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Sample records for atlas silicon tracker

  1. ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker operation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Gaetano

    2013-12-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices of the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million channels. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each). The current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented. The operation of the detector including an overview of the main issues encountered is reported. The main emphasis is given to the tracking performance of the SCT and the data quality during the >2 years of data taking of proton-proton collision data at 7 TeV (and short periods of heavy ion collisions). The SCT has been fully operational throughout all data taking periods, delivering high quality tracking data.

  2. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-04-13

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  3. Operation and performance of the ATLAS silicon micro-strip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Pylypchenko, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall since 2007 and has been operational since then. In this paper the current status of the Semiconductor Tracker is reviewed, including results from the data-taking periods in 2009 and 2010, and from the detector alignment. The emphasis is given to the performance of the Semiconductor Tracker with the LHC in collision mode and to the performance of individual electronic components. (authors)

  4. Diagnostic Analysis of Silicon Strips Detector Readout in the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker Module Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocio, Alessandra; ATLAS SCT Collaboration

    2004-10-31

    The ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) Collaboration is currently in the production phase of fabricating and testing silicon strips modules for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider being built at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. A small but relevant percentage of ICs developed a new set of defects after being mounted on hybrids that were not detected in the wafer screening. To minimize IC replacement and outright module failure, analysis methods were developed to study IC problems during the production of SCT modules. These analyses included studying wafer and hybrid data correlations to finely tune the selection of ICs and tests to utilize the ability to adjust front-end parameters of the IC in order to reduce the rejection and replacement rate of fabricated components. This paper will discuss a few examples of the problems encountered during the production of SCT hybrids and modules in the area of ICs performance, and will demonstrate the value of the flexibility built into the ABCD3T chip.

  5. An on-line acoustic fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Botelho-Direito, J.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Egorov, K.; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Katunin, S.; Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Rozanov, A.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.

    2011-07-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker community foresees an upgrade from the present octafluoro-propane (C{sub 3}F{sub 8}) evaporative cooling fluid - to a composite fluid with a probable 10-20% admixture of hexafluoro-ethane (C{sub 2}F{sub 6}). Such a fluid will allow a lower evaporation temperature and will afford the tracker silicon substrates a better safety margin against leakage current-induced thermal runaway caused by cumulative radiation damage as the luminosity profile at the CERN Large Hadron Collider increases. Central to the use of this new fluid is a new custom-developed speed-of-sound instrument for continuous real-time measurement of the C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} mixture ratio and flow. An acoustic vapour mixture analyzer/flow meter with new custom electronics allowing ultrasonic frequency transmission through gas mixtures has been developed for this application. Synchronous with the emission of an ultrasound 'chirp' from an acoustic transmitter, a fast readout clock (40 MHz) is started. The clock is stopped on receipt of an above threshold sound pulse at the receiver. Sound is alternately transmitted parallel and anti-parallel with the vapour flow for volume flow measurement from transducers that can serve as acoustic transmitters or receivers. In the development version, continuous real-time measurement of C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} flow and calculation of the mixture ratio is performed within a graphical user interface developed in PVSS-II, the Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition standard chosen for LHC and its experiments at CERN. The described instrument has numerous potential applications - including refrigerant leak detection, the analysis of hydrocarbons, vapour mixtures for semiconductor manufacture and anesthetic gas mixtures. (authors)

  6. The cooling capabilities of C2F6/C3F8 saturated fluorocarbon blends for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Botelho-Direito, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Giugni, D.; Hallewell, G.; Lombard, D.; Katunin, S.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Robinson, D.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Vacek, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate and address the performance limitations of the ATLAS silicon tracker fluorocarbon evaporative cooling system operation in the cooling circuits of the barrel silicon microstrip (SCT) sub-detector. In these circuits the minimum achievable evaporation temperatures with C3F8 were higher than the original specification, and were thought to allow an insufficient safety margin against thermal runaway in detector modules subject to a radiation dose initially foreseen for 10 years operation at LHC. We have investigated the cooling capabilities of blends of C3F8 with molar admixtures of up to 25% C2F6, since the addition of the more volatile C2F6 component was expected to allow a lower evaporation temperature for the same evaporation pressure.A custom built recirculator allowed the in-situ preparation of C2F6/C3F8 blends. These were circulated through a representative mechanical and thermal setup reproducing an as-installed ATLAS SCT barrel tracker cooling circuit. Blend molar compositions were verified to a precision of 3.10-3 in a custom ultrasonic instrument.Thermal measurements in a range of C2F6/C3F8 blends were compared with measurements in pure C3F8. These indicated that a blend with 25% C2F6 would allow a reduction in evaporation temperature of around 9oC to below -15oC, even at the highest module power dissipations envisioned after 10 years operation at LHC. Such a reduction would allow more than a factor two in safety margin against temperature dependant leakage power induced thermal runaway.Furthermore, a blend containing up to 25% C2F6 could be circulated without changes to the on-detector elements of the existing ATLAS inner detector evaporative cooling system.

  7. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for new physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charm hadrons produced at the LHC. The LHCb detector is a single-arm spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities. The Silicon Tracker is part of the tracking system and measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. The LHCb Silicon Tracker covers a total sensitive area of about 12 m2 using silicon micro-strip detectors with long readout strips. It consists of one four-layer tracking station before the LHCb dipole magnet and three stations after. The detector has performed extremely well since the start of the LHC operation despite the fact that the experiment is collecting data at instantaneous luminosities well above the design value. This paper reports on the operation and performance of the Silicon Tracker during the Physics data taking at the LHC during the last two years.

  8. The LHCb silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeva, B.; Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Baumeister, D.; Bay, A.; Bernhard, R. P.; Bernet, R.; Blouw, J.; Carron, B.; Ermoline, Y.; Esperante, D.; Frei, R.; Gassner, J.; Hofmann, W.; Jimenez-Otero, S.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Köstner, S.; Lehner, F.; Löchner, S.; Lois, C.; Needham, M.; Pugatch, V.; Schmelling, M.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Siegler, M.; Steinkamp, O.; Straumann, U.; Tran, M. T.; Vazquez, P.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voss, H.

    2005-07-01

    LHCb is a dedicated B-physics and CP-violation experiment for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Efficient track reconstruction and excellent trigger performances are essential in order to exploit fully its physics potential. Silicon strip detectors providing fast signal generation, high resolution and fine granularity are used for this purpose in the large area Trigger Tracker station in front of the spectrometer magnet and the LHCb Inner Tracker covering the area close to the beam pipe behind the magnet. Long read-out strips of up to 38 cm are used together with fast signal shaping adapted to the 25 ns LHC bunch crossing. The design of these tracking stations, the silicon sensor strip geometries and the latest test results are presented here.

  9. The barrel modules of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdesselam, A.; Akimoto, T.; Allport, P. P.; Alonso, J.; Anderson, B.; Andricek, L.; Anghinolfi, F.; Apsimon, R. J.; Barbier, G.; Barr, A. J.; Batchelor, L. E.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Beck, G. A.; Bell, P. J.; Belymam, A.; Bernabeu, J.; Bethke, S.; Bizzell, J. P.; Bohm, J.; Brenner, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Broklova, Z.; Broz, J.; Bruckman De Renstrom, P.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Carpentieri, C.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Charlton, D. G.; Cheplakov, A.; Chesi, E.; Chilingarov, A.; Chouridou, S.; Chu, M. L.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Civera, J. V.; Clark, A.; Coe, P.; Colijn, A.-P.; Cornelissen, T.; Cosgrove, D. P.; Costa, M. J.; Dabrowski, W.; Dalmau, J.; Danielsen, K. M.; Dawson, I.; Demirkoz, B.; Dervan, P.; Dolezal, Z.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorholt, O.; Dowell, J. D.; Drasal, Z.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Dwuznik, M.; Eckert, S.; Ekelof, T.; Eklund, L.; Escobar, C.; Fadeyev, V.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrere, D.; Fiorini, L.; Fortin, R.; Foster, J. M.; Fox, H.; Fraser, T. J.; Freestone, J.; French, R.; Fuster, J.; Gadomski, S.; Gallop, B. J.; García, C.; Garcia-Navarro, J. E.; Gibson, M. D.; Gibson, S.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Godlewski, J.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorisek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Greenall, A.; Grigson, C.; Grillo, A. A.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Haber, C.; Hara, K.; Hartjes, F. G.; Hauff, D.; Hawes, B. M.; Haywood, S. J.; Hessey, N. P.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, J. C.; Hollins, T. I.; Holt, R.; Howell, D. F.; Hughes, G.; Huse, T.; Ibbotson, M.; Ikegami, Y.; Issever, C.; Jackson, J. N.; Jakobs, K.; Jarron, P.; Johansen, L. G.; Jones, T. J.; Jones, T. W.; de Jong, P.; Joos, D.; Jovanovic, P.; Kachiguine, S.; Kaplon, J.; Kato, Y.; Ketterer, C.; Kobayashi, H.; Kodys, P.; Koffeman, E.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Kondo, T.; Koperny, S.; Kramberger, G.; Kubik, P.; Kudlaty, J.; Kuwano, T.; Lacasta, C.; LaMarra, D.; Lane, J. B.; Lee, S.-C.; Lester, C. G.; Limper, M.; Lindsay, S.; Llatas, M. C.; Loebinger, F. K.; Lozano, M.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Lutz, G.; Lys, J.; Maassen, M.; Macina, D.; Macpherson, A.; MacWaters, C.; McMahon, S. J.; McMahon, T. J.; Magrath, C. A.; Malecki, P.; Mandić, I.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Martí-García, S.; Martinez-Mckinney, G. F. M.; Matheson, J. M. C.; Matson, R. M.; Meinhardt, J.; Mikulec, B.; Mikuž, M.; Minagawa, M.; Mistry, J.; Mitsou, V.; Modesto, P.; Moëd, S.; Mohn, B.; Moorhead, G.; Morin, J.; Morris, J.; Morrissey, M.; Moser, H.-G.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Murray, W. J.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Nakano, I.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nisius, R.; O'Shea, V.; Oye, O. K.; Palmer, M. J.; Parker, M. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pater, J. R.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Pellegrini, G.; Pernegger, H.; Perrin, E.; Phillips, A.; Phillips, P. W.; Poltorak, K.; Pospisil, S.; Postranecky, M.; Pritchard, T.; Rafi, J. M.; Ratoff, P. N.; Reznicek, P.; Richter, R. H.; Robinson, D.; Roe, S.; Rosenbaum, F.; Rudge, A.; Runge, K.; Sadrozinski, H. F. W.; Sandaker, H.; Saxon, D. H.; Schieck, J.; Sedlak, K.; Seiden, A.; Sengoku, H.; Sfyrla, A.; Shimma, S.; Smith, K. M.; Smith, N. A.; Snow, S. W.; Solar, M.; Solberg, A.; Sopko, B.; Sospedra, L.; Spencer, E.; Stanecka, E.; Stapnes, S.; Stastny, J.; Stodulski, M.; Stugu, B.; Szczygiel, R.; Tanaka, R.; Tappern, G.; Taylor, G.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Thompson, R. J.; Titov, M.; Toczek, B.; Tovey, D. R.; Tricoli, A.; Turala, M.; Turner, P. R.; Tyndel, M.; Ullán, M.; Unno, Y.; Van der Kraaij, E.; van Vulpen, I.; Viehhauser, G.; Villani, E. G.; Vorobel, V.; Vos, M.; Wallny, R.; Warren, M. R. M.; Wastie, R. L.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wells, P. S.; Wilder, M.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilson, J. A.; Wolter, M.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the silicon microstrip modules in the barrel section of the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The module requirements, components and assembly techniques are given, as well as first results of the module performance on the fully assembled barrels that make up the detector being installed in the ATLAS experiment.

  10. Silicon tracker data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Large particle physics experiments are making increasing technological demands on the design and implementation of real-time data acquisition systems. The LHC will have bunch crossing intervals of 25 nanoseconds and detectors, such as CMS, will contain over 10 million electronic channels. Readout systems will need to cope with 100 kHz rates of 1 MByte-sized events. Over 70% of this voluminous flow will stem from silicon tracker and MSGC devices. This paper describes the techniques currently being harnessed from ASIC devices through to modular microprocessor-based architectures around standards such as VMEbus and PCI. In particular, the experiences gained at the HERA H1 experiment are highlighted where many of the key technological concepts have already been im implemented.

  11. The LHCb Silicon Tracker Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Baumeister, D.; Blouw, J.; Hofmann, W.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Löchner, S.; Schmelling, M.; Pugatch, V.; Bay, A.; Carron, B.; Frei, R.; Jiminez-Otero, S.; Tran, M.-T.; Voss, H.; Adeva, B.; Esperante, D.; Lois, C.; Vasquez, P.; Bernhard, R. P.; Bernet, R.; Ermoline, Y.; Gassner, J.; Köstner, S.; Lehner, F.; Needham, M.; Siegler, M.; Steinkamp, O.; Straumann, U.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.

    2006-01-01

    Two silicon strip detectors, the Trigger Tracker(TT) and the Inner Tracker(IT) will be constructed for the LHCb experiment. Transverse momentum information extracted from the TT will be used in the Level 1 trigger. The IT is part of the main tracking system behind the magnet. Both silicon detectors will be read out using a custom-developed chip by the ASIC lab in Heidelberg. The signal-over-noise behavior and performance of various geometrical designs of the silicon sensors, in conjunction with the Beetle read-out chip, have been extensively studied in test beam experiments. Results from those experiments are presented, and have been used in the final choice of sensor geometry.

  12. The CDF silicon vertex tracker

    SciTech Connect

    A. Cerri et al.

    2000-10-10

    Real time pattern recognition is becoming a key issue in many position sensitive detector applications. The CDF collaboration is building SVT: a specialized electronic device designed to perform real time track reconstruction using the silicon vertex detector (SVX II). This will strongly improve the CDF capability of triggering on events containing b quarks, usually characterized by the presence of a secondary vertex. SVT is designed to reconstruct in real time charged particles trajectories using data coming from the Silicon Vertex detector and the Central Outer Tracker drift chamber. The SVT architecture and algorithm have been specially tuned to minimize processing time without degrading parameter resolution.

  13. Commissioning of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker with cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanecka, E.; Atlas Sct Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests with cosmic rays of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) as well as operational experience of running the fully integrated silicon detector during the commissioning of the completed SCT. Prior to inserting into ATLAS, the barrel part of the SCT has been integrated with the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) barrel and tested with cosmic rays. A sector of 468 SCT modules has been powered and read simultaneously with TRT modules in physics mode. In total 500 thousand events were recorded during cosmic runs and processed with the ATLAS off-line reconstruction software. The SCT performance was measured in terms of the average noise occupancy per channel (4.5×10-5) and the overall efficiency (>99%). The tests with cosmic rays proved full functionality of the complex Detector Control System (DCS) which provides control, monitoring and safety functions for the detector electronics.

  14. The h1 Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2004-07-01

    The silicon tracker of the H1 experiment at HERA consists of a barrel part and two endcaps with disks. The barrel part has 2 layers of double sided strip sensors with 81920 readout channels. The forward part uses 7 wheels of single sided strip detectors that measure three coordinates (r, u, and v) with 92160 channels. The backward part uses single sided strip detectors in 6 wheels, measuring the u and v coordinates with 84480 channels. These wheels are intersprsed with 4 wheels of pad detectors that provide fast triggering signals.

  15. Upgrading the ATLAS barrel tracker for the super-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Richard L.; ATLAS ID Collaboration

    2009-08-01

    It has been proposed to increase the luminosity of the large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN by an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed super-LHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for this high-luminosity operation due to radiation damage and event density. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all-silicon tracker is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current silicon tracker in order to minimize the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation-hard silicon detectors is required. An R&D program is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges facing the sensors and the cooling and mechanical support will be discussed. A possible tracker layout will be described.

  16. Silicon photomultipliers for scintillating trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaioli, S.; Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Bonvicini, V.; Bosisio, L.; Ciano, S.; Iugovaz, D.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Rashevskaya, I.; Reia, S.; Stoppani, L.; Vallazza, E.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have been proposed as a new kind of readout device for scintillating detectors in many experiments. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected pixels, which are independent photon counters working in Geiger mode with very high gain (∼106). This contribution presents the use of an array of eight SiPMs (manufactured by FBK-irst) for the readout of a scintillating bar tracker (a small size prototype of the Electron Muon Ranger detector for the MICE experiment). The performances of the SiPMs in terms of signal to noise ratio, efficiency and time resolution will be compared to the ones of a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) connected to the same bars. Both the SiPMs and the MAPMT are interfaced to a VME system through a 64 channel MAROC ASIC.

  17. Silicon Tracker Design for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.; /SLAC

    2005-07-27

    The task of tracking charged particles in energy frontier collider experiments has been largely taken over by solid-state detectors. While silicon microstrip trackers offer many advantages in this environment, large silicon trackers are generally much more massive than their gaseous counterparts. Because of the properties of the machine itself, much of the material that comprises a typical silicon microstrip tracker can be eliminated from a design for the ILC. This realization is the inspiration for a tracker design using lightweight, short, mass-producible modules to tile closed, nested cylinders with silicon microstrips. This design relies upon a few key technologies to provide excellent performance with low cost and complexity. The details of this concept are discussed, along with the performance and status of the design effort.

  18. The D0 silicon microstrip tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Breese; D0 Collaboration

    2003-03-01

    The D0 collaboration has completed building a 793,000 channel silicon microstrip tracker for the D0 upgrade. The tracker consists of 768 ladder and wedge assemblies including both single- and double-sided detectors. Detector readout utilizes the SVX-IIE radiation hard chip with on-chip digitization and sparsification. A brief review of the detector design is presented along with results from the assembly and testing processes. The operation of the full readout chain and the performance of the silicon tracker are described. Finally, lessons for future production of large scale tracking systems are discussed.

  19. The LHCb silicon tracker: running experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saornil Gamarra, S.

    2013-02-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. It covers the full acceptance angle in front of the dipole magnet in the Tracker Turicensis station and the innermost part around the beam axis in the three Inner Tracker stations downstream of the magnet. The Silicon Tracker covers a sensitive area of 12 m2 using silicon micro-strip sensors with very long readout strips. We report on running experience for the experiment. Focussing on electronic and hardware issues we describe some of the lessons learned and pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  20. The H1 silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2005-09-01

    The H1 experiment at HERA is equipped with a silicon vertex detector, comprising a barrel part and two endcaps with disks. The barrel part uses double-sided, DC-coupled strip sensors, whereas the endcap parts use two types of wedge-shaped sensors, both single-sided and AC-coupled: u/v sensors have strips parallel to one edge of the sensor, r sensors have circular strips. Additional pad detectors provide fast triggering signals in the backward part.

  1. The CDF online Silicon Vertex Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmanskas, W.; Bardi, A.; Bari, M.; Belforte, S.; Berryhill, J.; Bogdan, M.; Carosi, R.; Cerri, A.; Chlachidze, G.; Culbertson, R.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Fiori, I.; Frisch, H. J.; Galeotti, S.; Giannetti, P.; Glagolev, V.; Moneta, L.; Morsani, F.; Nakaya, T.; Passuello, D.; Punzi, G.; Rescigno, M.; Ristori, L.; Sanders, H.; Sarkar, S.; Semenov, A.; Shochet, M.; Speer, T.; Spinella, F.; Wu, X.; Yang, U.; Zanello, L.; Zanetti, A. M.

    2002-06-01

    The CDF Online Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) reconstructs 2D tracks by linking hit positions measured by the Silicon Vertex Detector to the Central Outer Chamber tracks found by the eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT). The system has been completely built and assembled and it is now being commissioned using the first CDF run II data. The precision measurement of the track impact parameter will allow triggering on B hadron decay vertices and thus investigating important areas in the B sector, like CP violation and B s mixing. In this paper we briefly review the architecture and the tracking algorithms implemented in the SVT and we report on the performance of the system achieved in the early phase of CDF run II.

  2. The CDF online silicon vertex tracker

    SciTech Connect

    W. Ashmanskas et al.

    2001-11-02

    The CDF Online Silicon Vertex Tracker reconstructs 2-D tracks by linking hit positions measured by the Silicon Vertex Detector to the Central Outer Chamber tracks found by the eXtremely Fast Tracker. The system has been completely built and assembled and it is now being commissioned using the first CDF run II data. The precision measurement of the track impact parameter will allow triggering on B hadron decay vertices and thus investigating important areas in the B sector, like CP violation and B{sub s} mixing. In this paper we briefly review the architecture and the tracking algorithms implemented in the SVT and we report on the performance of the system achieved in the early phase of CDF run II.

  3. Babar Silicon Vertex Tracker: Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Re, V.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Curry, S.; Kirkby, D.; Berryhill, J.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hale, D.; Kyre, S.; Richman, J.; Stoner, J.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T.; Eisner, A.M.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W.S.; Nesom, G.; /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /UC, Irvine /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /LBL, Berkeley /Maryland U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Princeton U. /UC, Riverside /SLAC /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.

    2006-04-27

    The BABAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) has been efficiently operated for six years since the start of data taking in 1999. Due to higher than expected background levels some unforeseen effects have appeared. We discuss: a shift in the pedestal for the channels of the AToM readout chips that are most exposed to radiation; an anomalous increase in the bias leakage current for the modules in the outer layers. Estimates of future radiation doses and occupancies are shown together with the extrapolated detector performance and lifetime, in light of the new observations.

  4. The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker operation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a key precision tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. The SCT is composed of 4088 planar p-in-n silicon micro-strip detectors. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which operate in binary readout mode; data are transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The SCT was completed in 2007. An extensive commissioning phase followed, during which calibration data were collected and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system, and further performance parameters of the detector were determined using cosmic ray data, both with and without magnetic field. After the commissioning phase, the SCT was ready for the first LHC proton-proton collisions in December 2009. From the beginning of data taking, the completed SCT has been in very good shape with more than 99% of its 6.3 million strips operational; the detector is well timed-in and the operational channels are 99.9% efficient in data acquisition. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency are better than the design specifications. The detector geometry is monitored continuously with a laser-based alignment system and is stable to the few-micron level; the alignment accuracy as determined by tracks is near specification and improving as statistics increase. The sensor behaviour in the 2T solenoidal magnetic field has been studied by measuring the Lorentz angle. Radiation damage in the silicon is monitored by periodic measurements of the leakage current; these measurements are in reasonable agreement with predictions.

  5. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.

    2011-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors. (authors)

  6. X-ray tomography for the ATLAS semi-conductor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucas, G.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Nickerson, R.; Vertogradov, L.

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented of precision tests with the prototype of an X-ray tomography system for measuring the two-dimensional position of silicon strip modules on barrel structures. The measured accuracy and repeatability are better than 6 μm in rφ and better than 30 μm in r, where r and φ are polar coordinates, and are sufficient for a high-precision survey of the barrels of the ATLAS semi-conductor tracker.

  7. D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

  8. Optimization of the silicon sensors for the CMS tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Biino, C.; Bilei, G. M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borello, L.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Brunetti, M. T.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Costa, M.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; DeMaria, N.; de Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dutta, S.; Favro, G.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Friedl, M.; Fürtjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, W.; Gu, W. H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honkanen, A.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Mättig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Mc Evoy, B.; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Neviani, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pernicka, M.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Rizzo, F.; Santocchia, A.; Segneri, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T.; Verdini, P. G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2001-07-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC will comprise a large silicon strip tracker. This article highlights some of the results obtained in the R&D studies for the optimization of its silicon sensors. Measurements of the capacitances and of the high voltage stability of the devices are presented before and after irradiation to the dose expected after the full lifetime of the tracker.

  9. Alignment strategy for the ATLAS tracker

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS; Golling, T.

    2007-09-23

    The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose particle detector that will study high-energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider. For the reconstruction of charged particles, and their production and their decay vertices, ATLAS is equipped with a sophisticated tracking system, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the Inner Detector and the muon spectrometer requires an accurate alignment. The challenge of aligning the ATLAS tracking devices is discussed, and the ATLAS alignment strategy is presented and illustrated with both data and Monte Carlo results.

  10. Radiation-tolerant optical links for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, John; Charlton, David G.; Chu, Ming-lee; Dowell, John D.; Galagedera, Senerath; Homer, Roger J.; Hou, Li-Shing; Jovanovic, Predrag; Kundu, Nikhil N.; Lee, Shih-chang; McMahon, Thomas J.; Macwaters, Craig; Mahout, Gilles; Morrissey, Martin; Rudge, Alan; Skubic, Bjorn J.; Teng, Ping-kun; Wastie, Roy; Weidberg, Anthony R.; Wilson, John A.

    2002-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), currently under construction at CERN, Geneva, will collide proton beams of energy 7 TeV. The high luminosity of the machine will lead to a severe radiation environment for detectors such as ATLAS. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) must be able to tolerate a radiation field equivalent to an ionising dose of 10 Mrad (Si) and a neutron fluence of 2x1014cm-2 (1MeV,Si) over the 10 year lifetime of the experiment. The SCT is instrumented by silicon microstrip detectors and their front-end chips (ABCDs). Data is transferred from, and control signals to, the ABCDs using multimode optical links carrying light at 840 nm. The incoming timing, trigger and control (TTC) link uses biphase mark encoding to send 40 Mbit/s control signals along with a 40 MHz clock down a single fibre. Optical signals are received by a p-i-n diode and decoded by DORIC chips. Data in electrical form from the ABCDs is used to moderate two VCSELs by means of a VCSEL driver chip (VDC). Each detector module carries 12 ABCDs and is served by two optical fibres for data readout and one for TTC signals. There are 4088 such modules within the SCT. The system performance specifications and architecture are described, followed by test results on individual components and complete links. The optical fibre, active optical components, chips, packaging and interconnects have all been qualified to the necessary radiation levels. This has involved studies of total dose effects, single event upset and ageing at elevated temperatures and details of these studies are presented.

  11. Performance of the LHCb silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, G. A.; the LHCb Silicon Tracker Group

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb detector has been optimised for the search for New Physics in CP violating observables and rare heavy-quark decays at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The detector is a single arm forward spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities. The LHCb silicon tracker is constructed from silicon micro-strip detectors with long readout strips. It consists of one four-layer tracking station upstream of the LHCb spectrometer magnet and three stations downstream of the magnet. The detectors have performed extremely well right from the start of LHC operation, permitting the experiment to collect data at instantaneous luminosities well exceeding the design value. In this presentation, an overview of the operational experience from the first two years of data taking at the LHC will be given, with special emphasis on problems encountered. Calibration procedures will be discussed as well as studies of the intrinsic detector efficiency and resolution. First measurements of the observed radiation damage will also be shown.

  12. SVT: an online silicon vertex tracker for the CDF upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bardi, A.; Belforte, S.; Berryhill, J.; CDF Collaboration

    1997-07-01

    The SVT is an online tracker for the CDF upgrade which will reconstruct 2D tracks using information from the Silicon VerteX detector (SVXII) and Central Outer Tracker (COT). The precision measurement of the track impact parameter will then be used to select and record large samples of B hadrons. We discuss the overall architecture, algorithms, and hardware implementation of the system.

  13. Operation of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuri, Gotra; CMS Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), comprising 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules covering an area of about 200 m², needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded from the detector, ensuring that the SST performance fully meets the physics research program of the CMS experiment. Calibration constants may be derived from promptly reconstructed events as well as from pedestal runs gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. These calibration procedures were exercised in summer and winter 2009, when the CMS detector was commissioned using cosmic muons and proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. During these data taking periods the performance of the SST was carefully studied: the noise of the detector, the data integrity, the signal-to-noise ratio, the hit reconstruction efficiency, the calibration workflows have been all checked for stability and for different conditions, at the module level. The calibration procedures and the detector performance results from recent physics runs are described.

  14. Simulation of the GEM silicon central tracker using GEANT

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.L.; Kinnison, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    The silicon central tracker of the GEM detector has been simulated using the high energy physics simulations code GEANT. This paper will describe the level of detail of the geometry of the tracker that is in the code, including the silicon detectors themselves as well as all non-sensitive volumes such as support structures; the digitization, or detector response to particles, of the silicon detectors; the coordinate reconstruction from the digitizations, and some of the results of the simulations regarding the detector performance.

  15. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  16. Silicon vertex tracker: a fast precise tracking trigger for CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmanskas, W.; Bardi, A.; Bari, M.; Belforte, S.; Berryhill, J.; Bogdan, M.; Cerri, A.; Clark, A. G.; Chlanchidze, G.; Condorelli, R.; Culbertson, R.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Frisch, H. J.; Galeotti, S.; Giannetti, P.; Glagolev, V.; Leger, A.; Meschi, E.; Morsani, F.; Nakaya, T.; Punzi, G.; Ristori, L.; Sanders, H.; Semenov, A.; Signorelli, G.; Shochet, M.; Speer, T.; Spinella, F.; Wilson, P.; Wu, Xin; Zanetti, A. M.

    2000-06-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT), currently being built for the CDF II experiment, is a hardware device that reconstructs 2-D tracks online using measurements from the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVXII) and the Central Outer Tracker (COT). The precise measurement of the impact parameter of the SVT tracks will allow, for the first time in a hadron collider environment, to trigger on events containing B hadrons that are very important for many studies, such as CP violation in the b sector and searching for new heavy particles decaying to b b¯ . In this report we describe the overall architecture, algorithms and the hardware implementation of the SVT.

  17. Simulations of silicon vertex tracker for star experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Odyniec, G.; Cebra, D.; Christie, W.; Naudet, C.; Schroeder, L.; Wilson, W.; Liko, D.; Cramer, J.; Prindle, D.; Trainor, T.; Braithwaite, W.

    1991-12-31

    The first computer simulations to optimize the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) designed for the STAR experiment at RHIC are presented. The physics goals and the expected complexity of the events at RHIC dictate the design of a tracking system for the STAR experiment. The proposed tracking system will consist of a silicon vertex tracker (SVT) to locate the primary interaction and secondary decay vertices and to improve the momentum resolution, and a time projection chamber (TPC), positioned inside a solenoidal magnet, for continuous tracking.

  18. Embedded pitch adapters for the ATLAS Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullan, Miguel; Benitez, Victor; Pellegrini, Giulio; Fleta, Celeste; Lozano, Manuel; Lacasta, Carlos; Soldevila, Urmila; Garcia, Carmen

    2013-12-01

    In the current ATLAS tracker modules, sensor bonding pads are placed on their corresponding strips and oriented along the strips. This creates a difference in pitch and orientation between sensor bond pads and readout electronics bond pads. Therefore, a pitch adapter (PA), or “fan-in”, is needed. The purpose of these PA is the electrical interconnection of every channel from the detector bonding pads to the read-out chips, adapting the different pad pitch. Our new approach is to build those PAs inside the sensor; this is what we call Embedded Pitch Adapters. The idea is to use an additional metal layer in order to define a new group of pads, connected to the strips via tracks with the second metal. The embedded PAs have been fabricated on 4-in. prototype sensors for the ATLAS-Upgrade Endcap Tracker to test their performance and suitability. The tests confirm proper fabrication of the second metal tracks, and no effects on detector performance. No indication of cross-talk between first and second metal channels has been observed. A small indication of possible signal pick-up from the bulk has been observed in a few channels, which needs to be further investigated.

  19. Search for WW and WZ production in lepton, neutrino plus jets final states at CDF Run II and Silicon module production and detector control system for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyrla, Anna; /Geneva U.

    2008-03-01

    In the first part of this work, we present a search for WW and WZ production in charged lepton, neutrino plus jets final states produced in p{bar p} collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, using 1.2 fb{sup -1} of data accumulated with the CDF II detector. This channel is yet to be observed in hadron colliders due to the large singleWplus jets background. However, this decay mode has a much larger branching fraction than the cleaner fully leptonic mode making it more sensitive to anomalous triple gauge couplings that manifest themselves at higher transverse W momentum. Because the final state is topologically similar to associated production of a Higgs boson with a W, the techniques developed in this analysis are also applicable in that search. An Artificial Neural Network has been used for the event selection optimization. The theoretical prediction for the cross section is {sigma}{sub WW/WZ}{sup theory} x Br(W {yields} {ell}{nu}; W/Z {yields} jj) = 2.09 {+-} 0.14 pb. They measured N{sub Signal} = 410 {+-} 212(stat) {+-} 102(sys) signal events that correspond to a cross section {sigma}{sub WW/WZ} x Br(W {yields} {ell}{nu}; W/Z {yields} jj) = 1.47 {+-} 0.77(stat) {+-} 0.38(sys) pb. The 95% CL upper limit to the cross section is estimated to be {sigma} x Br(W {yields} {ell}{nu}; W/Z {yields} jj) < 2.88 pb. The second part of the present work is technical and concerns the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) assembly phase. Although technical, the work in the SCT assembly phase is of prime importance for the good performance of the detector during data taking. The production at the University of Geneva of approximately one third of the silicon microstrip end-cap modules is presented. This collaborative effort of the university of Geneva group that lasted two years, resulted in 655 produced modules, 97% of which were good modules, constructed within the mechanical and electrical specifications and delivered in the SCT collaboration for assembly on

  20. Real time tracker based upon local hit correlation circuit for silicon strip sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Niklaus; Pirrami, Lorenzo; Blue, Andrew; Diez, Sergio; Dressnandt, Nandor; Duner, Silvan; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Haber, Carl; Halgeri, Amogh; Keener, Paul; Keller, John; Newcomer, Mitchell; Pasner, Jacob; Peschke, Richard; Risbud, Amar; Ropraz, Eric; Stalder, Jonas; Wang, Haichen

    2016-01-01

    For the planned high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a significant performance improvement of the detectors is required, including new tracker and trigger systems that makes use of charged track information early on. In this note we explore the principle of real time track reconstruction integrated in the readout electronics. A prototype was built using the silicon strip sensor for the ATLAS phase-II upgrade. The real time tracker is not the baseline for ATLAS but is nevertheless of interest, as the upgraded trigger design has not yet been finalized. For this, a new readout scheme in parallel with conventional readout, called the Fast Cluster Finder (FCF), was included in the latest prototype of the ATLAS strip detector readout chip (ABC130). The FCF is capable of finding hits within 6 ns and transmitting the found hit information synchronously every 25 ns. Using the FCF together with external correlation logic makes it possible to look for pairs of hits consistent with tracks from the interaction point above a transverse momentum threshold. A correlator logic finds correlations between two closely spaced parallel sensors, a "doublet", and can generate information used as input to a lowest level trigger decision. Such a correlator logic was developed as part of a demonstrator and was successfully tested in an electron beam. The results of this test beam experiment proved the concept of the real time track vector processor with FCF.

  1. Determination of W boson helicity fractions in top quark decays in p anti-p collisions at CDF Run II and production of endcap modules for the ATLAS Silicon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Moed, Shulamit; /Geneva U.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis presented here includes two parts. The first part discusses the production of endcap modules for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker at the University of Geneva. The ATLAS experiment is one of the two multi-purpose experiments being built at the LHC at CERN. The University of Geneva invested extensive efforts to create an excellent and efficient module production site, in which 655 endcap outer modules were constructed. The complexity and extreme requirements for 10 years of LHC operation with a high resolution, high efficiency, low noise tracking system resulted in an extremely careful, time consuming production and quality assurance of every single module. At design luminosity about 1000 particles will pass through the tracking system each 25 ns. In addition to requiring fast tracking techniques, the high particle flux causes significant radiation damage. Therefore, modules have to be constructed within tight and accurate mechanical and electrical specification. A description of the ATLAS experiment and the ATLAS Semiconductor tracker is presented, followed by a detailed overview of the module production at the University of Geneva. My personal contribution to the endcap module production at the University of Geneva was taking part, together with other physicists, in selecting components to be assembled to a module, including hybrid reception tests, measuring the I-V curve of the sensors and the modules at different stages of the production, thermal cycling the modules and performing electrical readout tests as an initial quality assurance of the modules before they were shipped to CERN. An elaborated description of all of these activities is given in this thesis. At the beginning of the production period the author developed a statistics package which enabled us to monitor the rate and quality of the module production. This package was then used widely by the ATLAS SCT institutes that built endcap modules of any type, and kept being improved and updated

  2. Planar silicon sensors for the CMS tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkes, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    The CMS tracker collaboration has initiated a large material investigation and irradiation campaign to identify the silicon material and design that fulfills all requirements for silicon tracking detectors for the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). A variety of silicon p-in-n and n-in-p test-sensors made from Float Zone, Deep-Diffused FZ and Magnetic Czochralski materials were manufactured by one single industrial producer, thus guaranteeing similar conditions for the production and design of the test-structures. Properties of different silicon materials and design choices have been systematically studied and compared. The samples have been irradiated with neutrons (1 MeV) and protons (23 MeV and 23 GeV) corresponding to maximal fluences as expected for several positions of detector layers in the future tracker. Irradiations with protons of different energies have been performed to evaluate the energy dependence of the defect generation in oxygen rich material. All materials have been characterized before and after irradiations, and throughout an annealing treatment. The measurements performed on the structures include electrical sensor characterization, measurement of the collected charge injected with a beta source or laser light and bulk defect characterization. In this paper, a selection of results from the ongoing studies is presented.

  3. DAMPE silicon tracker on-board data compression algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Fei; Qiao, Rui; Peng, Wen-Xi; Fan, Rui-Rui; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2015-11-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is an upcoming scientific satellite mission for high energy gamma-ray, electron and cosmic ray detection. The silicon tracker (STK) is a subdetector of the DAMPE payload. It has excellent position resolution (readout pitch of 242 μm), and measures the incident direction of particles as well as charge. The STK consists of 12 layers of Silicon Micro-strip Detector (SMD), equivalent to a total silicon area of 6.5 m2. The total number of readout channels of the STK is 73728, which leads to a huge amount of raw data to be processed. In this paper, we focus on the on-board data compression algorithm and procedure in the STK, and show the results of initial verification by cosmic-ray measurements. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA040402) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (1111403027)

  4. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    SciTech Connect

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Lozano, M.; Martinez, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Rafi, J.M.; Ullan, M.; Johansen, L.; Pommeresche, B.; Stugu, B.; Ciocio, A.; Fadeyev, V.; Gilchriese, M.; Haber, C.; Siegrist,J.; Spieler, H.; Vu, C.; Bell, P.J.; Charlton, D.G.; Dowell, J.D.; Gallop, B.J.; Homer, R.J.; Jovanovic, P.; Mahout, G.; McMahon, T.J.; Wilson, J.A.; Barr, A.J.; Carter, J.R.; Fromant, B.P.; Goodrick, M.J.; Hill, J.C.; Lester, C.G.; Palmer, M.J.; Parker, M.A.; Robinson, D.; Sabetfakhri, A.; Shaw, R.J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Chesi, E.; Chouridou, S.; Fortin, R.; Grosse-Knetter, M.; Gruwe, M.; Ferrari, P.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Macpherson, A.; Niinikoski, T.; Pernegger, H.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Ruggiero, G.; Wallny, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Bialas, W.; Dabrowski, W.; Grybos, P.; Koperny, S.; Blocki, J.; Bruckman, P.; Gadomski, S.; Godlewski, J.; Gornicki, E.; Malecki, P.; Moszczynski, A.; Stanecka, E.; Stodulski, M.; Szczygiel, R.; Turala, M.; Wolter, M.; Ahmad, A.; Benes, J.; Carpentieri, C.; Feld, L.; Ketterer, C.; Ludwig,J.; Meinhardt, J.; Runge, K.; Mikulec, B.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; D'Onofrio,M.; Donega, M.; Moed, S.; Sfyrla, A.; Ferrere, D.; Clark, A.G.; Perrin,E.; Weber, M.; Bates, R.L.; Cheplakov, A.; Saxon, D.H.; O'Shea, V.; Smith, K.M.; Iwata, Y.; Ohsugi, T.; Kohriki, T.; Kondo, T.; Terada, S.; Ujiie, N.; Ikegami, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Brodbeck, T.; Chilingarov, A.; Hughes, G.; Ratoff, P.; Sloan, T.; Allport, P.P.; Casse,G.-L.; Greenall, A.; Jackson, J.N.; Jones, T.J.; King, B.T.; Maxfield,S.J.; Smith, N.A.; Sutcliffe, P.; Vossebeld, J.; Beck, G.A.; Carter,A.A.; Lloyd, S.L.; Martin, A.J.; Morris, J.; Morin, J.; Nagai, K.; Pritchard, T.W.; Anderson, B.E.; Butterworth, J.M.; Fraser, T.J.; Jones,T.W.; Lane, J.B.; Postranecky, M.; Warren, M.R.M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I.; Mikuz, M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Freestone, J.; Foster, J.M.; Ibbotson, M.; Loebinger, F.K.; Pater, J.; Snow, S.W.; Thompson, R.J.; Atkinson, T.M.; et al.

    2004-08-18

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalized in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3 1014 protons per square centimeter. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operational consequences of the binary readout scheme.

  5. Double-sided super-module R&D for the ATLAS tracker at HL-LHC - A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, A.; Barbier, G.; Cadoux, F.; Endo, M.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Iacobucci, G.; Ikegami, Y.; Jinnouchi, O.; La Marra, D.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, R.; Perrin, E.; Seez, W.; Takubo, Y.; Takashima, R.; Terada, S.; Todome, K.; Unno, Y.; Weber, M.

    2014-11-01

    Following successive upgrades of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) until approximately 2025, the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver pp collisions of centre-of-mass energy √{ s } = 14 TeV with a levelled peak luminosity in excess of 5 ×1034cm-2s-1 and an integrated luminosity of order 300fb-1 per year. The ATLAS Collaboration intends to replace the existing Inner Tracking Detector by a new tracker, with readout electronics as well as silicon pixel and strip sensor technology capable of maintaining the excellent mechanical and electrical performance of the existing tracker in the severe radiation and high collision rate environment of the HL-LHC. The super-module integration concept extends the proven design of the existing barrel silicon strip tracker to the HL-LHC, with double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules assembled into a low mass local support structure. The first phase of the Super-Module R&D programme has been successfully completed, demonstrating the feasibility of the Super-Module concept. A summary is made up of the key prototype mechanical and electrical results of the R&D, as well as a short perspective of future developments.

  6. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    SciTech Connect

    Antonioli, Mary Ann; Boiarinov, Serguie; Bonneau, Peter R.; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eng, Brian J.; Gotra, Yuri N.; Kurbatov, Evgeny O.; Leffel, Mindy A.; Mandal, Saptarshi; McMullen, Marc E.; Merkin, Mikhail M.; Raydo, Benjamin J.; Teachey, Robert W,; Tucker, Ross J.; Ungaro, Maurizio; Yegneswaran, Amrit S.; Ziegler, Veronique

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156{micro}m, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  7. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, M. A.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eng, B.; Gotra, Y.; Kurbatov, E.; Leffel, M.; Mandal, S.; McMullen, M.; Merkin, M.; Raydo, B.; Teachey, W.; Tucker, R.; Ungaro, M.; Yegneswaran, A.; Ziegler, V.

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156 μm, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  8. Design of an upgraded D0 silicon microstrip tracker for Run IIb at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    The D0 collaboration planned to upgrade the Silicon Tracker to withstand the radiation dose corresponding to above 2 fb{sup -1} of data. This new detector was designed to be functional up to at least 15 fb{sup -1}. The authors report on the design of the new Silicon Tracker with details of the innermost layer.

  9. The CMS all-silicon tracker — strategies to ensure a high quality and radiation hard silicon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2002-02-01

    In December 1999, the CMS collaboration decided to use an all-silicon solution for the tracker. In total the CMS tracker implements 24328 silicon sensors covering an area of 206 m 2. To control a large system of this size and ensure its functionality after 10 years under LHC condition, CMS developed an elaborate design and a detailed quality assurance program.

  10. Future silicon sensors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard-Schwarz, Maria; CMS Tracker Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    For the high-luminosity phase of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN a campaign was started in the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment to investigate different radiation hard silicon detectors. Therefore 6 in. silicon wafers were ordered to answer various questions regarding for example the radiation tolerance and the annealing behavior of different sensor material. The testing variety includes sensor versions n-in-p and p-in-n in thicknesses from 50 μm to 300 μm. In terms of sensor material the difference between floating zone, magnetic Czochralski and epitaxial grown silicon is investigated. For the n-in-p sensors, the different isolation technologies, p-stop and p-spray, are tested. The design of the wafer contains test structures, diodes, mini-sensors, long and very short strip sensors, real pixel sensors and double metal routing variants. The irradiation is done with mixed fluences of protons and neutrons which represent the rates of integrated hadrons that are expected in the CMS tracker after the LHC upgrade. This paper presents an overview of results from measurements of non-irradiated test structures with different technologies and also the results after irradiation.

  11. Evolution of the design of a silicon tracker for the Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.E.

    2005-10-01

    A design for the silicon tracker for SiD was proposed at the Victoria Linear Collider Workshop [1]. This paper describes development of that design by the SiD group into a baseline model for simulation studies. The design has been modified to take into account detector fabrication and servicing requirements, features specific to the vertex chamber, and detector elements in the region surrounding the silicon tracker.

  12. Rad-hard vertical JFET switch for the HV-MUX system of the ATLAS upgrade Inner Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Martínez, P.; Ullán, M.; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Quirion, D.; Lynn, D.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a new silicon vertical JFET (V-JFET) device, based on the trenched 3D-detector technology developed at IMB-CNM, to be used as a switch for the High-Voltage powering scheme of the ATLAS upgrade Inner Tracker. The optimization of the device characteristics is performed by 2D and 3D TCAD simulations. Special attention has been paid to the on-resistance and the switch-off and breakdown voltages to meet the specific requirements of the system. In addition, a set of parameter values has been extracted from the simulated curves to implement a SPICE model of the proposed V-JFET transistor. As these devices are expected to operate under very high radiation conditions during the whole experiment life-time, a study of the radiation damage effects and the expected degradation of the device performance is also presented at the end of the paper.

  13. Silicon photomultiplier choice for the scintillating fibre tracker in second generation proton computed tomography scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, A.; Johnson, E.; Medvedev, V.; Ronzhin, A.; Rykalin, V.; Rubinov, P.; Sleptcov, V.; /Unlisted, RU

    2012-03-01

    Scintillating fibers are capable of charged particle tracking with high position resolution, as demonstrated by the central fiber tracker of the D0 experiment. The charged particles will deposit less energy in the polystyrene scintillating fibers as opposed to a typical silicon tracker of the same thickness, while SiPM's are highly efficient at detecting photons created by the passage of the charged particle through the fibers. The current prototype of the Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) tracker uses groups of three 0.5 mm green polystyrene based scintillating fibers connected to a single SiPM, while first generation prototype tracker used Silicon strip detectors. The results of R&D for the Scintillating Fiber Tracker (SFT) as part of the pCT detector are outlined, and the premise for the selection of SiPM is discussed.

  14. Assembly procedure for the silicon pixel ladder for PHENIX silicon vertex tracker.

    SciTech Connect

    Onuki, Y.; PHENIX Collaboration, et al.

    2009-05-08

    The silicon vertex tracker (VTX) will be installed in the summer of 2010 to enhance the physics capabilities of the Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment (PHENIX) experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The VTX consists of two types of silicon detectors: a pixel detector and a strip detector. The pixel detector consists of 30 pixel ladders placed on the two inner cylindrical layers of the VTX. The ladders are required to be assembled with high precision, however, they should be assembled in both cost and time efficient manner. We have developed an assembly bench for the ladder with several assembly fixtures and a quality assurance (Q/A) system using a 3D measurement machine. We have also developed an assembly procedure for the ladder, including a method for dispensing adhesive uniformly and encapsulation of bonding wires. The developed procedures were adopted in the assembly of the first pixel ladder and satisfy the requirements.

  15. Alignment of the CMS silicon strip tracker during stand-alone commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-07-01

    The results of the CMS tracker alignment analysis are presented using the data from cosmic tracks, optical survey information, and the laser alignment system at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During several months of operation in the spring and summer of 2007, about five million cosmic track events were collected with a partially active CMS Tracker. This allowed us to perform first alignment of the active silicon modules with the cosmic tracks using three different statistical approaches; validate the survey and laser alignment system performance; and test the stability of Tracker structures under various stresses and temperatures ranging from +15C to -15C. Comparison with simulation shows that the achieved alignment precision in the barrel part of the tracker leads to residual distributions similar to those obtained with a random misalignment of 50 (80) microns in the outer (inner) part of the barrel.

  16. Induced radioactivity in the forward shielding and semiconductor tracker of the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Bĕdajánek, I; Linhart, V; Stekl, I; Pospísil, S; Kolros, A; Kovalenko, V

    2005-01-01

    The radioactivity induced in the forward shielding, copper collimator and semiconductor tracker modules of the ATLAS detector has been studied. The ATLAS detector is a long-term experiment which, during operation, will require to have service and access to all of its parts and components. The radioactivity induced in the forward shielding was calculated by Monte Carlo methods based on GEANT3 software tool. The results show that the equivalent dose rates on the outer surface of the forward shielding are very low (at most 0.038 microSv h(-1)). On the other hand, the equivalent dose rates are significantly higher on the inner surface of the forward shielding (up to 661 microSv h(-1)) and, especially, at the copper collimator close to the beampipe (up to 60 mSv h(-1)). The radioactivity induced in the semiconductor tracker modules was studied experimentally. The module was activated by neutrons in a training nuclear reactor and the delayed gamma ray spectra were measured. From these measurements, the equivalent dose rate on the surface of the semiconductor tracker module was estimated to be < 100 microSv h(-1) after 100 d of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operation and 10 d of cooling. PMID:16604587

  17. Test beam analysis of the effect of highly ionizing particles on the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Filippis, N.; CMS Collaboration

    2004-09-01

    Highly ionizing particles (HIPs) created by nuclear interactions in the silicon sensors cause a large signal which can saturate the APV readout chip used in the CMS Silicon Tracker system. This phenomenon was studied in two different beam-tests performed at PSI and at the CERN X5 experimental areas in 2002. The probability of a HIP-like event to occur per incident pion was measured and the dependence of the APV capability to detect a MIP signal on the time required to recover from such an event is derived. From these results, the expected inefficiency of the CMS Tracker due to HIPS is inferred.

  18. The silicon-strip tracker of the Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Angelini, F.; Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Brez, A.; Ceccanti, M.; Cohen Tanugi, J.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Massai, M. M.; Minuti, M.; Omodei, N.; Spandre, G.; Vigiani, L.; Zetti, F.

    2003-10-01

    The Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an astro-particle mission that will study the mostly unexplored, high energy (20MeV-1TeV) spectrum of photons coming from active sources in the universe. Construction of the GLAST silicon tracker, by far the largest ever built for a space mission, is now well on the way, as it is scheduled for launch by NASA in autumn 2006. We report on the basic technology adopted for the silicon detectors, particularly in connection to their use in space, on the first results of sensors testing and on the status of tracker assembly.

  19. A High-Performance Silicon Tracker for the CBM Experiment at FAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Heuser, Johann M.; Mueller, Walter F. J.; Senger, Peter; Muentz, Christian; Stroth, Joachim

    2006-07-11

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at GSI's future international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will study strongly interacting matter at high baryon densities. The central component of the fixed-target heavy-ion spectrometer is a high-performance silicon vertex tracker. It applies most advanced pixel and microstrip detectors to track exclusively the charged particles created in the collisions and to reconstruct decay vertices from 'open charm'. The development of the silicon tracker is challenging and includes R and D on ultra low-mass sensors and support structures, extreme radiation hardness, and fast self-triggered readout.

  20. Detector control system for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker: architecture and development techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaś, ElŻbieta; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Olszowska, Jolanta

    2012-05-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. With ~300000 drift tube proportional counters (straws) filled with stable gas mixture and high voltage biased it provides precise quasi-continuous tracking and particles identification. Safe, coherent and efficient operation of the TRT is fulfilled with the help of the Detector Control System (DCS) running on 11 computers as PVSS (industrial SCADA) projects. Standard industrial and custom developed server applications and protocols are used for reading hardware parameters. Higher level control system layers based on the CERN JCOP framework allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different data bases are used to store the detector online parameters, the configuration parameters and replicate a subset of them used to flag data quality for physics reconstruction. The TRT DCS is fully integrated with the ATLAS Detector Control System.

  1. Electrical production testing of the D0 Silicon microstrip tracker detector modules

    SciTech Connect

    D0, SMT Production Testing Group; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) is the innermost system of the D0 detector in Run 2. It consists of 912 detector units, corresponding to 5 different types of assemblies, which add up to a system with 792,576 readout channels. The task entrusted to the Production Testing group was to thoroughly debug, test and grade each detector module before its installation in the tracker. This note describes the production testing sequence and the procedures by which the detector modules were electrically tested and characterized at the various stages of their assembly.

  2. Fabrication of the GLAST Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Johnson, R.P.; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen Tanugi, Johann; Young, Charles; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-03-03

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm long silicon strips in a 4 x 4 array of tower modules. An aggressive mechanical design fits the readout electronics in narrow spaces between the tower modules, to minimize dead area. This design and the resulting departures from conventional electronics packaging led to several fabrication challenges and lessons learned. This paper describes the fabrication processes and how the problems peculiar to this design were overcome.

  3. Design of a hardware track finder (Fast Tracker) for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, V.; Adelman, J.; Albicocco, P.; Alison, J.; Ancu, L. S.; Anderson, J.; Andari, N.; Andreani, A.; Andreazza, A.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Asbah, N.; Atkinson, M.; Baines, J.; Barberio, E.; Beccherle, R.; Beretta, M.; Bertolucci, F.; Biesuz, N. V.; Blair, R.; Bogdan, M.; Boveia, A.; Britzger, D.; Bryant, P.; Burghgrave, B.; Calderini, G.; Camplani, A.; Cavasinni, V.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, P.; Cheng, Y.; Citraro, S.; Citterio, M.; Crescioli, F.; Dawe, N.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Drake, G.; Gadomski, S.; Gatta, M.; Gentsos, C.; Giannetti, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gramling, J.; Howarth, J. W.; Iizawa, T.; Ilic, N.; Jiang, Z.; Kaji, T.; Kasten, M.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Klimkovich, T.; Kolb, M.; Kordas, K.; Krizka, K.; Kubota, T.; Lanza, A.; Li, H. L.; Liberali, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Liu, L.; Love, J.; Luciano, P.; Luongo, C.; Magalotti, D.; Maznas, I.; Meroni, C.; Mitani, T.; Nasimi, H.; Negri, A.; Neroutsos, P.; Neubauer, M.; Nikolaidis, S.; Okumura, Y.; Pandini, C.; Petridou, C.; Piendibene, M.; Proudfoot, J.; Rados, P.; Roda, C.; Rossi, E.; Sakurai, Y.; Sampsonidis, D.; Saxon, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoening, A.; Shochet, M.; Shojaii, S.; Soltveit, H.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Stabile, A.; Swiatlowski, M.; Tang, F.; Taylor, P. T.; Testa, M.; Tompkins, L.; Vercesi, V.; Volpi, G.; Wang, R.; Watari, R.; Webster, J.; Wu, X.; Yorita, K.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zhang, J.; Zou, R.

    2016-02-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger and data acquisition system and will be even more so as contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing will increase in Run III. The Fast TracKer is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project; it is a hardware processor that will provide every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100μs, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV . Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance.

  4. The silicon tracker of the H1 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2006-10-01

    The H1 experiment at HERA is equipped with a silicon vertex detector, comprising a barrel part and two endcaps with disks. The barrel part uses double sided, DC coupled strip sensors, whereas the endcap parts use two types of wedge-shaped sensors, both single sided and AC coupled: u/v-sensors have strips parallel to one edge of the sensor, r-sensors have circular strips. Additional pad detectors provide fast triggering signals in the backward part.

  5. Fast TracKer: A fast hardware track trigger for the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandini, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The trigger system at the ATLAS experiment is designed to lower the event rate occurring from the nominal bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to about 1 kHz for a LHC luminosity of the order of 1034cm-2s-1. To achieve high background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals, sophisticated algorithms are needed which require an extensive use of tracking information. The Fast TracKer (FTK) trigger system, part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade program, is a highly parallel hardware device designed to perform track-finding at 100 kHz. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the combinatorial problem of pattern recognition is solved by 8000 standard-cell ASICs used to implement an Associative Memory architecture. The availability of the tracking and subsequent vertex information within a short latency ensures robust selections and allows improved trigger performance for the most difficult signatures, such as b-jets and τ leptons.

  6. THE 15 LAYER SILICON DRIFT DETECTOR TRACKER IN EXPERIMENT 896.

    SciTech Connect

    PANDY,S.U.

    1998-11-08

    Large linear silicon drift detectors have been developed and are in production for use in several experiments. Recently 15 detectors were used as a tracking device in BNL-AGS heavy ion experiment (E896). The detectors were successfully operated in a 6.2 T magnetic field. The behavior of the detectors, such as drift uniformity, resolution, and charge collection efficiency are presented. The effect of the environment on the detector performance is discussed. Some results from the experimental run are presented. The detectors performed well in an experimental environment. This is the first tracking application of these detectors.

  7. Design and performance of the silicon strip tracker of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregeon, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the primary instrument on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), an observatory on a low Earth orbit that was launched on 11 June 2008 to monitor the high energy γ-ray sky. The LAT tracker is a solid-state instrument: tungsten foils convert the gamma rays into electron-positron pairs which are then tracked in silicon planes in order to reconstruct the incoming photon direction. The tracker comprises 36 planes of single-sided silicon strip detectors, for a total of 73 square meters of silicon, read out by nearly 900,000 amplifier-discriminator channels. The system operates on only 160 W of conditioned power while achieving > 99% single-plane efficiency within its active area and better than 1 channel per million noise occupancy. We describe the tracker design and performance, and discuss in particular the excellent stability of the hardware response during the first three years of operation on orbit.

  8. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poley, L.; Bloch, I.; Edwards, S.; Friedrich, C.; Gregor, I.-M.; Jones, T.; Lacker, H.; Pyatt, S.; Rehnisch, L.; Sperlich, D.; Wilson, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive used initially between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy glue as was used in the current ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). However, this glue has several disadvantages, which motivated the search for an alternative. This paper presents a study of six ultra-violet (UV) cure glues and a glue pad for possible use in the assembly of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS upgrade. Trials were carried out to determine the ease of use, thermal conduction and shear strength. Samples were thermally cycled, radiation hardness and corrosion resistance were also determined. These investigations led to the exclusion of three UV cure glues as well as the glue pad. Three UV cure glues were found to be possible better alternatives than silver loaded glue. Results from electrical tests of first prototype modules constructed using these glues are presented.

  9. The silicon sensors for the Inner Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krammer, Manfred; CMS Tracker Collaboration

    2004-09-01

    The Inner Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, at present under construction, will consist of more than 24 000 silicon strip sensors arranged in 10 central concentric layers and 2×9 discs at both ends. The total sensitive silicon area will be about 200 m2. The silicon sensors are produced in various thicknesses and geometries. Each sensor has 512 or 768 implanted strips which will allow the measurement of the position of traversing high-energy charged particles. This paper gives a short overview of the CMS tracker system. Subsequently, the design of the silicon sensors is explained with special emphasis on the radiation hardness and on the high-voltage stability of the sensors. Two companies share the production of these sensors. The quality of the sensors is extensively checked by several laboratories associated with CMS. Important electrical parameters are measured on the sensors themselves. In addition, dedicated test structures designed by CMS allow the monitoring of many parameters sensitive to the production process. By August 2003 about 5000 sensors were delivered and a large fraction of these sensors and test structures was measured.

  10. A double-sided silicon micro-strip Super-Module for the ATLAS Inner Detector upgrade in the High-Luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Affolder, A. A.; Allport, P. P.; Anghinolfi, F.; Barbier, G.; Bates, R.; Beck, G.; Benitez, V.; Bernabeu, J.; Blanchot, G.; Bloch, I.; Blue, A.; Booker, P.; Brenner, R.; Buttar, C.; Cadoux, F.; Casse, G.; Carroll, J.; Church, I.; Civera, J. V.; Clark, A.; Dervan, P.; Díez, S.; Endo, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Farthouat, P.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Friedrich, C.; French, R.; Gallop, B.; García, C.; Gibson, M.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.; Grillo, A.; Haber, C. H.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Hauser, M.; Haywood, S.; Hessey, N.; Hill, J.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ikegami, Y.; Jones, T.; Kaplon, J.; Kuehn, S.; Lacasta, C.; La Marra, D.; Lynn, D.; Mahboubin, K.; Marco, R.; Martí-García, S.; Martínez-McKinney, F.; Matheson, J.; McMahon, S.; Nelson, D.; Newcomer, F. M.; Parzefall, U.; Phillips, P. W.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Santoyo, D.; Seiden, A.; Soldevila, U.; Spencer, E.; Stanitzki, M.; Sutcliffe, P.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Tipton, P.; Tsurin, I.; Ullán, M.; Unno, Y.; Villani, E. G.; Warren, M.; Weber, M.; Wilmut, I.; Wonsak, S.; Witharm, R.; Wormald, M.

    2014-02-01

    The ATLAS experiment is a general purpose detector aiming to fully exploit the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is foreseen that after several years of successful data-taking, the LHC physics programme will be extended in the so-called High-Luminosity LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 5 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. For ATLAS, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker, as the existing detector will not provide the required performance due to the cumulated radiation damage and the increase in the detector occupancy. The current baseline layout for the new ATLAS tracker is an all-silicon-based detector, with pixel sensors in the inner layers and silicon micro-strip detectors at intermediate and outer radii. The super-module is an integration concept proposed for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker, where double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules are assembled into a low-mass local support structure. An electrical super-module prototype for eight double-sided strip modules has been constructed. The aim is to exercise the multi-module readout chain and to investigate the noise performance of such a system. In this paper, the main components of the current super-module prototype are described and its electrical performance is presented in detail.

  11. Lessons Learned From BaBar Silicon Vertex Tracker, Limits, And Future Perspectives of the Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Re, V.; Kirkby, D.; Bruinsma, M.; Curry, S.; Berryhill, J.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Hale, D.; Hart, P.; Kyre, S.; Levy, S.; Long, O.; Mazur, M.; Richman, J.; Stoner, J.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T.; Eisner, A.M.; Kroseberg, J.; /UC, Santa Cruz /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /LBL, Berkeley /Maryland U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Pavia U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-02-17

    The silicon vertex tracker (SVT) of the BaBar experiment at PEP-II is described. This is the crucial device for the measurement of the meson decay vertices to extract charge-conjugation parity (CP) asymmetries. It consists of five layers of double-sided ac-coupled silicon strip detectors, read out by a full-custom integrated circuit, capable of simultaneous acquisition, digitization, and transmission of data. It represents the core of the BaBar tracking system, providing position measurements with a precision of 10 m (inner layers) and 30 m (outer layers). The relevant performances of the SVT are presented, and the experience acquired during the construction, installation, and the first five years of data-taking is described. Innovative solutions are highlighted, like the sophisticated alignment procedure, imposed by the design of the silicon tracker, integrated in the beamline elements and mechanically separated from the other parts of BaBar. The harshness of the background conditions in the interaction region required several studies on the radiation damage of the sensors and the front-end chips, whose results are presented. Over the next five years the luminosity is predicted to increase by a factor three, leading to radiation and occupancy levels significantly exceeding the detector design. Extrapolation of future radiation doses and occupancies is shown together with the expected detector performance and lifetime. Upgrade scenarios to deal with the increased luminosity and backgrounds are discussed.

  12. ASIC Wafer Test System for the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker Front-End Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Anghinolfi, F.; Bialas, W.; Busek, N.; Ciocio, A.; Cosgrove, D.; Fadeyev, V.; Flacco, C.; Gilchriese, M.; Grillo, A.A.; Haber, C.; Kaplon, J.; Lacasta, C.; Murray, W.; Niggli, H.; Pritchard, T.; Rosenbaum, F.; Spieler, H.; Stezelberger, T.; Vu, C.; Wilder, M.; Yaver, H.; Zetti, F.

    2002-03-19

    An ASIC wafer test system has been developed to provide comprehensive production screening of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker front-end chip (ABCD3T). The ABCD3T[1] features a 128-channel analog front-end, a digital pipeline, and communication circuitry, clocked at 40 MHz, which is the bunch crossing frequency at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The tester measures values and tolerance ranges of all critical IC parameters, including DC parameters, electronic noise, time resolution, clock levels and clock timing. The tester is controlled by an FPGA (ORCA3T) programmed to issue the input commands to the IC and to interpret the output data. This allows the high-speed wafer-level IC testing necessary to meet the production schedule. To characterize signal amplitudes and phase margins, the tester utilizes pin-driver, delay, and DAC chips, which control the amplitudes and delays of signals sent to the IC under test. Output signals from the IC under test go through window comparator chips to measure their levels. A probe card has been designed specifically to reduce pick-up noise that can affect the measurements. The system can operate at frequencies up to 100 MHz to study the speed limits of the digital circuitry before and after radiation damage. Testing requirements and design solutions are presented.

  13. MEG II drift chamber characterization with the silicon based cosmic ray tracker at INFN Pisa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, M.; Baldini, A. M.; Baracchini, E.; Cei, F.; D`Onofrio, A.; Dussoni, S.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M.; Nicolò, D.; Signorelli, G.

    2016-07-01

    High energy physics experiments at the high intensity frontier place ever greater demands on detectors, and in particular on tracking devices. In order to compare the performance of small size tracking prototypes, a high resolution cosmic ray tracker has been assembled to provide an external track reference. It consists of four spare ladders of the external layers of the Silicon Vertex Tracker of the BaBar experiment. The test facility, operating at INFN Sezione di Pisa, provides the detector under test with an external track with an intrinsic resolution of 15-30 μm. The MEG II tracker is conceived as a unique volume wire drift chamber filled with He-isobutane 85-15%. The ionization density in this gas mixture is about 13 clusters/cm and this results in a non-negligible bias of the impact parameters for tracks crossing the cell close to the anode wire. We present the telescope performance in terms of tracking efficiency and resolution and the results of the characterization of a MEG II drift chamber prototype.

  14. The effect of highly ionising particles on the CMS silicon strip tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Friedl, M.; Fruehwirth, R.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Pernicka, M.; Waltenberger, W.; Beaumont, W.; de Langhe, E.; de Wolf, E.; Tasevsky, M.; Bouhali, O.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Neuckermans, L.; Vander-Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wickens, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Goorens, R.; Heyninck, J.; Lowette, S.; Tavernier, S.; Van Lancker, L.; Yu, C.; Assouak, S.; Bonnet, J.-L.; Bruno, G.; De-Callatay, B.; De-Favereau-de-Jeneret, J.; Delaere, C.; De-Visscher, S.; Favart, D.; Gregoire, G.; Keutgen, Th.; Leibenguth, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Michotte, D.; Militaru, O.; Ninane, A.; Ovyn, S.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Roberfroid, V.; Rouby, X.; Van-der-Aa, O.; Vander-Donckt, M.; Boulogne, I.; Daubie, E.; Defontaines, F.; Herquet, P.; Czellar, S.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Katajisto, H.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Lampen, T.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T.; Ageron, M.; Chabanat, E.; Contardo, D.; Estre, N.; Haroutunian, R.; Lumb, N.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Trocme, B.; Blaes, R.; Charles, F.; Drouhin, F.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Fontaine, J. C.; Berst, J. D.; Brom, J. M.; Didierjean, F.; Goerlach, U.; Gross, L.; Juillot, P.; Lounis, A.; Maazouzi, C.; Olivetto, C.; Strub, R.; Vanhove, P.; Vintache, D.; Adolphi, R.; Brauer, R.; Braunschweig, W.; Esser, H.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; König, S.; Kukulies, C.; Olzem, J.; Ostaptchouk, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Pierschel, G.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Siedling, R.; Thomas, M.; Wlochal, M.; Beissel, F.; Boffin, K.-D.; Duda, M.; Flossdorf, A.; Flugge, G.; Franke, T.; Hangarter, K.; Hegner, B.; Hermanns, Th.; Kasselmann, S.; Kress, Th.; Linn, A.; Mnich, J.; Nowack, A.; Poettgens, M.; Pooth, O.; Reinhold, B.; Bleyl, M.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Pein, U.; Schleper, P.; Schirm, N.; Steinbrück, G.; Stoye, M.; Tesch, S.; van Staa, R.; Wick, K.; Atz, B.; Barvich, T.; Blum, P.; de Boer, W.; Boegelspacher, F.; Dirkes, G.; Fahrer, M.; Fernandez, J.; Frey, M.; Furgeri, A.; Grigoriev, E.; Hartmann, F.; Heier, S.; Muller, T.; Ortega-Gomez, T.; Simonis, H.-J.; Steck, P.; Theel, A.; Weiler, T.; Zhukov, V.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; De Robertis, G.; Fiore, L.; Giordano, D.; Maggi, G.; Mennea, M.; My, S.; Radicci, V.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Albergo, S.; Bellini, V.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Sutera, C.; Tricomi, A.; Tuvè, C.; Bocci, A.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Landi, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Magini, N.; Mersi, S.; Marchettini, C.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Parrini, G.; Ranieri, R.; Sani, M.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Candelori, A.; Dorigo, T.; Giubilato, P.; Kaminsky, A.; Loreti, M.; Nigro, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Rando, R.; Angarano, M. M.; Babucci, E.; Benedetti, D.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Brunetti, M. T.; Checcucci, B.; Dinu, N.; Fanò, L.; Giorgi, M.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Postolache, V.; Puscalau, M.; Ricci, D.; Santinelli, R.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L.; Zucchetti, C.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Borrello, L.; Bosi, F.; Castaldi, R.; D'Alfonso, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dutta, S.; Foa, L.; Gennai, S.; Giammanco, A.; Giassi, A.; Lomtadze, T.; Mangano, B.; Messineo, A.; Moggi, A.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzi, A.; Rizzi, D.; Segneri, G.; Sentenac, D.; Sguazzoni, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Tonelli, G.; Verdini, P. G.; Biino, C.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Favro, G.; Trapani, P.; Peroni, C.; Romero, A.; Migliore, E.; Abbaneo, D.; Ahmed, F.; Bartalini, P.; Bernardino-Rodriguez, N.; Breuker, H.; Buchmuller, O.; Carrone, E.; Cattai, A.; Chierici, R.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dierlamm, A.; Eppard, M.; Frey, A.; Gill, K.; Grabit, R.; Honma, A.; Huhtinen, M.; Magazzu, G.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Onnela, A.; Perea-Solano, B.; Petagna, P.; Postema, H.; Risoldi, M.; Rolandi, G.; Siegrist, P.; Troska, I.; Tsirou, A.; Vasey, F.; Weber, M.; Wittmer, B.; Bertl, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Kästli, H.-Ch.; Kotlinski, D.; MacPherson, A.; Rohe, T.; Freudenreich, K.; Lustermann, W.; Pauss, F.; Eichler, R.; Erdmann, W.; Grab, C.; Schoning, A.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; Dorokhov, A.; Hörmann, C.; Pruys, H.; Prokofiev, K.; Regenfus, C.; Robmann, P.; Speer, T.; Bell, K. W.; Coughlan, J.; French, M.; Halsall, R.; Jones, L.; Pearson, M.; Rogers, G.; Tomalin, I.; Bainbridge, R.; Barrillon, P.; Colling, D.; Dris, S.; Foudas, C.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Leaver, J.; Macevoy, B. C.; Noy, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Takahashi, M.; Zorba, O.; Barnett, B.; Chien, C.-Y.; Kim, D. W.; Liang, G.; Swartz, M.; Atac, M.; Demarteau, M.; Joshi, U.; Kwan, S.; Spiegel, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Gerber, C. E.; Shabalina, E.; Ten, T.; Lander, R.; Pellett, D.; Gobbi, B.; Kubantsev, M.; Malik, S.; Tilden, R.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Christofek, L.; Coppage, D.; Bolton, T. A.; Demina, R.; Kahl, W. E.; Khanov, A.; Korjenevski, S.; Pukhaeva, N.; Reay, N. W.; Rizatdinova, F.; Sidwell, R. A.; Stanton, N. R.; Cremaldi, L.; Sanders, D.; Bartz, E.; Doroshenko, J.; Koeth, T.; Perera, L.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Worm, S.; Gartung, P.; Hanson, G. G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Páztor, G.; Eusebi, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hocker, A.; Tipton, P.; Affolder, A.; Campagnari, C.; Hale, D.; Incandela, J.; Kyre, S.; Lamb, J.; Taylor, R.; White, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Garfinkel, A.; Rott, C.; Roy, A.

    2005-05-01

    Inelastic nuclear collisions of hadrons incident on silicon sensors can generate secondary highly ionising particles (HIPs) and deposit as much energy within the sensor bulk as several hundred minimum ionising particles. The large signals generated by these 'HIP events' can momentarily saturate the APV25 front-end readout chip for the silicon strip tracker (SST) sub-detector of the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment, resulting in deadtime in the detector readout system. This paper presents studies of this phenomenon through simulation, laboratory measurements and dedicated beam tests. A proposed change to a front-end component to reduce the APV25 sensitivity to HIP events is also examined. The results are used to infer the expected effect on the performance of the CMS SST at the future large hadron collider. The induced inefficiencies are at the percent level and will have a negligible effect on the physics performance of the SST.

  15. A two-level fanout system for the CDF silicon vertex tracker

    SciTech Connect

    A. Bardi et al.

    2001-11-02

    The Fanout system is part of the Silicon Vertex Tracker, a new trigger processor designed to reconstruct charged particle trajectories at Level 2 of the CDF trigger, with a latency of 10 {micro}s and an event rate up to 100 kHz. The core of SVT is organized as 12 identical slices, which process in parallel the data from the 12 independent azimuthal wedges of the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVXII). Each SVT slice links the digitized pulse heights found within one SVXII wedge to the tracks reconstructed by the Level 1 fast track finder (XFT) in the corresponding 30{sup o} angular region of the Central Outer Tracker. Since the XFT tracks are transmitted to SVT as a single data stream, their distribution to the proper SVT slices requires dedicated fanout logic. The Fanout system has been implemented as a multi-board project running on a common 20 MHz clock. Track fanout is performed in two steps by one ''Fanout A'' and two ''Fanout B'' boards. The architecture, design, and implementation of this system are described.

  16. Software Development for the Commissioning of the Jefferson Lab Hall B Silicon Vertex Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruger, Justin; Ziegler, Veronique; Gotra, Yuri; Gavalian, Gagik

    2015-04-01

    One of the new additions to Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is a Silicon Vertex Tracker system that includes 4 regions with 10, 14, 18, 24 sectors of double-sided modules. Recently, the SVT hardware group has completed construction and installation of regions one and two on a cosmic ray test stand. This test setup will be used to preform the first cosmic ray efficiency analysis of the SVT with the availability of 8 measurement layers. In order to study efficiency and module performance, a set of software packages had to be written to decode, analyze and provide feedback on the output from data acquisition. This talk will provide an overview of the software validation suite designed and developed for Hall B and a report on its current utilization for SVT cosmic data analysis.

  17. Integrated USB based readout interface for silicon strip detectors of the ATLAS SCT module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, P.; Linhart, V.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.; Husak, M.

    2011-12-01

    An integrated portable USB based readout interface for the ATLAS semiconductor trackers (SCT) has been built. The ATLAS SCT modules are large area silicon strip detectors designed for tracking of high-energy charged particles resulting in collisions on Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in CERN. These modules can be also used on small accelerators for medical or industry applications where a compact and configurable readout interface would be useful. A complete custom made PC-host software tool was written for Windows platform for control and DAQ with build-in online visualization. The new constructed interface provides integrated power, control and DAQ and configurable communication between the detector module and the controlling PC. The interface is based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and the high speed USB 2.0 standard. This design permits to operate the modules under high particle fluence while minimizing the dead time of the whole detection system. Utilization of the programmable device simplifies the operation and permits future expansion of the functionality without any hardware changes. The device includes the high voltage source for detector bias up to 500 V and it is equipped with number of devices for monitoring the operation and conditions of measurement (temperature, humidity, voltage). These features are particularly useful as the strip detector must be operated in a well controlled environment. The operation of the interface will be demonstrated on data measured with different particles from radiation sources.

  18. Mechanical studies towards a silicon micro-strip super module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade at the high luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, G.; Cadoux, F.; Clark, A.; Endo, M.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Iacobucci, G.; Ikegami, Y.; Jinnouchi, O.; La Marra, D.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, R.; Perrin, E.; Seez, W.; Takubo, Y.; Takashima, R.; Terada, S.; Todome, K.; Unno, Y.; Weber, M.

    2014-04-01

    It is expected that after several years of data-taking, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics programme will be extended to the so-called High-Luminosity LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 5 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. For the general-purpose ATLAS experiment at the LHC, a complete replacement of its internal tracking detector will be necessary, as the existing detector will not provide the required performance due to the cumulated radiation damage and the increase in the detector occupancy. The baseline layout for the new ATLAS tracker is an all-silicon-based detector, with pixel sensors in the inner layers and silicon micro-strip detectors at intermediate and outer radii. The super-module (SM) is an integration concept proposed for the barrel strip region of the future ATLAS tracker, where double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules (DSM) are assembled into a low-mass local support (LS) structure. Mechanical aspects of the proposed LS structure are described.

  19. Front-end software for the D-Zero silicon tracker

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Fermilab's D0 experiment is constructing a new silicon microstrip detector as part of its upgrade detector. This will have nearly 800,000 instrumented channels and combined with the rest of the tracker accounts for nearly one million channels. Being able to monitor, calibrate, and diagnose problems with this many channels is a daunting challenge. We propose to use distributed processors to ''spy'' on the data as it is collected. These processors will be resident in the VME data acquisition crates and will be able to access the data over either VME or a secondary bus which is independent of the main data acquisition path. The processing of the monitor data will take place in these local processors. Communication with the online cluster will be over ethernet and will employ a graphical interface for user control. The design uses a client/server architecture in this network of processors. We describe the software and hardware which has been tested as part of the verification of this desig n.

  20. PROPOSAL FOR A SILICON VERTEX TRACKER (VTX) FOR THE PHENIX EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    AKIBA,Y.

    2004-10-01

    We propose the construction of a Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX) for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. The VTX will substantially enhance the physics capabilities of the PHENIX central arm spectrometers. Our prime motivation is to provide precision measurements of heavy-quark production (charm and beauty) in A+A, p(d)+A, and polarized p+p collisions. These are key measurements for the future RHIC program, both for the heavy ion program as it moves from the discovery phase towards detailed investigation of the properties of the dense nuclear medium created in heavy ion collisions, and for the exploration of the nucleon spin-structure functions. In addition, the VTX will also considerably improve other measurements with PHENIX. The main physics topics addressed by the VTX are: (1) Hot and dense strongly interacting matter--(a) Potential enhancement of charm production, (b) Open beauty production, (c) Flavor dependence of jet quenching and QCD energy loss, (d) Accurate charm reference for quarkonium, (e) Thermal dilepton radiation, (f) High p{sub T} phenomena with light flavors above 10-15 GeV/c in p{sub T}, and (g) Upsilon spectroscopy in the e{sup +}e{sup -} decay channel. (2) Gluon spin structure of the nucleon--(a) {Delta}G/G with charm, (b) {Delta}G/G with beauty, and (c) x dependence of {Delta}G/G with {gamma}-jet correlations. (3) Nucleon structure in nuclei--Gluon shadowing over broad x-range.

  1. Thermal imaging QC for silicon strip staves of the ATLAS phase II upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergel Infante, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    A new silicon strip detector is part of the phase II upgrade of the ATLAS inner tracker. Light-material carbon fiber honeycomb sandwich staves serve as mechanical support for the strip sensors and readout modules and to move the dissipated heat out of the detector. A cooling pipe inside the stave is embedded in heat-conducting foam that thermally connects the pipe with the readout modules. The staves are required to pass a set of quality control (QC) tests before they are populated with readout modules. One test uses a non-invasive inspection method of infrared (IR) thermal imaging of the heat path while the stave is cooled to around -40°C at ambient room temperature. Imperfections in the manufacturing, such as the delamination of the stave facing from the foam, will exhibit a different temperature profile compared to a flawless stave. We report on the current status of the thermal imaging QC measurements including a characterization of various contributions to the uncertainties in the temperature reading of the IR camera such as pedestal variations, common-mode noise, vignetting, and statistical fluctuations across the field of view.

  2. A parallel FPGA implementation for real-time 2D pixel clustering for the ATLAS Fast Tracker Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Annovi, A.; Beretta, M.; Kordas, K.; Nikolaidis, S.; Petridou, C.; Volpi, G.

    2014-10-01

    The parallel 2D pixel clustering FPGA implementation used for the input system of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) processor is presented. The input system for the FTK processor will receive data from the Pixel and micro-strip detectors from inner ATLAS read out drivers (RODs) at full rate, for total of 760Gbs, as sent by the RODs after level-1 triggers. Clustering serves two purposes, the first is to reduce the high rate of the received data before further processing, the second is to determine the cluster centroid to obtain the best spatial measurement. For the pixel detectors the clustering is implemented by using a 2D-clustering algorithm that takes advantage of a moving window technique to minimize the logic required for cluster identification. The cluster detection window size can be adjusted for optimizing the cluster identification process. Additionally, the implementation can be parallelized by instantiating multiple cores to identify different clusters independently thus exploiting more FPGA resources. This flexibility makes the implementation suitable for a variety of demanding image processing applications. The implementation is robust against bit errors in the input data stream and drops all data that cannot be identified. In the unlikely event of missing control words, the implementation will ensure stable data processing by inserting the missing control words in the data stream. The 2D pixel clustering implementation is developed and tested in both single flow and parallel versions. The first parallel version with 16 parallel cluster identification engines is presented. The input data from the RODs are received through S-Links and the processing units that follow the clustering implementation also require a single data stream, therefore data parallelizing (demultiplexing) and serializing (multiplexing) modules are introduced in order to accommodate the parallelized version and restore the data stream afterwards. The results of the first hardware tests of

  3. PROPOSAL FOR A SILICON VERTEX TRACKER (VTX) FOR THE PHENIX EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    AKIBA,Y.

    2004-03-30

    We propose the construction of a Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX) for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. The VTX will substantially enhance the physics capabilities of the PHENIX central arm spectrometers. Our prime motivation is to provide precision measurements of heavy-quark production (charm and beauty) in A+A, p(d)+A, and polarized p+p collisions. These are key measurements for the future RHIC program, both for the heavy ion program as it moves from the discovery phase towards detailed investigation of the properties of the dense nuclear medium created in heavy ion collisions, and for the exploration of the nucleon spin-structure functions. In addition, the VTX will also considerably improve other measurements with PHENIX. The main physics topics addressed by the VTX are: (1) Hot and dense strongly interacting matter--Potential enhancement of charm production; Open beauty production; Flavor dependence of jet quenching and QCD energy loss; Accurate charm reference for quarkonium; Thermal dilepton radiation; High p{sub T} phenomena with light flavors above 10-15 GeV/c in p{sub T}; and Upsilon spectroscopy in the e{sup +}e{sup -} decay channel. (2) Gluon spin structure of the nucleon--{Delta}G/G with charm; {Delta}G/G with beauty; and x dependence of {Delta}G/G with {gamma}-jet correlations. (3) Nucleon structure in nuclei--Gluon shadowing over broad x-range. With the present PHENIX detector, heavy-quark production has been measured indirectly through the observation of single electrons. These measurements are inherently limited in accuracy by systematic uncertainties resulting from the large electron background from Dalitz decays and photon conversions. In particular, the statistical nature of the analysis does not allow for a model-independent separation of the charm and beauty contributions. The VTX detector will provide vertex tracking with a resolution of <50 {micro}m over a large coverage both in rapidity (|{eta}| < 1.2) and in azimuthal angle ({Delta}{phi} {approx

  4. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm‑2s‑1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb‑1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  5. Trapping in proton irradiated p+-n-n+ silicon sensors at fluences anticipated at the HL-LHC outer tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Fruehwirth, R.; Hoch, M.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Alderweireldt, S.; Beaumont, W.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Barria, P.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Lenzi, Th.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, Th.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; De Bruyn, I.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G.; Van Parijs, I.; Strom, D. A.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; De Callatay, B.; Delaere, C.; Du Pree, T.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Michotte, D.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pagano, D.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Härkönen, J.; Lampén, T.; Luukka, P.-R.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Eerola, P.; Tuuva, T.; Beaulieu, G.; Boudoul, G.; Combaret, C.; Contardo, D.; Gallbit, G.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sabes, D.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Zoccarato, Y.; Agram, J.-L.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-Ch.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bonnin, C.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E.; Charles, L.; Goetzmann, Ch.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Mathieu, C.; Richer, M.; Skovpen, K.; Pistone, C.; Fluegge, G.; Kuensken, A.; Geisler, M.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Autermann, C.; Edelhoff, M.; Esser, H.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pierschel, G.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schwering, G.; Wittmer, B.; Wlochal, M.; Zhukov, V.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Burgmeier, A.; Calligaris, L.; Dolinska, G.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Fluke, G.; Garay Garcia, J.; Gizhko, A.; Hansen, K.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Maser, H.; Mittag, G.; Muhl, C.; Mussgiller, A.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Schroeder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Zuber, A.; Biskop, H.; Blobel, V.; Buhmann, P.; Centis-Vignali, M.; Draeger, A.-R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Lapsien, T.; Mättig, S.; Matysek, M.; Perieanu, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Scharf, Ch.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Sola, V.; Steinbrück, G.; Wellhausen, J.; Barvich, T.; Barth, Ch.; Boegelspacher, F.; De Boer, W.; Butz, E.; Casele, M.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Eber, R.; Freund, B.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, Th.; Heindl, S.; Hoffmann, K.-H.; Husemann, U.; Kornmeyer, A.; Mallows, S.; Muller, Th.; Nuernberg, A.; Printz, M.; Simonis, H. J.; Steck, P.; Weber, M.; Weiler, Th.; Bhardwaj, A.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, A.; Ranjan, K.; Bakhshiansohl, H.; Behnamian, H.; Khakzad, M.; Naseri, M.; Cariola, P.; De Robertis, G.; Fiore, L.; Franco, M.; Loddo, F.; Sala, G.; Silvestris, L.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; Maggi, G.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Di Mattia, A.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M. A.; Tricomi, A.; Tuvè, C.; Barbagli, G.; Brianzi, M.; Ciaranfi, R.; Civinini, C.; Gallo, E.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Ciulli, V.; D'Alessandro, R.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, P.; Scarlini, E.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Ferro, F.; Robutti, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Gennai, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Dinardo, M.; Fiorendi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Giubilato, P.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; Zucchetta, A.; De Canio, F.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Nodari, B.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Comotti, D.; Ratti, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Bissi, L.; Checcucci, B.; Magalotti, D.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Servoli, L.; Storchi, L.; Biasini, M.; Conti, E.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Passeri, D.; Placidi, P.; Salvatore, M.; Santocchia, A.; Solestizi, L. A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Arezzini, S.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Boccali, T.; Bosi, F.; Castaldi, R.; Ciampa, A.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Lomtadze, T.; Magazzu, G.; Mazzoni, E.; Minuti, M.; Moggi, A.; Moon, C. S.; Morsani, F.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Rizzi, A.; Tonelli, G.; Calzolari, F.; Donato, S.; Fiori, F.; Ligabue, F.; Vernieri, C.; Demaria, N.; Rivetti, A.; Bellan, R.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Migliore, E.; Monteil, E.; Musich, M.; Pacher, L.; Ravera, F.

    2016-04-01

    The degradation of signal in silicon sensors is studied under conditions expected at the CERN High-Luminosity LHC. 200 μm thick n-type silicon sensors are irradiated with protons of different energies to fluences of up to 3 · 1015 neq/cm2. Pulsed red laser light with a wavelength of 672 nm is used to generate electron-hole pairs in the sensors. The induced signals are used to determine the charge collection efficiencies separately for electrons and holes drifting through the sensor. The effective trapping rates are extracted by comparing the results to simulation. The electric field is simulated using Synopsys device simulation assuming two effective defects. The generation and drift of charge carriers are simulated in an independent simulation based on PixelAV. The effective trapping rates are determined from the measured charge collection efficiencies and the simulated and measured time-resolved current pulses are compared. The effective trapping rates determined for both electrons and holes are about 50% smaller than those obtained using standard extrapolations of studies at low fluences and suggest an improved tracker performance over initial expectations.

  6. Design and Analysis for the Carbon Fiber Composite Support Structure for Layer 0 of the D0 Silicon Micro Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, C.H.; Tuttle, Mark E.; Kuykendall, William; /Washington U., Seattle

    2009-01-01

    The support structures for the new Layer 0 (Figures 1, 2, 3) of the Run 2b silicon tracker in D0 were designed and fabricated at the University of Washington. These structures were required to have minimum mass, yet be very rigid so as to meet the high precision requirements placed on the position of the silicon detector chips. They also have to provide for cooling to remove the heat generated by the sensors and signal processing electronics and to keep the sensors at the desired operating temperature (below -5 C). All of these requirements were best met by carbon fiber/epoxy composite technology. State of the art carbon fiber materials have extremely high Young's moduli and high thermal conductivity. Appropriate fiber lay-ups and fabrication methods have been developed and used successfully to produce both various prototype structures and the structures used in the production Layer 0. The geometry of these structures was determined mainly by the geometry of the sensors themselves. The structures incorporated a complete cooling system consisting of extruded PEEK coolant tubes and distribution manifolds made from carbon fiber composites. In order to determine the mechanical and thermal performance of the structures, detailed FEA analyses of L0 have been carried out and are described.

  7. Trapping in irradiated p+-n-n- silicon sensors at fluences anticipated at the HL-LHC outer tracker

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adam, W.

    2016-04-22

    The degradation of signal in silicon sensors is studied under conditions expected at the CERN High-Luminosity LHC. 200μm thick n-type silicon sensors are irradiated with protons of different energies to fluences of up to 3 x 1015 neq/cm2. Pulsed red laser light with a wavelength of 672 nm is used to generate electron-hole pairs in the sensors. The induced signals are used to determine the charge collection efficiencies separately for electrons and holes drifting through the sensor. The effective trapping rates are extracted by comparing the results to simulation. The electric field is simulated using Synopsys device simulation assuming twomore » effective defects. The generation and drift of charge carriers are simulated in an independent simulation based on PixelAV. The effective trapping rates are determined from the measured charge collection efficiencies and the simulated and measured time-resolved current pulses are compared. Furthermore, the effective trapping rates determined for both electrons and holes are about 50% smaller than those obtained using standard extrapolations of studies at low fluences and suggests an improved tracker performance over initial expectations.« less

  8. Trapping in irradiated p-on-n silicon sensors at fluences anticipated at the HL-LHC outer tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.

    2015-05-08

    The degradation of signal in silicon sensors is studied under conditions expected at the CERN High-Luminosity LHC. 200μm thick n-type silicon sensors are irradiated with protons of different energies to fluences of up to 3 • 1015 neq/cm2. Pulsed red laser light with a wavelength of 672 nm is used to generate electron-hole pairs in the sensors. The induced signals are used to determine the charge collection efficiencies separately for electrons and holes drifting through the sensor. The effective trapping rates are extracted by comparing the results to simulation. The electric field is simulated using Synopsys device simulation assuming two effective defects. The generation and drift of charge carriers are simulated in an independent simulation based on PixelAV. The effective trapping rates are determined from the measured charge collection efficiencies and the simulated and measured time-resolved current pulses are compared. Furthermore, the effective trapping rates determined for both electrons and holes are about 50% smaller than those obtained using standard extrapolations of studies at low fluences and suggests an improved tracker performance over initial expectations.

  9. The Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Hirayama, Masaharu; Johnson, R.P.; Kroeger, Wilko; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Rando, Riccardo; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Spencer, E.N.; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /Maryland U. /UC, Santa Cruz /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2006-02-27

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm strips using only 160 W of power, and it achieves close to 100% detection efficiency with noise occupancy sufficiently low to allow it to self trigger. The design of the readout system is described, and results are presented from ground-based testing of the completed detector system.

  10. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-04-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5˜TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of the ITS use double-sided silicon strip detectors. This thesis focuses on testing of these detectors and performance studies of the detector module prototypes at the beam test. Silicon strip detector layers will require about 20 thousand HAL25 front-end readout chips and about 3.5 thousand hybrids each containing 6 HAL25 chips. During the assembly procedure, chips are bonded on a patterned TAB aluminium microcables which connect to all the chip input and output pads, and then the chips are assembled on the hybrids. Bonding failures at the chip or hybrid level may either render the component non-functional or deteriorate its the performance such that it can not be used for the module production. After each bonding operation, the component testing is done to reject the non-functional or poorly performing chips and hybrids. The LabView-controlled test station for this operation has been built at Utrecht University and was successfully used for mass production acceptance tests of chips and hybrids at three production labs. The functionality of the chip registers, bonding quality and analogue functionality of the chips and hybrids are addressed in the test. The test routines were optimized to minimize the testing time to make sure that testing is not a bottleneck of the mass production. For testing of complete modules the laser scanning station with 1060 nm diode laser has been assembled at Utrecht University. The testing method relies of the fact that a response of the detector module to a short collimated laser beam pulse resembles a response to a minimum ionizing particle. A small beam spot size (˜7 μm ) allows to deposit the charge in a narrow region and measure the

  11. Novel silicon n-in-p pixel sensors for the future ATLAS upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Rosa, A.; Gallrapp, C.; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Pernegger, H.; Richter, R. H.; Weigell, P.

    2013-08-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the inner detector with an all silicon system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We present the characterization and performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel sensors produced by CiS (Germany) connected by bump bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. These results are obtained before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 10161-MeV neq cm-2, and prove the operability of this kind of sensors in the harsh radiation environment foreseen for the pixel system at HL-LHC. We also present an overview of the new pixel production, which is on-going at CiS for sensors compatible with the new ATLAS readout chip FE-I4.

  12. Prototype Active Silicon Sensor in 150 nm HR-CMOS technology for ATLAS Inner Detector Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymaszewski, P.; Barbero, M.; Breugnon, P.; Godiot, S.; Gonella, L.; Hemperek, T.; Hirono, T.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Liu, J.; Pangaud, P.; Peric, I.; Rozanov, A.; Wang, A.; Wermes, N.

    2016-02-01

    The LHC Phase-II upgrade will lead to a significant increase in luminosity, which in turn will bring new challenges for the operation of inner tracking detectors. A possible solution is to use active silicon sensors, taking advantage of commercial CMOS technologies. Currently ATLAS R&D programme is qualifying a few commercial technologies in terms of suitability for this task. In this paper a prototype designed in one of them (LFoundry 150 nm process) will be discussed. The chip architecture will be described, including different pixel types incorporated into the design, followed by simulation and measurement results.

  13. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Grenier, P.; Alimonti, G.; Barbero, M.; Bates, R.; Bolle, E.; Borri, M.; Boscardin, M.; Buttar, C.; Capua, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cobal, M.; Cristofoli, A.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Darbo, G.; Da Via, C.; Devetak, E.; DeWilde, B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; Einsweiler, K.; Esseni, D.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Manchester U. /CERN /LBL, Berkeley /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Oslo U. /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IFAE /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /SLAC /SLAC /Bergen U. /New Mexico U. /Bonn U. /SLAC /Freiburg U. /VTT Electronics, Espoo /Bonn U. /SLAC /Freiburg U. /SLAC /SINTEF, Oslo /Manchester U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Bonn U. /Bonn U. /CERN /Manchester U. /SINTEF, Oslo /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Manchester U. /VTT Electronics, Espoo /Glasgow U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Hawaii U. /Freiburg U. /Manchester U. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /CERN /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo /Prague, Tech. U. /Trento U. /INFN, Trento /CERN /Oslo U. /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Bergen U. /New Mexico U. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /SLAC /Oslo U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Oslo U. /Bergen U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /SLAC /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Manchester U. /Bonn U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Manchester U. /Bonn U. /SLAC /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo

    2011-08-19

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance. Full and partial 3D pixel detectors have been tested, with and without a 1.6T magnetic field, in high energy pion beams at the CERN SPS North Area in 2009. Sensors characteristics have been measured as a function of the beam incident angle and compared to a regular planar pixel device. Overall full and partial 3D devices have similar behavior. Magnetic field has no sizeable effect on 3D performances. Due to electrode inefficiency 3D devices exhibit some loss of tracking efficiency for normal incident tracks but recover full efficiency with tilted tracks. As expected due to the electric field configuration 3D sensors have little charge sharing between cells.

  14. Diborane Electrode Response in 3D Silicon Sensors for the CMS and ATLAS Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Emily R.; /Reed Coll. /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    Unusually high leakage currents have been measured in test wafers produced by the manufacturer SINTEF containing 3D pixel silicon sensor chips designed for the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments. Previous data has shown the CMS chips as having a lower leakage current after processing than ATLAS chips. Some theories behind the cause of the leakage currents include the dicing process and the usage of copper in bump bonding, and with differences in packaging and handling between the ATLAS and CMS chips causing the disparity between the two. Data taken at SLAC from a SINTEF wafer with electrodes doped with diborane and filled with polysilicon, before dicing, and with indium bumps added contradicts this past data, as ATLAS chips showed a lower leakage current than CMS chips. It also argues against copper in bump bonding and the dicing process as main causes of leakage current as neither were involved on this wafer. However, they still display an extremely high leakage current, with the source mostly unknown. The SINTEF wafer shows completely different behavior than the others, as the FEI3s actually performed better than the CMS chips. Therefore this data argues against the differences in packaging and handling or the intrinsic geometry of the two as a cause in the disparity between the leakage currents of the chips. Even though the leakage current in the FEI3s overall is lower, the current is still significant enough to cause problems. As this wafer was not diced, nor had it any copper added for bump bonding, this data argues against the dicing and bump bonding as causes for leakage current. To compliment this information, more data will be taken on the efficiency of the individual electrodes of the ATLAS and CMS chips on this wafer. The electrodes will be shot perpendicularly with a laser to test the efficiency across the width of the electrode. A mask with pinholes has been made to focus the laser to a beam smaller than the

  15. ATCA-based ATLAS FTK input interface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Iizawa, T.; Mitani, T.; Korikawa, T.; Yorita, K.; Annovi, A.; Beretta, M.; Gatta, M.; Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Kordas, K.; Kimura, N.; Cremonesi, M.; Yin, H.; Xu, Z.

    2015-04-01

    The first stage of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is an ATCA-based input interface system, where hits from the entire silicon tracker are clustered and organized into overlapping η-phi trigger towers before being sent to the tracking engines. First, FTK Input Mezzanine cards receive hit data and perform clustering to reduce data volume. Then, the ATCA-based Data Formatter system will organize the trigger tower data, sharing data among boards over full mesh backplanes and optic fibers. The board and system level design concepts and implementation details, as well as the operation experiences from the FTK full-chain testing, will be presented.

  16. Development of trigger software for the silicon and fibre trackers and a study of B meson lifetimes for the D0 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Illingworth, Robert Arthur

    2002-01-01

    The D0 detector has recently undergone a major upgrade to maximize its potential to fully exploit Run II at the Tevatron 2 TeV proton-antiproton collider. The upgrade includes a completely new central tracking system with an outer scintillating fiber tracker and an inner silicon vertex detector. This thesis describes the development of the software to ''unpack'' the raw data from the central tracking detectors into a useful form, and the development of the Level 3 trigger algorithms to cluster the hit information from these detectors. One of the many areas of physics that is being studied by the D0 experiment is the physics of B mesons, particularly that involving CP violation. The second part of the thesis details a constrained mass fitting tool written to aid the reconstruction of B particles, and a Monte Carlo study into measuring the lifetime of B{sup +} and B{sup 0} mesons. This thesis lays the foundations for the means by which physics is extracted from the vast amount of Tevatron data--the trigger--and illustrates how analyses will proceed through the key reconstruction of heavy quarks.

  17. Tracker Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven J.; Palacios, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This software can track multiple moving objects within a video stream simultaneously, use visual features to aid in the tracking, and initiate tracks based on object detection in a subregion. A simple programmatic interface allows plugging into larger image chain modeling suites. It extracts unique visual features for aid in tracking and later analysis, and includes sub-functionality for extracting visual features about an object identified within an image frame. Tracker Toolkit utilizes a feature extraction algorithm to tag each object with metadata features about its size, shape, color, and movement. Its functionality is independent of the scale of objects within a scene. The only assumption made on the tracked objects is that they move. There are no constraints on size within the scene, shape, or type of movement. The Tracker Toolkit is also capable of following an arbitrary number of objects in the same scene, identifying and propagating the track of each object from frame to frame. Target objects may be specified for tracking beforehand, or may be dynamically discovered within a tripwire region. Initialization of the Tracker Toolkit algorithm includes two steps: Initializing the data structures for tracked target objects, including targets preselected for tracking; and initializing the tripwire region. If no tripwire region is desired, this step is skipped. The tripwire region is an area within the frames that is always checked for new objects, and all new objects discovered within the region will be tracked until lost (by leaving the frame, stopping, or blending in to the background).

  18. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  19. Silicon strip tracking detector development and prototyping for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, S.

    2016-07-01

    In about ten years from now, the Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will be carried out. Due to increased luminosity, a severe radiation dose and high particle rates will occur for the experiments. In consequence, several detector components will have to be upgraded. In the ATLAS experiment, the current inner detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracking detector with the goal of at least delivering the present detector performance also in the harsh Phase-II LHC conditions. This report presents the current planning and results from first prototype measurements of the upgrade silicon strip tracking detector.

  20. Radiation hardness of two CMOS prototypes for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, B. T.; Affolder, A.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buckland, M.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hommels, L. B. A.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, J.; Liang, Z.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; McMahon, S.; Meng, L.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Perić, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seidel, S.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2016-02-01

    The LHC luminosity upgrade, known as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will require the replacement of the existing silicon strip tracker and the transistion radiation tracker. Although a baseline design for this tracker exists the ATLAS collaboration and other non-ATLAS groups are exploring the feasibility of using CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) which would be arranged in a strip-like fashion and would take advantage of the service and support structure already being developed for the upgrade. Two test devices made with the AMS H35 process (a High voltage or HV CMOS process) have been subjected to various radiation environments and have performed well. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  1. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, J.; Cavallaro, E.; Grinstein, S.; López Paz, I.

    2015-03-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to install 3D silicon pixel detectors about 210 m away from the interaction point and very close to the beamline (2-3 mm). This implies the need of slim edges of about 100-200 μm width for the sensor side facing the beam to minimise the dead area. Another challenge is an expected non-uniform irradiation of the pixel sensors. It is studied if these requirements can be met using slightly-modified FE-I4 3D pixel sensors from the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer production. AFP-compatible slim edges are obtained with a simple diamond-saw cut. Electrical characterisations and beam tests are carried out and no detrimental impact on the leakage current and hit efficiency is observed. For devices without a 3D guard ring a remaining insensitive edge of less than 15 μm width is found. Moreover, 3D detectors are non-uniformly irradiated up to fluences of several 1015 neq/cm2 with either a focussed 23 GeV proton beam or a 23 MeV proton beam through holes in Al masks. The efficiency in the irradiated region is found to be similar to the one in the non-irradiated region and exceeds 97% in case of favourable chip-parameter settings. Only in a narrow transition area at the edge of the hole in the Al mask, a significantly lower efficiency is seen. A follow-up study of this effect using arrays of small pad diodes for position-resolved dosimetry via the leakage current is carried out.

  2. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Via, Cinzia; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Darbo, Giovanni; Fleta, Celeste; Gemme, Claudia; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris; Kok, Angela; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as ˜4 μm. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R&D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of ˜4 cm2. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  3. Development of edgeless silicon pixel sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS high-luminosity upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderini, G.; Bagolini, A.; Bomben, M.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Chauveau, J.; Giacomini, G.; La Rosa, A.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2014-11-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-in-p bulk technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. The large area necessary to instrument the outer layers will demand to tile the sensors, a solution for which the inefficient region at the border of each sensor needs to be reduced to the minimum size. This paper reports on a joint R&D project by the ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento on a novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process available at FBK.

  4. The Tracker of the CMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, Ernesto

    2005-10-12

    With more than 200 m2 the Silicon Strip Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment will be the largest silicon detector ever built. In this contribution the main design considerations and the status of the construction, at about one and a half year after the begin of the production of the modules, are reviewed.

  5. Intelligent star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Natalie

    2001-11-01

    Current state-of-the-art commercial star sensors typically weigh 15 pounds, attain 5 to 10 arc-second accuracy, and use roughly 10 watts of power. Unfortunately, the current state-of-the-art commercial star sensors do not meet many of NASA's next-generation spacecraft and instrument needs. Nor do they satisfy Air Force's needs for micro/nano-satellite systems. In an effort to satisfy micro/nano satellite mission needs the Air Force Research Laboratory is developing an intelligent star Tracker, called IntelliStar, which incorporates several novel technologies including Silicon carbide optical housing, MEMs based adaptive optic technologies, smart active pixels, and algebraic coding theory. The design considerations associated with the development of the IntelliStar system are presented along with experimental results which characterize each technologies contribution to overall system performance. In addition to being light weight, the IntelliStar System offers advantages in speed, size, power consumption, and radiation tolerance.

  6. Development of n+-in-p large-area silicon microstrip sensors for very high radiation environments - ATLAS12 design and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Y.; Edwards, S. O.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Wilson, J. A.; Kierstead, J.; Lynn, D.; Carter, J. R.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Robinson, D.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Tackmann, K.; Betancourt, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Wiik-Fucks, L.; Clark, A.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; Ashby, J.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Doherty, F.; Eklund, L.; McMullen, T.; McEwan, F.; O`Shea, V.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Nishimura, R.; Takashima, R.; Chilingarov, A.; Fox, H.; Affolder, A. A.; Allport, P. P.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Wonsak, S.; Wormald, M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I.; Mikuz, M.; Gorelov, I.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Palni, P.; Seidel, S.; Taylor, A.; Toms, K.; Wang, R.; Hessey, N. P.; Valencic, N.; Arai, Y.; Hanagaki, K.; Dolezal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Bohm, J.; Mikestikova, M.; Bevan, A.; Beck, G.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grillo, A. A.; Martinez-McKinney, F.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Schumacher, D.; Seiden, A.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Paganis, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Motohashi, K.; Todome, K.; Yamaguchi, D.; Hara, K.; Hagihara, M.; Garcia, C.; Jimenez, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Soldevila, U.

    2014-11-01

    We have been developing a novel radiation-tolerant n+-in-p silicon microstrip sensor for very high radiation environments, aiming for application in the high luminosity large hadron collider. The sensors are fabricated in 6 in., p-type, float-zone wafers, where large-area strip sensor designs are laid out together with a number of miniature sensors. Radiation tolerance has been studied with ATLAS07 sensors and with independent structures. The ATLAS07 design was developed into new ATLAS12 designs. The ATLAS12A large-area sensor is made towards an axial strip sensor and the ATLAS12M towards a stereo strip sensor. New features to the ATLAS12 sensors are two dicing lines: standard edge space of 910 μm and slim edge space of 450 μm, a gated punch-through protection structure, and connection of orphan strips in a triangular corner of stereo strips. We report the design of the ATLAS12 layouts and initial measurements of the leakage current after dicing and the resistivity of the wafers.

  7. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  8. Interacting Multiview Tracker.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju Hong; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Yoon, Kuk-Jin

    2016-05-01

    A robust algorithm is proposed for tracking a target object in dynamic conditions including motion blurs, illumination changes, pose variations, and occlusions. To cope with these challenging factors, multiple trackers based on different feature representations are integrated within a probabilistic framework. Each view of the proposed multiview (multi-channel) feature learning algorithm is concerned with one particular feature representation of a target object from which a tracker is developed with different levels of reliability. With the multiple trackers, the proposed algorithm exploits tracker interaction and selection for robust tracking performance. In the tracker interaction, a transition probability matrix is used to estimate dependencies between trackers. Multiple trackers communicate with each other by sharing information of sample distributions. The tracker selection process determines the most reliable tracker with the highest probability. To account for object appearance changes, the transition probability matrix and tracker probability are updated in a recursive Bayesian framework by reflecting the tracker reliability measured by a robust tracker likelihood function that learns to account for both transient and stable appearance changes. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed interacting multiview algorithm performs robustly and favorably against state-of-the-art methods in terms of several quantitative metrics. PMID:26336117

  9. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  10. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videbaek, Flemming; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is an on-going upgrade for the STAR detector at RHIC that aim to study heavy quark production. In relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC, heavy quarks are primarily created from initial hard scatterings. Since their large masses are not easily affected by the strong interaction with QCD medium they may carry information from the system at early stage. The interaction between heavy quarks and the medium is sensitive to the medium dynamics; therefore heavy quarks are suggested as an ideal probe to quantify the properties of the strongly interacting QCD matter. The HFT detectors will study this via the topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons. The HFT that consists of a thin two layer inner Pixel vertex detector, and two outer concentric layers of silicon, the Silicon Strip Detector, and the Intermediate Silicon Tracker. We will show how this detector system can assess heavy flavor physics with great precision. An overview of the HFT that will be completed for the upcoming RHIC run-14, its expected performance, and current status will be presented. Supported by the Division of Nuclear Physics of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Evaluation of the breakdown behaviour of ATLAS silicon pixel sensors after partial guard-ring removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goessling, C.; Klingenberg, R.; Muenstermann, D.; Wittig, T.

    2010-12-01

    To avoid geometrical inefficiencies in the ATLAS pixel detector, the concept of shingling is used up to now in the barrel section. For the upgrades of ATLAS, it is desired to avoid this as it increases the volume and material budget of the pixel layers and complicates the cooling. A direct planar edge-to-edge arrangement of pixel modules has not been possible in the past due to about 1100 μm of inactive edge composed of approximately 600 μm of guard rings and 500 μm of safety margin. In this work, the safety margin and guard rings of ATLAS SingleChip sensors were cut at different positions using a standard diamond dicing saw and irradiated afterwards to explore the breakdown behaviour and the leakage current development. It is found that the inactive edge can be reduced to about 400 μm of guard rings with almost no reduction in pre-irradiation testability and leakage current performance. This is in particular important for the insertable b-layer upgrade of ATLAS (IBL) where inactive edges of less than 450 μm width are required.

  12. 3D active edge silicon sensors: Device processing, yield and QA for the ATLAS-IBL production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Vià, Cinzia; Boscardil, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, GianFranco; Darbo, Giovanni; Fleta, Celeste; Gemme, Claudia; Giacomini, Gabriele; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher; Kok, Angela; La Rosa, Alessandro; Micelli, Andrea; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pohl, David-Leon; Povoli, Marco; Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola; Watts, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    3D silicon sensors, where plasma micromachining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, were successfully manufactured in facilities in Europe and USA. In 2011 the technology underwent a qualification process to establish its maturity for a medium scale production for the construction of a pixel layer for vertex detection, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) at the CERN-LHC ATLAS experiment. The IBL collaboration, following that recommendation from the review panel, decided to complete the production of planar and 3D sensors and endorsed the proposal to build enough modules for a mixed IBL sensor scenario where 25% of 3D modules populate the forward and backward part of each stave. The production of planar sensors will also allow coverage of 100% of the IBL, in case that option was required. This paper will describe the processing strategy which allowed successful 3D sensor production, some of the Quality Assurance (QA) tests performed during the pre-production phase and the production yield to date.

  13. The CMS tracker control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G. H.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Hartmann, F.; Masetti, L.; Militaru, O.; Shah, S. Y.; Stringer, R.; Tsirou, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 104 power supply parameters, about 103 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 105 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention.

  14. Development of a custom on-line ultrasonic vapour analyzer and flow meter for the ATLAS inner detector, with application to Cherenkov and gaseous charged particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhroob, M.; Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Bozza, G.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Degeorge, C.; Deterre, C.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Favre, G.; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Hasib, A.; Katunin, S.; Langevin, N.; Lombard, D.; Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; O'Rourke, A.; Pearson, B.; Robinson, D.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Strauss, M.; Vacek, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-03-01

    Precision sound velocity measurements can simultaneously determine binary gas composition and flow. We have developed an analyzer with custom microcontroller-based electronics, currently used in the ATLAS Detector Control System, with numerous potential applications. Three instruments monitor C3F8 and CO2 coolant leak rates into the nitrogen envelopes of the ATLAS silicon microstrip and Pixel detectors. Two further instruments will aid operation of the new thermosiphon coolant recirculator: one of these will monitor air leaks into the low pressure condenser while the other will measure return vapour flow along with C3F8/C2F6 blend composition, should blend operation be necessary to protect the ATLAS silicon tracker under increasing LHC luminosity. We describe these instruments and their electronics.

  15. ORNL SunTracker

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, Robert Wesley

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screen that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.

  16. Silicon Detectors-Tools for Discovery in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Krammer, Manfred

    2009-07-07

    Since the first application of Silicon strip detectors in high energy physics in the early 1980ies these detectors have enabled the experiments to perform new challenging measurements. With these devices it became possible to determine the decay lengths of heavy quarks, for example in the fixed target experiment NA11 at CERN. In this experiment Silicon tracking detectors were used for the identification of particles containing a c-quark. Later on, the experiments at the Large Electron Positron collider at CERN used already larger and sophisticated assemblies of Silicon detectors to identify and study particles containing the b-quark. A very important contribution to the discovery of the last of the six quarks, the top quark, has been made by even larger Silicon vertex detectors inside the experiments CDF and D0 at Fermilab. Nowadays a mature detector technology, the use of Silicon detectors is no longer restricted to the vertex regions of collider experiments. The two multipurpose experiments ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN contain large tracking detectors made of Silicon. The largest is the CMS Inner Tracker consisting of 200 m{sup 2} of Silicon sensor area. These detectors will be very important for a possible discovery of the Higgs boson or of Super Symmetric particles. This paper explains the first applications of Silicon sensors in particle physics and describes the continuous development of this technology up to the construction of the state of the art Silicon detector of CMS.

  17. The CMS Tracker Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf Shah, S.; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Hartmann, Frank; Masetti, Lorenzo; Dirkes, Guido H.; Stringer, Robert; Fahrer, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid DCS (CMS) Silicon Strip Tracker is by far the largest detector ever built in micro-strip technology. It has an active surface area of 198 m 2 consisting of 15,148 silicon modules with 9,316,352 readout channels read via 75,376 Analog Pipeline Voltage (APV) front-end chips and a total of 24,244 sensors. The Detector Control System (DCS) for the Tracker is a distributed control system that operates ˜2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and also monitors its environmental sensors. The DCS receives information from about 10 3 environmental probes (temperature and humidity sensors) located inside the detector's volume and values from these probes are driven through the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) of the Detector Safety System (DSS). A total of 10 5 parameters are read out from the dedicated chips in the front-end electronics of the detector via the data acquisition system, and a total of 10 5 parameters are read from the power supply modules. All these parameters are monitored, evaluated and correlated with the detector layout; actions are taken under specific conditions. The hardware for DCS consists of 10 PCs and 10 PLC systems that are continuously running the necessary control and safety routines. The DCS is a fundamental tool for the Tracker operation and its safety.

  18. New technologies in the D0 central tracker upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.; D0 Collaboration

    1996-06-01

    The D0 collaboration has undertaken an aggressive upgrade of its central tracking system. The existing tracker will be completely removed and replaced by a two Tesla superconducting solenoidal magnet, an 837 000 channel silicon vertex system, and 80 000 channel scintillating fiber tracker, followed by a 7 680 channel central preshower detector and a 16 000 channel forward preshower detector. In this paper the author discusses all of the subsystems of the D0 central tracker upgrade, but will emphasize those aspects which involve new technology: radiation hard scintillating fiber, VLPC`s and extruded scintillating strips.

  19. Miniature Laser Tracker

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2003-09-09

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  20. Alignment of the Pixel and SCT Modules for the 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS Collaboration; Ahmad, A.; Andreazza, A.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Barr, A.J.; Beccherle, R.; Bell, P.J.; Bernabeu, J.; Broklova, Z.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Cauz, D.; Chevalier, L.; Chouridou, S.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cobal, M.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Dameri, M.; Darbo, G.; de Vivie, J.B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; Drasal, Z.; Drohan, J.; Einsweiler, K.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Facius, K.; Ferrari, P.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrere, D.; Flick,, T.; Froidevaux, D.; Gagliardi, G.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B.J.; Gan, K.K.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorfine, G.; Gottfert, T.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Hansen, P.H.; Hara, K.; Hartel, R.; Harvey, A.; Hawkings, R.J.; Heinemann, F.E.W.; Henss, T.; Hill, J.C.; Huegging, F.; Jansen, E.; Joseph, J.; Unel, M. Karagoz; Kataoka, M.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kostyukhin, V.; Lacasta, C.; Lari, T.; Latorre, S.; Lester, C.G.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lourerio, K.F.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Mathes, M.; Meroni, C.; Mikulec, B.; Mindur, B.; Moed, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Moyse, E.W.J.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Nikolaev, K.; Parodi, F.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pater, J.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P.W.; Pinto, B.; Poppleton, A.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Reznicek, P.; Risso, P.; Robinson, D.; Roe, S.; Rozanov, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santi, L.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schultes, J.; Sfyrla, A.; Shaw, C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Toczek, B.; Troncon, C.; Tyndel, M.; Vernocchi, F.; Virzi, J.; Anh, T. Vu; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Wellsf, P.S.; Zhelezkow, A.

    2008-06-02

    A small set of final prototypes of the ATLAS Inner Detector silicon tracking system(Pixel Detector and SemiConductor Tracker), were used to take data during the 2004 Combined Test Beam. Data were collected from runs with beams of different flavour (electrons, pions, muons and photons) with a momentum range of 2 to 180 GeV/c. Four independent methods were used to align the silicon modules. The corrections obtained were validated using the known momenta of the beam particles and were shown to yield consistent results among the different alignment approaches. From the residual distributions, it is concluded that the precision attained in the alignmentof the silicon modules is of the order of 5 mm in their most precise coordinate.

  1. ORNL SunTracker

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screenmore » that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.« less

  2. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    A recent paper in this journal1 presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses.2-4 Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In this paper we describe the use of Tracker in introductory astronomy to analyze a ``video'' consisting of a series of still images of star fields and sunspots. Because astronomy focuses on concepts unfamiliar to most students, the visualization that video analysis provides can be especially valuable.

  3. Vidicon star tracker.

    PubMed

    Schuck, W H

    1966-04-01

    In many applications of star trackers, extremely short acquisition times, as well as accuracy and sensitivity, are required. Tracking systems employing the vidicon as a radiation sensor have been shown to provide the necessary speed of acquisition for such applications. This paper discusses the various theoretical and practical considerations involved in using the vidicon as a sensor in a star tracking system. A typical system configuration including telescope, sensor, and processing electronics is presented. The various optical and sensor parametric relationships required in the design of a vidicon star tracker are fully discussed and analyzed. PMID:20048884

  4. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  5. Rotational Dynamics with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…

  6. MediaTracker system

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D. M.; Strittmatter, R. B.; Abeyta, J. D.; Brown, J.; Marks, T. , Jr.; Martinez, B. J.; Jones, D. B.; Hsue, W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial objectives of this effort were to provide a hardware and software platform that can address the requirements for the accountability of classified removable electronic media and vault access logging. The Media Tracker system software assists classified media custodian in managing vault access logging and Media Tracking to prevent the inadvertent violation of rules or policies for the access to a restricted area and the movement and use of tracked items. The MediaTracker system includes the software tools to track and account for high consequence security assets and high value items. The overall benefits include: (1) real-time access to the disposition of all Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM), (2) streamlined security procedures and requirements, (3) removal of ambiguity and managerial inconsistencies, (4) prevention of incidents that can and should be prevented, (5) alignment with the DOE's initiative to achieve improvements in security and facility operations through technology deployment, and (6) enhanced individual responsibility by providing a consistent method of dealing with daily responsibilities. In response to initiatives to enhance the control of classified removable electronic media (CREM), the Media Tracker software suite was developed, piloted and implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in July 2000. The Media Tracker software suite assists in the accountability and tracking of CREM and other high-value assets. One component of the MediaTracker software suite provides a Laboratory-approved media tracking system. Using commercial touch screen and bar code technology, the MediaTracker (MT) component of the MediaTracker software suite provides an efficient and effective means to meet current Laboratory requirements and provides new-engineered controls to help assure compliance with those requirements. It also establishes a computer infrastructure at vault entrances for vault access logging, and can accommodate

  7. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  8. The Tevatron Chromaticity tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    The Tevatron chromaticity tracker (CT) has been successfully commissioned and is now operational. The basic idea behind the CT is that when the phase of the Tevatron RF is slowly modulated, the beam momentum is also modulated. This momentum modulation is coupled transversely via chromaticity to manifest as a phase modulation on the betatron tune. Thus by phase demodulating the betatron tune, the chromaticity can be recovered. However, for the phase demodulation to be successful, it is critical that the betatron tune be a coherent signal that can be easily picked up by a phase detector. This is easily done because the Tevatron has a phase locked loop (PLL) based tune tracker which coherently excites the beam at the betatron tune.

  9. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-02-25

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector,the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APSsensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay.

  10. Development of a silicon-microstrip super module prototype for the high luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, A.; Barbier, G.; Cadoux, F.; Endo, M.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Iacobucci, G.; Ikegami, Y.; Koriki, T.; La Marra, D.; Pohl, M.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.; Weber, M.

    2013-01-01

    Following the Phase II upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) currently foreseen in 2022-2023, the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver a peak luminosity in excess of 5×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of order 3000 fb-1 until 2033. The ATLAS Collaboration plans to replace the existing Inner Tracking Detector by a new tracker, with readout electronics as well as silicon pixel and strip sensor technology capable of maintaining the excellent tracking performance of the existing tracker in the severe radiation and high collision rate environment of the HL-LHC. The promising super-module integration concept extends the proven design of the existing barrel silicon strip tracker to the HL-LHC, with double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules assembled into a low mass local support structure. The Super-Module R&D program is described, with reference to HL-LHC requirements, and key prototype results are summarized.

  11. CMS tracker visualization tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennea, M. S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-08-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  12. Tracker 300 Software

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R. Wes

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will provide real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.

  13. Characterization of the Ecosole HCPV tracker and single module inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpanelli, Maurizio; Borelli, Gianni; Verdilio, Daniele; De Nardis, Davide; Migali, Fabrizio; Cancro, Carmine; Graditi, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    BECAR, the Beghelli group's R&D company, is leading ECOSOLE (Elevated COncentration SOlar Energy), one of the largest European Demonstration projects in solar photovoltaic. ECOSOLE, started in 2012, is focused on the study, design, and realization of new HCPV generator made of high efficiency PV modules equipped with SoG (Silicone on Glass) fresnel lenses and III-V solar cells, and a low cost matched solar tracker with distributed inverters approach. The project also regards the study and demonstration of new high throughput methods for the industrial large scale productions, at very low manufacturing costs. This work reports the description of the characterization of the tracker and single module.

  14. Tracker 300 Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will providemore » real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.« less

  15. Testing of Surface Properties Pre-Rad and Post-Rad of n-in-p Silicon Sensors for Very High Radiation Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, S.; Li, Z.; Affolder, A.A.; Allport, P.P.; Bates, R.; et al.

    2010-06-04

    We are developing n{sup +}-in-p, p-bulk and n-readout, microstrip sensors as a non-inverting radiation hard silicon detector for the ATLAS Tracker Upgrade at the super LHC experiment. The surface radiation damages of the sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics are characterized on the interstrip capacitance, interstrip resistance and punch-through protection evolution. The detector should provide acceptable strip isolation, exceeding the input impedance of the signal readout chip {approx}1 k{Omega}, after the integrated luminosity of 6 ab{sup -1}, which is twice the luminosity goal.

  16. Measurement of the Radiation Field in Atlas with the Atlas-Mpx Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Michael; Heijne, Erik; Leroy, Claude; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nessi, Marzio; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solc, Jaroslav; Soueid, Paul; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2012-08-01

    A network of 16 ATLAS-MPX (silicon pixelated) detectors has been installed by the ATLAS-MPX Collaboration at various positions within the ATLAS detector and its environment. The ATLAS-MPX detectors allow real-time measurements of spectral characteristics and composition of the radiation field inside and around the ATLAS detector during its operation. Results obtained with the ATLAS-MPX detectors are reported in this article. They include luminosity measurement obtained with van der Meer luminosity scans and measurement of induced radioactivity in between/after collision.

  17. Achievements of the ATLAS upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R&D Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellist, C.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the HL-LHC upgrade, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all-silicon inner tracker to cope with the elevated occupancy. To investigate the suitability of pixel sensors using the proven planar technology for the upgraded tracker, the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R&D Project (PPS) was established comprising 19 institutes and more than 90 scientists. The paper provides an overview of the research and development project and highlights accomplishments, among them: beam test results with planar sensors up to innermost layer fluences (>1016 neq cm-2) measurements obtained with irradiated thin edgeless n-in-p pixel assemblies; recent studies of the SCP technique to obtain almost active edges by post-processing already existing sensors based on scribing, cleaving and edge passivation; an update on prototyping efforts for large areas: sensor design improvements and concepts for low-cost hybridisation; comparison between Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry results and TCAD simulations. Together, these results allow an assessment of the state-of-the-art with respect to radiation-hard position-sensitive tracking detectors suited for the instrumentation of large areas.

  18. Progress with the Single-Sided Module Prototypes for the ATLAS Tracket Upgrade Stave

    SciTech Connect

    Allport, P.P.; Li, Z.; Affolder, A.A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Bates, R. et al.

    2010-06-04

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for the planned luminosity upgrade of the LHC (the super-luminous LHC or sLHC) with a programme of development for tracking able to withstand an order of greater magnitude radiation fluence and much greater hit occupancy rates than the current detector. This has led to the concept of an all-silicon tracker with an enhanced performance pixel-based inner region and short-strips for much of the higher radii. Both sub-systems employ many common technologies, including the proposed 'stave' concept for integrated cooling and support. For the short-strip region, use of this integrated stave concept requires single-sided modules mounted on either side of a thin central lightweight support. Each sensor is divided into four rows of 23.82 mm length strips; within each row, there are 1280 strips of 74.5 {mu}m pitch. Well over a hundred prototype sensors are being delivered by Hamamatsu Photonics (HPK) to Japan, Europe and the US. We present results of the first 20 chip ABCN25 ASIC hybrids for these sensors, results of the first prototype 5120 strip module built with 40 ABCN25 read-out ASICs, and the status of the hybrids and modules being developed for the ATLAS tracker upgradestave programme.

  19. WGM Temperature Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    This software implements digital control of a WGM (whispering-gallerymode) resonator temperature based on the dual-mode approach. It comprises one acquisition (dual-channel) and three control modules. The interaction of the proportional-integral loops is designed in the original way, preventing the loops from fighting. The data processing is organized in parallel with the acquisition, which allows the computational overhead time to be suppressed or often completely avoided. WGM resonators potentially provide excellent optical references for metrology, clocks, spectroscopy, and other applications. However, extremely accurate (below micro-Kelvin) temperature stabilization is required. This software allows one specifically advantageous method of such stabilization to be implemented, which is immune to a variety of effects that mask the temperature variation. WGM Temperature Tracker 2.3 (see figure) is a LabVIEW code developed for dual-mode temperature stabilization of WGM resonators. It has allowed for the temperature stabilization at the level of 200 nK with one-second integration time, and 6 nK with 10,000-second integration time, with the above room-temperature set point. This software, in conjunction with the appropriate hardware, can be used as a noncryogenic temperature sensor/ controller with sub-micro-Kelvin sensitivity, which at the time of this reporting considerably outperforms the state of the art.

  20. Controls Request Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    White, Karen S; Kasemir, Kay; Hartman, Steven M; Verstovsek, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Controls groups at large accelerators are routinely called upon to build and support controls for virtually all machine systems. While construction projects within the US DOE system are normally carefully planned and tracked by project management professionals, this support ends when construction milestones are met. However, once construction is complete, work continues as the group performs ongoing support and maintenance while also implementing requested system improvements and upgrades. With customers from virtually every accelerator and experiment group, the demands on the group often exceed the capacity of available resources. This type of diverse workload needs to be well organized and managed in order set proper priorities and ensure efficient use of resources. At SNS, we have collaborated with Cosylab to develop Controls Request Tracker (CRT), which is adapted from the Cosylab Project Manager (CPM) software. The resulting system not only provides standard request tracking features, but is interfaced to the SNS Logbook and work control system. This paper will discuss CRT and how we use it to manage the work of our controls group.

  1. Development of a custom on-line ultrasonic vapour analyzer/flowmeter for the ATLAS inner detector, with application to gaseous tracking and Cherenkov detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Berthoud, J.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho-Direito, J.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Bozza, G.; Da Riva, E.; Degeorge, C.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Katunin, S.; Lombard, D.; Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-01-01

    Precision sound velocity measurements can simultaneously determine binary gas composition and flow. We have developed an analyzer with custom electronics, currently in use in the ATLAS inner detector, with numerous potential applications. The instrument has demonstrated ~ 0.3% mixture precision for C3F8/C2F6 mixtures and < 10-4 resolution for N2/C3F8 mixtures. Moderate and high flow versions of the instrument have demonstrated flow resolutions of ± 2% of full scale for flows up to 250 l min-1, and ± 1.9% of full scale for linear flow velocities up to 15 m s-1 the latter flow approaching that expected in the vapour return of the thermosiphon fluorocarbon coolant recirculator being built for the ATLAS silicon tracker.

  2. Schedule-Tracker Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Fernando F.

    1990-01-01

    Schedule Tracker provides effective method for tracking tasks "past due" and/or "near term". Generates reports for each responsible staff member having one or more assigned tasks falling within two listed categories. Schedule Organizer (SO) (COSMIC program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker (ST), and Schedule Report Generator (SRG) (COSMIC program MSC-21527) computer programs manipulating data-base files in ways advantageous in scheduling. Written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL).

  3. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker PXL detector readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambach, J.; Contin, G.; Greiner, L.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.; Vu, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a recently installed micro-vertex detector upgrade to the STAR experiment at RHIC, consisting of three subsystems with various technologies of silicon sensors arranged in 4 concentric cylinders. The two innermost layers of the HFT close to the beam pipe, the Pixel ("PXL") subsystem, employ CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) technology that integrate the sensor, front-end electronics, and zero-suppression circuitry in one silicon die. This paper presents selected characteristics of the PXL detector part of the HFT and the hardware, firmware and software associated with the readout system for this detector.

  4. Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agurok, Llya

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker (HIT) is a technique for visualization and tracking of low-contrast, fast-moving objects. The HIT architecture is based on an innovative and only recently developed concept in imaging optics. This innovative architecture will give the Light Prescriptions Innovators (LPI) HIT the possibility of simultaneously collecting the spectral band images (hyperspectral cube), IR images, and to operate with high-light-gathering power and high magnification for multiple fast- moving objects. Adaptive Spectral Filtering algorithms will efficiently increase the contrast of low-contrast scenes. The most hazardous parts of a space mission are the first stage of a launch and the last 10 kilometers of the landing trajectory. In general, a close watch on spacecraft operation is required at distances up to 70 km. Tracking at such distances is usually associated with the use of radar, but its milliradian angular resolution translates to 100- m spatial resolution at 70-km distance. With sufficient power, radar can track a spacecraft as a whole object, but will not provide detail in the case of an accident, particularly for small debris in the onemeter range, which can only be achieved optically. It will be important to track the debris, which could disintegrate further into more debris, all the way to the ground. Such fragmentation could cause ballistic predictions, based on observations using high-resolution but narrow-field optics for only the first few seconds of the event, to be inaccurate. No optical imager architecture exists to satisfy NASA requirements. The HIT was developed for space vehicle tracking, in-flight inspection, and in the case of an accident, a detailed recording of the event. The system is a combination of five subsystems: (1) a roving fovea telescope with a wide 30 field of regard; (2) narrow, high-resolution fovea field optics; (3) a Coude optics system for telescope output beam stabilization; (4) a hyperspectral

  5. The ATLAS SCT endcap: From module production to commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrère, D.

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is aiming for new physics at TeV scale energy and will be operational in 2007. The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is a part of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) and consists of 4088 silicon detector modules displayed on four concentric barrels and two endcaps on each side. Almost 2400 endcap modules have been produced in seven assembly sites including a 20% contingency. All the qualified modules have been shipped to the two macro-assembly sites where the modules are now mounted to the discs. A major organizational effort around the components and the logistics has been made to ensure that the project is running with a high yield and within the schedule. Well defined and strict quality assurance rules allowed the endcap community to achieve an average production yield of 92.9%. In order to complete the two endcaps, a major effort is made for finalizing the assembly of modules and services onto the discs and carbon fiber cylinder, respectively. After describing the organization of the endcap module assembly and the production results, a description and status of the endcap macro-assembly and services will be reported.

  6. Lessons Learned During Construction and Test of the GLAST Large Area Telescope Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Latronico, L.; /INFN, Pisa

    2005-08-09

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a satellite gamma-ray observatory designed to explore the sky in the energy range 20MeV {approx_equal} 300GeV, a region populated by emissions from the most energetic and mysterious objects in the cosmos, like black holes, AGNs, supernovae, gamma-ray bursters. The silicon-strip tracker is the heart of the photon detection system, and with its 80 m{sup 2} of surface and almost 1M channels is one of the largest silicon tracker ever built. Its construction, to be completed by 2006, and the stringent requirements from operation in space, represent a major technological challenge. Critical design, technology and system engineering issues are addressed in this paper, as well as the approach being followed during construction, test and qualification of the LAT silicon tracker.

  7. Environmental Test Activity on the Flight Modules of the GLAST LAT Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Brigida, M.; Caliandro, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Loparco, F.; Marangelli, B.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Mirizzi, N.; Raino, S.; Spinelli, P.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari

    2007-02-15

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a gamma-ray telescope consisting of a silicon micro-strip detector tracker followed by a segmented CsI calorimeter and covered by a segmented scintillator anticoincidence system that will search for {gamma}-rays in the 20 MeV-300 GeV energy range. The results of the environmental tests performed on the flight modules (towers) of the Tracker are presented. The aim of the environmental tests is to verify the performance of the silicon detectors in the expected mission environment. The tower modules are subjected to dynamic tests that simulate the launch environment and thermal vacuum test that reproduce the thermal gradients expected on orbit. The tower performance is continuously monitored during the whole test sequence. The environmental test activity, the results of the tests and the silicon tracker performance are presented.

  8. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  9. The Do/ scintillating fiber tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, A.; Gutierrez, G.; Grunendahl, S.; Lincoln, D.; Ramberg, E.; Ray, R.; Ruchti, R.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Choic, S.

    1998-11-01

    The Do/ detector is being upgraded in preparation for the next collider run at Fermilab. The Central Fiber Tracker discussed in this report is a major component of the Do/ upgrade. The expected Tevatron luminosity of 2{times}10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2} sec{sup {minus}1}, the 132ns bunch crossing time, and the Do/ detector constraints of a 2 Tesla solenoid and a 52 cm lever arm, make a scintillating fiber based tracker an optimal choice for the upgrade of the Do/ detector. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. TacNet Tracker Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. Themore » purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.« less

  11. TacNet Tracker Software

    SciTech Connect

    WISEMAN, JAMES; & STEVENS, JAMES

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. The purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.

  12. Performance of the Integrated Tracker Towers of the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Brigida, M.; Caliandro, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Loparco, F.; Marangelli, B.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Mirizzi, N.; Raino, S.; Spinelli, P.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari

    2007-02-15

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a high energy gamma ray observatory, mounted on a satellite that will be own in 2007. The LAT tracker consists of an array of tower modules, equipped with planes of silicon strip detectors (SSDs) interleaved with tungsten converter layers. Photon detection is based on the pair conversion process; silicon strip detectors will reconstruct tracks of electrons and positrons. The instrument is actually being assembled. The first towers have been already tested and integrated at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). An overview of the integration stages of the main components of the tracker and a description of the pre-launch tests will be given. Experimental results on the performance of the tracker towers will be also discussed.

  13. Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Taševský, Marek

    2015-04-10

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is summarized. The AFP system is composed of a tracker to detect intact, diffractively scattered protons, and of a time-of-flight detector serving to suppress background from pile-up interactions. The whole system, located around 210 m from the main ATLAS detector, is placed in Roman Pots which move detectors from and to the incident proton beams. A typical distance of the closest approach of the tracker to these beams is 2–3 mm. The main physics motivation lies in measuring diffractive processes in runs with not a very high amount of pile-up.

  14. Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taševský, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is summarized. The AFP system is composed of a tracker to detect intact, diffractively scattered protons, and of a time-of-flight detector serving to suppress background from pile-up interactions. The whole system, located around 210 m from the main ATLAS detector, is placed in Roman Pots which move detectors from and to the incident proton beams. A typical distance of the closest approach of the tracker to these beams is 2-3 mm. The main physics motivation lies in measuring diffractive processes in runs with not a very high amount of pile-up.

  15. Star-Tracker Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Image-analyzing pointing systems aimed to high precision. Star-tracker program, STRACKER, developed to solve algorithm-design problems for area-array tracking and pointing systems operating at accuracies of 0.001 to 0.01 picture element. Includes auxiliary programs for reformatting point-spread data from commercial ACCOSV lens-design program. Other optical-analysis program data reformatted by use of utility routines included in package. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  16. Introduction to Mini Muon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.

    2012-08-13

    Using a mini muon tracker developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory we performed experiments of simple landscapes of various materials, including TNT, 9501, lead, tungsten, aluminium, and water. Most common scenes are four two inches thick step wedges of different dimensions: 12-inch x 12-inch, 12-inch x 9-inch, 12-inch x 6-inch, and 12-inch x 3-inch; and a one three inches thick hemisphere of lead with spherical hollow, and a similar full lead sphere.

  17. Commissioning of the ATLAS pixel detector

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS Collaboration; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and summer 2008, and is ready for the imminent LHC turn-on. The highlights of the past and future commissioning activities of the ATLAS pixel system are presented.

  18. Upgrade of the CMS tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricomi, A.

    2014-03-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above 5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 at the end of that decade. The foreseen increases of both the instantaneous and the integrated luminosity by the LHC during the next ten years will necessitate a stepwise upgrade of the CMS tracking detector. During the extended end-of-year shutdown 2016-2017 the pixel detector will be exchanged with a new one. The so-called Phase1 Pixel foresees one additional barrel layer and one additional end-cap disk, a new readout chip, reduction of material, and the installation of more efficient cooling and powering systems. In the so-called Phase2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) phase, CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the high-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities.

  19. Activity trackers: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The wearable consumer health devices can be mainly divided into activity trackers, sleep trackers, and stress management devices. These devices are widely advertised to provide positive effects on the user's daily behaviours and overall heath. However, objective evidence supporting these claims appears to be missing. The goal of this study was to review available evidence pertaining to performance of activity trackers. A comprehensive review of available information has been conducted for seven representative devices and the validity of marketing claims was assessed. The device assessment was based on availability of verified output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified critical absence of supporting evidence of advertised functions and benefits for the majority of the devices. Six out of seven devices did not provide any information on sensor accuracy and output validity at all. Possible underestimation or overestimation of specific health indicators reported to consumers was not clearly disclosed to the public. Furthermore, significant limitations of these devices which can be categorized into user restrictions, user responsibilities and company disclaimers could not be easily found or comprehended by unsophisticated users and may represent a serious health hazard. PMID:25160247

  20. SDC conceptual design: Scintillating fiber outer tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Baumbaugh, A.; Bird, F.; SDC Collaboration

    1992-01-22

    The authors propose an all-scintillating fiber detector for the purpose of outer tracking for the SDC. The objectives of this tracking system are to: (1) provide a first level trigger for {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} < 2.3 with sharp p{sub T} threshold with the ability to resolve individual beam crossings; (2) provide pattern recognition capability and momentum resolution which complements and extends the capabilities of the inner silicon tracking system; (3) provide three dimensional linkage with outer detection systems including the shower maximum detector, muon detectors, and calorimetry; (4) provide robust tracking and track-triggering at the highest luminosities expected at the SSC. The many attractive features of a fiber tracker include good position resolution, low occupancy, low mass in the active volume, and excellent resistance to radiation damage. An additional important feature, especially at the SSC, is the intrinsically prompt response time of a scintillating fiber. This property is exploited in the construction of a level 1 trigger sensitive to individual beam crossings.

  1. Characterization of irradiated test structures for the CMS tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutzer, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    The CMS collaboration is currently conducting a campaign to identify radiation-hard materials for an upgrade of the CMS tracker. This upgrade is needed to be able to cope with the higher radiation background of the future HL-LHC; additionally the performance of the current tracker will be significantly degraded at the time of the upgrade, requiring a replacement. Several different test structures (TSs) and sensors have been designed for a 6 in. wafer layout. These wafers were produced by an industrial supplier (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) and differ by their bulk material (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski and CVD-Epi), thickness (from 50 μm to 320 μm) and N-P type doping. These TSs consist of different microelectronic devices including diodes, resistors or MOS structures. They enable the extraction of parameters which are not accessible in a silicon detector and allow the assessment of the quality of the sensors produced on the same wafer. The TSs have been irradiated with protons and neutrons to emulate the radiation damage caused by the particle fluence inside the future CMS tracker after 10 years of operation. This contribution will present measurements of non-irradiated and irradiated test structures at different fluences. The changes of the properties of the microelectronic devices will be discussed as well as the design of the TSs.

  2. Optical filtering for star trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The optimization of optical filtering was investigated for tracking faint stars, down to the fifth magnitude. The effective wavelength and bandwidth for tracking pre-selected guide stars are discussed along with the results of an all-electronic tracker with a star tracking photomultiplier, which was tested with a simulated second magnitude star. Tables which give the sum of zodiacal light and galactic background light over the entire sky for intervals of five degrees in declination, and twenty minutes in right ascension are included.

  3. Star tracker for the Apollo telescope mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The star tracker for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the Skylab vehicle and mission. The functions of the star tracker are presented, as well as descriptions of the optical-mechanical assembly (OMA) and the star tracker electronics (STE). Also included are the electronic and mechanical specifications, interface and operational requirements, support equipment and test requirements, and occultation information. Laboratory functional tests, environmental qualification tests, and life tests have provided a high confidence factor in the performance of the star tracker in the laboratory and on the Skylab mission.

  4. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  5. Flight experience of 329K star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruzhilov, Ivan S.; Kuniaev, Vladimir V.; Fedoseev, Victor I.; Titov, Gennadiy P.; Shevlyakov, Oleg V.; Latyncev, Sergey V.

    2013-10-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of the star tracker 329K flight tests on board of the satellites Luch-5A and Luch-5B launched into geostationary orbit in December 2011 and November 2012 respectively. Emphasis is placed on accuracy and photometric characteristics of the star tracker 329K.

  6. A Rollercoaster Viewed through Motion Tracker Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Rodjegard, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A motion tracker measures acceleration and rotation in three dimensions, sufficient for a complete determination of the motion. In this article, a rollercoaster ride is analysed with reference to motion tracker data. The use of this type of data in education is discussed as a way to deepen students' understanding of concepts related to force and…

  7. The Chesapeake Laser Tracker in Industrial Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    In the summer of 1992, the survey and alignment team at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center acquired a CMS3000 laser tracker manufactured by Chesapeake Laser Systems in Lanham, Maryland. This paper gives a description of the principles of operation and calibration of the tracker. Several applications are explained and the results shared.

  8. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  9. ST - SCHEDULE TRACKER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST, and Schedule Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum numbers can be modified by the user. ST requires the VMS Operating System on DEC VAX and was written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). The program requires a memory of 233KB. ST can be purchased separately or in a package (COSMIC Program COS-10021) containing SO, ST, and SRG. ST was developed in 1985.

  10. Luminosity monitoring in ATLAS with MPX detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopczak, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS-MPX detectors are based on the Medipix2 silicon devices designed by CERN for the detection of multiple types of radiation. Sixteen such detectors were successfully operated in the ATLAS detector at the LHC and collected data independently of the ATLAS data-recording chain from 2008 to 2013. Each ATLAS-MPX detector provides separate measurements of the bunch-integrated LHC luminosity. An internal consistency for luminosity monitoring of about 2% was demonstrated. In addition, the MPX devices close to the beam are sensitive enough to provide relative-luminosity measurements during van der Meer calibration scans, in a low-luminosity regime that lies below the sensitivity of the ATLAS calorimeter-based bunch-integrating luminometers. Preliminary results from these luminosity studies are presented for 2012 data taken at √s = 8 TeV proton-proton collisions.

  11. Luminosity Monitoring in ATLAS with MPX Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbah, Nedaa

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS-MPX detectors are based on the Medipix2 silicon devices designed by CERN for the detection of multiple types of radiation. Sixteen such detectors were successfully operated in the ATLAS detector at the LHC and collected data independently of the ATLAS data-recording chain from 2008 to 2013. Each ATLAS-MPX detector provides separate measurements of the bunch-integrated LHC luminosity. An internal consistency for luminosity monitoring of about 2% was demonstrated. In addition, the MPX devices close to the beam are sensitive enough to provide relative-luminosity measurements during van der Meer calibration scans, in a low-luminosity regime that lies below the sensitivity of the ATLAS calorimeter-based bunch-integrating luminometers. Preliminary results from these luminosity studies are presented for 2012 data taken at √ s = 8 TeV proton-proton collisions.

  12. Personal Activity Trackers and the Quantified Self.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Personal activity trackers are an inexpensive and easy way for people to record their physical activity and simple biometric data. As these devices have increased in availability and sophistication, their use in daily life and in medicine has grown. This column will briefly explore what these devices are, what types of data they can track, and how that data can be used. It will also discuss potential problems with trackers and how librarians can help patients and physicians manage and protect activity data. A brief list of currently available activity trackers is also included. PMID:26794199

  13. Instruction manual for Sandia's laser tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Bauhs, K.C.

    1982-06-01

    This report is a supplement to SAND80-2049/1. It contains additional drawings and information for hardware described in Volume 1, more troubleshooting procedures for several systems in the Laser Tracker Facility, and corrections for volume 1.

  14. My Game Plan: Food and Activity Tracker

    MedlinePlus

    ... THIS WEEK… FOR CUTTING FAT GRAMS: FOR CUTTING CALORIES: FOR GETTING MORE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: FROM — TO HHS' ... AND DRINK TRACKER AMOUNT /NAME /DESCRIPTION FAT GRAMS CALORIES 1/2 cup oatmeal 1 73 1 cup ...

  15. Commissioning of the Cms Tracker Outer Barrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Christoph

    2006-04-01

    Fully equipped final substructures of the CMS Tracker are installed in a dedicated mechanical support, the Cosmic Rack, providing a geometry suitable for tracking cosmic muons, and equipped with a dedicated trigger that allows the selection of tracks synchronous with the fast readout electronics. Data collected at room temperature and at the tracker operating temperature of -10°C can be used to test reconstruction and alignment algorithms for the tracker, as well as to perform a detailed qualification of the geometry and the functionality of the structures at different temperatures. The CMS Monte Carlo simulation has been adapted to the geometry of the cosmic rack, and the comparison with the data will provide a valuable test to improve the tracker simulation in CMS.

  16. Power Studies for the CMS Pixel Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  17. Power distribution studies for CMS forward tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  18. My Game Plan: Food and Activity Tracker

    MedlinePlus

    ... MY GAME PLAN THIS WEEK… FOR CUTTING FAT GRAMS: FOR CUTTING CALORIES: FOR GETTING MORE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: ... FOOD AND DRINK TRACKER AMOUNT /NAME /DESCRIPTION FAT GRAMS CALORIES 1/2 cup oatmeal 1 73 1 ...

  19. Search for tracker potentials in quintessence theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johri, Vinod B.

    2002-12-01

    We report a significant finding in quintessence theory that scalar fields with tracker potentials have a model-independent scaling behaviour in the expanding universe. So far, widely discussed exponential, power law or hyperbolic potentials can simply mimic the tracking behaviour over a limited range of redshift. A new version of the tracker field theory is proposed and it is shown that in the small redshift range where the variation of the tracking parameter ɛ may be taken to be negligible, the differential equation of generic potentials leads to hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine potentials which may approximate a tracker field in the present-day universe. We have plotted the variation of the tracker potential and the equation of state of the tracker field as a function of the redshift z for the model-independent relation derived from tracker field theory; we have also plotted the variation of V(Φ) in terms of the scalar field Φ for the chosen hyperbolic cosine function and have compared it with the curves obtained by the reconstruction of V(Φ) from real observational data from the supernovae.

  20. Technology transfer: Imaging tracker to robotic controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaguro, M. S.; Kesler, L. O.; Land, Ken; Erwin, Harry; Rhoades, Don

    1988-01-01

    The transformation of an imaging tracker to a robotic controller is described. A multimode tracker was developed for fire and forget missile systems. The tracker locks on to target images within an acquisition window using multiple image tracking algorithms to provide guidance commands to missile control systems. This basic tracker technology is used with the addition of a ranging algorithm based on sizing a cooperative target to perform autonomous guidance and control of a platform for an Advanced Development Project on automation and robotics. A ranging tracker is required to provide the positioning necessary for robotic control. A simple functional demonstration of the feasibility of this approach was performed and described. More realistic demonstrations are under way at NASA-JSC. In particular, this modified tracker, or robotic controller, will be used to autonomously guide the Man Maneuvering Unit (MMU) to targets such as disabled astronauts or tools as part of the EVA Retriever efforts. It will also be used to control the orbiter's Remote Manipulator Systems (RMS) in autonomous approach and positioning demonstrations. These efforts will also be discussed.

  1. Tail Catcher Muon Tracker For The CALICE Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, Alexander

    2006-10-27

    Results on the construction and commissioning of the CALICE Tail-catcher/Muon Tracker (TCMT) are presented. The {approx}1 m3 prototype uses extruded scintillating strips mated to silicon-photomultipliers and is located behind the CALICE hadron calorimeter. The TCMT will provide a snapshot of the tail end of hadron showers, which is crucial to the validation of hadronic Monte Carlo. It will also serve as a prototype muon system for any Linear Collider Detector (ILC) and will facilitate studies of muon tracking and identification within the particle flow reconstruction framework. Additionally, the TCMT will provide valuable practical experience with hadronic leakage and punch-through from thin calorimeters, as are envisaged for the ILC detector, and the impact of the coil in correcting for this leakage.

  2. Tracking for the Atlas Level 1 Trigger for the High Luminosity Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. R.

    2014-06-01

    At the HL-LHC, the increased luminosity will result in up to 200 pile-up interactions per bunch crossing. One of the greatest challenges for ATLAS will be to keep the Level 1 Trigger pT thresholds low enough to maintain high trigger efficiency for all interesting physics. The proposed two-stage design of the ATLAS Level 1 Trigger, and the incorporation of a Level-1 track trigger is described. The requirements and implications for the tracker readout architecture, and estimates of readout latency based on a detailed discrete event simulation of the data flow in the tracker front-end electronics are also presented.

  3. Tracking Efficiency And Charge Sharing of 3D Silicon Sensors at Different Angles in a 1.4T Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Gjersdal, H.; Bolle, E.; Borri, M.; Da Via, C.; Dorholt, O.; Fazio, S.; Grenier, P.; Grinstein, S. Hansson, P.; Hasi, J.; Hugging, F.; Jackson, P.; Kenney, C.; Kocian, M.; La Rosa, A.; Mastroberardino, A.; Nordahl, P.; Rivero, F.; Rohne, O.; Sandaker, H.; Sjobaek, K.; /Oslo U. /Prague, Tech. U. /SLAC /Bonn U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Bonn U. /SLAC

    2012-05-07

    A 3D silicon sensor fabricated at Stanford with electrodes penetrating throughout the entire silicon wafer and with active edges was tested in a 1.4 T magnetic field with a 180 GeV/c pion beam at the CERN SPS in May 2009. The device under test was bump-bonded to the ATLAS pixel FE-I3 readout electronics chip. Three readout electrodes were used to cover the 400 {micro}m long pixel side, this resulting in a p-n inter-electrode distance of {approx} 71 {micro}m. Its behavior was confronted with a planar sensor of the type presently installed in the ATLAS inner tracker. Time over threshold, charge sharing and tracking efficiency data were collected at zero and 15{sup o} angles with and without magnetic field. The latest is the angular configuration expected for the modules of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) currently under study for the LHC phase 1 upgrade expected in 2014.

  4. Pattern recognition and tracker resolutions for the GEM central tracker at luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.L.

    1994-04-01

    A GEANT based pattern recognition algorithm has been used to study the track finding capabilities of the GEM central tracker at high luminosity (10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}). The efficiency for finding tracks has been studied as a function of the number of silicon layers present in the tracker, as a function of the resolution of the pad chambers, as a function of the efficiency of the pad chambers, and as a function of eta and p{sub T} for each of the above studies. The number of {open_quotes}fake{close_quotes} tracks that are found with the pattern recognition has also been calculated for each pattern recognition study.

  5. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, S.; Kille, N.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Thomson, D.; Hannigan, J.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-11-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometers making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Photochemistry and Pollution Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives, and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution, and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  6. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, Sunil; Kille, Natalie; Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Thomson, David; Hannigan, James; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers, making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  7. Star Tracker Performance Estimate with IMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Swank, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A software tool for estimating cross-boresight error of a star tracker combined with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was developed to support trade studies for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication project (iROC) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center. Typical laser communication systems, such as the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD), use a beacon to locate ground stations. iROC is investigating the use of beaconless precision laser pointing to enable laser communication at Mars orbits and beyond. Precision attitude knowledge is essential to the iROC mission to enable high-speed steering of the optical link. The preliminary concept to achieve this precision attitude knowledge is to use star trackers combined with an IMU. The Star Tracker Accuracy (STAcc) software was developed to rapidly assess the capabilities of star tracker and IMU configurations. STAcc determines the overall cross-boresight error of a star tracker with an IMU given the characteristic parameters: quantum efficiency, aperture, apparent star magnitude, exposure time, field of view, photon spread, detector pixels, spacecraft slew rate, maximum stars used for quaternion estimation, and IMU angular random walk. This paper discusses the supporting theory used to construct STAcc, verification of the program and sample results.

  8. Planetary atlases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Inge, J. L.; Morgan, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    Two kinds of planetary map atlases are in production. Atlases of the first kind contain reduced-scale versions of maps in hard-bound books with dimensions of 11 x 14 inches. These new atlases are intended to: (1) provide concise but comprehensive references to the geography of the planets needed by planetary scientists and others; and (2) allow inexpensive access to the planetary map dataset without requiring acquisition and examination of tens or hundreds of full-size map sheets. Two such atlases have been published and a third is in press. Work was begun of an Atlas of the Satellite of the Outer Planets. The second kind of atlas is a popular or semi-technical version designed for commercial publication and distribution. The first edition, The Atlas of the Solar System, is nearly ready for publication. New funding and contracting constraints now make it unlikely that the atlas can be published in the format originally planned. Currently, the possibility of publishing the maps through the U.S. Geological Survey as a series of folios in the I-map series is being explored. The maps are global views of each solid-surface body of the Solar System. Each map shows airbrushed relief, albedo, and, where available, topography. A set of simplified geologic maps is also included. All of the maps are on equal-area projections. Scales are 1:40,000,000 for the Earth and Venus; 1:2,000,000 for the Saturnian satellites Mimas and Enceladus and the Uranian satellite Miranda; 1:100,000 for the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos; and 1:10,000,000 for all other bodies.

  9. SimTracker, Version 5.0

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-27

    SimTracker is a product of the Metadata Tools subproject under the ASC Scientific Data Management effort. SimTracker is an extensible web-based application that provides the capability to view and organize large volumes of simulation data. SimTracker automatically generates metadata summaries that provide a quick overview and index to the archived results of simulations. The summaries provide access to the data sets and associated data analysis tools. They include graphical snapshots, pointers to associated simulation input and output files, and assorted annotations. The ability to add personal annotations to simulation data sets is supported. All metadata is stored in XML files suitable for searching by the generator of the data or other scientists.

  10. SimTracker, Version 5.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-08-27

    SimTracker is a product of the Metadata Tools subproject under the ASC Scientific Data Management effort. SimTracker is an extensible web-based application that provides the capability to view and organize large volumes of simulation data. SimTracker automatically generates metadata summaries that provide a quick overview and index to the archived results of simulations. The summaries provide access to the data sets and associated data analysis tools. They include graphical snapshots, pointers to associated simulation inputmore » and output files, and assorted annotations. The ability to add personal annotations to simulation data sets is supported. All metadata is stored in XML files suitable for searching by the generator of the data or other scientists.« less

  11. Optical contacting for gravity probe star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. J.; Zissa, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A star-tracker telescope, constructed entirely of fused silica elements optically contacted together, has been proposed to provide submilliarc-second pointing accuracy for Gravity Probe. A bibliography and discussion on optical contacting (the bonding of very flat, highly polished surfaces without the use of adhesives) are presented. Then results from preliminary experiments on the strength of optical contacts including a tensile strength test in liquid helium are discussed. Suggestions are made for further study to verify an optical contacting method for the Gravity Probe star-tracker telescope.

  12. Preliminary studies of a chromaticity tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    A chromaticity tracker based on a method by D. McGinnis is proposed. This method starts with the slow modulation of the accelerating RF which causes the beam to respond to it. This beam modulation can be detected transversely with a Schottky pickup which after phase demodulation, the chromaticity can be calculated from it. However, to perform phase demodulation, the carrier frequency which is the betatron tune needs to be identified. The identification of the carrier frequency falls naturally onto the phase locked loop tune tracker which when locked to the betatron tune outputs this value in real time.

  13. Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability

    SciTech Connect

    Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2007-01-15

    We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.

  14. A microprocessor-controlled CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.; Goss, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The STELLAR (Star Tracker for Economical Long Life Attitude Reference) utilizes an image sensing Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) operating under microprocessor control. This approach results in a new type of high-accuracy star tracker which can be adapted to a wide variety of different space flight applications through software changes only. The STELLAR determines two-axis star positions by computing the element and the interelement interpolated centroid positions of the star images. As many as 10 stars may be tracked simultaneously, providing significantly increased stability and accuracy. A detailed description of the STELLAR is presented along with measurements of system performance obtained from an operating breadboard model.

  15. Power supply design for the tracker detector of the AMS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Menichelli, M.; Battiston, R.; Bizzarri, M.; Checcucci, B.

    1996-12-31

    The AMS experiment is devoted to the measurement of the antimatter component of cosmic rays in particular the detection of anti-nuclei. The apparatus will operate in space. A preliminary version will fly in 1998 on a Space shuttle mission. The complete system will be installed on the space station Alpha in 2001. The apparatus, in its complete version, will be composed of a magnetic spectrometer based on a microstrip silicon tracker and on a permanent magnet. This instrument will measure the momentum and the magnitude and sign of the charge of the incoming cosmic ray. A time-of-flight detector will be used as a trigger, for up-down rejection and for the measurement of velocity for low-energy particles. A threshold Cherenkov detector will provide further up-down discrimination. An anti-coincidence system, placed on the lateral inner wall of the magnet, will provide suppression of the background due to interaction of primary cosmic rays with the magnet. A transition radiation tracker will identify electrons. This paper describes the power supply system for the tracker detector giving also a short description of the tracker detector electronics to be powered. Results of preliminary tests and studies are also reported.

  16. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  17. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  18. jTracker and Monte Carlo Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selensky, Lauren; SeaQuest/E906 Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    SeaQuest is designed to observe the characteristics and behavior of `sea-quarks' in a proton by reconstructing them from the subatomic particles produced in a collision. The 120 GeV beam from the main injector collides with a fixed target and then passes through a series of detectors which records information about the particles produced in the collision. However, this data becomes meaningful only after it has been processed, stored, analyzed, and interpreted. Several programs are involved in this process. jTracker (sqerp) reads wire or hodoscope hits and reconstructs the tracks of potential dimuon pairs from a run, and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulates dimuon production and background noise from the beam. During track reconstruction, an event must meet the criteria set by the tracker to be considered a viable dimuon pair; this ensures that relevant data is retained. As a check, a comparison between a new version of jTracker and Monte Carlo was made in order to see how accurately jTracker could reconstruct the events created by Monte Carlo. In this presentation, the results of the inquest and their potential effects on the programming will be shown. This work is supported by U.S. DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  19. Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS) star tracker test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Tests performed on the TRW precision star tracker are described. The unit tested was a two-axis gimballed star tracker designed to provide star LOS data to an accuracy of 1 to 2 sec. The tracker features a unique bearing system and utilizes thermal and mechanical symmetry techniques to achieve high precision which can be demonstrated in a one g environment. The test program included a laboratory evaluation of tracker functional operation, sensitivity, repeatibility, and thermal stability.

  20. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers

    PubMed Central

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J.; Flagel, Shelly B.; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers. PMID:24954026

  1. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

    PubMed

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J; Flagel, Shelly B; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers. PMID:24954026

  2. The GLAST Mission: Using Scintillating Fibers as Both the Tracker and the Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisman, Gerald J.

    1997-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) has been identified as the next major NASA mission in gamma-ray astronomy. It will operate at energies above 20 MeV to study some of the most energetic objects in the Universe. While the baseline tracker detector for GLAST during the study phase is based on silicon strips, we believe that scintillating fibers have considerable advantages for this purpose. Among the performance advantages are: larger effective area, better angular resolution at low energies and larger field of view. Practical advantages include: lower cost, the use of a common technology for both the tracker and the calorimeter, lower power consumption, and a simplified thermal design. Several alternative readout schemes for the fibers are under study.

  3. Carousel Trackers with 1-Sun or 3-Sun Modules for Commercial Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, Anthony C; Maxey, L Curt; Fraas, Dr. Lewis; Avery, James E.; Minkin, Leonid M; Huang, H,

    2008-01-01

    The goal is lower cost solar electricity. Herein, two evolutional steps are described toward achieving this goal. The first step is to follow the sun with a solar tracker. Herein, a carousel tracker is described for mounting on commercial building flat rooftops in order to produce more kWh per kW relative to fixed PV modules. The second evolutionary improvement is to produce lower cost 3-sun CPV modules where two thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon material is replaced by less expensive mirror material. This paper describes the performance and durability of two prototype installations demonstrating these evolutionary innovations. In the first case, the installation and operation of 2 carousels equipped with traditional flat plate modules is described. In the second case, the operation of a carousel equipped with new 3-sun CPV modules is described. Both systems have been operating as expected for several months through the winter of 2007.

  4. Optical model and calibration of a sun tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Sergei N.; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V.; Cheong, Hai Du; Kim, Dukhyeon

    2016-09-01

    Sun trackers are widely used to investigate scattering and absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. We present a method for optimization of the optical altazimuth sun tracker model with output radiation direction aligned with the axis of a stationary spectrometer. The method solves the problem of stability loss in tracker pointing at the Sun near the zenith. An optimal method for tracker calibration at the measurement site is proposed in the present work. A method of moving calibration is suggested for mobile applications in the presence of large temperature differences and errors in the alignment of the optical system of the tracker.

  5. Target for optically activated seekers and trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakin, C. T.; Willett, N. F.

    1984-05-01

    This abstract discloses a target for optically activated seekers and trackers (TOAST) which provides for calibrated and variable target characteristics such as size, intensity, spatial position, color and interfering background. The TOAST has a first ilumination system providing a target light beam through an adjustable iris which controls image size. The target beam passes through a collimator lens which focuses the light at infinity. With the target beam focused at infinity, the motion of an elevation plate lengthens or shortens the distance from the collimator lens to a one motion mirror. The target beam is attenuated by a variable filter driven by a servo-motor, and a color selection process is provided by passing the beam through spectral filters. A background light beam with background imagery is provided to the beamsplitter mirror and mixed with the target image so as to simulate the target environment encountered by an operating optically activated seeker and tracker.

  6. Upgrade of the Upstream Tracker at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Jason; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded to allow it operate at higher collider luminosity without the need for a hardware trigger stage. Flavor enriched events will be selected in a software based, high level trigger, using fully reconstructed events. This presentation will describe the design, optimization and the expected performance of the Upstream Tracker (UT), which has a critical role in high level trigger scheme.

  7. ILC Vertex Tracker R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Marco; Bussat, Jean-Marie; Contarato, Devis; Denes,Peter; Glesener, Lindsay; Greiner, Leo; Hooberman, Benjamin; Shuman,Derek; Tompkins, Lauren; Vu, Chinh; Bisello, Dario; Giubilato, Piero; Pantano, Devis; Costa, Marco; La Rosa, Alessandro; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Children, Isaac

    2007-10-01

    This document summarizes past achievements, current activities and future goals of the R&D program aimed at the design, prototyping and characterization of a full detector module, equipped with monolithic pixel sensors, matching the requirements for the Vertex Tracker at the ILC. We provide a plan of activities to obtain a demonstrator multi-layered vertex tracker equipped with sensors matching the ILC requirements and realistic lightweight ladders in FY11, under the assumption that ILC detector proto-collaborations will be choosing technologies and designs for the Vertex Tracker by that time. The R&D program discussed here started at LBNL in 2004, supported by a Laboratory Directed R&D (LDRD) grant and by funding allocated from the core budget of the LBNL Physics Division and from the Department of Physics at UC Berkeley. Subsequently additional funding has been awarded under the NSF-DOE LCRD program and also personnel have become available through collaborative research with other groups. The aim of the R&D program carried out by our collaboration is to provide a well-integrated, inclusive research effort starting from physics requirements for the ILC Vertex Tracker and addressing Si sensor design and characterization, engineered ladder design, module system issues, tracking and vertex performances and beam test validation. The broad scope of this program is made possible by important synergies with existing know-how and concurrent programs both at LBNL and at the other collaborating institutions. In particular, significant overlaps with LHC detector design, SLHC R&D as well as prototyping for the STAR upgrade have been exploited to optimize the cost per deliverable of our program. This activity is carried out as a collaborative effort together with Accelerator and Fusion Research, the Engineering and the Nuclear Science Divisions at LBNL, INFN and the Department of Physics in Padova, Italy, INFN and the Department of Physics in Torino, Italy and the Department

  8. Accuracy of the vivofit activity tracker.

    PubMed

    Alsubheen, Sana'a A; George, Amanda M; Baker, Alicia; Rohr, Linda E; Basset, Fabien A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of the vivofit activity tracker in assessing energy expenditure and step count. Thirteen participants wore the vivofit activity tracker for five days. Participants were required to independently perform 1 h of self-selected activity each day of the study. On day four, participants came to the lab to undergo BMR and a treadmill-walking task (TWT). On day five, participants completed 1 h of office-type activities. BMR values estimated by the vivofit were not significantly different from the values measured through indirect calorimetry (IC). The vivofit significantly underestimated EE for treadmill walking, but responded to the differences in the inclination. Vivofit underestimated step count for level walking but provided an accurate estimate for incline walking. There was a strong correlation between EE and the exercise intensity. The vivofit activity tracker is on par with similar devices and can be used to track physical activity. PMID:27266422

  9. Single event upset studies using the ATLAS SCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafinca, A.; Henderson, J.; Weidberg, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEU) are expected to occur during high luminosity running of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The SEU cross sections were measured in pion beams with momenta in the range 200 to 465 MeV/c and proton test beams at 24 GeV/c but the extrapolation to LHC conditions is non-trivial because of the range of particle types and momenta. The SEUs studied occur in the p-i-n photodiode and the registers in the ABCD chip. Other possible locations for SEU were not investigated in this study. Comparisons between predicted SEU rates and those measured from ATLAS data are presented. The implications for ATLAS operation are discussed.

  10. Robust visual tracking with dual spatio-temporal context trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiyan; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Visual tracking is a challenging problem in computer vision. Recent years, significant numbers of trackers have been proposed. Among these trackers, tracking with dense spatio-temporal context has been proved to be an efficient and accurate method. Other than trackers with online trained classifier that struggle to meet the requirement of real-time tracking task, a tracker with spatio-temporal context can run at hundreds of frames per second with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Nevertheless, the performance of the tracker with Spatio-temporal context relies heavily on the learning rate of the context, which restricts the robustness of the tracker. In this paper, we proposed a tracking method with dual spatio-temporal context trackers that hold different learning rate during tracking. The tracker with high learning rate could track the target smoothly when the appearance of target changes, while the tracker with low learning rate could percepts the occlusion occurring and continues to track when the target starts to emerge again. To find the target among the candidates from these two trackers, we adopt Normalized Correlation Coefficient (NCC) to evaluate the confidence of each sample. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs robustly against several state-of-the-art tracking methods.

  11. A coherent frequency-bearing tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlms, D. E.; Cohen, A. O.; Hampton, M. L.; Johnson, G. W.

    The passive measurement of target bearing can be achieved by estimating the phase difference between spatially separated observations of a narrow-band signal. The estimation of this phase difference requires algorithms to track variations in received frequency and the phase difference. This paper presents such an algorithm: a coherently coupled frequency-bearing tracker (CCFBT). The CCFBT is derived from extended Kalman filter theory. A linearized covariance analysis predicts performance above threshold, and an approximate rule predicts threshold. Simulation results verify the covariance analysis and threshold predictions.

  12. ILCRoot tracker and vertex detector response to MARS15 simulated backgrounds in muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Terentiev, N.K.; Di Benedetto, V.; Gatto, C.; Mazzacane, A.; Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-10-01

    Results from a simulation of the background for a muon collider, and the response of a silicon tracking detector to this background are presented. The background caused by decays of the 750-GeV muon beams was simulated using the MARS15 program, which included the infrastructure of the beam line elements near the detector and the 10{sup o} nozzles that shield the detector from this background. The ILCRoot framework, along with the Geant4 program, was used to simulate the response of the tracker and vertex silicon detectors to the muon-decay background remaining after the shielding nozzles. Results include the hit distributions in these detectors, the fractions of type-specific background particles producing these hits and illustrate the use of timing of the hits to suppress the muon beam background.

  13. Simulation of the transition radiation detection conditions in the ATLAS TRT detector filled with argon and krypton gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Boldyrev, A. S.; Maevskiy, A. S.

    2015-12-15

    Performance of the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) at the ATLAS experiment with argon and krypton gas mixtures was simulated. The efficiency of transition radiation registration, which is necessary for electron identification, was estimated along with the electron identification capabilities under such conditions.

  14. A multi-hypothesis tracker for clicking whales.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a tracker specially designed to track clicking beaked whales using widely spaced bottom-mounted hydrophones, although it can be adapted to different species and sensors. The input to the tracker is a sequence of static localization solutions obtained using time difference of arrival information at widely spaced hydrophones. To effectively handle input localizations with high ambiguity, the tracker is based on multi-hypothesis tracker concepts, so it considers all potential association hypotheses and keeps a large number of potential tracks in memory. The method is demonstrated on actual data and shown to successfully track multiple beaked whales at depth. PMID:25994688

  15. Advanced alignment of the ATLAS inner detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahlman, Jonathan M.; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The primary goal of the ATLAS inner detector (ID) is to accurately measure the trajectories of charged particles in the high particle density environment of the large hadron collider (LHC) collisions. This is achieved using a combination of different technologies, including silicon pixels, silicon microstrips, and gaseous drift-tubes, all immersed in a 2 Tesla magnetic field. With nearly 750 k alignable degrees of freedom, it is crucial that an accurate model of the detector positions be produced using an automated and robust algorithm in order to achieve good tracking performance. This has been accomplished using a variety of alignment techniques resulting in near optimal hit and momentum resolutions.

  16. Rover odometry aided by a star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammell, J. D.; Tong, Chi Hay; Berczi, P.; Anderson, S.; Barfoot, T. D.; Enright, J.

    This paper develops a practical framework for estimating rover position in full-dark conditions by correcting relative odometric estimates with periodic, absolute-attitude measurements from a star tracker. The framework is validated using just under 2.5 kilometres of field data gathered at the University of Toronto's Koffler Scientific Reserve at Jokers Hill (KSR) comprised of both wheel odometry and lidar-based Visual Odometry (VO). It is shown that for the wheel odometry solution, the final estimate of rover position was within 21 metres of the groundtruth as calculated by a differential GPS receiver, or 0.85% of the total traverse distance. When the star tracker measurements are artificially limited to occurring approximately every 250 metres, the algorithm still performs well, giving a final position error of 75.8 metres or 3.0%. Preliminary results to replace wheel odometry with lidar-based VO for the development a full-dark visual solution are also presented. The lidar-based VO solution is shown to be capable of outperforming wheel odometry, but more work is required to develop methods to handle the variety of terrain conditions encountered.

  17. Videometric head tracker for augmented reality applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janin, Adam L.; Zikan, Karel; Mizell, David; Banner, Mike; Sowizral, Henry A.

    1995-12-01

    For the past three years, we have been developing augmented reality technology for application to a variety of touch labor tasks in aircraft manufacturing and assembly. The system would be worn by factory workers to provide them with better-quality information for performing their tasks than was previously available. Using a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) whose optics are set at a focal length of about 18 in., the display and its associated head tracking system can be used to superimpose and stabilize graphics on the surface of a work piece. This technology would obviate many expensive marking systems now used in aerospace manufacturing. The most challenging technical issue with respect to factory applications of AR is head position and orientation tracking. It requires high accuracy, long- range tracking in a high-noise environment. The approach we have chosen uses a head- mounted miniature video camera. The user's wearable computer system utilizes the camera to find fiducial markings that have been placed on known coordinates on or near the work piece. The system then computes the user's position and orientation relative to the fiducial marks. It is referred to as a `videometric' head tracker. In this paper, we describe the steps we took and the results we obtained in the process of prototyping our videometric head tracker, beginning with analytical and simulation results, and continuing through the working prototypes.

  18. Silicone metalization

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  19. Silicone metalization

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  20. Visible-spectrum remote eye tracker for gaze communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imabuchi, Takashi; Prima, Oky Dicky A.; Kikuchi, Hikaru; Horie, Yusuke; Ito, Hisayoshi

    2015-03-01

    Many approaches have been proposed to create an eye tracker based on visible-spectrum. These efforts provide a possibility to create inexpensive eye tracker capable to operate outdoor. Although the resulted tracking accuracy is acceptable for a visible-spectrum head-mounted eye tracker, there are many limitations of these approaches to create a remote eye tracker. In this study, we propose a high-accuracy remote eye tracker that uses visible-spectrum imaging and several gaze communication interfaces suited to the tracker. The gaze communication interfaces are designed to assist people with motor disability. Our results show that the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.77° and a frame rate of 28 fps with a personal computer. With a tablet device, the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.82° and a frame rate of 25 fps. The proposed gaze communication interfaces enable users to type a complete sentence containing eleven Japanese characters in about a minute.

  1. Laser tracker error determination using a network measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Ben; Forbes, Alistair; Lewis, Andrew; Sun, Wenjuan; Veal, Dan; Nasr, Karim

    2011-04-01

    We report on a fast, easily implemented method to determine all the geometrical alignment errors of a laser tracker, to high precision. The technique requires no specialist equipment and can be performed in less than an hour. The technique is based on the determination of parameters of a geometric model of the laser tracker, using measurements of a set of fixed target locations, from multiple locations of the tracker. After fitting of the model parameters to the observed data, the model can be used to perform error correction of the raw laser tracker data or to derive correction parameters in the format of the tracker manufacturer's internal error map. In addition to determination of the model parameters, the method also determines the uncertainties and correlations associated with the parameters. We have tested the technique on a commercial laser tracker in the following way. We disabled the tracker's internal error compensation, and used a five-position, fifteen-target network to estimate all the geometric errors of the instrument. Using the error map generated from this network test, the tracker was able to pass a full performance validation test, conducted according to a recognized specification standard (ASME B89.4.19-2006). We conclude that the error correction determined from the network test is as effective as the manufacturer's own error correction methodologies.

  2. Instrument Pointing System /IPS/ - Star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doittau, F. X.; Jamet, J. L.; Vite, M.

    An image dissector tube high accuracy star/sun tracker has been designed for the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System recalibration. Stars with up to mv equals plus eight can be acquired and tracked in a 2 x 2 deg field. Accuracy, (noise excluded) is 0.75 arcsec, rss 3 std dev and noise is less than 0.65 arcsec rms for a mv equals plus eight star. Two-star operation is possible without modification and the sun can also be tracked using a special attachment. Three star sensors equip the Instrument Pointing System and each sensor delivers two-axis coordinates of the selected object (star or sun) which is acquired and tracked in its field of view. These coordinates are processed by the Spacelab onboard computer in order to drive properly the motors actuating the experiment package, for aiming at the desired direction.

  3. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses. PMID:27314359

  4. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses. PMID:27314359

  5. Infrared tracker for a portable missile launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.

    1993-07-13

    An infrared beam tracker is described for arrangement to a housing that is unitary with a portable missile launcher, comprising: a rotating beam splitter positioned to intercept the infrared beam passing a first portion of the beam through the beam splitter along a first direction and reflecting the remaining portion along a different direction; a first infrared detector for receiving the beam reflected portion from the beam splitter and produce electric signals responsive thereto; a second infrared detector for receiving the beam portion that passes through the beam splitter and providing electric signals responsive thereto; and means interconnected to the first and second infrared detectors and responsive to the electric signals generated by said detectors for determining errors in missile flight direction and communicating course correction information to the missile.

  6. 3D Technology for intelligent trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    At Super-LHC luminosity it is expected that the standard suite of level 1 triggers for CMS will saturate. Information from the tracker will be needed to reduce trigger rates to satisfy the level 1 bandwidth. Tracking trigger modules which correlate information from closely-spaced sensor layers to form an on-detector momentum filter are being developed by several groups. We report on a trigger module design which utilizes three dimensional integrated circuit technology incorporating chips which are connected both to the top and bottom sensor, providing the ability to filter information locally. A demonstration chip, the VICTR, has been submitted to the Chartered/Tezzaron two-tier 3D run coordinated by Fermilab. We report on the 3D design concept, the status of the VICTR chip and associated sensor integration utilizing oxide bonding.

  7. Generic evaluation tracker database for OTH radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Lorraine E.; Hartnett, Michael P.; Vannicola, Vincent C.

    1999-10-01

    This paper provides a real world target and clutter model for evaluation of radar signal processing algorithms. The procedure is given for target and clutter data collection which is then followed by the equalization and superposition method. We show how the model allows one to vary the target signal to clutter noise ratio so that system performance may be assessed over a wide range of target amplitudes, i.e. detection probability versus target signal to noise ratio. Three candidate pre-track algorithms are evaluated and compared using this model as input in conjunction with an advanced tracker algorithm as a post processor. Data used for the model represents airborne traffic operating over the body of water bounded by North, Central, and South America. The processors relate to the deployment of Over the Horizon Radar for drug interdiction. All the components of this work, model as well as the processors, are in software.

  8. Performance of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe AST-201 Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, David K.; vanBezooijen, Roelof; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched to create a full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background. MAP incorporates two modified Lockheed Martin AST-201 (Autonomous Star Tracker) star trackers. The AST-201 employs an eight element radiation hardened lens assembly which is used to focus an image on a charge coupled device (CCD). The CCD image is then processed by a star identification algorithm which outputs a three-axis attitude. A CCD-shift algorithm called Time Delayed Integration (TDI) was also included in each star tracker. In order to provide some radiation effect filtering during MAP's three to five phasing loop passes through the Van Allen radiation belts, a simple pixel filtering scheme was implemented, rather than using a more complex, but more robust windowing algorithm. The trackers also include a fiber optic data interface. This paper details the ground testing that was accomplished on the MAP trackers.

  9. TRTViewer: Monitoring and Diagnostic Tool for the TRT Detector of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, S. Yu.; Tikhomirov, V. O.

    TRTViewer is the dedicated software tool for monitoring of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) performance at dif- ferent electronics levels: individual channels, readout chips or electronic boards. It can use several sources of input information - from direct DAQ stream or raw data files to ROOT files with processed analysis histograms. Using TRTViewer one can quickly estimate the TRT operational parameters - occupancy, efficiency, timing, reveal problematic regions with noisy, dead or inefficient channels, check calibration uniformity, etc. This tool is widely used by shifters in ATLAS Control Room and also by TRT experts during electronics installation, tuning, operation control and express-offline data analysis.

  10. Report to users of ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Glagola, B.

    1995-05-01

    This report contains discussing in the following areas: Status of the Atlas accelerator; highlights of recent research at Atlas; concept for an advanced exotic beam facility based on Atlas; program advisory committee; Atlas executive committee; and Atlas and ANL physics division on the world wide web.

  11. Status of the D0 fiber tracker and preshower detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Dmitri; ,

    2009-01-01

    In this report we focus on the performance of the D0 central fiber tracker and preshower detectors during the high luminosity p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 GeV delivered by the Tevatron collider at Fermilab (Run IIb). Both fiber tracker and preshower detectors utilize a similar readout system based on high quantum efficiency solid state photo-detectors capable of converting light into electrical signals. We also give a brief description of the D0 detector and the central track trigger, and conclude with a summary on the central tracker performance.

  12. EOS attitude determination and next generation star tracker enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudva, P.; Throckmorton, A.

    1993-01-01

    The pointing knowledge required for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM mission is at the limit of the current generation of star trackers, with little margin. Techniques for improving the performance of existing star trackers are explored, with performance sensitivities developed for each alternative. These are extended to define the most significant performance enhancements for a next generation star tracker. Since attitude determination studies tend to be computationally intensive, an approach for using a simpler one degree of freedom formulation is contrasted with a full three degree of freedom formulation. Additionally, covariance analysis results are compared with time domain simulation performance results.

  13. High Energy Astronomy Observatory star tracker search program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a control system to accommodate the scientific payload of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) is discussed. One of the critical elements of the system is the star tracker subsystem, which defines an accurate three-axis attitude reference. A digital computer program has been developed to evaluate the ability of a particular star tracker configuration to meet the requirements for attitude reference at various vehicle orientations. Used in conjuction with an adequate star catalog, the computer program provides information on availability of stars for each tracker and on the ability of the system to maintain three-axis attitude reference throughout a representative sequence of vehicle orientations.

  14. The research on image processing technology of the star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-ming; Li, Chun-jiang; Zheng, Ran; Li, Xiao; Yang, Jun

    2014-11-01

    As the core of visual sensitivity via imaging, image processing technology, especially for star tracker, is mainly characterized by such items as image exposure, optimal storage, background estimation, feature correction, target extraction, iteration compensation. This paper firstly summarizes the new research on those items at home and abroad, then, according to star tracker's practical engineering, environment in orbit and lifetime information, shows an architecture about rapid fusion between multiple frame images, which can be used to restrain oversaturation of the effective pixels, which means star tracker can be made more precise, more robust and more stable.

  15. Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrow, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    As part of our program to understand the internal structure of the proton, we have and will continue mid-rapidity (-1<η<1) W and di-jet measurements in p+p collisions at √s = 500GeV. The ongoing STAR W program is exploring the longitudinal spin contribution of anti-u and anti-d quarks to the proton spin. The gluon spin contribution can be probed through di-jet measurements. The Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) at STAR will enhance the charged sign separation for high pT tracks in the pseudo-rapidity range of 1.0<η<2.0, and therefore allows an extension of W and di-jet measurements at forward pseudo-rapidity. We will present the status of the FGT assembly and completion along with projections for future W and di-jet measurements. We will discuss studies that explore the possibilities of using the FGT to reconstruct jets in the forward direction.

  16. ATLAS measurements of isolated photon cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, Marcello; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    This document presents measurements of the cross-sections for the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons and di-photon events in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy √s = 7 TeV, performed by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Photon candidates are identified by combining information from the calorimeters and from the inner tracker. Residual background in the selected sample is estimated from data based on the observed distribution of the transverse isolation energy in a narrow cone around the photon candidate. The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations.

  17. PACIFIC: the readout ASIC for the SciFi Tracker of the upgraded LHCb detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazorra, J.; Chanal, H.; Comerma, A.; Gascón, D.; Gómez, S.; Han, X.; Pillet, N.; Vandaele, R.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and will switch to a 40 MHz readout rate using a trigger-less software based system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with the higher detector occupancy and radiation damage. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed and a custom ASIC, called the low-Power ASIC for the sCIntillating FIbres traCker (PACIFIC), will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. This article presents an overview of the R&D for the PACIFIC. It is a 64-channel ASIC implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology, aiming at a radiation tolerant design with a power consumption below 10 mW per channel. It interfaces directly with the SiPM anode through a current mode input, and provides a configurable non-linear 2-bit per channel digital output. The SiPM signal is acquired by a current conveyor and processed with a fast shaper and a gated integrator. The digitization is performed using a three threshold non-linear flash ADC operating at 40 MHz. Simulation and test results show the PACIFIC chip prototypes functioning well.

  18. A low-cost, CCD solid state star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielowski, M.; Wynne, D.

    1992-01-01

    Applied Research Corporation (ARC) has developed an engineering model of a multi-star CCD-based tracker for space applications requiring radiation hardness, high reliability and low power consumption. The engineering unit compared favorably in functional performance tests to the standard NASA single-star tracker. Characteristics of the ARC star tracker are: field of view = 10 deg x 7.5 deg, sensitivity range of -1 to +5 star magnitude, NEA = 3 in x 3 in, linearity = 5 in x 5 in, and power consumption of 1-3 W (operating mode dependent). The software is upgradable through a remote link. The hardware-limited acquisition rate is 1-5 Hz for stars of +2 to +5 magnitude and 10-30 Hz for -1 to +2 magnitude stars. Mechanical and electrical interfaces are identical to the standard NASA star tracker.

  19. Gas gain stabilisation in the ATLAS TRT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindur, B.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonov, A.; Arslan, O.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Bault, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Bocci, A.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Brock, I.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Catinaccio, A.; Celebi, E.; Cetin, S. A.; Choi, K.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Davis, D.; Degeorge, C.; Derendarz, D.; Desch, K.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dressnandt, N.; Dubinin, F. A.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Froidevaux, D.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gecse, Z.; Godlewski, J.; Grefe, C.; Gurbuz, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, P. H.; Hawkins, A. D.; Heim, S.; Holway, K.; Kantserov, V. A.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kisielewski, B.; Klopov, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korotkova, N. A.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kramarenko, V.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Kruse, M.; Kudin, L. G.; Lichard, P.; Loginov, A.; Martinez, N. Lorenzo; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lytken, E.; Maleev, V. P.; Maevskiy, A. S.; Manjarres Ramos, J.; Mashinistov, R. Y.; Meyer, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mistry, K.; Mitsou, V. A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Newcomer, F. M.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Palacino, G.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; RØhne, O.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Ricken, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Ryjov, V.; Sasmaz, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Shmeleva, A. P.; Shulga, E.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnov, Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Soldatov, E.; Sulin, V. V.; Tartarelli, G.; Taylor, W.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vasquez, J.; Vasilyeva, L. F.; Vlazlo, O.; Weinert, B.; Williams, H. H.; Wong, V.; Zhukov, K. I.; Zieminska, D.

    2016-04-01

    The ATLAS (one of two general purpose detectors at the LHC) Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three tracking subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector. It is a large straw-based detector and contains about 350,000 electronics channels. The performance of the TRT as tracking and particularly particle identification detector strongly depends on stability of the operation parameters with most important parameter being the gas gain which must be kept constant across the detector volume. The gas gain in the straws can vary significantly with atmospheric pressure, temperature, and gas mixture composition changes. This paper presents a concept of the gas gain stabilisation in the TRT and describes in detail the Gas Gain Stabilisation System (GGSS) integrated into the Detector Control System (DCS). Operation stability of the GGSS during Run-1 is demonstrated.

  20. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Complete data from a test program designed to evaluate the performance of a star tracker, a breadboard tracker system, is presented in tabular form. All data presented was normalized to the pixel dimension of 20 micrometers. Data from determination of maximum spatial noise as it applies to the coarse and fine acquisition modes is presented. Pointing accuracy test data, raw pixel data for the track cycle, and data from equipment related tests is also presented.

  1. HCPV trackers arrangement based on space coordinate transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Zhe; Chen, Nuofu; Liu, Hu; Bai, Yiming; Zhang, Xiulan; Chen, Jikun; Wang, Xiangwu

    2014-09-01

    A new pattern of space coordinate system based on sun-tracking surface has been introduced in this paper. The calculation of shadow area between HCPV trackers has been simplified within this kind of coordinate system. The spaces between rows and columns of HCPV arrays can be calculated accurately. Therefore, an appropriate layout of trackers arrangement for a HCPV power plant can be determined and designed by use of this method.

  2. Optical Alignment of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, Samuel; Osgood, Dean; McMann, Joe; Roberts, Viki; Gill, James; Mclean, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    The optical alignment of the star trackers on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was challenging due to the layout and structural design of the GPM Lower Bus Structure (LBS) in which the star trackers are mounted as well as the presence of the star tracker shades that blocked line-of-sight to the primary star tracker optical references. The initial solution was to negotiate minor changes in the original LBS design to allow for the installation of a removable item of ground support equipment (GSE) that could be installed whenever measurements of the star tracker optical references were needed. However, this GSE could only be used to measure secondary optical reference cube faces not used by the star tracker vendor to obtain the relationship information and matrix transformations necessary to determine star tracker alignment. Unfortunately, due to unexpectedly large orthogonality errors between the measured secondary adjacent cube faces and the lack of cube calibration data, we required a method that could be used to measure the same reference cube faces as originally measured by the vendor. We describe an alternative technique to theodolite auto-collimation for measurement of an optical reference mirror pointing direction when normal incidence measurements are not possible. This technique was used to successfully align the GPM star trackers and has been used on a number of other NASA flight projects. We also discuss alignment theory as well as a GSFC-developed theodolite data analysis package used to analyze angular metrology data.

  3. Space shuttle orbiter vehicle star tracker test program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development model test program was written to provide guidance for essential star tracker test support to the Space Shuttle Orbiter Program. The program organization included test equipment preparation, prototype baseline/acceptance tests, prototype total performance tests, and prototype special tests. Test configurations, preparation phase, documentation, scheduling, and manpower requirements are discussed. The test program permits an early evaluation of the tracker's performance prior to completion and testing of the final flight models.

  4. The CDF-II silicon tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy K. Nelson

    2001-12-07

    The CDF silicon tracking system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron consists of eight layers arranged in cylinders spanning radii from 1.35cm to 28cm, and lengths from 90cm to nearly two meters for a total of six square meters of silicon and 722,000 readout channels. With an innermost layer (Layer 00) utilizing radiation tolerant p{sup +}-in-n silicon and low-mass readout cables between the sensors and readout electronics, double-sided vertexing layers (SVXII) designed for use with a deadtimeless secondary-vertex trigger, and outermost layers (ISL) utilizing mass-producible modules attached to a carbon fiber spaceframe, this system is a starting point for the next generation of silicon trackers for the LHC and Tevatron.

  5. Design of integrated eye tracker-display device for head mounted systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Y.; Apter, B.; Thirer, N.; Baal-Zedaka, I.; Efron, U.

    2009-08-01

    We propose an Eye Tracker/Display system, based on a novel, dual function device termed ETD, which allows sharing the optical paths of the Eye tracker and the display and on-chip processing. The proposed ETD design is based on a CMOS chip combining a Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon (LCoS) micro-display technology with near infrared (NIR) Active Pixel Sensor imager. The ET operation allows capturing the Near IR (NIR) light, back-reflected from the eye's retina. The retinal image is then used for the detection of the current direction of eye's gaze. The design of the eye tracking imager is based on the "deep p-well" pixel technology, providing low crosstalk while shielding the active pixel circuitry, which serves the imaging and the display drivers, from the photo charges generated in the substrate. The use of the ETD in the HMD Design enables a very compact design suitable for Smart Goggle applications. A preliminary optical, electronic and digital design of the goggle and its associated ETD chip and digital control, are presented.

  6. The Renaissance: A test-stand for the Forward CMS Pixel Tracker assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menasce, Dario; Turqueti, Marcos; Uplegger, Lorenzo

    2007-09-01

    The CMS Forward Pixel Tracker will consist of two end-cap blocks, each made of two disks lodging sensors and Read-Out Chips (ROCs) (grouped into plaquettes of different sizes) for a total of about 18 million read-out channels. During the assembly phase, prior to the physical mounting of the plaquettes on the disks a thorough electronic test is necessary to check each channel for functionality, noise level, required threshold trimming and bump-bond quality. To this extent a complete test-stand system, based on custom PCI cards and specialized software, has been developed. Different methods have been evaluated and implemented to electronically assess the amount of malfunctioning bump-bonds. Determination of the correct parameters for initialization of the ROCs has also been implemented as an automatic procedure; data are finally fed into a centralized database for subsequent retrieval during detector initialization or for off-line analysis. In this paper we describe requirements, design and implementation of such a system, which is currently in use at the Silicon Detector Facility (SiDet) Laboratory of FNAL for the final assembly of the Forward Tracker system.

  7. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollodge, J. C.; Hubbard, M. W.; Jain, S.; Schons, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of a star tracker equipped with a focal plane detector was evaluated. The CID board is an array of 256 x 256 pixels which are 20 x 20 micrometers in dimension. The tracker used for test was a breadboard tracker system developed by BASD. Unique acquisition and tracking algorithms are employed to enhance performance. A pattern recognition process is used to test for proper image spread function and to avoid false acquisition on noise. A very linear, high gain, interpixel transfer function is derived for interpolating star position. The lens used in the tracker has an EFL of 100 mm. The tracker has an FOV of 2.93 degrees resulting in a pixel angular subtense of 41.253 arc sec in each axis. The test procedure used for the program presented a star to the tracker in a circular pattern of positions; the pattern was formed by projecting a simulated star through a rotatable deviation wedge. Further tests determined readout noise, Noise Equivalent Displacement during track, and spatial noise during acquisition by taking related data and reducing it.

  8. Multi-expert tracking algorithm based on improved compressive tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yachun; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Object tracking is a challenging task in computer vision. Most state-of-the-art methods maintain an object model and update the object model by using new examples obtained incoming frames in order to deal with the variation in the appearance. It will inevitably introduce the model drift problem into the object model updating frame-by-frame without any censorship mechanism. In this paper, we adopt a multi-expert tracking framework, which is able to correct the effect of bad updates after they happened such as the bad updates caused by the severe occlusion. Hence, the proposed framework exactly has the ability which a robust tracking method should process. The expert ensemble is constructed of a base tracker and its formal snapshot. The tracking result is produced by the current tracker that is selected by means of a simple loss function. We adopt an improved compressive tracker as the base tracker in our work and modify it to fit the multi-expert framework. The proposed multi-expert tracking algorithm significantly improves the robustness of the base tracker, especially in the scenes with frequent occlusions and illumination variations. Experiments on challenging video sequences with comparisons to several state-of-the-art trackers demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and our tracking algorithm can run at real-time.

  9. Saturation effects in the AMS-1 tracker dE/dx data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, J. I.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.

    2001-05-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectroscoper (AMS) is a particle detector to be installed in the International Space Station to search for, among other, cosmic anti-nuclei. This instruments includes a silicon tracker immersed in the magnetic field for charge and sign assignment. The exponentially decreasing abundance of cosmic nuclei as function of atomic number (Z) requires accurate predictive power if dE/dx measurements are to be used in Z identification. We analyzed dE/dx from AMS prototype (AMS-1) flight test carried out on the NASA's Discovery Shuttle in 1998. The data show appreciable deviations from the Z2 dependence predicted by Bethe-Bloch equation. An interpretation of this phenomenon, based on our Energy Deposition by Secondary Electrons (EDSE) model, is proposed which reproduces the general features of the data. .

  10. Deployment of the CMS Tracker AMC as backend for the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzinger, G.

    2016-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector of the CMS experiment at CERN will be replaced with an upgraded version at the beginning of 2017 with the new detector featuring an additional barrel- and end-cap layer resulting in an increased number of fully digital read-out links running at 400 Mbps. New versions of the PSI46 Read-Out Chip and Token Bit Manager have been developed to operate at higher rates and reduce data loss. Front-End Controller and Front-End Driver boards, based on the μTCA compatible CMS Tracker AMC, a variant of the FC7 card, are being developed using different mezzanines to host the optical links for the digital read-out and control system. An overview of the system architecture is presented, with details on the implementation, and first results obtained from test systems.

  11. HETDEX tracker control system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard; Leck, Ron; Penney, Charles; Soukup, Ian

    2012-09-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory developed a precision tracker and control system - an 18,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 13 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, two independent control systems were developed. First, a versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential for normal operation including motion control. A second, parallel, control system, the Hardware Fault Controller (HFC) provides independent monitoring and fault control through a dedicated microcontroller to force a safe, controlled shutdown of the entire system in the event a fault is detected. Motion controls were developed in a Matlab-Simulink simulation environment, and coupled with dSPACE controller hardware. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of operational control software, the HFC, algorithms, tuning, debugging, testing, and lessons learned.

  12. Thermal properties of D0 Run IIb silicon detector staves

    SciTech Connect

    Lanfranco, Giobatta; Fast, James; /Fermilab

    2001-06-01

    A proposed stave design for the D0 Run IIb silicon tracker outer layers featuring central cooling channels and hybrid substrates mounted directly to the silicon sensor surfaces is evaluated for heat transfer characteristics and thermal deflections. In order to control leakage current noise in the silicon it is necessary to maintain the silicon in Layer 2 (R {approx} 100mm) at or below +5C. The current cooling system using 30% ethylene glycol in water can deliver coolant to the inlet of the silicon tracker at a temperature of -8C to -10C. This paper also investigates some alternative coolant options for Run IIB. While these are not required for the outer layers of silicon, they may be needed for L0, which sits at R {approx} 15mm. In this case the silicon must be kept at or below -5C, very near the lower limit for delivery of 30% glycol/water coolant. However, for the inner layers the electronics will be mounted independently from the silicon so the local heat flux is greatly reduced. This paper does not consider the cooling issues for the inner layers.

  13. Status of the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chytka, Ladislav; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to add a set of detectors - silicon 3D pixel tracking detectors and QUARTIC time of flight detectors - in the forward region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The AFP detectors will be placed around 210 m from the interaction point and are meant to detect protons produced at small angles. The detectors are to be housed in the so called Hamburg beam pipe - a movable beam pipe allowing horizontal movement of the detectors. The AFP is currently under approval with possible installation in 2014/15.

  14. The Measurement of Spectral Characteristics and Composition of Radiation in Atlas with MEDIPIX2-USB Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, M.; Doležal, Z.; Greiffenberg, D.; Heijne, E.; Holy, T.; Idárraga, J.; Jakůbek, J.; Král, V.; Králík, M.; Lebel, C.; Leroy, C.; Llopart, X.; Lord, G.; Maneuski, D.; Ouellette, O.; Sochor, V.; Pospíšil, S.; Suk, M.; Tlustos, L.; Vykydal, Z.; Wilhelm, I.

    2008-06-01

    A network of devices to perform real-time measurements of the spectral characteristics and composition of radiation in the ATLAS detector and cavern during its operation is being built. This system of detectors will be a stand alone system fully capable of delivering real-time images of fluxes and spectral composition of different particle species including slow and fast neutrons. The devices are based on MEDIPIX2 pixel silicon detectors that will be operated via active USB cables and USB-Ethernet extenders through an Ethernet network by a PC located in the USA15 ATLAS control room. The installation of 14 devices inside ATLAS (detector and cavern) is in progress.

  15. Human factor requirements of helmet trackers for HMDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Gary L.; Havig, Paul R.; Post, David L.; Reis, George A.; Simpson, Matthew A.

    2003-09-01

    A helmet tracker is a critical element in the path that delivers targeting and other sensor data to the user of a helmet-mounted display (HMD) in a military aircraft. The original purpose of an HMD was to serve as a helmet-mounted sight and provide a means to fully utilize the capabilities of off-boresight munitions. Recently, the role of the HMD has evolved from being strictly a targeting tool to providing detailed flight path and situation awareness information. These changes, however, have placed even greater value on the visual information that is transferred through the helmet tracker to the HMD. Specifically, the timeliness and accuracy of the information, which is of critical importance when the HMD is used as a targeting aid, is of even greater importance when the HMD is used to display flight reference information. This is especially relevant since it has been proposed to build new military aircraft without a physical head-up display (HUD) and display HUD information virtually with an HMD. In this paper, we review the current state of helmet tracker technology with respect to use in military aviation. We also identify the parameters of helmet trackers that offer the greatest risk when using an HMD to provide information beyond targeting data to the user. Finally, we discuss the human factors limitations of helmet tracker systems for delivering both targeting and flight reference information to a military pilot.

  16. Exposure Time Optimization for Highly Dynamic Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xinguo; Tan, Wei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Under highly dynamic conditions, the star-spots on the image sensor of a star tracker move across many pixels during the exposure time, which will reduce star detection sensitivity and increase star location errors. However, this kind of effect can be compensated well by setting an appropriate exposure time. This paper focuses on how exposure time affects the star tracker under highly dynamic conditions and how to determine the most appropriate exposure time for this case. Firstly, the effect of exposure time on star detection sensitivity is analyzed by establishing the dynamic star-spot imaging model. Then the star location error is deduced based on the error analysis of the sub-pixel centroiding algorithm. Combining these analyses, the effect of exposure time on attitude accuracy is finally determined. Some simulations are carried out to validate these effects, and the results show that there are different optimal exposure times for different angular velocities of a star tracker with a given configuration. In addition, the results of night sky experiments using a real star tracker agree with the simulation results. The summarized regularities in this paper should prove helpful in the system design and dynamic performance evaluation of the highly dynamic star trackers. PMID:24618776

  17. Construction and commissioning of the SuperNEMO detector tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascella, Michele

    2016-07-01

    The SuperNEMO detector will search for neutrinoless double beta decay at the Modane Underground Laboratory; the detector design allows complete topological reconstruction of the decay event enabling excellent levels of background rejection and, in the event of a discovery, the ability to determine the nature of the lepton number violating process. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the full experiment, we are building a Demonstrator Module containing 7 kg of 82Se, with an expected sensitivity of |mββ | < 0.2 - 0.4 eV after 2.5 yr. The demonstrator tracker is currently being assembled in the UK; the main challenge in the tracker design is the high radiopurity required to limit the background. For this reason the cell wiring is automated and every step of the tracker assembly happens in a clean environment. All components are carefully screened for radiopurity and each section of the tracker, once assembled, is sealed and checked for Radon emanation. We present the detector design, the current status of the construction and present the first results from the surface commissioning of one section of the Demonstrator Module tracker.

  18. Exposure time optimization for highly dynamic star trackers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinguo; Tan, Wei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Under highly dynamic conditions, the star-spots on the image sensor of a star tracker move across many pixels during the exposure time, which will reduce star detection sensitivity and increase star location errors. However, this kind of effect can be compensated well by setting an appropriate exposure time. This paper focuses on how exposure time affects the star tracker under highly dynamic conditions and how to determine the most appropriate exposure time for this case. Firstly, the effect of exposure time on star detection sensitivity is analyzed by establishing the dynamic star-spot imaging model. Then the star location error is deduced based on the error analysis of the sub-pixel centroiding algorithm. Combining these analyses, the effect of exposure time on attitude accuracy is finally determined. Some simulations are carried out to validate these effects, and the results show that there are different optimal exposure times for different angular velocities of a star tracker with a given configuration. In addition, the results of night sky experiments using a real star tracker agree with the simulation results. The summarized regularities in this paper should prove helpful in the system design and dynamic performance evaluation of the highly dynamic star trackers. PMID:24618776

  19. System and method for calibrating inter-star-tracker misalignments in a stellar inertial attitude determination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rongsheng (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Hein, Douglas H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining star tracker misalignments is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of defining a defining a reference frame for the star tracker assembly according to a boresight of the primary star tracker and a boresight of a second star tracker wherein the boresight of the primary star tracker and a plane spanned by the boresight of the primary star tracker and the boresight of the second star tracker at least partially define a datum for the reference frame for the star tracker assembly; and determining the misalignment of the at least one star tracker as a rotation of the defined reference frame.

  20. Design and Initial Tests of the Tracker-Converter ofthe Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, W.B.; Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; De Angelis, A.; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giannitrapani, R.; Giglietto, N.; /UC, Santa Cruz /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Rome /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /SLAC /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Udine U. /Hiroshima U. /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Tokyo Inst. Tech. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2007-04-16

    The Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission has been completed and tested. It is the central detector subsystem of the LAT and serves both to convert an incident gamma-ray into an electron-positron pair and to track the pair in order to measure the gamma-ray direction. It also provides the principal trigger for the LAT. The Tracker uses silicon strip detectors, read out by custom electronics, to detect charged particles. The detectors and electronics are packaged, along with tungsten converter foils, in 16 modular, high-precision carbon-composite structures. It is the largest silicon-strip detector system ever built for launch into space, and its aggressive design emphasizes very low power consumption, passive cooling, low noise, high efficiency, minimal dead area, and a structure that is highly transparent to charged particles. The test program has demonstrated that the system meets or surpasses all of its performance specifications as well as environmental requirements. It is now installed in the completed LAT, which is being prepared for launch in early 2008.

  1. BNL ATLAS Grid Computing

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Ernst

    2010-01-08

    As the sole Tier-1 computing facility for ATLAS in the United States and the largest ATLAS computing center worldwide Brookhaven provides a large portion of the overall computing resources for U.S. collaborators and serves as the central hub for storing,

  2. Language Industries Atlas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, P. M., Ed.; Button, D. F., Ed.

    This atlas describes the activities of public and private organizations that create the infrastructure within which languages are able to develop and interact in the European Community (EC). It contains over 1,000 descriptions of activities that play a role in shaping the language industries, from a user or provider perspective. The atlas is…

  3. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. COCHRANE; J.V. PARKER; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  4. BNL ATLAS Grid Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Ernst

    2008-10-02

    As the sole Tier-1 computing facility for ATLAS in the United States and the largest ATLAS computing center worldwide Brookhaven provides a large portion of the overall computing resources for U.S. collaborators and serves as the central hub for storing,

  5. Development and Performance Characterization of Colour Star Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVittie, Geoffrey

    Star trackers provide an essential component to a satellite mission requiring high-precision and high-accuracy attitude measurements. A star tracker operates by taking pictures of the celestial sphere and attempting to identify the stars in the image using a combination of the geometric and brightness patterns. The star-positions in the image then determine the attitude of the sensor in the inertial frame. I propose extending the capability of star trackers by including the colour properties of the stars into the star identification process; hence, colour star tracking. Current generation star trackers exist in a variety of forms, with a variety of additional potential designs and operational algorithms proposed in the literature. However, they all share the common trait of using a combination of geometric and monochrome brightness derived patterns to identify stars. Including colour information with the geometric and brightness properties into the identification process represents a new branch in the field of star tracker design. The process of measuring colour also causes a reduction in the amount of light gathered by the sensor, decreasing the number of stars observed. The challenge in colour star tracking becomes establishing that the additional information provided by colour to star patterns is greater than the loss of observable stars due to the measurement process. While superficially brief, accomplishing it touches upon a wide range of topic areas. This includes most research developed for monochromatic star trackers including imaging hardware, optics, noise rejection, parameter estimation, signal detection, data mining, pattern matching, and astronomy. Additionally, using colour necessitates introducing the topics of stellar photometry, spectral filtering, and colour imaging. The approach to colour star tracker development, presented here, considers three aspects to the operation of the technology: colour measurement, star detection, and star pattern

  6. Combinations of 148 navigation stars and the star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R.

    1980-01-01

    The angular separation of all star combinations for 148 nav star on the onboard software for space transportation system-3 flight and following missions is presented as well as the separation of each pair that satisfies the viewing constraints of using both star trackers simultaneously. Tables show (1) shuttle star catalog 1980 star position in M 1950 coordinates; (2) two star combination of 148 nav stars; and (3) summary of two star-combinations of the star tracker 5 deg filter. These 148 stars present 10,875 combinations. For the star tracker filters of plus or minus 5 deg, there are 875 combinations. Formalhaut (nav star 26) has the best number of combinations, which is 33.

  7. Simulation analysis of dynamic working performance for star trackers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Juan; Zhang, Guangjun; Wei, Xinguo

    2010-12-01

    The elongated imaging track pertaining to a star spot recorded in the image sensor of a star tracker will diffuse over several pixels at a high angular velocity, leading to an inaccurate, even false, attitude value. A computer simulation of the attitude determination from a dynamic star tracker is developed first, based on a dynamic mathematical model of the star-spot imaging and an efficiency validation of the star centroiding algorithm in the dynamic condition. Then major error sources affecting the attitude accuracy in the dynamic condition are analyzed and discussed systematically based on the simulation results. A mathematical model calculating the average star number detected in the field of view is also deduced, using simulation results and signal processing theory, with image trailing ranging from 0 to 20 pixels during exposure. The summarized regularity is helpful in the system design and accuracy evaluation of a star tracker. PMID:21119749

  8. The Reconstruction Software for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, A.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Adey, D.; Hanlet, P.; Heidt, C.

    2014-01-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling, for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. In order to measure the change in emittance, MICE is equipped with a pair of high precision scintillating fibre trackers. The trackers are required to measure a 10% change in emittance to 1% accuracy (giving an overall precision of 0.1%). This paper describes the tracker reconstruction software, as a part of the overall MICE software framework, MAUS. Channel clustering is described, proceeding to the formation of space-points, which are then associated with particle tracks using pattern recognition algorithms. Finally a full custom Kalman track fit is performed, to account for energy loss and multiple scattering. Exemplar results are shown for Monte Carlo data.

  9. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapoire, C.; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as B-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy is sufficiently low and hit efficiency exceed the design specification.

  10. Diabetes Interactive Atlas.

    PubMed

    Kirtland, Karen A; Burrows, Nilka R; Geiss, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    The Diabetes Interactive Atlas is a recently released Web-based collection of maps that allows users to view geographic patterns and examine trends in diabetes and its risk factors over time across the United States and within states. The atlas provides maps, tables, graphs, and motion charts that depict national, state, and county data. Large amounts of data can be viewed in various ways simultaneously. In this article, we describe the design and technical issues for developing the atlas and provide an overview of the atlas' maps and graphs. The Diabetes Interactive Atlas improves visualization of geographic patterns, highlights observation of trends, and demonstrates the concomitant geographic and temporal growth of diabetes and obesity. PMID:24503340

  11. National Atlas maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1991-01-01

    The National Atlas of the United States of America was published by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1970. Its 765 maps and charts are on 335 14- by 19-inch pages. Many of the maps span facing pages. It's worth a quick trip to the library just to leaf through all 335 pages of this book. Rapid scanning of its thematic maps yields rich insights to the geography of issues of continuing national interest. On most maps, the geographic patterns are still valid, though the data are not current. The atlas is out of print, but many of its maps can be purchased separately. Maps that span facing pages in the atlas are printed on one sheet. The maps dated after 1970 are either revisions of original atlas maps, or new maps published in atlas format. The titles of the separate maps are listed here.

  12. Laser tracker TSPI uncertainty quantification via centrifuge trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Edward; Paez, Thomas; Brown, Timothy; Miller, Timothy

    2009-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories currently utilizes two laser tracking systems to provide time-space-position-information (TSPI) and high speed digital imaging of test units under flight. These laser trackers have been in operation for decades under the premise of theoretical accuracies based on system design and operator estimates. Advances in optical imaging and atmospheric tracking technology have enabled opportunities to provide more precise six degree of freedom measurements from these trackers. Applying these technologies to the laser trackers requires quantified understanding of their current errors and uncertainty. It was well understood that an assortment of variables contributed to laser tracker uncertainty but the magnitude of these contributions was not quantified and documented. A series of experiments was performed at Sandia National Laboratories large centrifuge complex to quantify TSPI uncertainties of Sandia National Laboratories laser tracker III. The centrifuge was used to provide repeatable and economical test unit trajectories of a test-unit to use for TSPI comparison and uncertainty analysis. On a centrifuge, testunits undergo a known trajectory continuously with a known angular velocity. Each revolution may represent an independent test, which may be repeated many times over for magnitudes of data practical for statistical analysis. Previously these tests were performed at Sandia's rocket sled track facility but were found to be costly with challenges in the measurement ground truth TSPI. The centrifuge along with on-board measurement equipment was used to provide known ground truth position of test units. This paper discusses the experimental design and techniques used to arrive at measures of laser tracker error and uncertainty.

  13. Future trends of 3D silicon sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Vià, Cinzia; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Haughton, Iain; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher; Kok, Angela; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Povoli, Marco; Tzhnevyi, Vladislav; Watts, Stephen J.

    2013-12-01

    Vertex detectors for the next LHC experiments upgrades will need to have low mass while at the same time be radiation hard and with sufficient granularity to fulfil the physics challenges of the next decade. Based on the gained experience with 3D silicon sensors for the ATLAS IBL project and the on-going developments on light materials, interconnectivity and cooling, this paper will discuss possible solutions to these requirements.

  14. Results from the E835 cylindrical scintillating-fiber tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogiani, M.; Baldini, W.; Bettoni, D.; Calabrese, R.; Luppi, E.; Mussa, R.; Stancari, G. |

    1998-11-01

    A cylindrical 860-channel scintillating-fiber tracker for the measurement of the polar coordinate {theta} has been built for experiment 835 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory; it was used during the data-taking period, from October 1996 through September 1997. The high granularity, flexibility and fast response of the scintillating fibers are combined with the high quantum efficiency of the Visible-Light Photon Counters. From this combination, a new kind of detector arises, capable of high-resolution tracking, fast first-level kinematical triggering and single/double-track discrimination. Results of the tracker performance are presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Construction of the tracker for the SuperNEMO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzowski, P.

    2015-04-01

    The SuperNEMO experiment will search for neutrinoless double β decay with a sensitivity two orders of magnitude greater than its predecessor NEMO-3, achieved through better energy resolution and unprecedented background levels. A Demonstrator module of the detector is currently under construction, due to begin data taking in 2015. A vital component of the detector is the tracker, a wire chamber made from 2,034 cells operating in Geiger mode. This is important for triggering, background discrimination, and measurement of the kinematic properties of the decay. The tracker production procedure and status is presented.

  16. Star tracker error analysis: Roll-to-pitch nonorthogonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    An error analysis is described on an anomaly isolated in the star tracker software line of sight (LOS) rate test. The LOS rate cosine was found to be greater than one in certain cases which implied that either one or both of the star tracker measured end point unit vectors used to compute the LOS rate cosine had lengths greater than unity. The roll/pitch nonorthogonality matrix in the TNB CL module of the IMU software is examined as the source of error.

  17. Environmental Tests of the Flight GLAST LAT Tracker Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Angelis, A.De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Goodman, J.; Himel, T.

    2008-03-12

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space telescope (GLAST) is a gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in 2008. Before the assembly of the Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of GLAST, every component (tray) and module (tower) has been subjected to extensive ground testing required to ensure successful launch and on-orbit operation. This paper describes the sequence and results of the environmental tests performed on an engineering model and all the flight hardware of the GLAST LAT Tracker. Environmental tests include vibration testing, thermal cycles and thermal-vacuum cycles of every tray and tower as well as the verification of their electrical performance.

  18. Performance tests during the ATLAS IBL Stave Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentzsch, J.

    2015-04-01

    In preparation of the ATLAS Pixel Insertable B-Layer integration, detector components, so called staves, were mounted around the Beryllium ATLAS beam pipe and tested using production quality assurance measurements as well as dedicated data taking runs to validate a correct grounding and shielding schema. Each stave consists of 32 new generation readout chips which sum up to over 860k pixels per stave. The integration tests include verification that neither the silicon planar n+-in-n nor the silicon 3D sensors were damaged by mechanical stress, and that their readout chips, including their bump-bond and wire-bond connections, did not suffer from the integration process. Evolution of the detector performance during its integration will be discussed as well as its final performance before installation.

  19. [Research on Atlas of Viscera].

    PubMed

    Jin, S

    1994-01-01

    Chinese ancient visceral atlas, or anatomical illustrations were derived from Taoist and medical schools through observation in cadavers. During the period from Five-Dynasties to Song, there were several works on visceral atlas, including Yanluo illustration, Atlas of Ou Xifan's visceral atlas of fidelity, Li Jung's Atlas. Among them, there exist relations of transmission-heredity, with gradual improvement. It seems likely that the visceral illustrations in Japanese Wan'an Prescription is the extant illustration of Ou's. After the advent of Atlas of Fidelity visceral atlas was differentiated into 3 different kinds of illustrations, as the Inner Picture (Neijing) of Mingtang Atlas; Neizhao Picture in pulsological works and visceral picture in physical Shenxing picture. Chinese visceral atlas was transmitted to Japan, Korea, Persia, and Europe and exerted some influence on cosmopolitan medicine. PMID:11615236

  20. ATLAS solar pointing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, C. A.; Zimmerman, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    The ATLAS-series of Spacelab missions are comprised of a diverse group of scientific instruments including instruments for studying the sun and how the sun's energy changes across an eleven-year solar cycle. The ATLAS solar instruments are located on one or more pallets in the Orbiter payload bay and use the Orbiter as a pointing platform for their examinations of the sun. One of the ATLAS instruments contained a sun sensor which allowed scientists and engineers on the ground to see the pointing error of the sun with respect to the instrument and correct for the error based upon the information coming from the ATLAS 1 and ATLAS 2 missions with particular attention given to identifying the sources of pointing discrepancies of the solar instruments and to describe the crew and ground controller procedures that were developed to correct for these discrepancies. The Orbiter pointing behavior from the ATLAS 1 and ATLAS 2 flights presented in this paper can be applied to future flights which use the Orbiter as a pointing platform.

  1. Using Tracker as a Pedagogical Tool for Understanding Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Chew, Charles; Goh, Giam Hwee; Tan, Samuel; Lee, Tat Leong

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the use of Tracker as a pedagogical tool in the effective learning and teaching of projectile motion in physics. When a computer model building learning process is supported and driven by video analysis data, this free Open Source Physics tool can provide opportunities for students to engage in active enquiry-based…

  2. Highly integrated near-to-eye display and gaze tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvenpää, Toni; Äyräs, Pekka

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a Near-to-Eye Display (NED) technology based on diffractive optics. Thin and highly transparent plastic light guides enable a light-weight and ergonomic see-through NED design. We have previously reported of a compact NED with an integrated gaze tracker. Eye gaze tracker can detect the user's focus point in the displayed image. We have now made advances to further increase the level of integration as well as to enable the optical see-through. Originally, three separate light guides were used: two for the display (red, green/blue) and one for infrared light of the gaze tracker. To reduce weight and the system complexity, a shared light guide is now used for transmitting red (~630 nm, display) and infrared (~850 nm, gaze tracker) wavelengths. In addition, shared output gratings are used for outcoupling the light. Light guide plates have been characterized by measuring their modulation transfer functions. Measurements show that the deterioration of the NED's resolution, caused by the light guides, is reduced with improved manufacturing techniques. Also, it has been verified that the additional gratings for infrared (light in-coupling and expansion areas) do not have a notable effect on the display resolution.

  3. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Ohio State U. /Baylor U. /UC, Davis /Athens Natl. Capodistrian U. /Purdue U. /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  4. Star tracker operation in a high density proton field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miklus, Kenneth J.; Kissh, Frank; Flynn, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms that reject transient signals due to proton effects on charge coupled device (CCD) sensors have been implemented in the HDOS ASTRA-l Star Trackers to be flown on the TOPEX mission scheduled for launch in July 1992. A unique technique for simulating a proton-rich environment to test trackers is described, as well as the test results obtained. Solar flares or an orbit that passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly can subject the vehicle to very high proton flux levels. There are three ways in which spurious proton generated signals can impact tracker performance: the many false signals can prevent or extend the time to acquire a star; a proton-generated signal can compromise the accuracy of the star's reported magnitude and position; and the tracked star can be lost, requiring reacquisition. Tests simulating a proton-rich environment were performed on two ASTRA-1 Star Trackers utilizing these new algorithms. There were no false acquisitions, no lost stars, and a significant reduction in reported position errors due to these improvements.

  5. CMS tracker performance and readiness for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viliani, L.

    2016-07-01

    The CMS tracker performance during LHC Run I is reviewed. The latest results of both pixel and strip detectors following the first LHC Long Shutdown (LS1) are then presented. Results from detector calibration and commissioning, together with a description of operations and repairs done during LS1, will be shown.

  6. Using "Tracker" to Prove the Simple Harmonic Motion Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; "Tracker", we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  7. Using Tracker to prove the simple harmonic motion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinchin, John

    2016-09-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; Tracker, we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  8. Evaluating YieldTracker forecast for maize in western Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We seek to predict in-season land productivity to guide irrigation management decisions designed to optimize water utilization in the Ogallala Aquifer region. YieldTracker is a mathematical model that simulates growth and yield of graminoid crops using weather and leaf area index (LAI) as inputs, wh...

  9. The development of a charge-coupled device tracker for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, E. W.; Stanton, R. H.; Shimada, K.

    1987-01-01

    Charge-coupled device (CCD) optical sensors have made it possible to construct high performance star and target trackers for spacecraft. The Advanced Star and Target Reference Orbital Sensor (ASTROS) trackers have been developed by JPL for the Shuttle-based astronomical flight Astro-1 and the Mariner Mark II (MMII) spacecraft. For the Shuttle application the tracker will provide the data for high precision instrument pointing and for the MMII application the tracker will provide stellar and extended target tracking data for flyby and rendezvous navigation. The specifications, architecture, and testing program for these trackers will be described. Laboratory measurements have demonstrated that these trackers can be very effective. The versatility and flexibility of the ASTROS type trackers will permit adaptation to a variety of navigation and guidance applications. These trackers represent one of the technologically advanced components that will be used in the development of the next generation of spacecraft.

  10. The Millennium Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, R. W.

    1997-08-01

    Derived from Hipparcos and Tycho observations, the Millennium Star Atlas is a set of 1548 charts covering the entire sky to about magnitude 11. It stands apart from all previous printed atlases in completeness to magnitude 10 and in uniformity around the sky. The generous chart scale has made possible a number of innovations never before seen in a star atlas: arrows on high-proper-motion stars, double-star ticks conveying separation and position angle for a specific modern epoch, distance labels for nearby stars, and variable stars coded by amplitude, period, and type. Among the nonstellar objects plotted, more than 8000 galaxies are shown with aspect ratio and orientation.

  11. Opportunity Science Using the Juno Magnetometer Investigation Star Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joergensen, J. L.; Connerney, J. E.; Bang, A. M.; Denver, T.; Oliversen, R. J.; Benn, M.; Lawton, P.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetometer experiment onboard Juno is equipped with four non-magnetic star tracker camera heads, two of which reside on each of the magnetometer sensor optical benches. These are located 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. The star tracker, collectively referred to as the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), provides high accuracy attitude information for the magnetometer sensors throughout science operations. The star tracker camera heads are pointed +/- 13 deg off the spin vector, in the anti-sun direction, imaging a 13 x 20 deg field of view every ¼ second as Juno rotates at 1 or 2 rpm. The ASC is a fully autonomous star tracker, producing a time series of attitude quaternions for each camera head, utilizing a suite of internal support functions. These include imaging capabilities, autonomous object tracking, automatic dark-sky monitoring, and related capabilities; these internal functions may be accessed via telecommand. During Juno's cruise phase, this capability can be tapped to provide unique science and engineering data available along the Juno trajectory. We present a few examples of the JUNO ASC opportunity science here. As the Juno spacecraft approached the Earth-Moon system for the close encounter with the Earth on October 9, 2013, one of the ASC camera heads obtained imagery of the Earth-Moon system while the other three remained in full science (attitude determination) operation. This enabled the first movie of the Earth and Moon obtained by a spacecraft flying past the Earth in gravity assist. We also use the many artificial satellites in orbit about the Earth as calibration targets for the autonomous asteroid detection system inherent to the ASC autonomous star tracker. We shall also profile the zodiacal dust disk, using the interstellar image data, and present the outlook for small asteroid body detection and distribution being performed during Juno's passage from Earth flyby to Jovian orbit

  12. THE SPITZER ATLAS OF STELLAR SPECTRA (SASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ardila, David R.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Makowiecki, Wojciech; Stauffer, John; Rho, Jeonghee; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Song, Inseok

    2010-12-15

    We present the Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra, which includes 159 stellar spectra (5-32 {mu}m; R {approx} 100) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. This Atlas gathers representative spectra of a broad section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, intended to serve as a general stellar spectral reference in the mid-infrared. It includes stars from all luminosity classes, as well as Wolf-Rayet (WR) objects. Furthermore, it includes some objects of intrinsic interest, such as blue stragglers and certain pulsating variables. All of the spectra have been uniformly reduced, and all are available online. For dwarfs and giants, the spectra of early-type objects are relatively featureless, characterized by the presence of hydrogen lines in A spectral types. Besides these, the most noticeable photospheric features correspond to water vapor and silicon monoxide in late-type objects and methane and ammonia features at the latest spectral types. Most supergiant spectra in the Atlas present evidence of circumstellar gas and/or dust. The sample includes five M supergiant spectra, which show strong dust excesses and in some cases polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features. Sequences of WR stars present the well-known pattern of lines of He I and He II, as well as forbidden lines of ionized metals. The characteristic flat-top shape of the [Ne III] line is evident even at these low spectral resolutions. Several Luminous Blue Variables and other transition stars are present in the Atlas and show very diverse spectra, dominated by circumstellar gas and dust features. We show that the [8]-[24] Spitzer colors (IRAC and MIPS) are poor predictors of spectral type for most luminosity classes.

  13. Atlas of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D. ); Baum, S. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceeding on the atlas of nuclear medicine. Topics covered include: Radionuclide esophageal transit studies, Iodine-131 neck and chest scintigraphy, Indium-111 white blood cell imaging, and Pediatric radionuclide lymphography.

  14. ATLAS Metadata Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS Collaboration; Costanzo, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Gadomski, S.; Jezequel, S.; Klimentov, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Malon, D.; Mornacchi, G.; Nemethy, P.; Pauly, T.; von der Schmitt, H.; Barberis, D.; Gianotti, F.; Hinchliffe, I.; Mapelli, L.; Quarrie, D.; Stapnes, S.

    2007-04-04

    This document provides an overview of the metadata, which are needed to characterizeATLAS event data at different levels (a complete run, data streams within a run, luminosity blocks within a run, individual events).

  15. General Dynamics Atlas family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, James

    Developments concerning the Atlas family of launch vehicles over the last three or four years are summarized. Attention is given to the center of gravity, load factors, acoustics, pyroshock, low-frequency sinusoidal vibration, and high-frequency random vibration.

  16. ATLAS accelerator laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, P.

    1986-01-01

    The operation of the ATLAS Accelerator is reported. Modifications are reported, including the installation of conductive tires for the Pelletron chain pulleys, installation of a new high frequency sweeper system at the entrance to the linac, and improvements to the rf drive ports of eight resonators to correct failures in the thermally conductive ceramic insulators. Progress is reported on the positive-ion injector upgrade for ATLAS. Also reported are building modifications and possible new uses for the tandem injector. (LEW)

  17. Atlas Skills for Learning Rather than Learning Atlas Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, R. J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for visual learning and describes an approach to skills instruction which aids students in using atlases. Maintains that teachers must help students see atlases as tools capable of providing useful information rather than experiencing atlas learning as an empty exercise with little relevance to their lives. (JDH)

  18. ATLAS@AWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrcke, Jan-Philip; Kluth, Stefan; Stonjek, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    We show how the ATLAS offline software is ported on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). We prepare an Amazon Machine Image (AMI) on the basis of the standard ATLAS platform Scientific Linux 4 (SL4). Then an instance of the SLC4 AMI is started on EC2 and we install and validate a recent release of the ATLAS offline software distribution kit. The installed software is archived as an image on the Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) and can be quickly retrieved and connected to new SL4 AMI instances using the Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS). ATLAS jobs can then configure against the release kit using the ATLAS configuration management tool (cmt) in the standard way. The output of jobs is exported to S3 before the SL4 AMI is terminated. Job status information is transferred to the Amazon SimpleDB service. The whole process of launching instances of our AMI, starting, monitoring and stopping jobs and retrieving job output from S3 is controlled from a client machine using python scripts implementing the Amazon EC2/S3 API via the boto library working together with small scripts embedded in the SL4 AMI. We report our experience with setting up and operating the system using standard ATLAS job transforms.

  19. Atlas Mountain Range, Mali, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    ATLAS pallets are backdropped against the Atlas Mountains (31.0N, 1.0W). ATLAS is an acronym for ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science. Taken from a point over Mali, in the western Sahara, the northwest looking view shows dunes in the Iguidi dune sea and colors characteristic of the Saharan side of the Atlas Mountains. The edge of a large sandstorm, that transported sand and dust to Yugoslavia and beyond, can also be seen.

  20. Report to users of ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Glagola, B.

    1997-03-01

    This report covers the following topics: (1) status of the ATLAS accelerator; (2) progress in R and D towards a proposal for a National ISOL Facility; (3) highlights of recent research at ATLAS; (4) the move of gammasphere from LBNL to ANL; (5) Accelerator Target Development laboratory; (6) Program Advisory Committee; (7) ATLAS User Group Executive Committee; and (8) ATLAS user handbook available in the World Wide Web. A brief summary is given for each topic.

  1. Ongoing studies for the control system of a serially powered ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, S.; Püllen, L.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2016-02-01

    In terms of the phase-2 upgrade of the ATLAS detector, the entire inner tracker (ITk) of ATLAS will be replaced. This includes the pixel detector and the corresponding detector control system (DCS). The current baseline is a serial powering scheme of the detector modules. Therefore a new detector control system is being developed with emphasis on the supervision of serially powered modules. Previous chips had been designed to test the radiation hardness of the technology and the implementation of the modified I2C as well as the implementation of the logic of the CAN protocol. This included tests with triple redundant registers. The described chip is focusing on the implementation in a serial powering scheme. It was designed for laboratory tests, aiming for the proof of principle. The concept of the DCS for ATLAS pixel after the phase-2 upgrade is presented as well as the status of development including tests with the prototype ASIC.

  2. Mechanical properties of D0 Run IIB silicon detector staves

    SciTech Connect

    Lanfranco, Giobatta; Fast, James; /Fermilab

    2001-06-01

    A proposed stave design for the D0 Run IIb silicon tracker outer layers featuring central cooling channels and a composite shell mechanical structure is evaluated for self-deflection and deflection due to external loads. This paper contains an introduction to the stave structure, a section devoted to composite lamina and laminate properties and finally a section discussing the beam deflections expected for assembled staves using these laminates.

  3. Development of a scintillating fiber tracker for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    The Fiber Tracking Group (FTG) of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) is developing a high rate tracking subsystem appropriate for the SDC detector based on scintillating fiber (SciFi) technology. In the past two years a major upgrade in the design was conceived, which reduces the material and cost of the tracker and improves the effectiveness of the tracking system as a trigger element. The results of simulations of the performance of the tracker at Penn State have been very important in keeping the SciFi technology as an attractive option for a tracking system for the SDC collaboration. In the past year an array of scintillating fiber elements has been evaluated in a test beam at Brookhaven. Past experience of Penn State personnel at Brookhaven proved valuable in making the test beam runs a success.

  4. TMT tertiary mirror axis calibration with laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Qi-chang; Zhang, Jing-xu; Yang, Fei; Sun, Jing-wei

    2015-03-01

    To calibrate the tracing performance of the thirty meter telescope (TMT) tertiary mirror, for the special requirement of the TMT, the laser tracker is used to verify the motion. Firstly, the deviation is divided into two parts, namely, the repeatable error and the unrepeatable part. Then, based on the laser tracker, the mearturement and evalutation methods of the rigid body motion for the mirror are established, and the Monte Carol method is used to determine the accuracy of the mothod. Lastly, the mothod is applied to the turn table of a classical telescope and the residual error is about 4 arc second. The work of this paper will guide the next desgin and construction work of the thirty meter telescope tertiary mirror.

  5. VERSATILE TWO-AXIS OPEN-LOOP SOLAR TRACKER CONTROLLER*

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Christina D; Maxey, L Curt; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen; Lapsa, Melissa Voss

    2008-01-01

    A versatile single-board controller for two-axis solar tracking applications has been developed and tested on operating solar tracking systems with over two years of field experience. The operating experience gained from the two systems and associated modifications are discussed as representative examples of the practical issues associated with implementing a new two-axis solar tracker design. In this research, open and closed loop control methods were evaluated; however, only the open loop method met the 0.125 tracking accuracy requirement and the requirement to maintain pointing accuracy in hazy and scattered cloudy skies. The open loop algorithm was finally implemented in a microcontroller-based tracking system. Methods of applying this controller hardware to different tracker geometries and hardware are discussed along with the experience gained to date.

  6. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    Tracker is an object-tracking and image-processing program designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to help with the analysis of images generated by microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments. Experiments are often recorded on film or videotape for analysis later. Tracker automates the process of examining each frame of the recorded experiment, performing image-processing operations to bring out the desired detail, and recording the positions of the objects of interest. It can load sequences of images from disk files or acquire images (via a frame grabber) from film transports, videotape, laser disks, or a live camera. Tracker controls the image source to automatically advance to the next frame. It can employ a large array of image-processing operations to enhance the detail of the acquired images and can analyze an arbitrarily large number of objects simultaneously. Several different tracking algorithms are available, including conventional threshold and correlation-based techniques, and more esoteric procedures such as "snake" tracking and automated recognition of character data in the image. The Tracker software was written to be operated by researchers, thus every attempt was made to make the software as user friendly and self-explanatory as possible. Tracker is used by most of the microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments performed by Lewis, and by visiting researchers. This includes experiments performed on the space shuttles, Mir, sounding rockets, zero-g research airplanes, drop towers, and ground-based laboratories. This software automates the analysis of the flame or liquid s physical parameters such as position, velocity, acceleration, size, shape, intensity characteristics, color, and centroid, as well as a number of other measurements. It can perform these operations on multiple objects simultaneously. Another key feature of Tracker is that it performs optical character recognition (OCR). This feature is useful in

  7. Star spot location estimation using Kalman filter for star tracker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jian-kun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Tan, Ji-chun; Li, Xiu-jian

    2011-04-20

    Star pattern recognition and attitude determination accuracy is highly dependent on star spot location accuracy for the star tracker. A star spot location estimation approach with the Kalman filter for a star tracker has been proposed, which consists of three steps. In the proposed approach, the approximate locations of the star spots in successive frames are predicted first; then the measurement star spot locations are achieved by defining a series of small windows around each predictive star spot location. Finally, the star spot locations are updated by the designed Kalman filter. To confirm the proposed star spot location estimation approach, the simulations based on the orbit data of the CHAMP satellite and the real guide star catalog are performed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can filter out noises from the measurements remarkably if the sampling frequency is sufficient. PMID:21509065

  8. A scintillating fibres tracker detector for archaeological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichelli, M.; Ansoldi, S.; Bari, M.; Basset, M.; Battiston, R.; Blasko, S.; Coren, F.; Fiori, E.; Giannini, G.; Iugovaz, D.; Papi, A.; Reia, S.; Scian, G.

    2007-03-01

    We designed, constructed and operated a cylindrical, scintillating fibres, tracker detector in order to measure the directional flux of cosmic ray muons underground. This instrument named Muon Ground Radiograph (MGR) was developed to study the fluctuation of the density in the soil that causes detection anisotropies in the arrival direction of cosmic ray muons observed in a tracker detector located underground. Density fluctuations may reveal hidden cavities or buried structures and can contribute to archaeological findings. The shape of the detector we used, for this purpose, is cylindrical, 14 cm diameter and 224 cm height, and it can be inserted into a 20 cm diameter hole in the ground at a maximum depth of 30 m. This paper will describe the instrument design and construction and also report some results of two observational campaigns in the town of Aquileia the Claudio and Traiano port.

  9. An isotope identification injection study with GammaTracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batdorf, Michael T.; Erikson, Luke E.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Kirihara, Leslie J.

    2011-10-01

    GammaTracker is a portable handheld radioisotope identifier using position sensitive CdZnTe detectors. High confidence isotope identification is possible on GammaTracker owing to the system's relatively high energy resolution and count rate sensitivity. A study was undertaken to evaluate the isotope identification performance of a prototype unit. Background and source spectra for various nuclides were measured and then randomly sampled to simulate various integration times and source intensities. The resulting spectral data sets were then run through the isotope identification algorithm to determine the probability of detection and the false alarm rate for each nuclide. The process was repeated for various isotope identification input parameters until an optimized set was achieved. This paper presents results from the injection study.

  10. Using Tracker as a pedagogical tool for understanding projectile motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Chew, Charles; Hwee Goh, Giam; Tan, Samuel; Lee, Tat Leong

    2012-07-01

    This article reports on the use of Tracker as a pedagogical tool in the effective learning and teaching of projectile motion in physics. When a computer model building learning process is supported and driven by video analysis data, this free Open Source Physics tool can provide opportunities for students to engage in active enquiry-based learning. We discuss the pedagogical use of Tracker to address some common misconceptions concerning projectile motion by allowing students to test their hypothesis by juxtaposing their mental models against the analysis of real-life videos. Initial research findings suggest that allowing learners to relate abstract physics concepts to real life through coupling computer modelling with traditional video analysis could be an innovative and effective way to learn projectile motion.

  11. Sun-Relative Pointing for Dual-Axis Solar Trackers Employing Azimuth and Elevation Rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Daniel; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-12-30

    Dual axis trackers employing azimuth and elevation rotations are common in the field of photovoltaic (PV) energy generation. Accurate sun-tracking algorithms are widely available. However, a steering algorithm has not been available to accurately point the tracker away from the sun such that a vector projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face falls along a desired path relative to the tracker face. We have developed an algorithm which produces the appropriate azimuth and elevation angles for a dual axis tracker when given the sun position, desired angle of incidence, and the desired projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face. Development of this algorithm was inspired by the need to accurately steer a tracker to desired sun-relative positions in order to better characterize the electro-optical properties of PV and CPV modules.

  12. Sun-Relative Pointing for Dual-Axis Solar Trackers Employing Azimuth and Elevation Rotations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Riley, Daniel; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-12-30

    Dual axis trackers employing azimuth and elevation rotations are common in the field of photovoltaic (PV) energy generation. Accurate sun-tracking algorithms are widely available. However, a steering algorithm has not been available to accurately point the tracker away from the sun such that a vector projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face falls along a desired path relative to the tracker face. We have developed an algorithm which produces the appropriate azimuth and elevation angles for a dual axis tracker when given the sun position, desired angle of incidence, and the desired projection of the sun beam ontomore » the tracker face. Development of this algorithm was inspired by the need to accurately steer a tracker to desired sun-relative positions in order to better characterize the electro-optical properties of PV and CPV modules.« less

  13. Clementine Star Tracker Stellar Compass: Final report part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, R.E.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.

    1995-07-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star stracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 focal plane array and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {mu}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {mu}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights. Documentation generated during the design, analysis, build, test and characterization of the star tracker cameras are presented. Collectively, this documentation represents a small library of information for this camera, and may be used as a framework for producing copy units by commercial enterprises, and therefore satisfies a Department of Defense and Department of Energy goal to transfer technology to industry. However, the considerable knowledge gained from the experience of the individuals involved in the system trades, design, analysis, production, testing and characterization of the star tracker stellar compass is not contained in this documentation.

  14. Resonance interaction in LBNE fine-grained-tracker near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyang, Hongyue; Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.

    2015-10-01

    This talk is devoted to resonance interaction (RES) in the proposed fine-grained tracker detector (FGT) for LBNE experiment. We use fast MC to study the sensitivity of FGT to RES, and use this measurement as a handle to constrain nuclear effects. Similar analysis is performed on NOMAD data for validation and better understanding. Preliminary RES measurement result using NOMAD data will be reported.

  15. ASTROS - A sub-arcsec CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, R. H.; Alexander, J. W.; Dennison, E. W.; Glavich, T. A.; Salomon, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design and application of ASTROS (Advanced Star and Target Reference Optical Sensor) are described, with emphasis on performance test results acquired with a prototype system. The ASTROS tracker provides extremely precise measurements of star image coordinates as inputs to the Image Motion Compensation (IMC) system used to stabilize the science instrument focal planes. Performance levels achieved are dramatic improvements over the levels achieved with image dissector designs with comparable fields of view.

  16. Resonance interaction in LBNE fine-grained-tracker near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Duyang, Hongyue; Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.

    2015-10-15

    This talk is devoted to resonance interaction (RES) in the proposed fine-grained tracker detector (FGT) for LBNE experiment. We use fast MC to study the sensitivity of FGT to RES, and use this measurement as a handle to constrain nuclear effects. Similar analysis is performed on NOMAD data for validation and better understanding. Preliminary RES measurement result using NOMAD data will be reported.

  17. Star tracker stellar compass for the Clementine mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.; Wilson, B.A.

    1995-04-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star tracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 FPA and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {micro}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {micro}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  18. A post-processing algorithm for time domain pitch trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specker, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a powerful post-processing algorithm for time-domain pitch trackers. On two successive passes, the post-processing algorithm eliminates errors produced during a first pass by a time-domain pitch tracker. During the second pass, incorrect pitch values are detected as outliers by computing the distribution of values over a sliding 80 msec window. During the third pass (based on artificial intelligence techniques), remaining pitch pulses are used as anchor points to reconstruct the pitch train from the original waveform. The algorithm produced a decrease in the error rate from 21% obtained with the original time domain pitch tracker to 2% for isolated words and sentences produced in an office environment by 3 male and 3 female talkers. In a noisy computer room errors decreased from 52% to 2.9% for the same stimuli produced by 2 male talkers. The algorithm is efficient, accurate, and resistant to noise. The fundamental frequency micro-structure is tracked sufficiently well to be used in extracting phonetic features in a feature-based recognition system.

  19. The annotation and the usage of scientific databases could be improved with public issue tracker software

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Olio, Giovanni Marco; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Laayouni, Hafid

    2010-01-01

    Since the publication of their longtime predecessor The Atlas of Protein Sequences and Structures in 1965 by Margaret Dayhoff, scientific databases have become a key factor in the organization of modern science. All the information and knowledge described in the novel scientific literature is translated into entries in many different scientific databases, making it possible to obtain very accurate information on a biological entity like genes or proteins without having to manually review the literature on it. However, even for the databases with the finest annotation procedures, errors or unclear parts sometimes appear in the publicly released version and influence the research of unaware scientists using them. The researcher that finds an error in a database is often left in a uncertain state, and often abandons the effort of reporting it because of a lack of a standard procedure to do so. In the present work, we propose that the simple adoption of a public error tracker application, as in many open software projects, could improve the quality of the annotations in many databases and encourage feedback from the scientific community on the data annotated publicly. In order to illustrate the situation, we describe a series of errors that we found and helped solve on the genes of a very well-known pathway in various biomedically relevant databases. We would like to show that, even if a majority of the most important scientific databases have procedures for reporting errors, these are usually not publicly visible, making the process of reporting errors time consuming and not useful. Also, the effort made by the user that reports the error often goes unacknowledged, putting him in a discouraging position. PMID:21186182

  20. Distributed analysis in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewhurst, A.; Legger, F.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment accumulated more than 140 PB of data during the first run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The analysis of such an amount of data is a challenging task for the distributed physics community. The Distributed Analysis (DA) system of the ATLAS experiment is an established and stable component of the ATLAS distributed computing operations. About half a million user jobs are running daily on DA resources, submitted by more than 1500 ATLAS physicists. The reliability of the DA system during the first run of the LHC and the following shutdown period has been high thanks to the continuous automatic validation of the distributed analysis sites and the user support provided by a dedicated team of expert shifters. During the LHC shutdown, the ATLAS computing model has undergone several changes to improve the analysis workflows, including the re-design of the production system, a new analysis data format and event model, and the development of common reduction and analysis frameworks. We report on the impact such changes have on the DA infrastructure, describe the new DA components, and include recent performance measurements.

  1. Production status of the JLAB Hall-A GEM and Si μstrip Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, E.; Bellini, V.; Capogni, M.; Colilli, S.; Cisbani, E.; Diefenbach, J.; De Leo, R.; De Persio, F.; Frullani, S.; Giuliani, F.; Lucentini, M.; Meddi, F.; Minutoli, Saverio; Musico, Paolo; Noto, F.; De Oliveira, R.; Perrino, R.; Santavenere, F.; Urciuoli, G.

    2013-08-01

    We developed and tested a new charged particle tracking system, able to operate in high luminosity experiments, which will be installed at Jefferson Laboratory HallA (VA, USA) for optimally exploit the new 12 GeV energy electron beam available at the end of 2013. The tracker is made of six GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) large chambers and two 10×20 cm2 planes of SIlicon microstrip Detectors (SIDs). Each GEM chamber is composed by three 40×50 cm2 GEM modules, with two-dimensional strip readout, with expected spatial resolution of about 70 μm. The same dedicated acquisition system will be used for both detectors (GEM & SID) for a grand total of more than 50,000 channels. The readout electronics is divided into two parts: the front-end cards (based on the existing APV25 chip), hosted on the detectors periphery and the digitizer, a multi purpose VME-64x/VXS board located far from the high radiation environment. The very same electronics has been adopted by the Olympus experiment (DESY, Hamburg, D) to read out the six GEM chambers of its luminosity monitor. The developed detectors and electronics are now ready for the production, which will last for the next 2 years.

  2. Heavy Flavor Physics in Heavy-Ion Collisions with STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifei

    2010-02-01

    Heavy quarks are a unique tool to probe the strongly interacting matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. Due to their large mass, energetic heavy quarks are predicted to lose less energy than light quarks by gluon radiation when they traverse a Quark-Gluon Plasma. In contrast, recent measurements of non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays at high transverse momentum (pT) show a jet quenching level similar to that of the light hadrons. Heavy quark are produced mainly at early stage in heavy-ion collisions, thus they are proposed to probe the QCD medium and to be sensitive to bulk medium properties. Ultimately, their flow behavior may help establish whether light quarks thermalize. Therefore, topological reconstruction of D-mesons and identification of electrons from charm and bottom decays are crucial to understand the heavy flavor production and their in medium properties. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a micro-vertex detector utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precise measurement of charmed and bottom hadrons. We present a performance study with full detector on the open charm nuclear modification factor, elliptic flow v2 and λc measurement as well as the measurement of bottom mesons via a semi-leptonic decay. )

  3. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  4. Geometric Summary of the 9 Chip Ladder for the D0 Silicon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Ratzmann, P.; Cooper, W.; Goloskie, D.; Kowalski, J.; Lipton, R.; Rapidis, P.; Serritella, C.; /Fermilab

    1997-11-18

    Two hybrids types are required to accomodate the flipping of ladders within each bulkhead layer, in order to account for the pigtail routing. Left and right versions are shown below, following the definitions laid out by Mike Matulik. These drawings are not to proper scale in the sketches below. The dimensionally correct versions of the 9 chip hybrids are stored in DCS under drawing number 3823.112-MD-317803 for the lefthanded version, and 3823.112-MD-317804 for the right handed version. Handedness of the hybrids are designated as shown in the figures and table below. There are long and short versions of both the left and the right, for four total 9 chip hdi designs. The pigtail lengths of the long and short are shown in a table in the hybrid drawings which reside in DCS. The chamfer in the hybrid corners (N side) is placed in order to enable the hybrid to be glued to the beryllium substrate, whereas the rectangular cuttout on the same side is to allow direct gluing of a temperature sensor to the substrate metal. The oblong shape on the N side of both hybrids is a 'stay-clear' region (defined in the final drawings) where pressure will be applied to the hybrid during the second stage of ladder construction.

  5. Mesure des champs de radiation dans le detecteur ATLAS et sa caverne avec les detecteurs au silicium a pixels ATLAS-MPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchami, Jihene

    The LHC proton-proton collisions create a hard radiation environment in the ATLAS detector. In order to quantify the effects of this environment on the detector performance and human safety, several Monte Carlo simulations have been performed. However, direct measurement is indispensable to monitor radiation levels in ATLAS and also to verify the simulation predictions. For this purpose, sixteen ATLAS-MPX devices have been installed at various positions in the ATLAS experimental and technical areas. They are composed of a pixelated silicon detector called MPX whose active surface is partially covered with converter layers for the detection of thermal, slow and fast neutrons. The ATLAS-MPX devices perform real-time measurement of radiation fields by recording the detected particle tracks as raster images. The analysis of the acquired images allows the identification of the detected particle types by the shapes of their tracks. For this aim, a pattern recognition software called MAFalda has been conceived. Since the tracks of strongly ionizing particles are influenced by charge sharing between adjacent pixels, a semi-empirical model describing this effect has been developed. Using this model, the energy of strongly ionizing particles can be estimated from the size of their tracks. The converter layers covering each ATLAS-MPX device form six different regions. The efficiency of each region to detect thermal, slow and fast neutrons has been determined by calibration measurements with known sources. The study of the ATLAS-MPX devices response to the radiation produced by proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV has demonstrated that the number of recorded tracks is proportional to the LHC luminosity. This result allows the ATLAS-MPX devices to be employed as luminosity monitors. To perform an absolute luminosity measurement and calibration with these devices, the van der Meer method based on the LHC beam parameters has been proposed. Since the ATLAS

  6. Modeling Indirect Tunneling in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Edward

    Indirect tunneling in silicon p-n junctions catches people's attention again in recent years. First, the phenomenon induces a serious leakage problem, so called gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) effect, in modern metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Second, it is utilized to develop a novel tunneling transistor with the sharp turn-on ability for continuing ITRS roadmap. Although the indirect tunneling is important for the state-of-the-art transistor-technology, the accuracy of the present tunneling models in technology computer-aided design (TCAD) tools is still vague. In the research work, the theory of indirect tunneling in silicon has been thoroughly studied. The phonon-assisted tunneling model has been developed and compared with the existing ones in the Sentaurus-Synopsys, Medici-Synopsys, and Atlas-Silvaco TCAD tools. Beyond these existing models, ours successfully predicts the indirect tunneling current under the different field direction in silicon. In addition, bandgap narrowing in heavily-doped p-n junctions under the reverse-biased condition is also studied during the model development. At the end of the research work, the application to low standby power (LSTP) transistors is demonstrated to show the capability of our tunneling model in the device level.

  7. Atlas Regeneration, Inc.

    PubMed

    Makarev, Eugene; Isayev, Olexandr; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Atlas Regeneration is dedicated to the development of novel data-driven solutions for regenerative medicine, adapting proven technologies, and analysis strategies to take a multiomics-wide view of stem cell quality and cell fate design. Our core offering is a global comprehensive map of stem cell differentiation, Universal Signalome Atlas for Regenerative Medicine, reflecting the pathway activation states across all characterized stem cells and their differentiated products. Key applications of Universal Signalome Atlas for Regenerative Medicine will include quality assurance for engineered cell products, and directed regeneration pharmacology, where we will screen and identify compounds that can efficiently convert pluripotent cells into desired subtypes. Another marketable piece of IP is development of specialized signaling pathway analysis systems Regeneration Intelligence which supposed to target the unmet needs of determination and prediction of stem cell signaling pathway activation to govern cell differentiation in specific directions. PMID:26925598

  8. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; /UC, Irvine /AGH-UST, Cracow /Birmingham U. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Rutherford /Montreal U. /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Birmingham U. /Copenhagen U. /Copenhagen U. /Brookhaven /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Montreal U. /SLAC /CERN /Michigan State U. /Chile U., Catolica /City Coll., N.Y. /Oxford U. /La Plata U. /McGill U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /CERN /Rutherford /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Birmingham U. /Montreal U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Liverpool U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Geneva U. /Birmingham U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /AGH-UST, Cracow /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Michigan State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /CERN /Montreal U. /Stockholm U. /Arizona U. /Regina U. /Regina U. /Rutherford /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /City Coll., N.Y. /University Coll. London /Humboldt U., Berlin /Queen Mary, U. of London /Argonne /LPSC, Grenoble /Arizona U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Antonio Narino U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Chile U., Catolica /Indiana U. /Manchester U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Rutherford /City Coll., N.Y. /Stockholm U. /La Plata U. /Antonio Narino U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Antonio Narino U. /Pavia U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Pennsylvania U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Chile U., Catolica /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Rutherford /Barcelona, IFAE /Nevis Labs, Columbia U. /CERN /Antonio Narino U. /McGill U. /Rutherford /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /Rutherford /Chile U., Catolica /Brookhaven /Oregon U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /McGill U. /Antonio Narino U. /Antonio Narino U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Sydney U. /Rutherford /McGill U. /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Moscow State U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Birmingham U. /Geneva U. /Oregon U. /Barcelona, IFAE /University Coll. London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Birmingham U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Oregon U. /La Plata U. /Geneva U. /Chile U., Catolica /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Regina U. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Oxford U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /UC, Irvine /UC, Irvine /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rutherford /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /CERN /Geneva U. /Copenhagen U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Stockholm U. /University Coll. London

    2011-12-08

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  9. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies. PMID:9148878

  10. The Herschel ATLAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eales, S.; Dunne, L.; Clements, D.; Cooray, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Lagache, G.; Maddox, S.; Negrello, M.; Serjeant, S.; Thompson, M. A.; Van Kampen, E.; Amblard, A.; Andreani, P.; Baes, M.; Beelen, A.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Benford, D.; Bock, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel ATLAS is the largest open-time key project that will be carried out on the Herschel Space Observatory. It will survey 570 sq deg of the extragalactic sky, 4 times larger than all the other Herschel extragalactic surveys combined, in five far-infrared and submillimeter bands. We describe the survey, the complementary multiwavelength data sets that will be combined with the Herschel data, and the six major science programs we are undertaking. Using new models based on a previous submillimeter survey of galaxies, we present predictions of the properties of the ATLAS sources in other wave bands.

  11. A new inner layer silicon micro-strip detector for D0

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael S.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The D{O} experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is building a new inner layer detector (Layer-0) to be installed inside the existing D{O} Silicon Micro-strip Tracker (SMT). The Layer-0 detector is based on R&D performed for the RunIIb silicon upgrade, which was canceled in the fall of 2003. Layer-0 will be installed between the bean pipe and the the 2.2cm radius opening available in the SMT support structure. The radius of the first sampling will be reduced from 2.7cm to 1.6cm. Layer-0 will be radiation harder than the current SMT, thus ensuring that the silicon tracker remains viable through Tevatron RunII.

  12. Inverse sparse tracker with a locally weighted distance metric.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Huchuan; Xiao, Ziyang; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-09-01

    Sparse representation has been recently extensively studied for visual tracking and generally facilitates more accurate tracking results than classic methods. In this paper, we propose a sparsity-based tracking algorithm that is featured with two components: 1) an inverse sparse representation formulation and 2) a locally weighted distance metric. In the inverse sparse representation formulation, the target template is reconstructed with particles, which enables the tracker to compute the weights of all particles by solving only one l1 optimization problem and thereby provides a quite efficient model. This is in direct contrast to most previous sparse trackers that entail solving one optimization problem for each particle. However, we notice that this formulation with normal Euclidean distance metric is sensitive to partial noise like occlusion and illumination changes. To this end, we design a locally weighted distance metric to replace the Euclidean one. Similar ideas of using local features appear in other works, but only being supported by popular assumptions like local models could handle partial noise better than holistic models, without any solid theoretical analysis. In this paper, we attempt to explicitly explain it from a mathematical view. On that basis, we further propose a method to assign local weights by exploiting the temporal and spatial continuity. In the proposed method, appearance changes caused by partial occlusion and shape deformation are carefully considered, thereby facilitating accurate similarity measurement and model update. The experimental validation is conducted from two aspects: 1) self validation on key components and 2) comparison with other state-of-the-art algorithms. Results over 15 challenging sequences show that the proposed tracking algorithm performs favorably against the existing sparsity-based trackers and the other state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25935033

  13. Monitoring with Trackers Based on Semi-Quantitative Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In three years of NASA-sponsored research preceding this project, we successfully developed a technology for: (1) building qualitative and semi-quantitative models from libraries of model-fragments, (2) simulating these models to predict future behaviors with the guarantee that all possible behaviors are covered, (3) assimilating observations into behaviors, shrinking uncertainty so that incorrect models are eventually refuted and correct models make stronger predictions for the future. In our object-oriented framework, a tracker is an object which embodies the hypothesis that the available observation stream is consistent with a particular behavior of a particular model. The tracker maintains its own status (consistent, superceded, or refuted), and answers questions about its explanation for past observations and its predictions for the future. In the MIMIC approach to monitoring of continuous systems, a number of trackers are active in parallel, representing alternate hypotheses about the behavior of a system. This approach is motivated by the need to avoid 'system accidents' [Perrow, 1985] due to operator fixation on a single hypothesis, as for example at Three Mile Island. As we began to address these issues, we focused on three major research directions that we planned to pursue over a three-year project: (1) tractable qualitative simulation, (2) semiquantitative inference, and (3) tracking set management. Unfortunately, funding limitations made it impossible to continue past year one. Nonetheless, we made major progress in the first two of these areas. Progress in the third area as slower because the graduate student working on that aspect of the project decided to leave school and take a job in industry. I enclosed a set of abstract of selected papers on the work describe below. Several papers that draw on the research supported during this period appeared in print after the grant period ended.

  14. The GLAST Silicon-Strip Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R

    2004-09-30

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 {micro}W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4 x 4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m{sup 2} and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm{sup 2}.

  15. Physics sensitivity studies of Fine-Grained Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Hongyue, Duyang

    2015-10-15

    The reference design of the near detector for the LBNE experiment is a high-resolution Fine-Grained Tracker (FGT). We performed sensitivity studies – critical to constraining the systematics in oscillation searches – of measurements of (1) the absolute neutrino flux, (2) neutrino-nucleon quasi-elastic (QE) and (3) resonance (Res) interactions. In QE and Res emphasis is laid in identifying in situ measurables that help constrain nuclear effects such as initial state pair wise correlations and final state interactions.

  16. Acquisition and track algorithms for the Astros star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalom, E.; Alexander, J. W.; Stanton, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Astros star tracker has been designed for an employment with the Space Shuttle. An achievement of the performance levels needed has required critical trade-offs between the hardware design and the control algorithms. This paper provides a description of the development of the acquisition and track algorithms. Attention is given to an Astros system overview, a system firmware description, cluster evaluation, guide star selection, exposure time determination, video data input, update interval timing, exposure time sequencing full frame video A/D conversion, analog threshold for acquisition, minimum threshold determination, and the theoretical basis for the track algorithm.

  17. Evaluating a robust contour tracker on echocardiographic sequences.

    PubMed

    Jacob, G; Noble, J A; Mulet-Parada, M; Blake, A

    1999-03-01

    In this paper we present an evaluation of a robust visual image tracker on echocardiographic image sequences. We show how the tracking framework can be customized to define an appropriate shape space that describes heart shape deformations that can be learnt from a training data set. We also investigate energy-based temporal boundary enhancement methods to improve image feature measurement. Results are presented demonstrating real-time tracking on real normal heart motion data sequences and abnormal synthesized and real heart motion data sequences. We conclude by discussing some of our current research efforts. PMID:10709697

  18. Calibration of the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) detector in star experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanazi, Norah

    This project is in the area of Relativistic Nuclear collisions and the commissioning of a new silicon vertex detector, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) in the STAR experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). BNL hosts RHIC, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, the world's most advanced dedicated heavy ion and polarized proton accelerator facility. Heavy Ion collisions at RHIC provide a unique probe into the understanding of several aspects of the behavior of nuclear, i.e. strongly inter- acting, matter. Among the many insights that can be provided is the description of parton interaction inside the hot and dense medium produced in the early stages of a collision. It also allows us to search for evidence for a phase transition in nuclear matter, a phase where partons [quarks and gluons] can move freely over an extended volume. Production of heavy quarks in high-energy nuclear collisions at RHIC occurs mainly during the initial collisions where energetic gluon and quark interactions can create heavy quarks. Thus, heavy flavor provides an ideal probe in studying the hot and dense medium created in the early phases of high-energy nuclear collisions. A detailed study of heavy flavor is essential to better understand the parton dynamics and select among competing theoretical approaches, however, precise measurements of heavy flavor are difficult to obtain due to relatively low production rates and short lifetimes of heavy flavor hadrons. The combinatorial background in nuclear collisions makes the measurement of heavy flavor a challenging task. One approach to dramatically reduce the combinatorial background by several orders of magnitude is to separate the heavy-flavor hadron's decay vertex from the background. This is done with the help of high resolution vertex detectors. The Heavy Flavor Tracker upgrade for the STAR experiment, which made its debut during the year 2014 RHIC run (Run14), greatly improved the experiment's track pointing capabilities making STAR

  19. TRTViewer: The ATLAS TRT detector monitoring and diagnosticstool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, S. Yu.; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    The transition radiation tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS inner detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is designed to combine the drift tube tracker with the transition radiation detector, providing an important contribution to the charged particles precise momentum measurement and particle (mainly electron) identification. The TRT consists of a barrel section at small pseudorapidity (η) and two separate end-cap partitions at large η. The detector performance and its operational conditions were permanently monitored during all commissioning and data-taking stages using various software tools, one of which - TRTViewer - is described in the present paper. The TRTViewer is the dedicated program for monitoring the TRT raw data quality and detector performance at different hardware levels: individual straws, readout chips and electronic boards. The data analysis results can be presented on the event-by-event basis or in the form of color maps representing the operation parameters (efficiencies, timing, occupancy, etc.) according to the real geometrical position of the detector hardware elements. The paper describes the TRTViewer software package as the event displaying tool, raw data processor and histogram and operation parameters presenter, which works with the different sources of input information: raw data files, online monitoring histograms, offline analysis histograms and TRT DAQ Configuration database. The package proved to be one of the main instruments for the fast and effective TRT diagnostics during debugging and operation periods.

  20. Post flight analysis of NASA standard star trackers recovered from the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P.

    1985-01-01

    The flight hardware returned after the Solar Maximum Mission Repair Mission was analyzed to determine the effects of 4 years in space. The NASA Standard Star Tracker would be a good candidate for such analysis because it is moderately complex and had a very elaborate calibration during the acceptance procedure. However, the recovery process extensively damaged the cathode of the image dissector detector making proper operation of the tracker and a comparison with preflight characteristics impossible. Otherwise, the tracker functioned nominally during testing.

  1. The ATLAS Detector: Status and Performance in Run-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, Steven

    2016-07-01

    During the first extended shutdown of the LHC, in 2013 and 2014, the ATLAS detector has undergone several improvements. A new silicon pixel detector layer has been added inside of the existing layers, enhancing vertex identification, while the coverage of the muon detector has been significantly expanded. Many other detector systems have been upgraded to handle the higher expected pileup conditions in the coming years and to generally improve their performance. This document describes these upgrades and the resulting impact on the reconstruction and performance of standard physics objects. Preliminary results using the first ˜ 80pb‑1 of 2015 data at s = 13 Tev are presented, demonstrating the capability of ATLAS to perform both searches and measurements.

  2. The design and construction of a double-sided Silicon Microvertex Detector for the L3 experiment at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, A.; Ahlen, S.; Marin, A.; Zhou, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Babucci, E.; Bertucci, B.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Caria, M.; Checcucci, B.; Easo, S.; Fiandrini, E.; Krastev, V.R.; Massetti, R.; Pauluzzi, M.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L. |; Bencze, G.Y.L.; Kornis, J.; Toth, J.; Brooks, M.L.; Coan, T.E.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lee, D.M.; Mills, G.B.; Thompson, T.C.; Busenitz, J.; DiBitonto, D.; Camps, C.; Commichau, V.; Hangartner, K.; Schmitz, P.; Castellini, G.; Hauviller, C.; Herve, A.; Josa, I.; Landi, G.; Lecomte, P.; Viertel, G.M.; Waldmeier, S.; Leiste, R. |; Lejeune, E.; Weill, R.; Lohmann, W.; Nowak, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Schoeniech, B.; Tonisch, F.; Trowitzsch, G.; Vogt, H.; Passaleva, G.

    1993-12-01

    A Silicon Microvertex Detector (SMD) has been commissioned for the L3 experiment at the Large Electron-Positron colliding-beam accelerator (LEP) at the European Center for Nuclear Physics, (CERN). The SMD is a 72,672 channel, two layer barrel tracker that is comprised of 96 ac-coupled, double-sided silicon detectors. Details of the design and construction are presented.

  3. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Big Sky Carbon Atlas is an online geoportal designed for you to discover, interpret, and access geospatial data and maps relevant to decision support and education on carbon sequestration in the Big Sky Region. In serving as the public face of the Partnership's spatial Data Libraries, the Atlas provides a gateway to geographic information characterizing CO2 sources, potential geologic sinks, terrestrial carbon fluxes, civil and energy infrastructure, energy use, and related themes. In addition to directly serving the BSCSP and its stakeholders, the Atlas feeds regional data to the NatCarb Portal, contributing to a national perspective on carbon sequestration. Established components of the Atlas include a gallery of thematic maps and an interactive map that allows you to: • Navigate and explore regional characterization data through a user-friendly interface • Print your map views or publish them as PDFs • Identify technical references relevant to specific areas of interest • Calculate straight-line or pipeline-constrained distances from point sources of CO2 to potential geologic sink features • Download regional data layers (feature under development) (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  4. An Icelandic wind atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Gudrun; Bjornsson, Halldór; Arason, Þórður; Jónasson, Kristján

    2013-04-01

    While Iceland has ample wind, its use for energy production has been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated from renewable hydro- and geothermal source and adding wind energy has not be considered practical or even necessary. However, adding wind into the energy mix is becoming a more viable options as opportunities for new hydro or geothermal power installation become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland a wind atlas has been developed as a part of the Nordic project "Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing" (IceWind). The atlas is based on mesoscale model runs produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and high-resolution regional analyses obtained through the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The wind atlas shows that the wind energy potential is considerable. The regions with the strongest average wind are nevertheless impractical for wind farms, due to distance from road infrastructure and power grid as well as harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. There is a strong seasonal cycle, with wintertime power densities throughout the island being at least a factor of two higher than during summer. Calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plants making wind energy a viable additional option.

  5. Atlas of NATO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas provides basic information about the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Formed in response to growing concern for the security of Western Europe after World War II, NATO is a vehicle for Western efforts to reduce East-West tensions and the level of armaments. NATO promotes political and economic collaboration as well as military…

  6. Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) system design and analysis: Single-axis gimbal star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility is evaluated of an evolutionary development for use of a single-axis gimbal star tracker from prior two-axis gimbal star tracker based system applications. Detailed evaluation of the star tracker gimbal encoder is considered. A brief system description is given including the aspects of tracker evolution and encoder evaluation. System analysis includes evaluation of star availability and mounting constraints for the geosynchronous orbit application, and a covariance simulation analysis to evaluate performance potential. Star availability and covariance analysis digital computer programs are included.

  7. ATLAS pixel IBL modules construction experience and developments for future upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiello, A.

    2015-10-01

    The first upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector is the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), installed in May 2014 in the core of ATLAS. Two different silicon sensor technologies, planar n-in-n and 3D, are used. Sensors are connected with the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 read-out chip via solder bump-bonds. Production quality control tests were set up to verify and rate the performance of the modules before integration into staves. An overview of module design and construction, the quality control results and production yield will be discussed, as well as future developments foreseen for future detector upgrades.

  8. Low-background tracker development for SuperNEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, James; Collaboration: SuperNEMO Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The SuperNEMO experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) with a target sensitivity of T{sub 1/2}(0ν) > 10{sup 26} years, corresponding to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. At its heart there is a low-background gaseous tracking detector which allows for extremely efficient background rejection and, if 0νββ is observed, may provide important insights into the mechanism via which it may be mediated. Radon inside the tracker, which can mimic rare ββ events, is one of the most dangerous backgrounds for SuperNEMO. To reach the target sensitivity the radon concentration inside the tracking volume must be < 0.15 mBq/m{sup 3}. To reach this challengingly-low level of radon, a considerable program of R and D has been undertaken. This includes automation of the tracker-wiring process, development of a dedicated setup to measure radon diffusion and a 'radon concentration line' which will be able to measure levels of radon in the μBq/m{sup 3} range.

  9. Solar kinetics` photovoltaic concentrator module and tracker development

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Howell, B.

    1995-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc., has been developing a point-focus concentrating photovoltaic module and tracker system under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The primary focus of the contract was to achieve a module design that was manufacturable and passed Sandia`s environmental testing. Nine modules of two variations were assembled, tested, and characterized in Phase 1, and results of these tests were promising, with module efficiency approaching the theoretical limit achievable with the components used. The module efficiency was 11.9% at a solar irradiance of 850 W/sq m and an extrapolated cell temperature of 25 C. Improvements in module performance are anticipated as cell efficiencies meet their expectations. A 2-kW tracker and controller accommodating 20 modules was designed, built, installed, and operated at Solar Kinetics` test site. The drive used many commercially available components in an innovative arrangement to reduce cost and increase reliability. Backlash and bearing play were controlled by use of preloaded, low slip-stick, synthetic slide bearings. The controller design used a standard industrial programmable logic controller to perform ephemeris calculations, operate the actuators, and monitor encoders.

  10. An adaptive tracker for ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.

    2015-05-01

    A key component in any image-based tracking system is the adaptive tracking algorithm used to segment the image into potential targets, rank-and-select the best candidate target, and the gating of the selected target to further improve tracker performance. This paper will describe a new adaptive tracker algorithm added to the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR). The new adaptive tracking algorithm is an optional feature used with any of the existing internal NTCS or user-defined seeker algorithms (e.g., binary centroid, intensity centroid, and threshold intensity centroid). The algorithm segments the detected pixels into clusters, and the smallest set of clusters that meet the detection criterion is obtained by using a knapsack algorithm to identify the set of clusters that should not be used. The rectangular area containing the chosen clusters defines an inner boundary, from which a weighted centroid is calculated as the aim-point. A track-gate is then positioned around the clusters, taking into account the rate of change of the bounding area and compensating for any gimbal displacement. A sequence of scenarios is used to test the new tracking algorithm on a generic unclassified DDG ShipIR model, with and without flares, and demonstrate how some of the key seeker signals are impacted by both the ship and flare intrinsic signatures.

  11. Tracker Performance Improvement Using Multiple-Sensor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Asher, Kelly; Schneeberger, Timothy J.

    1989-09-01

    The increase in target signature information inherent in multi-spectral techniques can be used to increase tracker knowledge of current and predicted target states. In addition to the target location, the velocity, acceleration states, and target aspect angle, for example, can be measured. Aspect angle can be used to limit the possible future states of the target (aircraft, for example, have maximum maneuverability along an axis perpendicular to the wing plane.) Aspect angle, coupled with information concerning maximum target acceleration capabilities, can be used to provide an 'envelope' of possible future target locations. This envelope and position prediction are updated with each observation of the target status. A target pattern recognition algorithm has been used to classify target images, estimating both object identification and aspect angle. A modified form of the moments invariant technique, combined with a maximum likelihood classifier, has been developed and tested against imagery acquired with a laboratory image acquisition and analysis system. Simulations of combined motion and aspect angle sensing trackers indicated enhanced performance over systems with kinematic information only. A database of target imagery has been created, and algorithm accuracy as a function of signal-to-noise ratio has been determined. The effects of several pre-processing steps on the electro-optical sensor aspect angle measurement have also been studied. Critical invariance properties have been examined in a limited number of tests.

  12. Development of femtosecond optical frequency comb laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ju-qing; Zhou, Wei-hu; Dong, Deng-feng; Zhang, Zi-li; Lao, Da-bao; Ji, Rong-yi; Wang, Da-yong

    2016-01-01

    A new type femtosecond laser tracker is one high precision measurement instrument with urgent need in science research region and industrial manufacture field. This paper focuses on the operational principle and the structure development of the femtosecond laser tracer, and the method of error compensation as well. The system modules were studied and constructed. The femtosecond frequency comb module was firstly analyzed and developed. The femtosecond laser frequency comb performed perfectly high precise distance measurement for laser tracker. The experimental result showed that the stability of repetition rate reached 3.0×10-12@1s and the stability of carrier envelop offset reached 1.0×10-10@1s. The initial experiment showed that measurement error was less than 1ppm. Later the error compensation module was introduced, and the optoelectronic aiming and tracking control module was built. The actual test result showed that the stability of miss distance was better than 2.0 μm, the tracking speed could reach 2m/s.

  13. Thermal performance of microinverters on dual-axis trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammad A.; Peshek, Timothy J.; Xu, Yifan; Ji, Liang; Sun, Jiayang; Abramson, Alexis; French, Roger H.

    2014-10-01

    Time-series insolation, environmental, thermal and power data were analyzed in a statistical analytical approach to identify the thermal performance of microinverters on dual-axis trackers under real-world operating conditions. This study analyzed 24 microinverters connected to 8 different brands of photovoltaic (PV) modules from July through October 2013 at the Solar Durability and Lifetime Extension (SDLE) SunFarm at Case Western Reserve University. Exploratory data analysis shows that the microinverter's temperature is strongly correlated with ambient temperature and PV module temperature, and moderately correlated with irradiance and AC power. Noontime data analysis reveals the variations of thermal behavior across different brands of PV module. Hierarchical clustering using the Euclidean distance measure principle was applied to noontime microinverter temperature data to group the similarly behaved microinverters. A multiple regression predictive model has been developed based on ambient temperature, PV module temperature, irradiance and AC power data to predict the microinverters temperature connected with different brands PV modules on dual-axis trackers.

  14. Electromagnetic tracker accuracy in the CyberKnife suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Emmanuel; Slack, Rebecca; Banovac, Filip; Dieterich, Sonja; Zhang, Hui; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    Electromagnetic trackers have found inroads into medical applications as a tool for navigation in recent years. Their susceptibility to interference from both electromagnetic and ferromagnetic sources have prompted several accuracy assessment studies in past years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first accuracy study conducted to characterize measurement accuracy of an NDI AURORA electromagnetic tracker within a CyberKnife radiosurgery suite. CyberKnife is a frameless, stereotactic radiosurgery device used to ablate tumors within the brain, spine and in recent years, the chest and abdomen. This paper uses a data collection protocol to collect uniformly distributed data points within a subset of the AURORA measurement volume in a CyberKnife suite. The key aim of the study is to determine the extent to which large metal components of the CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery device and robot mount contribute to overall system performance for the AURORA electromagnetic device. A secondary goal of the work is to determine the variation in accuracy and device behavior with the presence of ionizing radiation when the LINAC is turned on.

  15. Compact near-to-eye display with integrated gaze tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvenpää, Toni; Aaltonen, Viljakaisa

    2008-04-01

    Near-to-Eye Display (NED) offers a big screen experience to the user anywhere, anytime. It provides a way to perceive a larger image than the physical device itself is. Commercially available NEDs tend to be quite bulky and uncomfortable to wear. However, by using very thin plastic light guides with diffractive structures on the surfaces, many of the known deficiencies can be notably reduced. These Exit Pupil Expander (EPE) light guides enable a thin, light, user friendly and high performing see-through NED, which we have demonstrated. To be able to interact with the displayed UI efficiently, we have also integrated a video-based gaze tracker into the NED. The narrow light beam of an infrared light source is divided and expanded inside the same EPEs to produce wide collimated beams out from the EPE towards the eyes. Miniature video camera images the cornea and eye gaze direction is accurately calculated by locating the pupil and the glints of the infrared beams. After a simple and robust per-user calibration, the data from the highly integrated gaze tracker reflects the user focus point in the displayed image which can be used as an input device for the NED system. Realizable applications go from eye typing to playing games, and far beyond.

  16. Dynamic imaging model and parameter optimization for a star tracker.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyun; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-03-21

    Under dynamic conditions, star spots move across the image plane of a star tracker and form a smeared star image. This smearing effect increases errors in star position estimation and degrades attitude accuracy. First, an analytical energy distribution model of a smeared star spot is established based on a line segment spread function because the dynamic imaging process of a star tracker is equivalent to the static imaging process of linear light sources. The proposed model, which has a clear physical meaning, explicitly reflects the key parameters of the imaging process, including incident flux, exposure time, velocity of a star spot in an image plane, and Gaussian radius. Furthermore, an analytical expression of the centroiding error of the smeared star spot is derived using the proposed model. An accurate and comprehensive evaluation of centroiding accuracy is obtained based on the expression. Moreover, analytical solutions of the optimal parameters are derived to achieve the best performance in centroid estimation. Finally, we perform numerical simulations and a night sky experiment to validate the correctness of the dynamic imaging model, the centroiding error expression, and the optimal parameters. PMID:27136791

  17. Radar interference blanking in radio astronomy using a Kalman tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Jeffs, B. D.; Fisher, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    Radio astronomical observations of highly Doppler shifted spectral lines of neutral hydrogen and the hydroxyl molecule must often be made at frequencies allocated to pulsed air surveillance radar in the 1215-1350 MHz frequency range. The Green Bank telescope (GBT) and many other observatories must deal with these terrestrial signals. Even when strong radar fixed clutter echoes are removed, there are still weaker aircraft echoes present which can corrupt the data. We present an algorithm which improves aircraft echo blanking using a Kalman filter tracker to follow the path of a sequence of echoes observed on successive radar antenna sweeps. Aircraft tracks can be used to predict regions (in bearing and range) for the next expected echoes, even before they are detected. These data can then be blanked in real time without waiting for the pulse peak to arrive. Additionally, we briefly suggest an approach for a new Bayesian algorithm which combines tracker and pulse detector operations to enable more sensitive weak pulse detection. Examples are presented for Kalman tracking and radar transmission blanking using real observations at the GBT.

  18. Research and development of the laser tracker measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Zhou, W. H.; Lao, D. B.; Yuan, J.; Dong, D. F. F.; Ji, R. Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The working principle and system design of the laser tracker measurement system are introduced, as well as the key technologies and solutions in the implementation of the system. The design and implementation of the hardware and configuration of the software are mainly researched. The components of the hardware include distance measuring unit, angle measuring unit, tracking and servo control unit and electronic control unit. The distance measuring devices include the relative distance measuring device (IFM) and the absolute distance measuring device (ADM). The main component of the angle measuring device, the precision rotating stage, is mainly comprised of the precision axis and the encoders which are both set in the tracking head. The data processing unit, tracking and control unit and power supply unit are all set in the control box. The software module is comprised of the communication module, calibration and error compensation module, data analysis module, database management module, 3D display module and the man-machine interface module. The prototype of the laser tracker system has been accomplished and experiments have been carried out to verify the proposed strategies of the hardware and software modules. The experiments showed that the IFM distance measuring error is within 0.15mm, the ADM distance measuring error is within 3.5mm and the angle measuring error is within 3〞which demonstrates that the preliminary prototype can realize fundamental measurement tasks.

  19. Solar kinetics` photovoltaic concentrator module and tracker development

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Howell, B.

    1995-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc., has been developing a point-focus concentrating photovoltaic module and tracker system under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The primary focus of the contract was to achieve a module design that was manufacturable and passed Sandia`s environmental testing. Nine modules of two variations were assembled, tested, and characterized in Phase 1, and results of these tests were promising, with module efficiency approaching the theoretical limit achievable with the components used. The module efficiency was 11.9% at a solar irradiance of 850 W/m{sup 2} and an extrapolated cell temperature of 25{degrees}C. Improvements in module performance are anticipated as cell efficiencies meet their expectations. A 2-kW tracker and controller accommodating 20 modules was designed, built, installed, and operated at Solar Kinetics` test site. The drive used many commercially available components in an innovative arrangement to reduce cost and increase reliability. Backlash and bearing play were controlled by use of preloaded, low slip-stick, synthetic slide bearings. The controller design used a standard industrial programmable logic controller to perform ephemeris calculations, operate the actuators, and monitor encoders.

  20. Silicon microdosimetry.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, Stefano; Pola, Andrea

    2011-02-01

    Silicon detectors are being studied as microdosemeters since they can provide sensitive volumes of micrometric dimensions. They can be applied for assessing single-event effects in electronic instrumentation exposed to complex fields around high-energy accelerators or in space missions. When coupled to tissue-equivalent converters, they can be used for measuring the quality of radiation therapy beams or for dosimetry. The use of micrometric volumes avoids the contribution of wall effects to the measured spectra. Further advantages of such detectors are their compactness, cheapness, transportability and a low sensitivity to vibrations. The following problems need to be solved when silicon devices are used for microdosimetry: (i) the sensitive volume has to be confined in a region of well-known dimensions; (ii) the electric noise limits the minimum detectable energy; (iii) corrections for tissue-equivalency should be made; (iv) corrections for shape equivalency should be made when referring to a spherical simulated site of tissue; (v) the angular response should be evaluated carefully; (vi) the efficiency of a single detector of micrometric dimensions is very poor and detector arrays should be considered. Several devices have been proposed as silicon microdosemeters, based on different technologies (telescope detectors, silicon on insulator detectors and arrays of cylindrical p-n junctions with internal amplification), in order to satisfy the issues mentioned above. PMID:21112892

  1. Silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon nitride deposition was studied as a method of passivation for silicon solar cell surfaces. The following three objectives were the thrust of the research: (1) the use of pecvd silicon nitride for passivation of silicon surfaces; (2) measurement techniques for surface recombination velocity; and (3) the importance of surface passivation to high efficiency solar cells.

  2. Performance Testing using Silicon Devices - Analysis of Accuracy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-06-01

    Accurately determining PV module performance in the field requires accurate measurements of solar irradiance reaching the PV panel (i.e., Plane-of-Array - POA Irradiance) with known measurement uncertainty. Pyranometers are commonly based on thermopile or silicon photodiode detectors. Silicon detectors, including PV reference cells, are an attractive choice for reasons that include faster time response (10 us) than thermopile detectors (1 s to 5 s), lower cost and maintenance. The main drawback of silicon detectors is their limited spectral response. Therefore, to determine broadband POA solar irradiance, a pyranometer calibration factor that converts the narrowband response to broadband is required. Normally this calibration factor is a single number determined under clear-sky conditions with respect to a broadband reference radiometer. The pyranometer is then used for various scenarios including varying airmass, panel orientation and atmospheric conditions. This would not be an issue if all irradiance wavelengths that form the broadband spectrum responded uniformly to atmospheric constituents. Unfortunately, the scattering and absorption signature varies widely with wavelength and the calibration factor for the silicon photodiode pyranometer is not appropriate for other conditions. This paper reviews the issues that will arise from the use of silicon detectors for PV performance measurement in the field based on measurements from a group of pyranometers mounted on a 1-axis solar tracker. Also we will present a comparison of simultaneous spectral and broadband measurements from silicon and thermopile detectors and estimated measurement errors when using silicon devices for both array performance and resource assessment.

  3. Improving atlas methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; O'Brien, J.

    1987-01-01

    We are studying a sample of Maryland (2 %) and New Hampshire (4 %) Atlas blocks and a small sample in Maine. These three States used different sampling methods and block sizes. We compare sampling techniques, roadside with off-road coverage, our coverage with that of the volunteers, and different methods of quantifying Atlas results. The 7 1/2' (12-km) blocks used in the Maine Atlas are satisfactory for coarse mapping, but are too large to enable changes to be detected in the future. Most states are subdividing the standard 7 1/2' maps into six 5-km blocks. The random 1/6 sample of 5-km blocks used in New Hampshire, Vermont (published 1985), and many other states has the advantage of permitting detection of some changes in the future, but the disadvantage of leaving important habitats unsampled. The Maryland system of atlasing all 1,200 5-km blocks and covering one out of each six by quarterblocks (2 1/2-km) is far superior if enough observers can be found. A good compromise, not yet attempted, would be to Atlas a 1/6 random sample of 5-km blocks and also one other carefully selected (non-random) block on the same 7 1/2' map--the block that would include the best sample of habitats or elevations not in the random block. In our sample the second block raised the percentage of birds found from 86% of the birds recorded in the 7 1/2' quadrangle to 93%. It was helpful to list the expected species in each block and to revise this list annually. We estimate that 90-100 species could be found with intensive effort in most Maryland blocks; perhaps 95-105 in New Hampshire. It was also helpful to know which species were under-sampled so we could make a special effort to search for these. A total of 75 species per block (or 75% of the expected species in blocks with very restricted habitat diversity) is considered a practical and adequate goal in these States. When fewer than 60 species are found per block, a high proportion of the rarer species are missed, as well as some of

  4. Brain templates and atlases.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alan C; Janke, Andrew L; Collins, D Louis; Baillet, Sylvain

    2012-08-15

    The core concept within the field of brain mapping is the use of a standardized, or "stereotaxic", 3D coordinate frame for data analysis and reporting of findings from neuroimaging experiments. This simple construct allows brain researchers to combine data from many subjects such that group-averaged signals, be they structural or functional, can be detected above the background noise that would swamp subtle signals from any single subject. Where the signal is robust enough to be detected in individuals, it allows for the exploration of inter-individual variance in the location of that signal. From a larger perspective, it provides a powerful medium for comparison and/or combination of brain mapping findings from different imaging modalities and laboratories around the world. Finally, it provides a framework for the creation of large-scale neuroimaging databases or "atlases" that capture the population mean and variance in anatomical or physiological metrics as a function of age or disease. However, while the above benefits are not in question at first order, there are a number of conceptual and practical challenges that introduce second-order incompatibilities among experimental data. Stereotaxic mapping requires two basic components: (i) the specification of the 3D stereotaxic coordinate space, and (ii) a mapping function that transforms a 3D brain image from "native" space, i.e. the coordinate frame of the scanner at data acquisition, to that stereotaxic space. The first component is usually expressed by the choice of a representative 3D MR image that serves as target "template" or atlas. The native image is re-sampled from native to stereotaxic space under the mapping function that may have few or many degrees of freedom, depending upon the experimental design. The optimal choice of atlas template and mapping function depend upon considerations of age, gender, hemispheric asymmetry, anatomical correspondence, spatial normalization methodology and disease

  5. 2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria

    2006-01-01

    A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems

  6. Forward physics at PHENIX with precision silicon tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, J. Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has developed and installed a new silicon detector, the Forward Silicon Vertex Tracker (FVTX), to provide precise tracking at forward and backward rapidity (1 . 2 < | y | < 2 . 2) . The FVTX consists of four layers of silicon mini-strip sensors with a 75 micron pitch in the radial direction, and is located in front of the existing PHENIX muon arms. By determining muon tracks with high precision before any interactions occur in the hadron absorber, the FVTX will enhance the mass resolution of dimuon resonance measurements as well as allow separation of decay muons from charm and bottom hadrons produced in heavy ion collisions. In this talk, the design and capabilities of the FVTX will be discussed, along with the analysis status of FVTX data.

  7. Adaptive Neural Star Tracker Calibration for Precision Spacecraft Pointing and Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    1996-01-01

    The Star Tracker is an essential sensor for precision pointing and tracking in most 3-axis stabilized spacecraft. In the interest (of) improving pointing performance by taking advantage of dramatic increases in flight computer power and memory anticipated over the next decade, this paper investigates the use of a neural net for adaptive in-flight calibration of the Star Tracker.

  8. Lightweight dual-axis tracker designs for dish-based HCPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger; Cuerden, Brian; Whiteside, Andy

    2014-09-01

    Dish-based HCPV holds the promise of solar electricity at lower cost than for flat panel PV, provided that the dual-axis tracker cost can be minimized. Here we outline first and second generation lightweight tracker designs that include supports for a rectangular array of square dish mirrors and receivers located at their foci.

  9. The ATLAS Inner Detector commissioning and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Dos Santos Pedrosa, F. Baltasar; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Harpaz, S. Behar; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ami, S. Ben; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernabéu, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. 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P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V.; Malyukov, S.; Mambelli, M.; Mameghani, R.; Mamuzic, J.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Mangeard, P. S.; Manjavidze, I. D.; Manning, P. M.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mapelli, A.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchand, J. F.; Marchese, F.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marino, C. P.; Marroquim, F.; Marshall, Z.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, B.; Martin, B.; Martin, F. F.; Martin, J. P.; Martin, T. A.; Dit Latour, B. Martin; Martinez, M.; Outschoorn, V. Martinez; Martyniuk, A. C.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Massa, I.; Massol, N.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Matricon, P.; Matsunaga, H.; Matsushita, T.; Mattravers, C.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mayne, A.; Mazini, R.; Mazur, M.; Mc Donald, J.; Mc Kee, S. P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCubbin, N. A.; McFarlane, K. W.; McGlone, H.; McHedlidze, G.; McMahon, S. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Meade, A.; Mechnich, J.; Mechtel, M.; Medinnis, M.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Meguro, T. M.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meirose, B.; Melachrinos, C.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Mendoza Navas, L.; Meng, Z.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Messina, A. M.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meyer, J.-P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, T. C.; Meyer, W. T.; Miao, J.; Michal, S.; Micu, L.; Middleton, R. P.; Migas, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuž, M.; Miller, D. W.; Mills, W. J.; Mills, C. M.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Milstein, D.; Minaenko, A. A.; Miñano, M.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mirabelli, G.; Misawa, S.; Misiejuk, A.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Moa, T.; Moed, S.; Moeller, V.; Mönig, K.; Möser, N.; Mohr, W.; Mohrdieck-Möck, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Molina-Perez, J.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montesano, S.; Monticelli, F.; Moore, R. W.; Herrera, C. Mora; Moraes, A.; Morais, A.; Morel, J.; Morello, G.; Moreno, D.; Llácer, M. Moreno; Morettini, P.; Morii, M.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, J. D.; Moser, H. G.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Mudrinic, M.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Müller, T. A.; Muenstermann, D.; Muir, A.; Munwes, Y.; Garcia, R. Murillo; Murray, W. J.; Mussche, I.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Nakatsuka, H.; Nanava, G.; Napier, A.; Nash, M.; Nation, N. R.; Nattermann, T.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nderitu, S. K.; Neal, H. A.; Nebot, E.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Negri, G.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, T. K.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neusiedl, A.; Neves, R. M.; Nevski, P.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicolas, L.; Nicoletti, G.; Nicquevert, B.; Niedercorn, F.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, H.; Nilsson, P.; Nisati, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Nisius, R.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nordberg, M.; Nordkvist, B.; Notz, D.; Novakova, J.; Nozaki, M.; Nožička, M.; Nugent, I. M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.-E.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Ochi, A.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Odier, J.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshita, H.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, S.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olchevski, A. G.; Oliveira, M.; Damazio, D. Oliveira; Garcia, E. Oliver; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Omachi, C.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlov, I.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R. S.; Ortega, E. O.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Osuna, C.; Ottersbach, J. P.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Oyarzun, A.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozone, K.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pajchel, K.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J. D.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panes, B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Park, S. J.; Park, W.; Parker, M. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J. R.; Patricelli, S.; Pauly, T.; Peak, L. S.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Morales, M. I.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Peng, H.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Codina, E. Perez; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Reale, V. Perez; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A. W.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pinto, B.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Pleier, M.-A.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Ponsot, P.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X.; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G. E.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Potter, K. P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Prichard, P. M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Dos Santos, D. Roda; Rodriguez, D.; Garcia, Y. Rodriguez; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L. P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M. S.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A. Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schönig, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S. N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X. H.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, R. P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y. D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, M. D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S. P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Della Porta, G. Zevi; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-12-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector is a composite tracking system consisting of silicon pixels, silicon strips and straw tubes in a 2 T magnetic field. Its installation was completed in August 2008 and the detector took part in data-taking with single LHC beams and cosmic rays. The initial detector operation, hardware commissioning and in-situ calibrations are described. Tracking performance has been measured with 7.6 million cosmic-ray events, collected using a tracking trigger and reconstructed with modular pattern-recognition and fitting software. The intrinsic hit efficiency and tracking trigger efficiencies are close to 100%. Lorentz angle measurements for both electrons and holes, specific energy-loss calibration and transition radiation turn-on measurements have been performed. Different alignment techniques have been used to reconstruct the detector geometry. After the initial alignment, a transverse impact parameter resolution of 22.1±0.9 μm and a relative momentum resolution σ p / p=(4.83±0.16)×10-4 GeV-1× p T have been measured for high momentum tracks.

  10. ATLAS-1 Logo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary payload for the Space Shuttle mission STS-45, launched March 24, 1992, was the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1)which was mounted on nondeployable Spacelab pallets in the orbiter cargo bay. Eight countries, th U.S., France, Germany, Belgium, United Kingdom, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and Japan, provided 12 instruments designed to perform 14 investigations in four fields. Atmospheric science instruments/investigations: Atmospheric Lyman-Alpha Emissions (ALAE); Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS); Grille Spectrometer (GRILLE); Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO); Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS). Solar Science: Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM); Measurement of the Solar Constant (SOLCON); Solar Spectrum from 180 to 3,200 Nanometers (SOLSPEC); Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM). Space Plasma Physics: Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging (AEPI); Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC). Ultraviolet astronomy: Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope (FAUST). This is the logo or emblem that was designed to represent the ATLAS-1 payload.

  11. Atlas 2 Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-2 (ATLAS-2), was designed to collect data on the relationship between the sun's energy output and Earth's middle atmosphere and how these factors affect the ozone layer. The ATLAS-2 flew on the Space Shuttle Discovery's mission SST-56, launched on April 8, 1993. The videotape consists of an animated tour of the instruments that were included as part of the mission. The first half of the tape shows the various instruments, pointing to each in turn and identifying each by the associated initialisms. The instruments identified were: the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS), Millimeter Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS), Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) spectrometer, Solar Spectrum Measurement (SOLSPEC) instrument, Solar Ultraviolet Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM), Active Cavity Radiometer (ACR) and Solar Constant (SOLCON).) The second half of the animation shows the same tour without the pointing or the identification of the instruments.

  12. The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonov, A.; Bailey, D.; Belanger, G.; Cadabeschi, M.; Chen, T.-Y.; Epshteyn, V.; Gorbounov, P.; Joo, K. K.; Khakzad, M.; Khovanskiy, V.; Krieger, P.; Loch, P.; Mayer, J.; Neuheimer, E.; Oakham, F. G.; O'Neill, M.; Orr, R. S.; Qi, M.; Rutherfoord, J.; Savine, A.; Schram, M.; Shatalov, P.; Shaver, L.; Shupe, M.; Stairs, G.; Strickland, V.; Tompkins, D.; Tsukerman, I.; Vincent, K.

    2008-02-01

    Forward calorimeters, located near the incident beams, complete the nearly 4π coverage for high pT particles resulting from proton-proton collisions in the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Both the technology and the deployment of the forward calorimeters in ATLAS are novel. The liquid argon rod/tube electrode structure for the forward calorimeters was invented specifically for applications in high rate environments. The placement of the forward calorimeters adjacent to the other calorimeters relatively close to the interaction point provides several advantages including nearly seamless calorimetry and natural shielding for the muon system. The forward calorimeter performance requirements are driven by events with missing ET and tagging jets.

  13. Two-axis tracker for solar panels and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Henry H.

    2013-04-16

    A tracker including an outer post having elongated bore and a lower end mounted on a sub-structure, an inner pole rotatably received in the elongated bore, a lower bearing in the bore adjacent a lower end of the outer post and attached thereto to be constrained from lateral movement and mounted on the sub-structure such that a lower end of the inner pole rests on and is supported by the lower bearing, an upper bearing near an upper end of the outer post, a circumferential drive supported on the outer post for rotating the inner pole relative to the outer post, such that substantially a full weight of a load on the inner pole is directly transmitted to the sub-structure and lateral force and torque leverage are placed on a full length of the outer post by way of the upper and lower bearing.

  14. On-Orbit Performance of Autonomous Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Airapetian, V.; Sedlak, J.; Hashmall, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a performance study of the autonomous star trackers (ASTs) on the IMAGE and the EO-1 spacecraft. IMAGE is a spinning spacecraft without gyros or redundant precision attitude sensors, so the statistical properties of the AST are estimated simply by comparing the output observed quaternions with a rigid rotator model with constant angular momentum. The initial conditions are determined by a least-squares fit to minimize the AST residuals. An additional fit is used to remove the remaining systematic error and to obtain the inherent sensor noise. Gyro rate data are available for the EO-1 mission, so the AST noise statistics are obtained from the residuals after solving for an epoch attitude and gyro bias also using a least-squares method.

  15. Design and Performance of the Keck Angle Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Samuel L.; Ragland, S.; Booth, A.; Colavita, M. M.; Hovland, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Keck Angle Tracker (KAT) is a key subsystem in the NASA-funded Keck Interferometer at the Keck Observatory on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. KAT, which has been in operation since the achievement of first fringes in March 2001, senses the tilt of the stellar wavefront for each of the beams from the interferometer telescopes and provides tilt error signals to fast tip/tilt mirrors for high-bandwidth, wavefront tilt correction. In addition, KAT passes low-bandwidth, desaturation offsets to the adaptive optics system of the Keck telescopes to correct for slow pointing drifts. We present an overview of the instrument design and recent performance of KAT in support of the V2 science and nulling observing modes of the Keck Interferometer.

  16. Echo tracker/range finder for radars and sonars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, N. J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An echo tracker/range finder or altimeter is described. The pulse repetition frequency (PFR) of a predetermined plurality of transmitted pulses is adjusted so that echo pulses received from a reflecting object are positioned between transmitted pulses and divided their interpulse time interval into two time intervals having a predetermined ratio with respect to each other. The invention described provides a means whereby the arrival time of a plurality of echo pulses is defined as the time at which a composite echo pulse formed of a sum of the individual echo pulses has the highest amplitude. The invention is applicable to radar systems, sonar systems, or any other kind of system in which pulses are transmitted and echoes received therefrom.

  17. Standard metrics for a plug-and-play tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Jim; Young, Darrell

    2012-06-01

    The Motion Imagery Standards Board (MISB) has previously established a metadata "micro-architecture" for standards-based tracking. The intent of this work is to facilitate both the collaborative development of competent tracking systems, and the potentially distributed and dispersed execution of tracker system components in real-world execution environments. The approach standardizes a set of five quasi-sequential modules in image-based tracking. However, in order to make the plug-and-play architecture truly useful we need metrics associated with each module (so that, for instance, a researcher who "plugs in" a new component can ascertain whether he/she did better or worse with the component). This paper proposes the choice of a new, unifying set of metrics based on an informationtheoretic approach to tracking, which the MISB is nominating as DoD/IC/NATO standards.

  18. The Tevatron tune tracker pll - theory, implementation and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The Tevatron tune tracker is based on the idea that the transverse phase response of the beam can be measured quickly and accurately enough to allow us to track the betatron tune with a phase locked loop (PLL). The goal of this paper is to show the progress of the PLL project at Fermilab. We will divide this paper into three parts: theory, implementation and measurements. In the theory section, we will use a simple linear model to show that our design will track the betatron tune under conditions that occur in the Tevatron. In the implementation section we will break down and examine each part of the PLL and in some cases calculate the actual PLL parameters used in our system from beam measurements. And finally in the measurements section we will show the results of the PLL performance.

  19. Higher throughput high resolution multi-worm tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javer, Avelino; Li, Kezhi; Gyenes, Bertalan; Brown, Andre; Behavioural Genomics Team

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a high throughput imaging system for tracking multiple nematode worms at high resolution. The tracker consists of 6 cameras mounted on a motorized gantry so that up to 48 plates (each with approximately 30 worms) can be imaged without user intervention. To deal with the high data rate of the cameras we use real time processing to find worms and only save the immediately surrounding pixels. The system is also equipped with automatic oxygen and carbon dioxide control for observing stimulus response behaviour. We will describe the design and performance of the new system, some of the challenges of truly high throughput behaviour recording, and report preliminary results on inter-individual variation in behaviour as well as a quantitative analysis of C. elegans response to hypoxia, oxygen reperfusion, and carbon dioxide. Funding provided by the Medical Research Council.

  20. Circumnutation Tracker: novel software for investigation of circumnutation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An endogenous, helical plant organ movement named circumnutation is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Plant shoots, stems, tendrils, leaves, and roots commonly circumnutate but their appearance is still poorly described. To support such investigations, novel software Circumnutation Tracker (CT) for spatial-temporal analysis of circumnutation has been developed. Results CT works on time-lapse video and collected circumnutation parameters: period, length, rate, shape, angle, and clockwise- and counterclockwise directions. The CT combines a filtering algorithm with a graph-based method to describe the parameters of circumnutation. The parameters of circumnutation of Helianthus annuus hypocotyls and the relationship between cotyledon arrangement and circumnutation geometry are presented here to demonstrate the CT options. Conclusions We have established that CT facilitates and accelerates analysis of circumnutation. In combination with the physiological, molecular, and genetic methods, this software may be a powerful tool also for investigations of gravitropism, biological clock, and membrane transport, i.e. processes involved in the mechanism of circumnutation.

  1. Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration

    PubMed Central

    Majarena, Ana C.; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

  2. A precision star tracker utilizing advanced techniques and materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. F.; Mcaloon, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    An image dissector star tracker has been developed which operates in the photon counting mode making it possible to utilize all digital electronics. A unique pulse processing circuit allows bright stars to be tracked as well as dim stars. Thermal mechanical stability has been greatly enhanced by fabricating a housing with graphite/epoxy composite material with a linear coefficient of thermal expansion near zero. Test results indicate the +10 Mv stars can be acquired and tracked, while position variation with star intensity is less than 2 arc seconds from 2.5 Mv to +10 Mv. The noise equivalent angle for a +8 Mv star is 3 arc seconds. Polynominal correction for remaining cross-coupling and nonlinearity reduced error over total 1 x 1 deg field to 1.5 arc seconds.

  3. Optimal estimation for the satellite attitude using star tracker measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, J. T.-H.

    1986-01-01

    An optimal estimation scheme is presented, which determines the satellite attitude using the gyro readings and the star tracker measurements of a commonly used satellite attitude measuring unit. The scheme is mainly based on the exponential Fourier densities that have the desirable closure property under conditioning. By updating a finite and fixed number of parameters, the conditional probability density, which is an exponential Fourier density, is recursively determined. Simulation results indicate that the scheme is more accurate and robust than extended Kalman filtering. It is believed that this approach is applicable to many other attitude measuring units. As no linearization and approximation are necessary in the approach, it is ideal for systems involving high levels of randomness and/or low levels of observability and systems for which accuracy is of overriding importance.

  4. Angular velocity estimation from measurement vectors of star tracker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jun-cai; Yi, Wen-jun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Yang, Jian-kun; Li, Xiu-jian; Tan, Ji-chun

    2012-06-01

    In most spacecraft, there is a need to know the craft's angular rate. Approaches with least squares and an adaptive Kalman filter are proposed for estimating the angular rate directly from the star tracker measurements. In these approaches, only knowledge of the vector measurements and sampling interval is required. The designed adaptive Kalman filter can filter out noise without information of the dynamic model and inertia dyadic. To verify the proposed estimation approaches, simulations based on the orbit data of the challenging minisatellite payload (CHAMP) satellite and experimental tests with night-sky observation are performed. Both the simulations and experimental testing results have demonstrated that the proposed approach performs well in terms of accuracy, robustness, and performance. PMID:22695598

  5. Articulated arm coordinate measuring machine calibration by laser tracker multilateration.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, Jorge; Majarena, Ana C; Samper, David; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

  6. Mercury-Atlas Test Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    A NASA Project Mercury spacecraft was test launched at 11:15 AM EST on April 25, 1961 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, in a test designed to qualify the Mercury Spacecraft and all systems, which must function during orbit and reentry from orbit. The Mercury-Atlas vehicle was destroyed by Range Safety Officer about 40 seconds after liftoff. The spacecraft was recovered and appeared to be in good condition. Atlas was designed to launch payloads into low Earth orbit, geosynchronous transfer orbit or geosynchronous orbit. NASA first launched Atlas as a space launch vehicle in 1958. Project SCORE, the first communications satellite that transmitted President Eisenhower's pre-recorded Christmas speech around the world, was launched on an Atlas. For all three robotic lunar exploration programs, Atlas was used. Atlas/ Centaur vehicles launched both Mariner and Pioneer planetary probes. The current operational Atlas II family has a 100% mission success rating. For more information about Atlas, please see Chapter 2 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  7. Assessment Atlas, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yosemite Community Coll. District, Modesto, CA.

    Designed to provide information of value in establishing a base for decisionmaking in the Yosemite Community College District (YCCD), this assessment atlas graphically presents statistical data on the District as a whole, its two campuses, and YCCD Central Services for 1982-83. After an introduction to the use of the assessment atlas and…

  8. Assessment Atlas, 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yosemite Community Coll. District, Modesto, CA.

    Designed to provide information of value in establishing a base for decision making in the Yosemite Community College District (YCCD), this assessment atlas graphically presents statistical data for the District as a whole, its two campuses, and YCCD Central Services for 1983-84. After an introduction to the use of the assessment atlas and…

  9. ATLAS discoveries of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonry, J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.

    2016-03-01

    We report the following transients found by the ATLAS survey (Tonry et al. ATel #8680). ATLAS is a twin 0.5m telescope system on Haleakala and Mauna Loa. The first unit is robotically operational on Haleakala (see http://www.fallingstar.com).

  10. Laser Tracker Calibration - Testing the Angle Measurement System -

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, Georg; Ruland, Robert; /SLAC

    2008-12-05

    Physics experiments at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) usually require high accuracy positioning, e. g. 100 {micro}m over a distance of 150 m or 25 {micro}m in a 10 x 10 x 3 meter volume. Laser tracker measurement systems have become one of the most important tools for achieving these accuracies when mapping components. The accuracy of these measurements is related to the manufacturing tolerances of various individual components, the resolutions of measurement systems, the overall precision of the assembly, and how well imperfections can be modeled. As with theodolites and total stations, one can remove the effects of most assembly and calibration errors by measuring targets in both direct and reverse positions and computing the mean to obtain the result. However, this approach does not compensate for errors originating from the encoder system. In order to improve and gain a better understanding of laser tracker angle measurement tolerances we extended our laboratory's capabilities with the addition of a horizontal angle calibration test stand. This setup is based on the use of a high precision rotary table providing an angular accuracy of better than 0.2 arcsec. Presently, our setup permits only tests of the horizontal angle measurement system. A test stand for vertical angle calibration is under construction. Distance measurements (LECOCQ & FUSS, 2000) are compared to an interferometer bench for distances of up to 32 m. Together both tests provide a better understanding of the instrument and how it should be operated. The observations also provide a reasonable estimate of covariance information of the measurements according to their actual performance for network adjustments.

  11. Construction and testing of the scintillating fibre trackers for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, Aron

    2009-09-01

    The discovery of neutrino mass through experimental evidence of neutrino oscillations at the end of the last century has provided the first proof that the Standard Model of particle physics is incomplete. To be able to extend the Standard Model to incorporate massive neutrinos first requires many theoretical uncertainties surrounding the particle and its interactions to be understood. Therefore, a dedicated experimental programme is needed over the coming decades to provide precision measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters and also a possible measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, which could have astrophysical consequences. An intense source of neutrinos is required to achieve these precision measurements and the leading contender proposed to provide this neutrino beam, is the Neutrino Factory. Before a Neutrino Factory facility can be realised, a number of technological challenges need to be evaluated and understood first. One of which, is reduce the large phase space volume (emittance) of the initial muon beam, which is eventually stored and through decay provides the neutrino beam. Ionisation cooling is the chosen method to achieve this and the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) at Rutherford Laboratory in the UK, is required to demonstrate ionisation cooling and its feasibility for a Neutrino Factory. To demonstrate ionisation cooling, a section of a cooling channel will be constructed and single-particle measurements of emittance of a muon beam before and after the cooling channel from particle spectrometers will be compared. To measure emittance accurately requires precision measurements of the momenta and spatial coordinates at the spectrometers by tracking devices in a uniform magnetic field. The focus of this thesis is based around the construction and testing of the MICE tracker(s), including a study of its simulated performance and also construction and testing of a prototype.

  12. The alcohol tracker application: an initial evaluation of user preferences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ward, John; Ying, John J B; Pan, Fang; Ho, Roger C M

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorders is increasing. Advances in technology have resulted in numerous smartphone applications for this disorder. However, there are still concerns about the evidence base of previously developed alcohol applications. Objective The following study aims to illustrate how the authors have made use of innovative methodologies to overcome the issues relating to the accuracy of tracking the amount of alcohol one has consumed; it also aims to determine user perceptions about the innovative tracker and various other features of an alcohol self-management application among a group of individuals from the general population of a developed country (Canada). Methodology A native alcohol self-management application was developed. In order to determine user perspectives towards this new innovative application, the authors took advantage and made use of crowdsourcing to acquire user perspectives. Results Our results showed that smartphone ownership is highest among the age group of 35–44 years (91%) and lowest for those aged between 55 and 64 (58%). Our analysis also showed that 25–34-year-olds and 35–44-year-olds drink more frequently than the other groups. Results suggest that notification and information were the two most useful functions, with psychotherapy expected to be the least useful. Females indicated that notification service was the most useful function, while males preferred the information component. Conclusions This study has demonstrated how the authors have made use of innovative technologies to overcome the existing concerns pertaining to the utilisation of the blood alcohol concentration levels as a tracker. In addition, the authors have managed to highlight user preferences with regard to an alcohol application. PMID:27019744

  13. WESTCARB Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (known as WESTCARB) was established in Fall 2003. It is one of seven research partnerships co-funded by DOE to characterize regional carbon sequestration opportunities and conduct pilot-scale validation tests. The California Energy Commission manages WESTCARB and is a major co-funder. WESTCARB is characterizing the extent and capacity of geologic formations capable of storing CO2, known as sinks. Results are entered into a geographic information system (GIS) database, along with the location of major CO2-emitting point sources in each of the six WESTCARB states, enabling researchers and the public to gauge the proximity of candidate CO2 storage sites to emission sources and the feasibility of linking them via pipelines. Specifically, the WESTCARB GIS database (also known as the carbon atlas) stores layers of geologic information about potential underground storage sites, such as porosity and nearby fault-lines and aquifers. Researchers use these data, along with interpreted geophysical data and available oil and gas well logs to estimate the region's potential geologic storage capacity. The database also depicts existing pipeline routes and rights-of-way and lands that could be off-limits, which can aid the development of a regional carbon management strategy. The WESTCARB Carbon Atlas, which is accessible to the public, provides a resource for public discourse on practical solutions for regional CO2 management. A key WESTCARB partner, the Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center, has developed data serving procedures to enable the WESTCARB Carbon Atlas to be integrated with those from other regional partnerships, thereby supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's national carbon atlas, NATCARB

  14. Chandra Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Doug; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer L.; McCollough, Michael L.; Morgan, Doug; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2016-01-01

    We present the new results from the Chandra Galaxy Atlas prpject. We have systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of 50 early type galaxies to study their hot ISM. Taking full advantage of the Chandra capabilities, we produced spatially resolved data products with additional spectral information. We will make these products publicly available and use them for our focused science goals, e.g., gas morphology, scaling relation, X-ray based mass profile, circum-nuclear gas.

  15. Topographical atlas sheets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, George Montague

    1877-01-01

    The following topographical atlas maps, published during the year, accompany the copies of Appendix N.N. of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1877, beinig Annual Report of Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler, Corps of Engineers, in charge of U. S. Geographical Surveys, are in continuation of the series ninety-five in number, on a scale of 1 inch to 8 miles, embracing the territory of the United States lying west of the 100th meridian.

  16. Topographical atlas sheets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, George Montague

    1876-01-01

    The following topographical atlas sheets, accompanying Appendix J.J. of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army-being Annual Report upon U. S. Geographical Surveys-have been published during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, and are a portion of the series projected to embrace the territory of the United States lying west of the 100th meridian.

  17. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, C.

    2011-12-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of pico-seconds lifetime particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97.5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, and a good alignment allows high quality track resolution.

  18. Commissioning of the ATLAS inner detector with cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, H.

    2008-07-01

    The inner detector of the ATLAS experiment is in the process of being commissioned using cosmic ray events. First tests were performed in the SR1 assembly hall at CERN with both barrel and endcaps for all different detector technologies (pixels and microstrips silicon detectors as well as straw tubes with additional transition radiation detection). Integration with the rest of the ATLAS sub-detectors is now being done in the ATLAS cavern. The full software chain has been set up in order to reconstruct and analyse this kind of events. Final detector decoders have been developed, different pattern recognition algorithms and track fitters have been validated as well as the various alignment and calibration methods. The infrastructure to deal with conditions data coming from the data acquisition, detector control system and calibration runs has been put in place, allowing also to apply alignment and calibration constants. The software has also been essential to monitor the detector performance during data taking. Detector efficiencies, noise occupancies and resolutions have been studied in detail and compared with those obtained from simulation.

  19. Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Overview * Silicon cell development * Substrate production * Cell processing * Cell costs * Opportunities for improvement * Silicon-supported thin films * Summary * Acknowledgement * References

  20. Performance verification testing for HET wide-field upgrade tracker in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, John; Hayes, Richard; Beno, Joseph; Booth, John; Cornell, Mark E.; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Mock, Jason; Rafal, Marc; Savage, Richard; Soukup, Ian

    2010-07-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), the McDonald Observatory (MDO) and the Center for Electro-mechanics (CEM) at the University of Texas at Austin are developing a new HET tracker in support of the Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU) and the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS). The precision tracker is required to maintain the position of a 3,100 kg payload within ten microns of its desired position relative to the telescope's primary mirror. The hardware system to accomplish this has ten precision controlled actuators. Prior to installation on the telescope, full performance verification is required of the completed tracker in CEM's lab, without a primary mirror or the telescope's final instrument package. This requires the development of a laboratory test stand capable of supporting the completed tracker over its full range of motion, as well as means of measurement and methodology that can verify the accuracy of the tracker motion over full travel (4m diameter circle, 400 mm deep, with 9 degrees of tip and tilt) at a cost and schedule in keeping with the HET WFU requirements. Several techniques have been evaluated to complete this series of tests including: photogrammetry, laser tracker, autocollimator, and a distance measuring interferometer, with the laser tracker ultimately being identified as the most viable method. The design of the proposed system and its implementation in the lab is presented along with the test processes, predicted accuracy, and the basis for using the chosen method*.

  1. Downscaling the NOAA CarbonTracker Inversion for North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petron, G.; Andrews, A. E.; Chen, H.; Trudeau, M. E.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Henderson, J.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Masarie, K.; Bruhwiler, L.; Miller, J. B.; Miller, B. R.; Peters, W.; Gourdji, S. M.; Mueller, K. L.; Michalak, A. M.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    We are developing a regional extension of the NOAA CarbonTracker CO2 data-assimilation system for a limited domain covering North America. The regional assimilation will use pre-computed and species-independent atmospheric sampling footprints from a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model. Each footprint relates an observed trace gas concentration to upwind fluxes. Once a footprint library has been computed, it can be used repeatedly to quickly test different inversion strategies and, importantly, for inversions using multiple species data (e.g., anthropogenic tracers such as radiocarbon and carbon monoxide and biological tracers such as carbonyl sulfide and stable isotopes of CO2). The current global CarbonTracker (CT) assimilation framework has some important limitations. For example, the assimilation adjusts scaling factors for different vegetation classes within large regions. This means, for example, that all crops within temperate North America are scaled together. There is currently no distinction between crops such as corn and sorghum, which utilize the C4 photosynthesis pathway and C3 crops like soybeans, wheat, cotton, etc. The optimization scales only the net CO2 flux, rather than adjusting photosynthesis and respiration fluxes separately, which limits the flexibility of the inversion and sometimes results in unrealistic diurnal cycles of CO2 flux. The time-series of residuals (CT - observed) for continental sites in North America reveals a persistent excess of CO2 during summer. This summertime positive bias is also apparent in the comparison of CT posterior CO2 with aircraft data and with data from Pacific marine boundary layer sites, suggesting that some of the problem may originate outside of North America. For the regional inversion, we will use footprints from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport Model driven by meteorological fields from a customized high-resolution simulation with the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model. We will use

  2. Features of design and development of the optical head of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldabekov, M.; Akhmedov, D.; Yelubayev, S.; Ten, V.; Albazarov, B.; Shamro, Alexander; Alipbayev, Kuanysh; Bopeyev, Timur; Sukhenko, A.

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an approach to the design and development of the optical head of the star tracker and its hood for satellites. The main stages of the optical system design including development of requirements, selection of the optical system by analyzing with help of CAD, hood design with help of simulation, as well as the main stages of its components(lenses) manufacturing and control of quality of manufacturing the optical system are described. Engineering model of the optical head of star tracker which can be used as the basis for the development of the star tracker prototype for use in Kazakhstan's satellites was developed in accordance with the requirements.

  3. Optimal Spacing of Dual-axis Trackers for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Sin; Winston, Roland

    2011-12-01

    The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is widely used to compare the cost of energy generation across technologies. In a utility-scale concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system, the spacing of dual-axis trackers must be balanced with total energy harvested from modules to minimize LCOE. In this paper, a spacing method of dual-axis trackers in a CPV system is presented. Based on the definition of LCOE, a cost function is defined and optimized in terms of spacing related parameters. Various methods to estimate hourly direct normal irradiance (DNI) are investigated and m-by-n tracker array configurations to minimize the cost function are discussed.

  4. Compensation for Time-Dependent Star Tracker Thermal Deformation on the Aqua Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Natanson, Gregory; Glickman, Jonathan; Sedlak, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of attitude sensor data from the Aqua mission showed small but systematic differences between batch least-squares and extended Kalman filter attitudes. These differences were also found to be correlated with star tracker residuals, gyro bias estimates, and star tracker baseplate temperatures. This paper describes the analysis that shows that these correlations are all consistent with a single cause: time-dependent thermal deformation of star tracker alignments. These varying alignments can be separated into relative and common components. The relative misalignments can be determined and compensated for. The common misalignments can only be determined in special cases.

  5. ATLAS 1: Encountering Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, Charlotte; Mcmahan, Tracy; Accardi, Denise; Tygielski, Michele; Mikatarian, Jeff; Wiginton, Margaret (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Several NASA science programs examine the dynamic balance of sunlight, atmosphere, water, land, and life that governs Earth's environment. Among these is a series of Space Shuttle-Spacelab missions, named the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS). During the ATLAS missions, international teams of scientists representing many disciplines combine their expertise to seek answers to complex questions about the atmospheric and solar conditions that sustain life on Earth. The ATLAS program specifically investigates how Earth's middle atmosphere and upper atmospheres and climate are affected by both the Sun and by products of industrial and agricultural activities on Earth.

  6. Automated Loads Analysis System (ATLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Stephen; Frere, Scot; O’Reilly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is a generalized solution that can be used for launch vehicles. ATLAS is used to produce modal transient analysis and quasi-static analysis results (i.e., accelerations, displacements, and forces) for the payload math models on a specific Shuttle Transport System (STS) flight using the shuttle math model and associated forcing functions. This innovation solves the problem of coupling of payload math models into a shuttle math model. It performs a transient loads analysis simulating liftoff, landing, and all flight events between liftoff and landing. ATLAS utilizes efficient and numerically stable algorithms available in MSC/NASTRAN.

  7. ATLAS software packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybkin, Grigory

    2012-12-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  8. Exotics Searches with Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tykhonov, Andrii

    2015-03-01

    An overview is presented for the non-SUSY searches for New Physics with the ATLAS detector. The results presented use data collected at centerof-mass energies of √ s = 7 TeV and √ s = 8 TeV, for data sets corresponding to a variety of integrated luminosities. Searches using leptons, photons, missing transverse energy, and jets are performed, as well as searches requiring custom jet and track reconstruction, and searches for the so-called lepton jets. No deviations from Standard Model expectations are observed, hence constraints are placed on the phase space of available theoretical models.

  9. CP violation at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Adam; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    A measurement of several properties of the Bs meson, including the CP-violating weak phase phis and the mixing-induced width difference ΔΓs, is performed using the decay Bs → J/ψ(μ+μ-)phi(K+K-), from a dataset of 4.9 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected in 2011 by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measured parameters are consistent with the world average values and theoretical expectations; in particular phis is within 1 σ of the expected value in the Standard Model.

  10. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  11. Effets de rayonnement sur les detecteurs au silicium a pixels du detecteur ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebel, Celine

    Two detection systems are using pixel silicon detectors in the ATLAS detector: the Pixel, which is the subdetector closest to the interaction point, and the MPX network. The activation of the materials present in the Pixel produced by radiation has been measured in two experiments which we performed at CERF (CERN) and NPI-ASCR (Czech Republic). These experimental studies of activation are compared with GEANT4 simulations. The results of these comparisons show that the simulation can predict the activities with a precision of an order of magnitude. They also show that GEANT4 fails to produce certain radioisotopes seen in the experimental activation studies. The contribution to background and the residual doses due to the desintegration of the radioisotopes produced by fast neutrons (category in which falls the expected average neutron energy of 1 MeV in ATLAS) are extrapolated to ATLAS conditions. It is found that this background in the ATLAS Pixel subdetector will be negligible and that the doses are well below safety concerns for detector manipulation during maintenance and repair periods. The radiation field also inflicts damages to the silicon detectors thus reducing their detection efficiency. A modified Hecht model is presented using an electric field description which includes the double junction effect and a small exponential component in areas usually considered without electric field. This model allows the description of the detection efficiency as a function of applied bias voltage and irradiation fluence for several types of silicon detectors irradiated by particles of different types and energies. On top of validating the Hecht model proposed in this thesis, the studies of the radiation damage on silicon detectors has allowed to conclude that the N1EL hypothesis has to be revised (study with different energies). Using the variation with irradiation fluence of the effective doping concentration and of the leakage current, it is shown that silicon

  12. A new micro-strip tracker for the new generation of experiments at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Dinardo, Mauro E

    2005-12-01

    This thesis concerns the development and characterization of a prototype Silicon micro-strip detector that can be used in the forward (high rapidity) region of a hadron collider. These detectors must operate in a high radiation environment without any important degradation of their performance. The innovative feature of these detectors is the readout electronics, which, being completely data-driven, allows for the direct use of the detector information at the lowest level of the trigger. All the particle hits on the detector can be readout in real-time without any external trigger and any particular limitation due to dead-time. In this way, all the detector information is available to elaborate a very selective trigger decision based on a fast reconstruction of tracks and vertex topology. These detectors, together with the new approach to the trigger, have been developed in the context of the BTeV R&D program; our aim was to define the features and the design parameters of an optimal experiment for heavy flavour physics at hadron colliders. Application of these detectors goes well beyond the BTeV project and, in particular, involves the future upgrades of experiments at hadron colliders, such as Atlas, CMS and LHCb. These experiments, indeed, are already considering for their future high-intensity runs a new trigger strategy a la BTeV. Their aim is to select directly at trigger level events containing Bhadrons, which, on several cases, come from the decay of Higgs bosons, Z{sup o}'s or W{sup {+-}}'s; the track information can also help on improving the performance of the electron and muon selection at the trigger level. For this reason, they are going to develop new detectors with practically the same characteristics as those of BTeV. To this extent, the work accomplished in this thesis could serve as guide-line for those upgrades.

  13. MarsAtlas: A cortical parcellation atlas for functional mapping.

    PubMed

    Auzias, Guillaume; Coulon, Olivier; Brovelli, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    An open question in neuroimaging is how to develop anatomical brain atlases for the analysis of functional data. Here, we present a cortical parcellation model based on macroanatomical information and test its validity on visuomotor-related cortical functional networks. The parcellation model is based on a recently developed cortical parameterization method (Auzias et al., [2013]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 32:873-887), called HIP-HOP. This method exploits a set of primary and secondary sulci to create an orthogonal coordinate system on the cortical surface. A natural parcellation scheme arises from the axes of the HIP-HOP model running along the fundus of selected sulci. The resulting parcellation scheme, called MarsAtlas, complies with dorsoventral/rostrocaudal direction fields and allows inter-subject matching. To test it for functional mapping, we analyzed a MEG dataset collected from human participants performing an arbitrary visuomotor mapping task. Single-trial high-gamma activity, HGA (60-120 Hz), was estimated using spectral analysis and beamforming techniques at cortical areas arising from a Talairach atlas (i.e., Brodmann areas) and MarsAtlas. Using both atlases, we confirmed that visuomotor associations involve an increase in HGA over the sensorimotor and fronto-parietal network, in addition to medial prefrontal areas. However, MarsAtlas provided: (1) crucial functional information along both the dorsolateral and rostrocaudal direction; (2) an increase in statistical significance. To conclude, our results suggest that the MarsAtlas is a valid anatomical atlas for functional mapping, and represents a potential anatomical framework for integration of functional data arising from multiple techniques such as MEG, intracranial EEG and fMRI. PMID:26813563

  14. Operational Experience with Autonomous Star Trackers on ESA Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Mathias; Jauregui, Libe; Kielbassa, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Mars Express (MEX), Rosetta and Venus Express (VEX) are ESA interplanetary spacecrafts (S/C) launched in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005, respectively. Mars Express was injected into Mars orbit end of 2003 with routine operations starting in spring 2004. Rosetta is since launch on its way to rendezvous comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It has completed several test and commissioning activities and is performing several planetary swingbys (Earth in spring 2005, Mars in spring 2007, Earth in autumn 2007 and again two years later). Venus Express has also started routine operations since the completion of the Venus orbit insertion maneuver sequence beginning of May 2006. All three S/C are three axes stabilized with a similar attitude and orbit control system (AOCS). The attitude is estimated on board using star and rate sensors and controlled using four reaction wheels. A bipropellant reaction control system with 10N thrusters serves for wheel off loadings and attitude control in safe mode. Mars Express and Venus Express have an additional 400N engine for the planetary orbit insertion. Nominal Earth communication is accomplished through a high gain antenna. All three S/C are equipped with a redundant set of autonomous star trackers (STR) which are based on almost the same hardware. The STR software is especially adapted for the respective mission. This paper addresses several topics related to the experience gained with the STR operations on board the three S/C so far.

  15. eXtremely Fast Tracker trigger upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Cox, C.; Cox, D.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Purdue U.

    2009-01-01

    The CDF II eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT) is a trigger processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the central tracking chamber. The XFT tracks are also extrapolated to the electromagnetic calorimeter and muon chambers to generate trigger electron and muon candidates. The XFT is crucial for the entire CDF II physics program: it detects high P{sub t} lepton from W/Z and heavy flavors decay and, in conjunction with the level 2 processor, it identifies secondary vertices from beauty decay. The XFT has thus been crucial for the recent measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillation and {Sigma}{sub b}. The increase of the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity demanded an upgrade of the system to cope with the higher occupancy of the chamber. In the upgraded XFT, three-dimensional tracking reduces the level of fake tracks and measures the longitudinal track parameters, which strongly reinforce the trigger selection. This allows to maintain the trigger perfectly efficient at the record luminosities 2-3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and to maintain intact the CDF II high luminosity physics program, which includes the Higgs search. In this paper we review the architecture, the used technology, the performance and the impact of the upgraded XFT on the entire CDF II trigger strategy.

  16. Planar waveguide concentrator used with a seasonal tracker.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Solar concentrators offer good promise for reducing the cost of solar power. Planar waveguides equipped with a microlens slab have already been proposed as an excellent approach to produce medium to high concentration levels. Instead, we suggest the use of a cylindrical microlens array to get useful concentration without tracking during the day. To use only a seasonal tracking system and get the highest possible concentration, cylindrical microlenses are placed in the east-west orientation. Our new design has an acceptance angle in the north-south direction of ±9° and ±54° in the east-west axis. Simulation of our optimized system achieves a 4.6× average concentration level from 8:30 to 16:30 with a maximum of 8.1× and 80% optical efficiency. The low-cost advantage of waveguide-based solar concentrators could support their use in roof-mounted solar panels and eliminate the need for an expensive and heavy active tracker. PMID:23033102

  17. Geometric error detection and calibration in laser trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zili; Lao, Dabao; Dong, Dengfeng; Zhou, Weihu

    2015-08-01

    Geometric errors in laser trackers such as light offset and transit tilt have essential influence on the system measurement errors. Thus error detection and calibration are very important for producers and customers to execute error compensation. Different methods are developed to detect and calibrate errors. However, the commonly used methods such as length measurement and two-face measurement are sensitive to several misalignments which cannot calibrate errors directly and separately. In this paper a series of methods for detecting and calibrating geometric errors such as mirror tilt, beam tilt and transit tilt were presented which can calibrate geometric errors individually and precisely. The mirror tilt could be detected with the help of two autocollimators and one polygon. Then the beam tilt and offset errors were calibrated using a CCD camera and condenser lenses. Finally the transit tilt error was calibrated using a gradient and a vertical plane. Experiments and error assessment were executed to show that the accuracy of the calibration methods can meet the user's demand.

  18. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it's experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of {Delta}p/p {approximately} 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,{Delta}p/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets.

  19. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    The STAR Collaboration

    1992-06-15

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it`s experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of {Delta}p/p {approximately} 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,{Delta}p/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets.

  20. A more exact analysis of Sandia Laser Tracker data

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.S.

    1994-05-01

    The Sandia Laser Tracker (LT) systems illuminate a cooperative target with a diverged Argon-ion laser beam and track the resulting bright target using a servo-controlled turning mirror. Raw data is digitally recorded in real time and analyzed later when more time is available. The recorded data consists of azimuth and elevation of the tracking mirror, tracking error signals, and range to the target. If the target is tracked perfectly, the error signals will always be zero. The data reduction for this simplified, zero-error condition can be accomplished with very few lines of code. To date, all data reduction for LTI has been done using this zero-error assumption. The more general data reduction problem using the tracking error signals is a much more involved calculation and is referred to as ``using the error foldback routine.`` Detailed theory and vector analysis behind the data reduction and error decoupling algorithms used in the LT systems are described. Errors and corrections to the original document uncovered in over ten years of use are also noted and corrected.

  1. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  2. Kinematics investigations of cylinders rolling down a ramp using tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Mawaddah, Menurseto; Winarno, Nanang; Sriwulan, Wiwin

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays, students' exploration as well as students' interaction in the application stage of learning cycle can be improved by directly model real-world objects based on Newton's Law using Open Source Physics (OSP) computer-modeling tools. In a case of studying an object rolling down a ramp, a traditional experiment method commonly uses a ticker tape sliding through a ticker timer. However, some kinematics parameters such as the instantaneous acceleration and the instantaneous speed of object cannot be investigated directly. By using the Tracker video analysis method, all kinematics parameters of cylinders rolling down a ramp can be investigated by direct visual inspection. The result shows that (1) there are no relations of cylinders' mass as well as cylinders' radius towards their kinetics parameters. (2) Excluding acceleration data, the speed and position as function of time follow the theory. (3) The acceleration data are in the random order, but their trend-lines closely fit the theory with 0.15% error. (4) The decrease of acceleration implicitly occurs due to the air friction acting on the cylinder during rolling down. (5) The cylinder's inertial moment constant has been obtained experimentally with 3.00% error. (6) The ramp angle linearly influences the cylinders' acceleration with 2.36% error. This research implied that the program can be further applied to physics educational purposes.

  3. Volumetric Verification of Multiaxis Machine Tool Using Laser Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present a method of volumetric verification in machine tools with linear and rotary axes using a laser tracker. Beyond a method for a particular machine, it presents a methodology that can be used in any machine type. Along this paper, the schema and kinematic model of a machine with three axes of movement, two linear and one rotational axes, including the measurement system and the nominal rotation matrix of the rotational axis are presented. Using this, the machine tool volumetric error is obtained and nonlinear optimization techniques are employed to improve the accuracy of the machine tool. The verification provides a mathematical, not physical, compensation, in less time than other methods of verification by means of the indirect measurement of geometric errors of the machine from the linear and rotary axes. This paper presents an extensive study about the appropriateness and drawbacks of the regression function employed depending on the types of movement of the axes of any machine. In the same way, strengths and weaknesses of measurement methods and optimization techniques depending on the space available to place the measurement system are presented. These studies provide the most appropriate strategies to verify each machine tool taking into consideration its configuration and its available work space. PMID:25202744

  4. An expert system for shuttle and satellite radar tracker scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Paul

    1988-01-01

    This expert system automates and optimizes radar tracker selection for shuttle missions. The expert system is written in the FORTRAN and C languages on an HP9000. It is portable to any UNIX machine having both ANSI-77 FORTRAN and C language compilers. It is a rule based expert system that selects tracking stations from the S-band and C-band radar stations and the TDRSS east and TDRSS west satellites under a variety of conditions. The expert system was prototyped on the Symbolics in the Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) and ZetaLisp. After the prototype demonstrated an acceptable automation of the process of selecting tracking stations to support the orbit determination requirements of Shuttle missions, the basic ART rules of the prototype were ported to the HP9000 computer using the CLIPS language. CLIPS is a forward-chaining rule-based expert system language written in C. Prior to the development of this expert system the selection process was a tedious manual process and expensive in terms of human resources. Manual tracking station selection required from 1 to 2 man weeks per mission; whereas the expert system can complete the selection process in about 2 hours.

  5. LoyalTracker: Visualizing Loyalty Dynamics in Search Engines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Conglei; Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Zhou, Hong; Qu, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    The huge amount of user log data collected by search engine providers creates new opportunities to understand user loyalty and defection behavior at an unprecedented scale. However, this also poses a great challenge to analyze the behavior and glean insights into the complex, large data. In this paper, we introduce LoyalTracker, a visual analytics system to track user loyalty and switching behavior towards multiple search engines from the vast amount of user log data. We propose a new interactive visualization technique (flow view) based on a flow metaphor, which conveys a proper visual summary of the dynamics of user loyalty of thousands of users over time. Two other visualization techniques, a density map and a word cloud, are integrated to enable analysts to gain further insights into the patterns identified by the flow view. Case studies and the interview with domain experts are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of our technique in understanding user loyalty and switching behavior in search engines. PMID:26356887

  6. The optimization of an optical missile guidance tracker.

    PubMed

    Spiro, I J

    1969-07-01

    An antitank missile guidance system is described, which employs a tracker using two parallel optical paths and a pyrotechnic flare. Both optical channels are spectrally filtered; one rejects the target and views only the flare image; the other rejects the flare and views only the target. In performing the guidance tracking task, the operator superimposes the flare image on the target, thus providing steering signals to the missile. This paper describes an optimum flare as one with maximum luminous spectral emittance, minimum bandwidth, and minimum noise. Then with the selected flare as a basis, the optical components are matched individually and as an assembly to obtain maximum flare-filter system output. Calculated improvements of 100 to 250% were obtained in the performance of critical components which were reflected in the system operation and were subsequently verified by system field tests. The transmission ratios, visibility coefficients, improvement factors, and other bases for improvement are stated and discussed. Finally, the experiments performed and improvements achieved are described. PMID:20072441

  7. ATLAS-2 Video News Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) video presents a Marshall Space Flight Center-Television (MSFC-TV) news release describing the objectives of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications in Science-2 (ATLAS-2), which is being flown on STS-56. Dr. Tim Miller (Mission Scientist), Dr. Marsha Torr (Mission Scientist), and Teresa Vanhooser (Mission Manager) explain that the ATLAS-2 mission is being launched to study earth atmospheric interactions with the sun in general and how manmade chemicals and pollution are contributing to ozone depletion in our atmosphere in particular. Seven instruments comprise the core payload. ATLAS-2 is an integral part of the Spacelab contribution to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth and characterizes the chemical and physical components of Earth's middle atmosphere and the solar energy injected in the atmosphere, studies that began on ATLAS-1.

  8. BioFuels Atlas (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2011-02-01

    Presentation for biennial merit review of Biofuels Atlas, a first-pass visualization tool that allows users to explore the potential of biomass-to-biofuels conversions at various locations and scales.

  9. ATLAS OF SOURCE EMISSION PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An atlas of various source emission particles characterized by electron optical techniques has been compiled for use by air pollution investigators. The particles studied were emitted by mobile, stationary, and natural sources. Sources included automobiles, manufacturing operatio...

  10. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC. A Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.; Bielick, E.; Dawson, J.W.; The STAR EMC Collaboration

    1993-09-22

    This report discusses the following on the electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC: conceptual design; the physics of electromagnetic calorimetry in STAR; trigger capability; integration into STAR; and cost, schedule, manpower, and funding.

  11. Spacecraft attitude control systems with dynamic methods and structures for processing star tracker signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yong (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Li, Rongsheng (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Methods are provided for dynamically processing successively-generated star tracker data frames and associated valid flags to generate processed star tracker signals that have reduced noise and a probability greater than a selected probability P.sub.slctd of being valid. These methods maintain accurate spacecraft attitude control in the presence of spurious inputs (e.g., impinging protons) that corrupt collected charges in spacecraft star trackers. The methods of the invention enhance the probability of generating valid star tracker signals because they respond to a current frame probability P.sub.frm by dynamically selecting the largest valid frame combination whose combination probability P.sub.cmb satisfies a selected probability P.sub.slctd. Noise is thus reduced while the probability of finding a valid frame combination is enhanced. Spacecraft structures are also provided for practicing the methods of the invention.

  12. Lightweight tip-tilt mirror in correlation tracker system of the Space Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Yang, Shimo; Jiang, Aimin

    2005-12-01

    To compensate the image motion caused by random atmospheric turbulence and mechanical vibration, a high performance correlation tracker designed for the Space Solar Telescope (SST) has been realized in National Astronomical Observatories. Correlation tracker is to stabilize the image and provide the stabilized objective to CCD. The main optical telescope can obtain the highest spatial resolution and ensure the image processing. Tip-tilt mirror is the crucial element of the correlation tracker. The lightweight mirror is to adapt to work normally with space using and satisfy the space environmental requirement. Tip-tilt mirror's material is SiC. Confirming the appropriate joint with the platform and supporting mode through Finite Element Method. Then calculating the surface shape quality value (RMS) of the mirror effected by inertial load and temperature. The calculation results show that the tip-tilt mirror has enough stiffness and intensity. The mirror's surface shape quality value can satisfy the optical requirement of the correlation tracker system.

  13. Preliminary results from a study of the impact of digital activity trackers on health risk status.

    PubMed

    Rowe-Roberts, Dinah; Cercos, Robert; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    Digital activity trackers are becoming increasingly more widespread and affordable, providing new opportunities to support participatory e-health programs in which participants take an active role. However, there is limited knowledge of how to deploy these activity trackers within these programs. In response, we conducted a 7-month study with 212 employees using a wireless activity tracker to log step count. Our results suggest that these devices can support improving physical activity levels and consequently reduce diabetes risk factors. Furthermore, the intervention seems more effective for people with higher risk factors. With our work we aim to contribute to a better understanding of the issues and challenges involved in the design of participatory e-health programs that include activity trackers. PMID:25087541

  14. Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) design and analysis. Two-axis gimbal star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) focused chiefly on the two-axis gimballed star tracker and electronics design improved from that of Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS), and application of the improved tracker for PADS at geosynchronous altitude. System design, system analysis, software design, and hardware design activities are reported. The system design encompasses the PADS configuration, system performance characteristics, component design summaries, and interface considerations. The PADS design and performance analysis includes error analysis, performance analysis via attitude determination simulation, and star tracker servo design analysis. The design of the star tracker and electronics are discussed. Sensor electronics schematics are included. A detailed characterization of the application software algorithms and computer requirements is provided.

  15. Tampa Bay environmental atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunneke, J.T.; Palik, T.F.

    1984-12-01

    Biological and water resource data for Tampa Bay were compiled and mapped at a scale of 1:24,000. This atlas consists of (1) composited information overlain on 18 biological and 20 water resource base maps and (2) an accompanying map narrative. Subjects mapped on the water resource maps are contours of the mean middepth specific conductivity which can be converted to salinity; bathymetry, sediments, tidal currents, the freshwater/saltwater interface, dredge spoil disposal sites; locations of industrial and municipal point source discharges, tide stations, and water quality sampling stations. The point source discharge locations show permitted capacity and the water quality sampling stations show 5-year averages for chlorophyll, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, and total nitrogen. The subjects shown on the biological resource maps are clam and oyster beds, shellfish harvest areas, colonial bird nesting sites, manatee habitat, seagrass beds and artificial reefs. Spawning seasons, nursery habitats, and adult habitats are identified for major fish species. The atlas will provide useful information for coastal planning and management in Tampa Bay.

  16. The ATLAS-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Marsha R.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS)-1 was launched on March 24, 1992, carrying an international payload of 14 investigations, and conducted a successful series of experiments and observations over the subsequent 9 days. The objectives included: measuring the solar irradiance at high precision; remote sensing of the composition of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere using techniques for wavelengths from 300 A to 5 mm; and inducing auroras by means of 1.2 amp electron beams. A subset of these instruments will subsequently be flown in a series of shuttle missions at roughly 1-year intervals over an 11-year solar cycle. The frequent recalibration opportunities afforded by such a program allows the transfer of calibrations to longer duration orbiting observatories. The ATLAS-1 mission occurred at the same time as the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), TIROS-N, and ERB satellites were in operation, and correlative measurements were conducted with these. In all, the mission was most successful in achieving its objectives and a unique and important database was acquired, with many scientific firsts accomplished. This paper provides the mission overview for the series of papers that follow.

  17. Atlas Distributed Analysis Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Hoz, Santiago Gonzalez; Ruiz, Luis March; Liko, Dietrich

    2008-06-01

    The ATLAS production system has been successfully used to run production of simulation data at an unprecedented scale. Up to 10000 jobs were processed in one day. The experiences obtained operating the system on several grid flavours was essential to perform a user analysis using grid resources. First tests of the distributed analysis system were then performed. In the preparation phase data was registered in the LHC File Catalog (LFC) and replicated in external sites. For the main test, few resources were used. All these tests are only a first step towards the validation of the computing model. The ATLAS management computing board decided to integrate the collaboration efforts in distributed analysis in only one project, GANGA. The goal is to test the reconstruction and analysis software in a large scale Data production using Grid flavors in several sites. GANGA allows trivial switching between running test jobs on a local batch system and running large-scale analyses on the Grid; it provides job splitting and merging, and includes automated job monitoring and output retrieval.

  18. Momentum resolution improvement technique for silicon tracking detectors using d E/d x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganis, Stathes D.; Tang, Jaw-Luen

    2001-08-01

    A technique for improving the momentum resolution for low momentum charged particles in few layer silicon based trackers is presented. The particle momenta are determined from the measured Landau d E/d x distribution and the Bethe-Bloch formula in the 1/ β2 region. It is shown that a factor of two improvement of the momentum determination is achieved as compared to standard track fitting methods. This improvement is important in large scale heavy ion experiments which cover the low transverse momentum spectra using stand-alone silicon tracking devices with a few planes like the ones used in STAR at RHIC and ALICE at LHC.

  19. The silicon sensors for the Compact Muon Solenoid tracker—design and qualification procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agram, J.-L.; Angarano, M. M.; Assouak, S.; Bergauer, T.; Bilei, G. M.; Borrello, L.; Brianzi, M.; Civinini, C.; Dierlamm, A.; Dinu, N.; Demaria, N.; Feld, L.; Focardi, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Forton, E.; Furgeri, A.; Gregoire, Gh.; Hartmann, F.; Honma, A.; Juillot, P.; Kartashov, D.; Krammer, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Mannelli, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; Militaru, O.; Piasecki, C.; Santinelli, R.; Sentenac, D.; Servoli, L.; Starodumov, A.; Tonelli, G.; Wang, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN. Its inner tracking system consist of the world largest Silicon Strip Tracker (SST). In total it implements 24,244 silicon sensors covering an area of 206 m2. To construct a large system of this size and ensure its functionality for the full lifetime of 10 years under LHC condition, the CMS collaboration developed an elaborate design and a detailed quality assurance program. This paper describes the strategy and shows first results on sensor qualification.

  20. Real time tracking with a silicon telescope prototype using the "artificial retina" algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abba, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Caponio, F.; Cenci, R.; Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fu, J.; Geraci, A.; Grizzuti, M.; Lusardi, N.; Marino, P.; Monti, M.; Morello, M. J.; Neri, N.; Ninci, D.; Petruzzo, M.; Piucci, A.; Punzi, G.; Ristori, L.; Spinella, F.; Stracka, S.; Tonelli, D.; Walsh, J.

    2016-07-01

    We present the first prototype of a silicon tracker using the artificial retina algorithm for fast track finding. The algorithm is inspired by the neurobiological mechanism of recognition of edges in mammals visual cortex. It is based on extensive parallelization and is implemented on commercial FPGAs allowing us to reconstruct real time tracks with offline-like quality and < 1 μs latencies. The practical device consists of a telescope with 8 single-sided silicon strip sensors and custom DAQ boards equipped with Xilinx Kintex 7 FPGAs that perform the readout of the sensors and the track reconstruction in real time.

  1. ATLAS discoveries of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonry, J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    We report the following transients found by the ATLAS survey (see Tonry et al. ATel #8680). ATLAS is a twin 0.5m telescope system on Haleakala and Mauna Loa. The first unit is operational on Haleakala is robotically surveying the sky. Two filters are used, cyan and orange (denoted c and o, all mags in AB system), more information is on http://www.fallingstar.com.

  2. ATLAS discoveries of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonry, J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the following transients found by the ATLAS survey (see Tonry et al. ATel #8680). ATLAS is a twin 0.5m telescope system on Haleakala and Mauna Loa. The first unit is operational on Haleakala is robotically surveying the sky. Two filters are used, cyan and orange (denoted c and o, all mags in AB system), more information is on http://www.fallingstar.com.

  3. The ATLAS-1 Shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Marsha R.; Sullivan, Kathryn D.

    1992-01-01

    The Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-1) encompasses instruments which will be useful in determining long-term solar variability as well as in forging links to the measurements obtained by other spacecraft for the perturbed middle and upper atmosphere. The simultaneous measurements that will be conducted by ATLAS-1 of stratospheric concentrations of ozone, chlorine monoxide and water vapor, at relatively high latitudes during the northern spring, will be especially timely.

  4. ATLAS discoveries of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonry, J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.

    2016-03-01

    We report the following transients found by the ATLAS survey (see Tonry et al. ATel #8680). ATLAS is a twin 0.5m telescope system on Haleakala and Mauna Loa. The first unit is operational on Haleakala is robotically surveying the sky. Two filters are used, cyan and orange (denoted c and o, all mags in AB system), more information is on http://www.fallingstar.com.

  5. ATLAS discoveries of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonry, J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.

    2016-08-01

    We report the following transients found by the ATLAS survey (see Tonry et al. ATel #8680). ATLAS is a twin 0.5m telescope system on Haleakala and Mauna Loa. The first unit is operational on Haleakala is robotically surveying the sky. Two filters are used, cyan and orange (denoted c and o, all mags in AB system), more information is on http://www.fallingstar.com.

  6. Upgrading Metallurgical-Grade Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, L. M.; Moore, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    Closed-loop process produces semiconductor-grade silicon. Metallurgical-grade silicon converted to ultrapure silicon by reacting with hydrogen and silicon tetrahalide to form trihalosilane, purifying this intermediate and again decomposing to high purity silicon in third stage. Heterogeneously and homogeneously nucleated polycrystalline silicon used in semiconductor device applications and in silicon photovoltaic solar cell fabrication.

  7. Silicon Micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwenspoek, Miko; Jansen, Henri V.

    2004-08-01

    This comprehensive book provides an overview of the key techniques used in the fabrication of micron-scale structures in silicon. Recent advances in these techniques have made it possible to create a new generation of microsystem devices, such as microsensors, accelerometers, micropumps, and miniature robots. The authors underpin the discussion of each technique with a brief review of the fundamental physical and chemical principles involved. They pay particular attention to methods such as isotropic and anisotropic wet chemical etching, wafer bonding, reactive ion etching, and surface micromachining. There is a special section on bulk micromachining, and the authors also discuss release mechanisms for movable microstructures. The book is a blend of detailed experimental and theoretical material, and will be of great interest to graduate students and researchers in electrical engineering and materials science whose work involves the study of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).

  8. Methodology of Lithuanian climate atlas mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiukas, Donatas; Galvonaitė, Audronė; Česnulevičius, Algimantas

    2015-06-01

    Climate atlases summarize large sets of quantitative and qualitative data and are results of complex analytical cartographic work. These special geographical publications summarize long term meteorological observations, provide maps and figures which characterise different climate elements. Visual information is supplemented with explanatory texts. A lot of information on short and long term changes of climate elements were provided in published Lithuanian atlases (Atlas of Lithuanian SDR, 1981; Climate Atlas of Lithuania, 2013), as well as in prepared but unpublished Lithuanian Atlas (1989) and in upcoming new national atlas publications (National Atlas of Lithuania. 1st part, 2014). Climate atlases has to be constantly updated to be relevant and to describe current climate conditions. Comprehensive indicators of Lithuanian climate are provided in different cartographic publications. Different time periods, various data sets and diverse cartographic data analysis tools and visualisation methods were used in these different publications.

  9. Improving the WIYN Telescope's pointing and tracking performance with a star tracker camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Jayadev K.; Harbeck, Daniel R.; Corson, Charles; Abareshi, Behzad; Schweiker, Heidi; Liu, Wilson; Hooper, Eric J.; Percival, Jeffrey W.; Jaehnig, Kurt P.

    2014-07-01

    We report on the implementation of a star tracker camera to improve the telescope pointing and tracking, at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. We base the overall concept on a star tracker system developed at the University of Wisconsin and routinely in use now for rocket and high-altitude balloon navigation. This fairly simple system provides pointing and station-keeping information, accurate to a few arcseconds, typically within a second.

  10. Intelligent error correction method applied on an active pixel sensor based star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used on-board of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The active pixel sensor (APS) technology, introduced in the early 90-ties, allows now the beneficial replacement of CCD detectors by APS detectors with respect to performance, reliability, power, mass and cost. The company's heritage in star tracker design started in the early 80-ties with the launch of the worldwide first fully autonomous star tracker system ASTRO1 to the Russian MIR space station. Jena-Optronik recently developed an active pixel sensor based autonomous star tracker "ASTRO APS" as successor of the CCD based star tracker product series ASTRO1, ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15. Key features of the APS detector technology are, a true xy-address random access, the multiple windowing read out and the on-chip signal processing including the analogue to digital conversion. These features can be used for robust star tracking at high slew rates and under worse conditions like stray light and solar flare induced single event upsets. A special algorithm have been developed to manage the typical APS detector error contributors like fixed pattern noise (FPN), dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU) and white spots. The algorithm works fully autonomous and adapts to e.g. increasing DSNU and up-coming white spots automatically without ground maintenance or re-calibration. In contrast to conventional correction methods the described algorithm does not need calibration data memory like full image sized calibration data sets. The application of the presented algorithm managing the typical APS detector error contributors is a key element for the design of star trackers for long term satellite applications like

  11. Thin silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.B.; Bacon, C.; DiReda, V.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E.; Cotter, J.; Hughes-Lampros, T.; Rand, J.A.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M.

    1992-12-01

    The silicon-film design achieves high performance by using a dun silicon layer and incorporating light trapping. Optimally designed thin crystalline solar cells (<50 microns thick) have performance advantages over conventional thick devices. The high-performance silicon-film design employs a metallurgical barrier between the low-cost substrate and the thin silicon layer. Light trapping properties of silicon-film on ceramic solar cells are presented and analyzed. Recent advances in process development are described here.

  12. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitkin, Sergey; Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; Benjamin, Doug; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Gable, Ian; Hendrix, Val; Hover, John; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Love, Peter; Ohman, Henrik; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Walker, Rodney; Zaytsev, Alexander; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  13. A smart car for the surface shape measurement of large antenna based on laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yonggang; Hu, Jing; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    The geometric accuracy of the surface shape of large antenna is an important indicator of antenna’s quality. Currently, high-precision measurement of large antenna surface shape can be performed in two ways: photogrammetry and laser tracker. Photogrammetry is a rapid method, but its accuracy is not enough good. Laser tracker can achieve high precision, but it is very inconvenient to move the reflector (target mirror) on the surface of the antenna by hand during the measurement. So, a smart car is designed to carry the reflector in this paper. The car, controlled by wireless, has a small weight and a strong ability for climbing, and there is a holding bracket gripping the reflector and controlling reflector rise up and drop down on the car. During the measurement of laser tracker, the laser beam between laser tracker and the reflector must not be interrupted, so two high-precision three-dimensional miniature electronic compasses, which can real-time monitor the relative angle between the holding bracket and the laser tracker’s head, are both equipped on the car and the head of laser tracker to achieve automatic alignment between reflector and laser beam. With the aid of the smart car, the measurement of laser tracker has the advantages of high precision and rapidity.

  14. Optical System Error Analysis and Calibration Method of High-Accuracy Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The star tracker is a high-accuracy attitude measurement device widely used in spacecraft. Its performance depends largely on the precision of the optical system parameters. Therefore, the analysis of the optical system parameter errors and a precise calibration model are crucial to the accuracy of the star tracker. Research in this field is relatively lacking a systematic and universal analysis up to now. This paper proposes in detail an approach for the synthetic error analysis of the star tracker, without the complicated theoretical derivation. This approach can determine the error propagation relationship of the star tracker, and can build intuitively and systematically an error model. The analysis results can be used as a foundation and a guide for the optical design, calibration, and compensation of the star tracker. A calibration experiment is designed and conducted. Excellent calibration results are achieved based on the calibration model. To summarize, the error analysis approach and the calibration method are proved to be adequate and precise, and could provide an important guarantee for the design, manufacture, and measurement of high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:23567527

  15. Signal-source trackers on Infrared-based Dedicated Short-Range Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Po-Wen; Chen, Rongshun

    2010-03-01

    Location-based ITS applications, especially the applications based on Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, require the absolute or relative location information of the communicating objects. GPS receivers are often used to give the absolute locations of the objects. However, the updating rate and the resolution of GPS receivers are not sufficient for neighboring and highly mobile vehicles. This paper renders two designs, a one-dimensional IR signal-source tracker and a two-dimensional IR signal-source tracker, to estimate the location of a communicating target. By analyzing the strength of the received signal, the relative location of the target is identified once the communication data are received. The realized 1D and 2D IR signal-source tracker can give the precise location, where the repeated tests on the 2D tracker show the given locations with low deviation. Since these two tracker designs are realized with the same IR components in the Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC), the communicating devices, the roadside unit (RSU) and the onboard unit (OBU), can use the 1D or 2D tracker design depending on the application to locate each other, and then to control the radiation direction for saving power, to facilitate the completeness of transactions, and to locate vehicles in V2V applications. In this work, the proposed devices are designed, realized and tested. The experimental results show that these two designs are feasible.

  16. Large Gas Electron Multiplier Trackers for Super Bigbite Spectrometer at Jefferson lab Hall A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenboonruang, K.; Gnanvo, K.; Liyanage, N.; Nelyubin, V.; Sacher, S.; Cisbani, E.; Musico, P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2013-04-01

    The 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) makes many exciting nuclear experiments possible. These experiments also require new high performance instrumentation. The Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) was proposed to perform a series of high precision nucleon form factor experiments at large momentum transfer. The SBS will be capable of operating at a very high luminosity and provide a large solid angle acceptance of 76 msr. SBS will be equipped with a double focal plane polarimeter. Thus, SBS will have three large trackers made of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers. The first, second, and third trackers will consist of six, four, and four tracking layers respectively. When completed in 2017, the SBS GEM trackers will form one of the largest sets of GEM chambers in the world. The GEM trackers allow the SBS to operate under high background rates over 500 kHz/cm^2, while providing an excellent spatial resolution of 70 μm. The first tracker will be constructed at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, while the second and third trackers will be built at the University of Virginia. In 2012, the first UVa SBS GEM chamber prototype was successfully constructed and tested. The GEM chamber construction details and test results will be presented in this talk.

  17. Collaborative engineering and design management for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollison, Nicholas T.; Hayes, Richard J.; Good, John M.; Booth, John A.; Savage, Richard D.; Jackson, John R.; Rafal, Marc D.; Beno, Joseph H.

    2010-07-01

    The engineering and design of systems as complex as the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's* new tracker require that multiple tasks be executed in parallel and overlapping efforts. When the design of individual subsystems is distributed among multiple organizations, teams, and individuals, challenges can arise with respect to managing design productivity and coordinating successful collaborative exchanges. This paper focuses on design management issues and current practices for the tracker design portion of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade project. The scope of the tracker upgrade requires engineering contributions and input from numerous fields including optics, instrumentation, electromechanics, software controls engineering, and site-operations. Successful system-level integration of tracker subsystems and interfaces is critical to the telescope's ultimate performance in astronomical observation. Software and process controls for design information and workflow management have been implemented to assist the collaborative transfer of tracker design data. The tracker system architecture and selection of subsystem interfaces has also proven to be a determining factor in design task formulation and team communication needs. Interface controls and requirements change controls will be discussed, and critical team interactions are recounted (a group-participation Failure Modes and Effects Analysis [FMEA] is one of special interest). This paper will be of interest to engineers, designers, and managers engaging in multi-disciplinary and parallel engineering projects that require coordination among multiple individuals, teams, and organizations.

  18. Optical system error analysis and calibration method of high-accuracy star trackers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The star tracker is a high-accuracy attitude measurement device widely used in spacecraft. Its performance depends largely on the precision of the optical system parameters. Therefore, the analysis of the optical system parameter errors and a precise calibration model are crucial to the accuracy of the star tracker. Research in this field is relatively lacking a systematic and universal analysis up to now. This paper proposes in detail an approach for the synthetic error analysis of the star tracker, without the complicated theoretical derivation. This approach can determine the error propagation relationship of the star tracker, and can build intuitively and systematically an error model. The analysis results can be used as a foundation and a guide for the optical design, calibration, and compensation of the star tracker. A calibration experiment is designed and conducted. Excellent calibration results are achieved based on the calibration model. To summarize, the error analysis approach and the calibration method are proved to be adequate and precise, and could provide an important guarantee for the design, manufacture, and measurement of high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:23567527

  19. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  20. Calibration Test Set for a Phase-Comparison Digital Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boas, Amy; Li, Samuel; McMaster, Robert

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus that generates four signals at a frequency of 7.1 GHz having precisely controlled relative phases and equal amplitudes has been designed and built. This apparatus is intended mainly for use in computer-controlled automated calibration and testing of a phase-comparison digital tracker (PCDT) that measures the relative phases of replicas of the same X-band signal received by four antenna elements in an array. (The relative direction of incidence of the signal on the array is then computed from the relative phases.) The present apparatus can also be used to generate precisely phased signals for steering a beam transmitted from a phased antenna array. The apparatus (see figure) includes a 7.1-GHz signal generator, the output of which is fed to a four-way splitter. Each of the four splitter outputs is attenuated by 10 dB and fed as input to a vector modulator, wherein DC bias voltages are used to control the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. The bias voltages are generated by digital-to-analog- converter circuits on a control board that receives its digital control input from a computer running a LabVIEW program. The outputs of the vector modulators are further attenuated by 10 dB, then presented at high-grade radio-frequency connectors. The attenuation reduces the effects of changing mismatch and reflections. The apparatus was calibrated in a process in which the bias voltages were first stepped through all possible IQ settings. Then in a reverse interpolation performed by use of MATLAB software, a lookup table containing 3,600 IQ settings, representing equal amplitude and phase increments of 0.1 , was created for each vector modulator. During operation of the apparatus, these lookup tables are used in calibrating the PCDT.

  1. Neonatal Atlas Construction Using Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Wang, Li; Wu, Guorong; Li, Gang; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Atlas construction generally includes first an image registration step to normalize all images into a common space and then an atlas building step to fuse the information from all the aligned images. Although numerous atlas construction studies have been performed to improve the accuracy of the image registration step, unweighted or simply weighted average is often used in the atlas building step. In this article, we propose a novel patch-based sparse representation method for atlas construction after all images have been registered into the common space. By taking advantage of local sparse representation, more anatomical details can be recovered in the built atlas. To make the anatomical structures spatially smooth in the atlas, the anatomical feature constraints on group structure of representations and also the overlapping of neighboring patches are imposed to ensure the anatomical consistency between neighboring patches. The proposed method has been applied to 73 neonatal MR images with poor spatial resolution and low tissue contrast, for constructing a neonatal brain atlas with sharp anatomical details. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can significantly enhance the quality of the constructed atlas by discovering more anatomical details especially in the highly convoluted cortical regions. The resulting atlas demonstrates superior performance of our atlas when applied to spatially normalizing three different neonatal datasets, compared with other start-of-the-art neonatal brain atlases. PMID:24638883

  2. ATLAS Series of Shuttle Missions. Volume 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This technical paper contains selected papers from Geophysical Research Letters (Volume 23, Number 17) on ATLAS series of shuttle missions. The ATLAS space shuttle missions were conducted in March 1992, April 1993, and November 1994. This paper discusses solar irradiance, middle atmospheric temperatures, and trace gas concentrations measurements made by the ATLAS payload and companion instruments.

  3. Purified silicon production system

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2004-03-30

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  4. tkLayout: a design tool for innovative silicon tracking detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, G.

    2014-03-01

    and simulation experts to focus their efforts on other important or specific issues. Even if tkLayout was designed for the CMS tracker upgrade project, its flexibility makes it experiment-agnostic, so that it could be easily adapted to model other tracking detectors. The technology behind tkLayout is presented, as well as some of the results obtained in the context of the CMS silicon tracker design studies.

  5. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika; Singh, Balraj

    2015-09-01

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  6. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika; Singh, Balraj

    2015-09-15

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  7. Atlas of fatigue curves

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    This Atlas was developed to serve engineers who are looking for fatigue data on a particular metal or alloy. Having these curves compiled in a single book will also facilitate the computerization of the involved data. It is pointed out that plans are under way to make the data in this book available in ASCII files for analysis by computer programs. S-N curves which typify effects of major variables are considered along with low-carbon steels, medium-carbon steels, alloy steels, HSLA steels, high-strength alloy steels, heat-resisting steels, stainless steels, maraging steels, cast irons, and heat-resisting alloys. Attention is also given to aluminum alloys, copper alloys, magnesium alloys, molybdenum, tin alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, zirconium, steel castings, closed-die forgings, powder metallurgy parts, composites, effects of surface treatments, and test results for component parts.

  8. Consumer Energy Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  9. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography

  10. An atlas of two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Miró, Pere; Audiffred, Martha; Heine, Thomas

    2014-09-21

    The discovery of graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials together with recent advances in exfoliation techniques have set the foundations for the manufacturing of single layered sheets from any layered 3D material. The family of 2D materials encompasses a wide selection of compositions including almost all the elements of the periodic table. This derives into a rich variety of electronic properties including metals, semimetals, insulators and semiconductors with direct and indirect band gaps ranging from ultraviolet to infrared throughout the visible range. Thus, they have the potential to play a fundamental role in the future of nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and the assembly of novel ultrathin and flexible devices. We categorize the 2D materials according to their structure, composition and electronic properties. In this review we distinguish atomically thin materials (graphene, silicene, germanene, and their saturated forms; hexagonal boron nitride; silicon carbide), rare earth, semimetals, transition metal chalcogenides and halides, and finally synthetic organic 2D materials, exemplified by 2D covalent organic frameworks. Our exhaustive data collection presented in this Atlas demonstrates the large diversity of electronic properties, including band gaps and electron mobilities. The key points of modern computational approaches applied to 2D materials are presented with special emphasis to cover their range of application, peculiarities and pitfalls. PMID:24825454

  11. Behavior Change Techniques Present in Wearable Activity Trackers: A Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Li, Melissa; Giangregorio, Lora; Burns, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers are promising as interventions that offer guidance and support for increasing physical activity and health-focused tracking. Most adults do not meet their recommended daily activity guidelines, and wearable fitness trackers are increasingly cited as having great potential to improve the physical activity levels of adults. Objective The objective of this study was to use the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy to examine if the design of wearable activity trackers incorporates behavior change techniques (BCTs). A secondary objective was to critically analyze whether the BCTs present relate to known drivers of behavior change, such as self-efficacy, with the intention of extending applicability to older adults in addition to the overall population. Methods Wearing each device for a period of 1 week, two independent raters used CALO-RE taxonomy to code the BCTs of the seven wearable activity trackers available in Canada as of March 2014. These included Fitbit Flex, Misfit Shine, Withings Pulse, Jawbone UP24, Spark Activity Tracker by SparkPeople, Nike+ FuelBand SE, and Polar Loop. We calculated interrater reliability using Cohen's kappa. Results The average number of BCTs identified was 16.3/40. Withings Pulse had the highest number of BCTs and Misfit Shine had the lowest. Most techniques centered around self-monitoring and self-regulation, all of which have been associated with improved physical activity in older adults. Techniques related to planning and providing instructions were scarce. Conclusions Overall, wearable activity trackers contain several BCTs that have been shown to increase physical activity in older adults. Although more research and development must be done to fully understand the potential of wearables as health interventions, the current wearable trackers offer significant potential with regard to BCTs relevant to uptake by all populations, including older adults. PMID:27122452

  12. Cross modality registration of video and magnetic tracker data for 3D appearance and structure modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Dusty; Chen, Chao-I.; Wang, Yuan-Fang

    2010-02-01

    The paper reports a fully-automated, cross-modality sensor data registration scheme between video and magnetic tracker data. This registration scheme is intended for use in computerized imaging systems to model the appearance, structure, and dimension of human anatomy in three dimensions (3D) from endoscopic videos, particularly colonoscopic videos, for cancer research and clinical practices. The proposed cross-modality calibration procedure operates this way: Before a colonoscopic procedure, the surgeon inserts a magnetic tracker into the working channel of the endoscope or otherwise fixes the tracker's position on the scope. The surgeon then maneuvers the scope-tracker assembly to view a checkerboard calibration pattern from a few different viewpoints for a few seconds. The calibration procedure is then completed, and the relative pose (translation and rotation) between the reference frames of the magnetic tracker and the scope is determined. During the colonoscopic procedure, the readings from the magnetic tracker are used to automatically deduce the pose (both position and orientation) of the scope's reference frame over time, without complicated image analysis. Knowing the scope movement over time then allows us to infer the 3D appearance and structure of the organs and tissues in the scene. While there are other well-established mechanisms for inferring the movement of the camera (scope) from images, they are often sensitive to mistakes in image analysis, error accumulation, and structure deformation. The proposed method using a magnetic tracker to establish the camera motion parameters thus provides a robust and efficient alternative for 3D model construction. Furthermore, the calibration procedure does not require special training nor use expensive calibration equipment (except for a camera calibration pattern-a checkerboard pattern-that can be printed on any laser or inkjet printer).

  13. Digital solar edge tracker for the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E., III; Moore, A. S.; Stump, C. W.; Mayo, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    The optical and electronic design of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (Haloe) elevation sun sensor is described. The Haloe instrument is a gas-correlation radiometer now being developed at NASA Langley for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The system uses a Galilean telescope to form a solar image on a linear silicon photodiode array. The array is a self-scanned monolithic CCD. The addresses of both solar edges imaged on the array are used by the control/pointing system to scan the Haloe science instantaneous field of view (IFOV) across the vertical solar diameter during instrument calibration and then to maintain the science IFOV 4 arcmin below the top edge during the science data occultation event. Vertical resolution of 16 arcsec and a radiometric dynamic range of 100 are achieved at the 700-nm operating wavelength. The design provides for loss of individual photodiode elements without loss of angular tracking capability.

  14. National Atlas of the United States Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    The 'National Atlas of the United States of America?', published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1970, is out of print, but many of its maps can be purchased separately. Maps that span facing pages in the atlas are printed on one sheet. Maps dated after 1970 and before 1997 are either revisions of original atlas maps or new maps published in the original atlas format. The USGS and its partners in government and industry began work on a new 'National Atlas' in 1997. Though most new atlas products are designed for the World Wide Web, we are continuing our tradition of printing high-quality maps of America. In 1998, the first completely redesigned maps of the 'National Atlas of the United States?' were published.

  15. Cassini Tour Atlas Automated Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grazier, Kevin R.; Roumeliotis, Chris; Lange, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    During the Cassini spacecraft s cruise phase and nominal mission, the Cassini Science Planning Team developed and maintained an online database of geometric and timing information called the Cassini Tour Atlas. The Tour Atlas consisted of several hundreds of megabytes of EVENTS mission planning software outputs, tables, plots, and images used by mission scientists for observation planning. Each time the nominal mission trajectory was altered or tweaked, a new Tour Atlas had to be regenerated manually. In the early phases of Cassini s Equinox Mission planning, an a priori estimate suggested that mission tour designers would develop approximately 30 candidate tours within a short period of time. So that Cassini scientists could properly analyze the science opportunities in each candidate tour quickly and thoroughly so that the optimal series of orbits for science return could be selected, a separate Tour Atlas was required for each trajectory. The task of manually generating the number of trajectory analyses in the allotted time would have been impossible, so the entire task was automated using code written in five different programming languages. This software automates the generation of the Cassini Tour Atlas database. It performs with one UNIX command what previously took a day or two of human labor.

  16. The ATLAS distributed analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legger, F.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of Grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high and steadily improving; Grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters provides user support and communicates user problems to the sites. Both the user support techniques and the direct feedback of users have been effective in improving the success rate and user experience when utilizing the distributed computing environment. In this contribution a description of the main components, activities and achievements of ATLAS distributed analysis is given. Several future improvements being undertaken will be described.

  17. A Photographic Atlas of Selected Regions of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Edward Emerson; Orin Dobek, Foreword by Gerald

    2014-08-01

    Foreword Gerald Orin Dobek; Preface from the original Atlas; Introduction from the original Atlas; Bibliography from the original Atlas; Catalogue of 349 dark objects in the sky; Biography of Edward Emerson Barnard.

  18. The D/Ø Silicon Track Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrück, Georg

    2003-09-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the D Ø experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam.

  19. Tracker: A three-dimensional raytracing program for ionospheric radio propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; DeLapp, D.; Sutherland, C.D.; Farrer, R.G.

    1994-12-01

    TRACKER is an extension of a three-dimensional Hamiltonian raytrace code developed some thirty years ago by R. Michael Jones. Subsequent modifications to this code, which is commonly called the {open_quotes}Jones Code,{close_quotes} were documented by Jones and Stephensen (1975). TRACKER incorporates an interactive user`s interface, modern differential equation integrators, graphical outputs, homing algorithms, and the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) ionosphere. TRACKER predicts the three-dimensional paths of radio waves through model ionospheres by numerically integrating Hamilton`s equations, which are a differential expression of Fermat`s principle of least time. By using continuous models, the Hamiltonian method avoids false caustics and discontinuous raypath properties often encountered in other raytracing methods. In addition to computing the raypath, TRACKER also calculates the group path (or pulse travel time), the phase path, the geometrical (or {open_quotes}real{close_quotes}) pathlength, and the Doppler shift (if the time variation of the ionosphere is explicitly included). Computational speed can be traded for accuracy by specifying the maximum allowable integration error per step in the integration. Only geometrical optics are included in the main raytrace code; no partial reflections or diffraction effects are taken into account. In addition, TRACKER does not lend itself to statistical descriptions of propagation -- it requires a deterministic model of the ionosphere.

  20. Application of virtual distances methodology to laser tracker verification with an indexed metrology platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acero, R.; Santolaria, J.; Pueo, M.; Aguilar, J. J.; Brau, A.

    2015-11-01

    High-range measuring equipment like laser trackers need large dimension calibrated reference artifacts in their calibration and verification procedures. In this paper, a new verification procedure for portable coordinate measuring instruments based on the generation and evaluation of virtual distances with an indexed metrology platform is developed. This methodology enables the definition of an unlimited number of reference distances without materializing them in a physical gauge to be used as a reference. The generation of the virtual points and reference lengths derived is linked to the concept of the indexed metrology platform and the knowledge of the relative position and orientation of its upper and lower platforms with high accuracy. It is the measuring instrument together with the indexed metrology platform one that remains still, rotating the virtual mesh around them. As a first step, the virtual distances technique is applied to a laser tracker in this work. The experimental verification procedure of the laser tracker with virtual distances is simulated and further compared with the conventional verification procedure of the laser tracker with the indexed metrology platform. The results obtained in terms of volumetric performance of the laser tracker proved the suitability of the virtual distances methodology in calibration and verification procedures for portable coordinate measuring instruments, broadening and expanding the possibilities for the definition of reference distances in these procedures.

  1. A Brightness-Referenced Star Identification Algorithm for APS Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4∼5 times that of the pyramid method and 35∼37 times that of the geometric method. PMID:25299950

  2. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:26948412

  3. A brightness-referenced star identification algorithm for APS star trackers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4~5 times that of the pyramid method and 35~37 times that of the geometric method. PMID:25299950

  4. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-03-01

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers.

  5. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:26948412

  6. Process for producing silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.; Carleton, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  7. ATLAS-1 Video News Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Allen Kenitzer, from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), narrates this NASA Kennedy Space Center video presenting a MSFC-Television news release describing the overall scientific objectives of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications in Science-1 (ATLAS-1) Spacelab mission. Byron Lichtenberg (NASA Science Astronaut) and Anthony O'Neil (ATLAS-1 Mission Manager) explain that the 13 sophisticated and complementary instruments carried in shuttle Atlantis' payload bay are designed to identify the chemical species in our atmosphere, to measure the Sun's energy falling on and entering the atmosphere, to study the behavior of charged particles in the electric and magnetic fields surrounding the earth, and to gather ultraviolet light from stars and galaxies. ATLAS-1 is the first Spacelab flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Mission to Planet Earth.

  8. ATLAS DQ2 Deletion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleynik, Danila; Petrosyan, Artem; Garonne, Vincent; Campana, Simone

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management project DQ2 is responsible for the replication, access and bookkeeping of ATLAS data across more than 100 distributed grid sites. It also enforces data management policies decided on by the collaboration and defined in the ATLAS computing model. The DQ2 Deletion Service is one of the most important DDM services. This distributed service interacts with 3rd party grid middleware and the DQ2 catalogues to serve data deletion requests on the grid. Furthermore, it also takes care of retry strategies, check-pointing transactions, load management and fault tolerance. In this paper special attention is paid to the technical details which are used to achieve the high performance of service, accomplished without overloading either site storage, catalogues or other DQ2 components. Special attention is also paid to the deletion monitoring service that allows operators a detailed view of the working system.

  9. The Sudden Stratospheric Warming Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoberg, J. P.; Butler, A. H.; Seidel, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are large and rapid temperature increases in the polar stratosphere associated with a complete reversal of the climatological westerly winds in wintertime. These extreme events can have substantial impacts on wintertime surface climate, such as cold air outbreaks over North America and Eurasia, or anomalous warming over Greenland. Here we promote our progress towards a new atlas of historical SSW events and their impacts on the surface. The SSW atlas contains a variety of metrics, time series, maps, and animations for individual SSW events. The atlas will allow users to examine the structure and development of individual SSWs, the variability between events, the surface impacts in temperature and precipitation, and the impacts of SSWs during years with certain tropospheric signatures, like El Niño or La Niña winters.

  10. Electrodeposition of molten silicon

    DOEpatents

    De Mattei, Robert C.; Elwell, Dennis; Feigelson, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Silicon dioxide is dissolved in a molten electrolytic bath, preferably comprising barium oxide and barium fluoride. A direct current is passed between an anode and a cathode in the bath to reduce the dissolved silicon dioxide to non-alloyed silicon in molten form, which is removed from the bath.

  11. ATLAS computing on CSCS HPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipcic, A.; Haug, S.; Hostettler, M.; Walker, R.; Weber, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Piz Daint Cray XC30 HPC system at CSCS, the Swiss National Supercomputing centre, was the highest ranked European system on TOP500 in 2014, also featuring GPU accelerators. Event generation and detector simulation for the ATLAS experiment have been enabled for this machine. We report on the technical solutions, performance, HPC policy challenges and possible future opportunities for HEP on extreme HPC systems. In particular a custom made integration to the ATLAS job submission system has been developed via the Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware. Furthermore, a partial GPU acceleration of the Geant4 detector simulations has been implemented.

  12. The ATLAS Positron Experiment -- APEX

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.; Dunford, R.; Kutschera, W.; Rhein, M.D.; Schiffer, J.P.; Wilt, P.; Wuosmaa, A.; Austin, S.M.; Kashy, E.; Winfield, J.S.; Yurkon, J.E.; Bazin, D.; Calaprice, F.P.; Young, A.; Chan, K.C.; Chisti, A.; Chowhury, P.; Greenberg, J.S.; Kaloskamis, N.; Lister, C.J.; Fox, J.D.; Roa, E.; Freedman, S.; Maier, M.R.; Freer, M.; Gazes, S.; Hallin, A.L.; Liu, M.; Happ, T.; Perera, A.; Wolfs, F.L.H.; Trainor, T.; Wolanski, M. |

    1994-03-01

    APEX -- the ATLAS Positron Experiment -- is designed to measure electrons and positrons emitted in heavy-ion collisions. Its scientific goal is to gain insight into the puzzling positron-line phenomena observed at the GSI Darmstadt. It is in operation at the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Lab. The assembly of the apparatus is finished and beginning 1993 the first positrons produced in heavy-ion collisions were observed. The first full scale experiment was carried out in December 1993, and the data are currently being analyzed. In this paper, the principles of operation are explained and a status report on the experiment is given.

  13. Liquid Argon Calorimetry for ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Alan

    2008-05-01

    This summer, the largest collaborative physics project since the Manhattan project will go online. One of four experiments for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, ATLAS, employs over 2000 people. Canadians have helped design, construct, and calibrate the liquid argon calorimeters for ATLAS to capture the products of the high energy collisions produced by the LHC. From an undergraduate's perspective, explore how these calorimeters are made to handle their harsh requirement. From nearly a billion proton-proton collisions a second, physicists hope to discover the Higgs boson and other new fundamental particles.

  14. The MROI fringe tracker: closing the loop on ICoNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, T. M.; Jurgenson, C. A.; Santoro, F.; Shtromberg, A. V.; Alvidrez, V.; Torres, N.; Dahl, C.; Farris, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Haniff, C. A.; Young, J. S.; Seneta, E. B.; Creech-Eakman, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    The characterization of ICoNN, the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer's fringe tracker, through labor­ tory simulations is presented. The performance limits of an interferometer are set by its ability to keep the optical path difference between combination partners minimized. This is the job of the fringe tracker. Understanding the behavior and limits of the fringe tracker in a controlled environment is key to maximize the science output. This is being done with laboratory simulations of on-sky fringe tracking, termed the closed-loop fringe experi­ ment. The closed-loop fringe experiment includes synthesizing a white light source and atmospheric piston with estimation of the tracking error being fed back to mock delay lines in real-time. We report here on the progress of the closed-loop fringe experiment detailing its design, layout, controls and software.

  15. Combined Feature Based and Shape Based Visual Tracker for Robot Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, J.; Kunz, C.; Sargent, R.; Park, E.; Pedersen, L.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a combined feature based and shape based visual tracking system designed to enable a planetary rover to visually track and servo to specific points chosen by a user with centimeter precision. The feature based tracker uses invariant feature detection and matching across a stereo pair, as well as matching pairs before and after robot movement in order to compute an incremental 6-DOF motion at each tracker update. This tracking method is subject to drift over time, which can be compensated by the shape based method. The shape based tracking method consists of 3D model registration, which recovers 6-DOF motion given sufficient shape and proper initialization. By integrating complementary algorithms, the combined tracker leverages the efficiency and robustness of feature based methods with the precision and accuracy of model registration. In this paper, we present the algorithms and their integration into a combined visual tracking system.

  16. Measurement and calibration of static distortion of position data from 3D trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Three-dimensional trackers are becoming increasingly important as user inputs in interactive computer systems. These trackers output the three-dimensional position, and often the orientation, of a sensor in space. The three-dimensional tracking is often, however, highly distorted and inaccurate. The purpose of this paper is to discuss methods for the measurement and characterization of the static distortion of the position data. When the distortion is constant, various methods can be used to calibrate the data from the tracker to increase accuracy. Several preliminary methods are discussed in this paper, including polynomial and weighted lookup methods. The measurement and calibration methods are applied to the Polhemus electromagnetic tracking system, but are applicable to tracking systems based on other technologies.

  17. CMS Tracker upgrade for HL-LHC: R&D plans, present status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravera, F.

    2016-07-01

    During the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), the machine is expected to deliver an instantaneous luminosity of 5 ×1034cm-2s-1. A total of 3000 fb-1 of data is foreseen to be delivered, with the opening of new physics potential for the LHC experiments, but also new challenges from the point of view of both detector and electronics capabilities and radiation hardness. In order to maintain its physics reach, CMS will build a new Tracker, including a completely new Pixel Detector and Outer Tracker. The ongoing R&D activities on both pixel and strip sensors will be presented. The present status of the Inner and Outer Tracker projects will be illustrated, and the possible perspectives will be discussed.

  18. Large scale digital atlases in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawrylycz, M.; Feng, D.; Lau, C.; Kuan, C.; Miller, J.; Dang, C.; Ng, L.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging in neuroscience has revolutionized our current understanding of brain structure, architecture and increasingly its function. Many characteristics of morphology, cell type, and neuronal circuitry have been elucidated through methods of neuroimaging. Combining this data in a meaningful, standardized, and accessible manner is the scope and goal of the digital brain atlas. Digital brain atlases are used today in neuroscience to characterize the spatial organization of neuronal structures, for planning and guidance during neurosurgery, and as a reference for interpreting other data modalities such as gene expression and connectivity data. The field of digital atlases is extensive and in addition to atlases of the human includes high quality brain atlases of the mouse, rat, rhesus macaque, and other model organisms. Using techniques based on histology, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as gene expression data, modern digital atlases use probabilistic and multimodal techniques, as well as sophisticated visualization software to form an integrated product. Toward this goal, brain atlases form a common coordinate framework for summarizing, accessing, and organizing this knowledge and will undoubtedly remain a key technology in neuroscience in the future. Since the development of its flagship project of a genome wide image-based atlas of the mouse brain, the Allen Institute for Brain Science has used imaging as a primary data modality for many of its large scale atlas projects. We present an overview of Allen Institute digital atlases in neuroscience, with a focus on the challenges and opportunities for image processing and computation.

  19. A Scintillating Fiber Tracker With SiPM Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearwood, G. Roper; Beischer, B.; Chung, Ch.-H.; v. Doetinchem, Ph.; Gast, H.; Greim, R.; Kirn, T.; Schael, S.; Zimmermann, N.; Nakada, T.; Ambrosi, G.; Azzarello, P.; Battiston, R.; Piemonte, C.

    2009-12-01

    We present a prototype for the first tracking detector consisting of 250 μm thin scintillating fibers and silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. The detector has a modular design, each module consists of a mechanical support structure of 10 mm Rohacell foam between two 100 μm thin carbon fiber skins. Five layers of scintillating fibers are glued to both top and bottom of the support structure. SiPM arrays with a channel pitch of 250 μm are placed in front of the fibers. We show the results of the first module prototype using multiclad fibers of types Bicron BCF-20 and Kuraray SCSF-81M that were read out by novel 32-channel SiPM arrays from FBK-irst/INFN Perugia as well as 32-channel SiPM arrays produced by Hamamatsu. A spatial resolution of 88 μm ± 6 μm at an average yield of 10 detected photons per minimum ionizing particle has been achieved.

  20. The Molecular Atlas Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, Jesse; Yin, Peng

    The promise of super-resolution microscopy is a technology to discover new biological mechanisms that occur at smaller length scales then previously observable. However, with higher-resolution, we generally lose the larger spatial context of the image itself. The Molecular Atlas Project (MAP) directly asks how these competing interests between super-resolution imaging and broader spatially contextualized information can be reconciled. MAP enables us to acquire, visualize, explore, and annotate proteomic image data representing 7 orders of magnitude in length ranging from molecular (nm) to tissue (cm) scales. This multi-scale understanding is made possible by combining multiplexed DNA-PAINT, a DNA nanotechnology approach to super-resolution imaging, with ``big-data'' strategies for information management and image visualization. With these innovations combined, MAP enables us to explore cell-specific heterogeneity in ductal carcinoma for every cellin a cm-sized tissue section, analyze organoid growth for advances in high-throughput tissue-on-a-chip technology, and examine individual synapses for connectome mapping over extremely wide areas. Ultimately, MAP is a fundamentally new way to interact with multiscale biophysical data.