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Sample records for atlas barrel tracker

  1. The barrel modules of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdesselam, A.; Akimoto, T.; Allport, P. P.; Alonso, J.; Anderson, B.; Andricek, L.; Anghinolfi, F.; Apsimon, R. J.; Barbier, G.; Barr, A. J.; Batchelor, L. E.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Beck, G. A.; Bell, P. J.; Belymam, A.; Bernabeu, J.; Bethke, S.; Bizzell, J. P.; Bohm, J.; Brenner, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Broklova, Z.; Broz, J.; Bruckman De Renstrom, P.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Carpentieri, C.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Charlton, D. G.; Cheplakov, A.; Chesi, E.; Chilingarov, A.; Chouridou, S.; Chu, M. L.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Civera, J. V.; Clark, A.; Coe, P.; Colijn, A.-P.; Cornelissen, T.; Cosgrove, D. P.; Costa, M. J.; Dabrowski, W.; Dalmau, J.; Danielsen, K. M.; Dawson, I.; Demirkoz, B.; Dervan, P.; Dolezal, Z.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorholt, O.; Dowell, J. D.; Drasal, Z.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Dwuznik, M.; Eckert, S.; Ekelof, T.; Eklund, L.; Escobar, C.; Fadeyev, V.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrere, D.; Fiorini, L.; Fortin, R.; Foster, J. M.; Fox, H.; Fraser, T. J.; Freestone, J.; French, R.; Fuster, J.; Gadomski, S.; Gallop, B. J.; García, C.; Garcia-Navarro, J. E.; Gibson, M. D.; Gibson, S.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Godlewski, J.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorisek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Greenall, A.; Grigson, C.; Grillo, A. A.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Haber, C.; Hara, K.; Hartjes, F. G.; Hauff, D.; Hawes, B. M.; Haywood, S. J.; Hessey, N. P.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, J. C.; Hollins, T. I.; Holt, R.; Howell, D. F.; Hughes, G.; Huse, T.; Ibbotson, M.; Ikegami, Y.; Issever, C.; Jackson, J. N.; Jakobs, K.; Jarron, P.; Johansen, L. G.; Jones, T. J.; Jones, T. W.; de Jong, P.; Joos, D.; Jovanovic, P.; Kachiguine, S.; Kaplon, J.; Kato, Y.; Ketterer, C.; Kobayashi, H.; Kodys, P.; Koffeman, E.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Kondo, T.; Koperny, S.; Kramberger, G.; Kubik, P.; Kudlaty, J.; Kuwano, T.; Lacasta, C.; LaMarra, D.; Lane, J. B.; Lee, S.-C.; Lester, C. G.; Limper, M.; Lindsay, S.; Llatas, M. C.; Loebinger, F. K.; Lozano, M.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Lutz, G.; Lys, J.; Maassen, M.; Macina, D.; Macpherson, A.; MacWaters, C.; McMahon, S. J.; McMahon, T. J.; Magrath, C. A.; Malecki, P.; Mandić, I.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Martí-García, S.; Martinez-Mckinney, G. F. M.; Matheson, J. M. C.; Matson, R. M.; Meinhardt, J.; Mikulec, B.; Mikuž, M.; Minagawa, M.; Mistry, J.; Mitsou, V.; Modesto, P.; Moëd, S.; Mohn, B.; Moorhead, G.; Morin, J.; Morris, J.; Morrissey, M.; Moser, H.-G.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Murray, W. J.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Nakano, I.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nisius, R.; O'Shea, V.; Oye, O. K.; Palmer, M. J.; Parker, M. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pater, J. R.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Pellegrini, G.; Pernegger, H.; Perrin, E.; Phillips, A.; Phillips, P. W.; Poltorak, K.; Pospisil, S.; Postranecky, M.; Pritchard, T.; Rafi, J. M.; Ratoff, P. N.; Reznicek, P.; Richter, R. H.; Robinson, D.; Roe, S.; Rosenbaum, F.; Rudge, A.; Runge, K.; Sadrozinski, H. F. W.; Sandaker, H.; Saxon, D. H.; Schieck, J.; Sedlak, K.; Seiden, A.; Sengoku, H.; Sfyrla, A.; Shimma, S.; Smith, K. M.; Smith, N. A.; Snow, S. W.; Solar, M.; Solberg, A.; Sopko, B.; Sospedra, L.; Spencer, E.; Stanecka, E.; Stapnes, S.; Stastny, J.; Stodulski, M.; Stugu, B.; Szczygiel, R.; Tanaka, R.; Tappern, G.; Taylor, G.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Thompson, R. J.; Titov, M.; Toczek, B.; Tovey, D. R.; Tricoli, A.; Turala, M.; Turner, P. R.; Tyndel, M.; Ullán, M.; Unno, Y.; Van der Kraaij, E.; van Vulpen, I.; Viehhauser, G.; Villani, E. G.; Vorobel, V.; Vos, M.; Wallny, R.; Warren, M. R. M.; Wastie, R. L.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wells, P. S.; Wilder, M.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilson, J. A.; Wolter, M.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the silicon microstrip modules in the barrel section of the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The module requirements, components and assembly techniques are given, as well as first results of the module performance on the fully assembled barrels that make up the detector being installed in the ATLAS experiment.

  2. Upgrading the ATLAS barrel tracker for the super-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Richard L.; ATLAS ID Collaboration

    2009-08-01

    It has been proposed to increase the luminosity of the large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN by an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed super-LHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for this high-luminosity operation due to radiation damage and event density. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all-silicon tracker is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current silicon tracker in order to minimize the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation-hard silicon detectors is required. An R&D program is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges facing the sensors and the cooling and mechanical support will be discussed. A possible tracker layout will be described.

  3. Commissioning of the Cms Tracker Outer Barrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Christoph

    2006-04-01

    Fully equipped final substructures of the CMS Tracker are installed in a dedicated mechanical support, the Cosmic Rack, providing a geometry suitable for tracking cosmic muons, and equipped with a dedicated trigger that allows the selection of tracks synchronous with the fast readout electronics. Data collected at room temperature and at the tracker operating temperature of -10°C can be used to test reconstruction and alignment algorithms for the tracker, as well as to perform a detailed qualification of the geometry and the functionality of the structures at different temperatures. The CMS Monte Carlo simulation has been adapted to the geometry of the cosmic rack, and the comparison with the data will provide a valuable test to improve the tracker simulation in CMS.

  4. Commissioning of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker with cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanecka, E.; Atlas Sct Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests with cosmic rays of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) as well as operational experience of running the fully integrated silicon detector during the commissioning of the completed SCT. Prior to inserting into ATLAS, the barrel part of the SCT has been integrated with the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) barrel and tested with cosmic rays. A sector of 468 SCT modules has been powered and read simultaneously with TRT modules in physics mode. In total 500 thousand events were recorded during cosmic runs and processed with the ATLAS off-line reconstruction software. The SCT performance was measured in terms of the average noise occupancy per channel (4.5×10-5) and the overall efficiency (>99%). The tests with cosmic rays proved full functionality of the complex Detector Control System (DCS) which provides control, monitoring and safety functions for the detector electronics.

  5. ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker operation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Gaetano

    2013-12-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices of the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million channels. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each). The current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented. The operation of the detector including an overview of the main issues encountered is reported. The main emphasis is given to the tracking performance of the SCT and the data quality during the >2 years of data taking of proton-proton collision data at 7 TeV (and short periods of heavy ion collisions). The SCT has been fully operational throughout all data taking periods, delivering high quality tracking data.

  6. X-ray tomography for the ATLAS semi-conductor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucas, G.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Nickerson, R.; Vertogradov, L.

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented of precision tests with the prototype of an X-ray tomography system for measuring the two-dimensional position of silicon strip modules on barrel structures. The measured accuracy and repeatability are better than 6 μm in rφ and better than 30 μm in r, where r and φ are polar coordinates, and are sufficient for a high-precision survey of the barrels of the ATLAS semi-conductor tracker.

  7. Alignment strategy for the ATLAS tracker

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS; Golling, T.

    2007-09-23

    The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose particle detector that will study high-energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider. For the reconstruction of charged particles, and their production and their decay vertices, ATLAS is equipped with a sophisticated tracking system, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the Inner Detector and the muon spectrometer requires an accurate alignment. The challenge of aligning the ATLAS tracking devices is discussed, and the ATLAS alignment strategy is presented and illustrated with both data and Monte Carlo results.

  8. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-04-13

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  9. Embedded pitch adapters for the ATLAS Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullan, Miguel; Benitez, Victor; Pellegrini, Giulio; Fleta, Celeste; Lozano, Manuel; Lacasta, Carlos; Soldevila, Urmila; Garcia, Carmen

    2013-12-01

    In the current ATLAS tracker modules, sensor bonding pads are placed on their corresponding strips and oriented along the strips. This creates a difference in pitch and orientation between sensor bond pads and readout electronics bond pads. Therefore, a pitch adapter (PA), or “fan-in”, is needed. The purpose of these PA is the electrical interconnection of every channel from the detector bonding pads to the read-out chips, adapting the different pad pitch. Our new approach is to build those PAs inside the sensor; this is what we call Embedded Pitch Adapters. The idea is to use an additional metal layer in order to define a new group of pads, connected to the strips via tracks with the second metal. The embedded PAs have been fabricated on 4-in. prototype sensors for the ATLAS-Upgrade Endcap Tracker to test their performance and suitability. The tests confirm proper fabrication of the second metal tracks, and no effects on detector performance. No indication of cross-talk between first and second metal channels has been observed. A small indication of possible signal pick-up from the bulk has been observed in a few channels, which needs to be further investigated.

  10. The cooling capabilities of C2F6/C3F8 saturated fluorocarbon blends for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Botelho-Direito, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Giugni, D.; Hallewell, G.; Lombard, D.; Katunin, S.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Robinson, D.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Vacek, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate and address the performance limitations of the ATLAS silicon tracker fluorocarbon evaporative cooling system operation in the cooling circuits of the barrel silicon microstrip (SCT) sub-detector. In these circuits the minimum achievable evaporation temperatures with C3F8 were higher than the original specification, and were thought to allow an insufficient safety margin against thermal runaway in detector modules subject to a radiation dose initially foreseen for 10 years operation at LHC. We have investigated the cooling capabilities of blends of C3F8 with molar admixtures of up to 25% C2F6, since the addition of the more volatile C2F6 component was expected to allow a lower evaporation temperature for the same evaporation pressure.A custom built recirculator allowed the in-situ preparation of C2F6/C3F8 blends. These were circulated through a representative mechanical and thermal setup reproducing an as-installed ATLAS SCT barrel tracker cooling circuit. Blend molar compositions were verified to a precision of 3.10-3 in a custom ultrasonic instrument.Thermal measurements in a range of C2F6/C3F8 blends were compared with measurements in pure C3F8. These indicated that a blend with 25% C2F6 would allow a reduction in evaporation temperature of around 9oC to below -15oC, even at the highest module power dissipations envisioned after 10 years operation at LHC. Such a reduction would allow more than a factor two in safety margin against temperature dependant leakage power induced thermal runaway.Furthermore, a blend containing up to 25% C2F6 could be circulated without changes to the on-detector elements of the existing ATLAS inner detector evaporative cooling system.

  11. Operation and performance of the ATLAS silicon micro-strip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Pylypchenko, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall since 2007 and has been operational since then. In this paper the current status of the Semiconductor Tracker is reviewed, including results from the data-taking periods in 2009 and 2010, and from the detector alignment. The emphasis is given to the performance of the Semiconductor Tracker with the LHC in collision mode and to the performance of individual electronic components. (authors)

  12. The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker operation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a key precision tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. The SCT is composed of 4088 planar p-in-n silicon micro-strip detectors. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which operate in binary readout mode; data are transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The SCT was completed in 2007. An extensive commissioning phase followed, during which calibration data were collected and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system, and further performance parameters of the detector were determined using cosmic ray data, both with and without magnetic field. After the commissioning phase, the SCT was ready for the first LHC proton-proton collisions in December 2009. From the beginning of data taking, the completed SCT has been in very good shape with more than 99% of its 6.3 million strips operational; the detector is well timed-in and the operational channels are 99.9% efficient in data acquisition. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency are better than the design specifications. The detector geometry is monitored continuously with a laser-based alignment system and is stable to the few-micron level; the alignment accuracy as determined by tracks is near specification and improving as statistics increase. The sensor behaviour in the 2T solenoidal magnetic field has been studied by measuring the Lorentz angle. Radiation damage in the silicon is monitored by periodic measurements of the leakage current; these measurements are in reasonable agreement with predictions.

  13. Radiation-tolerant optical links for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, John; Charlton, David G.; Chu, Ming-lee; Dowell, John D.; Galagedera, Senerath; Homer, Roger J.; Hou, Li-Shing; Jovanovic, Predrag; Kundu, Nikhil N.; Lee, Shih-chang; McMahon, Thomas J.; Macwaters, Craig; Mahout, Gilles; Morrissey, Martin; Rudge, Alan; Skubic, Bjorn J.; Teng, Ping-kun; Wastie, Roy; Weidberg, Anthony R.; Wilson, John A.

    2002-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), currently under construction at CERN, Geneva, will collide proton beams of energy 7 TeV. The high luminosity of the machine will lead to a severe radiation environment for detectors such as ATLAS. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) must be able to tolerate a radiation field equivalent to an ionising dose of 10 Mrad (Si) and a neutron fluence of 2x1014cm-2 (1MeV,Si) over the 10 year lifetime of the experiment. The SCT is instrumented by silicon microstrip detectors and their front-end chips (ABCDs). Data is transferred from, and control signals to, the ABCDs using multimode optical links carrying light at 840 nm. The incoming timing, trigger and control (TTC) link uses biphase mark encoding to send 40 Mbit/s control signals along with a 40 MHz clock down a single fibre. Optical signals are received by a p-i-n diode and decoded by DORIC chips. Data in electrical form from the ABCDs is used to moderate two VCSELs by means of a VCSEL driver chip (VDC). Each detector module carries 12 ABCDs and is served by two optical fibres for data readout and one for TTC signals. There are 4088 such modules within the SCT. The system performance specifications and architecture are described, followed by test results on individual components and complete links. The optical fibre, active optical components, chips, packaging and interconnects have all been qualified to the necessary radiation levels. This has involved studies of total dose effects, single event upset and ageing at elevated temperatures and details of these studies are presented.

  14. Double-sided super-module R&D for the ATLAS tracker at HL-LHC - A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, A.; Barbier, G.; Cadoux, F.; Endo, M.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Iacobucci, G.; Ikegami, Y.; Jinnouchi, O.; La Marra, D.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, R.; Perrin, E.; Seez, W.; Takubo, Y.; Takashima, R.; Terada, S.; Todome, K.; Unno, Y.; Weber, M.

    2014-11-01

    Following successive upgrades of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) until approximately 2025, the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver pp collisions of centre-of-mass energy √{ s } = 14 TeV with a levelled peak luminosity in excess of 5 ×1034cm-2s-1 and an integrated luminosity of order 300fb-1 per year. The ATLAS Collaboration intends to replace the existing Inner Tracking Detector by a new tracker, with readout electronics as well as silicon pixel and strip sensor technology capable of maintaining the excellent mechanical and electrical performance of the existing tracker in the severe radiation and high collision rate environment of the HL-LHC. The super-module integration concept extends the proven design of the existing barrel silicon strip tracker to the HL-LHC, with double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules assembled into a low mass local support structure. The first phase of the Super-Module R&D programme has been successfully completed, demonstrating the feasibility of the Super-Module concept. A summary is made up of the key prototype mechanical and electrical results of the R&D, as well as a short perspective of future developments.

  15. Measurement of the response of the ATLAS liquid argon barrel calorimeter to electrons at the 2004 combined test-beam

    SciTech Connect

    Aharrouche, M.; Ma, H.; Adam-Bourdarios, C.; Aleksa, M.; Banfi, D.; Benchekroun, D.; Benslama, K.; Boonekamp, M.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Chen, H.; Citterio, M.; Dannheim, D.; Delmastro, M.; Derue, F.; Di Girolamo, B.; El Kacimi, M.; Fanti, M.; Froeschl, R.; Fournier, D.; Grahn, K.-J.; Kado, M.; Kerschen, N.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Laplace, S.; Lechowski, M.; Lelas, D.; Liang, Z.; Loureiro, K.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; McPherson, R.; Meng, Z.; Paganis, S.; Prieur, D.; Puzo, P.; Ridel, M.; Riu, I.; Rousseau, D.; Sauvage, G.; Schwemling, P.; Simon, S.; Spano, F.; Straessner, A.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Thioye, M.; Unal, G.; Wilkens, H.; Wingerter-Seez, I. and Zhang, H.

    2010-03-11

    During summer and fall 2004, the response of a full slice of the ATLAS barrel detector to different particles was studied in controlled beam. One module of the ATLAS liquid argon barrel calorimeter - identical to the production modules and read out by the final front-end and back-end electronics - was used for electromagnetic calorimetry. This paper presents and discusses the electron performance of the LAr barrel calorimeter, including linearity, uniformity, and resolution with different amounts of material upstream the calorimeter and energies ranging from 1 to 250 GeV.

  16. Induced radioactivity in the forward shielding and semiconductor tracker of the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Bĕdajánek, I; Linhart, V; Stekl, I; Pospísil, S; Kolros, A; Kovalenko, V

    2005-01-01

    The radioactivity induced in the forward shielding, copper collimator and semiconductor tracker modules of the ATLAS detector has been studied. The ATLAS detector is a long-term experiment which, during operation, will require to have service and access to all of its parts and components. The radioactivity induced in the forward shielding was calculated by Monte Carlo methods based on GEANT3 software tool. The results show that the equivalent dose rates on the outer surface of the forward shielding are very low (at most 0.038 microSv h(-1)). On the other hand, the equivalent dose rates are significantly higher on the inner surface of the forward shielding (up to 661 microSv h(-1)) and, especially, at the copper collimator close to the beampipe (up to 60 mSv h(-1)). The radioactivity induced in the semiconductor tracker modules was studied experimentally. The module was activated by neutrons in a training nuclear reactor and the delayed gamma ray spectra were measured. From these measurements, the equivalent dose rate on the surface of the semiconductor tracker module was estimated to be < 100 microSv h(-1) after 100 d of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operation and 10 d of cooling. PMID:16604587

  17. The Common Cryogenic Test Facility for the ATLAS Barrel and End-Cap Toroid Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Delruelle, N.; Haug, F.; Junker, S.; Passardi, G.; Pengo, R.; Pirotte, O.

    2004-06-23

    The large ATLAS toroidal superconducting magnet made of the Barrel and two End-Caps needs extensive testing at the surface of the individual components prior to their final assembly into the underground cavern of LHC. A cryogenic test facility specifically designed for cooling sequentially the eight coils making the Barrel Toroid (BT) has been fully commissioned and is now ready for final acceptance of these magnets. This facility, originally designed for testing individually the 46 tons BT coils, will be upgraded to allow the acceptance tests of the two End-Caps, each of them having a 160 tons cold mass. The integrated system mainly comprises a 1.2 kW at 4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid-nitrogen precooler, two cryostats housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps of respectively 80 g/s and 600 g/s nominal flow and specific instrumentation to measure the thermal performances of the magnets. This paper describes the overall facility with particular emphasis to the cryogenic features adopted to match the specific requirements of the magnets in the various operating scenarios.

  18. The Common Cryogenic Test Facility for the ATLAS Barrel and End-Cap Toroid Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delruelle, N.; Haug, F.; Junker, S.; Passardi, G.; Pengo, R.; Pirotte, O.

    2004-06-01

    The large ATLAS toroidal superconducting magnet made of the Barrel and two End-Caps needs extensive testing at the surface of the individual components prior to their final assembly into the underground cavern of LHC. A cryogenic test facility specifically designed for cooling sequentially the eight coils making the Barrel Toroid (BT) has been fully commissioned and is now ready for final acceptance of these magnets. This facility, originally designed for testing individually the 46 tons BT coils, will be upgraded to allow the acceptance tests of the two End-Caps, each of them having a 160 tons cold mass. The integrated system mainly comprises a 1.2 kW@4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid-nitrogen precooler, two cryostats housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps of respectively 80 g/s and 600 g/s nominal flow and specific instrumentation to measure the thermal performances of the magnets. This paper describes the overall facility with particular emphasis to the cryogenic features adopted to match the specific requirements of the magnets in the various operating scenarios.

  19. Detector control system for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker: architecture and development techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaś, ElŻbieta; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Olszowska, Jolanta

    2012-05-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. With ~300000 drift tube proportional counters (straws) filled with stable gas mixture and high voltage biased it provides precise quasi-continuous tracking and particles identification. Safe, coherent and efficient operation of the TRT is fulfilled with the help of the Detector Control System (DCS) running on 11 computers as PVSS (industrial SCADA) projects. Standard industrial and custom developed server applications and protocols are used for reading hardware parameters. Higher level control system layers based on the CERN JCOP framework allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different data bases are used to store the detector online parameters, the configuration parameters and replicate a subset of them used to flag data quality for physics reconstruction. The TRT DCS is fully integrated with the ATLAS Detector Control System.

  20. Design of a hardware track finder (Fast Tracker) for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, V.; Adelman, J.; Albicocco, P.; Alison, J.; Ancu, L. S.; Anderson, J.; Andari, N.; Andreani, A.; Andreazza, A.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Asbah, N.; Atkinson, M.; Baines, J.; Barberio, E.; Beccherle, R.; Beretta, M.; Bertolucci, F.; Biesuz, N. V.; Blair, R.; Bogdan, M.; Boveia, A.; Britzger, D.; Bryant, P.; Burghgrave, B.; Calderini, G.; Camplani, A.; Cavasinni, V.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, P.; Cheng, Y.; Citraro, S.; Citterio, M.; Crescioli, F.; Dawe, N.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Drake, G.; Gadomski, S.; Gatta, M.; Gentsos, C.; Giannetti, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gramling, J.; Howarth, J. W.; Iizawa, T.; Ilic, N.; Jiang, Z.; Kaji, T.; Kasten, M.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Klimkovich, T.; Kolb, M.; Kordas, K.; Krizka, K.; Kubota, T.; Lanza, A.; Li, H. L.; Liberali, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Liu, L.; Love, J.; Luciano, P.; Luongo, C.; Magalotti, D.; Maznas, I.; Meroni, C.; Mitani, T.; Nasimi, H.; Negri, A.; Neroutsos, P.; Neubauer, M.; Nikolaidis, S.; Okumura, Y.; Pandini, C.; Petridou, C.; Piendibene, M.; Proudfoot, J.; Rados, P.; Roda, C.; Rossi, E.; Sakurai, Y.; Sampsonidis, D.; Saxon, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoening, A.; Shochet, M.; Shojaii, S.; Soltveit, H.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Stabile, A.; Swiatlowski, M.; Tang, F.; Taylor, P. T.; Testa, M.; Tompkins, L.; Vercesi, V.; Volpi, G.; Wang, R.; Watari, R.; Webster, J.; Wu, X.; Yorita, K.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zhang, J.; Zou, R.

    2016-02-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger and data acquisition system and will be even more so as contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing will increase in Run III. The Fast TracKer is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project; it is a hardware processor that will provide every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100μs, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV . Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance.

  1. Fast TracKer: A fast hardware track trigger for the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandini, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The trigger system at the ATLAS experiment is designed to lower the event rate occurring from the nominal bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to about 1 kHz for a LHC luminosity of the order of 1034cm-2s-1. To achieve high background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals, sophisticated algorithms are needed which require an extensive use of tracking information. The Fast TracKer (FTK) trigger system, part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade program, is a highly parallel hardware device designed to perform track-finding at 100 kHz. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the combinatorial problem of pattern recognition is solved by 8000 standard-cell ASICs used to implement an Associative Memory architecture. The availability of the tracking and subsequent vertex information within a short latency ensures robust selections and allows improved trigger performance for the most difficult signatures, such as b-jets and τ leptons.

  2. Diagnostic Analysis of Silicon Strips Detector Readout in the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker Module Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocio, Alessandra; ATLAS SCT Collaboration

    2004-10-31

    The ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) Collaboration is currently in the production phase of fabricating and testing silicon strips modules for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider being built at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. A small but relevant percentage of ICs developed a new set of defects after being mounted on hybrids that were not detected in the wafer screening. To minimize IC replacement and outright module failure, analysis methods were developed to study IC problems during the production of SCT modules. These analyses included studying wafer and hybrid data correlations to finely tune the selection of ICs and tests to utilize the ability to adjust front-end parameters of the IC in order to reduce the rejection and replacement rate of fabricated components. This paper will discuss a few examples of the problems encountered during the production of SCT hybrids and modules in the area of ICs performance, and will demonstrate the value of the flexibility built into the ABCD3T chip.

  3. Production summary for extended barrel module fabrication at Argonne for the ATLAS tile calorimeter.

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.; Hill, N.; Petereit, E.; Skrzecz, F.; Wood, K.; Proudfoot, J.; Anderson, S.; Caird, A.; Keyser, C.; Kocenko, L.; Matijas, Z.; Nephew, T.; Stanek, R.; Franchini, F.; High Energy Physics

    2007-11-14

    The Tile Calorimeter is one of the main hadronic calorimeters to be used in the ATLAS experiment at CERN [1,2]. It is a steel/scintillator sampling calorimeter which is built by stacking 64 segments in azimuth and 3 separate cylinders to provide a total structure whose length is approximately 12m and whose diameter is a little over 8.4m. It has a total weight of about 2630 metric tons. Important features of this calorimeter are: A minimum gap (1.5mm) between modules in azimuth; Pockets in the structure to hold the scintillator tiles; Recessed channels at the edges of the module into which the readout fibers will sit; and Holes in the structure through which a radioactive source will pass. The mechanical structure for one of the 3 calorimeter sections, the Extended Barrel (EBA) was constructed at Argonne. A schematic of the calorimeter sampling structure and the layout of one of the 64 segments, termed a module, are shown in figure 1. Each module comprises mechanically of a precision machined, structural girder to which 10 submodules are bolted. One of these submodules, the ITC, has a customized shape to accommodate services for other detector elements. Each submodule weighs 850Kg and the assembled mechanical structure of the module weighs approximately 9000Kg (a fully instrumented Extended Barrel modules weighs {approx}9600Kg). A crucial issue for the tile calorimeter assembly is the minimization of the un-instrumented gap between modules when they are stacked on top of each other during final assembly. The design goal was originally 1mm gap which was eventually relaxed to 1.5mm following a careful evaluation of all tolerances in the construction and assembly process as shown in figure 2 [3]. Submodules for this assembly were produced at 4 locations [4] using tooling and procedures which were largely identical [5]. An important issue was the height of each submodule on the stacking fixture on which they were fabricated as this defines the length along the girder

  4. An on-line acoustic fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Botelho-Direito, J.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Egorov, K.; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Katunin, S.; Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Rozanov, A.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.

    2011-07-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker community foresees an upgrade from the present octafluoro-propane (C{sub 3}F{sub 8}) evaporative cooling fluid - to a composite fluid with a probable 10-20% admixture of hexafluoro-ethane (C{sub 2}F{sub 6}). Such a fluid will allow a lower evaporation temperature and will afford the tracker silicon substrates a better safety margin against leakage current-induced thermal runaway caused by cumulative radiation damage as the luminosity profile at the CERN Large Hadron Collider increases. Central to the use of this new fluid is a new custom-developed speed-of-sound instrument for continuous real-time measurement of the C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} mixture ratio and flow. An acoustic vapour mixture analyzer/flow meter with new custom electronics allowing ultrasonic frequency transmission through gas mixtures has been developed for this application. Synchronous with the emission of an ultrasound 'chirp' from an acoustic transmitter, a fast readout clock (40 MHz) is started. The clock is stopped on receipt of an above threshold sound pulse at the receiver. Sound is alternately transmitted parallel and anti-parallel with the vapour flow for volume flow measurement from transducers that can serve as acoustic transmitters or receivers. In the development version, continuous real-time measurement of C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} flow and calculation of the mixture ratio is performed within a graphical user interface developed in PVSS-II, the Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition standard chosen for LHC and its experiments at CERN. The described instrument has numerous potential applications - including refrigerant leak detection, the analysis of hydrocarbons, vapour mixtures for semiconductor manufacture and anesthetic gas mixtures. (authors)

  5. ASIC Wafer Test System for the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker Front-End Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Anghinolfi, F.; Bialas, W.; Busek, N.; Ciocio, A.; Cosgrove, D.; Fadeyev, V.; Flacco, C.; Gilchriese, M.; Grillo, A.A.; Haber, C.; Kaplon, J.; Lacasta, C.; Murray, W.; Niggli, H.; Pritchard, T.; Rosenbaum, F.; Spieler, H.; Stezelberger, T.; Vu, C.; Wilder, M.; Yaver, H.; Zetti, F.

    2002-03-19

    An ASIC wafer test system has been developed to provide comprehensive production screening of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker front-end chip (ABCD3T). The ABCD3T[1] features a 128-channel analog front-end, a digital pipeline, and communication circuitry, clocked at 40 MHz, which is the bunch crossing frequency at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The tester measures values and tolerance ranges of all critical IC parameters, including DC parameters, electronic noise, time resolution, clock levels and clock timing. The tester is controlled by an FPGA (ORCA3T) programmed to issue the input commands to the IC and to interpret the output data. This allows the high-speed wafer-level IC testing necessary to meet the production schedule. To characterize signal amplitudes and phase margins, the tester utilizes pin-driver, delay, and DAC chips, which control the amplitudes and delays of signals sent to the IC under test. Output signals from the IC under test go through window comparator chips to measure their levels. A probe card has been designed specifically to reduce pick-up noise that can affect the measurements. The system can operate at frequencies up to 100 MHz to study the speed limits of the digital circuitry before and after radiation damage. Testing requirements and design solutions are presented.

  6. Results of the Cryogenic Tests of the Superconducting Magnets Forming the Barrel Toroid of the Atlas Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, K.; Delruelle, N.; Dudarev, A.; Junker, S.; Pengo, R.; Pirotte, O.; Berriaud, C.

    2006-04-01

    The Barrel Toroid magnet of the ATLAS experiment will be built from eight 25 m × 5 m racetrack shaped superconducting coils that are symmetrically placed around the central axis of the detector. Prior to their final assembly in the underground cavern of the LHC, these magnets are individually tested at ground level in order to verify the expected overall performances. A dedicated facility has been commissioned and the testing of the coils, at their nominal electrical and thermal operating conditions, has been carried out. The paper presents the results obtained during the cool-down phase from ambient temperature, the steady-state operation at 4.5 K, the 20 kA current ramping up/down and the thermal recovery after a fast energy dump of up to 138 MJ stored energy. Included are the measurements of the various thermal loads in both static and dynamic conditions.

  7. Rad-hard vertical JFET switch for the HV-MUX system of the ATLAS upgrade Inner Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Martínez, P.; Ullán, M.; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Quirion, D.; Lynn, D.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a new silicon vertical JFET (V-JFET) device, based on the trenched 3D-detector technology developed at IMB-CNM, to be used as a switch for the High-Voltage powering scheme of the ATLAS upgrade Inner Tracker. The optimization of the device characteristics is performed by 2D and 3D TCAD simulations. Special attention has been paid to the on-resistance and the switch-off and breakdown voltages to meet the specific requirements of the system. In addition, a set of parameter values has been extracted from the simulated curves to implement a SPICE model of the proposed V-JFET transistor. As these devices are expected to operate under very high radiation conditions during the whole experiment life-time, a study of the radiation damage effects and the expected degradation of the device performance is also presented at the end of the paper.

  8. A parallel FPGA implementation for real-time 2D pixel clustering for the ATLAS Fast Tracker Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Annovi, A.; Beretta, M.; Kordas, K.; Nikolaidis, S.; Petridou, C.; Volpi, G.

    2014-10-01

    The parallel 2D pixel clustering FPGA implementation used for the input system of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) processor is presented. The input system for the FTK processor will receive data from the Pixel and micro-strip detectors from inner ATLAS read out drivers (RODs) at full rate, for total of 760Gbs, as sent by the RODs after level-1 triggers. Clustering serves two purposes, the first is to reduce the high rate of the received data before further processing, the second is to determine the cluster centroid to obtain the best spatial measurement. For the pixel detectors the clustering is implemented by using a 2D-clustering algorithm that takes advantage of a moving window technique to minimize the logic required for cluster identification. The cluster detection window size can be adjusted for optimizing the cluster identification process. Additionally, the implementation can be parallelized by instantiating multiple cores to identify different clusters independently thus exploiting more FPGA resources. This flexibility makes the implementation suitable for a variety of demanding image processing applications. The implementation is robust against bit errors in the input data stream and drops all data that cannot be identified. In the unlikely event of missing control words, the implementation will ensure stable data processing by inserting the missing control words in the data stream. The 2D pixel clustering implementation is developed and tested in both single flow and parallel versions. The first parallel version with 16 parallel cluster identification engines is presented. The input data from the RODs are received through S-Links and the processing units that follow the clustering implementation also require a single data stream, therefore data parallelizing (demultiplexing) and serializing (multiplexing) modules are introduced in order to accommodate the parallelized version and restore the data stream afterwards. The results of the first hardware tests of

  9. The h1 Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2004-07-01

    The silicon tracker of the H1 experiment at HERA consists of a barrel part and two endcaps with disks. The barrel part has 2 layers of double sided strip sensors with 81920 readout channels. The forward part uses 7 wheels of single sided strip detectors that measure three coordinates (r, u, and v) with 92160 channels. The backward part uses single sided strip detectors in 6 wheels, measuring the u and v coordinates with 84480 channels. These wheels are intersprsed with 4 wheels of pad detectors that provide fast triggering signals.

  10. Search for WW and WZ production in lepton, neutrino plus jets final states at CDF Run II and Silicon module production and detector control system for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyrla, Anna; /Geneva U.

    2008-03-01

    In the first part of this work, we present a search for WW and WZ production in charged lepton, neutrino plus jets final states produced in p{bar p} collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, using 1.2 fb{sup -1} of data accumulated with the CDF II detector. This channel is yet to be observed in hadron colliders due to the large singleWplus jets background. However, this decay mode has a much larger branching fraction than the cleaner fully leptonic mode making it more sensitive to anomalous triple gauge couplings that manifest themselves at higher transverse W momentum. Because the final state is topologically similar to associated production of a Higgs boson with a W, the techniques developed in this analysis are also applicable in that search. An Artificial Neural Network has been used for the event selection optimization. The theoretical prediction for the cross section is {sigma}{sub WW/WZ}{sup theory} x Br(W {yields} {ell}{nu}; W/Z {yields} jj) = 2.09 {+-} 0.14 pb. They measured N{sub Signal} = 410 {+-} 212(stat) {+-} 102(sys) signal events that correspond to a cross section {sigma}{sub WW/WZ} x Br(W {yields} {ell}{nu}; W/Z {yields} jj) = 1.47 {+-} 0.77(stat) {+-} 0.38(sys) pb. The 95% CL upper limit to the cross section is estimated to be {sigma} x Br(W {yields} {ell}{nu}; W/Z {yields} jj) < 2.88 pb. The second part of the present work is technical and concerns the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) assembly phase. Although technical, the work in the SCT assembly phase is of prime importance for the good performance of the detector during data taking. The production at the University of Geneva of approximately one third of the silicon microstrip end-cap modules is presented. This collaborative effort of the university of Geneva group that lasted two years, resulted in 655 produced modules, 97% of which were good modules, constructed within the mechanical and electrical specifications and delivered in the SCT collaboration for assembly on

  11. Barrel alignment fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeley, J. D.

    1981-04-01

    Fabrication of slapper type detonator cables requires bonding of a thin barrel over a bridge. Location of the barrel hole with respect to the bridge is critical: the barrel hole must be centered over the bridge uniform spacing on each side. An alignment fixture which permits rapid adjustment of the barrel position with respect to the bridge is described. The barrel is manipulated by pincer-type fingers which are mounted on a small x-y table equipped with micrometer adjustments. Barrel positioning, performed under a binocular microscopy, is rapid and accurate. After alignment, the microscope is moved out of position and an infrared (IR) heat source is aimed at the barrel. A 5-second pulse of infrared heat flows the adhesive under the barrel and bonds it to the cable. Sapphire and Fotoform glass barrels were bonded successfully with the alignment fixture.

  12. Tracker Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven J.; Palacios, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This software can track multiple moving objects within a video stream simultaneously, use visual features to aid in the tracking, and initiate tracks based on object detection in a subregion. A simple programmatic interface allows plugging into larger image chain modeling suites. It extracts unique visual features for aid in tracking and later analysis, and includes sub-functionality for extracting visual features about an object identified within an image frame. Tracker Toolkit utilizes a feature extraction algorithm to tag each object with metadata features about its size, shape, color, and movement. Its functionality is independent of the scale of objects within a scene. The only assumption made on the tracked objects is that they move. There are no constraints on size within the scene, shape, or type of movement. The Tracker Toolkit is also capable of following an arbitrary number of objects in the same scene, identifying and propagating the track of each object from frame to frame. Target objects may be specified for tracking beforehand, or may be dynamically discovered within a tripwire region. Initialization of the Tracker Toolkit algorithm includes two steps: Initializing the data structures for tracked target objects, including targets preselected for tracking; and initializing the tripwire region. If no tripwire region is desired, this step is skipped. The tripwire region is an area within the frames that is always checked for new objects, and all new objects discovered within the region will be tracked until lost (by leaving the frame, stopping, or blending in to the background).

  13. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  14. Determination of W boson helicity fractions in top quark decays in p anti-p collisions at CDF Run II and production of endcap modules for the ATLAS Silicon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Moed, Shulamit; /Geneva U.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis presented here includes two parts. The first part discusses the production of endcap modules for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker at the University of Geneva. The ATLAS experiment is one of the two multi-purpose experiments being built at the LHC at CERN. The University of Geneva invested extensive efforts to create an excellent and efficient module production site, in which 655 endcap outer modules were constructed. The complexity and extreme requirements for 10 years of LHC operation with a high resolution, high efficiency, low noise tracking system resulted in an extremely careful, time consuming production and quality assurance of every single module. At design luminosity about 1000 particles will pass through the tracking system each 25 ns. In addition to requiring fast tracking techniques, the high particle flux causes significant radiation damage. Therefore, modules have to be constructed within tight and accurate mechanical and electrical specification. A description of the ATLAS experiment and the ATLAS Semiconductor tracker is presented, followed by a detailed overview of the module production at the University of Geneva. My personal contribution to the endcap module production at the University of Geneva was taking part, together with other physicists, in selecting components to be assembled to a module, including hybrid reception tests, measuring the I-V curve of the sensors and the modules at different stages of the production, thermal cycling the modules and performing electrical readout tests as an initial quality assurance of the modules before they were shipped to CERN. An elaborated description of all of these activities is given in this thesis. At the beginning of the production period the author developed a statistics package which enabled us to monitor the rate and quality of the module production. This package was then used widely by the ATLAS SCT institutes that built endcap modules of any type, and kept being improved and updated

  15. Upgrade of the CMS tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricomi, A.

    2014-03-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above 5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 at the end of that decade. The foreseen increases of both the instantaneous and the integrated luminosity by the LHC during the next ten years will necessitate a stepwise upgrade of the CMS tracking detector. During the extended end-of-year shutdown 2016-2017 the pixel detector will be exchanged with a new one. The so-called Phase1 Pixel foresees one additional barrel layer and one additional end-cap disk, a new readout chip, reduction of material, and the installation of more efficient cooling and powering systems. In the so-called Phase2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) phase, CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the high-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities.

  16. Interacting Multiview Tracker.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju Hong; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Yoon, Kuk-Jin

    2016-05-01

    A robust algorithm is proposed for tracking a target object in dynamic conditions including motion blurs, illumination changes, pose variations, and occlusions. To cope with these challenging factors, multiple trackers based on different feature representations are integrated within a probabilistic framework. Each view of the proposed multiview (multi-channel) feature learning algorithm is concerned with one particular feature representation of a target object from which a tracker is developed with different levels of reliability. With the multiple trackers, the proposed algorithm exploits tracker interaction and selection for robust tracking performance. In the tracker interaction, a transition probability matrix is used to estimate dependencies between trackers. Multiple trackers communicate with each other by sharing information of sample distributions. The tracker selection process determines the most reliable tracker with the highest probability. To account for object appearance changes, the transition probability matrix and tracker probability are updated in a recursive Bayesian framework by reflecting the tracker reliability measured by a robust tracker likelihood function that learns to account for both transient and stable appearance changes. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed interacting multiview algorithm performs robustly and favorably against state-of-the-art methods in terms of several quantitative metrics. PMID:26336117

  17. Alignment of the CMS silicon strip tracker during stand-alone commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-07-01

    The results of the CMS tracker alignment analysis are presented using the data from cosmic tracks, optical survey information, and the laser alignment system at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During several months of operation in the spring and summer of 2007, about five million cosmic track events were collected with a partially active CMS Tracker. This allowed us to perform first alignment of the active silicon modules with the cosmic tracks using three different statistical approaches; validate the survey and laser alignment system performance; and test the stability of Tracker structures under various stresses and temperatures ranging from +15C to -15C. Comparison with simulation shows that the achieved alignment precision in the barrel part of the tracker leads to residual distributions similar to those obtained with a random misalignment of 50 (80) microns in the outer (inner) part of the barrel.

  18. ORNL SunTracker

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, Robert Wesley

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screen that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.

  19. Mechanical studies towards a silicon micro-strip super module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade at the high luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, G.; Cadoux, F.; Clark, A.; Endo, M.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Iacobucci, G.; Ikegami, Y.; Jinnouchi, O.; La Marra, D.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, R.; Perrin, E.; Seez, W.; Takubo, Y.; Takashima, R.; Terada, S.; Todome, K.; Unno, Y.; Weber, M.

    2014-04-01

    It is expected that after several years of data-taking, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics programme will be extended to the so-called High-Luminosity LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 5 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. For the general-purpose ATLAS experiment at the LHC, a complete replacement of its internal tracking detector will be necessary, as the existing detector will not provide the required performance due to the cumulated radiation damage and the increase in the detector occupancy. The baseline layout for the new ATLAS tracker is an all-silicon-based detector, with pixel sensors in the inner layers and silicon micro-strip detectors at intermediate and outer radii. The super-module (SM) is an integration concept proposed for the barrel strip region of the future ATLAS tracker, where double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules (DSM) are assembled into a low-mass local support (LS) structure. Mechanical aspects of the proposed LS structure are described.

  20. TRTViewer: The ATLAS TRT detector monitoring and diagnosticstool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, S. Yu.; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    The transition radiation tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS inner detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is designed to combine the drift tube tracker with the transition radiation detector, providing an important contribution to the charged particles precise momentum measurement and particle (mainly electron) identification. The TRT consists of a barrel section at small pseudorapidity (η) and two separate end-cap partitions at large η. The detector performance and its operational conditions were permanently monitored during all commissioning and data-taking stages using various software tools, one of which - TRTViewer - is described in the present paper. The TRTViewer is the dedicated program for monitoring the TRT raw data quality and detector performance at different hardware levels: individual straws, readout chips and electronic boards. The data analysis results can be presented on the event-by-event basis or in the form of color maps representing the operation parameters (efficiencies, timing, occupancy, etc.) according to the real geometrical position of the detector hardware elements. The paper describes the TRTViewer software package as the event displaying tool, raw data processor and histogram and operation parameters presenter, which works with the different sources of input information: raw data files, online monitoring histograms, offline analysis histograms and TRT DAQ Configuration database. The package proved to be one of the main instruments for the fast and effective TRT diagnostics during debugging and operation periods.

  1. Miniature Laser Tracker

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2003-09-09

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  2. The PANDA Barrel DIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhygadlo, R.; Schwarz, C.; Belias, A.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2016-05-01

    The PANDA detector at the international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) addresses fundamental questions of hadron physics. Experiments concerning charmonium spectroscopy, the search for hybrids and glueballs and the interaction of hidden and open charm particles with nucleons and nuclei will be performed with antiproton beams impinging on hydrogen or nuclear targets. Cooled beams allow the precision scan of resonances in formation experiments. The momentum range of the antiproton beam between 1.5 GeV/c and 15 GeV/c tests predictions by perturbation theory and will reveal deviations originating from strong QCD . An excellent hadronic particle identification will be accomplished by DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counters. The design for the barrel region is based on the successful BaBar DIRC with several key improvements, such as fast photon timing and a compact imaging region. DIRC designs based on different radiator geometries with several focusing options were studied in simulation. The performance of each design was characterized in terms of photon yield and single photon Cherenkov angle resolution. Selected design options were implemented in prototypes and tested with hadronic particle beams at GSI and CERN.

  3. ORNL SunTracker

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screenmore » that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.« less

  4. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    A recent paper in this journal1 presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses.2-4 Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In this paper we describe the use of Tracker in introductory astronomy to analyze a ``video'' consisting of a series of still images of star fields and sunspots. Because astronomy focuses on concepts unfamiliar to most students, the visualization that video analysis provides can be especially valuable.

  5. Vidicon star tracker.

    PubMed

    Schuck, W H

    1966-04-01

    In many applications of star trackers, extremely short acquisition times, as well as accuracy and sensitivity, are required. Tracking systems employing the vidicon as a radiation sensor have been shown to provide the necessary speed of acquisition for such applications. This paper discusses the various theoretical and practical considerations involved in using the vidicon as a sensor in a star tracking system. A typical system configuration including telescope, sensor, and processing electronics is presented. The various optical and sensor parametric relationships required in the design of a vidicon star tracker are fully discussed and analyzed. PMID:20048884

  6. The ATLAS SCT endcap: From module production to commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrère, D.

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is aiming for new physics at TeV scale energy and will be operational in 2007. The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is a part of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) and consists of 4088 silicon detector modules displayed on four concentric barrels and two endcaps on each side. Almost 2400 endcap modules have been produced in seven assembly sites including a 20% contingency. All the qualified modules have been shipped to the two macro-assembly sites where the modules are now mounted to the discs. A major organizational effort around the components and the logistics has been made to ensure that the project is running with a high yield and within the schedule. Well defined and strict quality assurance rules allowed the endcap community to achieve an average production yield of 92.9%. In order to complete the two endcaps, a major effort is made for finalizing the assembly of modules and services onto the discs and carbon fiber cylinder, respectively. After describing the organization of the endcap module assembly and the production results, a description and status of the endcap macro-assembly and services will be reported.

  7. BARREL Team Launching 20 Balloons

    NASA Video Gallery

    A movie made by the NASA-Funded Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses, or BARREL, team on their work launching 20 balloons in Antarctica during the Dec. 2013/Jan. 2014 campa...

  8. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  9. Rotational Dynamics with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…

  10. MediaTracker system

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D. M.; Strittmatter, R. B.; Abeyta, J. D.; Brown, J.; Marks, T. , Jr.; Martinez, B. J.; Jones, D. B.; Hsue, W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial objectives of this effort were to provide a hardware and software platform that can address the requirements for the accountability of classified removable electronic media and vault access logging. The Media Tracker system software assists classified media custodian in managing vault access logging and Media Tracking to prevent the inadvertent violation of rules or policies for the access to a restricted area and the movement and use of tracked items. The MediaTracker system includes the software tools to track and account for high consequence security assets and high value items. The overall benefits include: (1) real-time access to the disposition of all Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM), (2) streamlined security procedures and requirements, (3) removal of ambiguity and managerial inconsistencies, (4) prevention of incidents that can and should be prevented, (5) alignment with the DOE's initiative to achieve improvements in security and facility operations through technology deployment, and (6) enhanced individual responsibility by providing a consistent method of dealing with daily responsibilities. In response to initiatives to enhance the control of classified removable electronic media (CREM), the Media Tracker software suite was developed, piloted and implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in July 2000. The Media Tracker software suite assists in the accountability and tracking of CREM and other high-value assets. One component of the MediaTracker software suite provides a Laboratory-approved media tracking system. Using commercial touch screen and bar code technology, the MediaTracker (MT) component of the MediaTracker software suite provides an efficient and effective means to meet current Laboratory requirements and provides new-engineered controls to help assure compliance with those requirements. It also establishes a computer infrastructure at vault entrances for vault access logging, and can accommodate

  11. The LHCb silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeva, B.; Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Baumeister, D.; Bay, A.; Bernhard, R. P.; Bernet, R.; Blouw, J.; Carron, B.; Ermoline, Y.; Esperante, D.; Frei, R.; Gassner, J.; Hofmann, W.; Jimenez-Otero, S.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Köstner, S.; Lehner, F.; Löchner, S.; Lois, C.; Needham, M.; Pugatch, V.; Schmelling, M.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Siegler, M.; Steinkamp, O.; Straumann, U.; Tran, M. T.; Vazquez, P.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voss, H.

    2005-07-01

    LHCb is a dedicated B-physics and CP-violation experiment for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Efficient track reconstruction and excellent trigger performances are essential in order to exploit fully its physics potential. Silicon strip detectors providing fast signal generation, high resolution and fine granularity are used for this purpose in the large area Trigger Tracker station in front of the spectrometer magnet and the LHCb Inner Tracker covering the area close to the beam pipe behind the magnet. Long read-out strips of up to 38 cm are used together with fast signal shaping adapted to the 25 ns LHC bunch crossing. The design of these tracking stations, the silicon sensor strip geometries and the latest test results are presented here.

  12. The Tevatron Chromaticity tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    The Tevatron chromaticity tracker (CT) has been successfully commissioned and is now operational. The basic idea behind the CT is that when the phase of the Tevatron RF is slowly modulated, the beam momentum is also modulated. This momentum modulation is coupled transversely via chromaticity to manifest as a phase modulation on the betatron tune. Thus by phase demodulating the betatron tune, the chromaticity can be recovered. However, for the phase demodulation to be successful, it is critical that the betatron tune be a coherent signal that can be easily picked up by a phase detector. This is easily done because the Tevatron has a phase locked loop (PLL) based tune tracker which coherently excites the beam at the betatron tune.

  13. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for new physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charm hadrons produced at the LHC. The LHCb detector is a single-arm spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities. The Silicon Tracker is part of the tracking system and measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. The LHCb Silicon Tracker covers a total sensitive area of about 12 m2 using silicon micro-strip detectors with long readout strips. It consists of one four-layer tracking station before the LHCb dipole magnet and three stations after. The detector has performed extremely well since the start of the LHC operation despite the fact that the experiment is collecting data at instantaneous luminosities well above the design value. This paper reports on the operation and performance of the Silicon Tracker during the Physics data taking at the LHC during the last two years.

  14. Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

  15. Tracker 300 Software

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R. Wes

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will provide real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.

  16. CMS tracker visualization tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennea, M. S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-08-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  17. Direct 3D Analyses Reveal Barrel-Specific Vascular Distribution and Cross-Barrel Branching in the Mouse Barrel Cortex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingpeng; Guo, Congdi; Chen, Shangbin; Jiang, Tao; He, Yong; Ding, Wenxiang; Yang, Zhongqin; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Whether vascular distribution is spatially specific among cortical columns is a fundamental yet controversial question. Here, we have obtained 1-μm resolution 3D datasets that cover the whole mouse barrel cortex by combining Nissl staining with micro-optical sectioning tomography to simultaneously visualize individual cells and blood vessels, including capillaries. Pinpointing layer IV of the posteromedial barrel subfield, direct 3D reconstruction and quantitative analysis showed that (1) penetrating vessels preferentially locate in the interbarrel septa/barrel wall (75.1%) rather than the barrel hollows, (2) the branches of 70% penetrating vessels only reach the neighboring but not always all the neighboring barrels and the other 30% extend beyond the neighboring barrels and may provide cross-barrel blood supply or drainage, (3) the branches of 59.6% penetrating vessels reach all the neighboring barrels, while the rest only reach part of them, and (4) the length density of microvessels in the interbarrel septa/barrel wall is lower than that in the barrel hollows with a ratio of 0.92. These results reveal that the penetrating vessels and microvessels exhibit a barrel-specific organization, whereas the branches of penetrating vessels do not, which suggests a much more complex vascular distribution pattern among cortical columns than previously thought. PMID:25085882

  18. The PANDA Barrel DIRC detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoek, M.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Rosner, G.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Lauth, W.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Bühler, P.; Gruber, L.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.

    2014-12-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt, will study fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. Efficient Particle Identification for a wide momentum range and the full solid angle is required for reconstructing the various physics channels of the PANDA program. Hadronic Particle Identification in the barrel region of the detector will be provided by a DIRC counter. The design is based on the successful BABAR DIRC with important improvements, such as focusing optics and fast photon timing. Several of these improvements, including different radiator geometries and optics, were tested in particle beams at GSI and at CERN. The evolution of the conceptual design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC and the performance of complex prototypes in test beam campaigns will be discussed.

  19. Intelligent star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Natalie

    2001-11-01

    Current state-of-the-art commercial star sensors typically weigh 15 pounds, attain 5 to 10 arc-second accuracy, and use roughly 10 watts of power. Unfortunately, the current state-of-the-art commercial star sensors do not meet many of NASA's next-generation spacecraft and instrument needs. Nor do they satisfy Air Force's needs for micro/nano-satellite systems. In an effort to satisfy micro/nano satellite mission needs the Air Force Research Laboratory is developing an intelligent star Tracker, called IntelliStar, which incorporates several novel technologies including Silicon carbide optical housing, MEMs based adaptive optic technologies, smart active pixels, and algebraic coding theory. The design considerations associated with the development of the IntelliStar system are presented along with experimental results which characterize each technologies contribution to overall system performance. In addition to being light weight, the IntelliStar System offers advantages in speed, size, power consumption, and radiation tolerance.

  20. Silicon tracker data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Large particle physics experiments are making increasing technological demands on the design and implementation of real-time data acquisition systems. The LHC will have bunch crossing intervals of 25 nanoseconds and detectors, such as CMS, will contain over 10 million electronic channels. Readout systems will need to cope with 100 kHz rates of 1 MByte-sized events. Over 70% of this voluminous flow will stem from silicon tracker and MSGC devices. This paper describes the techniques currently being harnessed from ASIC devices through to modular microprocessor-based architectures around standards such as VMEbus and PCI. In particular, the experiences gained at the HERA H1 experiment are highlighted where many of the key technological concepts have already been im implemented.

  1. Tracker 300 Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will providemore » real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.« less

  2. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  3. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  4. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  5. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  6. The OPAL muon barrel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, R. J.; Allison, J.; Ashton, P.; Bahan, G. A.; Baines, J. T. M.; Banks, J. N.; Barlow, R. J.; Barnett, S.; Beeston, C.; Chrin, J. T. M.; Clowes, S. G.; Davies, O. W.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Hinde, P. S.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Lafferty, G. D.; Loebinger, F. K.; Macbeth, A. A.; McGowan, R. F.; Moss, M. W.; Murphy, P. G.; Nijjhar, B.; O'Dowd, A. J. P.; Pawley, S. J.; Phillips, P. D.; Richards, G. E.; Skillman, A.; Stephens, K.; Tresillian, N. J.; Wood, N. C.; Wyatt, T. R.

    1995-02-01

    The barrel part of the OPAL muon detector consists of 110 drift chambers forming four layers outside the hadron absorber. Each chamber covers an area of 1.2 m by up to 10.4 m and has two cells with wires parallel to the beam and a drift distance of 297 mm. A detailed description of the design, construction, operation and performance of the sub-detector is given. The system has been operating successfully since the start of LEP in 1989.

  7. The H1 silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2005-09-01

    The H1 experiment at HERA is equipped with a silicon vertex detector, comprising a barrel part and two endcaps with disks. The barrel part uses double-sided, DC-coupled strip sensors, whereas the endcap parts use two types of wedge-shaped sensors, both single-sided and AC-coupled: u/v sensors have strips parallel to one edge of the sensor, r sensors have circular strips. Additional pad detectors provide fast triggering signals in the backward part.

  8. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  9. WGM Temperature Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    This software implements digital control of a WGM (whispering-gallerymode) resonator temperature based on the dual-mode approach. It comprises one acquisition (dual-channel) and three control modules. The interaction of the proportional-integral loops is designed in the original way, preventing the loops from fighting. The data processing is organized in parallel with the acquisition, which allows the computational overhead time to be suppressed or often completely avoided. WGM resonators potentially provide excellent optical references for metrology, clocks, spectroscopy, and other applications. However, extremely accurate (below micro-Kelvin) temperature stabilization is required. This software allows one specifically advantageous method of such stabilization to be implemented, which is immune to a variety of effects that mask the temperature variation. WGM Temperature Tracker 2.3 (see figure) is a LabVIEW code developed for dual-mode temperature stabilization of WGM resonators. It has allowed for the temperature stabilization at the level of 200 nK with one-second integration time, and 6 nK with 10,000-second integration time, with the above room-temperature set point. This software, in conjunction with the appropriate hardware, can be used as a noncryogenic temperature sensor/ controller with sub-micro-Kelvin sensitivity, which at the time of this reporting considerably outperforms the state of the art.

  10. Controls Request Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    White, Karen S; Kasemir, Kay; Hartman, Steven M; Verstovsek, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Controls groups at large accelerators are routinely called upon to build and support controls for virtually all machine systems. While construction projects within the US DOE system are normally carefully planned and tracked by project management professionals, this support ends when construction milestones are met. However, once construction is complete, work continues as the group performs ongoing support and maintenance while also implementing requested system improvements and upgrades. With customers from virtually every accelerator and experiment group, the demands on the group often exceed the capacity of available resources. This type of diverse workload needs to be well organized and managed in order set proper priorities and ensure efficient use of resources. At SNS, we have collaborated with Cosylab to develop Controls Request Tracker (CRT), which is adapted from the Cosylab Project Manager (CPM) software. The resulting system not only provides standard request tracking features, but is interfaced to the SNS Logbook and work control system. This paper will discuss CRT and how we use it to manage the work of our controls group.

  11. Schedule-Tracker Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Fernando F.

    1990-01-01

    Schedule Tracker provides effective method for tracking tasks "past due" and/or "near term". Generates reports for each responsible staff member having one or more assigned tasks falling within two listed categories. Schedule Organizer (SO) (COSMIC program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker (ST), and Schedule Report Generator (SRG) (COSMIC program MSC-21527) computer programs manipulating data-base files in ways advantageous in scheduling. Written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL).

  12. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm‑2s‑1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb‑1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  13. Prototyping the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, C.; Kalicy, G.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Rosner, G.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Bühler, P.; Gruber, L.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.

    2014-12-01

    The design of the Barrel DIRC detector for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR contains several important improvements compared to the successful BABAR DIRC, such as focusing and fast timing. To test those improvements as well as other design options a prototype was build and successfully tested in 2012 with particle beams at CERN. The prototype comprises a radiator bar, focusing lens, mirror, and a prism shaped expansion volume made of synthetic fused silica. An array of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes measures the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons with sub-nanosecond resolution. The development of a fast reconstruction algorithm allowed to tune construction details of the detector setup with test beam data and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  14. Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agurok, Llya

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker (HIT) is a technique for visualization and tracking of low-contrast, fast-moving objects. The HIT architecture is based on an innovative and only recently developed concept in imaging optics. This innovative architecture will give the Light Prescriptions Innovators (LPI) HIT the possibility of simultaneously collecting the spectral band images (hyperspectral cube), IR images, and to operate with high-light-gathering power and high magnification for multiple fast- moving objects. Adaptive Spectral Filtering algorithms will efficiently increase the contrast of low-contrast scenes. The most hazardous parts of a space mission are the first stage of a launch and the last 10 kilometers of the landing trajectory. In general, a close watch on spacecraft operation is required at distances up to 70 km. Tracking at such distances is usually associated with the use of radar, but its milliradian angular resolution translates to 100- m spatial resolution at 70-km distance. With sufficient power, radar can track a spacecraft as a whole object, but will not provide detail in the case of an accident, particularly for small debris in the onemeter range, which can only be achieved optically. It will be important to track the debris, which could disintegrate further into more debris, all the way to the ground. Such fragmentation could cause ballistic predictions, based on observations using high-resolution but narrow-field optics for only the first few seconds of the event, to be inaccurate. No optical imager architecture exists to satisfy NASA requirements. The HIT was developed for space vehicle tracking, in-flight inspection, and in the case of an accident, a detailed recording of the event. The system is a combination of five subsystems: (1) a roving fovea telescope with a wide 30 field of regard; (2) narrow, high-resolution fovea field optics; (3) a Coude optics system for telescope output beam stabilization; (4) a hyperspectral

  15. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  16. The Do/ scintillating fiber tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, A.; Gutierrez, G.; Grunendahl, S.; Lincoln, D.; Ramberg, E.; Ray, R.; Ruchti, R.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Choic, S.

    1998-11-01

    The Do/ detector is being upgraded in preparation for the next collider run at Fermilab. The Central Fiber Tracker discussed in this report is a major component of the Do/ upgrade. The expected Tevatron luminosity of 2{times}10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2} sec{sup {minus}1}, the 132ns bunch crossing time, and the Do/ detector constraints of a 2 Tesla solenoid and a 52 cm lever arm, make a scintillating fiber based tracker an optimal choice for the upgrade of the Do/ detector. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Excitatory neuronal connectivity in the barrel cortex

    PubMed Central

    Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Neocortical areas are believed to be organized into vertical modules, the cortical columns, and the horizontal layers 1–6. In the somatosensory barrel cortex these columns are defined by the readily discernible barrel structure in layer 4. Information processing in the neocortex occurs along vertical and horizontal axes, thereby linking individual barrel-related columns via axons running through the different cortical layers of the barrel cortex. Long-range signaling occurs within the neocortical layers but also through axons projecting through the white matter to other neocortical areas and subcortical brain regions. Because of the ease of identification of barrel-related columns, the rodent barrel cortex has become a prototypical system to study the interactions between different neuronal connections within a sensory cortical area and between this area and other cortical as well subcortical regions. Such interactions will be discussed specifically for the feed-forward and feedback loops between the somatosensory and the somatomotor cortices as well as the different thalamic nuclei. In addition, recent advances concerning the morphological characteristics of excitatory neurons and their impact on the synaptic connectivity patterns and signaling properties of neuronal microcircuits in the whisker-related somatosensory cortex will be reviewed. In this context, their relationship between the structural properties of barrel-related columns and their function as a module in vertical synaptic signaling in the whisker-related cortical areas will be discussed. PMID:22798946

  18. CALIFA Barrel prototype detector characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietras, B.; Gascón, M.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Bendel, M.; Bloch, T.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Durán, I.; Fiori, E.; Gernhäuser, R.; González, D.; Kröll, T.; Le Bleis, T.; Montes, N.; Nácher, E.; Robles, M.; Perea, A.; Vilán, J. A.; Winkel, M.

    2013-11-01

    Well established in the field of scintillator detection, Caesium Iodide remains at the forefront of scintillators for use in modern calorimeters. Recent developments in photosensor technology have lead to the production of Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs), a huge advancement on traditional photosensors in terms of high internal gain, dynamic range, magnetic field insensitivity, high quantum efficiency and fast recovery time. The R3B physics programme has a number of requirements for its calorimeter, one of the most challenging being the dual functionality as both a calorimeter and a spectrometer. This involves the simultaneous detection of ∼300 MeV protons and gamma rays ranging from 0.1 to 20 MeV. This scintillator - photosensor coupling provides an excellent solution in this capacity, in part due to the near perfect match of the LAAPD quantum efficiency peak to the light output wavelength of CsI(Tl). Modern detector development is guided by use of Monte Carlo simulations to predict detector performance, nonetheless it is essential to benchmark these simulations against real data taken with prototype detector arrays. Here follows an account of the performance of two such prototypes representing different polar regions of the Barrel section of the forthcoming CALIFA calorimeter. Measurements were taken for gamma-ray energies up to 15.1 MeV (Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching, Germany) and for direct irradiation with a 180 MeV proton beam (The Svedberg Laboratoriet, Uppsala, Sweden). Results are discussed in light of complementary GEANT4 simulations.

  19. Master plate production for the tile calorimeter extended barrel modules.

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.J.; Hill, N.; Petereit, E.; Price, L.E.; Proudfoot, J.; Wood, K.

    1999-03-10

    Approximately 41,000 master plates (Fig. 1) are required for the Extended Barrel Hadronic Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Early in the R&D program associated with the detector, it was recognized that the fabrication of these steel laminations was a significant issue, both in terms of the cost to produce these high precision formed plates, as well as the length of time required to produce all plates for the calorimeter. Two approaches were given serious consideration: laser cutting and die stamping. The Argonne group was a strong supporter of the latter approach and in late 1995 initiated an R&D program to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of die stamping these plates by constructing a die and stamping approximately 2000 plates for use in construction of three full size prototype modules. This was extremely successful and die stamping was selected by the group for production of these plates. When the prototype die was constructed it was matched to the calorimeter envelope at that time. This subsequently changed. However with some minor adjustments in the design envelope and a small compromise in terms of instrumented volume, it became possible to use this same die for the production of all master plates for the Tile Calorimeter. Following an extensive series of discussions and an evaluation of the performance of the stamping presses available to our collaborators in Europe, it was decided to ship the US die to CERN for use in stamping master plates for the barrel section of the calorimeter. This was done under the supervision of CERN and JINR, Dubna, and carried out at the TATRA truck plant at Koprivinice, Czech Republic. It was a great success. Approximately 41,000 plates were stamped and fully met specification. Moreover, the production time was significantly reduced by avoiding the need of constructing and then qualifying a second die for use in Europe. This also precluded small geometrical differences between the barrel and

  20. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    SciTech Connect

    Antonioli, Mary Ann; Boiarinov, Serguie; Bonneau, Peter R.; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eng, Brian J.; Gotra, Yuri N.; Kurbatov, Evgeny O.; Leffel, Mindy A.; Mandal, Saptarshi; McMullen, Marc E.; Merkin, Mikhail M.; Raydo, Benjamin J.; Teachey, Robert W,; Tucker, Ross J.; Ungaro, Maurizio; Yegneswaran, Amrit S.; Ziegler, Veronique

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156{micro}m, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  1. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, M. A.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eng, B.; Gotra, Y.; Kurbatov, E.; Leffel, M.; Mandal, S.; McMullen, M.; Merkin, M.; Raydo, B.; Teachey, W.; Tucker, R.; Ungaro, M.; Yegneswaran, A.; Ziegler, V.

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156 μm, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  2. TacNet Tracker Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. Themore » purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.« less

  3. TacNet Tracker Software

    SciTech Connect

    WISEMAN, JAMES; & STEVENS, JAMES

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. The purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.

  4. Barrel Calorimeter for the Hall D Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    David Urner

    1998-06-01

    The barrel calorimeter for the hall D spectrometer is discussed for standard pointing geometry and a parallel geometry using Lead Scintillating fibres as active material. A comparison with a CSI spectrometer is shown.

  5. High performance railgun barrels for laboratory use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, David P.; Newman, Duane C.

    1993-01-01

    High performance low-cost, laboratory railgun barrels are now available, comprised of an inherently stiff containment structure which surrounds the bore components machined from 'off the-shelf' materials. The shape of the containment structure was selected to make the barrel inherently stiff. The structure consists of stainless steel laminations which do not compromise the electrical efficiency of the railgun. The modular design enhances the utility of the barrel, as it is easy to service between shots, and can be 're-cored' to produce different configurations and sizes using the same structure. We have produced barrels ranging from 15 mm to 90 mm square bore, a 30 mm round bore, and in lengths varying from 0.25 meters to 10 meters long. Successful tests with both plasma and solid metal armatures have demonstrated the versatility and performance of this design.

  6. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  7. The LHCb Silicon Tracker Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Baumeister, D.; Blouw, J.; Hofmann, W.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Löchner, S.; Schmelling, M.; Pugatch, V.; Bay, A.; Carron, B.; Frei, R.; Jiminez-Otero, S.; Tran, M.-T.; Voss, H.; Adeva, B.; Esperante, D.; Lois, C.; Vasquez, P.; Bernhard, R. P.; Bernet, R.; Ermoline, Y.; Gassner, J.; Köstner, S.; Lehner, F.; Needham, M.; Siegler, M.; Steinkamp, O.; Straumann, U.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.

    2006-01-01

    Two silicon strip detectors, the Trigger Tracker(TT) and the Inner Tracker(IT) will be constructed for the LHCb experiment. Transverse momentum information extracted from the TT will be used in the Level 1 trigger. The IT is part of the main tracking system behind the magnet. Both silicon detectors will be read out using a custom-developed chip by the ASIC lab in Heidelberg. The signal-over-noise behavior and performance of various geometrical designs of the silicon sensors, in conjunction with the Beetle read-out chip, have been extensively studied in test beam experiments. Results from those experiments are presented, and have been used in the final choice of sensor geometry.

  8. Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taševský, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is summarized. The AFP system is composed of a tracker to detect intact, diffractively scattered protons, and of a time-of-flight detector serving to suppress background from pile-up interactions. The whole system, located around 210 m from the main ATLAS detector, is placed in Roman Pots which move detectors from and to the incident proton beams. A typical distance of the closest approach of the tracker to these beams is 2-3 mm. The main physics motivation lies in measuring diffractive processes in runs with not a very high amount of pile-up.

  9. Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Taševský, Marek

    2015-04-10

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is summarized. The AFP system is composed of a tracker to detect intact, diffractively scattered protons, and of a time-of-flight detector serving to suppress background from pile-up interactions. The whole system, located around 210 m from the main ATLAS detector, is placed in Roman Pots which move detectors from and to the incident proton beams. A typical distance of the closest approach of the tracker to these beams is 2–3 mm. The main physics motivation lies in measuring diffractive processes in runs with not a very high amount of pile-up.

  10. Introduction to Mini Muon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.

    2012-08-13

    Using a mini muon tracker developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory we performed experiments of simple landscapes of various materials, including TNT, 9501, lead, tungsten, aluminium, and water. Most common scenes are four two inches thick step wedges of different dimensions: 12-inch x 12-inch, 12-inch x 9-inch, 12-inch x 6-inch, and 12-inch x 3-inch; and a one three inches thick hemisphere of lead with spherical hollow, and a similar full lead sphere.

  11. Star-Tracker Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Image-analyzing pointing systems aimed to high precision. Star-tracker program, STRACKER, developed to solve algorithm-design problems for area-array tracking and pointing systems operating at accuracies of 0.001 to 0.01 picture element. Includes auxiliary programs for reformatting point-spread data from commercial ACCOSV lens-design program. Other optical-analysis program data reformatted by use of utility routines included in package. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  12. The CMS tracker control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G. H.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Hartmann, F.; Masetti, L.; Militaru, O.; Shah, S. Y.; Stringer, R.; Tsirou, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 104 power supply parameters, about 103 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 105 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention.

  13. Activity trackers: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The wearable consumer health devices can be mainly divided into activity trackers, sleep trackers, and stress management devices. These devices are widely advertised to provide positive effects on the user's daily behaviours and overall heath. However, objective evidence supporting these claims appears to be missing. The goal of this study was to review available evidence pertaining to performance of activity trackers. A comprehensive review of available information has been conducted for seven representative devices and the validity of marketing claims was assessed. The device assessment was based on availability of verified output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified critical absence of supporting evidence of advertised functions and benefits for the majority of the devices. Six out of seven devices did not provide any information on sensor accuracy and output validity at all. Possible underestimation or overestimation of specific health indicators reported to consumers was not clearly disclosed to the public. Furthermore, significant limitations of these devices which can be categorized into user restrictions, user responsibilities and company disclaimers could not be easily found or comprehended by unsophisticated users and may represent a serious health hazard. PMID:25160247

  14. Effects of barrel joints on hypervelocity projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Shahinpoor, M.; Asay, J.R.; Dixon, W.R.; Hawke, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Development of new hypervelocity launchers is necessary for equation of state (EOS) studies at high impact velocities. The requirements for barrel joint alignment and concentricity at high velocities place severe constraints on fabrication and assembly procedures; small steps or longitudinal direction changes at joints may cause major damage to precision projectiles. Research has been initiated to identify the technical limits of fabrication and assembly tolerances for hypervelocity gun barrels. Numerical and experimental studies have evaluated projectile performance at velocities of 6 to 15 km/s and have identified failure modes for Lexan projectiles with thin metal facings.

  15. The CDF silicon vertex tracker

    SciTech Connect

    A. Cerri et al.

    2000-10-10

    Real time pattern recognition is becoming a key issue in many position sensitive detector applications. The CDF collaboration is building SVT: a specialized electronic device designed to perform real time track reconstruction using the silicon vertex detector (SVX II). This will strongly improve the CDF capability of triggering on events containing b quarks, usually characterized by the presence of a secondary vertex. SVT is designed to reconstruct in real time charged particles trajectories using data coming from the Silicon Vertex detector and the Central Outer Tracker drift chamber. The SVT architecture and algorithm have been specially tuned to minimize processing time without degrading parameter resolution.

  16. Optical filtering for star trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The optimization of optical filtering was investigated for tracking faint stars, down to the fifth magnitude. The effective wavelength and bandwidth for tracking pre-selected guide stars are discussed along with the results of an all-electronic tracker with a star tracking photomultiplier, which was tested with a simulated second magnitude star. Tables which give the sum of zodiacal light and galactic background light over the entire sky for intervals of five degrees in declination, and twenty minutes in right ascension are included.

  17. Star tracker for the Apollo telescope mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The star tracker for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the Skylab vehicle and mission. The functions of the star tracker are presented, as well as descriptions of the optical-mechanical assembly (OMA) and the star tracker electronics (STE). Also included are the electronic and mechanical specifications, interface and operational requirements, support equipment and test requirements, and occultation information. Laboratory functional tests, environmental qualification tests, and life tests have provided a high confidence factor in the performance of the star tracker in the laboratory and on the Skylab mission.

  18. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  19. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videbaek, Flemming; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is an on-going upgrade for the STAR detector at RHIC that aim to study heavy quark production. In relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC, heavy quarks are primarily created from initial hard scatterings. Since their large masses are not easily affected by the strong interaction with QCD medium they may carry information from the system at early stage. The interaction between heavy quarks and the medium is sensitive to the medium dynamics; therefore heavy quarks are suggested as an ideal probe to quantify the properties of the strongly interacting QCD matter. The HFT detectors will study this via the topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons. The HFT that consists of a thin two layer inner Pixel vertex detector, and two outer concentric layers of silicon, the Silicon Strip Detector, and the Intermediate Silicon Tracker. We will show how this detector system can assess heavy flavor physics with great precision. An overview of the HFT that will be completed for the upcoming RHIC run-14, its expected performance, and current status will be presented. Supported by the Division of Nuclear Physics of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Rain Barrels: A Catalyst for Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakacs, Michele E.; Haberland, Mike; Mangiafico, Salvatore S.; Winquist, Aileen; Obropta, Christopher C.; Boyajian, Amy; Mellor, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 4 years, rain barrel programming for residents has been implemented in both Northern Virginia and New Jersey as a method for educating the public about stormwater management and water conservation. Program participants demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge of water resource issues. Follow-up surveys showed 58% of New…

  1. Adapting to Pork-Barrel Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the increasing trend toward the pork-barrel funding of science projects, particularly for grants to academic institutions. Addresses the new strategies being employed by opponents of such funding. Describes some of the possible ramifications of the various strategies and the perceived link between science funding and economic growth. (TW)

  2. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.

    2011-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors. (authors)

  3. The Chesapeake Laser Tracker in Industrial Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    In the summer of 1992, the survey and alignment team at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center acquired a CMS3000 laser tracker manufactured by Chesapeake Laser Systems in Lanham, Maryland. This paper gives a description of the principles of operation and calibration of the tracker. Several applications are explained and the results shared.

  4. Flight experience of 329K star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruzhilov, Ivan S.; Kuniaev, Vladimir V.; Fedoseev, Victor I.; Titov, Gennadiy P.; Shevlyakov, Oleg V.; Latyncev, Sergey V.

    2013-10-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of the star tracker 329K flight tests on board of the satellites Luch-5A and Luch-5B launched into geostationary orbit in December 2011 and November 2012 respectively. Emphasis is placed on accuracy and photometric characteristics of the star tracker 329K.

  5. A Rollercoaster Viewed through Motion Tracker Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Rodjegard, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A motion tracker measures acceleration and rotation in three dimensions, sufficient for a complete determination of the motion. In this article, a rollercoaster ride is analysed with reference to motion tracker data. The use of this type of data in education is discussed as a way to deepen students' understanding of concepts related to force and…

  6. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  7. Silicon photomultipliers for scintillating trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaioli, S.; Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Bonvicini, V.; Bosisio, L.; Ciano, S.; Iugovaz, D.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Rashevskaya, I.; Reia, S.; Stoppani, L.; Vallazza, E.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have been proposed as a new kind of readout device for scintillating detectors in many experiments. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected pixels, which are independent photon counters working in Geiger mode with very high gain (∼106). This contribution presents the use of an array of eight SiPMs (manufactured by FBK-irst) for the readout of a scintillating bar tracker (a small size prototype of the Electron Muon Ranger detector for the MICE experiment). The performances of the SiPMs in terms of signal to noise ratio, efficiency and time resolution will be compared to the ones of a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) connected to the same bars. Both the SiPMs and the MAPMT are interfaced to a VME system through a 64 channel MAROC ASIC.

  8. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... having the dimensions specified for a standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, and other dry commodities... form or dimensions, is a legal standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, or other dry commodities other... having the dimensions specified for a standard barrel for cranberries in section 1 of the...

  9. 49 CFR 178.510 - Standards for wooden barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... follows: (1) The wood used must be of good quality, straight-grained, well-seasoned and free from knots... of the barrel. (3) Staves and heads must be sawn or cleft with the grain so that no annual ring... good quality. The hoops of 2C2 barrels may be of a suitable hardwood. (5) For wooden barrels 2C1,...

  10. ST - SCHEDULE TRACKER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST, and Schedule Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum numbers can be modified by the user. ST requires the VMS Operating System on DEC VAX and was written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). The program requires a memory of 233KB. ST can be purchased separately or in a package (COSMIC Program COS-10021) containing SO, ST, and SRG. ST was developed in 1985.

  11. Real time tracker based upon local hit correlation circuit for silicon strip sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Niklaus; Pirrami, Lorenzo; Blue, Andrew; Diez, Sergio; Dressnandt, Nandor; Duner, Silvan; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Haber, Carl; Halgeri, Amogh; Keener, Paul; Keller, John; Newcomer, Mitchell; Pasner, Jacob; Peschke, Richard; Risbud, Amar; Ropraz, Eric; Stalder, Jonas; Wang, Haichen

    2016-01-01

    For the planned high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a significant performance improvement of the detectors is required, including new tracker and trigger systems that makes use of charged track information early on. In this note we explore the principle of real time track reconstruction integrated in the readout electronics. A prototype was built using the silicon strip sensor for the ATLAS phase-II upgrade. The real time tracker is not the baseline for ATLAS but is nevertheless of interest, as the upgraded trigger design has not yet been finalized. For this, a new readout scheme in parallel with conventional readout, called the Fast Cluster Finder (FCF), was included in the latest prototype of the ATLAS strip detector readout chip (ABC130). The FCF is capable of finding hits within 6 ns and transmitting the found hit information synchronously every 25 ns. Using the FCF together with external correlation logic makes it possible to look for pairs of hits consistent with tracks from the interaction point above a transverse momentum threshold. A correlator logic finds correlations between two closely spaced parallel sensors, a "doublet", and can generate information used as input to a lowest level trigger decision. Such a correlator logic was developed as part of a demonstrator and was successfully tested in an electron beam. The results of this test beam experiment proved the concept of the real time track vector processor with FCF.

  12. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebalin, V. E.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2015-12-01

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ˜6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  13. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Shebalin, V. E. Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2015-12-15

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  14. The D0 silicon microstrip tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Breese; D0 Collaboration

    2003-03-01

    The D0 collaboration has completed building a 793,000 channel silicon microstrip tracker for the D0 upgrade. The tracker consists of 768 ladder and wedge assemblies including both single- and double-sided detectors. Detector readout utilizes the SVX-IIE radiation hard chip with on-chip digitization and sparsification. A brief review of the detector design is presented along with results from the assembly and testing processes. The operation of the full readout chain and the performance of the silicon tracker are described. Finally, lessons for future production of large scale tracking systems are discussed.

  15. Personal Activity Trackers and the Quantified Self.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Personal activity trackers are an inexpensive and easy way for people to record their physical activity and simple biometric data. As these devices have increased in availability and sophistication, their use in daily life and in medicine has grown. This column will briefly explore what these devices are, what types of data they can track, and how that data can be used. It will also discuss potential problems with trackers and how librarians can help patients and physicians manage and protect activity data. A brief list of currently available activity trackers is also included. PMID:26794199

  16. My Game Plan: Food and Activity Tracker

    MedlinePlus

    ... THIS WEEK… FOR CUTTING FAT GRAMS: FOR CUTTING CALORIES: FOR GETTING MORE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: FROM — TO HHS' ... AND DRINK TRACKER AMOUNT /NAME /DESCRIPTION FAT GRAMS CALORIES 1/2 cup oatmeal 1 73 1 cup ...

  17. The LHCb silicon tracker: running experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saornil Gamarra, S.

    2013-02-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. It covers the full acceptance angle in front of the dipole magnet in the Tracker Turicensis station and the innermost part around the beam axis in the three Inner Tracker stations downstream of the magnet. The Silicon Tracker covers a sensitive area of 12 m2 using silicon micro-strip sensors with very long readout strips. We report on running experience for the experiment. Focussing on electronic and hardware issues we describe some of the lessons learned and pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  18. Instruction manual for Sandia's laser tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Bauhs, K.C.

    1982-06-01

    This report is a supplement to SAND80-2049/1. It contains additional drawings and information for hardware described in Volume 1, more troubleshooting procedures for several systems in the Laser Tracker Facility, and corrections for volume 1.

  19. Power Studies for the CMS Pixel Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  20. Power distribution studies for CMS forward tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  1. My Game Plan: Food and Activity Tracker

    MedlinePlus

    ... MY GAME PLAN THIS WEEK… FOR CUTTING FAT GRAMS: FOR CUTTING CALORIES: FOR GETTING MORE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: ... FOOD AND DRINK TRACKER AMOUNT /NAME /DESCRIPTION FAT GRAMS CALORIES 1/2 cup oatmeal 1 73 1 ...

  2. Silicon Tracker Design for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.; /SLAC

    2005-07-27

    The task of tracking charged particles in energy frontier collider experiments has been largely taken over by solid-state detectors. While silicon microstrip trackers offer many advantages in this environment, large silicon trackers are generally much more massive than their gaseous counterparts. Because of the properties of the machine itself, much of the material that comprises a typical silicon microstrip tracker can be eliminated from a design for the ILC. This realization is the inspiration for a tracker design using lightweight, short, mass-producible modules to tile closed, nested cylinders with silicon microstrips. This design relies upon a few key technologies to provide excellent performance with low cost and complexity. The details of this concept are discussed, along with the performance and status of the design effort.

  3. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-10-27

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors.

  4. Search for tracker potentials in quintessence theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johri, Vinod B.

    2002-12-01

    We report a significant finding in quintessence theory that scalar fields with tracker potentials have a model-independent scaling behaviour in the expanding universe. So far, widely discussed exponential, power law or hyperbolic potentials can simply mimic the tracking behaviour over a limited range of redshift. A new version of the tracker field theory is proposed and it is shown that in the small redshift range where the variation of the tracking parameter ɛ may be taken to be negligible, the differential equation of generic potentials leads to hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine potentials which may approximate a tracker field in the present-day universe. We have plotted the variation of the tracker potential and the equation of state of the tracker field as a function of the redshift z for the model-independent relation derived from tracker field theory; we have also plotted the variation of V(Φ) in terms of the scalar field Φ for the chosen hyperbolic cosine function and have compared it with the curves obtained by the reconstruction of V(Φ) from real observational data from the supernovae.

  5. Technology transfer: Imaging tracker to robotic controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaguro, M. S.; Kesler, L. O.; Land, Ken; Erwin, Harry; Rhoades, Don

    1988-01-01

    The transformation of an imaging tracker to a robotic controller is described. A multimode tracker was developed for fire and forget missile systems. The tracker locks on to target images within an acquisition window using multiple image tracking algorithms to provide guidance commands to missile control systems. This basic tracker technology is used with the addition of a ranging algorithm based on sizing a cooperative target to perform autonomous guidance and control of a platform for an Advanced Development Project on automation and robotics. A ranging tracker is required to provide the positioning necessary for robotic control. A simple functional demonstration of the feasibility of this approach was performed and described. More realistic demonstrations are under way at NASA-JSC. In particular, this modified tracker, or robotic controller, will be used to autonomously guide the Man Maneuvering Unit (MMU) to targets such as disabled astronauts or tools as part of the EVA Retriever efforts. It will also be used to control the orbiter's Remote Manipulator Systems (RMS) in autonomous approach and positioning demonstrations. These efforts will also be discussed.

  6. Projectile dynamics at low barrel pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chankaev, S. K.; Yakovlev, V. Ya.

    2007-11-01

    A mathematical model for a projectile shot at low pressures in the space behind the projectile space is developed. The pressure rise is limited because of the nonsimultaneity of propellant ignition and combustion and the discharge of the propellant combustion products through the gap between the projectile and the walls of the gun barrel. The kinetic characteristics of flame propagation over the propellant particles are determined. A comparison of calculation and experimental data is performed. The calculation results are used in designing 2A85 self-propelled launchers and upgrading 2A30 self-propelled launchers.

  7. Results from the SLD barrel CRID detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Antilogus, P. |; Aston, D.

    1993-11-01

    We report on operational experience with and experimental performance of the SLD barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector from the 1992 and 1993 physics runs. The liquid (C{sub 6}F{sub 14}) and gas (C{sub 5}F{sub 12}) radiator recirculation systems have performed well, and the drift gas supply system has operated successfully with TMAE for three years. Cherenkov rings have been observed from both the liquid and gas radiators. The number and angular resolution of Cherenkov photons have been measured, and found to be close to design specifications.

  8. The design and performance of a twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector for Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Urbahn, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    A twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector has been designed, built and tested both in the laboratory and on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak at MIT. The injector functions by firing pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium deep into the plasma discharge for the purpose of fueling the plasma, modifying the density profile and increasing the global energy confinement time. The design goals of the injector are: (1) Operational flexibility, (2) High reliability, (3) Remote operation with minimal maintenance. These requirements have lead to a single stage, pipe gun design with twenty barrels. Pellets are formed by in- situ condensation of the fuel gas, thus avoiding moving parts at cryogenic temperatures. The injector is the first to dispense with the need for cryogenic fluids and instead uses a closed cycle refrigerator to cool the thermal system components. The twenty barrels of the injector produce pellets of four different size groups and allow for a high degree of flexibility in fueling experiments. Operation of the injector is under PLC control allowing for remote operation, interlocked safety features and automated pellet manufacturing. The injector has been extrusively tested and shown to produce pellets reliably with velocities up to 1400 m/sec. During the period from September to November of 1993, the injector was successfully used to fire pellets into over fifty plasma discharges. Experimental results include data on the pellet penetration into the plasma using an advanced pellet tracking diagnostic with improved time and spatial response. Data from the tracker indicates pellet penetrations were between 30 and 86 percent of the plasma minor radius.

  9. Tracking for the Atlas Level 1 Trigger for the High Luminosity Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. R.

    2014-06-01

    At the HL-LHC, the increased luminosity will result in up to 200 pile-up interactions per bunch crossing. One of the greatest challenges for ATLAS will be to keep the Level 1 Trigger pT thresholds low enough to maintain high trigger efficiency for all interesting physics. The proposed two-stage design of the ATLAS Level 1 Trigger, and the incorporation of a Level-1 track trigger is described. The requirements and implications for the tracker readout architecture, and estimates of readout latency based on a detailed discrete event simulation of the data flow in the tracker front-end electronics are also presented.

  10. Status of the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Schwiening, J.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Hohler, R.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Dodokhov, V. Kh; Vodopianov, A.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Koch, P.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Ugur, C.; Bühler, P.; Gruber, L.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; The PANDA Cherenkov Group

    2014-05-01

    The PANDA experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt will study fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. Hadronic PID in the barrel region of the PANDA detector will be provided by a DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counter. The design is based on the successful BABAR DIRC with several key improvements, such as fast photon timing and a compact imaging region. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation studies were performed for DIRC designs based on narrow bars or wide plates with a variety of focusing solutions. The performance of each design was characterized in terms of photon yield and single photon Cherenkov angle resolution and a maximum likelihood approach was used to determine the π/K separation. Selected design options were implemented in prototypes and tested with hadronic particle beams at GSI and CERN. This article describes the status of the design and R&D for the PANDA Barrel DIRC detector, with a focus on the performance of different DIRC designs in simulation and particle beams.

  11. Predicting transmembrane beta-barrels in proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Bigelow, Henry R.; Petrey, Donald S.; Liu, Jinfeng; Przybylski, Dariusz; Rost, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    Very few methods address the problem of predicting beta-barrel membrane proteins directly from sequence. One reason is that only very few high-resolution structures for transmembrane beta-barrel (TMB) proteins have been determined thus far. Here we introduced the design, statistics and results of a novel profile-based hidden Markov model for the prediction and discrimination of TMBs. The method carefully attempts to avoid over-fitting the sparse experimental data. While our model training and scoring procedures were very similar to a recently published work, the architecture and structure-based labelling were significantly different. In particular, we introduced a new definition of beta- hairpin motifs, explicit state modelling of transmembrane strands, and a log-odds whole-protein discrimination score. The resulting method reached an overall four-state (up-, down-strand, periplasmic-, outer-loop) accuracy as high as 86%. Furthermore, accurately discriminated TMB from non-TMB proteins (45% coverage at 100% accuracy). This high precision enabled the application to 72 entirely sequenced Gram-negative bacteria. We found over 164 previously uncharacterized TMB proteins at high confidence. Database searches did not implicate any of these proteins with membranes. We challenge that the vast majority of our 164 predictions will eventually be verified experimentally. All proteome predictions and the PROFtmb prediction method are available at http://www.rostlab.org/services/PROFtmb/. PMID:15141026

  12. 1. EXTERIOR, SIDE OF PICKLE BARREL RESTAURANT AND ADJOINING STORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR, SIDE OF PICKLE BARREL RESTAURANT AND ADJOINING STORE - Silverton Historic District, East Thirteenth & Green Streets (Commercial Building), East Thirteenh & Green Streets, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  13. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, S.; Kille, N.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Thomson, D.; Hannigan, J.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-11-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometers making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Photochemistry and Pollution Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives, and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution, and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  14. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, Sunil; Kille, Natalie; Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Thomson, David; Hannigan, James; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers, making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  15. Star Tracker Performance Estimate with IMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Swank, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A software tool for estimating cross-boresight error of a star tracker combined with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was developed to support trade studies for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication project (iROC) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center. Typical laser communication systems, such as the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD), use a beacon to locate ground stations. iROC is investigating the use of beaconless precision laser pointing to enable laser communication at Mars orbits and beyond. Precision attitude knowledge is essential to the iROC mission to enable high-speed steering of the optical link. The preliminary concept to achieve this precision attitude knowledge is to use star trackers combined with an IMU. The Star Tracker Accuracy (STAcc) software was developed to rapidly assess the capabilities of star tracker and IMU configurations. STAcc determines the overall cross-boresight error of a star tracker with an IMU given the characteristic parameters: quantum efficiency, aperture, apparent star magnitude, exposure time, field of view, photon spread, detector pixels, spacecraft slew rate, maximum stars used for quaternion estimation, and IMU angular random walk. This paper discusses the supporting theory used to construct STAcc, verification of the program and sample results.

  16. ATCA-based ATLAS FTK input interface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Iizawa, T.; Mitani, T.; Korikawa, T.; Yorita, K.; Annovi, A.; Beretta, M.; Gatta, M.; Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Kordas, K.; Kimura, N.; Cremonesi, M.; Yin, H.; Xu, Z.

    2015-04-01

    The first stage of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is an ATCA-based input interface system, where hits from the entire silicon tracker are clustered and organized into overlapping η-phi trigger towers before being sent to the tracking engines. First, FTK Input Mezzanine cards receive hit data and perform clustering to reduce data volume. Then, the ATCA-based Data Formatter system will organize the trigger tower data, sharing data among boards over full mesh backplanes and optic fibers. The board and system level design concepts and implementation details, as well as the operation experiences from the FTK full-chain testing, will be presented.

  17. Recent results from the Crystal Barrel experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-09

    The Crystal Barrel experiment has been constructed and installed at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. It has been fully operational since late 1989. In this talk, recent results of meson spectroscopy in p[bar p]-annihilations are presented. The main emphasis is on all-neutral annihilations, the study of the strange quark content of the proton, and the investigation of the decay mode of il particles. A 2[sup ++] resonance decaying into [pi][degrees][pi][degrees]at a mass of 1515 [plus minus] 10 MeV with a width of 120 [plus minus] 10 MeV has been seen in a 3[pi][degrees] final state.

  18. Recent results from the Crystal Barrel experiment

    SciTech Connect

    The Crystal Barrel Collaboration

    1991-10-09

    The Crystal Barrel experiment has been constructed and installed at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. It has been fully operational since late 1989. In this talk, recent results of meson spectroscopy in p{bar p}-annihilations are presented. The main emphasis is on all-neutral annihilations, the study of the strange quark content of the proton, and the investigation of the decay mode of il particles. A 2{sup ++} resonance decaying into {pi}{degrees}{pi}{degrees}at a mass of 1515 {plus_minus} 10 MeV with a width of 120 {plus_minus} 10 MeV has been seen in a 3{pi}{degrees} final state.

  19. Planetary atlases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Inge, J. L.; Morgan, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    Two kinds of planetary map atlases are in production. Atlases of the first kind contain reduced-scale versions of maps in hard-bound books with dimensions of 11 x 14 inches. These new atlases are intended to: (1) provide concise but comprehensive references to the geography of the planets needed by planetary scientists and others; and (2) allow inexpensive access to the planetary map dataset without requiring acquisition and examination of tens or hundreds of full-size map sheets. Two such atlases have been published and a third is in press. Work was begun of an Atlas of the Satellite of the Outer Planets. The second kind of atlas is a popular or semi-technical version designed for commercial publication and distribution. The first edition, The Atlas of the Solar System, is nearly ready for publication. New funding and contracting constraints now make it unlikely that the atlas can be published in the format originally planned. Currently, the possibility of publishing the maps through the U.S. Geological Survey as a series of folios in the I-map series is being explored. The maps are global views of each solid-surface body of the Solar System. Each map shows airbrushed relief, albedo, and, where available, topography. A set of simplified geologic maps is also included. All of the maps are on equal-area projections. Scales are 1:40,000,000 for the Earth and Venus; 1:2,000,000 for the Saturnian satellites Mimas and Enceladus and the Uranian satellite Miranda; 1:100,000 for the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos; and 1:10,000,000 for all other bodies.

  20. SimTracker, Version 5.0

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-27

    SimTracker is a product of the Metadata Tools subproject under the ASC Scientific Data Management effort. SimTracker is an extensible web-based application that provides the capability to view and organize large volumes of simulation data. SimTracker automatically generates metadata summaries that provide a quick overview and index to the archived results of simulations. The summaries provide access to the data sets and associated data analysis tools. They include graphical snapshots, pointers to associated simulation input and output files, and assorted annotations. The ability to add personal annotations to simulation data sets is supported. All metadata is stored in XML files suitable for searching by the generator of the data or other scientists.

  1. SimTracker, Version 5.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-08-27

    SimTracker is a product of the Metadata Tools subproject under the ASC Scientific Data Management effort. SimTracker is an extensible web-based application that provides the capability to view and organize large volumes of simulation data. SimTracker automatically generates metadata summaries that provide a quick overview and index to the archived results of simulations. The summaries provide access to the data sets and associated data analysis tools. They include graphical snapshots, pointers to associated simulation inputmore » and output files, and assorted annotations. The ability to add personal annotations to simulation data sets is supported. All metadata is stored in XML files suitable for searching by the generator of the data or other scientists.« less

  2. 49 CFR 178.510 - Standards for wooden barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of the barrel. (3) Staves and heads must be sawn or cleft with the grain so that no annual ring extends over more than half the thickness of a stave or head. (4) Barrel hoops must be of steel or iron...

  3. Preliminary studies of a chromaticity tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    A chromaticity tracker based on a method by D. McGinnis is proposed. This method starts with the slow modulation of the accelerating RF which causes the beam to respond to it. This beam modulation can be detected transversely with a Schottky pickup which after phase demodulation, the chromaticity can be calculated from it. However, to perform phase demodulation, the carrier frequency which is the betatron tune needs to be identified. The identification of the carrier frequency falls naturally onto the phase locked loop tune tracker which when locked to the betatron tune outputs this value in real time.

  4. Optical contacting for gravity probe star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. J.; Zissa, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A star-tracker telescope, constructed entirely of fused silica elements optically contacted together, has been proposed to provide submilliarc-second pointing accuracy for Gravity Probe. A bibliography and discussion on optical contacting (the bonding of very flat, highly polished surfaces without the use of adhesives) are presented. Then results from preliminary experiments on the strength of optical contacts including a tensile strength test in liquid helium are discussed. Suggestions are made for further study to verify an optical contacting method for the Gravity Probe star-tracker telescope.

  5. A microprocessor-controlled CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.; Goss, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The STELLAR (Star Tracker for Economical Long Life Attitude Reference) utilizes an image sensing Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) operating under microprocessor control. This approach results in a new type of high-accuracy star tracker which can be adapted to a wide variety of different space flight applications through software changes only. The STELLAR determines two-axis star positions by computing the element and the interelement interpolated centroid positions of the star images. As many as 10 stars may be tracked simultaneously, providing significantly increased stability and accuracy. A detailed description of the STELLAR is presented along with measurements of system performance obtained from an operating breadboard model.

  6. Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability

    SciTech Connect

    Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2007-01-15

    We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.

  7. Deployment of the CMS Tracker AMC as backend for the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzinger, G.

    2016-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector of the CMS experiment at CERN will be replaced with an upgraded version at the beginning of 2017 with the new detector featuring an additional barrel- and end-cap layer resulting in an increased number of fully digital read-out links running at 400 Mbps. New versions of the PSI46 Read-Out Chip and Token Bit Manager have been developed to operate at higher rates and reduce data loss. Front-End Controller and Front-End Driver boards, based on the μTCA compatible CMS Tracker AMC, a variant of the FC7 card, are being developed using different mezzanines to host the optical links for the digital read-out and control system. An overview of the system architecture is presented, with details on the implementation, and first results obtained from test systems.

  8. jTracker and Monte Carlo Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selensky, Lauren; SeaQuest/E906 Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    SeaQuest is designed to observe the characteristics and behavior of `sea-quarks' in a proton by reconstructing them from the subatomic particles produced in a collision. The 120 GeV beam from the main injector collides with a fixed target and then passes through a series of detectors which records information about the particles produced in the collision. However, this data becomes meaningful only after it has been processed, stored, analyzed, and interpreted. Several programs are involved in this process. jTracker (sqerp) reads wire or hodoscope hits and reconstructs the tracks of potential dimuon pairs from a run, and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulates dimuon production and background noise from the beam. During track reconstruction, an event must meet the criteria set by the tracker to be considered a viable dimuon pair; this ensures that relevant data is retained. As a check, a comparison between a new version of jTracker and Monte Carlo was made in order to see how accurately jTracker could reconstruct the events created by Monte Carlo. In this presentation, the results of the inquest and their potential effects on the programming will be shown. This work is supported by U.S. DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  9. The Tracker of the CMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, Ernesto

    2005-10-12

    With more than 200 m2 the Silicon Strip Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment will be the largest silicon detector ever built. In this contribution the main design considerations and the status of the construction, at about one and a half year after the begin of the production of the modules, are reviewed.

  10. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  11. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  12. Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS) star tracker test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Tests performed on the TRW precision star tracker are described. The unit tested was a two-axis gimballed star tracker designed to provide star LOS data to an accuracy of 1 to 2 sec. The tracker features a unique bearing system and utilizes thermal and mechanical symmetry techniques to achieve high precision which can be demonstrated in a one g environment. The test program included a laboratory evaluation of tracker functional operation, sensitivity, repeatibility, and thermal stability.

  13. The GlueX Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papandreou, Zisis; Lolos, George; Semenov, Andrei; GlueX Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the GLUEX experiment at Jefferson Lab is to search for exotic hybrid mesons as evidence of gluonic excitations, in an effort to understand confinement in QCD. A key subsystem of the GLUEX detector is the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter (BCAL) located inside a 2-Tesla superconducting solenoid. BCAL is a ``spaghetti calorimeter,'' consisting of layers of corrugated lead sheets, interleaved with planes of 1-mm-diameter, double-clad, Kuraray SCSF-78MJ scintillating fibres, bonded in the lead grooves using optical epoxy. The detector will consist of 48 modules and will be readout using nearly 4,000 large-area (1.26 cm2 each) silicon photomultiplier arrays. BCAL construction is well under way at the University of Regina and test results will be shown. Supported by NSERC grant SAPJ-326516, DOE grant DE-FG02-0SER41374 and Jefferson Science Associates, LLC. under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  14. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers

    PubMed Central

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J.; Flagel, Shelly B.; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers. PMID:24954026

  15. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

    PubMed

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J; Flagel, Shelly B; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers. PMID:24954026

  16. Radiation hardness of two CMOS prototypes for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, B. T.; Affolder, A.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buckland, M.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hommels, L. B. A.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, J.; Liang, Z.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; McMahon, S.; Meng, L.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Perić, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seidel, S.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2016-02-01

    The LHC luminosity upgrade, known as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will require the replacement of the existing silicon strip tracker and the transistion radiation tracker. Although a baseline design for this tracker exists the ATLAS collaboration and other non-ATLAS groups are exploring the feasibility of using CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) which would be arranged in a strip-like fashion and would take advantage of the service and support structure already being developed for the upgrade. Two test devices made with the AMS H35 process (a High voltage or HV CMOS process) have been subjected to various radiation environments and have performed well. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  17. Optical model and calibration of a sun tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Sergei N.; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V.; Cheong, Hai Du; Kim, Dukhyeon

    2016-09-01

    Sun trackers are widely used to investigate scattering and absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. We present a method for optimization of the optical altazimuth sun tracker model with output radiation direction aligned with the axis of a stationary spectrometer. The method solves the problem of stability loss in tracker pointing at the Sun near the zenith. An optimal method for tracker calibration at the measurement site is proposed in the present work. A method of moving calibration is suggested for mobile applications in the presence of large temperature differences and errors in the alignment of the optical system of the tracker.

  18. Finite element analysis of the SDC barrel and endcap calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.; Hill, N.; Nasiakta, J.

    1992-03-11

    In designing the SCD barrel and endcap calorimeters, the inter-module connecting forces must be known in order to determine the required size and number of connecting links between modules, and in order to understand how individual modules will be affected by these forces when assembled to form a full barrel and endcap. The connecting forces were found by analyzing three-dimensional Finite Element Models of both the barrel and endcap. This paper is divided into two parts, the first part will describe in detail the results of the barrel analysis and the second part will describe the results obtained from the endcap analysis. A similar approach was used in constructing the models for both analysis.

  19. Effects of core barrel on vessel seismic loadings. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Chang, Y.W.

    1983-01-01

    Reliability of reactor systems under seismic events is a major concern for the safety of the nuclear power plants. This paper deals with the effects of the core barrel on the seismic response of reactor tanks. The main emphases are the effects of core barrel on the free-surface wave height and the fluid coupling effects between the core barrel and primary tank. This study represents an initial step to investigate the effects of in-tank components, structures on the seismically-induced hydrodynamic behavior of the reactor tanks. To simplify the analysis, the tank used in the study is simulated by a two-dimensional model. Two parametric studies were carried out in which the wall flexibility and location of core barrel were used as parameters respectively.

  20. 49 CFR 178.510 - Standards for wooden barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.510 Standards for wooden barrels. (a) The... the purpose intended. (2) The body and heads must be of a design appropriate to the capacity...

  1. 3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE, DECORATIVE SCROLLWORK AND URN FINIALS ON NORTHEAST PORTAL - "Forder" Pratt Through Truss Bridge, Spanning Maumee River at County Route 73, Antwerp, Paulding County, OH

  2. Interior view, barrel vaulted store room opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, barrel vaulted store room opening from the south side of the ground floors central east-west passage (PA-1622-A-51) looking northeast. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 16. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING SURPLUS GUN BARREL BEING LOWERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING SURPLUS GUN BARREL BEING LOWERED INTO PLACE FOR USE AS PIPE TUNNEL. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-709. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 18. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING SURPLUS GUN BARRELS IN PLACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING SURPLUS GUN BARRELS IN PLACE TO BE USED AS PIPE TUNNELS. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-925. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 15. STOCKHAM PACKED SMALL FITTINGS IN BARRELS AND, AS EARLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. STOCKHAM PACKED SMALL FITTINGS IN BARRELS AND, AS EARLY AS 1919, TRANSPORTED THEM IN THEIR OWN PACKARD DELIVERY TRUCKS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Barrel view from southwest. Waterville Bridge, Spanning Swatara Creek ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Barrel view from southwest. - Waterville Bridge, Spanning Swatara Creek at Appalachian Trail (moved from Little Pine Creek at State Route 44, Waterville, Lycoming County), Green Point, Lebanon County, PA

  7. Barrel view from center span, looking east. Waterville Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Barrel view from center span, looking east. - Waterville Bridge, Spanning Swatara Creek at Appalachian Trail (moved from Little Pine Creek at State Route 44, Waterville, Lycoming County), Green Point, Lebanon County, PA

  8. 8. VIEW NORTHWEST OF EAST ELEVATION SOUTH BARREL ARCH. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW NORTHWEST OF EAST ELEVATION SOUTH BARREL ARCH. NOTE STONE WORK, 1920 CONCRETE REPAIRS, AND STEEL BRACES ADDED BY THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE CIRCA 1962. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  9. The CDF online Silicon Vertex Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmanskas, W.; Bardi, A.; Bari, M.; Belforte, S.; Berryhill, J.; Bogdan, M.; Carosi, R.; Cerri, A.; Chlachidze, G.; Culbertson, R.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Fiori, I.; Frisch, H. J.; Galeotti, S.; Giannetti, P.; Glagolev, V.; Moneta, L.; Morsani, F.; Nakaya, T.; Passuello, D.; Punzi, G.; Rescigno, M.; Ristori, L.; Sanders, H.; Sarkar, S.; Semenov, A.; Shochet, M.; Speer, T.; Spinella, F.; Wu, X.; Yang, U.; Zanello, L.; Zanetti, A. M.

    2002-06-01

    The CDF Online Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) reconstructs 2D tracks by linking hit positions measured by the Silicon Vertex Detector to the Central Outer Chamber tracks found by the eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT). The system has been completely built and assembled and it is now being commissioned using the first CDF run II data. The precision measurement of the track impact parameter will allow triggering on B hadron decay vertices and thus investigating important areas in the B sector, like CP violation and B s mixing. In this paper we briefly review the architecture and the tracking algorithms implemented in the SVT and we report on the performance of the system achieved in the early phase of CDF run II.

  10. The CDF online silicon vertex tracker

    SciTech Connect

    W. Ashmanskas et al.

    2001-11-02

    The CDF Online Silicon Vertex Tracker reconstructs 2-D tracks by linking hit positions measured by the Silicon Vertex Detector to the Central Outer Chamber tracks found by the eXtremely Fast Tracker. The system has been completely built and assembled and it is now being commissioned using the first CDF run II data. The precision measurement of the track impact parameter will allow triggering on B hadron decay vertices and thus investigating important areas in the B sector, like CP violation and B{sub s} mixing. In this paper we briefly review the architecture and the tracking algorithms implemented in the SVT and we report on the performance of the system achieved in the early phase of CDF run II.

  11. Target for optically activated seekers and trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakin, C. T.; Willett, N. F.

    1984-05-01

    This abstract discloses a target for optically activated seekers and trackers (TOAST) which provides for calibrated and variable target characteristics such as size, intensity, spatial position, color and interfering background. The TOAST has a first ilumination system providing a target light beam through an adjustable iris which controls image size. The target beam passes through a collimator lens which focuses the light at infinity. With the target beam focused at infinity, the motion of an elevation plate lengthens or shortens the distance from the collimator lens to a one motion mirror. The target beam is attenuated by a variable filter driven by a servo-motor, and a color selection process is provided by passing the beam through spectral filters. A background light beam with background imagery is provided to the beamsplitter mirror and mixed with the target image so as to simulate the target environment encountered by an operating optically activated seeker and tracker.

  12. Neonatal lead exposure impairs development of rodent barrel field cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mary Ann; Johnston, Michael V.; Goldstein, Gary W.; Blue, Mary E.

    2000-01-01

    Childhood exposure to low-level lead can permanently reduce intelligence, but the neurobiologic mechanism for this effect is unknown. We examined the impact of lead exposure on the development of cortical columns, using the rodent barrel field as a model. In all areas of mammalian neocortex, cortical columns constitute a fundamental structural unit subserving information processing. Barrel field cortex contains columnar processing units with distinct clusters of layer IV neurons that receive sensory input from individual whiskers. In this study, rat pups were exposed to 0, 0.2, 1, 1.5, or 2 g/liter lead acetate in their dam's drinking water from birth through postnatal day 10. This treatment, which coincides with the development of segregated columns in the barrel field, produced blood lead concentrations from 1 to 31 μg/dl. On postnatal day 10, the area of the barrel field and of individual barrels was measured. A dose-related reduction in barrel field area was observed (Pearson correlation = −0.740; P < 0.001); mean barrel field area in the highest exposure group was decreased 12% versus controls. Individual barrels in the physiologically more active caudoventral group were affected preferentially. Total cortical area measured in the same sections was not altered significantly by lead exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lead exposure may impair the development of columnar processing units in immature neocortex. We demonstrate that low levels of blood lead, in the range seen in many impoverished inner-city children, cause structural alterations in a neocortical somatosensory map. PMID:10805810

  13. ILC Vertex Tracker R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Marco; Bussat, Jean-Marie; Contarato, Devis; Denes,Peter; Glesener, Lindsay; Greiner, Leo; Hooberman, Benjamin; Shuman,Derek; Tompkins, Lauren; Vu, Chinh; Bisello, Dario; Giubilato, Piero; Pantano, Devis; Costa, Marco; La Rosa, Alessandro; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Children, Isaac

    2007-10-01

    This document summarizes past achievements, current activities and future goals of the R&D program aimed at the design, prototyping and characterization of a full detector module, equipped with monolithic pixel sensors, matching the requirements for the Vertex Tracker at the ILC. We provide a plan of activities to obtain a demonstrator multi-layered vertex tracker equipped with sensors matching the ILC requirements and realistic lightweight ladders in FY11, under the assumption that ILC detector proto-collaborations will be choosing technologies and designs for the Vertex Tracker by that time. The R&D program discussed here started at LBNL in 2004, supported by a Laboratory Directed R&D (LDRD) grant and by funding allocated from the core budget of the LBNL Physics Division and from the Department of Physics at UC Berkeley. Subsequently additional funding has been awarded under the NSF-DOE LCRD program and also personnel have become available through collaborative research with other groups. The aim of the R&D program carried out by our collaboration is to provide a well-integrated, inclusive research effort starting from physics requirements for the ILC Vertex Tracker and addressing Si sensor design and characterization, engineered ladder design, module system issues, tracking and vertex performances and beam test validation. The broad scope of this program is made possible by important synergies with existing know-how and concurrent programs both at LBNL and at the other collaborating institutions. In particular, significant overlaps with LHC detector design, SLHC R&D as well as prototyping for the STAR upgrade have been exploited to optimize the cost per deliverable of our program. This activity is carried out as a collaborative effort together with Accelerator and Fusion Research, the Engineering and the Nuclear Science Divisions at LBNL, INFN and the Department of Physics in Padova, Italy, INFN and the Department of Physics in Torino, Italy and the Department

  14. Upgrade of the Upstream Tracker at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Jason; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded to allow it operate at higher collider luminosity without the need for a hardware trigger stage. Flavor enriched events will be selected in a software based, high level trigger, using fully reconstructed events. This presentation will describe the design, optimization and the expected performance of the Upstream Tracker (UT), which has a critical role in high level trigger scheme.

  15. DAQ hardware and software development for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has been extended by about 12 million pixels thanks to the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Data-taking and tuning procedures have been implemented along with newly designed readout hardware to support high bandwidth for data readout and calibration. The hardware is supported by an embedded software stack running on the readout boards. The same boards will be used to upgrade the readout bandwidth for the two outermost barrel layers of the ATLAS Pixel Detector. We present the IBL readout hardware and the supporting software architecture used to calibrate and operate the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel Detector. We discuss the technical implementations and status for data taking, validation of the DAQ system in recent cosmic ray data taking, in-situ calibrations, and results from additional tests in preparation for Run 2 at the LHC.

  16. Accuracy of the vivofit activity tracker.

    PubMed

    Alsubheen, Sana'a A; George, Amanda M; Baker, Alicia; Rohr, Linda E; Basset, Fabien A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of the vivofit activity tracker in assessing energy expenditure and step count. Thirteen participants wore the vivofit activity tracker for five days. Participants were required to independently perform 1 h of self-selected activity each day of the study. On day four, participants came to the lab to undergo BMR and a treadmill-walking task (TWT). On day five, participants completed 1 h of office-type activities. BMR values estimated by the vivofit were not significantly different from the values measured through indirect calorimetry (IC). The vivofit significantly underestimated EE for treadmill walking, but responded to the differences in the inclination. Vivofit underestimated step count for level walking but provided an accurate estimate for incline walking. There was a strong correlation between EE and the exercise intensity. The vivofit activity tracker is on par with similar devices and can be used to track physical activity. PMID:27266422

  17. The CMS Tracker Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf Shah, S.; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Hartmann, Frank; Masetti, Lorenzo; Dirkes, Guido H.; Stringer, Robert; Fahrer, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid DCS (CMS) Silicon Strip Tracker is by far the largest detector ever built in micro-strip technology. It has an active surface area of 198 m 2 consisting of 15,148 silicon modules with 9,316,352 readout channels read via 75,376 Analog Pipeline Voltage (APV) front-end chips and a total of 24,244 sensors. The Detector Control System (DCS) for the Tracker is a distributed control system that operates ˜2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and also monitors its environmental sensors. The DCS receives information from about 10 3 environmental probes (temperature and humidity sensors) located inside the detector's volume and values from these probes are driven through the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) of the Detector Safety System (DSS). A total of 10 5 parameters are read out from the dedicated chips in the front-end electronics of the detector via the data acquisition system, and a total of 10 5 parameters are read from the power supply modules. All these parameters are monitored, evaluated and correlated with the detector layout; actions are taken under specific conditions. The hardware for DCS consists of 10 PCs and 10 PLC systems that are continuously running the necessary control and safety routines. The DCS is a fundamental tool for the Tracker operation and its safety.

  18. Composting barrel for sustainable organic waste management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, Md Azizul; Bushra, Quazi Sifat; Rahman, M H

    2011-12-01

    To ensure quick and uniform aerobic stabilization of biowaste through domestic composting and to prevent malodorous emissions, two modifications were made to a conventional steel barrel composter by: (1) providing 0.0125 m diameter openings throughout the sides and (2) placing a 0.0254 m diameter perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in the middle portion of the barrel. The volume of composting waste before modification of the composting barrel was 40% of the original volume and it was 70%, 4 weeks following the modifications. In addition, the nutrients in the compost were found to be in a more suitable range after modification of the composting barrel. The carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of the compost was in the ideal range of 11-15 in the modified composting reactor but it was quite high (24-25) in the conventional barrel. This modified barrel composting plant proved to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective solution for the management of organic solid waste materials in developing and technologically less sophisticated countries such as Bangladesh. PMID:20870692

  19. Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill expedited response action proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill. The Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Site was used in 1945 for disposal of crushed barrels. The site location is the sole waste site within the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. The Waste Information Data System (WIDS 1992) assumes that the crushed barrels contained 1% residual sodium dichromate at burial time and that only buried crushed barrels are at the site. Burial depth is shallow since visual inspection finds numerous barrel debris on the surface. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the ERA will present a final remediation of the 100-IU-4 operable unit.

  20. Single event upset studies using the ATLAS SCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafinca, A.; Henderson, J.; Weidberg, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEU) are expected to occur during high luminosity running of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The SEU cross sections were measured in pion beams with momenta in the range 200 to 465 MeV/c and proton test beams at 24 GeV/c but the extrapolation to LHC conditions is non-trivial because of the range of particle types and momenta. The SEUs studied occur in the p-i-n photodiode and the registers in the ABCD chip. Other possible locations for SEU were not investigated in this study. Comparisons between predicted SEU rates and those measured from ATLAS data are presented. The implications for ATLAS operation are discussed.

  1. Robust visual tracking with dual spatio-temporal context trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiyan; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Visual tracking is a challenging problem in computer vision. Recent years, significant numbers of trackers have been proposed. Among these trackers, tracking with dense spatio-temporal context has been proved to be an efficient and accurate method. Other than trackers with online trained classifier that struggle to meet the requirement of real-time tracking task, a tracker with spatio-temporal context can run at hundreds of frames per second with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Nevertheless, the performance of the tracker with Spatio-temporal context relies heavily on the learning rate of the context, which restricts the robustness of the tracker. In this paper, we proposed a tracking method with dual spatio-temporal context trackers that hold different learning rate during tracking. The tracker with high learning rate could track the target smoothly when the appearance of target changes, while the tracker with low learning rate could percepts the occlusion occurring and continues to track when the target starts to emerge again. To find the target among the candidates from these two trackers, we adopt Normalized Correlation Coefficient (NCC) to evaluate the confidence of each sample. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs robustly against several state-of-the-art tracking methods.

  2. Cortical barrel field ablation and unconditioned whisking kinematics.

    PubMed

    Harvey, M A; Sachdev, R N; Zeigler, H P

    2001-01-01

    The effects of "barrel cortex" ablation upon the biometrics of "exploratory" whisking were examined in three head-fixed rats which had previously sustained unilateral ablation of the left cortical "barrel field" under electrophysiological control. Unconditioned movements of a pair of bilaterally homologous whiskers (C-1, Right, Left) were monitored, optoelectronically, with other whiskers present. Whisking movements on the intact and ablated side were analyzed with respect to kinematics (protraction amplitude and velocity) whisking frequency and phase relationships between whisking movement on the two sides of the face. Histological analysis confirmed complete removal of S-1 "barrel cortex". In normal animals whisking movements have a characteristic rhythm (6-9 Hz), and protractions on the two sides of the face tend to be both synchronous and of very similar amplitudes. In the lesioned animals, whisking frequency was unchanged and whisking movements remained bilaterally synchronous. However, there was a significant difference between the amplitude of Right and Left whisker movements which was evident many months postoperatively. Our results suggest that the deficits in vibrissa-mediated tactile discrimination reported after "barrel" field ablation may reflect an impairment in the animal's ability to modulate whisking parameters on the two sides of the face to meet the functional requirements of a discriminative whisking task. The effects upon whisking amplitude seen after unilateral barrel field ablation are consistent with a model in which the activity of a whisking Central Pattern Generator is modulated by descending inputs to achieve sensorimotor control of whisking movement parameters. PMID:11562085

  3. The structure of the β-barrel assembly machinery complex

    PubMed Central

    Bakelar, Jeremy; Buchanan, Susan K.; Noinaj, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are found within the outer membranes (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria and are essential for nutrient import, signaling, and adhesion. While the exact mechanism is unknown, a 200 kDa five component complex called the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) complex has been implicated in the biogenesis of OMPs. Here, we report the structure of the BAM complex from E. coli, revealing that binding of the accessory proteins BamCDE modulates the conformation of BamA, the central component of the complex, which may regulate the function of the BAM complex. The periplasmic domain of BamA was found in a closed state that prevents access to the barrel lumen from the periplasm, indicating substrate OMPs likely do not enter the barrel during biogenesis. Further, the first eight strands of the β-barrel domain undergo an unprecedented conformational shift leading to opening of the exit pore and rearrangement at the lateral gate. PMID:26744406

  4. Aroma potential of oak battens prepared from decommissioned oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Li, Sijing; Crump, Anna M; Grbin, Paul R; Cozzolino, Daniel; Warren, Peter; Hayasaka, Yoji; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2015-04-01

    During barrel maturation, volatile compounds are extracted from oak wood and impart aroma and flavor to wine, enhancing its character and complexity. However, barrels contain a finite pool of extractable material, which diminishes with time. As a consequence, most barrels are decommissioned after 5 or 6 years. This study investigated whether or not decommissioned barrels can be "reclaimed" and utilized as a previously untapped source of quality oak for wine maturation. Oak battens were prepared from staves of decommissioned French and American oak barrels, and their composition analyzed before and after toasting. The oak lactone glycoconjugate content of untoasted reclaimed oak was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while the concentrations of cis- and trans-oak lactone, guaiacol, 4-methlyguaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, furfural, and 5-methylfurfural present in toasted reclaimed oak were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma potential was then evaluated by comparing the composition of reclaimed oak with that of new oak. Comparable levels of oak lactone glycoconjugates and oak volatiles were observed, demonstrating the aroma potential of reclaimed oak and therefore its suitability as a raw material for alternative oak products, i.e., chips or battens, for the maturation of wine. The temperature profiles achieved during toasting were also measured to evaluate the viability of any yeast or bacteria present in reclaimed oak. PMID:25771908

  5. Babar Silicon Vertex Tracker: Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Re, V.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Curry, S.; Kirkby, D.; Berryhill, J.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hale, D.; Kyre, S.; Richman, J.; Stoner, J.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T.; Eisner, A.M.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W.S.; Nesom, G.; /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /UC, Irvine /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /LBL, Berkeley /Maryland U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Princeton U. /UC, Riverside /SLAC /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.

    2006-04-27

    The BABAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) has been efficiently operated for six years since the start of data taking in 1999. Due to higher than expected background levels some unforeseen effects have appeared. We discuss: a shift in the pedestal for the channels of the AToM readout chips that are most exposed to radiation; an anomalous increase in the bias leakage current for the modules in the outer layers. Estimates of future radiation doses and occupancies are shown together with the extrapolated detector performance and lifetime, in light of the new observations.

  6. A coherent frequency-bearing tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlms, D. E.; Cohen, A. O.; Hampton, M. L.; Johnson, G. W.

    The passive measurement of target bearing can be achieved by estimating the phase difference between spatially separated observations of a narrow-band signal. The estimation of this phase difference requires algorithms to track variations in received frequency and the phase difference. This paper presents such an algorithm: a coherently coupled frequency-bearing tracker (CCFBT). The CCFBT is derived from extended Kalman filter theory. A linearized covariance analysis predicts performance above threshold, and an approximate rule predicts threshold. Simulation results verify the covariance analysis and threshold predictions.

  7. Simulation of the transition radiation detection conditions in the ATLAS TRT detector filled with argon and krypton gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Boldyrev, A. S.; Maevskiy, A. S.

    2015-12-15

    Performance of the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) at the ATLAS experiment with argon and krypton gas mixtures was simulated. The efficiency of transition radiation registration, which is necessary for electron identification, was estimated along with the electron identification capabilities under such conditions.

  8. A multi-hypothesis tracker for clicking whales.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a tracker specially designed to track clicking beaked whales using widely spaced bottom-mounted hydrophones, although it can be adapted to different species and sensors. The input to the tracker is a sequence of static localization solutions obtained using time difference of arrival information at widely spaced hydrophones. To effectively handle input localizations with high ambiguity, the tracker is based on multi-hypothesis tracker concepts, so it considers all potential association hypotheses and keeps a large number of potential tracks in memory. The method is demonstrated on actual data and shown to successfully track multiple beaked whales at depth. PMID:25994688

  9. Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

    2005-06-01

    Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved.

  10. Neural coding in barrel cortex during whisker-guided locomotion.

    PubMed

    Sofroniew, Nicholas James; Vlasov, Yurii A; Andrew Hires, Samuel; Freeman, Jeremy; Svoboda, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Animals seek out relevant information by moving through a dynamic world, but sensory systems are usually studied under highly constrained and passive conditions that may not probe important dimensions of the neural code. Here, we explored neural coding in the barrel cortex of head-fixed mice that tracked walls with their whiskers in tactile virtual reality. Optogenetic manipulations revealed that barrel cortex plays a role in wall-tracking. Closed-loop optogenetic control of layer 4 neurons can substitute for whisker-object contact to guide behavior resembling wall tracking. We measured neural activity using two-photon calcium imaging and extracellular recordings. Neurons were tuned to the distance between the animal snout and the contralateral wall, with monotonic, unimodal, and multimodal tuning curves. This rich representation of object location in the barrel cortex could not be predicted based on simple stimulus-response relationships involving individual whiskers and likely emerges within cortical circuits. PMID:26701910

  11. Videometric head tracker for augmented reality applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janin, Adam L.; Zikan, Karel; Mizell, David; Banner, Mike; Sowizral, Henry A.

    1995-12-01

    For the past three years, we have been developing augmented reality technology for application to a variety of touch labor tasks in aircraft manufacturing and assembly. The system would be worn by factory workers to provide them with better-quality information for performing their tasks than was previously available. Using a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) whose optics are set at a focal length of about 18 in., the display and its associated head tracking system can be used to superimpose and stabilize graphics on the surface of a work piece. This technology would obviate many expensive marking systems now used in aerospace manufacturing. The most challenging technical issue with respect to factory applications of AR is head position and orientation tracking. It requires high accuracy, long- range tracking in a high-noise environment. The approach we have chosen uses a head- mounted miniature video camera. The user's wearable computer system utilizes the camera to find fiducial markings that have been placed on known coordinates on or near the work piece. The system then computes the user's position and orientation relative to the fiducial marks. It is referred to as a `videometric' head tracker. In this paper, we describe the steps we took and the results we obtained in the process of prototyping our videometric head tracker, beginning with analytical and simulation results, and continuing through the working prototypes.

  12. Rover odometry aided by a star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammell, J. D.; Tong, Chi Hay; Berczi, P.; Anderson, S.; Barfoot, T. D.; Enright, J.

    This paper develops a practical framework for estimating rover position in full-dark conditions by correcting relative odometric estimates with periodic, absolute-attitude measurements from a star tracker. The framework is validated using just under 2.5 kilometres of field data gathered at the University of Toronto's Koffler Scientific Reserve at Jokers Hill (KSR) comprised of both wheel odometry and lidar-based Visual Odometry (VO). It is shown that for the wheel odometry solution, the final estimate of rover position was within 21 metres of the groundtruth as calculated by a differential GPS receiver, or 0.85% of the total traverse distance. When the star tracker measurements are artificially limited to occurring approximately every 250 metres, the algorithm still performs well, giving a final position error of 75.8 metres or 3.0%. Preliminary results to replace wheel odometry with lidar-based VO for the development a full-dark visual solution are also presented. The lidar-based VO solution is shown to be capable of outperforming wheel odometry, but more work is required to develop methods to handle the variety of terrain conditions encountered.

  13. Small arms mini-fire control system: fiber-optic barrel deflection sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panos G

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally the methods to increase firearms accuracy, particularly at distance, have concentrated on barrel isolation (free floating) and substantial barrel wall thickening to gain rigidity. This barrel stiffening technique did not completely eliminate barrel movement but the problem was significantly reduced to allow a noticeable accuracy enhancement. This process, although highly successful, came at a very high weight penalty. Obviously the goal would be to lighten the barrel (firearm), yet achieve even greater accuracy. Thus, if lightweight barrels could ultimately be compensated for both their static and dynamic mechanical perturbations, the result would be very accurate, yet significantly lighter weight, weapons. We discuss our development of a barrel reference sensor system that is designed to accomplish this ambitious goal. Our optical fiber-based sensor monitors the barrel muzzle position and autonomously compensates for any induced perturbations. The reticle is electronically adjusted in position to compensate for the induced barrel deviation in real time.

  14. Small arms mini-fire control system: fiber-optic barrel deflection sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajic, S.; Datskos, P.; Lawrence, W.; Marlar, T.; Quinton, B.

    2012-06-01

    Traditionally the methods to increase firearms accuracy, particularly at distance, have concentrated on barrel isolation (free floating) and substantial barrel wall thickening to gain rigidity. This barrel stiffening technique did not completely eliminate barrel movement but the problem was significantly reduced to allow a noticeable accuracy enhancement. This process, although highly successful, came at a very high weight penalty. Obviously the goal would be to lighten the barrel (firearm), yet achieve even greater accuracy. Thus, if lightweight barrels could ultimately be compensated for both their static and dynamic mechanical perturbations, the result would be very accurate, yet significantly lighter weight, weapons. We discuss our development of a barrel reference sensor system that is designed to accomplish this ambitious goal. Our optical fiber-based sensor monitors the barrel muzzle position and autonomously compensates for any induced perturbations. The reticle is electronically adjusted in position to compensate for the induced barrel deviation in real time.

  15. Laser tracker error determination using a network measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Ben; Forbes, Alistair; Lewis, Andrew; Sun, Wenjuan; Veal, Dan; Nasr, Karim

    2011-04-01

    We report on a fast, easily implemented method to determine all the geometrical alignment errors of a laser tracker, to high precision. The technique requires no specialist equipment and can be performed in less than an hour. The technique is based on the determination of parameters of a geometric model of the laser tracker, using measurements of a set of fixed target locations, from multiple locations of the tracker. After fitting of the model parameters to the observed data, the model can be used to perform error correction of the raw laser tracker data or to derive correction parameters in the format of the tracker manufacturer's internal error map. In addition to determination of the model parameters, the method also determines the uncertainties and correlations associated with the parameters. We have tested the technique on a commercial laser tracker in the following way. We disabled the tracker's internal error compensation, and used a five-position, fifteen-target network to estimate all the geometric errors of the instrument. Using the error map generated from this network test, the tracker was able to pass a full performance validation test, conducted according to a recognized specification standard (ASME B89.4.19-2006). We conclude that the error correction determined from the network test is as effective as the manufacturer's own error correction methodologies.

  16. Visible-spectrum remote eye tracker for gaze communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imabuchi, Takashi; Prima, Oky Dicky A.; Kikuchi, Hikaru; Horie, Yusuke; Ito, Hisayoshi

    2015-03-01

    Many approaches have been proposed to create an eye tracker based on visible-spectrum. These efforts provide a possibility to create inexpensive eye tracker capable to operate outdoor. Although the resulted tracking accuracy is acceptable for a visible-spectrum head-mounted eye tracker, there are many limitations of these approaches to create a remote eye tracker. In this study, we propose a high-accuracy remote eye tracker that uses visible-spectrum imaging and several gaze communication interfaces suited to the tracker. The gaze communication interfaces are designed to assist people with motor disability. Our results show that the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.77° and a frame rate of 28 fps with a personal computer. With a tablet device, the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.82° and a frame rate of 25 fps. The proposed gaze communication interfaces enable users to type a complete sentence containing eleven Japanese characters in about a minute.

  17. SVT: an online silicon vertex tracker for the CDF upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bardi, A.; Belforte, S.; Berryhill, J.; CDF Collaboration

    1997-07-01

    The SVT is an online tracker for the CDF upgrade which will reconstruct 2D tracks using information from the Silicon VerteX detector (SVXII) and Central Outer Tracker (COT). The precision measurement of the track impact parameter will then be used to select and record large samples of B hadrons. We discuss the overall architecture, algorithms, and hardware implementation of the system.

  18. Optimization of the silicon sensors for the CMS tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Biino, C.; Bilei, G. M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borello, L.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Brunetti, M. T.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Costa, M.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; DeMaria, N.; de Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dutta, S.; Favro, G.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Friedl, M.; Fürtjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, W.; Gu, W. H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honkanen, A.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Mättig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Mc Evoy, B.; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Neviani, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pernicka, M.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Rizzo, F.; Santocchia, A.; Segneri, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T.; Verdini, P. G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2001-07-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC will comprise a large silicon strip tracker. This article highlights some of the results obtained in the R&D studies for the optimization of its silicon sensors. Measurements of the capacitances and of the high voltage stability of the devices are presented before and after irradiation to the dose expected after the full lifetime of the tracker.

  19. 27 CFR 25.144 - Rebranding barrels and kegs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.144 Rebranding barrels and... permanently remove or durably cover the original marks and brands after notifying the appropriate TTB officer... the original marks and brands if the brewer: (1) Adopts a trade name substantially identical to...

  20. 27 CFR 25.144 - Rebranding barrels and kegs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.144 Rebranding barrels and... permanently remove or durably cover the original marks and brands after notifying the appropriate TTB officer... the original marks and brands if the brewer: (1) Adopts a trade name substantially identical to...

  1. 4. AERIAL 'BARREL' SHOT OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL 'BARREL' SHOT OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARDS JERSEY CITY. TO THE RIGHT ARE THE NEWARK TURNPIKE AND THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43). THE PULASKI SKYWAY (HAER No. NJ-34) IS IN THE BACKGROUND TO THE RIGHT - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  2. A 'barrel shot' looking down the track and through the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A 'barrel shot' looking down the track and through the 114'- 8-1/2' south thru truss approach span, showing pole line supported across top of steal superstructure. The 364' - 0-1/4' swing span over river has been used by various Railroads for a period of 90 years. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  3. Science Highlights from the BARREL Antarctic Balloon Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, R. M.; Sample, J. G.; McCarthy, M.; Smith, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) is an Antarctic balloon investigation designed to study electron loss from Earth's radiation belts. Two BARREL balloon campaigns were carried out from Antarctic Research Stations SANAE IV and Halley VI in January-February 2013 and 2014. During each campaign, 20 small (~20 kg) balloon payloads were launched to an altitude of 38 km to maintain an array of payloads distributed in L-value and magnetic local time. Each balloon carried a NaI scintillator to measure the bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by precipitating relativistic electrons as they collide with neutrals in Earth's atmosphere, and a DC magnetometer to explore the nature of Ultra Low Frequency temporal modulations of precipitation. We present several science highlights from BARREL. Precipitation was observed over a range of energies with temporal and spatial structure at a variety of scales. The combination of BARREL with in situ (e.g. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS) and ground-based (e.g. riometer, VLF) measurements provides a unique opportunity to study wave-particle interactions, and to quantify the spatial scale of energetic precipitation.

  4. New results in meson spectroscopy from the crystal barrel experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, C.A.

    1994-04-01

    Recent observations by the Crystal Barrel experiment of two scalar resonances, f{sub o}(1365) and a{sub o}(1450) have allowed the authors to clarify the members of the scalar nonet. In addition, a third scalar, f{sub o}(1500), appears to be supernumerary, and is a candidate for the scalar glueball expected near 1500 MeV.

  5. [Death after explosion of an "empty" acetone barrel].

    PubMed

    Preuss-Wössner, Johanna; Gerling, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate disposal of (hazardous) waste material led to an explosion of an acetone-air mixture in a metal barrel. The lid was blown off and caused blunt traumatization with fatal exsanguination. The case furnishes information relevant for the practical teaching of forensic knowledge and the indicated consultation of medico-legal experts already at scene. PMID:24358622

  6. 27 CFR 25.144 - Rebranding barrels and kegs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.144 Rebranding barrels and... permanently remove or durably cover the original marks and brands after notifying the appropriate TTB officer... the original marks and brands if the brewer: (1) Adopts a trade name substantially identical to...

  7. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST OF GOLD AMALGAMATION ROOM, SHOWING AMALGAMATION BARREL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST OF GOLD AMALGAMATION ROOM, SHOWING AMALGAMATION BARREL AT CENTER FOREGROUND, BULLION FURNACE IN LARGE HOOD BEHIND IT, AND GOLD RETORT IN BACKGROUND HOOD. NOTE OVERHEAD MONORAIL FOR MATERIALS HANDLING. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  8. 8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the northwest, with turbine shaft and thrust bearing visible in upper center of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  9. 14. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of tunnel for load-out belt conveyor system located below tanks. Square, numbered spouts gravity-feed grain from overhead bins onto belt. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  10. 9. Generator Barrel and Rotor of Unit 1, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Generator Barrel and Rotor of Unit 1, view to the southeast, showing part of the rotor and generator coils along top of photograph and southeast entry stairwell and doors in lower center of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  11. 1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ICON AND SANCTUARY. IN ARCH ABOVE THE SANCTUARY IS THE TABLE OF ABRAHAM. THE ICONOSTAS INCLUDES ICONS OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL, THE HOLY TRINITY, MOTHER OF GOD HOLDING THE CHRIST CHILD, JESUS. - Holy Trinity-Holy Cross Greek Orthodox Church, 200 Nineteenth Street South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Instrument Pointing System /IPS/ - Star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doittau, F. X.; Jamet, J. L.; Vite, M.

    An image dissector tube high accuracy star/sun tracker has been designed for the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System recalibration. Stars with up to mv equals plus eight can be acquired and tracked in a 2 x 2 deg field. Accuracy, (noise excluded) is 0.75 arcsec, rss 3 std dev and noise is less than 0.65 arcsec rms for a mv equals plus eight star. Two-star operation is possible without modification and the sun can also be tracked using a special attachment. Three star sensors equip the Instrument Pointing System and each sensor delivers two-axis coordinates of the selected object (star or sun) which is acquired and tracked in its field of view. These coordinates are processed by the Spacelab onboard computer in order to drive properly the motors actuating the experiment package, for aiming at the desired direction.

  13. 3D Technology for intelligent trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    At Super-LHC luminosity it is expected that the standard suite of level 1 triggers for CMS will saturate. Information from the tracker will be needed to reduce trigger rates to satisfy the level 1 bandwidth. Tracking trigger modules which correlate information from closely-spaced sensor layers to form an on-detector momentum filter are being developed by several groups. We report on a trigger module design which utilizes three dimensional integrated circuit technology incorporating chips which are connected both to the top and bottom sensor, providing the ability to filter information locally. A demonstration chip, the VICTR, has been submitted to the Chartered/Tezzaron two-tier 3D run coordinated by Fermilab. We report on the 3D design concept, the status of the VICTR chip and associated sensor integration utilizing oxide bonding.

  14. Infrared tracker for a portable missile launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.

    1993-07-13

    An infrared beam tracker is described for arrangement to a housing that is unitary with a portable missile launcher, comprising: a rotating beam splitter positioned to intercept the infrared beam passing a first portion of the beam through the beam splitter along a first direction and reflecting the remaining portion along a different direction; a first infrared detector for receiving the beam reflected portion from the beam splitter and produce electric signals responsive thereto; a second infrared detector for receiving the beam portion that passes through the beam splitter and providing electric signals responsive thereto; and means interconnected to the first and second infrared detectors and responsive to the electric signals generated by said detectors for determining errors in missile flight direction and communicating course correction information to the missile.

  15. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses. PMID:27314359

  16. Generic evaluation tracker database for OTH radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Lorraine E.; Hartnett, Michael P.; Vannicola, Vincent C.

    1999-10-01

    This paper provides a real world target and clutter model for evaluation of radar signal processing algorithms. The procedure is given for target and clutter data collection which is then followed by the equalization and superposition method. We show how the model allows one to vary the target signal to clutter noise ratio so that system performance may be assessed over a wide range of target amplitudes, i.e. detection probability versus target signal to noise ratio. Three candidate pre-track algorithms are evaluated and compared using this model as input in conjunction with an advanced tracker algorithm as a post processor. Data used for the model represents airborne traffic operating over the body of water bounded by North, Central, and South America. The processors relate to the deployment of Over the Horizon Radar for drug interdiction. All the components of this work, model as well as the processors, are in software.

  17. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses. PMID:27314359

  18. Performance of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe AST-201 Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, David K.; vanBezooijen, Roelof; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched to create a full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background. MAP incorporates two modified Lockheed Martin AST-201 (Autonomous Star Tracker) star trackers. The AST-201 employs an eight element radiation hardened lens assembly which is used to focus an image on a charge coupled device (CCD). The CCD image is then processed by a star identification algorithm which outputs a three-axis attitude. A CCD-shift algorithm called Time Delayed Integration (TDI) was also included in each star tracker. In order to provide some radiation effect filtering during MAP's three to five phasing loop passes through the Van Allen radiation belts, a simple pixel filtering scheme was implemented, rather than using a more complex, but more robust windowing algorithm. The trackers also include a fiber optic data interface. This paper details the ground testing that was accomplished on the MAP trackers.

  19. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-02-25

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector,the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APSsensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay.

  20. Mouse barrel cortex functionally compensates for deprivation produced by neonatal lesion of whisker follicles.

    PubMed

    Melzer, P; Crane, A M; Smith, C B

    1993-12-01

    In the murine somatosensory pathway, the metabolic whisker map in barrel cortex derived with the autoradiographic deoxyglucose method is spatially in register with the morphological whisker map represented by the barrels. The barrel cortex of adult mice, in which we had removed three whisker follicles from the middle row of whiskers shortly after birth, contained a disorganized zone surrounded by enlarged barrels with partially disrupted borders. With the fully quantitative autoradiographic deoxyglucose method, we investigated in barrel cortex of such mice the magnitude and the pattern of metabolic responses evoked by the deflection of whiskers. Most remarkably, the simultaneous deflection of six whiskers neighbouring the lesion activated not only the territory of the corresponding barrels, but also the unspecifiable area intercalated between the clearly identified barrels. This metabolic whisker map, unpredictable from the morphological 'barrel' map, may reflect a functional compensation for the deficit in input. PMID:8124517

  1. TRTViewer: Monitoring and Diagnostic Tool for the TRT Detector of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, S. Yu.; Tikhomirov, V. O.

    TRTViewer is the dedicated software tool for monitoring of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) performance at dif- ferent electronics levels: individual channels, readout chips or electronic boards. It can use several sources of input information - from direct DAQ stream or raw data files to ROOT files with processed analysis histograms. Using TRTViewer one can quickly estimate the TRT operational parameters - occupancy, efficiency, timing, reveal problematic regions with noisy, dead or inefficient channels, check calibration uniformity, etc. This tool is widely used by shifters in ATLAS Control Room and also by TRT experts during electronics installation, tuning, operation control and express-offline data analysis.

  2. Report to users of ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Glagola, B.

    1995-05-01

    This report contains discussing in the following areas: Status of the Atlas accelerator; highlights of recent research at Atlas; concept for an advanced exotic beam facility based on Atlas; program advisory committee; Atlas executive committee; and Atlas and ANL physics division on the world wide web.

  3. Cesium monitoring system for ATLAS Tile Hadron Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starchenko, E.; Blanchot, G.; Bosman, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kopikov, S.; Miagkov, A.; Nessi, M.; Shalimov, A.; Shalanda, N.; Soldatov, M.; Solodkov, A.; Soloviev, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.; Zaitsev, A.

    2002-11-01

    A system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel Hadronic Calorimeter (TileCal) is under construction at CERN Laboratory. A movable radioactive source driven by a liquid flow travels through the calorimeter body deposing a known energy to the calorimeter cells. Extensive R&D studies have been carried out and the main system parameters are evaluated. The prototypes are currently used for quality check and inter-calibration of the TileCal modules. A distributed control system, hardware as well as corresponding on-line and off-line software is developed.

  4. Comparative study of WLS fibres for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, A.; David, M.; Henriques, A.; Maio, A.

    1998-02-01

    The Wave Length Shifting (WLS) fibres are one of the most important components of the ATLAS barrel hadronic tile calorimeter (Tilecal). The fibres collect the hght produced in the injection molded scintillating tiles and transport it to the photomultipliers. Parameters like attenuation length and light yield are important, as well as flexibility and radiation hardness. Comparative results of WLS fibres produced by Bicron, Kuraray and Pol.Hi.Tech are presented. The performance of the fibres BCF91A from Bicron and S048 from Pol.Hi.Tech was significatively improved, but the most performant are still the double clad Y11 fibres from Kuraray.

  5. Comparative study of WLS fibres for the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, A.; David, M.; Henriques, A.; Maio, A.

    1997-02-01

    The Wave Length Shifting (WLS) fibres are one of the most important components of the ATLAS barrel hadronic tile calorimeter (Tilecal). The fibres collect the light produced in the injection molded scintillating tiles and transport it to the photomultipliers. Parameters like attenuation length and light yield are important, as well as flexibility and radiation hardness. Comparative results of WLS fibres produced by Bicron, Kuraray and Pol.Hi.Tech are presented. The performance of the fibres BCF91A from Bicron and S048 from Pol.Hi.Tech was significatively improved, but the most performant are still the double clad Y11 fibres from Kuraray.

  6. New technologies in the D0 central tracker upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.; D0 Collaboration

    1996-06-01

    The D0 collaboration has undertaken an aggressive upgrade of its central tracking system. The existing tracker will be completely removed and replaced by a two Tesla superconducting solenoidal magnet, an 837 000 channel silicon vertex system, and 80 000 channel scintillating fiber tracker, followed by a 7 680 channel central preshower detector and a 16 000 channel forward preshower detector. In this paper the author discusses all of the subsystems of the D0 central tracker upgrade, but will emphasize those aspects which involve new technology: radiation hard scintillating fiber, VLPC`s and extruded scintillating strips.

  7. Status of the D0 fiber tracker and preshower detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Dmitri; ,

    2009-01-01

    In this report we focus on the performance of the D0 central fiber tracker and preshower detectors during the high luminosity p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 GeV delivered by the Tevatron collider at Fermilab (Run IIb). Both fiber tracker and preshower detectors utilize a similar readout system based on high quantum efficiency solid state photo-detectors capable of converting light into electrical signals. We also give a brief description of the D0 detector and the central track trigger, and conclude with a summary on the central tracker performance.

  8. The research on image processing technology of the star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-ming; Li, Chun-jiang; Zheng, Ran; Li, Xiao; Yang, Jun

    2014-11-01

    As the core of visual sensitivity via imaging, image processing technology, especially for star tracker, is mainly characterized by such items as image exposure, optimal storage, background estimation, feature correction, target extraction, iteration compensation. This paper firstly summarizes the new research on those items at home and abroad, then, according to star tracker's practical engineering, environment in orbit and lifetime information, shows an architecture about rapid fusion between multiple frame images, which can be used to restrain oversaturation of the effective pixels, which means star tracker can be made more precise, more robust and more stable.

  9. EOS attitude determination and next generation star tracker enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudva, P.; Throckmorton, A.

    1993-01-01

    The pointing knowledge required for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM mission is at the limit of the current generation of star trackers, with little margin. Techniques for improving the performance of existing star trackers are explored, with performance sensitivities developed for each alternative. These are extended to define the most significant performance enhancements for a next generation star tracker. Since attitude determination studies tend to be computationally intensive, an approach for using a simpler one degree of freedom formulation is contrasted with a full three degree of freedom formulation. Additionally, covariance analysis results are compared with time domain simulation performance results.

  10. High Energy Astronomy Observatory star tracker search program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a control system to accommodate the scientific payload of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) is discussed. One of the critical elements of the system is the star tracker subsystem, which defines an accurate three-axis attitude reference. A digital computer program has been developed to evaluate the ability of a particular star tracker configuration to meet the requirements for attitude reference at various vehicle orientations. Used in conjuction with an adequate star catalog, the computer program provides information on availability of stars for each tracker and on the ability of the system to maintain three-axis attitude reference throughout a representative sequence of vehicle orientations.

  11. The ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor: Luminosity detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    After the first three years of the LHC running, the ATLAS experiment extracted its pixel detector system to refurbish and re-position the optical readout drivers and install a new barrel layer of pixels. The experiment has also taken advantage of this access to install a set of beam monitoring telescopes with pixel sensors, four each in the forward and backward regions. These telescopes are based on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond sensors to survive in this high radiation environment without needing extensive cooling. This paper describes the lessons learned in construction and commissioning of the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). We show results from the construction quality assurance tests and commissioning performance, including results from cosmic ray running in early 2015.

  12. The silicon tracker of the H1 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2006-10-01

    The H1 experiment at HERA is equipped with a silicon vertex detector, comprising a barrel part and two endcaps with disks. The barrel part uses double sided, DC coupled strip sensors, whereas the endcap parts use two types of wedge-shaped sensors, both single sided and AC coupled: u/v-sensors have strips parallel to one edge of the sensor, r-sensors have circular strips. Additional pad detectors provide fast triggering signals in the backward part.

  13. Simulation and reconstruction of the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Go¨tzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Fo¨hl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kro¨ck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Rosner, G.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Bühler, P.; Gruber, L.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.

    2014-12-01

    Hadronic particle identification (PID) in the barrel region of the PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt will be provided by a DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counter. To optimize the performance and reduce the detector cost, detailed simulations of different design elements, such as the width of the radiators, the shape of the expansion volume, and the type of focusing system, were performed using Geant. Custom reconstruction algorithms were developed to match the detector geometry. We will discuss the single photon resolution and photon yield as well as the PID performance for the Barrel DIRC baseline design and several detector design options.

  14. Scanning and Measuring Device for Diagnostic of Barrel Bore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvan, Ales; Hajek, Josef; Vana, Jan; Dvorak, Radim; Drahansky, Martin; Jankovych, Robert; Skvarek, Jozef

    The article discusses the design, mechanical design, electronics and software for robot diagnosis of barrels with caliber of 120 mm to 155 mm. This diagnostic device is intended primarily for experimental research and verification of appropriate methods and technologies for the diagnosis of the main bore guns. Article also discusses the design of sensors and software, the issue of data processing and image reconstruction obtained by scanning of the surface of the bore.

  15. Barrels XXVIII take the Windy City by storm.

    PubMed

    Gour, Anjali; Lyall, Evan H; Naka, Alexander; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2016-03-01

    The 28th annual Barrels meeting was held prior to the Society for Neuroscience meeting in October 2015 at the Northwestern University School of Law in Chicago, Illinois. The meeting brought together researchers focused on the rodent sensorimotor system. The meeting focused on modern techniques to decipher cortical circuits, social interactions among rodents, and decision-making. The meeting allowed investigators to share their work via short talks, poster presentations, and a data blitz. PMID:27121988

  16. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.; Carruth, M. R.; Edwards, D. L.; Finchum, A.; Maxwell, G.; Nabors, S.; Smalley, L.; Huston, D.; Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor (NACAP) has been extensively tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Space Science and Technology Center. Trichel pulse emission was first discovered here. The NACAP is a magnetohydrodynamic device for electric propulsion. In air it requires no onboard propellant nor any moving parts. No performance was observed in hard vacuum. The next step shall be optimizing the technology for future applications.

  17. Operation of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuri, Gotra; CMS Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), comprising 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules covering an area of about 200 m², needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded from the detector, ensuring that the SST performance fully meets the physics research program of the CMS experiment. Calibration constants may be derived from promptly reconstructed events as well as from pedestal runs gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. These calibration procedures were exercised in summer and winter 2009, when the CMS detector was commissioned using cosmic muons and proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. During these data taking periods the performance of the SST was carefully studied: the noise of the detector, the data integrity, the signal-to-noise ratio, the hit reconstruction efficiency, the calibration workflows have been all checked for stability and for different conditions, at the module level. The calibration procedures and the detector performance results from recent physics runs are described.

  18. Performance of the LHCb silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, G. A.; the LHCb Silicon Tracker Group

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb detector has been optimised for the search for New Physics in CP violating observables and rare heavy-quark decays at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The detector is a single arm forward spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities. The LHCb silicon tracker is constructed from silicon micro-strip detectors with long readout strips. It consists of one four-layer tracking station upstream of the LHCb spectrometer magnet and three stations downstream of the magnet. The detectors have performed extremely well right from the start of LHC operation, permitting the experiment to collect data at instantaneous luminosities well exceeding the design value. In this presentation, an overview of the operational experience from the first two years of data taking at the LHC will be given, with special emphasis on problems encountered. Calibration procedures will be discussed as well as studies of the intrinsic detector efficiency and resolution. First measurements of the observed radiation damage will also be shown.

  19. SDC conceptual design: Scintillating fiber outer tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Baumbaugh, A.; Bird, F.; SDC Collaboration

    1992-01-22

    The authors propose an all-scintillating fiber detector for the purpose of outer tracking for the SDC. The objectives of this tracking system are to: (1) provide a first level trigger for {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} < 2.3 with sharp p{sub T} threshold with the ability to resolve individual beam crossings; (2) provide pattern recognition capability and momentum resolution which complements and extends the capabilities of the inner silicon tracking system; (3) provide three dimensional linkage with outer detection systems including the shower maximum detector, muon detectors, and calorimetry; (4) provide robust tracking and track-triggering at the highest luminosities expected at the SSC. The many attractive features of a fiber tracker include good position resolution, low occupancy, low mass in the active volume, and excellent resistance to radiation damage. An additional important feature, especially at the SSC, is the intrinsically prompt response time of a scintillating fiber. This property is exploited in the construction of a level 1 trigger sensitive to individual beam crossings.

  20. Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrow, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    As part of our program to understand the internal structure of the proton, we have and will continue mid-rapidity (-1<η<1) W and di-jet measurements in p+p collisions at √s = 500GeV. The ongoing STAR W program is exploring the longitudinal spin contribution of anti-u and anti-d quarks to the proton spin. The gluon spin contribution can be probed through di-jet measurements. The Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) at STAR will enhance the charged sign separation for high pT tracks in the pseudo-rapidity range of 1.0<η<2.0, and therefore allows an extension of W and di-jet measurements at forward pseudo-rapidity. We will present the status of the FGT assembly and completion along with projections for future W and di-jet measurements. We will discuss studies that explore the possibilities of using the FGT to reconstruct jets in the forward direction.

  1. Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity in Rat Barrel Cortex.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Huang, Ming-De; Sun, Man-Li; Duan, Shumin; Yu, Yan-Qin

    2015-09-01

    Rats generate sweeping whisker movements in order to explore their environments and identify objects. In somatosensory pathways, neuronal activity is modulated by the frequency of whisker vibration. However, the potential role of rhythmic neuronal activity in the cerebral processing of sensory signals and its mechanism remain unclear. Here, we showed that rhythmic vibrissal stimulation with short duration in anesthetized rats resulted in an increase or decrease in the amplitude of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) in the contralateral barrel cortex. The plastic change of the SEPs was frequency dependent and long lasting. The long-lasting enhancement of the vibrissa-to-cortex evoked response was side- but not barrel-specific. Local application of dl-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid into the barrel cortex revealed that this vibrissa-to-cortex long-term plasticity in adult rats was N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-dependent. Most interestingly, whisker trimming through postnatal day (P)1-7 but not P29-35 impaired the long-term plasticity induced by 100 Hz vibrissal stimulation. The short period of rhythmic vibrissal stimulation did not induce long-lasting plasticity of field potentials in the thalamus. In conclusion, our results suggest that natural rhythmic whisker activity modifies sensory information processing in cerebral cortex, providing further insight into sensory perception. PMID:24735674

  2. Rapid, learning-induced inhibitory synaptogenesis in murine barrel field

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, M.; Siucinska, E.; Cybulska-Klosowicz, A.; Pyza, E.; Furness, D.N.; Kossut, M.; Glazewski, S.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of neurones changes during development and in response to injury or alteration in sensory experience. Changes occur in the number, shape and dimensions of dendritic spines together with their synapses. However, precise data on these changes in response to learning are sparse. Here, we show using quantitative transmission electron microscopy that a simple form of learning involving mystacial vibrissae results in about 70% increase in the density of inhibitory synapses on spines of neurones located in layer IV barrels that represent the stimulated vibrissae. The spines contain one asymmetrical (excitatory) and one symmetrical (inhibitory) synapse (double-synapse spines) and their density increases 3-fold due to learning with no apparent change in the density of asymmetrical synapses. This effect seems to be specific for learning as pseudoconditioning (where the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are delivered at random) does not lead to the enhancement of symmetrical synapses, but instead results in an up-regulation of asymmetrical synapses on spines. Symmetrical synapses of cells located in barrels receiving the conditioned stimulus show also a greater concentration of γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) in their presynaptic terminals. These results indicate that the immediate effect of classical conditioning in the ‘conditioned’ barrels is rapid, pronounced and inhibitory. PMID:20089926

  3. Neural coding in barrel cortex during whisker-guided locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Sofroniew, Nicholas James; Vlasov, Yurii A; Andrew Hires, Samuel; Freeman, Jeremy; Svoboda, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Animals seek out relevant information by moving through a dynamic world, but sensory systems are usually studied under highly constrained and passive conditions that may not probe important dimensions of the neural code. Here, we explored neural coding in the barrel cortex of head-fixed mice that tracked walls with their whiskers in tactile virtual reality. Optogenetic manipulations revealed that barrel cortex plays a role in wall-tracking. Closed-loop optogenetic control of layer 4 neurons can substitute for whisker-object contact to guide behavior resembling wall tracking. We measured neural activity using two-photon calcium imaging and extracellular recordings. Neurons were tuned to the distance between the animal snout and the contralateral wall, with monotonic, unimodal, and multimodal tuning curves. This rich representation of object location in the barrel cortex could not be predicted based on simple stimulus-response relationships involving individual whiskers and likely emerges within cortical circuits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12559.001 PMID:26701910

  4. ATLAS measurements of isolated photon cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, Marcello; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    This document presents measurements of the cross-sections for the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons and di-photon events in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy √s = 7 TeV, performed by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Photon candidates are identified by combining information from the calorimeters and from the inner tracker. Residual background in the selected sample is estimated from data based on the observed distribution of the transverse isolation energy in a narrow cone around the photon candidate. The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations.

  5. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    SciTech Connect

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Lozano, M.; Martinez, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Rafi, J.M.; Ullan, M.; Johansen, L.; Pommeresche, B.; Stugu, B.; Ciocio, A.; Fadeyev, V.; Gilchriese, M.; Haber, C.; Siegrist,J.; Spieler, H.; Vu, C.; Bell, P.J.; Charlton, D.G.; Dowell, J.D.; Gallop, B.J.; Homer, R.J.; Jovanovic, P.; Mahout, G.; McMahon, T.J.; Wilson, J.A.; Barr, A.J.; Carter, J.R.; Fromant, B.P.; Goodrick, M.J.; Hill, J.C.; Lester, C.G.; Palmer, M.J.; Parker, M.A.; Robinson, D.; Sabetfakhri, A.; Shaw, R.J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Chesi, E.; Chouridou, S.; Fortin, R.; Grosse-Knetter, M.; Gruwe, M.; Ferrari, P.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Macpherson, A.; Niinikoski, T.; Pernegger, H.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Ruggiero, G.; Wallny, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Bialas, W.; Dabrowski, W.; Grybos, P.; Koperny, S.; Blocki, J.; Bruckman, P.; Gadomski, S.; Godlewski, J.; Gornicki, E.; Malecki, P.; Moszczynski, A.; Stanecka, E.; Stodulski, M.; Szczygiel, R.; Turala, M.; Wolter, M.; Ahmad, A.; Benes, J.; Carpentieri, C.; Feld, L.; Ketterer, C.; Ludwig,J.; Meinhardt, J.; Runge, K.; Mikulec, B.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; D'Onofrio,M.; Donega, M.; Moed, S.; Sfyrla, A.; Ferrere, D.; Clark, A.G.; Perrin,E.; Weber, M.; Bates, R.L.; Cheplakov, A.; Saxon, D.H.; O'Shea, V.; Smith, K.M.; Iwata, Y.; Ohsugi, T.; Kohriki, T.; Kondo, T.; Terada, S.; Ujiie, N.; Ikegami, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Brodbeck, T.; Chilingarov, A.; Hughes, G.; Ratoff, P.; Sloan, T.; Allport, P.P.; Casse,G.-L.; Greenall, A.; Jackson, J.N.; Jones, T.J.; King, B.T.; Maxfield,S.J.; Smith, N.A.; Sutcliffe, P.; Vossebeld, J.; Beck, G.A.; Carter,A.A.; Lloyd, S.L.; Martin, A.J.; Morris, J.; Morin, J.; Nagai, K.; Pritchard, T.W.; Anderson, B.E.; Butterworth, J.M.; Fraser, T.J.; Jones,T.W.; Lane, J.B.; Postranecky, M.; Warren, M.R.M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I.; Mikuz, M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Freestone, J.; Foster, J.M.; Ibbotson, M.; Loebinger, F.K.; Pater, J.; Snow, S.W.; Thompson, R.J.; Atkinson, T.M.; et al.

    2004-08-18

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalized in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3 1014 protons per square centimeter. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operational consequences of the binary readout scheme.

  6. D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

  7. A low-cost, CCD solid state star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielowski, M.; Wynne, D.

    1992-01-01

    Applied Research Corporation (ARC) has developed an engineering model of a multi-star CCD-based tracker for space applications requiring radiation hardness, high reliability and low power consumption. The engineering unit compared favorably in functional performance tests to the standard NASA single-star tracker. Characteristics of the ARC star tracker are: field of view = 10 deg x 7.5 deg, sensitivity range of -1 to +5 star magnitude, NEA = 3 in x 3 in, linearity = 5 in x 5 in, and power consumption of 1-3 W (operating mode dependent). The software is upgradable through a remote link. The hardware-limited acquisition rate is 1-5 Hz for stars of +2 to +5 magnitude and 10-30 Hz for -1 to +2 magnitude stars. Mechanical and electrical interfaces are identical to the standard NASA star tracker.

  8. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  9. Gas gain stabilisation in the ATLAS TRT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindur, B.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonov, A.; Arslan, O.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Bault, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Bocci, A.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Brock, I.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Catinaccio, A.; Celebi, E.; Cetin, S. A.; Choi, K.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Davis, D.; Degeorge, C.; Derendarz, D.; Desch, K.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dressnandt, N.; Dubinin, F. A.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Froidevaux, D.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gecse, Z.; Godlewski, J.; Grefe, C.; Gurbuz, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, P. H.; Hawkins, A. D.; Heim, S.; Holway, K.; Kantserov, V. A.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kisielewski, B.; Klopov, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korotkova, N. A.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kramarenko, V.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Kruse, M.; Kudin, L. G.; Lichard, P.; Loginov, A.; Martinez, N. Lorenzo; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lytken, E.; Maleev, V. P.; Maevskiy, A. S.; Manjarres Ramos, J.; Mashinistov, R. Y.; Meyer, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mistry, K.; Mitsou, V. A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Newcomer, F. M.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Palacino, G.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; RØhne, O.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Ricken, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Ryjov, V.; Sasmaz, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Shmeleva, A. P.; Shulga, E.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnov, Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Soldatov, E.; Sulin, V. V.; Tartarelli, G.; Taylor, W.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vasquez, J.; Vasilyeva, L. F.; Vlazlo, O.; Weinert, B.; Williams, H. H.; Wong, V.; Zhukov, K. I.; Zieminska, D.

    2016-04-01

    The ATLAS (one of two general purpose detectors at the LHC) Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three tracking subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector. It is a large straw-based detector and contains about 350,000 electronics channels. The performance of the TRT as tracking and particularly particle identification detector strongly depends on stability of the operation parameters with most important parameter being the gas gain which must be kept constant across the detector volume. The gas gain in the straws can vary significantly with atmospheric pressure, temperature, and gas mixture composition changes. This paper presents a concept of the gas gain stabilisation in the TRT and describes in detail the Gas Gain Stabilisation System (GGSS) integrated into the Detector Control System (DCS). Operation stability of the GGSS during Run-1 is demonstrated.

  10. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Complete data from a test program designed to evaluate the performance of a star tracker, a breadboard tracker system, is presented in tabular form. All data presented was normalized to the pixel dimension of 20 micrometers. Data from determination of maximum spatial noise as it applies to the coarse and fine acquisition modes is presented. Pointing accuracy test data, raw pixel data for the track cycle, and data from equipment related tests is also presented.