The responsible processes and fluxes in the open ocean are generally poorly characterised. A west to east transect along 10°N including a short meridional transect into the equatorial upwelling was conducted in the tropical Atlantic Ocean from Curacao to Doualla with R/V Meteor in October /November 2002 (ME55). Surface samples and samples from shallow hydro casts (<500 m) were analysed on board for the brominated compounds dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl), dichlorobromomethane (CHBrCl2) and bromoform (CHBr3), using purge-and-trap gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Preliminary results for bromoform show background concentrations of 2-4 pmol/L in the surface ocean and 1-2 pmol/L in deeper layers. Elevated concentrations of 8 to 14 pmol/L bromoform were observed in the area of equatorial upwelling. Maxima up to 30 pmol/L bromoform were always found underneath the mixed layer and seem to be associated with the chlorophyll maximum in 40 to 70 m depth. The highest concentrations of CHBr3 (2nmol/L) as well as of CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CHCl3 were discovered in the Amazone river plume at the boundary between the river and ocean waters around 40 m depth. Ancillary profile data such as productivity

  14. PRISM3 DOT1 Atlantic Basin Reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, Harry; Robinson, Marci; Dwyer, Gary; Chandler, Mark; Cronin, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    PRISM3 DOT1 (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping 3, Deep Ocean Temperature 1) provides a three-dimensional temperature reconstruction for the mid-Pliocene Atlantic basin, the first of several regional data sets that will comprise a global mid-Pliocene reconstruction. DOT1 is an alteration of modern temperature values for the Atlantic Ocean in 4 degree x 5 degree cells in 13 depth layers for December 1 based on Mg/Ca-derived BWT estimates from seventeen DSDP and ODP Sites and SST estimates from the PRISM2 reconstruction (Dowsett et al., 1999). DOT1 reflects a vaguely modern circulation system, assuming similar processes of deep-water formation; however, North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production is increased, and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production is decreased. Pliocene NADW was approximately 2 degreesC warmer than modern temperatures, and Pliocene AABW was approximately 0.3 degreesC warmer than modern temperatures.

  15. Evolutionary diversity among Atlantic coast mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Richard S.; Rafii, Zara A.; Fromard, François; Blasco, François

    1998-06-01

    Current knowledge of intraspecific variation of mangrove species is limited in terms of rangewide distributions and is mostly restricted to morphological analyses, which have indicated a high degree of homogeneity. However, our analyses of the aliphatic hydrocarbon and triterpenoid fraction of foliar waxes (by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) of mangrove species ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa) from Gabon in West Africa and French Guiana in South America show significant genetic differentiation between eastern and western Atlantic provenances. The greater diversity in lipid composition, and the tendency for longer carbon chain lengths in all taxa from Africa, may suggest that American mangroves exhibit derived characteristics. A consequence of this hypothesis would be that Atlantic mangroves are unlikely to have dispersed from the Tethys via the Pacific, as has been proposed by some authors. More widespread sampling within the Atlantic and east Pacific region is needed to support and confirm these results.

  16. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  17. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  18. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  19. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  20. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  1. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3....04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised of... Districts and the ocean areas lying east of a line extending from the North Pole south along 95°...

  2. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3....04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised of... Districts and the ocean areas lying east of a line extending from the North Pole south along 95°...

  3. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3....04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised of... Districts and the ocean areas lying east of a line extending from the North Pole south along 95°...

  4. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3....04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised of... Districts and the ocean areas lying east of a line extending from the North Pole south along 95°...

  5. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3....04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised of... Districts and the ocean areas lying east of a line extending from the North Pole south along 95°...

  6. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  7. 2. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROUGH, BLENHEIM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROUGH, BLENHEIM AND DENNIS HOTELS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE LFET OF THE HIGHROSE CLARIDGE HOTEL IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  8. 1. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROGH, BLENHEIM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROGH, BLENHEIM, AND DENNIS HOTELS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE LEFT OF THE HIGHRISE CLARIDGE HOTEL IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  9. 76 FR 65699 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA779 South Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public hearing series. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management... Snapper Grouper Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the South Atlantic Region. See SUPPLEMENTARY...

  10. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  11. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  12. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  13. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  14. 75 FR 80797 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA108 South Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a series of public hearings regarding Regulatory Amendment 9 to the Snapper Grouper Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the South Atlantic Region,...

  15. Recent changes in the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert R; Curry, Ruth; Yashayaev, Igor

    2003-09-15

    It has long been recognized that the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is potentially sensitive to greenhouse-gas and other climate forcing, and that changes in the MOC have the potential to cause abrupt climate change. However, the mechanisms remain poorly understood and our ability to detect these changes remains incomplete. Four main (interrelated) types of ocean change in particular are associated in the literature with greenhouse-gas forcing. These are: a slowing of MOC overturning rate; changes in northern seas which might effect a change in Atlantic overturning, including changes in the freshwater flux from the Arctic, and changes in the transport and/or hydrographic character of the northern overflows which ventilate the deep Atlantic; a change in the trans-ocean gradients of steric height (both zonal and meridional) which might accompany a change in the MOC; and an intensification of the global water cycle. Though as yet we have no direct measure of the freshwater flux passing from the Arctic to the Atlantic either via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago or along the East Greenland Shelf, and no direct measure yet of the Atlantic overturning rate, we examine a wide range of time-series from the existing hydrographic record for oceanic evidence of the other anticipated responses. Large amplitude and sustained changes are found (or indicated by proxy) over the past three to four decades in the southward transport of fresh waters along the Labrador shelf and slope, in the hydrography of the deep dense overflows from Nordic seas, in the transport of the eastern overflow through Faroe Bank Channel, and in the global hydrologic cycle. Though the type and scale of changes in ocean salinity are consistent with an amplification of the water cycle, we find no convincing evidence of any significant, concerted slowdown in the Atlantic overturning circulation. PMID:14558901

  16. Millennial changes in North Atlantic oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Barker, S.

    2016-01-01

    Glacial-interglacial changes in bottom water oxygen concentrations [O2] in the deep northeast Atlantic have been linked to decreased ventilation relating to changes in ocean circulation and the biological pump (Hoogakker et al., 2015). In this paper we discuss seawater [O2] changes in relation to millennial climate oscillations in the North Atlantic over the last glacial cycle, using bottom water [O2] reconstructions from 2 cores: (1) MD95-2042 from the deep northeast Atlantic (Hoogakker et al., 2015) and (2) ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 1055 from the intermediate northwest Atlantic. The deep northeast Atlantic core MD95-2042 shows decreased bottom water [O2] during millennial-scale cool events, with lowest bottom water [O2] of 170, 144, and 166 ± 17 µmol kg-1 during Heinrich ice rafting events H6, H4, and H1. Importantly, at intermediate depth core ODP Site 1055, bottom water [O2] was lower during parts of Marine Isotope Stage 4 and millennial cool events, with the lowest values of 179 and 194 µmol kg-1 recorded during millennial cool event C21 and a cool event following Dansgaard-Oeschger event 19. Our reconstructions agree with previous model simulations suggesting that glacial cold events may be associated with lower seawater [O2] across the North Atlantic below ˜ 1 km (Schmittner et al., 2007), although in our reconstructions the changes are less dramatic. The decreases in bottom water [O2] during North Atlantic Heinrich events and earlier cold events at the two sites can be linked to water mass changes in relation to ocean circulation changes and possibly productivity changes. At the intermediate depth site a possible strong North Atlantic Intermediate Water cell would preclude water mass changes as a cause for decreased bottom water [O2]. Instead, we propose that the lower bottom [O2] there can be linked to productivity changes through increased export of organic material from the surface ocean and its subsequent remineralization in the water column

  17. Correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity biases in the Kiel Climate Model: influences on ocean circulation and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, T.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing problem in climate models is the large sea surface salinity (SSS) biases in the North Atlantic. In this study, we describe the influences of correcting these SSS biases on the circulation of the North Atlantic as well as on North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal to multidecadal variability. We performed integrations of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) with and without applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  18. 75 FR 27219 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications...), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues final specifications for the 2010 Atlantic deep- sea red... document is also accessible via the Internet at http://www.nefmc.org . NMFS prepared a Final...

  19. 78 FR 44095 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Atlantic tunas, swordfish, billfish, and sharks. The AP has previously consulted with NMFS on: Amendment 1...), rebuilding dusky sharks (Amendment 5b), and shark catch shares (Amendment 6); and swordfish...

  20. 75 FR 19369 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ..., swordfish, billfish, and sharks. The AP has previously consulted with NMFS on Amendment 1 to the Billfish... smoothhound sharks, and conduct working group sessions regarding Atlantic bluefin tuna, sharks, and...

  1. 76 FR 62042 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Information and Education Advisory Panel (AP) and a Social Media Workshop in conjunction with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium in North Charleston,...

  2. 75 FR 5284 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... and, (2) the condition of the pink shrimp stock in the South Atlantic Region. The Fishery Management... necessary to bring the pink shrimp stock back above the MSST level. The Panel will prepare a...

  3. 75 FR 65298 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Members of the Habitat Advisory Panel will meet from 9 a.m.-5 p.m. on November 16... Fish Habitat review, the Governor's South Atlantic Alliance Action Plan, a status report on Gulf...

  4. 75 FR 57407 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... specific measures laid out in the proposed rule can be found in 75 FR 35432 (June 22, 2010) and are...

  5. 77 FR 52314 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... items contained in the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that published on June 1, 2009 (74 FR... comments and views of AP members when preparing and implementing FMPs or FMP amendments for Atlantic...

  6. 76 FR 45781 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... items contained in the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that published June 1, 2009 (74 FR 26174... views of AP members when preparing and implementing FMPs or FMP amendments for Atlantic tunas,...

  7. 75 FR 11133 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Shareholders for the South Atlantic region. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES: The meeting will take place... should be directed to the council office (see ADDRESSES) 3 days prior to the meetings. Note: The...

  8. 78 FR 59916 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of its Scientific and... after publication of this notice that require emergency action under section 305(c) of the...

  9. Turbidity distribution in the Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, S.; Thorndike, E.M.; Sullivan, L.

    1976-01-01

    The regional coverage of Lamont nephelometer data in the North and South Atlantic can be used to map seawater turbidity at all depths. At the level of the clearest water, in the mid-depth regions, the turbidity distribution primarily reflects the pattern of productivity in the surface waters. This suggests that the 'background' turbidity level in the oceans is largely a function of biogenic fallout. The bottom waters of the western Atlantic generally exhibit large increases in turbidity. The most intense benthic nepheloid layers are in the southwestern Argentine basin and northern North American basin; the lowest bottom water turbidity in the western Atlantic is in the equatorial regions. Both the Argentine and North American basin bottom waters appear to derive their high turbidity largely from local resuspension of terrigenous input in these basins. In contrast to the west, the eastern Atlantic basins show very low turbidities with the exception of three regions: the Mediterranean outflow area, the Cape basin, and the West European basin. ?? 1976.

  10. Sustainability in Higher Education in Atlantic Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringer, Almut; Wright, Tarah; Malone, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose is to ascertain the state of sustainability in higher education (SHE) in Atlantic Canada (sustainability education/curriculum; research and scholarship; operations; faculty/staff development and rewards; community outreach and service; student opportunities; and institutional mission, structure and planning).…

  11. The Evolution of the South Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Floyd W.; Rabinowitz, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the South Atlantic continental margins through geological time is discussed in a series of three time slices, all of which depict various characteristics in the initial formation of this margin during the Cretaceous period (180 to 65 million years ago) of the Mesozoic era. (BT)

  12. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  13. MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the USGCRP's First National Assessment effort, EPA's Global Change Research Program sponsored the first Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment. A multi-disciplinary team of 14 Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) faculty members led this regional assessment effort.

  14. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  15. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization at 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys the history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) on the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty. Highlights milestones in the Organization's history of dealing with the Soviet Union, from containment to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Discusses needs, tasks, and challenges that NATO faces in the 1990s.…

  16. Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotter, Andrew J.

    1983-01-01

    The author is persuaded that the main purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was to raise the confidence of moderate ruling groups in Western Europe. Today NATO is an expression of support between troubled allies with a number of common interests. (RM)

  17. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  18. Economic Industrial Survey of Atlantic County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullo, Philip T.; McDaniel, Walter A.

    Of the 116 firms involved in an economic industrial survey of Atlantic County (New Jersey), 92 (78%) firms responded. The major activity of 91% of the responding firms was of the light industry type, within which there was some diversity. Findings of the study include the following: a greater number of full-time employees were employed than…

  19. Ecosystem effects of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Janet A.; Baker, Matthew R.; Bell, Richard; Kenny, Andrew; Kilbourne, K. Halimeda; Friedland, Kevin D.; Martino, Edward; Stachura, Megan M.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.; Wood, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Multidecadal variability in the Atlantic Ocean and its importance to the Earth's climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation or AMO, been recognized by ecologists as an important factor influencing ecosystem state. A growing body of literature suggests that AMO-related fluctuations are associated with shifts in ecological boundaries, primary productivity, and a number of ecologically and economically important coastal and marine populations across the Atlantic basin. Although the AMO is a basin-wide index of SST, the drivers of ecosystem change encompass more than temperature anomalies and the mode of action differs within each ecosystem. A common theme in assessing ecosystem change indicates that fluctuations in water masses and circulation patterns drive shifts in ecosystem states, but the magnitude and rate of change is dependent on the physical characteristics of the region. Because of the wide ranging geographic effects of the AMO, and considering its multidecadal nature, a more complete understanding of its causes and effects would allow scientists and managers to more effectively inform ecosystem-based management across the Atlantic Basin.

  20. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-01-01

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888. PMID:25543942

  1. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  2. Atlantic and Indian Oceans Pollution in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  3. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  4. Population structure of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus).

    PubMed

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults ("twinning"). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management. PMID:23741381

  5. Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Kevin D.; Shank, Burton V.; Todd, Christopher D.; McGinnity, Philip; Nye, Janet A.

    2014-05-01

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the North Atlantic are managed as a set of population complexes distributed in North America and Europe. In recent years, these complexes have experienced reduced marine survival and many populations within the complexes are at risk, especially those at the southern ends of the species amphi-Atlantic range. Atlantic salmon is an anadromous fish dividing its life history between residence in freshwater and the marine environment. The freshwater portion of the life history includes spawning and the rearing of juveniles where in-river production has tended to be relatively stable, whereas the first year at sea, termed the post-smolt year, is characterized by more variable rates of mortality. Although their habitats are widely separated geographically along the North Atlantic seaboards, strong recruitment coherence exists between North American and European stock complexes. This recruitment coherence is correlated with ocean temperature variation associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) appears to be relatively unimportant as a driver of salmon abundance. The mechanism determining the link between AMO-related thermal variation and abundance appears to differ fundamentally for the two continental stock groupings. Whereas ocean climate variability during the first springtime months of juvenile salmon migration to sea appears to be important to the survival of North American stocks, summer climate variation appears to be central to adult recruitment variation for European stocks. This contrast in seasonal effects appears to be related to the varying roles of predation pressure and size-related mortality on the continental stock complexes. The anticipated warming due to global climate change will impose thermal conditions on salmon populations outside historical context and challenge the ability of many populations to persist.

  6. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  7. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  8. Teleconnections of Indian monsoon rainfall with AMO and Atlantic tripole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmi; Krishnamurthy, V.

    2016-04-01

    The teleconnections between the decadal modes in the Indian monsoon rainfall (IMR) and the North Atlantic sea surface temperature are investigated. The two decadal modes of variability in the North Atlantic, the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) and the Atlantic tripole, have opposite relation with the two decadal modes of IMR. The AMO has positive correlation with the monsoon rainfall while the Atlantic tripole has negative correlation. This study has put forward hypotheses for the mechanisms involved in the teleconnections of the AMO and the Atlantic tripole with the IMR. The warm phase of AMO may influence the monsoon through the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO) and further through the equatorial zonal winds which increase the moisture flow over India by enhancing the southwesterly flow. The warm phase of Atlantic tripole may impact the monsoon through the all-season NAO, leading to decreased moisture flow over India through the equatorial wind pattern. The observed relations between the decadal modes in the North Atlantic and the Indian monsoon are explored in the simulations of National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) model. Although the model supports the observed decadal teleconnection between the Atlantic Ocean and Indian monsoon, it has limitations in capturing the details of the spatial pattern associated with the teleconnection. The teleconnections of AMO and Atlantic tripole with the Indian monsoon is further demonstrated through an experiment with CCSM4 by decoupling the North Atlantic Ocean. The hypotheses for the mechanisms of the Atlantic teleconnections are also explored in the CCSM4 simulation.

  9. From Europe to America: pliocene to recent trans-atlantic expansion of cold-water north atlantic molluscs.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Geerat J

    2005-12-01

    Data on the geographical distribution, phylogeny and fossil record of cool-temperate North Atlantic shell-bearing molluscs that live in waters shallower than 100 m depth belong to two biogeographic provinces, one in eastern North America north of Cape Cod, the other in northern Europe. Amphi-Atlantic species, which are found in both provinces, comprise 30.8% of the 402 species in the northeastern Atlantic and 47.3% of the 262 species in the northwestern Atlantic. Some 54.8% of these amphi-Atlantic species have phylogenetic origins in the North Pacific. Comparisons among fossil Atlantic faunas show that amphi-Atlantic distributions became established in the Middle Pliocene (about 3.5 million years ago), and that all represent westward expansions of European taxa to North America. No American taxa spread eastward to Europe without human assistance. These results are in accord with previous phylogeographic studies among populations within several amphi-Atlantic species. Explanations for the unidirectional expansion of species across the Atlantic remain uncertain, but may include smaller size and greater prior extinction of the North American as compared to the European fauna and biased transport mechanisms. Destruction of the European source fauna may jeopardize faunas on both sides of the Atlantic. PMID:16271981

  10. Hydrographic observations in the western tropical and subtropical north atlantic ocean: Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) and western tropical atlantic experiment (WESTRAX) during 1990. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, E.; Wilburn, A.M.

    1993-03-01

    Data collected during the 1990 Atlantic Climate Change Program and the Western Tropical Atlantic Experiment were presented. The goals of the programs were to increase the understanding of the roles of the regional circulation and ocean circulation in global climate. Salinity, ocean temperature as a function of depth, and other hydrographic data were collected from shipborne platforms.

  11. Hydrographic observations in the western tropical and subtropical north atlantic ocean: Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) and western tropical atlantic experiment (WESTRAX) during 1991. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, E.; Wilburn, A.M.

    1993-03-01

    Data collected during the 1991 Atlantic Climate Change Program and the Western Tropical Atlantic Experiment were presented. The goals of the programs were to increase the understanding of the roles of regional circulation and ocean circulation in global climate. Salinity, ocean temperature as a function depth and other hydrographic data were collected from shipborne platforms.

  12. Diagnosing overflow waters in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2015-04-01

    Danmark Strait overflow water (DSOW) and Iceland Faroe overflow water (ISOW) are important for the formation and transformation of deep waters in the North Atlantic. In this work the volume transport, variability, and pathways of DSOW and ISOW are diagnosed using the one degree ocean-ice coupled Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) that is forced by CORE2 inter-annual forcing. The oceanic component (MICOM) features an isopycnal coordinate that is referenced to 2000 db. The issues related to the coarse resolution such as the southward transport of ISOW to the western European Basin, the lack of overflow water in the western North Atlantic, and the western boundary detachment of the deep western boundary current are addressed. The effects of diapycnal mixing on the behavior of overflow descent at Denmark Strait and Faroe Bank Channel and its downstream evolution are examined.

  13. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multidecadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by affecting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially 1996 to 2010). It also describes much longer time scale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme pre-greenhouse-gas northern warming of the 1930s to 1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  14. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Gregersen, S. ); Basham, P.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The main focus of this volume is the earthquakes that occur at and near the continental margins on both sides of the North Atlantic. The book, which contains the proceedings of the NATO workshop on Causes and Effects of Earthquakes at Passive Margins and in Areas of Postglacial Rebound on Both Sides of the North Atlantic, draws together the fields of geophysics, geology and geodesy to address the stress and strain in the Earth's crust. The resulting earthquakes produced on ancient geological fault zones and the associated seismic hazards these pose to man are also addressed. Postglacial rebound in North America and Fennoscandia is a minor source of earthquakes today, during the interglacial period, but evidence is presented to suggest that the ice sheets suppressed earthquake strain while they were in place, and released this strain as a pulse of significant earthquakes after the ice melted about 9000 years ago.

  15. Mixotrophic basis of Atlantic oligotrophic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Tarran, Glen A; Martin, Adrian P; Burkill, Peter H; Scanlan, David J; Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2012-04-10

    Oligotrophic subtropical gyres are the largest oceanic ecosystems, covering >40% of the Earth's surface. Unicellular cyanobacteria and the smallest algae (plastidic protists) dominate CO(2) fixation in these ecosystems, competing for dissolved inorganic nutrients. Here we present direct evidence from the surface mixed layer of the subtropical gyres and adjacent equatorial and temperate regions of the Atlantic Ocean, collected on three Atlantic Meridional Transect cruises on consecutive years, that bacterioplankton are fed on by plastidic and aplastidic protists at comparable rates. Rates of bacterivory were similar in the light and dark. Furthermore, because of their higher abundance, it is the plastidic protists, rather than the aplastidic forms, that control bacterivory in these waters. These findings change our basic understanding of food web function in the open ocean, because plastidic protists should now be considered as the main bacterivores as well as the main CO(2) fixers in the oligotrophic gyres. PMID:22451938

  16. Atlantic forcing of the Mediterranean oligotrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, I. E.; RíOs, A. F.; GarcíA-Lafuente, J.; Navarro, G.; Makaoui, A.; SáNchez-RomáN, A.; Rodriguez-Galvez, S.; Orbi, A.; RuíZ, J.; PéRez, F. F.

    2012-06-01

    The Mediterranean Sea shows a peculiar anomaly in its nutrient pattern compared to the global ocean, as there is decrease in nutrient concentration from west to east. This feature has been attributed to the antiestuarine circulation at the Strait of Gibraltar, where an eastward flow of Atlantic nutrient-poor surface waters is compensated by a westward countercurrent of Mediterranean nutrient-rich deep waters. This water exchange has been suggested as the ultimate cause for the oligotrophy of the Mediterranean basin, even though only a few studies have accurately examined the magnitude of the nutrient flux through the Strait of Gibraltar. In this work, data from the Gibraltar Fixed Time series (GIFT) between 2005 and 2008 were used to assess nutrient distributions. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange and using the Mediterranean outflow recorded in situ, the net export of nutrients from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic was calculated as 139 and 4.8 Gmol yr-1 of nitrate and phosphate, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the Atlantic inflow is not nutrient depleted and in particular contains significant levels of phosphate, which is the limiting factor for biological productivity in the eastern Mediterranean. The distribution of the quasi-conservative parameter N* in the western and eastern basins indicated that nitrate-deficient surface waters are transformed into phosphate-deficient bottom waters by internal cycling processes. Therefore, phosphate depletion in the Mediterranean does not have its origin in the entry of a phosphorus-impoverished Atlantic inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar.

  17. Fisheries. Population of origin of Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, E E; Hansen, M M; Schmidt, C; Meldrup, D; Grønkjaer, P

    2001-09-20

    Most of the world's cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries are now tightly regulated or closed altogether. Being able to link individual fish to their population of origin would assist enormously in policing regulations and in identifying poachers. Here we show that microsatellite genetic markers can be used to assign individual cod from three different populations in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean to their population of origin. PMID:11565021

  18. Cyclic growth in Atlantic region continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, A. M.

    1986-01-01

    Atlantic region continental crust evolved in successive stages under the influence of regular, approximately 400 Ma-long tectonic cycles. Data point to a variety of operative tectonic processes ranging from widespread ocean floor consumption (Wilson cycle) to entirely ensialic (Ampferer-style subduction or simple crustal attenuation-compression). Different processes may have operated concurrently in some or different belts. Resolving this remains the major challenge.

  19. North Atlantic, ITCZ, and Monsoonal Climate Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, G. H.; Deplazes, G.; Peterson, L. C.; Brauer, A.; Mingram, J.; Dulski, P.; Sigman, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    Major element chemistry and color data from sediment cores in the anoxic Cariaco Basin off Venezuela record with (sub)annual resolution large and abrupt shifts in the hydrologic cycle of the tropical Atlantic during the last 80 ka. These data suggest a direct connection between the position of the ITCZ over northern South America, the strength of trade winds, and the temperature gradient to the high northern latitudes, ENSO, and monsoonal climate in Asia. The mechanisms behind these decadal-scale ITCZ-monsoon swings can be further explored at major climate transitions such as the onset of Younger Dryas cooling at ~12.7 ka, one of the most abrupt climate changes observed in ice core, lake and marine records in the North Atlantic realm and much of the Northern Hemisphere. Annually laminated sediments from ideally record the dynamics of abrupt climate changes since seasonal deposition immediately responds to climate and varve counts accurately estimate the time of change. We compare sub-annual geochemical data from a lake in Western Germany, which provides one of the best-dated records currently available for this climate transition, with the new the Cariaco Basin record and a new and higher resolution record from Lake Huguang Maar in China, and the Greenland ice core record. The Lake Meerfelder Maar record indicates an abrupt increase in storminess, occurring from one year to the next at 12,678 ka BP, coincident with other observed climate changes in the region. We interpret this shift of the wintertime winds to signify an abrupt change in the North Atlantic westerlies to a stronger and more zonal jet. The observed wind shift provides the atmospheric mechanism for the strong temporal link between North Atlantic overturning and European climate during the last deglaciation, tightly coupled to ITCZ migrations observed in the Cariaco Basin sediments, and a stronger east Asian Monsoon winter monsoon as seen in lake Huguang Maar, when cave stalagmite oxygen isotope data

  20. NOAA Research Vessel Explores Atlantic Ocean Seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-10-01

    Mike Ford, a biological oceanographer with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), sat rapt in front of a bank of high-definition monitors. They provided live video and data feeds from a tethered pair of instrument-laden remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) that were descending 4692 meters on their deepest dive ever. Their target: an unnamed and unexplored New England seamount discovered in the North Atlantic last year.

  1. Hurricane Bonnie, Northeast of Bermuda, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Hurricane Bonnie was over the North Atlantic Ocean about 500 miles northeast of Bermuda (39.0N, 56.5W) when this photo was taken. Compare this view with Hurricane Iniki, also photographed on this mission (STS-47-77-058). Bonnie is small but in her prime, having a well defined eye, a tight spiral gyre indicating high wind speeds and numerous thunderheads. Iniki, on the other hand, was decaying when photographed and no longer presented a threat.

  2. Ocean Modeling of the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seminar, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Present modeling of the North Atlantic is inadequate and can be improved in a number of ways. A number of important physical processes are listed in five categories from the viewpoints of how they are treated in isolation, how they are usually represented in present ocean basin models, and how they may be better represented in future models. In the first two categories of vertical boundary processes and internal vertical mixing, parameterizations exist which can easily be incorporated into models and which will have important effects on the simulated structure of the North Atlantic. For the third catagory (mesoscale eddy effects), adequate parameterizations do not exist; but the order of magnitude of the effects is known from observational and process-model studies. A horizontal grid spacing of 100 km or less in required to allow parameterizations with this order of magnitude, as well as to resolve the time-averaged ocean fields. In the fourth category of large scale transports improvements are suggested by way of increased vertical resolution and by the requirement that lateral mixing due to eddies takes place on isopycnal surfaces. Model incorporation of the latter phenomenta is underway. In the fifth category of miscellaneous high-latitude processes, formulations for the treatment of sea ice are available for use. However, the treatment of gravitational instability, which is crucial to deepwater formation in the Atlantic Ocean, will require additional refinements to account for the unresolved physics of chimney formations in the open ocean and buoyant plumes near ocean boundaries.

  3. In Brief: Atlantic seasonal hurricane forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Two hurricane forecasters are predicting that 2008 will be an above-average Atlantic basin tropical cyclone season with an above-average probability of a major hurricane making landfall in the United States. During 2008, there could be about seven hurricanes (the annual average is 5.9) and 13 named storms (the average is 9.6), according to a 7 December report by Philip Klotzbach, research scientist at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, and William Gray, university professor emeritus of atmospheric sciences. The forecasters indicate that they believe the Atlantic basin is in an active hurricane cycle that is associated with a strong thermohaline circulation and an active phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The report notes that, ``real-time operational early December forecasts have not shown forecast skill over climatology during this 16-year period [1992-2007]. This has occurred despite the fact that the skill over the hindcast period...showed appreciable skill.'' For more information, visit the Web site: http://hurricane.atmos.colostate.edu/Forecasts/2007/dec2007/dec2007.pdf.

  4. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  5. Review of North Atlantic Source Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) ventilates the deep World Ocean. It not only carries relatively well-oxygenated waters, but also other substances derived from recent sea-surface exchanges. There are five regional sources for NADW: (1) derivatives of the salty Mediterranean Sea outflow, (2) products of open-ocean convection in the Labrador Sea, (3) Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water from the Norwegian Sea - salty by virtue of mixing with saline water near the sills, (4) Denmark Strait Overflow Water from the Iceland and Greenland Seas - which retains a high-density, relatively low-salinity signal, and (5) remnants of deep water from the Antarctic circumpolar region - freshest of the bottom waters. Despite the differences of characteristics of the source waters, the NADW is relatively uniform. Because the formation of each of the five source waters may be viewed as a response to a complex series of events, it is difficult to examine the sensitivity of NADW to environmental fluctuations. It is known that the deep northern North Atlantic is relatively closely coupled to the sea surface in the Greenland and Iceland seas. The most recent studies indicate a minimum response time of only two years between the introduction of a passive signal north of Iceland and its appearance in the deep northwest Atlantic.

  6. Continuous observations of North Atlantic heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-02-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which transports warm water northward and cold water back southward, is important in transferring heat to the North Atlantic Ocean. Some models predict that AMOC will slow down as Earth's temperatures rise due to anthropogenic warming, which could have serious climate consequences for the Northern Hemisphere. However, the response of AMOC to global warming is uncertain—different models predict different rates of slowdown—and there have been few continuous observations of AMOC heat transport. Hobbs and Willis used temperature, salinity, and displacement data measured from foats in the Argo array, combined with sea surface heights measured by satellites, to estimate a continuous time series of Atlantic meridional heat transport from 2002 to 2010 at 41°N latitude. They found that the mean heat transport was about 0.5 petawatt. The authors note that this estimate is consistent with previous studies in similar latitudes based on atmospheric flux data but is lower than most hydrographic estimates. Heat transport varied on an annual cycle as well as on shorter time scales, with atmospheric variability explaining most of the short-term variance. The researchers note that the period of study was too short to infer any long-term trends, and they emphasize the need for continued monitoring of AMOC. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2011JC007039, 2012)

  7. Population Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Bycaught in U.S. Atlantic Coast Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Wirgin, I.; Maceda, L.; Grunwald, C.; King, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite DNA and mitochondrial DNA control region sequence analyses were used to determine the population and Distinct Population Segment (DPS) origin of 173 Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus encountered from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in NOAA's Northeast Fisheries Observer Program. It was found that the Hudson River was by far the greatest contributor to this coastal bycatch, with 42.2-46.3% of specimens originating there. Generally, specimens respected the geographic province of the river in which they were spawned, but some specimens, particularly those originating in the South Atlantic DPS, moved great distances. Genetic mixed stock analyses provides an accurate approach to determine the DPS and population origin of Atlantic sturgeon bycaught in coastal waters but most informative management requires that these results be partitioned by locale, season, target fishery, and gear type. PMID:25727098

  8. North Atlantic Current long-term transport observations at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, Achim; Rhein, Monika; Kieke, Dagmar; Mertens, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic Current (NAC) brings warm and saline water, exported by the Gulf Stream from the tropics/subtropics, from the western in the eastern basin. Four Inverted Echo Sounders were moored between 47°40'N and 52°30'N to study the transport variations of the NAC at the gateway between western and eastern Atlantic. The separation in three segments (northern, central, and southern) allows to resolve the meandering of the NAC between the spreading paths through the different fracture zones. We utilise the correlation between the NAC transport inferred from the 2006 to 2010 moored instruments and the geostrophic surface velocity from altimeter data to construct a time series of NAC transports from 1992 to 2013. By analysing the two time series we compute the transport means and trends, resolve the variations from daily to inter-annual time scales, and calculate transport composites to investigate the relation between the North Atlantic Oscillation and NAC transport variations.

  9. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  10. Decadal variability in the Eastern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Rhein, Monika; Roessler, Achim; Denker, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the subpolar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the subtropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. We examine the decadal variability in the eastern North Atlantic based on Argo data from 2000-2015 and have constructed time series for four water masses (Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), Intermediate Water (IW), upper Labrador Sea Water (uLSW) and deep Labrador Sea Water (dLSW)) at selected locations along the Northwest European shelf. Data from the Rockall Trough and the Iceland Basin are chosen to represent advective pathways in the subpolar gyre at two major branches of the North Atlantic Current towards the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. Temporal variability of subtropical waters transported northward along the eastern boundary is studied at Goban Spur around 48°N. The Argo data are extended in time with long-term hydrographic observations such as the Extended Ellet Line data and other climatological sources in the region. For the study of transport fluctuations time series from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) program (2012-2015) and predecessor programs have been used. These programs have monitored the subpolar gyre in the western basin and provide time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). First results show that the temperatures and salinities remained at high levels for the upper waters (SPMW and IW) until 2010 and have been decreasing since

  11. 78 FR 57339 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions to Headboat Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...; Amendment 6 to the FMP for the Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery of the Atlantic; and Amendment 22 to the FMP for... electronic reporting for headboat vessels in the South Atlantic snapper-grouper, Atlantic dolphin and wahoo... harvest and possess South Atlantic snapper-grouper, Atlantic dolphin and wahoo, and South Atlantic...

  12. Combined influences of seasonal East Atlantic Pattern and North Atlantic Oscillation to excite Atlantic multidecadal variability in a climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Cassou, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The physical processes underlying the internal component of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) are investigated from a 1,000-yr pre-industrial control simulation of the CNRM-CM5 model. The low-frequency fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are shown to be the main precursor for the model AMV. The full life cycle of AMOC/AMV events relies on a complex time-evolving relationship with both North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) that must be considered from a seasonal perspective in order to isolate their action; the ocean is responsible for setting the multidecadal timescale of the fluctuations. AMOC rise leading to a warm phase of AMV is statistically preceded by wintertime NAO+ and EAP+ from ~Lag -40/-20 yrs. Associated wind stress anomalies induce an acceleration of the subpolar gyre (SPG) and enhanced northward transport of warm and saline subtropical water. Concurrent positive salinity anomalies occur in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas in link to local sea-ice decline; those are advected by the Eastern Greenland Current to the Labrador Sea participating to the progressive densification of the SPG and the intensification of ocean deep convection leading to AMOC strengthening. From ~Lag -10 yrs prior an AMOC maximum, opposite relationship is found with the NAO for both summer and winter seasons. Despite negative lags, NAO- at that time is consistent with the atmospheric response through teleconnection to the northward shift/intensification of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone in link to the ongoing warming of tropical north Atlantic basin due to AMOC rise/AMV build-up. NAO- acts as a positive feedback for the full development of the model AMV through surface fluxes but, at the same time, prepares its termination through negative retroaction on AMOC. Relationship between EAP+ and AMOC is also present in summer from ~Lags -30/+10 yrs while winter EAP- is favored around the AMV peak. Based on

  13. Reconstructing past particle fluxes in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, W. B.; Lohmann, G. P.

    1990-08-01

    Using a research strategy analogous to modern sediment trap studies, sediment accumulation patterns on submarine rises can be interpreted in terms of past ocean chemistry and circulation. We have followed this research strategy to reconstruct the history of surface water productivity and deep-water chemistry and circulation in the eastern equatorial Atlantic (Sierra Leone Rise) and western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) during the last glacial maximum (˜18,000 B.P.). On shallow sections of these rises, at depths with little carbonate particle degradation, we assume that the accumulation of skeletal carbonate approximates the carbonate production rate in surface water. During the last glacial maximum, the rate of carbonate productivity was lower in the eastern Atlantic than it is today, while the western Atlantic exhibited no glacial-interglacial difference in carbonate productivity. Based on the difference in carbonate accumulation rates between shallow and deep cores on the rises, we observed greater dissolution in both basins during the last glaciation. The eastern Atlantic always had a lower rate of dissolution than the western Atlantic, despite having deep water with a lower δ13C during the last glacial maximum. Organic carbon accumulation in the eastern Atlantic increased with depth in the water column during the last glaciation, suggesting that there was a bathymetric decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration at that time. These observations are consistent with a glacial decrease in the production rate of northern source deep water during the last glaciation. At that time, the mixing zone between northern source and southern source deep water migrated to the north in the Atlantic, resulting in a greater proportion of corrosive, southern source deep water in the western Atlantic, and entering the eastern Atlantic through low-latitude fracture zones. Today the ratio of northern and southern components entering the eastern Atlantic is about 4:1. Based on

  14. 76 FR 36892 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2011 North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... 2003 swordfish quotas for the North and South Atlantic fisheries (68 FR 36967; June 20, 2003), NMFS... inadvertently removed in the final rule (69 FR 68090; November 23, 2004) that finalized the swordfish quotas for... Final Rule published on October 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929). While the 2011 baseline quota for South...

  15. 76 FR 7547 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that published on June 1, 2009 (74 FR 26174). Information... views of AP members when preparing and implementing FMPs or FMP amendments for Atlantic tunas, swordfish..., and permitting and management options for swordfish and smoothhound in the trawl fisheries....

  16. 77 FR 4282 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that published on June 1, 2009 (74 FR 26174), which considered a variety of... FMP amendments for Atlantic tunas, swordfish, billfish, and sharks. The AP has previously consulted... tuna management; revitalizing the swordfish fishery; shark management measures such as...

  17. 76 FR 17382 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council will hold a meeting of its Spiny Lobster Advisory...: (843) 769-4520; e-mail: kim.iverson@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Members of the Spiny Lobster AP will meet from 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. on April 20, 2011. The Spiny Lobster AP will receive...

  18. 77 FR 53150 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... established in the 2006 Consolidated Atlantic HMS Fishery Management Plan (Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058...). The 2011 BFT quota rule (76 FR 39019, July 5, 2011) established a quota of 435.1 mt for the General... adjustments to the BFT General and Harpoon category regulations (76 FR 74003, November 30, 2011), the...

  19. 77 FR 15712 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... implementing the BFT quotas and Atlantic tuna fisheries management measures (76 FR 39019, July 5, 2011), NMFS... Federal Register (64 FR 29090) final regulations, effective July 1, 1999, implementing the Fishery... in the Federal Register (71 FR 58058) a final rule, effective November 1, 2006, implementing the...

  20. 78 FR 11788 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Species Fishery Management Plan (Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006) and subsequent... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... tuna (BFT) until the General category reopens on June 1, 2013. This action is being taken to...

  1. 77 FR 38011 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006) and subsequent rulemaking. Under Sec. 635.27(a)(3), the total... announced a closure of the Longline category southern area BFT fishery, effective May 29, 2012 (77 FR 31546... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  2. 75 FR 33531 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006). The 2010 BFT fishing year, which is managed on a calendar... categories (75 FR 30732, June 2, 2010). The final 2010 Angling category quota is 225.4 mt (97.7 mt for school... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  3. 77 FR 21015 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... categories, per the allocations established in the Consolidated HMS FMP (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006) and in... remainder of the respective fishing years (75 FR 33531, June 14, 2010, and 76 FR 18416, April 4, 2011... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  4. 77 FR 3637 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management Plan (Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... tuna (BFT) until the General category reopens on June 1, 2012. This action is being taken to...

  5. 76 FR 14377 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Dolphin Wahoo... INFORMATION: Members of the Dolphin Wahoo AP will meet from 1 p.m.-5 p.m. on April 7, 2010 and from 8:30 a.m... Catch Limit (ACL) Amendment relative to dolphin and wahoo including the establishment of ACLs...

  6. 78 FR 14983 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Dolphin Wahoo..., March 27, 2013 1. Approve the current agenda as well as the minutes from the April 2012 Dolphin Wahoo AP meeting. 2. Receive a presentation on dolphin research from the Cooperative Sciences Center. 3. Receive...

  7. 76 FR 81480 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Fishery Management Council's (Council) Golden Crab Advisory Panel (AP). SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council will hold a meeting of its Golden Crab AP in Ft. Lauderdale, FL. DATES: The... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Members of the Golden Crab AP will meet from 1 p.m.-5 p.m. on Sunday, January...

  8. 77 FR 77037 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Fishery Management Council's (Council) Golden Crab Advisory Panel (AP). SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of Golden Crab Advisory Panel (AP) in Fort... fishery. 2. Receive an overview of Council actions regarding golden crab management since the last...

  9. 78 FR 19460 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold meetings of the King & Spanish... discussion in the individual meeting agendas are as follows: King & Spanish Mackerel AP Agenda: Monday, April... Mackerel Amendment 19, which addresses bag limit sales of king and Spanish mackerel, reduces inactive...

  10. 76 FR 17789 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2011 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Register on January 14, 2011 (76 FR 2640), with a 15-day comment period which ended on January 31, 2011...), the NMFS Assistant Administrator has determined that this final rule is consistent with the Atlantic... Assistant Administrator for Regulatory Programs, National Marine Fisheries Service. For the reasons set...

  11. 77 FR 44161 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... of the Center's comment that are relevant to this rulemaking. Deepwater Horizon/BP Oil Spill In 2010... information about the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill and alleged illegal fishing on the eastern Atlantic and... the effects of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill and the effects of mixing of eastern and western...

  12. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic) - Atlantic sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1984-07-01

    The Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus, is an anadromous species that occupies rivers, estuaries, and nearshore waters along the entire Atlantic coast of the United States. The species once supported significant commercial fisheries throughout its range, but stocks have declined because of overfishing, deterioration of water quality, and damming of rivers. Atlantic sturgeon spawn in rivers and the young remain in freshwater for several years prior to emigration to the ocean. Little is known about spawning areas and associated environmental factors. Females typically do not mature until age X and the age at first spawning ranges from 5 to 13 years for males and 7 to 19 years for females. Longevity may frequently exceed 25 years. Immature and adult sturgeons are bottom feeders and consume a variety of mollusks, crustaceans, worms, and other small bottom-dwelling invertebrates and fishes. Little is know about competitors, predators, or effects of environmental factors on recruitment. The long period required to reach maturity, possibly irregular spawning thereafter, and prolonged reliance on river systems make juvenile and adult Atlantic sturgeon highly susceptible to habitat alterations, pollution, and over exploitation. 49 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  13. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... implemented and analyzed in the 2013 shark quota final rule (77 FR 75896, December 26, 2013) and in the final... Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS is transferring 68 metric tons (mt) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal...

  14. 76 FR 23935 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... published in the Federal Register (71 FR 58058) final regulations, effective November 1, 2006 that... regulations to end overfishing and rebuild the scalloped hammerhead shark stock within two years as mandated... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  15. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... accompanied the 2011 shark quota specifications rule (75 FR 76302; December 8, 2010). Thus, NMFS proposes to.... Shark stocks that are overfished, have overfishing occurring, or that have an unknown stock status, or... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  16. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...This document corrects an October 7, 2011, notice that announced the stock status of several Atlantic shark stocks and announced NMFS' intent to amend the 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) via the rulemaking process to rebuild these shark stocks and end overfishing, as necessary. The notice provided an incorrect date for a scoping meeting held in......

  17. 76 FR 57709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...This notice announces the National Marine Fisheries Service's (NMFS) intent to prepare an EIS and FMP Amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark fisheries. NMFS published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on September 20, 2010, that provided background information and requested public comment on potential adjustments to the regulations governing the U.S.......

  18. 77 FR 31562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... October 7, 2011(76 FR 62331). This amendment is designed to rebuild and/or end overfishing on several shark stocks that were determined to be overfished and/or have overfishing occurring. We anticipate... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  19. 78 FR 70500 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...This final rule establishes opening dates and adjusts quotas for the 2014 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. The quota adjustments are based on over- and/or underharvests experienced during 2013 and previous fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS establishes season opening dates based on adaptive management measures to provide, to the extent practicable, fishing......

  20. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ...NMFS issues this advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPR) to provide background information and request public comment on potential adjustments to the regulations governing the U.S. Atlantic shark fishery to address several specific issues currently affecting management of the shark fishery and to identify specific goals for management of fishery in the future. NMFS is requesting public......

  1. 77 FR 45273 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas and Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... a CK minimum size measurement of 25 inches. The proposed rule (77 FR 25669, May 1, 2012) and draft... FR 56929) analyzed the impacts resulting from Recommendation 06-03 for South Atlantic swordfish... 9: Swordfish are experiencing overfishing and NMFS should prohibit fishing for the...

  2. 78 FR 12705 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic 2013 Commercial Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT... prepared for the 2012 Swordfish Quota Specifications Final Rule (July 31, 2012; 77 FR 45273). The impacts... were prepared for the 2007 Swordfish Quota Specification Final Rule (October 5, 2007; 72 FR 56929)....

  3. 78 FR 28758 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic 2013 Commercial Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ..., including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT recommendations, consistent... Specifications Final Rule (July 31, 2012; 77 FR 45273). The impacts resulting from the 2013 South Atlantic... Quota Specification Final Rule (October 5, 2007; 72 FR 56929). The quota adjustments in this final...

  4. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... environmental community active in the conservation and management of Atlantic HMS, and the academic community... determined by NMFS and SEDAR staff. Meetings and meeting logistics will be determined according to the SEDAR... recreational and commercial fishing and related industries, environmental community, academia, and...

  5. 77 FR 69596 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... sharks, and the academic community that have relevant expertise either with sharks or shark-like species... determined by NMFS and SEDAR staff. Currently, NMFS anticipates holding stock assessments for Atlantic..., environmental community, academia, and non-governmental organizations will be considered for membership on...

  6. Polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity patterns at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Mark A.; Blanco-Perez, Raimundo

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in the North Atlantic Ocean accounts for a large proportion of available bathyal soft-sediment habitat. When comparing the MAR to the continental margins of the North Atlantic, it is apparent that very little is known about the soft-sediment macrofaunal community associated with the MAR. In the present study, as part of the ECOMAR (Ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the Sub-Polar Front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone) project, the polychaete component of the MAR macrofaunal community was investigated. A total of 751 polychaete specimens and 133 species were identified from megacorer samples collected at four MAR sites (48-54°N, depth: 2500-2800 m) sampled during the RRS James Cook 48 cruise in the summer of 2010. Polychaetes were the most abundant member of the macrofaunal community, and there was no significant difference in polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity between any of the MAR sites. In addition, the MAR did not appear to provide a physical barrier to the distribution of bathyal polychaetes either side of the ridge.

  7. 76 FR 16730 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... the Spiny Lobster FMP for the Gulf and South Atlantic Region. Public hearings in Duck Key and Key West...Amend10Comment@safmc.net for Amendment 10 to the Spiny Lobster FMP. Written comments will be received from March... 10 to the Spiny Lobster FMP for the Gulf and South Atlantic Regions also establishes ACLs and AMs...

  8. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  9. Behavioral ecology of euglossine bees of the Atlantic rain forest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before the colonization of Brazil, the Atlantic rain forest extended from Rio Grande do Norte to Rio Grande do Sul. Today, however, the Atlantic forest has been reduced to only 8% of its original size and is highly fragmented. Because of its biological diversity, endemism and number of endangered ...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy horses in Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Shelly; Reid-Smith, Richard; McClure, J. Trenton; Weese, J. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization was not identified in any of 497 horses from Atlantic Canada. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated from a subsample of 19/242 (7.9%) horses. Colonization with MSSA is relatively common in healthy horses in Atlantic Canada, but MRSA is currently rare or absent. PMID:18978975

  11. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (56 FR 14920, 14921). Following five-year reviews... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (71 FR 7512). The Commission is now conducting...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request...

  12. 77 FR 64318 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... maintain diversity and balance in representation among fishing regions and species; the AP SOPPs only... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC292 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory... the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP). NMFS consults with and considers...

  13. 76 FR 68164 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... maintain diversity and balance in representation among fishing regions and species; the AP Bylaws only... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA777 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory... the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP). NMFS consults with and considers...

  14. 78 FR 66684 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC960 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory... the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP). NMFS consults with and considers the...: ``HMS AP Nominations.'' Mail: Jenni Wallace, Highly Migratory Species Management Division, NMFS,...

  15. 76 FR 68162 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... diversity and balance in representation among fishing regions and species; the AP Bylaws only dictate... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA777 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory... the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP). NMFS consults with and considers...

  16. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  17. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  18. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  19. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  20. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  1. Programming Practices of Atlantic Coast Conference Wind Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Eric S.; Paul, Timothy A.; Paul, Phyllis M.; Rudnicki, Erika

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the programming trends of the elite wind bands/ensembles of the Atlantic Coast Conference universities. Using survey techniques previously employed by Powell (2009) and Paul (2010; in press), we contacted the directors of the Atlantic Coast Conference band programs and requested concert programs from their top groups for the…

  2. Structure of the North American Atlantic Continental Margin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitgord, K. K.; Schlee, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Offers explanations on the origin of the North American Atlantic continental margin. Provides an analysis and illustrations of structural and strategraphic elements of cross sections of the Atlantic continental margin. Also explains the operations and applications of seismic-relection profiles in studying ocean areas. (ML)

  3. 75 FR 62369 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the South Atlantic. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES: A series of 3... comments will be received in the South Atlantic Council's office until 5 p.m. on November 12, 2010. See... auxiliary aids should be directed to the Council office (see ADDRESSES) 3 days prior to the start of...

  4. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  5. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  6. Chemistry of Western Atlantic Precipitation at the Mid-Atlantic Coast and on Bermuda

    SciTech Connect

    Church, T.M.; Galloway, J.N.; Jickells, T.D.; Knap, A.H.

    1982-12-20

    The major ion composition of western Atlantic precipitation falling at the coast of eastern United States (Lewes, Delaware) and at the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Island) has been measured by event year round (May 1980 to April 1981) to assess the influence of the ocean on precipitation from storms that leave the North American continent and transit over the western Atlantic. Particular attention is paid to the oceanic influence on the sulfur and nitrogen precursors of 'acid rains.' While sea salt contributes over half (by weight) of the salt in precipitation at the coast and over three quarters at Bermuda, most of the sulfate (90% at the coast and 50% at Bermuda) is in excess to sea salt sodium. Since Bermuda precipitation is still acidified some factor of 8 relative to pure equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide, this strong acidity has been attributed to the long-range transport sulfur and nitrogen precursors in the marine troposphere during which the sulfuric acid component dominates. A sulfur budget for the western Atlantic troposphere shows that of the total amount of sulfur exported from the North American continuent (>3.9 TgS/yr) less than 3% (0.1 TgS/yr) is from natural sources, the rest being from anthropogenic emissions. If Bermuda precipitation is taken as typical of wet fallout of sulfur over the western Atlantic, then no more than half (<2 TgS/yr) of north American excess (nonsea salt) sulfur export falls out to the western Atlantic and at least half undergoes potential transoceanic tranport as acid rain precursors to the east of Bermuda.

  7. Chemistry of western Atlantic precipitation at the mid-Atlantic coast and on Bermuda

    SciTech Connect

    Church, T.M.; Galloway, J.N.; Jickells, T.D.; Knap, A.H.

    1982-12-20

    The major ion composition of western Atlantic precipitation falling at the coast of eastern United States (Lewes, Delaware) and at the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Island) has been measured by event year round (May 1980 to April 1981) to assess the influence of the ocean on precipitation from storms that leave the North American continent and transit over the western Atlantic. Particular attention is paid to the oceanic influence on the sulfur and nitrogen precursors of acid rains. While sea salt contributes over half (by weight) of the salt in precipitation at the coast and over three quarters at Bermuda, most of the sulfate (90% at the coast and 50% at Bermuda) is in excess to sea salt sodium. Since Bermuda precipitation is still acidified some factor of 8 relative to pure equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide, this strong acidity has been attributed to the long-range transport sulfur and nitrogen precursors in the marine troposphere during which the sulfuric acid component dominates. A sulfur budget for the western Atlantic troposphere shows that of the total amount of sulfur exported from the North American continent (>3.9 TgS/yr) less than 3% (0.1 TgS/yr) is from natural sources, the rest being from anthropogenic emissions. If Bermuda precipitation is taken as typical of wet fallout of sulfur over the western Atlantic, then no more than half (<2 TgS/yr) of North American excess (nonsea salt) sulfur export falls out to the western Atlantic and at least half undergoes potential transoceanic transport as acid rain precursors to the east of Bermuda.

  8. Origin and fate of the North Atlantic Current at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckenfelder, Tilia; Myers, Paul G.; Rhein, Monika; Pennelly, Clark; Hu, Xianmin

    2016-04-01

    Warm, salty tropical and subtropical water is brought into the subpolar gyre by the North Atlantic Current (NAC). The NAC is the northward extension of the Gulf Stream and is part of the upper branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The warm, salty water is further transported into the Nordic Seas via the Rockall Trough, into the Denmark Strait and, finally into the Labrador Sea, where it plays an important role in the deep water formation process. On its way into the Labrador Sea the water mass increases its density by dissipating heat to the atmosphere and thereby influencing the local climate. To further understand the processes behind warm water transport towards higher latitudes, we start our investigation at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Here, the NAC flows from the western to eastern basin of the North Atlantic and crosses the MAR via the Charlie-Gibbs, Faraday and Maxwell Fracture Zones. The role of the subpolar and subtropical gyre on the different water masses, and their properties, originating or reaching the MAR is studied using the lagrangian tool ARIANE with the 3D velocity fields taken from a 1/12° AGRIF nest set in a regional NEMO configuration. One result of this investigation is that the majority of particles released at the MAR, distributed over the entire water column, recirculate. Most of the remaining particles make their way into the East Greenland Current or turn in the eastern basin towards the south. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is investigated by studying the pathways of the NAC and their properties during different NAO phases.

  9. Sexual maturity in western Atlantic bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Heinisch, Gilad; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Knapp, Jessica M; Gordin, Hillel; Lutcavage, Molly E

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel endocrine approach for assessing the unresolved matter of the timing of sexual maturation in western Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT), a highly migratory population whose status remains uncertain. Ratios of follicle stimulating hormone to luteinizing hormone, a sexual maturity indicator, in all ABFT ≥ 134 cm curved fork length (CFL) were <0.4, similar to Mediterranean spawners, indicating that western ABFT mature at considerably smaller sizes and at a much younger age than currently assumed (≥ 185 cm CFL). PMID:25431301

  10. Detecting Atlantic herring by parametric sonar.

    PubMed

    Godo, Olav Rune; Foote, Kenneth G; Dybedal, Johnny; Tenningen, Eirik; Patel, Ruben

    2010-04-01

    The difference-frequency band of the Kongsberg TOPAS PS18 parametric sub-bottom profiling sonar, nominally 1-6 kHz, is being used to observe Atlantic herring. Representative TOPAS echograms of herring layers and schools observed in situ in December 2008 and November 2009 are presented. These agree well with echograms of volume backscattering strength derived simultaneously with the narrowband Simrad EK60/18- and 38-kHz scientific echo sounder, also giving insight into herring avoidance behavior in relation to survey vessel passage. Progress in rendering the TOPAS echograms quantitative is described. PMID:20369983

  11. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Noble, Taryn L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Bayon, Germain

    2016-01-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial–interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ13C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters. PMID:27256826

  12. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Noble, Taryn L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Bayon, Germain

    2016-06-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial-interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ13C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters.

  13. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Howe, Jacob N W; Piotrowski, Alexander M; Noble, Taryn L; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M; Bayon, Germain

    2016-01-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial-interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ(13)C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters. PMID:27256826

  14. Decadal predictions of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana; Müller, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is critical for predicting and projecting climate and ocean acidification. The North Atlantic Ocean plays a crucial role in modulating global carbon cycle as a major CO2 sink region, and the subpolar gyre (SPG) region contributes the most to the variation of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake. Previous studies revealed abrupt warming/cooling events in the SPG region, with sea surface temperature (SST) increasing/decreasing by 1°C in only a few years. The abrupt SPG warming/cooling events can be predicted several years in advance by initialization of the earth system models. The CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic is largely driven by ocean mixing variations and SST anomalies. In this study, we investigate the response of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake to observed SST variations and explore the decadal predictability of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake during the period of 1961-2013 with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). Our results suggest significant inter-annual and decadal variability of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake which is closely related to the evolution of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and corresponding oceanic mixing strength, and this coherence is confined to the western SPG region. We show that the potential predictability of CO2 uptake in the western SPG region is up to 4 years, which is similar to the prediction skill of SPG SST. Direct comparison of initialized simulations with observations implies prediction skill of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake. The predictability of both CO2 uptake and SST in the North Atlantic is assured by initialization of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC).

  15. 76 FR 4092 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of its Scientific and Statistical Committee's (SSC) Social and Economic Subpanel to review the Gulf of Mexico Red Grouper Evaluation, review draft Regulatory Amendment 9 to the Snapper Grouper Fishery Management Plan for the South Atlantic addressing commercial trip limits, discuss snapper grouper and golden crab draft......

  16. 75 FR 63812 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ71 Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a... development and provide fishing level recommendations for South Atlantic red snapper. The meeting will be...

  17. ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC ESTUARIES: THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA-Estuaries) evaluated ecological conditions in US Mid-Atlantic estuaries during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Over 800 probability-based stations were monitored in four main estuarine systems?Chesapeake Bay, the Delaware Estuary, Maryla...

  18. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  19. Cenozoic climates: evidence from the North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Cenozoic biostratigraphy and climatology of the North Atlantic and adjacent land areas reflects the continuing fragmentation of Eurasia and concomitant changes on ocean-continent geometry. A latitudinal (zonal) Mesozoic circulation pattern evolved into a predominantly longitudinal (meridional) pattern during the Cenozoic in which the development of oceanic gateways and barriers gradually decreased the efficiency of poleward heat transfer resulting in the progressive climatic change which has taken place over the past 50 million years. Cenozoic distributional data from the North Atlantic and adjacent land areas will be reviewed from the following fields: a) terrestrial vertebrates and floras: b) marine calcareous microplankton and benthic foraminifera; c) other marine invertebrates. Available data suggests that the present climate in the northern hemisphere has resulted from a gradual, but inexorable, strengthening of latitudinal and vertical temperature gradients punctuated by several brief intervals of accelerated change. The absence of evidence for northern hemisphere polar glaciation prior to the late Neogene does not preclude seasonal cooling near the freezing point in post-Eocene time. Evidence for early Paleogene cold climates is not reflected in the fossil record.

  20. Sulphur Concentration over the Northwest Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyar, M.; Norman, A.; Seguin, M.

    2006-12-01

    Fine aerosols can be transported thousands of miles from their point of origin and reactions can take place on aerosol surfaces or their interior. The role of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), a gas released during the decay of ocean biota, and the role it plays on new aerosol formation, is important to the radiative budget over the ocean. Stable sulphur isotope techniques were used to apportion sulphate and sulphur dioxide to provide insight into the processes affecting new aerosol formation during a North Atlantic field campaign. More than 240 aerosol and 35 filter samples were obtained on board a Canadian Coast Guard ship over the Northwest Atlantic in the fall of 2003. This project was part of a large international study called SOLAS (Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study) designed to evaluate the origin and the amount of and sulphate from DMS oxidation. The results from the fall SOLAS cruise will be used to examine the relationship between DMS, and biogenic and sulphate, as well as and MSA. The results for samples that were processed in the laboratory along with respective blanks for isotope analysis, cation and anion concentrations will be presented.

  1. Tectonic provinces of the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.

    2009-05-01

    The tectonic structure of the floor of the Atlantic Ocean beyond the continental margins is insufficiently studied. This is also true of its tectonic demarcation. The segmentation of the floor into regional-scale tectonic provinces of several orders proposed in this paper is primarily based on structural and historical geological features. It is shown that deep oceanic basins and fault tectonics are of particular importance in this respect. Tectonic provinces of two orders are distinguished by a set of attributes. The first-order provinces are the North, Central, South, and Antarctic domains of the Atlantic Ocean. They are separated by wide demarcation fracture zones into Transatlantic (transverse) second-order tectonic provinces. Ten such provinces are recognized (from the north southward): Greenland-Lofoten, Greenland-Scandinavia, Greenland-Ireland, Newfoundland-European, North American-African, Antilles-African, Angola-Brazil, Cape-Argentine, North Antarctic, and South Antarctic. This subdivision demonstrates significant differentiation in the geodynamic state of the oceanic lithosphere that determines nonuniform ocean formation and the tectonic features of the ocean floor. The latitudinal orientation of the second-order provinces inherits the past tectonic pattern, though newly formed structural units cannot be ruled out. The Earth rotation exerts a crucial effect on the crust and the mantle.

  2. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the...

  3. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the...

  4. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  5. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  6. 50 CFR 622.171 - South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.171 South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access. (a) General. The only valid commercial vessel permits for South...

  7. Preface to "MeshAtlantic: Mapping Atlantic area seabed habitats for better marine management"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Populus, Jacques; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; McGrath, Fergal; Tempera, Fernando; Galparsoro, Ibon; Gonçalves, Jorge; Alonso, Jose Luis Sanz; Freitas, Rosa; Quintino, Victor

    2015-06-01

    In recent years the pressure exerted by sharply increasing maritime activities has strengthened the need for marine environmental knowledge in support of coastal planning and management. The requirement for implementation of EU Directives (Habitat and Water Framework Directives with the later addition of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive), along with other international drivers such as the OSPAR convention in the Atlantic Area, has prompted more active development of seabed habitat mapping by the scientific community.

  8. Atlantic Hurricane Activity: 1851-1900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsea, C. W.

    2001-12-01

    This presentation reports on the second year's work of a three year project to re-analyze the North Atlantic hurricane database (or HURDAT). The original database of six-hourly positions and intensities were put together in the 1960s in support of the Apollo space program to help provide statistical track forecast guidance. In the intervening years, this database - which is now freely and easily accessible on the Internet from the National Hurricane Center's (NHC's) Webpage - has been utilized for a wide variety of uses: climatic change studies, seasonal forecasting, risk assessment for county emergency managers, analysis of potential losses for insurance and business interests, intensity forecasting techniques and verification of official and various model predictions of track and intensity. Unfortunately, HURDAT was not designed with all of these uses in mind when it was first put together and not all of them may be appropriate given its original motivation. One problem with HURDAT is that there are numerous systematic as sell as some random errors in the database which need correction. Additionally, analysis techniques have changed over the years at NHC as our understanding of tropical cyclones has developed, leading to biases in the historical database that have not been addressed. Another difficulty in applying the hurricane database to studies concerned with landfalling events is the lack exact location, time and intensity at hurricane landfall. Finally, recent efforts into uncovering undocumented historical hurricanes in the late 1800s and early 1900s led by Jose Fernandez-Partagas have greatly increased our knowledge of these past events, which are not yet incorporated into the HURDAT database. Because of all of these issues, a re-analysis of the Atlantic hurricane database is being attempted that will be completed in three years. As part of the re-analyses, three files will be made available: {* } The revised Atlantic HURDAT (with six hourly intensities

  9. Equatorial deep jets in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P.; Greatbatch, R. J.; Didwischus, S.-H.; Claus, M.; Hormann, V.; Funk, A.; Dengler, M.

    2012-04-01

    Vertically alternating deep zonal jets of short vertical wavelength were discovered in the equatorial oceans more than 35 years ago. These jets that are observed to be coherent across the equatorial basins are characterized by vertically alternating eastward and westward currents lying within 1° of the equator, with amplitudes of 0.1-0.2 ms-1 and vertical wavelengths between 300 and 700 m. In the Atlantic, equatorial deep jets oscillate with a period of about 4.5 years, while their energy propagates upward. The 4.5 year signal can be seen in sea surface temperature as well as atmospheric data (e.g. surface wind and rainfall) indicating the significance of the deep jets for climate. Here we analyse velocity data from more than 7 years of moored observations at the equator, 23°W as well as shipboard hydrographic and current observations along the 23°W repeat section. Our focus is on intermediate depth levels (300-700 m), where the deep jets are superimposed on a mean flow composed of the westward flowing Equatorial Intermediate Current centred on the equator and the eastward Southern and Northern Intermediate Countercurrents located at 2°S and 2°N, respectively. The large zonal oxygen gradient from the well ventilated western boundary toward low-oxygen values near the eastern boundary makes the meridional oxygen distribution in the central equatorial Atlantic sensitive to zonal flow variations in time and latitude. We compare the observed meridional structures of the mean and anomalous oxygen and zonal velocity distributions as well as their temporal evolution with results of an advection-diffusion model driven by a prescribed velocity field, restoring to high oxygen values at the western boundary, and otherwise constant oxygen consumption. The prescribed velocity field is composed of a high order baroclinic vertical normal mode aimed at representing the 4.5-year cycle and a mean velocity field resembling the observed mean zonal current structure. Similarities

  10. Estimation of Atlantic-Mediterranean netflow variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Catarina; Peliz, Alvaro; Miranda, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The exchanges at the Strait of Gibraltar are extremely difficult to measure due to the strong temporal and across-strait variabilities; yet the Atlantic inflow into the Mediterranean is extremely important both for climate and to ecosystems. Most of the published numerical modeling studies do not resolve the Strait of Gibraltar realistically. Models that represent the strait at high resolution focus primarily in high frequency dynamics, whereas long-term dynamics are studied in low resolution model studies, and for that reason the Strait dynamics are poorly resolved. Estimating the variability of the exchanges requires long term and high-resolutions studies, thus an improved simulation with explicit and realistic representation of the Strait is necessary. On seasonal to inter-annual timescales the flow is essentially driven by the net evaporation contribution and consequently realistic fields of precipitation and evaporation are necessary for model setup. A comparison between observations, reanalysis and combined products shows ERA-Interim Reanalysis has the most suitable product for Mediterranean Sea. Its time and space variability are in close agreement with NOC 1.1 for the common period (1980 - 1993) and also with evaporation from OAFLUX (1989 - 2014). Subinertial fluctuations, periods from days to a few months, are the second most energetic, after tides, and are the response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations and local winds. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the Mediterranean cause sea level oscillations that induce a barotropic flow through the Strait. Candela's analytical model has been used to quantify this response in later studies, though comparison with observations points to an underestimation of the flow at strait. An improved representation of this term contribution to the Atlantic - Mediterranean exchange must be achieved on longer time-scales. We propose a new simulation for the last 36 years (1979 - 2014) for the Mediterranean - Atlantic

  11. Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Morrison, Adele K.; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M.

    2015-12-10

    The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic, ‘Agulhas leakage’, forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the period 1870–2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. Lastly, this is relevant for climate in the North Atlantic.

  12. Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage

    PubMed Central

    Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Morrison, Adele K.; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic, ‘Agulhas leakage', forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the period 1870–2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. This is relevant for climate in the North Atlantic. PMID:26656850

  13. Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Morrison, Adele K.; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M.

    2015-12-01

    The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic, `Agulhas leakage', forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the period 1870-2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. This is relevant for climate in the North Atlantic.

  14. Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Adkins, Jess F; Curry, William B; Dokken, Trond; Hall, Ian R; Herguera, Juan Carlos; Hirschi, Joël J-M; Ivanova, Elena V; Kissel, Catherine; Marchal, Olivier; Marchitto, Thomas M; McCave, I Nicholas; McManus, Jerry F; Mulitza, Stefan; Ninnemann, Ulysses; Peeters, Frank; Yu, Ein-Fen; Zahn, Rainer

    2007-04-01

    The circulation of the deep Atlantic Ocean during the height of the last ice age appears to have been quite different from today. We review observations implying that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum was neither extremely sluggish nor an enhanced version of present-day circulation. The distribution of the decay products of uranium in sediments is consistent with a residence time for deep waters in the Atlantic only slightly greater than today. However, evidence from multiple water-mass tracers supports a different distribution of deep-water properties, including density, which is dynamically linked to circulation. PMID:17412948

  15. Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage.

    PubMed

    Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V; Morrison, Adele K; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic, 'Agulhas leakage', forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the period 1870-2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. This is relevant for climate in the North Atlantic. PMID:26656850

  16. Radiocarbon age of waters in the deep Atlantic revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Virgilio, A. ); Peng, T.H. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors use a simple box model to evaluate the impact of temporal changes of the atmosphere's {sup 14}C/C on ventilation fluxes for the deep Atlantic calculated from radiocarbon measurements. The conclusion is that despite the fact that over the 300 year period from 1650 to 1950 the atmosphere's radiocarbon content declined at the same rate as radiocarbon decays, this temporal change has a relatively small impact (10-15%) on radiocarbon-based estimates of the ventilation rate of the deep Atlantic. The reason is that the radiocarbon content of the source waters for deep Atlantic are reasonably well buffered against changes in atmospheric {sup 14}C/C.

  17. Observations and Modeling of the Atlantic Meridional Mode during the Atlantic hurricane season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, D.; Vimont, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    An observational and modeling study is conducted to investigate the vertical structure of the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) during the Atlantic hurricane season months based on an AMM index derived by Chiang and Vimont (2004). The analysis shows that the SST anomaly structure that is typically associated with the AMM is accompanied by a slackening (intensification) of trade winds in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere where SST anomalies are positive (negative). However, the accompanying air temperature anomalies are limited to the boundary layer. Furthermore, the AMM is shown to be associated with an anomalous baroclinic circulation in the northern subtropical Atlantic, with an anomalous lower-level cyclonic circulation residing under an anomalous upper-level anticyclone during a positive AMM. Initializing the atmospheric GCM CAM3.1 coupled to a slab ocean with AMM-like SST anomalies yields an atmospheric circulation that is highly similar to observational analyses. This suggests that the SST anomalies are forcing the atmospheric anomalies, and not vice versa. The anomalous atmospheric circulations of the lower and upper-levels act in tandem to reduce shear over the main development region (MDR), reiterating that a positive AMM favors increased hurricane activity in the MDR. A closer inspection of the monthly evolution of shear shows that the response increases three-fold from September to November within the MDR. However, the origin of the SST anomalies, which is vital in improving seasonal hurricane activity predictions, remains unclear.

  18. Linking North Atlantic Teleconnections to Latitudinal Variability of Wave Climate Along the North American Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provancha, C.; Adams, P. N.; Hegermiller, C.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Shoreline change via coastal erosion and accretion is largely influenced by variations in ocean wave climate. Identifying the sources of these variations is challenging because the timing of wave energy delivery varies over multiple timescales within ocean basins. We present the results of an investigation of USACE Wave Information Studies hindcast hourly wave heights, periods, and directions along the North American Atlantic coast from 1980-2012, designed to explore links between wave climate and teleconnection patterns. Trends in median and extreme significant wave heights (SWHs) demonstrate that mean monthly SWHs increased from 1 to 5 cm/yr along the roughly 3000 km reach of study area, with changes in hurricane season waves appearing to be most influential in producing the overall trends. Distributions of SWHs categorized by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase, show that positive-period NAO SWHs are greater than negative-period NAO SWHs along the entire eastern seaboard (25°N to 45°N). The most prominent wave direction off Cape Cod, MA during positive-period NAO is approximately 105°, as compared to approximately 75° during negative-period NAO. Prominent wave directions between Cape Canaveral, FL, and Savannah, GA exhibit a similar shift but during opposite phases of the NAO. The results of this analysis suggest that the atmosphere-ocean interactions associated with contrasting NAO phases can significantly change the wave climate observed offshore along the North American Atlantic coast, altering alongshore wave energy fluxes and sediment transport patterns along the coast.

  19. An electrical analogy relating the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation to the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is the northward flow of surface water to subpolar latitudes where deepwater is formed, balanced by southward abyssal flow and upwelling in the vicinity of the Southern Ocean. It is generally accepted that AMOC flow oscillates with a period of 60-80 years, creating a regular variation in North Atlantic sea surface temperature known as the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). This article attempts to answer two questions: how is the AMOC driven and why does it oscillate? Using methods commonly employed by chemical engineers for analyzing processes involving flowing liquids, apparently not previously applied to trying to understand the AMOC, an equation is developed for AMOC flow as a function of the meridional density gradient or the corresponding temperature gradient. The equation is based on the similarity between the AMOC and an industrial thermosyphon loop cooler, which circulates a heat transfer liquid without using a mechanical pump. Extending this equation with an analogy between the flow of heat and electricity explains why the AMOC flow oscillates and what determines its period. Calculated values for AMOC flow and AMO oscillation period are in good agreement with measured values. PMID:24940739

  20. An Electrical Analogy Relating the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is the northward flow of surface water to subpolar latitudes where deepwater is formed, balanced by southward abyssal flow and upwelling in the vicinity of the Southern Ocean. It is generally accepted that AMOC flow oscillates with a period of 60–80 years, creating a regular variation in North Atlantic sea surface temperature known as the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). This article attempts to answer two questions: how is the AMOC driven and why does it oscillate? Using methods commonly employed by chemical engineers for analyzing processes involving flowing liquids, apparently not previously applied to trying to understand the AMOC, an equation is developed for AMOC flow as a function of the meridional density gradient or the corresponding temperature gradient. The equation is based on the similarity between the AMOC and an industrial thermosyphon loop cooler, which circulates a heat transfer liquid without using a mechanical pump. Extending this equation with an analogy between the flow of heat and electricity explains why the AMOC flow oscillates and what determines its period. Calculated values for AMOC flow and AMO oscillation period are in good agreement with measured values. PMID:24940739

  1. Microwave responses of the western North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Girard, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Features and objects in the Western North Atlantic Ocean - the Eastern Seaboard of the United States - are observed from Earth orbit by passive microwaves. The intensities of their radiated flux signatures are measured and displayed in color as a microwave flux image. The features of flux emitting objects such as the course of the Gulf Stream and the occurrence of cold eddies near the Gulf Stream are identified by contoured patterns of relative flux intensities. The flux signatures of ships and their wakes are displayed and discussed. Metal data buoys and aircraft are detected. Signal to clutter ratios and probabilities of detection are computed from their measured irradiances. Theoretical models and the range equations that explain passive microwave detection using the irradiances of natural sources are summarized.

  2. Disease exchange across the tropical Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Curtin, P D

    1993-01-01

    The fifteenth-century encounter between previously separate disease environments was not simply an encounter between Europe and the Americas. It was preceded by an encounter between Europe and tropical Africa and followed by a still-more-intense transmission of diseases across the tropical Atlantic, mainly from Africa to the Americas. This transmission principally involved smallpox, yaws, yellow fever, and falciparum malaria. Many other vector-borne diseases failed to make the transfer for lack of suitable vectors in the Americas. The African diseases contributed even more than those from Europe to the depopulation of the humid tropics in the Americas. They also set up conditions that made residence in the tropical Americas dangerous for newly arrived people from Europe. PMID:7529931

  3. The Atlantic Seaduck Project: Medical Aspects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Perry, M.C.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Some populations of seaducks, especially scoters along the Atlantic Coast, have been declining over recent decades. A joint US-Canadian tearn has been working to capture and surgically implant satellite radio transmitters in these ducks. Black scoters (Melanitta nigra) captured on the Restigouche River in New Brunswick, Canada and surf scoters (M. perspicilata) captured on Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA have been tracked by the use of Argos/NOAA polar orbiting operational environmental satellites to their breeding and molting areas and back south to their wintering ranges. Successful capture techniques included night-lighting and a capture net gun. A captive colony of seaducks has been maintained for feeding habits and nutritional studies. Veterinary medicine has played a key role in the surgical implantation of the satellite transmitters and in developing heath procedures for the captive seaduck colony.

  4. Microphysical characteristics of Canadian Atlantic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaac, G. A.

    During the Canadian Atlantic Storms Program (CASP) field project conducted from 15 January to 15 March 1986, microphysical measurements were made using two instrumented aircraft: a Twin Otter and a DC-3. Measurements tended to be made over Nova Scotia and on the northern side of the low pressure centre. For 90% of the time in cloud, the aircraft were at temperatures between 0 and -12°C. Cloud droplet concentrations varied from low values to greater than 700 cm -3 with median values between 50 and 100 cm -3. Ice crystals were usually present during cloud penetrations and high concentrations occasionally occurred with higher than normal liquid water contents. Precipitation formation was through an ice crystal aggregation process. Severe icing conditions occurred on a few occasions for both aircraft, and the microphysical character of these clouds have been documented.

  5. Morphometric sexing of Northwest Atlantic Roseate Terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palestis, Brian G.; Nisbet, Ian C.T.; Hatch, Jeremy J.; Szczys, Patricia; Spendelow, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A difficulty in the study of monomorphic species is the inability of observers to visually distinguish females from males. Based on a sample of 745 known-sex birds nesting at Bird Island, MA, USA, a discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to sex Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) of the Northwest Atlantic population using morphological measurements. DFA using only the total length of the head (including the bill) correctly identified the sex of approximately 86% of the terns, which increased to 88% if both members of a pair were measured. Including additional measurements increased these percentages slightly, to 87% and 90%, respectively. These levels of accuracy are generally higher than those reported for other species of terns. Because female-female pairs are frequent in this population, one cannot assume that the member of a pair with the larger head is a male, and additional discriminant functions were developed to help separate female-female from male-female pairs.

  6. Elevated Tropospheric Ozone over the Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Tie, X.

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric column ozone (TCO) is derived from differential measurements of TOMS total column ozone and Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric column ozone. It is shown that TCO during summer months over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in northern midlatitudes is about the same (50 to 60 Dobson Units) as over the continents of North America, Europe, and Asia, where surface emissions of nitrogen oxides from industrial sources, biomass and biofuel burning and biogenic emissions are significantly larger. This nearly uniform zonal variation in TCO is modulated by surface topography of the Rocky and Himalayan mountains, and Tibetan plateau where TCO is reduced by 20 to 30 Dobson Units. The zonal variation in TCO is well simulated by a global chemical transport model called MOZART-2 (Model of Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2). The model results are analyzed to delineate the relative importance of various processes contributing to observed zonal characteristics of TCO.

  7. Modelling Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Storm Tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardisty, F.; Carroll, D.

    2011-12-01

    Two of the most useful data sets for understanding Atlantic Basin tropical cyclones are the HURDAT data set, provided by NOAA, and the Extended Best Track (EBT) data set, provided by Colorado State University. Each has their strengths: the HURDAT is a more complete set of cyclone tracks, while the EBT contains additional radial extent, wind speed, and pressure information for a more limited set of cyclones. We report here on methods that we developed to generate realistic synthetic cyclone tracks using the strengths of each data set. We also report on some novel visualization methods (using HTML5) and cloud computing methods we employed in the research. We hope that this research will lead to more accurate predictions of the number and severity of cyclones for a given season.

  8. North Atlantic Finite Element Ocean Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluthedathekuzhiyil, Praveen

    This thesis presents a modified version of the Finite Element Ocean Model (FEOM) developed at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) for the North Atlantic Ocean. A reasonable North Atlantic Ocean simulation is obtained against the observational data sets in a Control simulation (CS) where the surface boundary conditions are relaxed to a climatology. The vertical mixing in the model was tuned to represent convection in the model, also the horizontal mixing and diffusion coefficients to represent the changes in the resolution of the model’s unstructured grid. In addition, the open boundaries in the model are treated with a sponge layer where tracers are relaxed to climatology. The model is then further modified to accept the atmospheric flux forcing at the surface boundary with an added net heat flux correction and freshwater forcing from major rivers that are flowing into the North Atlantic Ocean. The impact of this boundary condition on the simulation results is then analyzed and shows many improvements albeit the drift in tracer properties around the Gulf Stream region remains as that of the CS case. However a comparison of the vertical sections at Cape Desolation and Cape Farewell with the available observational data sets shows many improvements in this simulation compared to that of the CS case. But the freshwater content in the Labrador Sea interior shows a continued drift as that of the CS case with an improvement towards the 10th model year. A detailed analysis of the boundary currents around the Labrador Sea shows the weak offshore transport of freshwater from the West Greenland Current (WGC) as one of the causes. To further improve the model and reasonably represent the boundary currents and associated sub-grid scale eddies in the model, a modified sub-grid scale parameterization based on Gent and McWilliams, (1990) is adopted. The sensitivity of using various approaches in the thickness diffusion parameter ( Kgm) for this

  9. Atmospheric transmission of North Atlantic Heinrich events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetler, S.W.; Clark, P.U.; Bartlein, P.J.; Mix, A.C.; Pisias, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    We model the response of the climate system during Heinrich event 2 (H2) by employing an atmospheric general circulation model, using boundary conditions based on the concept of a "canonical" Heinrich event. The canonical event is initialized with a full-height Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) and CLIMAP sea surface temperatures (SSTs), followed by lowering of the LIS, then warming of North Atlantic SSTs. Our modeled temperature and wind fields exhibit spatially variable responses over the Northern Hemisphere at each stage of the H2 event. In some regions the climatic responses are additive, whereas in other regions they cancel or are of opposite sign, suggesting that Heinrich event climatic variations may have left complex signatures in geologic records. We find variations in the tropical water balance and the mass balance of ice sheets, and implications for variations in terrestrial methane production from the contraction of northern permafrost regions and the expansion of tropical wetlands. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-10-26

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase by a factor of 2-7 for each degree of increase in mean global temperature. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 8 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those in RCP4.5, but sulphate injection would have to double between 2020 and 2070 to balance RCP 4.5 to nearly 10 Tg SO2 yr-1, with consequent implications for damage to stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent Generalized Extreme Value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges from 1923 and observed temperatures. The numbers of storm surge events as big as the one that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this is only marginally statistically significant. However, when sea level rise differences at 2070 between RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored in to coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5 year events and perhaps halved for 50 year surges.