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Sample records for atm research network

  1. Integrated Service Provisioning in an Ipv6 over ATM Research Network

    SciTech Connect

    Eli Dart; Helen Chen; Jerry Friesen; Jim Brandt; Jim Hutchins; Perry Robertson

    1999-02-01

    During the past few years, the worldwide Internet has grown at a phenomenal rate, which has spurred the proposal of innovative network technologies to support the fast, efficient and low-latency transport of a wide spectrum of multimedia traffic types. Existing network infrastructures have been plagued by their inability to provide for real-time application traffic as well as their general lack of resources and resilience to congestion. This work proposes to address these issues by implementing a prototype high-speed network infrastructure consisting of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) on top of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) transport medium. Since ATM is connection-oriented whereas IP uses a connection-less paradigm, the efficient integration of IPv6 over ATM is especially challenging and has generated much interest in the research community. We propose, in collaboration with an industry partner, to implement IPv6 over ATM using a unique approach that integrates IP over fast A TM hardware while still preserving IP's connection-less paradigm. This is achieved by replacing ATM's control software with IP's routing code and by caching IP's forwarding decisions in ATM's VPI/VCI translation tables. Prototype ''VR'' and distributed-parallel-computing applications will also be developed to exercise the realtime capability of our IPv6 over ATM network.

  2. Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, Rohit; Jain, Raj; Fahmy, Sonia; Vandalore, Bobby; Goyal, Mukul

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Traffic management issues for TCP/IP based data services over satellite-ATM networks; 2) Design issues for TCP/IP over ATM; 3) Optimization of the performance of TCP/IP over ATM for long delay networks; and 4) Evaluation of ATM service categories for TCP/IP traffic.

  3. Research and implement on the high speed network system with CIINS based on ATM for aero manufacturing enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhi-qiang; Feng, Xi-lan; Zong, Xue-wen; Ding, Yu-cheng

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, the design and implementation on the high-speed network system of the Computer Integrated and Information Network System (CIINS) for aeronautical manufacturing enterprise based on ATM is explained. And designing the high-speed network, choosing the devices, network administration, and developing the network application are discussed. And also, the key technology of the network design is analyzed. The system safety is ensured, when the ATM with QoS in the main backbone network and the work team with network layer in intelligent Ethernet equipment are adapted, and a kind of firewall based on Hard-wall technology is implemented.

  4. NASA Ames ATM Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Ames research Center, in cooperation with the FAA and the industry, has a series of major research efforts underway that are aimed at : 1) improving the flow of traffic in the national airspace system; and 2) helping to define the future air traffic management system. The purpose of this presentation will be to provide a brief summary of some of these activities.

  5. Satellite ATM Networks: Architectures and Guidelines Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.; Yegendu, Ferit

    1999-01-01

    An important element of satellite-supported asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networking will involve support for the routing and rerouting of active connections. Work published under the auspices of the Telecommunications Industry Association (http://www.tiaonline.org), describes basic architectures and routing protocol issues for satellite ATM (SATATM) networks. The architectures and issues identified will serve as a basis for further development of technical specifications for these SATATM networks. Three ATM network architectures for bent pipe satellites and three ATM network architectures for satellites with onboard ATM switches were developed. The architectures differ from one another in terms of required level of mobility, supported data rates, supported terrestrial interfaces, and onboard processing and switching requirements. The documentation addresses low-, middle-, and geosynchronous-Earth-orbit satellite configurations. The satellite environment may require real-time routing to support the mobility of end devices and nodes of the ATM network itself. This requires the network to be able to reroute active circuits in real time. In addition to supporting mobility, rerouting can also be used to (1) optimize network routing, (2) respond to changing quality-of-service requirements, and (3) provide a fault tolerance mechanism. Traffic management and control functions are necessary in ATM to ensure that the quality-of-service requirements associated with each connection are not violated and also to provide flow and congestion control functions. Functions related to traffic management were identified and described. Most of these traffic management functions will be supported by on-ground ATM switches, but in a hybrid terrestrial-satellite ATM network, some of the traffic management functions may have to be supported by the onboard satellite ATM switch. Future work is planned to examine the tradeoffs of placing traffic management functions onboard a satellite as

  6. MSFC institutional area network and ATM technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Ashok T.

    1994-01-01

    The New Institutional Area Network (NEWIAN) at Marshall supports over 5000 end users with access to 26 file servers providing work presentation services. It is comprised of some 150 Ethernet LAN's interconnected by bridges/routers which are in turn connected to servers over two dual FDDI rings. The network supports various higher level protocols such as IP, IPX, AppleTalk (AT), and DECNet. At present IPX and AT protocols packets are routed, and IP protocol packets are bridged; however, work is in progress to route all IP packets. The impact of routing IP packets on network operation is examined. Broadband Integrated Services Data Network (BISDN), presently at various stages of development, is intended to provide voice, video, and data transfer services over a single network. BISDN will use asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) as a data transfer technique which provides for transmission, multiplexing, switching, and relaying of small size data units called cells. Limited ATM Wide Area Network (WAN) services are offered by Wiltel, AT&T, Sprint, and others. NASA is testing a pilot ATM WAN with a view to provide Program Support Communication Network services using ATM. ATM supports wide range of data rates and quality of service requirements. It is expected that ATM switches will penetrate campus networks as well. However, presently products in these areas are at various stages of development and standards are not yet complete. We examine development of ATM to help assess its role in the evolution of NEWIAN.

  7. Buffer Management Simulation in ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaprak, E.; Xiao, Y.; Chronopoulos, A.; Chow, E.; Anneberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of a new dynamic buffer allocation management scheme in ATM networks. To achieve this objective, an algorithm that detects congestion and updates the dynamic buffer allocation scheme was developed for the OPNET simulation package via the creation of a new ATM module.

  8. Dynamics of TCP traffic over ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanow, Allyn; Floyd, Sally

    1995-05-01

    We investigate the performance of TCP connections over ATM networks without ATM-level congestion control and compare it to the performance of TCP over packet-based networks. For simulations of congested networks, the effective throughput of TCP over ATM can be quite low when cells are dropped at the congested ATM switch. The low throughput is due to wasted bandwidth as the congested link transmits cells from 'corrupted' packets, i.e., packets in which at least one cell is dropped by the switch. We investigate two packet-discard strategies that alleviate the effects of fragmentation. Partial packet discard, in which remaining cells are discarded after one cell has been dropped from a packet, somewhat improves throughput. We introduce early packet discard, a strategy in which the switch drops whole packets prior to buffer overflow. This mechanism prevents fragmentation and restores throughput to maximal levels.

  9. Design Issues for Traffic Management for the ATM UBR + Service for TCP Over Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj

    1999-01-01

    This project was a comprehensive research program for developing techniques for improving the performance of Internet protocols over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) based satellite networks. Among the service categories provided by ATM networks, the most commonly used category for data traffic is the unspecified bit rate (UBR) service. UBR allows sources to send data into the network without any feedback control. The project resulted in the numerous ATM Forum contributions and papers.

  10. Very long baseline connected interferometry via the ATM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Yukio; Kaneko, Akihiro; Amagai, Jun; Yoshino, Taizoh; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Fujisawa, Kenta; Uose, Hisao; Iwamura, Sotetsu; Hoshino, Takashi; Nakajima, Junichi; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2000-06-01

    The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), the National Astronomical Observatory (NAO), the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), and the Telecommunication Network Laboratory Group of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation have developed a real-time VLBI array, maximum baseline-length was 208 km. The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observed data is transmitted through a high-speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network (2,488- Gbps [STM-16/OC-48] ATM network) instead of being recorded onto magnetic tapes. The system was composed of two real-time VLSI networks: the Keystone Project network of CRL (which is used for measuring crustal deformation in the Tokyo metropolitan area), and the OLIVE (optically linked VLBI experiment) network of NAO and ISAS which is used for astronomy (space-VLBI). The acquired VLBI data were corrected via the ATM network and the cross-correlation processing were done simultaneously. A radio flares on the weak radio source (HR1099) and weak radio sources were detected.

  11. Terminal Area ATM Research at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard

    1997-01-01

    The presentation will highlight the following: (1) A brief review of ATC research underway 15 years ago; (2) A summary of Terminal Area ATM Tool Development ongoing at NASA Ames; and (3) A projection of research activities 10-15 years from now.

  12. Traffic Management in ATM Networks Over Satellite Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, Rohit; Jain, Raj; Goyal, Mukul; Fahmy, Sonia; Vandalore, Bobby; vonDeak, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a survey of the traffic management Issues in the design and implementation of satellite Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. The report focuses on the efficient transport of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) traffic over satellite ATM. First, a reference satellite ATM network architecture is presented along with an overview of the service categories available in ATM networks. A delay model for satellite networks and the major components of delay and delay variation are described. A survey of design options for TCP over Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR), Guaranteed Frame Rate (GFR) and Available Bit Rate (ABR) services in ATM is presented. The main focus is on traffic management issues. Several recommendations on the design options for efficiently carrying data services over satellite ATM networks are presented. Most of the results are based on experiments performed on Geosynchronous (GEO) latencies. Some results for Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) latencies are also provided.

  13. Running TCP/IP over ATM Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Internet protocol (IP) and subnets and describes how IP may operate over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Topics include TCP (transmission control protocol), ATM cells and adaptation layers, a basic architectural model for IP over ATM, address resolution, mapping IP to a subnet technology, and connection management strategy. (LRW)

  14. ATM interface design issues for IP traffic over ATM/ADSL access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschmann, Jonathan E.; Pampolini, Matteo

    1999-01-01

    The combination of ATM and ADSL is fast becoming an attractive alternative for Internet access for home and small business. ADSL modems allow the use of the existing copper plant at speeds much higher than those afforded by traditional modem technologies. The use of ATM both enables the long-sought goal of an ATM end-to-end network, and allows, through the use of QOS guarantees, efficient use of the limited upstream bandwidth of ADSL. Although the client- server model, which typified classical Internet traffic and newer multimedia IP services, fits well an asymmetric network model, performance can be greatly impacted unless the interactions between ADSL, ATM, and Internet protocols are well understood an taken into account in the design of ATM interfaces. In this paper we investigate the potential limitations on performance in IP/ATM/ADSL networks and explain how, in our ATM interface designs, we have ameliorated these problems and optimized the use of IP services over such networks. We discuss the importance of 'traffic shaping', heretofore afforded little importance for IP traffic, and the impact of latency and asymmetric bandwidth of ADSL, on both traditional and multimedia IP services, in our implementations.

  15. Remote facility sharing with ATM networks [PC based ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS)]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H. T.

    2001-06-01

    The ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS) adds propagation delay to the ATM link on which it is installed, to allow control of link propagation delay in network protocol experiments simulating an adjustable piece of optical fiber. Our LDS simulates a delay of between 1.5 and 500 milliseconds and is built with commodity PC hardware, only the ATM network interface card is not generally available. Our implementation is special in that it preserves the exact spacing of ATM data cells a feature that requires sustained high performance. Our implementation shows that applications demanding sustained high performance are possible on commodity PC hardware. This illustrates the promise that PC hardware has for adaptability to demanding specialized testing of high speed network.

  16. ATM: The Key To Harnessing the Power of Networked Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rod

    1996-01-01

    ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) network technology handles the real-time continuous traffic flow necessary to support desktop multimedia applications. Describes network applications already used: desktop video collaboration, distance learning, and broadcasting video delivery. Examines the architecture of ATM technology, video delivery and sound…

  17. ATM Technology Adoption in U.S. Campus Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Engui; Perry, John F.; Anderson, Larry S.; Brook, R. Dan; Hare, R. Dwight; Moore, Arnold J.; Xu, Xiaohe

    This study examined the relationships between ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) adoption in universities and four organizational variables: university size, type, finances, and information processing maturity. Another purpose of the study was to identify the current status of ATM adoption in campus networking. Subjects were university domain LAN…

  18. Performance measurements of mixed data acquisition and LAN traffic on a credit-based flow-controlled ATM network

    SciTech Connect

    Nomachi, M.; Sugaya, Y.; Togawa, H.; Yasuda, K.; Mandjavidze, I.

    1998-08-01

    The high speed network is a key component in networked data acquisition systems. An ATM switch is a candidate for the network system in DAQ (data acquisition system). The authors have studied the DAQ performance of the ATM network at RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics), Osaka University. Data traffic on DAQ system has a very much different traffic pattern from the other network traffic. It may slow down the network performance. The authors have studied the network performance on several traffic patterns.

  19. Real-time VLBI system using ATM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, H.; Imae, M.; Kondo, T.; Sekido, M.; Hama, S.; Hoshino, T.; Uose, H.; Yamamoto, T.

    2000-05-01

    The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), Tokyo, Japan, and the Telecommunication Network Laboratory Group, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo, Japan, have developed a highly precise, very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) system using a high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network. The observed data is transmitted through a 2.488-Gbps ATM network [STM-16/OC-48] instead of being recorded onto magnetic tape. The system was specially designed for the Key Stone Project (KSP), a project begun in 1994 to measure crustal deformation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Cross-correlation processing and data observations are carried out simultaneously by one operator. It takes about one hour to analyze the data after the observations and correlations are completed. In regular geodetic VLBI experiments run every other day for 24 h, a horizontal position uncertainty of about 2 mm and a vertical position uncertainty of about 10 mm were achieved. The system was designed to enable automated operation throughout the entire process. The results obtained are available to the public via the Internet at http:ksp.crl.go.jp. This system is a significant advance in VLBI and should provide more precise information about crustal deformation in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  20. Congestion control and charging for the ABR service category in ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casals, O.; Blondia, Chris L.; Cerda, Llorenc; Van Houdt, Benny

    1998-10-01

    The available bit service (ABR) is a promising 'best effort' service designed to achieve in ATM networks high efficiency and low cell loss. Since the ATM forum approved a first standard, intensive research has been done about ABR. The aim of this paper is to analyze the main research topics involved in ABR, namely: the evaluation of traffic and congestion control schemes, conformance definition and policing and charging.

  1. Comparison of congestion controls for data services on ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yonshik; Campbell, Graham

    1999-11-01

    The Internet consists of a network of networks. Internet users and service provides want to provide and receive multiple services. The legacy networks till now have provided narrow bandwidth that has restricted the range of services. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) can simultaneously deliver multiple services over one network and today ATM has become a component of the Internet. An ATM switch can deliver current Internet data using UBR or ABR services. Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) using AAL5 is the most common offering these days for data transport. Because UBR does not guarantee any QoS categories and it is a `best effort' service, cell-discarding protocols must coexist. Congestion control is always a host topic for data networks. In data networks many flow mechanisms to resolve network congestion have been proposed. Cell loss is one of the most important and critical categories for traffic management of data networking. We compare the well-known Early Packet Discard for UBR with Quantum Flow Control for ABR services with TCP over ATM. Simulation results are provided that allow a comparison of both techniques.

  2. Assessment of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks for regional teleradiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerinckx, Andre J.; Hayrapetian, Alek S.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Grant, Edward G.; Rahbar, Darius; Kiszonas, Mike; Franco, Ricky; Shimabuku, Guy H.; Hagan, Girish T.; Melany, Michelle; Narin, Sherelle L.; Ragavendra, Nagesh

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ATM network capabilities on the clinical practice of regional teleradiology, by providing immediate interactive radiology consultations between subspecialists and general radiologists at affiliated academic institutions. PACS installed at three affiliated hospitals (UCLA Medical Center, West LA VAMC and UCLA Olive-View Medical Centers) were connected via an ATM network. Two commercial PACS (Agfa) systems, one at the VAMC and one in an ultrasound outpatient clinic at UCLA were connected via ATM switches (Newbridge, Inc.) and a Santa Monica GTE central office switch. We evaluated this initial system configuration and measured image transfer performance, including memory-to-memory, disk-to-disk, disk-to-archive with and without DICOM protocols. Although the memory-to-memory data rate was 25 Mbps, the average remote disk-to-disk image transfer performance, using DICOM 3.0 communications protocols on SUN SPARCstation 10 servers, was 3 to 5 Mbps. Using these capabilities, timely interactive subspecialty consultations between radiologists was successfully performed while both were at different physical locations. We present the use of ATM technology in a realistic clinical environment and evaluate its impact on patient care and clinical teaching within the radiology departments of 2 institutions. Image communications over a regional PACS using an ATM network can allow interactive consultations between different subspecialist and general radiologists or other specialized radiologist spread over three different medical centers.

  3. ATM encryption testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capell, Joyce; Deeth, David

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes why encryption was selected by Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space as the means for securing ATM networks. The ATM encryption testing program is part of an ATM network trial provided by Pacific Bell under the California Research Education Network (CalREN). The problem being addressed is the threat to data security which results when changing from a packet switched network infrastructure to a circuit switched ATM network backbone. As organizations move to high speed cell-based networks, there is a break down in the traditional security model which is designed to protect packet switched data networks from external attacks. This is due to the fact that most data security firewalls filter IP packets, restricting inbound and outbound protocols, e.g. ftp. ATM networks, based on cell-switching over virtual circuits, does not support this method for restricting access since the protocol information is not carried by each cell. ATM switches set up multiple virtual connections, thus there is no longer a single point of entry into the internal network. The problem is further complicated by the fact that ATM networks support high speed multi-media applications, including real time video and video teleconferencing which are incompatible with packet switched networks. The ability to restrict access to Lockheed Martin networks in support of both unclassified and classified communications is required before ATM network technology can be fully deployed. The Lockheed Martin CalREN ATM testbed provides the opportunity to test ATM encryption prototypes with actual applications to assess the viability of ATM encryption methodologies prior to installing large scale ATM networks. Two prototype ATM encryptors are being tested: (1) `MILKBUSH' a prototype encryptor developed by NSA for transmission of government classified data over ATM networks, and (2) a prototype ATM encryptor developed by Sandia National Labs in New Mexico, for the encryption of proprietary data.

  4. Self-healing ATM network based on multilink principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlandegem, Thierry; Vankwikelberge, Patrick; Vanderstreaten, Hans

    1994-01-01

    Self-healing is the ability of a network to reconfigure itself around failures such that calls in progress are not dropped and suffer of no almost no degradation in quality of service. Providing self-healing capabilities in all parts of the future ATM network in a cost effective way is therefore a key challenge. In this paper a new self-healing method based on the multilink concept is presented for dedicated parts of the ATM network, such as, for instance, feeder networks. In the multilink concept that is proposed here, the cells of an ATM connection carried by a multilink are distributed over several physical links. If a physical link supporting the multilink fails, the cells will be distributed among the remaining physical links thus providing self-healing capacity. In this way the quality of service can be maintained at the expense of a higher load on the remaining physical links. The speed of restoration only realize on the detection and signaling of the failure since spare capacity is available on the very multilink. The sharing of spare capacity in addition to the statistical multiplexing gain provides a cost effective self-healing method and leads to a simplified network resource management. The proposed multilink concept is based on extension of the multipath self-routing concept, which is currently applied by Alcatel in its ATM switching fabric.

  5. Very Long Baseline Connected Interferometry via the 2.4-Gbps ATM Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, H.; Kaneko, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Kawaguchi, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Fujisawa, K.; Nakajima, J.; Kondo, T.; Uose, H.; Iwamura, S.; Hoshino, T.; Iguchi, S.; Amagai, J.; Yoshino, T.

    2000-04-01

    The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), the National Astronomical Observatory (NAO), the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), and the Telecommunication Network Laboratory Group of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) have developed a very long baseline connected interferometry 6-station array with a maximum baseline length of 208km, using a high-speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network with an AAL1 that corresponds to the constant bit-rate protocol. The VLBI observed data (256 Mbps/station) is transmitted through a 2.488-Gbps [STM-16/OC-48] ATM network instead of being recorded onto magnetic tape. By combining antennas via a high-speed ATM network, a highly-sensitive connected interferometry system has been realized. The system was composed of two real-time VLBI networks: the Key-Stone Project (KSP) network of CRL (which is used for measuring crustal deformation in the Tokyo metropolitan area), and the OLIVE (Optically LInked VLBI Experiment) network of NAO and ISAS which is used for astronomy (space VLBI). These networks operated in cooperation with NTT. In order to realize connected interferometry, the acquired VLBI data (256 Mbps/station) were corrected via the ATM networks and were synthesized using the VLBI technique. The cross-correlation processing and data observation were done simultaneously.

  6. A simulation study of TCP performance in ATM networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chien Fang; Chen, Helen; Hutchins, J.

    1994-08-01

    This paper presents a simulation study of TCP performance over congested ATM local area networks. We simulated a variety of schemes for congestion control for ATM LANs, including a simple cell-drop, a credit-based flow control scheme that back-pressures individual VC`s, and two selective cell-drop schemes. Our simulation results for congested ATM LANs show the following: (1) TCP performance is poor under simple cell-drop, (2) the selective cell-drop schemes increase effective link utilization and result in higher TCP throughputs than the simple cell-drop scheme, and (3) the credit-based flow control scheme eliminates cell loss and achieves maximum performance and effective link utilization.

  7. High-performance testbed network with ATM technology for neuroimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Dillon, William P.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Gould, Robert G.

    1995-05-01

    Today's teleradiology transmits images with telephone lines (from 14400 to 1.5 Mbits/sec). However, the large amount of data commonly produced during an MR or CT procedure can limit some applications of teleradiology. This paper is a progress report of a high speed (155 Mbits/sec) testbed teleradiology network using asynchronous transfer mode (ATM OC 3) technology for neuroradiology. The network connects radiology departments of four affiliated hospitals and one MR imaging center within the San Francisco Bay Area with ATM switches through the Pacific Bell ATM main switch at Oakland, California; they are: University of California at San Francisco Hospital and Medical School (UCSF), Mt. Zion Hospital (MZH), San Francisco VA Medical Center (SFVAMC), San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH), and San Francisco Magnetic Resonance Imaging Center (SFMRC). UCSF serves as the expert center and the ATM switch is connected to its PACS infrastructure, the others are considered as satellite sites. Images and related patient data are transmitted from the four satellite sites to the expert canter for interpretation and consultation.

  8. Using ATM over hybrid fiber-coax networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubach, Mark

    1995-11-01

    Cable TV companies and regional Bell operating companies, e.g. PacBell, are preparing for the future by installing or rebuilding existing all-coaxial cable plants into hybrid-fiber coaxial plants and by offering a wide range of interactive services which they feel will be most attractive to their subscriber base. These new-to-cable services span a wide range of performance attributes, each placing its own demands on the capabilities of the broadband bearer service system. These services include, but are not limited to: video-on-demand, digital video, video telephony, voice telephony, and a suite of interactive digital data services ranging from traditional Internet and information service access (e.g., Compuserve and Prodigy) to multi-player gaming. The future broadband infrastructure challenge can be met by developing a novel family of integrated bearer service products which communicate using asynchronous transfer mode protocols over the cable TV network. This paper summarizes the ATM over HFC definition work taking place in the ATM Forum's Residential Broadband Working Group and the standards progress in the IEEE P802.14 Cable TV Media Access Control and Physical Protocol Working Group. Finally, an example of bridging Ethernet packets over ATM over HFC is discussed. This paper focuses on the aspects of ATM and the MAC layer and does not detail the rf or physical environment.

  9. Call admission algorithms in multiservice and multiclass ATM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, Salima; Hebuterne, Gerard

    2004-09-01

    The introduction of new ATM service categories increases the benefits of ATM, making the technology suitable for a virtually unlimited range of applications. Connection Admission Control (CAC) is defined as the set of actions taken by the network during the call (virtual connection) set-up phase, or during call re-negotiation phase, to determine whether a connection request can be accepted or rejected. Network resources (port bandwidth and buffer space) are reserved to the incoming connection at each switching element traversed, if so required, by the service category. The major focus of this paper is call admission in the context of multi-service, multi-class ATM networks. Several strategies suggesting rules on bandwidth sharing are found in the litterature. This study investigates particularly the Complete Sharing approach. Two service categories are concerned, namely, Constant Bit rate/Deterministic Bit Rate (CBR/DBR) and Variable Bit Rate/Statistical Bit Rate (VBR/SBR). Each service category is represented by a set of call classes corresponding to different bandwidth needs. We propose two algorithms to solve the underlying Markovian system: Product-form and Recursive solutions. A performance study based on the latter algorithm is implemented. We analyze the results of this very sharing strategy and set the not-to-violate limits for a beneficial use of it.

  10. The Relationships between Selected Organizational Variables and ATM Technology Adoption in Campus Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Engui

    1998-01-01

    Determines the relationships between ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) adoption and four organizational variables: university size, type, finances, and information-processing maturity. Identifies the current status of ATM adoption in campus networking in the United States. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  11. Achieving High Throughput for Data Transfer over ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.; Townsend, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    File-transfer rates for ftp are often reported to be relatively slow, compared to the raw bandwidth available in emerging gigabit networks. While a major bottleneck is disk I/O, protocol issues impact performance as well. Ftp was developed and optimized for use over the TCP/IP protocol stack of the Internet. However, TCP has been shown to run inefficiently over ATM. In an effort to maximize network throughput, data-transfer protocols can be developed to run over UDP or directly over IP, rather than over TCP. If error-free transmission is required, techniques for achieving reliable transmission can be included as part of the transfer protocol. However, selected image-processing applications can tolerate a low level of errors in images that are transmitted over a network. In this paper we report on experimental work to develop a high-throughput protocol for unreliable data transfer over ATM networks. We attempt to maximize throughput by keeping the communications pipe full, but still keep packet loss under five percent. We use the Bay Area Gigabit Network Testbed as our experimental platform.

  12. Sandia`s network for Supercomputer `96: Linking supercomputers in a wide area Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, T.J.; Martinez, L.G.; Vahle, M.O.

    1997-04-01

    The advanced networking department at Sandia National Laboratories has used the annual Supercomputing conference sponsored by the IEEE and ACM for the past several years as a forum to demonstrate and focus communication and networking developments. At Supercomputing 96, for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory combined their Supercomputing 96 activities within a single research booth under the ASO banner. Sandia provided the network design and coordinated the networking activities within the booth. At Supercomputing 96, Sandia elected: to demonstrate wide area network connected Massively Parallel Processors, to demonstrate the functionality and capability of Sandia`s new edge architecture, to demonstrate inter-continental collaboration tools, and to demonstrate ATM video capabilities. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their implementation, and describes how these demonstrations support Sandia`s overall strategies in ATM networking.

  13. Performance analysis of reactive congestion control for ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Kenji; Oie, Yuji; Murata, Masayuki; Miyahara, Hideo

    1995-05-01

    In ATM networks, preventive congestion control is widely recognized for efficiently avoiding congestion, and it is implemented by a conjunction of connection admission control and usage parameter control. However, congestion may still occur because of unpredictable statistical fluctuation of traffic sources even when preventive control is performed in the network. In this paper, we study another kind of congestion control, i.e., reactive congestion control, in which each source changes its cell emitting rate adaptively to the traffic load at the switching node (or at the multiplexer). Our intention is that, by incorporating such a congestion control method in ATM networks, more efficient congestion control is established. We develop an analytical model, and carry out an approximate analysis of reactive congestion control algorithm. Numerical results show that the reactive congestion control algorithms are very effective in avoiding congestion and in achieving the statistical gain. Furthermore, the binary congestion control algorithm with pushout mechanism is shown to provide the best performance among the reactive congestion control algorithms treated here.

  14. Wide-area ATM networking for large-scale MPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, P.M.; Geist, G.A. II

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents early experiences with using high-speed ATM interfaces to connect multiple Intel Paragons on both local and wide area networks. The testbed includes the 1024 and 512 node Paragons running the OSF operating system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the 1840 node Paragon running the Puma operating system at Sandia National Laboratories. The experimental OC-12 (622 Mbits/sec) interfaces are built by GigaNet and provide a proprietary API for sending AAL-5 encapsulated packets. PVM is used as the massaging infrastructure and significant modifications have been made to use the GigaNet API, operate in the Puma environment, and attain acceptable performance over local networks. These modifications are described along with a discussion of roadblocks to networking MPPs with high-performance interfaces. Our early prototype utilizes approximately 25 percent of an OC-12 circuit and 80 percent of an OC-3 circuit in send plus acknowledgment ping-pong tests.

  15. Self-healing ATM networks based on virtual path concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanura, Ryutaro; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Tokizawa, Ikuo

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes self-healing network techniques suitable for ATM networks in order to realize a high-reliable B-ISDN. First the characteristic of virtual paths (VP) and their influence on failure restoration are discussed. A high-speed restoration technique which exploits the benefits of VP's is then proposed and described. The technique simplifies the message transmission processes and reduces the number of generated messages by using preassigned backup virtual paths. Next, the scheme used to design the backup VP routes and spare resource distribution for each link is proposed in order to create a network that applies the proposed restoration scheme. Next, self-reconstruction techniques of backup virtual paths are proposed for the realization of a reversionless restoration cycle. Finally, the feasibility of distributed control operation is discussed.

  16. Video transmission on ATM networks. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yun-Chung

    1993-01-01

    The broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) is expected to provide high-speed and flexible multimedia applications. Multimedia includes data, graphics, image, voice, and video. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the adopted transport techniques for B-ISDN and has the potential for providing a more efficient and integrated environment for multimedia. It is believed that most broadband applications will make heavy use of visual information. The prospect of wide spread use of image and video communication has led to interest in coding algorithms for reducing bandwidth requirements and improving image quality. The major results of a study on the bridging of network transmission performance and video coding are: Using two representative video sequences, several video source models are developed. The fitness of these models are validated through the use of statistical tests and network queuing performance. A dual leaky bucket algorithm is proposed as an effective network policing function. The concept of the dual leaky bucket algorithm can be applied to a prioritized coding approach to achieve transmission efficiency. A mapping of the performance/control parameters at the network level into equivalent parameters at the video coding level is developed. Based on that, a complete set of principles for the design of video codecs for network transmission is proposed.

  17. Delivery of very high bandwidth with ATM switches and SONET. [Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET)

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, S.A.

    1992-10-01

    The choice of technologies for the delivery of very high bandwidth throughout a facility capable of ultimately achieving gigabits per second performance, is a crucial one for any high technology facility. The components of a high bandwidth delivery system include high performance sources and sinks in the form of central facilities (major mainframes, large file storage and specialized peripherals) and powerful, full bandwidth distributed local area networks (LANs). In order to deliver bandwidth among the sources and sinks, a ubiquitous inter-/intra-building cable plant consisting of single mode and multimode fiber as well as twisted pair copper is required. The selection of the glue'' to transport and interconnect the LANs with the central facility over the pervasive cable plant is the focus of this paper. A design philosophy for high performance communications systems is proposed. A description of the traditional problems that must be overcome to provide very high bandwidth beyond the narrow confines of a computer center is given. The advantages of ATM switching and SONET physical transport are explored in the structured design presentation. The applicability of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching (interconnection) and Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) (transport) for high bandwidth delivery is described using the environment and requirements of Sandia National Laboratories as a context to examine the suitability of those technologies. The synergy and utility of ATM and SONET in the campus network are explored. Other methods for distributing high data rates are compared and contrasted to ATM and SONET with respect to cable plant impact, reliability/availability, maintainability, and capacity. Sandia is implementing a standards based foundation utilizing a pervasive single mode fiber cable plant, SONET transport, and ATM switching to meet the goals of gigabit networking.

  18. Telemedicine with integrated data security in ATM-based networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Kurth, Ralf; Wenzel, Rudiger; Villringer, Arno; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    1997-05-01

    Telemedical services rely on the digital transfer of large amounts of data in a short time. The acceptance of these services requires therefore new hard- and software concepts. The fast exchange of data is well performed within a high- speed ATM-based network. The fast access to the data from different platforms imposes more difficult problems, which may be divided into those relating to standardized data formats and those relating to different levels of data security across nations. For a standardized access to the formats and those relating to different levels of data security across nations. For a standardized access to the image data, a DICOM 3.0 server was implemented.IMages were converted into the DICOM 3.0 standard if necessary. The access to the server is provided by an implementation of DICOM in JAVA allowing access to the data from different platforms. Data protection measures to ensure the secure transfer of sensitive patient data are not yet solved within the DICOM concept. We investigated different schemes to protect data using the DICOM/JAVA modality with as little impact on data transfer speed as possible.

  19. Final report for the protocol extensions for ATM Security Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.; Pierson, L.G.; Brenkosh, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    This is the summary report for the Protocol Extensions for Asynchronous Transfer Mode project, funded under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. During this one-year effort, techniques were examined for integrating security enhancements within standard ATM protocols, and mechanisms were developed to validate these techniques and to provide a basic set of ATM security assurances. Based on our experience during this project, recommendations were presented to the ATM Forum (a world-wide consortium of ATM product developers, service providers, and users) to assist with the development of security-related enhancements to their ATM specifications. As a result of this project, Sandia has taken a leading role in the formation of the ATM Forum`s Security Working Group, and has gained valuable alliances and leading-edge experience with emerging ATM security technologies and protocols.

  20. The ATM signaling network in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Stracker, Travis H.; Roig, Ignasi; Knobel, Philip A.; Marjanović, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) rapidly recognizes DNA lesions and initiates the appropriate cellular programs to maintain genome integrity. This includes the coordination of cell cycle checkpoints, transcription, translation, DNA repair, metabolism, and cell fate decisions, such as apoptosis or senescence (Jackson and Bartek, 2009). DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and defects in their metabolism underlie many human hereditary diseases characterized by genomic instability (Stracker and Petrini, 2011; McKinnon, 2012). Patients with hereditary defects in the DDR display defects in development, particularly affecting the central nervous system, the immune system and the germline, as well as aberrant metabolic regulation and cancer predisposition. Central to the DDR to DSBs is the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a master controller of signal transduction. Understanding how ATM signaling regulates various aspects of the DDR and its roles in vivo is critical for our understanding of human disease, its diagnosis and its treatment. This review will describe the general roles of ATM signaling and highlight some recent advances that have shed light on the diverse roles of ATM and related proteins in human disease. PMID:23532176

  1. Sandia`s network for supercomputing `95: Validating the progress of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, T.J.; Vahle, O.; Gossage, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Networking Integration Department at Sandia National Laboratories has used the annual Supercomputing conference sponsored by the IEEE and ACM for the past three years as a forum to demonstrate and focus communication and networking developments. For Supercomputing `95, Sandia elected: to demonstrate the functionality and capability of an AT&T Globeview 20Gbps Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switch, which represents the core of Sandia`s corporate network, to build and utilize a three node 622 megabit per second Paragon network, and to extend the DOD`s ACTS ATM Internet from Sandia, New Mexico to the conference`s show floor in San Diego, California, for video demonstrations. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their implementation, and describes how these demonstrations supports Sandia`s overall strategies in ATM networking.

  2. Sandia`s network for SC `97: Supporting visualization, distributed cluster computing, and production data networking with a wide area high performance parallel asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, T.J.; Martinez, L.G.; Vahle, M.O.; Archuleta, T.V.; Williams, V.K.

    1998-05-01

    The advanced networking department at Sandia National Laboratories has used the annual Supercomputing conference sponsored by the IEEE and ACM for the past several years as a forum to demonstrate and focus communication and networking developments. At SC `97, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) combined their SC `97 activities within a single research booth under the Advance Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) banner. For the second year in a row, Sandia provided the network design and coordinated the networking activities within the booth. At SC `97, Sandia elected to demonstrate the capability of the Computation Plant, the visualization of scientific data, scalable ATM encryption, and ATM video and telephony capabilities. At SC `97, LLNL demonstrated an application, called RIPTIDE, that also required significant networking resources. The RIPTIDE application had computational visualization and steering capabilities. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their implementation, and describes how these demonstrations support Sandia`s overall strategies in ATM networking.

  3. European project RETAIN: new approach for IBC in teleradiology and PACS based on full ATM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordonnier, Emmanuel; Jensch, Peter F.; Piqueras, Joachim; Gandon, Yves

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes the RETAIN project (radiological examination transfer on ATM Integrated Network), which is supported by the European Community, in the frame of the TEN-IBC program (trans-European networks integrated broad band communication). It links together three European sites in France (Rennes), Spain (Barcelona), and Germany (Oldenburg) and involves a partnership between the public national operators France Telecom, Telefonica, and Telekom. One important reason to explicitly consider asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) for medical imaging is that multimedia applications on such networks allow integration of digital data and person-to-person communication. The RETAIN project includes trials of teleworking sessions between radiologists of Rennes and Barcelona within a clinical and/or scientific context based on ATM equipments performing DICOM transfer on examination, digital remote manipulation within a comprehensive dialogue, and high quality visiophony on ATM adaptation layer (AAL) type 1. The project includes also visiophony trials with Oldenburg and preparation of harmonized regional experimentation within an emergency context. The network used is a full 10 Mbits/s ATM network directly connected to local PACSs.

  4. Breaking the bottleneck: high-speed medical image transmission through ATM network--implementation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hailei L.; Meissner, Marion C.; Cleary, Kevin R.; Rodgers, James E.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, Georgetown University Medical Center's (GUMC) experience with utilizing ATM technology in a telemedicine application will be presented. This application involves 3D radiation treatment planning where radiological imaging, calculation of the treatment plan, and 3D display all take place at different sites. To do this, GUMC must exchange large amounts of radiology images and data with other institutions in real time. A high speed network consisting of an ATM infrastructure and satellite links was created to connect seamlessly the three sites, GUMC, University of Hawaii, and Ohio Supercomputing Center, which are thousands of miles apart. This paper studies the performance of the ATM network between GUMC and Goddard Space Flight Center, which provides satellite service to link partners in this project. The steps required to test and evaluate the ATM system will be presented. A performance comparison between ATM and Internet-LAN connections will be featured in the presentation. In particular, the theoretical speed of 155 Mbps is hard to reach due to the lack of ATM-native protocols in the transport level of the communication structure.

  5. Supporting HPDC applications over ATM networks with cell-based transport mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Vila-Sallent, J.; Sole-Pareta, J.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we address the problem of supporting High Performance Distributed Computing (HPDC) applications running over ATM networks. For this purpose, we consider a logically separate subnetwork for these applications. After presenting an architectural reference model for the HPDC subnetwork and distinguishing which functions should be installed over the ATM network in order to satisfy the needs of HPDC applications, we propose two mechanisms thatairn at optimizing communications by taking advantage of both the special properties of HPDC traffic and the cell-based nature of ATM. The performance of these mechanisms is evaluated and compared with that achieved by the SSCOP protocol. The results show that when the ATM network experiences high load and the HPDC applications make an intensive use of arrays, cell-based mechanisms become more robust than standard SSCOP and provide low latency and efficient cell loss recovery. Since both situations are very likely to occur in HPDC environments, we conclude that the introduction of cell-based retransmission mechanisms does contribute to enhance performance of HPDC systems over ATM networks.

  6. Evaluation of traffic management implementation and testing issues within an ATM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Kenneth R.; Burin, Kay

    1997-10-01

    Data and telecommunications industries are using ATM in a number of applications and in several configurations, enabling companies to re-engineer important functions and effectively distribute the workforce as needed. In this paper, the authors will define and offer solutions to the issues and concerns of telecom/datacom mangers when providing enhanced network access via ATM. We quantify several important traffic management implementation and testing issues within an ATM network. Guidelines are presented for meeting quality of service requirements, for mapping source traffic descriptors into different service classes, and for measuring various traffic management parameters. Abstract test suite development is discussed with respect to performance testing, and guidelines are presented on performance testing in network and in application designs.

  7. Implementation of multi-vendor DICOM standard image transfer in hospital wide ATM network.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Tani, S; Baatar, S; Naito, Y; Kanno, T; Sakusabe, T; Aizawa, M

    1998-01-01

    At Hamamatsu University Hospital, an ATM + FDDI network was installed in January 1995, when the hospital information system was upgraded. With its unique 'wheel' shape configuration, FDDI automatically backs up in case of an ATM switch failure. The authors implemented a DICOM image database server and DICOM viewer in the Hamamatsu University Hospital ATM + FDDI network. The DICOM standard worked well between different vendor products. In sending 512 x 512, 2 byte CT images, 40% of the transfer time was spent for the network data transfer, which is 70% of the theoretical value of 10 Mb peripheral transfer rate. Meanwhile, ATM load factor increased less than 0.5%. As we have a very fast data transfer network, we must check display speed, hard disc access time, PC bus speed, and display software, in order to enjoy the high speed network transfer fully. The sequence of image transmission within a study is not stated in the DICOM document and is depending on the server. Therefore, there should be an agreement between server and clients, still more than DICOM, in order to make better PACS. PMID:9804003

  8. Genetic algorithm-based neural fuzzy decision tree for mixed scheduling in ATM networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Chung, I-Fang; Pu, Her-Chang; Lee', Tsern-Huei; Chang, Jyh-Yeong

    2002-01-01

    Future broadband integrated services networks based on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technology are expected to support multiple types of multimedia information with diverse statistical characteristics and quality of service (QoS) requirements. To meet these requirements, efficient scheduling methods are important for traffic control in ATM networks. Among general scheduling schemes, the rate monotonic algorithm is simple enough to be used in high-speed networks, but does not attain the high system utilization of the deadline driven algorithm. However, the deadline driven scheme is computationally complex and hard to implement in hardware. The mixed scheduling algorithm is a combination of the rate monotonic algorithm and the deadline driven algorithm; thus it can provide most of the benefits of these two algorithms. In this paper, we use the mixed scheduling algorithm to achieve high system utilization under the hardware constraint. Because there is no analytic method for schedulability testing of mixed scheduling, we propose a genetic algorithm-based neural fuzzy decision tree (GANFDT) to realize it in a real-time environment. The GANFDT combines a GA and a neural fuzzy network into a binary classification tree. This approach also exploits the power of the classification tree. Simulation results show that the GANFDT provides an efficient way of carrying out mixed scheduling in ATM networks. PMID:18244889

  9. Fast packet switching algorithms for dynamic resource control over ATM networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, R.P.; Keattihananant, P.; Chang, T.; Heieh, J.; Du, D.

    1996-12-01

    Real-time continuous media traffic, such as digital video and audio, is expected to comprise a large percentage of the network load on future high speed packet switch networks such as ATM. A major feature which distinguishes high speed networks from traditional slower speed networks is the large amount of data the network must process very quickly. For efficient network usage, traffic control mechanisms are essential. Currently, most mechanisms for traffic control (such as flow control) have centered on the support of Available Bit Rate (ABR), i.e., non real-time, traffic. With regard to ATM, for ABR traffic, two major types of schemes which have been proposed are rate- control and credit-control schemes. Neither of these schemes are directly applicable to Real-time Variable Bit Rate (VBR) traffic such as continuous media traffic. Traffic control for continuous media traffic is an inherently difficult problem due to the time- sensitive nature of the traffic and its unpredictable burstiness. In this study, we present a scheme which controls traffic by dynamically allocating/de- allocating resources among competing VCs based upon their real-time requirements. This scheme incorporates a form of rate- control, real-time burst-level scheduling and link-link flow control. We show analytically potential performance improvements of our rate- control scheme and present a scheme for buffer dimensioning. We also present simulation results of our schemes and discuss the tradeoffs inherent in maintaining high network utilization and statistically guaranteeing many users` Quality of Service.

  10. ATM technology and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Nim K.

    1993-01-01

    Networks based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are expected to provide cost-effective and ubiquitous infrastructure to support broadband and multimedia services. In this paper, we give an overview of the ATM standards and its associated physical layer transport technologies. We use the experimental HIPPI-ATM-SONET (HAS) interface in the Nectar Gigabit Testbed to illustrate how one can use the SONET/ATM public network to provide transport for bursty gigabit applications.

  11. Experiences with the AEROnet/PSCN ATM Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurak, Richard S.; Lisotta, Anthony J.; McCabe, James D.; Nothaft, Alfred E.; Russell, Kelly R.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the experience gained by the AEROnet/PSCN networking team in deploying a prototype Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) based network as part of the wide-area network for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program at NASA Ames Research Center. The objectives of this prototype were to test concepts in using ATM over wide-area Internet Protocol (IP) networks and measure end-to-end system performance. This testbed showed that end-to-end ATM over a DS3 reaches approximately 80% of the throughput achieved from a FDDI to DS3 network. The 20% reduction in through-put can be attributed to the overhead associated with running ATM. As a result, we conclude that if the loss in capacity due to ATM overhead is balanced by the reduction in cost of ATM services, as compared to dedicated circuits, then ATM can be a viable alternative.

  12. Reduced Synchronization Persistence in Neural Networks Derived from Atm-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Levine-Small, Noah; Yekutieli, Ziv; Aljadeff, Jonathan; Boccaletti, Stefano; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Barzilai, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by malfunction of the DNA damage response. Therefore, it is important to understand the connection between system level neural network behavior and DNA. Neural networks drawn from genetically engineered animals, interfaced with micro-electrode arrays allowed us to unveil connections between networks’ system level activity properties and such genome instability. We discovered that Atm protein deficiency, which in humans leads to progressive motor impairment, leads to a reduced synchronization persistence compared to wild type synchronization, after chemically imposed DNA damage. Not only do these results suggest a role for DNA stability in neural network activity, they also establish an experimental paradigm for empirically determining the role a gene plays on the behavior of a neural network. PMID:21519382

  13. TCP performance in ATM networks: ABR parameter tuning and ABR/UBR comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Chien Fang; Lin, A.

    1996-02-27

    This paper explores two issues on TOP performance over ATM networks: ABR parameter tuning and performance comparison of binary mode ABR with enhanced UBR services. Of the fifteen parameters defined for ABR, two parameters dominate binary mode ABR performance: Rate Increase Factor (RIF) and Rate Decrease Factor (RDF). Using simulations, we study the effects of these two parameters on TOP over ABR performance. We compare TOP performance with different ABR parameter settings in terms of through-puts and fairness. The effects of different buffer sizes and LAN/WAN distances are also examined. We then compare TOP performance with the best ABR parameter setting with corresponding UBR service enhanced with Early Packet Discard and also with a fair buffer allocation scheme. The results show that TOP performance over binary mode ABR is very sensitive to parameter value settings, and that a poor choice of parameters can result in ABR performance worse than that of the much less expensive UBR-EPD scheme.

  14. A survey of IP over ATM architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Tsang, R.; Brandt, J.; Hutchins, J.

    1997-07-01

    Over the past decade, the Internet has burgeoned into a worldwide information highway consisting of approximately 5 million hosts on over 45,000 interconnected networks. This unprecedented growth, together with the introduction of multimedia workstations, has spurred the development of innovative applications that require high speed, low latency, and real-time transport. Today`s Internet can neither scale in its bandwidth nor guarantee the Quality of Services (QoS) necessary to meet these performance requirements. Many network researchers propose to use the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology as the underlying infrastructure for the next generation of workgroup, campus, and enterprise IP networks. Since ATM is significantly different from today`s legacy network technologies, efficient implementation of IP over ATM is especially challenging. This tutorial paper covers several existing proposals that integrate IP over ATM.

  15. Scalable ATM encryption

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In order to provide needed security assurances for traffic carried in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks, methods of protecting the integrity and privacy of traffic must be employed. Cryptographic methods can be used to assure authenticity and privacy, but are hard to scale and the incorporation of these methods into computer networks can severely impact functionality, reliability, and performance. To study these trade-offs, a research prototype encryptor/decryptor is under development. This prototype is to demonstrate the viability of implementing certain encryption techniques in high speed networks by processing Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cells in a SONET OC-3 payload. This paper describes the objectives and design trade-offs intended to be investigated with the prototype. User requirements for high performance computing and communication have driven Sandia to do work in the areas of functionality, reliability, security, and performance of high speed communication networks. Adherence to standards (including emerging standards) achieves greater functionality of high speed computer networks by providing wide interoperability of applications, network hardware, and network software.

  16. Use of FEC coding to improve statistical multiplexing performance for video transport over ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurceren, Ragip; Modestino, James W.

    1998-12-01

    The use of forward error-control (FEC) coding, possibly in conjunction with ARQ techniques, has emerged as a promising approach for video transport over ATM networks for cell-loss recovery and/or bit error correction, such as might be required for wireless links. Although FEC provides cell-loss recovery capabilities it also introduces transmission overhead which can possibly cause additional cell losses. A methodology is described to maximize the number of video sources multiplexed at a given quality of service (QoS), measured in terms of decoded cell loss probability, using interlaced FEC codes. The transport channel is modelled as a block interference channel (BIC) and the multiplexer as single server, deterministic service, finite buffer supporting N users. Based upon an information-theoretic characterization of the BIC and large deviation bounds on the buffer overflow probability, the described methodology provides theoretically achievable upper limits on the number of sources multiplexed. Performance of specific coding techniques using interlaced nonbinary Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and binary rate-compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC) codes is illustrated.

  17. Security Services Discovery by ATM Endsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Sholander, Peter; Tarman, Thomas

    1999-07-15

    This contribution proposes strawman techniques for Security Service Discovery by ATM endsystems in ATM networks. Candidate techniques include ILMI extensions, ANS extensions and new ATM anycast addresses. Another option is a new protocol based on an IETF service discovery protocol, such as Service Location Protocol (SLP). Finally, this contribution provides strawman requirements for Security-Based Routing in ATM networks.

  18. First six months of clinical usage of an ATM network link between two Veterans Affairs Medical Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerinckx, Andre J.; Gentili, Amilcare; El-Saden, Suzie; Harmon, Craig; Kenagy, John J.; Grant, Edward G.

    1998-07-01

    Purpose/Background: Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network technology has recently been used for high speed transmission of radiological images between hospitals and inside hospitals. However, the number of clinical sites which routinely use this technology is limited. The purpose of this study was to analyze the very early impact of an ATM link between a large tertiary referral center and small peripheral clinic on cost and clinical practice. Methodology: An ATM link using 155 bps (OC3) technology was installed between the West Los Angeles VA Medical Center and the Sepulveda VA, a large outpatient facility which provides full service radiological services. The West Los Angeles VA Medical Center is a large tertiary referral center with sub-specialist radiologist. The clinical impact of this ATM link between a large full-scale DICOM-3 compliant PACS system at the West LA VA on a smaller PACS system at the Sepulveda VA was evaluated. Results: The ability to freely exchange complicated MRI and CT studies between a tertiary referral center and a clinic could have a direct impact on patient care. Over the last six months, all and CT studies from Sepulveda VA were readily available via the ATM connection to all radiologists at the West LA VA. On average the workload at the Sepulveda VA in CT and MRI was about one tenth of the same workload at West LA VA, thus creating interesting possibilities for sharing or radiologist resources. Conclusions: Although our preliminary data and work loads have been too limited to draw any final conclusions yet, we feel that future results will show that the ability to provide immediate and fast interactive consultation between general radiologists in a large outpatient facility and sub- specialists at a tertiary referral center can have an impact upon the quality of patient care.

  19. Research Data Acquired in World-Class, 60-atm Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming; Wey, Changlie

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's new, world-class, 60-atmosphere (atm) combustor research facility, the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR), is in operation and producing highly unique research data. Specifically, data were acquired at high pressures and temperatures representative of future subsonic engines from a fundamental flametube configuration with an advanced fuel injector. The data acquired include exhaust emissions as well as pressure and temperature distributions. Results to date represent an improved understanding of nitrous oxide (NOx) formation at high pressures and temperatures and include an NOx emissions reduction greater than 70 percent with an advanced fuel injector at operating pressures to 800 pounds per square inch absolute (psia). ASCR research is an integral part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Propulsion Program. This program is developing critical low-emission combustion technology that will result in the next generation of gas turbine engines producing 50 to 70 percent less NOx emissions in comparison to 1996 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) limits. The results to date indicate that the AST low-emission combustor goals of reducing NOx emissions by 50 to 70 percent are feasible. U.S. gas turbine manufacturers have started testing the low-emissions combustors at the ASCR. This collaborative testing will enable the industry to develop low-emission combustors at the high pressure and temperature conditions of future subsonic engines. The first stage of the flametube testing has been implemented. Four GE Aircraft Engines low-emissions fuel injector concepts, three Pratt & Whitney concepts, and two Allison concepts have been tested at Lewis ASCR facility. Subsequently, the flametube was removed from the test stand, and the sector combustor was installed. The testing of low emissions sector has begun. Low-emission combustors developed as a result of ASCR research will enable U.S. engine manufacturers to compete on a

  20. Neural network temperature and moisture retrieval algorithm validation for AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milstein, Adam B.; Blackwell, William J.

    2016-02-01

    We present comprehensive validation results for the recently introduced neural network technique for retrieving vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and water vapor from spaceborne microwave and hyperspectral infrared sounding instruments. This technique is currently in operational use as the first guess for the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Science Team Version 6 retrieval algorithm. The validation incorporates a variety of data sources, independent from the algorithm training set, as ground truth, including global numerical weather analyses generated by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, synoptic radiosonde measurements, and radiosondes dedicated for validation. The results demonstrate significant performance improvements over the previous AIRS/advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU) operational sounding retrievals in both retrieval error and also show comparable vertical resolution. We also present initial neural network retrieval results using measurements from the Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) currently flying on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite.

  1. The Passive Microwave Neural Network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) for AMSU/MHS and ATMS cross-track scanning radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano', Paolo; Casella, Daniele; Panegrossi, Giulia; Cinzia Marra, Anna; Dietrich, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Spaceborne microwave cross-track scanning radiometers, originally developed for temperature and humidity sounding, have shown great capabilities to provide a significant contribution in precipitation monitoring both in terms of measurement quality and spatial/temporal coverage. The Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for cross-track scanning radiometers, originally developed for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit/Microwave Humidity Sounder (AMSU-A/MHS) radiometers (on board the European MetOp and U.S. NOAA satellites), was recently newly designed to exploit the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board the Suomi-NPP satellite and the future JPSS satellites. The PNPR algorithm is based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach. The main PNPR-ATMS algorithm changes with respect to PNPR-AMSU/MHS are the design and implementation of a new ANN able to manage the information derived from the additional ATMS channels (respect to the AMSU-A/MHS radiometer) and a new screening procedure for not-precipitating pixels. In order to achieve maximum consistency of the retrieved surface precipitation, both PNPR algorithms are based on the same physical foundation. The PNPR is optimized for the European and the African area. The neural network was trained using a cloud-radiation database built upon 94 cloud-resolving simulations over Europe and the Mediterranean and over the African area and radiative transfer model simulations of TB vectors consistent with the AMSU-A/MHS and ATMS channel frequencies, viewing angles, and view-angle dependent IFOV sizes along the scan projections. As opposed to other ANN precipitation retrieval algorithms, PNPR uses a unique ANN that retrieves the surface precipitation rate for all types of surface backgrounds represented in the training database, i.e., land (vegetated or arid), ocean, snow/ice or coast. This approach prevents different precipitation estimates from being inconsistent with one

  2. Final Report for the Scaled Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Encryption Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, L.G.; Witzke, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    This effort studied the integration of innovative methods of key management crypto synchronization, and key agility while scaling encryption speed. Viability of these methods for encryption of ATM cell payloads at the SONET OC- 192 data rate (10 Gb/s), and for operation at OC-48 rates (2.5 Gb/s) was shown. An SNL-Developed pipelined DES design was adapted for the encryption of ATM cells. A proof-of-principle prototype circuit board containing 11 Electronically Programmable Logic Devices (each holding the equivalent of 100,000 gates) was designed, built, and used to prototype a high speed encryptor.

  3. Connecting Remote Clusters with ATM

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, T.C.; Wyckoff, P.S.

    1998-10-01

    Sandia's entry into utilizing clusters of networked workstations is called Computational Plant or CPlant for short. The design of CPlant uses Ethernet to boot the individual nodes, Myrinet to communicate within a node cluster, and ATM to connect between remote clusters. This SAND document covers the work done to enable the use of ATM on the CPlant nodes in the Fall of 1997.

  4. The ATM protein: the importance of being active.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Yosef; Ziv, Yael

    2012-08-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the cellular response to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand breaks by phosphorylating numerous players in the extensive DNA damage response network. Two papers in this issue (Daniel et al. 2012. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb201204035; Yamamoto et al. 2012. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb201204098) strikingly show that, in mice, the presence of a catalytically inactive version of ATM is embryonically lethal. This is surprising because mice completely lacking ATM have a much more moderate phenotype. The findings impact on basic cancer research and cancer therapeutics. PMID:22869592

  5. Satellite Communications for ATM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  6. Distributed Large Data-Object Environments: End-to-End Performance Analysis of High Speed Distributed Storage Systems in Wide Area ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian; Lee, Jason; Hoo, Gary; Thompson, Mary

    1996-01-01

    We have developed and deployed a distributed-parallel storage system (DPSS) in several high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wide area networks (WAN) testbeds to support several different types of data-intensive applications. Architecturally, the DPSS is a network striped disk array, but is fairly unique in that its implementation allows applications complete freedom to determine optimal data layout, replication and/or coding redundancy strategy, security policy, and dynamic reconfiguration. In conjunction with the DPSS, we have developed a 'top-to-bottom, end-to-end' performance monitoring and analysis methodology that has allowed us to characterize all aspects of the DPSS operating in high speed ATM networks. In particular, we have run a variety of performance monitoring experiments involving the DPSS in the MAGIC testbed, which is a large scale, high speed, ATM network and we describe our experience using the monitoring methodology to identify and correct problems that limit the performance of high speed distributed applications. Finally, the DPSS is part of an overall architecture for using high speed, WAN's for enabling the routine, location independent use of large data-objects. Since this is part of the motivation for a distributed storage system, we describe this architecture.

  7. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Switch Technology and Vendor Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Noemi

    1995-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switch and software features are described and compared in order to make switch comparisons meaningful. An ATM switch's performance cannot be measured solely based on its claimed switching capacity; traffic management and congestion control are emerging as the determining factors in an ATM network's ultimate throughput. Non-switch ATM products and experiences with actual installations of ATM networks are described. A compilation of select vendor offerings as of October 1994 is provided in chart form.

  8. Bearer channel control protocol for the dynamic VB5.2 interface in ATM access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoulopoulos, Stratos K.; Mavrommatis, K. I.; Venieris, Iakovos S.

    1996-12-01

    In the multi-vendor systems, a customer connected to an Access network (AN) must be capable of selecting a specific Service Node (SN) according to the services the SN provides. The multiplicity of technologically varying AN calls for the definition of a standard reference point between the AN and the SN widely known as the VB interface. Two versions are currently offered. The VB5.1 is simpler to implement but is not as flexible as the VB5.2, which supports switched connections. The VB5.2 functionality is closely coupled to the Broadband Bearer Channel Connection Protocol (B-BCCP). The B-BCCP is used for conveying the necessary information for dynamic resource allocation, traffic policing and routing in the AN as well as for information exchange concerning the status of the AN before a new call is established by the SN. By relying on such a protocol for the exchange of information instead of intercepting and interpreting signalling messages in the AN, the architecture of the AN is simplified because the functionality related to processing is not duplicated. In this paper a prominent B- BCCP candidate is defined, called the Service node Access network Interaction Protocol.

  9. Scalable end-to-end ATM encryption test results

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, L.G.

    1995-10-01

    Customers of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) services may need a variety of data authenticity and privacy assurances. Cryptographic methods can be used to assure authenticity and privacy, but are hard to scale for implementation at high speed. The incorporation of these methods into computer networks can severely impact functionality, reliability, and performance. To study these trade-offs, a prototype encryptor/decryptor was developed. This effort demonstrated the viability of implementing certain encryption techniques in high speed networks. The research prototype processes ATM cells in a SONET OC-3 payload. This paper describes the functionality, reliability, security, and performance design trade-offs investigated with the prototype.

  10. A Managerial Analysis of ATM in Facilitating Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Marlyn Kemper

    In this paper, the fundamental characteristics and capabilities of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks in a distance learning environment are examined. Current and projected ATM applications are described, and issues and challenges associated with developing ATM networking solutions for instructional delivery are explored. Other topics…

  11. Recently emerging signaling landscape of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Attar, Rukset; Arslan, Belkis Atasever; Romero, Mirna Azalea; ul Haq, Muhammad Fahim; Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    Research over the years has progressively and sequentially provided near complete resolution of regulators of the DNA repair pathways which are so important for cancer prevention. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), a high-molecular-weight PI3K-family kinase has emerged as a master regulator of DNA damage signaling and extensive cross-talk between ATM and downstream proteins forms an interlaced signaling network. There is rapidly growing scientific evidence emphasizing newly emerging paradigms in ATM biology. In this review, we provide latest information regarding how oxidative stress induced activation of ATM can be utilized as a therapeutic target in different cancer cell lines and in xenografted mice. Moreover, crosstalk between autophagy and ATM is also discussed with focus on how autophagy inhibition induces apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:25169474

  12. ATM: Restructing Learning for Deaf Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Barbara; Stockford, David

    Governor Baxter School for the Deaf is one of six Maine pilot sites chosen by NYNEX to showcase asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technology. ATM is a network connection that allows high bandwidth transmission of data, voice, and video. Its high speed capability allows for high quality two-way full-motion video, which is especially beneficial to a…

  13. Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... RDCRN? Aims of the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Contact Us RDCRN Members Login Accessibility Disclaimer The Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network is an initiative of the Office of Rare ...

  14. Collaborative research networks work.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Anamaria A; Simpson, Andrew J G

    2003-08-01

    Brazil was heralded for completion of the first genome sequence of a plant pathogen following the development of a virtual research center - a collaborative network of laboratories throughout the state of São Paulo, drawing on the expertise of a dispersed and diverse scientific community and on investment from both the government and the private sector. Strategies key to the success of this model are discussed here in the context of continuing collaborative scientific endeavors in both developed and developing countries. PMID:12925684

  15. Error concealment and early resynchronization techniques for MPEG-2 video streams damaged by transmission over ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Carlos L.; Basso, Andrea; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we present some error concealment techniques for MPEG-2 video coded and multiplexed streams damaged by ATM cell losses. Decoder early resynchronization limits the effects of transmission errors by decoding some information that is normally discarded from the damaged MPEG-2 video bitstreams. A part of this information cannot be completely decoded due to its differential coding among macroblocks (DC levels, motion vectors). Three different techniques are presented for the case of DC level recovery in Intra pictures. Two of them are predictive techniques, one operating in the frequency domain and the other in the spatial domain. The third technique provides an exact reconstruction of DC values using special data coded into the user data area of the MPEG-2 video bitstream. For not resynchronized areas classical temporal and spatial concealment techniques are used. These techniques have been tested on a simulated environment which includes an implementation of MPEG-2 elementary video coding and decoding and MPEG-2 system standards. The ATM transmission part has been simulated by means of specialized simulation software. Results relative to the presented concealment techniques are included.

  16. The ATM conversion at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkosh, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Converting a large, heterogeneous, networked, environment to ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) can yield many benefits. Before these benefits can be reaped, however, numerous decisions must be made and implemented. This paper presents a case study which describes the steps that were necessary to convert a backbone network at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico to ATM. It presents each step by explaining its importance and what options were considered along with their tradeoffs. It is hoped that organizations contemplating converting to ATM will have a better understanding of how the transition is implemented after reading this paper.

  17. Gigabit ATM: another technical mistake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, Paul

    1998-09-01

    Once upon a time, or more precisely during February 1988 at the CCITT Seoul plenary, and definitely arriving as a revolution, ATM hit the hard-core B-ISDN circuit-switching gang. Initiated by the Telecoms' camp, but, surprisingly, soon to be pushed by computer minded people, ATM's generic technological history is somewhat richer than single-sided stories. Here are two classical elements of that history: Firstly, together with X.25, ATM suffers from the connection versus datagram dichotomy, well known for more than twenty years. Secondly, and lesser known, ATM's use of cells in support of the 'I' of B-ISDN was questioned from the very beginning by the packet switching camp. Furthermore, in this context, there are two other essential elements to be considered: Firstly, the exponential growth of the Internet and later intranets, using Internet technology, sparked by the success of the Web and the WINTEL alliance, resulted in a corresponding demand for both aggregate and end-system network bandwidth. Secondly, servers, historically restricted to the exclusive club of HIPPI-equipped supercomputers, suddenly become ordinary high-end PCs with 64-bit wide PCI busses -- definitely aiming at the Gigabit. Here, if your aim is for Gigabit ATM with 5000-transactions per second classical supercomputers, a 65K ATM MTU -- as implemented by Cray -- might be okay. Following Clark and others, another part of the story is the adoption and redefinition, by the IETF, of the Telecoms' notion of 'Integrated Services' and QoS mechanisms. The quest for low-delay IP packet forwarding, perhaps possible over ATM cut-throughs, has resulted in the switching versus/or integrated-with-routing movement. However, a blow for ATM may be the recent results concerning fast routing table lookup algorithms. This, by making Gigabit routing possible using ordinary Pentium processors may eventually render the much prophesized ATM switching performance unnecessary. Recently, with the rise of Gigabit Ethernet

  18. Security technologies and protocols for Asynchronous Transfer Mode networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.

    1996-06-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a new data communications technology that promises to integrate voice, video, and data traffic into a common network infrastructure. In order to fully utilize ATM`s ability to transfer real-time data at high rates, applications will start to access the ATM layer directly. As a result of this trend, security mechanisms at the ATM layer will be required. A number of research programs are currently in progress which seek to better understand the unique issues associated with ATM security. This paper describes some of these issues, and the approaches taken by various organizations in the design of ATM layer security mechanisms. Efforts within the ATM Forum to address the user communities need for ATM security are also described.

  19. Preliminary experiences with telemedicine, multimedia, and ATM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, James E., Jr.; Deforge, Christian; Kim, Yongmin

    1996-04-01

    With the goal of eventually increasing the quality of medical care, especially in remote areas, we have developed a system for telemedicine research based on a combination of ATM networking and a high-speed DSP board based on the Texas Instruments TMS320C80. The purpose of the system is to give health care providers at remote locations the ability to consult with specialists using a combination of video, audio, and externally-acquired images. The system can also be used for education purposes to support bi-directional video/audio communications for grand round lectures, classes, and case conferences. In order to maximize the utilization of the available transmission medium (ranging from land-based copper and fiber optic cable to satellite link) while providing the best possible video and audio quality, the compression performed by the system is adaptable to a wide variety of bandwidths. After about two years of experience with telemedicine in a research environment, we have some preliminary findings to report regarding the performance of a telemedicine application combining ATM and programmable multimedia processors in PC environments.

  20. [Network Research on Human Papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Paniagua, Ramón; Furuya, María ElenaYuriko

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the research in important health questions at a national and institutional levels, the Human Papillomavirus Research Network of the Health Research Coordination of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social offers this supplement with the purpose of assisting patients that daily look for attention due to the human papillomavirus or to cervical cancer. PMID:26462505

  1. Supercomputing research networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhall, Marguerite

    The need for a federal high-performance computing network has been presented before several congressional committees over the last several weeks. Championing the cause is Senator Albert Gore, Jr.(D-TN), Chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Science, Space and Technology. Gore has been trumpeting the creation of computer “superhighways,” which would link supercomputers at universities, national laboratories and in industry and have the capability of transmitting 1000 times more data per second than current networks. The National High-Performance Computer Technology Act (S.1067) was introduced by Gore in May 1989 and authorizes $1.75 billion over 5 years for the program.The proposed program would involve the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy and Department of Defense. Other agencies such as National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Geological Survey, National Institutes of Health and Library of Congress would also play important roles. Gore's bill authorizes specific funds for the NSF in this area; however, to gain authorization for the program for some of the other agencies' “companion” bills must be introduced.

  2. BNL-NYSERNet ATM project report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, M.; Peskin, A.; Rabinowitz, G.

    1997-07-01

    In 1994, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and NYSERNet, Incorporated embarked on a joint project to develop a prototype Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Regional Network testbed. This project was funded as a three-year effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Activity (CRADA) agreement between the parties, with half the funds being provided directly by the U.S. Department of Energy and the remainder as an in-kind contribution by NYSERNet. This report documents that effort as it comes to a close, providing an account of the original goals, the accomplishments of the projects, and the results as they might apply to the future. It is useful to remember that, when the collaboration discussions first began in 1993, it was far from certain that ATM would be the technology of choice for the then-next generation of the Internet. That, of course, has turned out to be the case, which in retrospect makes this experience particularly valuable. The investigators were not totally prescient, however, and the project changed during its duration to account for changes in technology, available infrastructure, and other circumstances.

  3. Evaluating primary care research networks.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Evelyn; Harvey, Janet; Sturt, Jackie

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework and tool kit, generated from the evaluation of five primary care research networks (PCRNs) funded by the then London, National Health Service (NHS) Executive. We employed qualitative methods designed to match the most important characteristics of PCRNs, conducting five contextualized case studies covering the five networks. A conceptual evaluation framework based on a review of the organization science literature was developed and comprised the broad, but inter-related organizational dimensions of structure, processes, boundaries and network self-evaluation as input factors and strategic emphasis as epitomized by network objectives. These dimensions were comprised of more detailed subdimensions designed to capture the potential of the networks to create ideas and knowledge, or intellectual capital, the key construct upon which our evaluation tool kit was based. We considered the congruence, or fit, between network objectives and input factors: greater congruence implied greater ability to achieve implicit and overt objectives. We conclude that network evaluation must take place, over time, recognizing stage of development and potential for long-term viability, but within a generic framework of inputs and outputs. If there is a good fit or congruence between their input factors and network objectives, networks will be internally coherent and able to operate at optimum effectiveness. PMID:17683655

  4. Simulation study of World Wide Web traffic over the ATM ABR service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandalore, Bobby; Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar; Jain, Raj; Goyal, Rohit; Fahmy, Sonia

    1998-10-01

    Asynchronous transfer-mode (ATM) is the technology chosen for implementing the broadband integrated services digital network. The performance of internet protocols over ATM is an extremely important research area. As web traffic forms a major portion of the Internet traffic, we model WWW servers and clients running over an ATM network using the available bit rate (ABR) service. The WWW servers are modeled using a variant of the SPECweb96 benchmark, while the WWW clients are based on a model proposed. The traffic generated is typically bursty, having active and idle transmission periods. A timeout occurs after a certain idle interval. During idle periods, the underlying TCP congestion windows remain large until the timer expires. This raises the possibility of large queues at the switches, if the source rates ar not controlled by ABR. We study this problem and show that ABR scales well to a large number of bursty TCP sources in the system.

  5. Implementing and testing ATM in a production LAN

    SciTech Connect

    Naegle, J.; Testi, N.; Tolendino, L.; Zepper, J.

    1995-06-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology is currently receiving extensive attention in the computer networking arena. Many experts predict that ATM will be the future networking technology for both the Local Area Network (LAN) and the Wide Area Network (WAN). This paper presents the results of a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories` Advanced Networking Department and Engineering Sciences Center to study the implementation of ATM in one of Sandia`s most heavily loaded production networks. The network consists of over 120 Sun Sparc 10s and 20s, two SparcCenter 2000s, a 12 node parallel IBM SP-2, and several other miscellaneous high-end workstations. The existing network was first characterized through extensive traffic measurements to better understand the capabilities and limitations of the existing network technologies and to provide a baseline for comparison to an ATM network. This characterization was used to select a subset of the network elements which would benefit most from conversion to the ATM technology. This subset was then converted to equipment based on the latest ATM standards. With direct OC-3c (155 Mbps) host connections for the workstations and the file and compute servers, we demonstrated as much as 122 Mbps throughput (memory-to-memory TCP/IP transfers) between endpoints. Flow control in the classical many-to-one client server environment was also investigated. Throughout all of our tests, the interaction of the user applications with the network technologies was documented and possible improvements were tested. The performance and reliability of the ATM network was compared to the original network to determine the benefits and liabilities of the ATM technology.

  6. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  7. ATM LAN Emulation: Getting from Here to There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses current LAN (local area network) configuration and explains ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) as the future telecommunications transport. Highlights include LAN emulation, which enables the interconnection of legacy LANs and the new ATM environment; virtual LANs; broadcast servers; and standards. (LRW)

  8. ATMS Step By Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    This manual is designed to provide an introduction and basic guide to the use of IBM's Advanced Text Management System (ATMS), the text processing system to be used for the creation of Australian data bases within AUSINET. Instructions are provided for using the system to enter, store, retrieve, and modify data, which may then be displayed at the…

  9. LTAR linkages with other research networks: Capitalizing on network interconnections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA ARS Research Unit based at the Jornada Experimental Range outside of Las Cruces, NM, is a member of the USDA’s Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network, the National Science Foundation’s Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network, the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON)...

  10. The DISN ATM tactical extension demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barattino, William J.; Bowman, Larry; Riehl, Robert; Mallory, June; Sonderegger, Katy

    1997-01-01

    The Defense Information Systems Network (DISN) is comprised of all telecommunications systems, both fixed and mobile, to meet the information systems requirements of the Department of Defense. Scalable communications providing bandwidth on demand will be achieved with a single protocol, specifically Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). This protocol must work over satellites to provide seamless communications connectivity to our deployed forces. A major demonstration was conducted by the Defense Information Systems Agency to evaluate the usage of the ATM protocol over dual satellite hops. Multi-media applications requiring three party video teleconferencing were conducted with multi-casting over switched virtual circuits. Even under the most difficult conditions of 50% cell loss, the applications performed sufficiently well to conclude that ATM over satellite can be used for the DISN.

  11. National research and education network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villasenor, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Some goals of this network are as follows: Extend U.S. technological leadership in high performance computing and computer communications; Provide wide dissemination and application of the technologies both to the speed and the pace of innovation and to serve the national economy, national security, education, and the global environment; and Spur gains in the U.S. productivity and industrial competitiveness by making high performance computing and networking technologies an integral part of the design and production process. Strategies for achieving these goals are as follows: Support solutions to important scientific and technical challenges through a vigorous R and D effort; Reduce the uncertainties to industry for R and D and use of this technology through increased cooperation between government, industry, and universities and by the continued use of government and government funded facilities as a prototype user for early commercial HPCC products; and Support underlying research, network, and computational infrastructures on which U.S. high performance computing technology is based.

  12. Medical education practice-based research networks: Facilitating collaborative research

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan; Young, Robin; Hicks, Patricia J.; APPD LEARN, For

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Research networks formalize and institutionalize multi-site collaborations by establishing an infrastructure that enables network members to participate in research, propose new studies, and exploit study data to move the field forward. Although practice-based clinical research networks are now widespread, medical education research networks are rapidly emerging. Aims: In this article, we offer a definition of the medical education practice-based research network, a brief description of networks in existence in July 2014 and their features, and a more detailed case study of the emergence and early growth of one such network, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN). Methods: We searched for extant networks through peer-reviewed literature and the world-wide web. Results: We identified 15 research networks in medical education founded since 2002 with membership ranging from 8 to 120 programs. Most focus on graduate medical education in primary care or emergency medicine specialties. Conclusions: We offer four recommendations for the further development and spread of medical education research networks: increasing faculty development, obtaining central resources, studying networks themselves, and developing networks of networks. PMID:25319404

  13. Steps toward a National Research Telecommunications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Gordon

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes the recommendations of the Computer Network Study Planning Group formed by the Office of Science and Technology Policy under the provisions of PL99-383 to study the networking needs of the nation's academic and federal research computer programs. The benefits and importance of the recommended National Research Network are discussed.…

  14. NPP After Launch: Characterizing ATMS Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission is scheduled to launch in the fall of 2011. Although several teams from the government and the instrument contractor will be assessing and characterizing the performance of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) sounding suite, the NASA NPP Science Team will be paying particular attention to the aspects of these sensors that affect their utility for atmospheric and climate research. In this talk we discuss relevant aspects of ATMS and our post launch analysis approach.

  15. Research Priorities in Networking and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A workshop focused on major research issues in networking and communications. This report defines the context for research priorities and initiatives and deals with issues in networking and communications. Fifteen major research priorities and four research specific initiatives were identified by participants as areas that should be pursued over…

  16. Research on the model of home networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Xiang; Feng, Xiancheng

    2007-11-01

    It is the research hotspot of current broadband network to combine voice service, data service and broadband audio-video service by IP protocol to transport various real time and mutual services to terminal users (home). Home Networking is a new kind of network and application technology which can provide various services. Home networking is called as Digital Home Network. It means that PC, home entertainment equipment, home appliances, Home wirings, security, illumination system were communicated with each other by some composing network technology, constitute a networking internal home, and connect with WAN by home gateway. It is a new network technology and application technology, and can provide many kinds of services inside home or between homes. Currently, home networking can be divided into three kinds: Information equipment, Home appliances, Communication equipment. Equipment inside home networking can exchange information with outer networking by home gateway, this information communication is bidirectional, user can get information and service which provided by public networking by using home networking internal equipment through home gateway connecting public network, meantime, also can get information and resource to control the internal equipment which provided by home networking internal equipment. Based on the general network model of home networking, there are four functional entities inside home networking: HA, HB, HC, and HD. (1) HA (Home Access) - home networking connects function entity; (2) HB (Home Bridge) Home networking bridge connects function entity; (3) HC (Home Client) - Home networking client function entity; (4) HD (Home Device) - decoder function entity. There are many physical ways to implement four function entities. Based on theses four functional entities, there are reference model of physical layer, reference model of link layer, reference model of IP layer and application reference model of high layer. In the future home network

  17. The effect of algorithm-agile encryption on ATM quality of service

    SciTech Connect

    Sholander, P.; Tarman, T.; Pierson, L.; Hutchinson, R.

    1997-04-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) users often open multiple ATM Virtual Circuits (VCs) to multiple ATM users on multiple ATM networks. Each network and user may implement a different encryption policy. Hence ATM users may need shared, flexible hardware-based 3encryption that supports multiple encryption algorithms for multiple concurrent ATM users and VCs. An algorithm-agile encryption architecture, that uses multiple, parallel encryption-pipelines, is proposed. That algorithm-agile encryptor`s effect on the ATM Quality of Service (QoS) metrics, such as Cell Transfer Delay (CTD) and Cell Delay Variation (CDV), is analyzed. Bounds on the maximum CDV and the CDV`s probability density are derived.

  18. The productivity of primary care research networks.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, F; Wild, A; Harvey, J; Fenton, E

    2000-11-01

    Primary care research networks are being publicly funded in the United Kingdom to promote a culture of research and development in primary care. This paper discusses the organisational form of these networks and how their productivity can be evaluated, drawing on evidence from management science. An evaluation of a research network has to take account of the complexity of the organisation, the influence of its local context, and its stage of development. Output measures, such as number of research papers, and process measures, such as number of research meetings, may contribute to an evaluation. However, as networking relies on the development of informal, trust-based relationships, the quality of interactions within a network is of paramount importance for its success. Networks can audit and reflect on their success in promoting such relationships and a more formal qualitative evaluation by an independent observer can document their success to those responsible for funding. PMID:11141879

  19. FACET: Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilmoria, Karl D.; Banavar, Sridhar; Chatterji, Gano B.; Sheth, Kapil S.; Grabbe, Shon

    2000-01-01

    FACET (Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool) is an Air Traffic Management research tool being developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. This paper describes the design, architecture and functionalities of FACET. The purpose of FACET is to provide E simulation environment for exploration, development and evaluation of advanced ATM concepts. Examples of these concepts include new ATM paradigms such as Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management, airspace redesign and new Decision Support Tools (DSTs) for controllers working within the operational procedures of the existing air traffic control system. FACET is currently capable of modeling system-wide en route airspace operations over the contiguous United States. Airspace models (e.g., Center/sector boundaries, airways, locations of navigation aids and airports) are available from databases. A core capability of FACET is the modeling of aircraft trajectories. Using round-earth kinematic equations, aircraft can be flown along flight plan routes or great circle routes as they climb, cruise and descend according to their individual aircraft-type performance models. Performance parameters (e.g., climb/descent rates and speeds, cruise speeds) are obtained from data table lookups. Heading, airspeed and altitude-rate dynamics are also modeled. Additional functionalities will be added as necessary for specific applications. FACET software is written in Java and C programming languages. It is platform-independent, and can be run on a variety of computers. FACET has been designed with a modular software architecture to enable rapid integration of research prototype implementations of new ATM concepts. There are several advanced ATM concepts that are currently being implemented in FACET airborne separation assurance, dynamic density predictions, airspace redesign (re-sectorization), benefits of a controller DST for direct-routing, and the integration of commercial space transportation system operations into the U.S. National

  20. ATM CMG bearing failure analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The cause or causes for the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2) were investigated. Skylab telemetry data were reviewed and presented in the form of parameter distributions. The theory that the problems were caused by marginal bearing lubrication was studied along with the effects of orbital conditions on lubricants. Bearing tests were performed to investigate the effect of lubricant or lack of lubricant in the ATM CMG bearings and the dispersion and migration of the lubricant. The vacuum and weightless conditions of space were simulated in the bearing tests. Analysis of the results of the tests conducted points to inadequate lubrication as the predominant factor causing the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2).

  1. Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN)

    Cancer.gov

    The Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN) was established in March 2015 with the goal to accelerate knowledge generation, synthesis and translation of oncologic emergency medicine research through multi-center collaborations.

  2. LTAR Linkages with Other Research Networks: Capitalizing on Network Interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havstad, K.

    2015-12-01

    The USDA ARS Research Unit based at the Jornada Experimental Range outside of Las Cruces, NM, is a member of the USDA's Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network, the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network, the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON), and the USDA's Climate Hub Network. Each of these networks has distinct functions, missions, operational characteristics, and distinct scientific and management sub-cultures (though some are fairly new and developing). Some are a fairly independent collection of research sites functioning as a network in name only, and others are truly working to develop a research synergy that could be holistic and uniquely productive. All have real scientific value, and collectively represent an investment in US research infrastructure in biology and agriculture in excess of $3B. To effectively utilize and exploit this unique research infrastructure will require a concerted effort to meld attributes of each to the benefits of their common stakeholders. Real opportunities exist to collectively utilize this infrastructure to address grand research challenges.

  3. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  4. A Communication Network for Educational Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Jean; Cooley, William W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses application of microcomputer technology to educational research and describes the possible uses of computer networking for communication with colleagues. Focuses on the organization and structure of the Education Research Forum on CompuServe. Considers advantages and costs of networking in general and for the American Educational…

  5. Collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macleod, Christopher Kit

    2015-04-01

    There is a need to improve the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge of catchment systems through networks of researchers, policy makers and practitioners. This requires greater levels of systems based integrative research. In parallel to the growing realization that greater levels of collaborative knowledge in scientific research networks are required, a digital revolution has been taking place. This has been driven primarily by the emergence of distributed networks of computers and standards-based interoperability. The objective of this paper is to present the status and research needs for greater levels of systems based integrative research for the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. To enable increased levels of integrative research depends on development and application of digital technologies to improve collection, use and sharing of data and devise new knowledge infrastructures. This paper focuses on the requirements for catchment observatories that integrate existing and novel physical, social and digital networks of knowledge infrastructures. To support this focus, I present three leading international examples of collaborative networks of catchment researchers and their development of catchment observatories. In particular, the digital infrastructures they have developed to support collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. These examples are from North America (NSF funded CUAHSI HIS) and from Europe (UK NERC funded EVOp and the German Helmholtz Association Centers funded TERENO/TEODOOR). These exemplars all supported advancing collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks through the development of catchment observatories. I will conclude by discussing the future research directions required for greater levels of production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks based on catchment systems science.

  6. Research and Development Trends of Car Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Li, Zhixiong; Xie, Guotao

    With the rapid development of the world economy, road transport has become increasingly busy. An unexpected incident would cause serious traffic disaster due to traffic accidents. To solve this problem, the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is important for the health developments of the city transportation, has become a hot topic. The car networking provides a new way for intelligent transportation system. It can ensure intelligent control and monitoring of urban road with high performance. This paper described the concept of car networking and related technology both in oversea and domestic. The importance of car networking to achieve vehicle and details of the car networking related technologies were illustrated firstly. Then, attentions focus on the research nodus of the car networking. Lastly, the development trend of car networking research was discussed.

  7. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-07-21

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  8. Using ATM over SATCOM links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comparetto, Gary M.

    1995-01-01

    The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) protocol is studied from the standpoint of determining what limitations, if any, exist in using it over satellite links. It is concluded that, while there is nothing intrinsic about ATM that would generally preclude its use over satellite links, there are, however, several intrinsic characteristics of satellite links, as well as some satellite system configuration-specific issues, that must be taken into account.

  9. Research Networks, Mentorship and Sustainability Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Nepal, M.; Shyamsundar, P.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, a majority of institutions are ill-equipped to undertake research on multi-disciplinary environmental problems, though these problems are increasing at a fast rate and connected to the region's poverty and growth objectives. In this context, the South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE) tries to fill a research, training and knowledge gap by building skills in the area of Environment and Development Economics. In this paper, the authors argue that research networks contribute to the growth of sustainability knowledge through (a) knowledge creation, (b) knowledge transfer and (c) knowledge deepening. The paper tries to show the relationship between capacity building, mentorship and research scholarship. It demonstrates that researchers, by associating with the network and its multiple training and mentoring processes, are able to build skills, change curricula and deliver useful knowledge products. The paper discusses the need for interdisciplinary research and the challenges of bridging the gap between research outputs and policy reforms.

  10. Network for Translational Research - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    Cooperative agreement (U54) awards to establish Specialized Research Resource Centers that will participate as members of a network of inter-disciplinary, inter-institutional research teams for the purpose of supporting translational research in optical imaging and/or spectroscopy in vivo, with an emphasis on multiple modalities.

  11. Advances in neural networks research: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Bressler, Steven; Perlovsky, Leonid; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The present Special Issue "Advances in Neural Networks Research: IJCNN2009" provides a state-of-art overview of the field of neural networks. It includes 39 papers from selected areas of the 2009 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN2009). IJCNN2009 took place on June 14-19, 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and it represents an exemplary collaboration between the International Neural Networks Society and the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society. Topics in this issue include neuroscience and cognitive science, computational intelligence and machine learning, hybrid techniques, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, various soft computing technologies, intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition, bioinformatics and biomedicine, and engineering applications. PMID:19632811

  12. Research of Ad Hoc Networks Access Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ma

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. When the ad hoc network is the access network of the internet, the gateway discovery protocol is very important to choose the most appropriate gateway to guarantee the connectivity between ad hoc network and IP based fixed networks. The paper proposes a QoS gateway discovery protocol which uses the time delay and stable route to the gateway selection conditions. And according to the gateway discovery protocol, it also proposes a fast handover scheme which can decrease the handover time and improve the handover efficiency.

  13. A proposed international watershed research network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  14. Creatiing a Collaborative Research Network for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, W.

    2012-12-01

    This abstract proposes a discussion of how professional science communication and scientific cooperation can become more efficient through the use of modern social network technology, using the example of Mendeley. Mendeley is a research workflow and collaboration tool which crowdsources real-time research trend information and semantic annotations of research papers in a central data store, thereby creating a "social research network" that is emergent from the research data added to the platform. We describe how Mendeley's model can overcome barriers for collaboration by turning research papers into social objects, making academic data publicly available via an open API, and promoting more efficient collaboration. Central to the success of Mendeley has been the creation of a tool that works for the researcher without the requirement of being part of an explicit social network. Mendeley automatically extracts metadata from research papers, and allows a researcher to annotate, tag and organize their research collection. The tool integrates with the paper writing workflow and provides advanced collaboration options, thus significantly improving researchers' productivity. By anonymously aggregating usage data, Mendeley enables the emergence of social metrics and real-time usage stats on top of the articles' abstract metadata. In this way a social network of collaborators, and people genuinely interested in content, emerges. By building this research network around the article as the social object, a social layer of direct relevance to academia emerges. As science, particularly Earth sciences with their large shared resources, become more and more global, the management and coordination of research is more and more dependent on technology to support these distributed collaborations.

  15. Sandia`s research network for Supercomputing `93: A demonstration of advanced technologies for building high-performance networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, S.A.; Vahle, M.O.

    1993-12-01

    Supercomputing `93, a high-performance computing and communications conference, was held November 15th through 19th, 1993 in Portland, Oregon. For the past two years, Sandia National Laboratories has used this conference to showcase and focus its communications and networking endeavors. At the 1993 conference, the results of Sandia`s efforts in exploring and utilizing Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) technologies were vividly demonstrated by building and operating three distinct networks. The networks encompassed a Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) network running at 44.736 megabits per second, an ATM network running on a SONET circuit at the Optical Carrier (OC) rate of 155.52 megabits per second, and a High Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) network running over a 622.08 megabits per second SONET circuit. The SMDS and ATM networks extended from Albuquerque, New Mexico to the showroom floor, while the HIPPI/SONET network extended from Beaverton, Oregon to the showroom floor. This paper documents and describes these networks.

  16. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, V.; Boden, Tom; Cowley, Dave; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Rob; Foster, Ian; Goldstone, Robin; Gregurick, Susan; Houghton, John; Izaurralde, Cesar; Johnston, Bill; Joseph, Renu; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin; Lipton, Mary; Monga, Inder; Pritchard, Matt; Rotman, Lauren; Strand, Gary; Stuart, Cory; Tatusova, Tatiana; Tierney, Brian; Thomas, Brian; Williams, Dean N.; Zurawski, Jason

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  17. ATM Coastal Topography-Alabama 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that

  18. ATM Coastal Topography-Mississippi, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Mississippi coastline, from Lakeshore to Petit Bois Island, acquired September 9-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS

  19. Status of photonic network research in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong Hyub

    2004-10-01

    Korea is small country but has recently dramatic growth in broadband internet subscribers. At the present of December in 2003, about 73% of total households are internet subscribers. The country is now pursuing new internet highway with faster speed and broadband services for future intelligent internet. The viable research targets are the switching technologies, the access network and convergence network technologies. The optical burst switching will be discussed as the intermediate solution before the coming sophisticated optical packet switching technologies. Another important issue is how we accept diverse service types in future network. There are always dilemmas to choose "optical" or "electrical" for the network in both cost and technology views. The WDM PON-based FTTH and the broadband convergence network (BcN) plans in Korea will also be discussed.

  20. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Charles; Bell, Greg; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Goodwin, Dave; Lee, Jason; Hicks, Susan; Holohan, Ed; Klasky, Scott; Lauzon, Carolyn; Rogers, Jim; Shipman, Galen; Skinner, David; Tierney, Brian

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  1. The FIMP Medicines for Children Research Network

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The European Paediatric Regulation (EUPR) calls for the fostering of high quality ethical research and medicinal products to be used in children. The EUPR provides the background, goals, and requirements for paediatric clinical trials. Paediatric clinical trials in children are mandatory to generate data on new drugs as well as on drugs used off-label or for unlicensed indications. The Family Paediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network (FIMP-MCRN) was established in 2003 with the aim of developing competence, infrastructure, networking and education for paediatric clinical trials. The network, consisting of twenty Paediatric Regional Networks has progressed very well and has achieved valuable improvements concerning the conduct of paediatric clinical trials. Furthermore, ad hoc training programs have incremented knowledge about clinical trials in Family Paediatrician Investigators (FPI) and have made medical professionals as well as the public aware of the need and advantages of trials in children. PMID:20591168

  2. Sustaining Research Networks: the Twenty-Year Experience of the HMO Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, John F.; Paolino, Andrea R.; Thompson, Ella E.; Larson, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: As multi-institutional research networks assume a central role in clinical research, they must address the challenge of sustainability. Despite its importance, the concept of network sustainability has received little attention in the literature, and the sustainability strategies of durable scientific networks have not been described. Innovation: The Health Maintenance Organization Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 18 research departments in integrated health care delivery systems with over 15 million members in the United States and Israel. The HMORN has coordinated federally funded scientific networks and studies since 1994. This case study describes the HMORN approach to sustainability, proposes an operational definition of network sustainability, and identifies 10 essential elements that can enhance sustainability. Credibility: The sustainability framework proposed here is drawn from prior publications on organizational issues by HMORN investigators and from the experience of recent HMORN leaders and senior staff. Conclusion and Discussion: Network sustainability can be defined as (1) the development and enhancement of shared research assets to facilitate a sequence of research studies in a specific content area or multiple areas, and (2) a community of researchers and other stakeholders who reuse and develop those assets. Essential elements needed to develop the shared assets of a network include: network governance; trustworthy data and processes for sharing data; shared knowledge about research tools; administrative efficiency; physical infrastructure; and infrastructure funding. The community of researchers within a network is enhanced by: a clearly defined mission, vision and values; protection of human subjects; a culture of collaboration; and strong relationships with host organizations. While the importance of these elements varies based on the membership and goals of a network, this framework for sustainability can enhance strategic

  3. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07270.001 PMID:26030852

  4. The effects of mobile ATM switches on PNNI peer group operation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1997-04-01

    This contribution discusses why, and how, mobile networks and mobile switches might be discussed during Phase 1 of the WATM standards process. Next, it reviews mobile routers within Mobile IP. That IP mobility architecture may not apply to the proposed mobile ATM switches. Finally, it discusses problems with PNNI peer group formation and operation when mobile ATM switches are present.

  5. Satellite-Terrestrial Network Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    The developing national and global information infrastructures (NII/GII) are being built upon the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) telecommunications protocol and associated protocol standards. These protocols are themselves under development through the telecommunications standards process defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), which as a body is sanctioned by the United Nations. All telecommunications manufacturers use these standards to create products that can interoperate. The ITU has recognized the ATM Forum as the instrument for the development of ATM protocols. This forum is a consortium of industry, academia, and government entities formed to quickly develop standards for the ATM infrastructure. However, because the participants represent a predominately terrestrial network viewpoint, the use of satellites in the national and global information infrastructures could be severely compromised. Consequently, through an ongoing task order, the NASA Lewis Research Center asked Sterling Software, Inc., to communicate with the ATM Forum in support of the interoperability of satellite-terrestrial networks. This year, Dr. Raj Jain of the Ohio State University, under contract to Sterling, authored or coauthored 32 explanatory documents delivered to the ATM Forum in the areas of Guaranteed Frame Rate for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), Available Bit Rate, performance testing, Variable Bit Rate voice over ATM, TCP over Unspecified Bit Rate+, Virtual Source/Virtual Destination, and network management. These contributions have had a significant impact on the content of the standards that the ATM Forum is developing. Some of the more significant accomplishments have been: (1) The adoption by the ATM Forum of a new definition for Message-In, Message-Out latency; and (2) Improved text (clearer wording and newly defined terms) for measurement procedures, foreground and background traffic, and scalable configuration in the

  6. HIPPI, Fibre Channel, and ATM as gigabit/s LANs

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.

    1993-12-31

    Computer networks that operate in the gigabit per second speed range are becoming very important for interconnecting supercomputers and other high end equipment. Some trends and applications are examined and criteria for selecting an interconnection technology are developed. HIPPI is the current interface of choice, while Fibre Channel and ATM are emerging standards. These systems are examined as to their backgrounds, advantages, and shortcomings.

  7. Gigabit LAN issues: HIPPI, Fibre Channel, or ATM?

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1994-12-01

    Computer networks that operate in the gigabit per second speed range are becoming very important for interconnecting supercomputers, clusters of workstations, and other high end equipment. HIPPI is the current interface of choice, while Fibre Channel and ATM are emerging standards. These systems are examined as to their backgrounds, advantages, and shortcomings.

  8. Creating a national home visiting research network.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Anne; Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Chaffin, Mark; Korfmacher, Jon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Crowne, Sarah; Filene, Jill; Gonsalves, Kay; Landsverk, John; Harwood, Robin

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting can play a key role in the early childhood system of services. For home visiting to achieve its potential, decision-makers must make informed choices regarding adoption, adaptation, coordination, scale-up, and sustainment. We need a coordinated, focused, and theory-based home visiting research infrastructure to inform such decisions. The transdisciplinary Home Visiting Research Network (HVRN) was established in July 2012 with funding from the Health Resources and Services Administration. Its goal is to promote the translation of research findings into policy and practice. Its objectives are to (1) develop a national home visiting research agenda, (2) advance the use of innovative research methods; and (3) provide a research environment that is supportive of the professional development of emerging researchers interested in home visiting. A Management Team designs and directs activities to achieve these objectives through Work Teams. A Steering Committee of national leaders representing stakeholder groups oversees progress. HVRN's Coordinating Center supports the Work Teams and HVRN's Home visiting Applied Research Collaborative, a practice-based research network of home visiting programs. This article describes HVRN's rationale, approach, and anticipated products. We use home visiting-primary care coordination as an illustration, noting potential roles for pediatric practices and pediatric researchers and research educators in HVRN activities. HVRN creates the infrastructure for a rigorous program of research to inform policy and practice on home visiting as part of the system of services to improve family functioning, parenting, and child outcomes. PMID:24187127

  9. FPGA Based Reconfigurable ATM Switch Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Jones, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "FPGA Based Reconfigurable ATM Switch Test Bed" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Network performance evaluation; 2) traditional approaches; 3) software simulation; 4) hardware emulation; 5) test bed highlights; 6) design environment; 7) test bed architecture; 8) abstract sheared-memory switch; 9) detailed switch diagram; 10) traffic generator; 11) data collection circuit and user interface; 12) initial results; and 13) the following conclusions: Advances in FPGA make hardware emulation feasible for performance evaluation, hardware emulation can provide several orders of magnitude speed-up over software simulation; due to the complexity of hardware synthesis process, development in emulation is much more difficult than simulation and requires knowledge in both networks and digital design.

  10. A TAD closer to ATM.

    PubMed

    Aymard, Francois; Legube, Gaëlle

    2016-05-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) has been known for decades as the main kinase mediating the DNA double-strand break response. Our recent findings suggest that its major role at the sites of breaks likely resides in its ability to modify both the local chromatin landscape and the global chromosome organization in order to promote repair accuracy. PMID:27314089

  11. [Progress of the ATM Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Activities for each of the following programs are discussed in separate sections for the bimonthly reporting period: Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL); Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM); Other Mission Support Activities, including modeling activities, EAARL activities, and the Scanning Radar Altimeter (SAR); Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). The tasks undertaken for each program are discussed in the pertinent section of the report.

  12. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  13. NPP ATMS Snowfall Rate Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2015). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. NCEP CMORPH analysis has shown that integration of ATMS SFR has improved the performance of CMORPH-Snow. The ATMS SFR product is also being assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices for its usefulness in weather forecast.

  14. Molecular Imaging of the ATM Kinase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Terence M.; Nyati, Shyam; Ross, Brian D.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including from DNA double-strand breaks. ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events including DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. We sought to create a bioluminescent reporter that dynamically and noninvasively measures ATM kinase activity in living cells and subjects. Methods and Materials: Using the split luciferase technology, we constructed a hybrid cDNA, ATM-reporter (ATMR), coding for a protein that quantitatively reports on changes in ATM kinase activity through changes in bioluminescence. Results: Treatment of ATMR-expressing cells with ATM inhibitors resulted in a dose-dependent increase in bioluminescence activity. In contrast, induction of ATM kinase activity upon irradiation resulted in a decrease in reporter activity that correlated with ATM and Chk2 activation by immunoblotting in a time-dependent fashion. Nuclear targeting improved ATMR sensitivity to both ATM inhibitors and radiation, whereas a mutant ATMR (lacking the target phosphorylation site) displayed a muted response. Treatment with ATM inhibitors and small interfering (si)RNA-targeted knockdown of ATM confirm the specificity of the reporter. Using reporter expressing xenografted tumors demonstrated the ability of ATMR to report in ATM activity in mouse models that correlated in a time-dependent fashion with changes in Chk2 activity. Conclusions: We describe the development and validation of a novel, specific, noninvasive bioluminescent reporter that enables monitoring of ATM activity in real time, in vitro and in vivo. Potential applications of this reporter include the identification and development of novel ATM inhibitors or ATM-interacting partners through high-throughput screens and in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of ATM inhibitors in preclinical models.

  15. ATM Quality of Service Parameters at 45 Mbps Using a Satellite Emulator: Laboratory Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Bobinsky, Eric A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of 45-Mbps DS3 intermediate-frequency loopback measurements of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service parameters (cell error ratio and cell loss ratio) are presented. These tests, which were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of satellite-ATM interoperability research, represent initial efforts to quantify the minimum parameters for stringent ATM applications, such as MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 video transmission. Portions of these results were originally presented to the International Telecommunications Union's ITU-R Working Party 4B in February 1996 in support of their Draft Preliminary Recommendation on the Transmission of ATM Traffic via Satellite.

  16. Differential Network Analysis in Human Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Ryan; Datta, Somnath; Datta, Susmita

    2016-01-01

    A complex disease like cancer is hardly caused by one gene or one protein singly. It is usually caused by the perturbation of the network formed by several genes or proteins. In the last decade several research teams have attempted to construct interaction maps of genes and proteins either experimentally or reverse engineer interaction maps using computational techniques. These networks were usually created under a certain condition such as an environmental condition, a particular disease, or a specific tissue type. Lately, however, there has been greater emphasis on finding the differential structure of the existing network topology under a novel condition or disease status to elucidate the perturbation in a biological system. In this review/tutorial article we briefly mention some of the research done in this area; we mainly illustrate the computational/statistical methods developed by our team in recent years for differential network analysis using publicly available gene expression data collected from a well known cancer study. This data includes a group of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a group with acute myeloid leukemia. In particular, we describe the statistical tests to detect the change in the network topology based on connectivity scores which measure the association or interaction between pairs of genes. The tests under various scores are applied to this data set to perform a differential network analysis on gene expression for human leukemia. We believe that, in the future, differential network analysis will be a standard way to view the changes in gene expression and protein expression data globally and these types of tests could be useful in analyzing the complex differential signatures. PMID:23530503

  17. Exploring Practice-Research Networks for Critical Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Yvon; Hillier, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution that practice-research networks can make to support critical professional development in the Learning and Skills sector in England. By practice-research networks we mean groups or networks which maintain a connection between research and professional practice. These networks stem from the philosophy of…

  18. Delivery of very high bandwidth with ATM switches and SONET

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, S.A.

    1992-10-01

    The choice of technologies for the delivery of very high bandwidth throughout a facility capable of ultimately achieving gigabits per second performance, is a crucial one for any high technology facility. The components of a high bandwidth delivery system include high performance sources and sinks in the form of central facilities (major mainframes, large file storage and specialized peripherals) and powerful, full bandwidth distributed local area networks (LANs). In order to deliver bandwidth among the sources and sinks, a ubiquitous inter-/intra-building cable plant consisting of single mode and multimode fiber as well as twisted pair copper is required. The selection of the ``glue`` to transport and interconnect the LANs with the central facility over the pervasive cable plant is the focus of this paper. A design philosophy for high performance communications systems is proposed. A description of the traditional problems that must be overcome to provide very high bandwidth beyond the narrow confines of a computer center is given. The advantages of ATM switching and SONET physical transport are explored in the structured design presentation. The applicability of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching (interconnection) and Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) (transport) for high bandwidth delivery is described using the environment and requirements of Sandia National Laboratories as a context to examine the suitability of those technologies. The synergy and utility of ATM and SONET in the campus network are explored. Other methods for distributing high data rates are compared and contrasted to ATM and SONET with respect to cable plant impact, reliability/availability, maintainability, and capacity. Sandia is implementing a standards based foundation utilizing a pervasive single mode fiber cable plant, SONET transport, and ATM switching to meet the goals of gigabit networking.

  19. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems.

    PubMed

    Schleyer, Titus; Butler, Brian S; Song, Mei; Spallek, Heiko

    2012-03-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers' need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators' desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user's primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems. PMID:24376309

  20. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems

    PubMed Central

    SCHLEYER, TITUS; BUTLER, BRIAN S.; SONG, MEI; SPALLEK, HEIKO

    2013-01-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers’ need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators’ desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user’s primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems. PMID:24376309

  1. ATM mediates spermidine-induced mitophagy via PINK1 and Parkin regulation in human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yongmei; Qiu, Qian; Gu, Xueyan; Tian, Yihong; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-01-01

    The ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) protein has recently been proposed to play critical roles in the response to mitochondrial dysfunction by initiating mitophagy. Here, we have used ATM-proficient GM00637 cells and ATM-deficient GM05849 cells to investigate the mitophagic effect of spermidine and to elucidate the role of ATM in spermdine-induced mitophagy. Our results indicate that spermidine induces mitophagy by eliciting mitochondrial depolarization, which triggers the formation of mitophagosomes and mitolysosomes, thereby promoting the accumulation of PINK1 and translocation of Parkin to damaged mitochondria, finally leading to the decreased mitochondrial mass in GM00637 cells. However, in GM05849 cells or GM00637 cells pretreated with the ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933, the expression of full-length PINK1 and the translocation of Parkin are blocked, and the colocalization of Parkin with either LC3 or PINK1 is disrupted. These results suggest that ATM drives the initiation of the mitophagic cascade. Our study demonstrates that spermidine induces mitophagy through ATM-dependent activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These findings underscore the importance of a mitophagy regulatory network of ATM and PINK1/Parkin and elucidate a novel mechanism by which ATM influences spermidine-induced mitophagy. PMID:27089984

  2. National Research Networks Facilitate Mutually Beneficial Research at ARS Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Holbrook, W. S.; Fellows, A.; Kormos, P.; Lohse, K. A.; Marks, D. G.; Flerchinger, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    A major benefit of participation in research networks such as the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is that multidisciplinary research on a broad range of topics is facilitated. The interaction between the Agricultural Research Service long-term experimental watersheds and LTAR exemplifies this. At the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW), this is further enhanced by participation in the Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network. The RCEW has a long history (55 years) of experimentation, modeling and monitoring emphasizing hydrologic processes, which are inevitably related to biogeochemical processes, but rarely linked directly in RCEW research. New research with the Reynolds Creek CZO (RC CZO) emphasizes biogeochemistry. The background research and infrastructure at the RCEW provides an ideal platform for that research. At the same time, RC CZO products are enabling ARS to extend its research activities. We highlight three examples: (i) forcing data sets used to facilitate physical modeling of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes, (ii) linkage of hydrology and geophyscis to extend our understanding of subsurface processes, and (iii) climate/elevation linkages to ecosystem productivity, which are closely related in water limited environments such as the RCEW. The addition of the RCEW to the LTAR is further extended ARS capabilities. For example, the RCEW is now monitoring net carbon balance and productivity at sites along an elevation/climatic gradient. The addition of LTAR research enhances that work by extending the climate gradient and introducing management and land surface change effects. We anticipate that these interactions will grow and that cross-site experiments will be initiated as the results begin to accumulate.

  3. ATM-based cluster computing for multi-problem domains

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.Y.; Brandt, J.M.; Armstrong, R.C.

    1996-08-01

    This study evaluates the performance of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) local area network (LAN) for general as well as parallel distributed computing. General distributed computing uses client-server based applications that employ Remote Procedure Call (RPC) on top of the TCP/UDP/IP protocol. These applications typically require high throughput, good response time, and fairness. In contrast, parallel applications favor much simpler models of computation which require more direct access to data among processors. To efficiently run these programs, the network needs to achieve hardware speed. This paper describe our experience in building a multi-programmed distributed computing environment using Digital Equipment Corporation`s (DEC) AN2 ATM switch and Alpha workstations. We extend our study to include more elaborate network using simulation results.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of MCC (Materials Characterization Center) approved testing material---ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, J.W.

    1988-03-01

    Materials Characterization Center glasses ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 are designed to simulate high-level waste glasses that are likely to result from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuels. The three Approved Testing Materials (ATMs) are borosilicate glasses based upon the MCC-76-68 glass composition. One radioisotope was added to form each ATM. The radioisotopes added to form ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 were /sup 241/Am, /sup 237/Np, and /sup 239/Pu, respectively. Each of the ATM lots was produced in a nominal lot size of 450 g from feed stock melted in a nitrogen-atmosphere glove box at 1200/degree/C in a platinum crucible. Each ATM was then cast into bars. Analyzed compositions of these glasses are listed. The nonradioactive elements were analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP), and the radioisotope analyses were done by alpha energy analysis. Results are discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Reaching Out: IDRC-HDFS Research Network (India). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraswathi, T. S.; And Others

    This report documents the activities of the Research Network, a coordinated effort of the International Development Research Center (IDRC) and the Human Development and Family Studies (HDFS) Department of Baroda University (India) during the period January 1990 to June 1993. The Research Network aimed to establish a network of consultative…

  6. Delivery of very high bandwidth with ATM switches and SONET

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, S.A.

    1993-08-01

    To deliver high bandwidth, a ubiquitous inter-/intra-building cable plant consisting of single mode and multimode fiber as well as twisted pair copper is required. The selection of the ``glue`` to transport and interconnect distributed LANs with central facility resources over a pervasive cable plant is the focus of this paper. A description of the traditional problems that must be overcome to provide very high bandwidth beyond the narrow confines of a computer center is given. The applicability of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching (interconnection) and Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) (transport) for high bandwidth delivery is described using the environment and requirements of Sandia National Laboratories. Other methods for distributing high data rates are compared and contrasted. Sandia is implementing a standards based foundation utilizing a pervasive single mode fiber cable plant, SONET transport, and ATM switching to meet the goals of gigabit networking.

  7. Novel targets for ATM-deficient malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Johannes; Hofmann, Kay; Chen, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    Conventional chemo- and radiotherapies for the treatment of cancer target rapidly dividing cells in both tumor and non-tumor tissues and can exhibit severe cytotoxicity in normal tissue and impair the patient's immune system. Novel targeted strategies aim for higher efficacy and tumor specificity. The role of ATM protein in the DNA damage response is well known and ATM deficiency frequently plays a role in tumorigenesis and development of malignancy. In addition to contributing to disease development, ATM deficiency also renders malignant cells heavily dependent on other pathways that cooperate with the ATM-mediated DNA damage response to ensure tumor cell survival. Disturbing those cooperative pathways by inhibiting critical protein components allows specific targeting of tumors while sparing healthy cells with normal ATM status. We review druggable candidate targets for the treatment of ATM-deficient malignancies and the mechanisms underlying such targeted therapies. PMID:27308314

  8. Research on 6R Military Logistics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

    The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

  9. Privacy Issues of a National Research and Education Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, James E.; Graveman, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the right to privacy of communications focuses on privacy expectations within a National Research and Education Network (NREN). Highlights include privacy needs in scientific and education communications; academic and research networks; network security and privacy concerns; protection strategies; and consequences of privacy…

  10. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  11. Connecting the Dots: Understanding the Flow of Research Knowledge within a Research Brokering Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Networks are frequently cited as an important knowledge mobilization strategy; however, there is little empirical research that considers how they connect research and practice. Taking a social network perspective, I explore how central office personnel find, understand and share research knowledge within a research brokering network. This mixed…

  12. Research in Satellite-Fiber Network Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burt

    1997-01-01

    This four part report evaluated the performance of high data rate transmission links using the ACTS satellite, and to provide a preparatory test framework for two of the space science applications that have been approved for tests and demonstrations as part of the overall ACTS program. The test plan will provide guidance and information necessary to find the optimal values of the transmission parameters and then apply these parameters to specific applications. The first part will focus on the satellite-to-earth link. The second part is a set of tests to study the performance of ATM on the ACTS channel. The third and fourth parts of the test plan will cover the space science applications, Global Climate Modeling and Keck Telescope Acquisition Modeling and Control.

  13. Structure of the human dimeric ATM kinase.

    PubMed

    Lau, Wilson C Y; Li, Yinyin; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Yuanzhu; Zhang, Qinfen; Huen, Michael S Y

    2016-01-01

    DNA-double strand breaks activate the serine/threonine protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) to initiate DNA damage signal transduction. This activation process involves autophosphorylation and dissociation of inert ATM dimers into monomers that are catalytically active. Using single-particle electron microscopy (EM), we determined the structure of dimeric ATM in its resting state. The EM map could accommodate the crystal structure of the N-terminal truncated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a closely related enzyme of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) family, allowing for the localization of the N- and the C-terminal regions of ATM. In the dimeric structure, the actives sites are buried, restricting the access of the substrates to these sites. The unanticipated domain organization of ATM provides a basis for understanding its mechanism of inhibition. PMID:27097373

  14. Structure of the human dimeric ATM kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Wilson C. Y.; Li, Yinyin; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Yuanzhu; Zhang, Qinfen; Huen, Michael S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA-double strand breaks activate the serine/threonine protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) to initiate DNA damage signal transduction. This activation process involves autophosphorylation and dissociation of inert ATM dimers into monomers that are catalytically active. Using single-particle electron microscopy (EM), we determined the structure of dimeric ATM in its resting state. The EM map could accommodate the crystal structure of the N-terminal truncated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a closely related enzyme of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) family, allowing for the localization of the N- and the C-terminal regions of ATM. In the dimeric structure, the actives sites are buried, restricting the access of the substrates to these sites. The unanticipated domain organization of ATM provides a basis for understanding its mechanism of inhibition. PMID:27097373

  15. Action Research Networks: Role and Purpose in the Evaluation of Research Outcomes and Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zornes, Deborah; Ferkins, Lesley; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about networks in action research (AR) and to consider their role, purpose, and how networks' outcomes and impacts might be evaluated. Networks are often a by-product of AR projects, yet research focused on the network itself as part of a project is rare. The paper is one of several associated with the…

  16. Advances in European drought research efforts and related research networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallaksen, Lena; van Lanen, Henny

    2010-05-01

    Drought is a complex phenomenon with wide-ranging socio-economic and environmental impacts; still drought research and operational applications like drought monitoring and forecasting, have been lagging behind the development in flood-related research. However, recently several drought research projects and networks have emerged in Europe, partly in response to the occurrence of a series of dry and hot summers in the 21st century, notable the record breaking 2003 event covering large part of central Europe. These events were a strong reminder of Europe's vulnerability to drought and neither were forecasted. Meteorological drought is caused by regional or meso- (synoptic) scale spatial and temporal anomalies in the climatic system, which control the natural short- and long term variability in drought occurrence. However, climate forcing by synoptic scale conditions is not the only cause of drought, also various regional land-surface feedbacks through soil moisture and vegetation, concur to amplify dry weather and high summer temperatures. A deficit in the climatic water balance may affect all components of the hydrological cycle through a reduction in soil moisture, groundwater and surface water and subsequently, reduced water availability. Understanding how a climate water deficiency propagates through the hydrological system and its feedbacks to the atmosphere is crucial to develop drought mitigation and adaptation plans. Moreover, it is the basis for early warning and forecasting of hydrological drought (groundwater and surface water). A review of drought studies from the 20th century suggests that drought in Europe has occurred more frequently in the latter part of the century, partly enhanced by higher temperatures. However, the scientific understanding of the driving forces behind large-scale droughts is incomplete and further complicated by insufficient knowledge about long-term (decadal and millennial) natural variability. Moreover, the role of the physical

  17. The APA and the Rise of Pediatric Generalist Network Research

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Richard; Serwint, Janet R.; Kuppermann, Nathan; Srivastava, Rajendu; Dreyer, Benard

    2010-01-01

    The Academic Pediatric Association (APA – formerly the Ambulatory Pediatric Association) first encouraged multi-institutional collaborative research among its members over thirty years ago. Individual APA members went on subsequently to figure prominently in establishing formal research networks. These enduring collaborations have been established to conduct investigations in a variety of generalist contexts. At present, four generalist networks – Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS), the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Network (PECARN), the COntinuity Research NETwork (CORNET), and Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) – have a track record of extensive achievement in generating new knowledge aimed at improving the health and health care of children. This review details the history, accomplishments, and future directions of these networks and summarizes the common themes, strengths, challenges and opportunities inherent in pediatric generalist network research. PMID:21282083

  18. Recent research in network problems with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of network codes and their extensions are surveyed in regard to specially structured integer programming problems which are solved by using the solutions of a series of ordinary network problems.

  19. The Security Research of Digital Library Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Song, Ding-Li; Yan, Shu

    Digital library is a self-development needs for the modern library to meet the development requirements of the times, changing the way services and so on. digital library from the hardware, technology, management and other aspects to objective analysis of the factors of threats to digital library network security. We should face up the problems of digital library network security: digital library network hardware are "not hard", the technology of digital library is relatively lag, digital library management system is imperfect and other problems; the government should take active measures to ensure that the library funding, to enhance the level of network hardware, to upgrade LAN and prevention technology, to improve network control technology, network monitoring technology; to strengthen safety management concepts, to prefect the safety management system; and to improve the level of security management modernization for digital library.

  20. EARLINET: potential operationality of a research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Comerón, A.; Mona, L.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Baars, H.; Baldasano, J. M.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bravo-Aranda, J. A.; Fernández, A. J.; Fréville, P.; García-Vizcaíno, D.; Giunta, A.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Haefele, A.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Mamouri, R. E.; Mattis, I.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz Porcar, C.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Nicolae, D.; Nisantzi, A.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Papayannis, A.; Pereira, S.; Preißler, J.; Pujadas, M.; Rizi, V.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Simeonov, V.; Tsaknakis, G.; Wagner, F.; Pappalardo, G.

    2015-11-01

    In the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure Network) summer 2012 measurement campaign (8 June-17 July 2012), EARLINET organized and performed a controlled exercise of feasibility to demonstrate its potential to perform operational, coordinated measurements and deliver products in near-real time. Eleven lidar stations participated in the exercise which started on 9 July 2012 at 06:00 UT and ended 72 h later on 12 July at 06:00 UT. For the first time, the single calculus chain (SCC) - the common calculus chain developed within EARLINET for the automatic evaluation of lidar data from raw signals up to the final products - was used. All stations sent in real-time measurements of a 1 h duration to the SCC server in a predefined netcdf file format. The pre-processing of the data was performed in real time by the SCC, while the optical processing was performed in near-real time after the exercise ended. 98 and 79 % of the files sent to SCC were successfully pre-processed and processed, respectively. Those percentages are quite large taking into account that no cloud screening was performed on the lidar data. The paper draws present and future SCC users' attention to the most critical parameters of the SCC product configuration and their possible optimal value but also to the limitations inherent to the raw data. The continuous use of SCC direct and derived products in heterogeneous conditions is used to demonstrate two potential applications of EARLINET infrastructure: the monitoring of a Saharan dust intrusion event and the evaluation of two dust transport models. The efforts made to define the measurements protocol and to configure properly the SCC pave the way for applying this protocol for specific applications such as the monitoring of special events, atmospheric modeling, climate research and calibration/validation activities of spaceborne observations.

  1. Analysis of CrIS-ATMS Data Using an AIRS Science Team Version 6 - Like Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.

    2013-01-01

    CrIS/ATMS is flying on NPP and is scheduled to fly on JPSS-1. CrIS/ATMS has roughly equivalent capabilities to AIRS/AMSU. The AIRS Science Team Version 6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing very high quality level-3 Climate Data Records (CDR's) that will be critical for understanding climate processes AIRS CDRs should eventually cover the period September 2002 through at least 2020. CrIS/ATMS is the only scheduled follow on to AIRS AMSU. I have been asked by Ramesh Kakar if CrIS/ATMS can be counted on to adequately continue the AIRS/AMSU CDRs beyond 2020, or is something better needed? This research is being done to answer that question. A minimum requirement to obtain a yes answer is that CrIS/ATMS be analyzed using an AIRS Version 6 - like algorithm. NOAA is currently generating CrIS/ATMS products using 2 algorithms: IDPS and NUCAPS

  2. Improved virtual queuing and dynamic EPD techniques for TCP over ATM

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Siu, K.Y.; Ren, W.

    1998-11-01

    It is known that TCP throughput can degrade significantly over UBR service in a congested ATM network, and the early packet discard (EPD) technique has been proposed to improve the performance. However, recent studies show that EPD cannot ensure fairness among competing VCs in a congested network, but the degree of fairness can be improved using various forms of fair buffer allocation techniques. The authors propose an improved scheme that utilizes only a single shared FIFO queue for all VCs and admits simple implementation for high speed ATM networks. The scheme achieves nearly perfect fairness and throughput among multiple TCP connections, comparable to the expensive per-VC queuing technique. Analytical and simulation results are presented to show the validity of this new scheme and significant improvement in performance as compared with existing fair buffer allocation techniques for TCP over ATM.

  3. SASIL. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Kitta, J.P.

    1994-07-01

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD`s (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL`s (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  4. What healthcare leaders can learn from research on dark networks.

    PubMed

    Milward, H Brinton

    2014-01-01

    For 12 years, a research program has been conducted on "dark networks," which are both illegal and covert. One of the major findings is that the structure of the network is conditioned by an existential dilemma-the need to act or exist. The more you do of one, the less you can do of the other. This article examines the findings of that research and applies it to the dilemmas of organizing healthcare networks. PMID:25518149

  5. Comparative-effectiveness research in distributed health data networks.

    PubMed

    Toh, S; Platt, R; Steiner, J F; Brown, J S

    2011-12-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) can be conducted within a distributed health data network. Such networks allow secure access to separate data sets from different data partners and overcome many practical obstacles related to patient privacy, data security, and proprietary concerns. A scalable network architecture supports a wide range of CER activities and meets the data infrastructure needs envisioned by the Federal Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research. PMID:22030567

  6. South African Human Sciences Research Networking Directory. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Berg, Henda, Ed.; Maree-Snijders, Asa, Ed.; Prinsloo, Roelf, Ed.

    This networking directory is a comprehensive reference source of names, locations, and fields of interest of South African human sciences researchers. The guide is intended to promote research cooperation, facilitate networking, and organize conferences. The directory is intended for use at both the international level and the local level. The…

  7. How Might Better Network Theories Support School Leadership Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Mark; Jopling, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how recent research in education has applied different aspects of "network" theory to the study of school leadership. Constructs from different network theories are often used because of their perceived potential to clarify two perennial issues in leadership research. The first is the relative importance of formal and…

  8. ATM activation in hypoxia - causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Olcina, Monica M; Grand, Roger JA; Hammond, Ester M

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage response is a complex signaling cascade that is triggered by cellular stress. This response is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and is considered to act as a barrier to the early stages of tumorigenesis. The integral role of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase in the response to DNA damaging agents is well characterized; however, ATM can also be activated by non-DNA damaging agents. In fact, much has been learnt recently about the mechanism of ATM activation in response to physiologic stresses such as hypoxia that do not induce DNA damage. Regions of low oxygen concentrations that occur in solid tumors are associated with a poor prognostic outcome irrespective of treatment modality. Severe levels of hypoxia induce replication stress and trigger the activation of DNA damage response pathways including ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)- and ATM-mediated signaling. In this review, we discuss hypoxia-driven ATM signaling and the possible contribution of ATM activation in this context to tumorigenesis. PMID:27308313

  9. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network: a national infrastructure for comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Califf, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    The current clinical research system does not produce high-quality evidence quickly enough to support health care decision making. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network (PCORnet) embodies a novel strategy for creating a national "network of networks" that is capable of significantly accelerating evidence generation to support a learning health system. PMID:24830497

  10. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  11. Cognitive radio wireless sensor networks: applications, challenges and research trends.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  12. Patient-powered research networks: building capacity for conducting patient-centered clinical outcomes research

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Sarah E; Wahba, Sarita; Fleurence, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) recently launched PCORnet to establish a single inter-operable multicenter data research network that will support observational research and randomized clinical trials. This paper provides an overview of the patient-powered research networks (PPRNs), networks of patient organizations focused on a particular health condition that are interested in sharing health information and engaging in research. PPRNs will build on their foundation of trust within the patient communities and draw on their expertise, working with participants to identify true patient-centered outcomes and direct a patient-centered research agenda. The PPRNs will overcome common challenges including enrolling a diverse and representative patient population; engaging patients in governance; designing the data infrastructure; sharing data securely while protecting privacy; prioritizing research questions; scaling small networks into a larger network; and identifying pathways to sustainability. PCORnet will be the first distributed research network to bring PCOR to national scale. PMID:24821741

  13. Patient-powered research networks: building capacity for conducting patient-centered clinical outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Sarah E; Wahba, Sarita; Fleurence, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) recently launched PCORnet to establish a single inter-operable multicenter data research network that will support observational research and randomized clinical trials. This paper provides an overview of the patient-powered research networks (PPRNs), networks of patient organizations focused on a particular health condition that are interested in sharing health information and engaging in research. PPRNs will build on their foundation of trust within the patient communities and draw on their expertise, working with participants to identify true patient-centered outcomes and direct a patient-centered research agenda. The PPRNs will overcome common challenges including enrolling a diverse and representative patient population; engaging patients in governance; designing the data infrastructure; sharing data securely while protecting privacy; prioritizing research questions; scaling small networks into a larger network; and identifying pathways to sustainability. PCORnet will be the first distributed research network to bring PCOR to national scale. PMID:24821741

  14. CDF DAQ upgrade and CMS DAQ R and D: event builder tests using an ATM switch

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.; Daniels, T.; Kelley, K.

    1996-12-31

    The present data acquisition system of the CDF experiment has to be upgraded for the higher luminosities expected during the Run 11 (1999+) data-taking period. The core of the system, consisting of a control network based on reflective memories will remain the same. The network used for data transfers, however, will have to be changed. We have investigated ATM as a possible replacement technology for the current Ultranet switch. We present preliminary results on this new ATM-based event builder system.

  15. ATM QoS Experiments Using TCP Applications: Performance of TCP/IP Over ATM in a Variety of Errored Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frantz, Brian D.; Ivancic, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Quality of Service (QoS) experiments using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) were performed for various link delays. The link delay was set to emulate a Wide Area Network (WAN) and a Satellite Link. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate the ATM QoS requirements for applications that utilize advance TCP/IP protocols implemented with large windows and Selective ACKnowledgements (SACK). The effects of cell error, cell loss, and random bit errors on throughput were reported. The detailed test plan and test results are presented herein.

  16. US computer research networks: Domestic and international telecommunications capacity requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.

    1990-01-01

    The future telecommunications capacity and connectivity requirements of the United States (US) research and development (R&D) community raise two concerns. First, would there be adequate privately-owned communications capacity to meet the ever-increasing requirements of the US R&D community for domestic and international connectivity? Second, is the method of piecemeal implementation of communications facilities by individual researchers cost effective when viewed from an integrated perspective? To address the capacity issue, Contel recently completed a study for NASA identifying the current domestic R&D telecommunications capacity and connectivity requirements, and projecting the same to the years 1991, 1996, 2000, and 2010. The work reported here extends the scope of an earlier study by factoring in the impact of international connectivity requirements on capacity and connectivity forecasts. Most researchers in foreign countries, as is the case with US researchers, rely on regional, national or continent-wide networks to collaborate with each other, and their US counterparts. The US researchers' international connectivity requirements, therefore, stem from the need to link the US domestic research networks to foreign research networks. The number of links and, more importantly, the speeds of links are invariably determined by the characteristics of the networks being linked. The major thrust of this study, therefore, was to identify and characterize the foreign research networks, to quantify the current status of their connectivity to the US networks, and to project growth in the connectivity requirements to years 1991, 1996, 2000, and 2010 so that a composite picture of the US research networks in the same years could be forecasted. The current (1990) US integrated research network, and its connectivity to foreign research networks is shown. As an example of projections, the same for the year 2010 is shown.

  17. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  18. Praxis-based research networks: an emerging paradigm for research that is rigorous, relevant and inclusive

    PubMed Central

    Werner, James J.; Stange, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have developed a grounded approach to conducting practice-relevant and translational research in community practice settings. Seismic shifts in the healthcare landscape are shaping PBRNs that work across organizational and institutional margins to address complex problems. Praxis-based research networks combine PBRN knowledge generation with multi-stakeholder learning, experimentation, and practical knowledge application. The catalytic processes in praxis-based research networks are cycles of action and reflection based on experience, observation, conceptualization, and experimentation by network members and partners. To facilitate co-learning and solution-building, these networks have a flexible architecture that allows pragmatic inclusion of stakeholders based on demands of the problem and the needs of the network. Praxis-based research networks represent an evolving trend that combines the core values of PBRNs with new opportunities for relevance, rigor, and broad participation. PMID:25381067

  19. Launching PCORnet, a national patient-centered clinical research network

    PubMed Central

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Curtis, Lesley H; Califf, Robert M; Platt, Richard; Selby, Joe V; Brown, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) has launched PCORnet, a major initiative to support an effective, sustainable national research infrastructure that will advance the use of electronic health data in comparative effectiveness research (CER) and other types of research. In December 2013, PCORI's board of governors funded 11 clinical data research networks (CDRNs) and 18 patient-powered research networks (PPRNs) for a period of 18 months. CDRNs are based on the electronic health records and other electronic sources of very large populations receiving healthcare within integrated or networked delivery systems. PPRNs are built primarily by communities of motivated patients, forming partnerships with researchers. These patients intend to participate in clinical research, by generating questions, sharing data, volunteering for interventional trials, and interpreting and disseminating results. Rapidly building a new national resource to facilitate a large-scale, patient-centered CER is associated with a number of technical, regulatory, and organizational challenges, which are described here. PMID:24821743

  20. An experimental study of VBR video over various ATM switch architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, R.P.; Hsieh, J.; Du, D.H.C.

    1997-12-31

    One of the most important components of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network is the switch. Switch design is not a part of the ATM standards so vendors use a wide variety of techniques to build their switches. In this paper, the authors present experimental results of switching and multiplexing real-time Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video traffic (JPEG, MPEG-1, and MPEG-2) through two different ATM switch architectures. Real-time VBR traffic, such as digital video, is particularly interesting due to its high demands in terms of bandwidth, real-time delivery and processing requirements. The experiments show that the fastest switches, i.e., lowest latencies, do not necessarily perform better when transmitting VBR video. The impact of the high speed network components; characteristics, such as switch fabric architecture, buffering strategies, and higher layer transport protocols (i.e., UDP, TCP/IP), are illustrated through the experimental results.

  1. Towards a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network: the ECRIN programme.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the interconnection of national networks of clinical research centres (CRCs) and clinical trials units (CTUs), the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) programme aims to develop an infrastructure allowing for bottom-up harmonisation of the support and training for, and practice of, clinical research, and to provide public sponsors for biotechnology small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) with support for translational research and multicentre clinical studies in Europe. This will be achieved through an application to the next FP6 'Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives' call. However, prior work is required to improve the reciprocal knowledge of partners in the ECRIN consortium and, as a first step, country-specific workshops will be organised by national networks in order to address the organisation of CRC/CTUs and national networks, and their interaction with the national environment of clinical research; this will enable in-depth discussion addressing the bottlenecks hampering transnational studies. PMID:15199684

  2. Research on Individualized Product Requirement Expression Based on Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qin; Pan, Xiuqin; Wei, Daozhu; Wu, Ke

    In order to establish an effective platform for individualized product development, the individualized product requirement expression forms were put forward. The diversity Semantic Network of product knowledge representation was researched based on the dualistic semantic network, and the product requirement framework model was established. Thereby the validity, reliability and consistency of the requirement expression process were ensured. Finally an example of customer requirement expression model about differential mechanism based on semantic network was described to satisfy with the individualized product design system.

  3. Identifying emerging research collaborations and networks: method development.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Ann M; Martina, Camille A; O'Dell, Nicole L; Fogg, Thomas T; Lurie, Stephen J; Rubinstein, Eric P; Pearson, Thomas A

    2014-03-01

    Clinical and translational research is a multidisciplinary, collaborative team process. To evaluate this process, we developed a method to document emerging research networks and collaborations in our medical center to describe their productivity and viability over time. Using an e-mail survey, sent to 1,620 clinical and basic science full- and part-time faculty members, respondents identified their research collaborators. Initial analyses, using Pajek software, assessed the feasibility of using social network analysis (SNA) methods with these data. Nearly 400 respondents identified 1,594 collaborators across 28 medical center departments resulting in 309 networks with 5 or more collaborators. This low-burden approach yielded a rich data set useful for evaluation using SNA to: (a) assess networks at several levels of the organization, including intrapersonal (individuals), interpersonal (social), organizational/institutional leadership (tenure and promotion), and physical/environmental (spatial proximity) and (b) link with other data to assess the evolution of these networks. PMID:24019209

  4. Identifying emerging research collaborations and networks: Method development

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Ann M.; Martina, Camille A.; O’Dell, Nicole L.; Fogg, Thomas T.; Lurie, Stephen J.; Rubinstein, Eric P.; Pearson, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and translational research is a multidisciplinary, collaborative team process. To evaluate this process, we developed a method to document emerging research networks and collaborations in our medical center to describe their productivity and viability over time. Using an email survey, sent to 1,620 clinical and basic science full-and part-time faculty members, respondents identified their research collaborators. Initial analyses, using Pajek software, assessed the feasibility of using social network analysis (SNA) methods with these data. Nearly 400 respondents identified 1,594 collaborators across 28 medical center departments resulting in 309 networks with 5 or more collaborators. This low-burden approach yielded a rich dataset useful for evaluation using SNA to: a) assess networks at several levels of the organization, including intrapersonal (individuals), interpersonal (social), organizational/institutional leadership (tenure and promotion), and physical/environmental (spatial proximity) and b) link with other data to assess the evolution of these networks. PMID:24019209

  5. Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22368490

  6. Unravelling the Social Network: Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) amongst children and young people in compulsory education, relatively little scholarly work has explored the fundamental issues at stake. This paper makes an original contribution to the field by locating the study of this online activity within the broader terrain of social…

  7. Research Universities as Knowledge Networks: The Role of Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirikov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the elaboration of institutional research practice, which is an important element of any research university. The study addresses three questions. First, how did institutional research arise, and what is its raison d'etre in a research university? Second, how can institutional research contribute to the improvement of…

  8. The National Research and Education Network (NREN): A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, James, Comp.

    This bibliography brings together sources, through August 1991, on the National Research and Education Network (NREN) and related topics, including computer networks, databases, information technology, library automation, microcomputers, and online systems. Where possible, a brief biographical note on the author is included, and most of the…

  9. Using an Inter-University Network for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettibone, Timothy J.; Roddy, Mary E.

    An inter-university network of computer centers, the "Because It's Time NETwork" (BITNET), is described. Specific guidelines and format requirements for using BITNET, with sample commands, are presented. More than 1,800 computers at over 600 institutions of higher education and research centers in Europe, Asia, and North America are linked in this…

  10. Learning Networks--Enabling Change through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Learning networks are a critical element of ethos of the community action research approach taken by the Early Learning Initiative at the National College of Ireland, a community-based educational initiative in the Dublin Docklands. Key criteria for networking, whether at local, national or international level, are the individual's and…

  11. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 15, from Matagorda Peninsula to Galveston Island, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant

  12. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 14, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used

  13. ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Western Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the western Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2-4 and 7-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used

  14. ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Eastern Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the eastern Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create

  15. XUNET experimental high-speed network testbed CRADA 1136, DOE TTI No. 92-MULT-020-B2

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    XUNET is a research program with AT&T and other partners to study high-speed wide area communication between local area networks over a backbone using Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switches. Important goals of the project are to develop software techniques for network control and management, and applications for high-speed networks. The project entails building a testbed between member sites to explore performance issues for mixed network traffic such as congestion control, multimedia communications protocols, segmentation and reassembly of ATM cells, and overall data throughput rates.

  16. Global Networked Learning: A New Form of Collaborative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirny, A.; Wiske, M. S.; Joo, J.; Cunningham, G.; Daniels, D.; Farid, A. B.; Gordon, F.; Madani, R.; Nissen, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    A year-long collaborative action research project used networked technologies to connect researchers at a university-based online professional development program and a group of practitioner researchers based in a range of schools and educational agencies in several countries. They studied the process and effects of online professional development…

  17. Openness in Adoption: Research with the Adoption Kinship Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D.

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes current research on the outcomes of open adoption. Discusses issues involved in conducting research on openness and offers methodological recommendations. Provides examples from one research program with adoptive kinship networks. Concludes that psychological outcomes were less related to the level of openness than to the dynamics of…

  18. The future of intersite networking. [Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Copies of viewgraphs and summaries of three discussion groups are presented. The purpose of the workshop was to identify strategies for meeting the computer networking needs to the scientists under the Office of Energy Research. (WRF)

  19. ATM alterations in childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gumy-Pause, Fabienne; Wacker, Pierre; Maillet, Philippe; Betts, David R; Sappino, André-Pascal

    2006-04-15

    ATM gene alterations and impaired ATM protein expression have been described in various adult lymphoproliferative malignancies, suggesting that ATM contributes to lymphomagenesis. The present study investigated the prevalence of ATM gene and ATM protein expression alterations in sporadic childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Twenty-seven cases of NHL were screened for ATM mutations by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). Direct and indirect criteria, including in silico tools, were used to classify the gene alterations. The methylation status of the ATM promoter CpG island was determined in 25 samples; ATM protein expression was assessed by Western blot in 9 lymphomas. ATM alterations were detected in 12 NHLs (44%). Ten different heterozygous base substitutions were identified in 10 NHLs (37%). Five samples (19%) were found to harbor a gene alteration considered to be a mutation or a rare variant potentially pathogenic. In one case, an ATM mutation was found in the germline. Four NHLs (44%) showed reduced or absent ATM protein expression. Except for one sample, no definite genetic or epigenetic alteration was identified to account for impaired ATM protein expression. These observations document a high prevalence of ATM gene and protein expression alterations, suggesting that ATM is involved in childhood NHL. PMID:16631465

  20. 75 FR 57521 - Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... FOUNDATION Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010... Coordination Office for Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) requests... National Coordination Office for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development...

  1. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-01-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard data-exchange model and resistance of universities to share information about their faculty have presented barriers to forming an institutionally supported national network. This case report describes an initiative, which, in only 6 months, achieved interoperability among seven major research-networking products at 28 universities by taking an approach that focused on addressing institutional concerns and encouraging their participation. With this necessary groundwork in place, the second phase of this effort can begin, which will expand the network's functionality and focus on the end users. PMID:22037890

  2. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M; Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-12-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard data-exchange model and resistance of universities to share information about their faculty have presented barriers to forming an institutionally supported national network. This case report describes an initiative, which, in only 6 months, achieved interoperability among seven major research-networking products at 28 universities by taking an approach that focused on addressing institutional concerns and encouraging their participation. With this necessary groundwork in place, the second phase of this effort can begin, which will expand the network's functionality and focus on the end users. PMID:22037890

  3. Network Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vietzke, Robert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This special section explains the latest developments in networking technologies, profiles school districts benefiting from successful implementations, and reviews new products for building networks. Highlights include ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), cable modems, networking switches, Internet screening software, file servers, network management…

  4. The CounterACT Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Jett, David A.; Yeung, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health has developed a comprehensive research program that includes research centers of excellence, individual research projects, small business projects, contracts, and interagency agreements to conduct basic, translational, and clinical research aimed at the discovery and/or identification of better medical countermeasures against chemical threat agents. Chemical threats include chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial and agricultural chemicals, and toxins and other chemicals that could be used intentionally as an act of terror or by large-scale accidents or natural disasters. The overarching goal of this research program is to enhance our medical response capabilities during an emergency. The program is named Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT). It supports translational research, applying ideas, insights, and discoveries generated through basic scientific inquiry to the treatment or prevention of mortality and morbidity caused by chemical threat agents. The categories of research supported under this program include creation and development of screening assays and animal models for therapy development, identification of candidate therapeutics, obtaining preliminary proof-of-principle data on the efficacy of candidate therapeutics, advanced efficacy and preclinical safety studies with appropriate animal models using Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), and clinical studies, including clinical trials with new drugs. Special consideration is given to research relevant to people who are particularly vulnerable, including the young, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. PMID:20601628

  5. [Competence Network Stroke : A successful model for stroke research].

    PubMed

    Lachmann, Ulrike; Villringer, Arno

    2016-04-01

    In 1999 the German Ministry of Education and Research initiated a funding initiative for competence networks in health research in order to improve research and health care for major diseases with high morbidity and relevance to public health. All major players in a given field were invited to cooperate. The aims were to improve horizontal as well as vertical networking in order to improve research quality and the transfer of new results into general clinical practice. Another aim was to establish sustainable structures for lasting cooperation. After a highly competitive application round, the Competence Network Stroke was among the very first to be funded. The incidence of stroke in Germany is about 250,000 new patients per year, it is the leading cause of adult impairment and its societal impact is dramatic.This article describes how the Competence Network Stroke managed to meet the above-mentioned goals and how cooperation among stroke researchers and caregivers in Germany has improved. Furthermore it provides examples of researcher achievements in the network, which have advanced research and benefited patients. PMID:26942932

  6. Development of a global flood monitoring system using ATMS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temimi, M.; Tesfagiorgis, K. B.; Lacava, T.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an operational global flood monitoring system using NPP-ATMS microwave brightness temperature measurements. The operational tool is based on a microwave-based soil wetness index (SWI). Swath-wise brightness temperatures (BT) of ATMS 89 GHz and 23 GHz channels are routinely downloaded from NOAA's CLASS. Each swath data is resampled to a regular grid of 35 km by 35 km using the nearest neighborhood technique to produce daily global brightness temperature maps. Global values of SWI are calculated using the difference in BT between the 89 and 23 GHz channels. Using these daily SWI values, we implemented the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) to calculate the Soil Wetness Variational Index (SWVI) which is dependent on the mean and standard deviation of SWIs of the same months of previous years using ATMS data. These SWVI values are influenced by changes in surface conditions. The determined mean and standard deviation values of SWI that were used to estimate the SWVI were determined on a monthly basis to mitigate the impact of the seasonal variation of the vegetation cover and surface conditions on the microwave signal. The determined SWVI using ATMS data showed significant sensitivity to inundation and allows for capturing changes in wet areas (inundation, flooding or very wet surface) across the globe. Snow and ice on the ground were masked out using a threshold-based approach that uses microwave brightness temperature observations. The advantage of the new ATMS sensor with respect to the older AMSU sensor that has similar channels consists of narrower orbit gaps and better spatial coverage and resolution. We nevertheless adapted the developed tool to AMSU data to investigate time series of inundation records across the globe since 2002. The obtained maps were verified against historical flood events in Australia and other parts of the world. Relationship between determined inundation and measured discharge was analyzed. A

  7. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, David I; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose, present, and validate a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool consists of five items that cover personal and professional social networks, and its basic principle is the self-reporting of degrees of conversation, with a range of specific discussion partners. The networking instrument was validated in three studies. The basic psychometric characteristics of the scales were established by conducting a factor analysis and evaluating internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. The second study used a known-groups comparison and involved comparing outcomes for networking scales between two different undergraduate laboratory courses (one involving a specific effort to enhance networking). The final study looked at potential relationships between specific networking items and the established psychosocial variable of project ownership through a series of binary logistic regressions. Overall, the data from the three studies indicate that the networking scales have high internal consistency (α = 0.88), consist of a unitary dimension, can significantly differentiate between research experiences with low and high networking designs, and are related to project ownership scales. The ramifications of the networking instrument for student retention, the enhancement of public scientific literacy, and the differentiation of laboratory courses are discussed. PMID:26538387

  8. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David I.; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose, present, and validate a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool consists of five items that cover personal and professional social networks, and its basic principle is the self-reporting of degrees of conversation, with a range of specific discussion partners. The networking instrument was validated in three studies. The basic psychometric characteristics of the scales were established by conducting a factor analysis and evaluating internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha. The second study used a known-groups comparison and involved comparing outcomes for networking scales between two different undergraduate laboratory courses (one involving a specific effort to enhance networking). The final study looked at potential relationships between specific networking items and the established psychosocial variable of project ownership through a series of binary logistic regressions. Overall, the data from the three studies indicate that the networking scales have high internal consistency (α = 0.88), consist of a unitary dimension, can significantly differentiate between research experiences with low and high networking designs, and are related to project ownership scales. The ramifications of the networking instrument for student retention, the enhancement of public scientific literacy, and the differentiation of laboratory courses are discussed. PMID:26538387

  9. The Mind Research Network - Mental Illness Neuroscience Discovery Grant

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.; Calhoun, V.

    2013-12-17

    The scientific and technological programs of the Mind Research Network (MRN), reflect DOE missions in basic science and associated instrumentation, computational modeling, and experimental techniques. MRN's technical goals over the course of this project have been to develop and apply integrated, multi-modality functional imaging techniques derived from a decade of DOE-support research and technology development.

  10. Networks of Practice in Science Education Research: A Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we employ cultural sociology and Braj Kachru's model of World Englishes as theoretical and analytical tools for considering English as a form of capital necessary for widely disseminating research findings from local networks of practice to the greater science education research community. We present a brief analysis of recent…

  11. Issues in ATM Support of High-Performance, Geographically Distributed Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, Russell W.; Dowd, Patrick W.; Srinidhi, Saragur M.; Blade, Eric D.G

    1995-01-01

    This report experimentally assesses the effect of the underlying network in a cluster-based computing environment. The assessment is quantified by application-level benchmarking, process-level communication, and network file input/output. Two testbeds were considered, one small cluster of Sun workstations and another large cluster composed of 32 high-end IBM RS/6000 platforms. The clusters had Ethernet, fiber distributed data interface (FDDI), Fibre Channel, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network interface cards installed, providing the same processors and operating system for the entire suite of experiments. The primary goal of this report is to assess the suitability of an ATM-based, local-area network to support interprocess communication and remote file input/output systems for distributed computing.

  12. Effect of self-similar traffic on the performance and buffer requirements of ATM ABR edge devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dastangoo, S.; Miller, G.J.; Chen, H.; Brandt, J.

    1996-02-05

    Previous studies demonstrated that Ethemet local area network traffic is statistically self-similar and that the commonly used Poisson models are not able to capture the fractal characteristics of Ethemet traffic. This contribution uses simulated self-similar traffic traces from the MITRE Corporation and Sandia`s simulation software to evaluate the ABR performance of an ATM backbone. The ATM backbone interconnects Ethemet LANs via edge devices such as routers and bridges. We evaluate the overall network performance in terms of throughput, response time, fairness, and buffer requirements. Because typical edge devices perform simple forwarding functions, their usual mechanism for signaling network congestion is packet dropping. Therefore, we believe that the proper provisioning of buffer resources in ATM edge devices is crucial to the overall network performance.

  13. Social Network Analysis of Biomedical Research Collaboration Networks in a CTSA Institution

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Jiang; Xie, Mengjun; Topaloglu, Umit; Hudson, Teresa; Eswaran, Hari; Hogan, William

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The popularity of social networks has triggered a number of research efforts on network analyses of research collaborations in the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) community. Those studies mainly focus on the general understanding of collaboration networks by measuring common network metrics. More fundamental questions about collaborations still remain unanswered such as recognizing “influential” nodes and identifying potential new collaborations that are most rewarding. METHODS We analyzed biomedical research collaboration networks (RCNs) constructed from a dataset of research grants collected at a CTSA institution (i.e. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS)) in a comprehensive and systematic manner. First, our analysis covers the full spectrum of a RCN study: from network modeling to network characteristics measurement, from key nodes recognition to potential links (collaborations) suggestion. Second, our analysis employs non-conventional model and techniques including a weighted network model for representing collaboration strength, rank aggregation for detecting important nodes, and Random Walk with Restart (RWR) for suggesting new research collaborations. RESULTS By applying our models and techniques to RCNs at UAMS prior to and after the CTSA, we have gained valuable insights that not only reveal the temporal evolution of the network dynamics but also assess the effectiveness of the CTSA and its impact on a research institution. We find that collaboration networks at UAMS are not scale-free but small-world. Quantitative measures have been obtained to evident that the RCNs at UAMS are moving towards favoring multidisciplinary research. Moreover, our link prediction model creates the basis of collaboration recommendations with an impressive accuracy (AUC: 0.990, MAP@3: 1.48 and MAP@5: 1.522). Last but not least, an open-source visual analytical tool for RCNs is being developed and released through Github. CONCLUSIONS

  14. Functional Proteomics Analysis to Study ATM Dependent Signaling in Response to Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Timofeeva, Olga; Zhang, Lihua; Kirilyuk, Alexander; Zandkarimi, Fereshteh; Kaur, Prabhjit; Ressom, Habtom W.; Jung, Mira; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a human genetic disease characterized by radiation sensitivity, impaired neuronal development and predisposition to cancer. Using a genetically defined model cell system consisting of cells expressing a kinase dead or a kinase proficient ATM gene product, we previously reported systemic alterations in major metabolic pathways that translate at the gene expression, protein and small molecule metabolite levels. Here, we report ionizing radiation induced stress response signaling arising from perturbations in the ATM gene, by employing a functional proteomics approach. Functional pathway analysis shows robust translational and post-translational responses under ATM proficient conditions, which include enrichment of proteins in the Ephrin receptor and axonal guidance signaling pathways. These molecular networks offer a hypothesis generating function for further investigations of cellular stress responses. PMID:23642045

  15. Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET) for aerosol research: Diagnosis on network instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Landulfo, Eduardo; Antuña, Juan Carlos; de Melo Jorge Barbosa, Henrique; Barja, Boris; Bastidas, Álvaro Efrain; Bedoya, Andrés Esteban; da Costa, Renata Facundes; Estevan, René; Forno, Ricardo; Gouveia, Diego Alvés; Jiménez, Cristofer; Larroza, Eliane Gonçalves; da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Montilla-Rosero, Elena; Arruda Moreira, Gregori de; Nakaema, Walker Morinobu; Nisperuza, Daniel; Alegria, Dairo; Múnera, Mauricio; Otero, Lidia; Papandrea, Sebastián; Pallota, Juan Vicente; Pawelko, Ezequiel; Quel, Eduardo Jaime; Ristori, Pablo; Rodrigues, Patricia Ferrini; Salvador, Jacobo; Sánchez, Maria Fernanda; Silva, Antonieta

    2016-02-01

    LALINET (Latin American Lidar Network), previously known as ALINE, is the first fully operative lidar network for aerosol research in South America, probing the atmosphere on regular basis since September 2013. The general purpose of this network is to attempt to fill the gap in the knowledge on aerosol vertical distribution over South America and its direct and indirect impact on weather and climate by the establishment of a vertically-resolved dataset of aerosol properties. Similarly to other lidar research networks, most of the LALINET instruments are not commercially produced and, consequently, configurations, capabilities and derived-products can be remarkably different among stations. It is a fact that such un-biased 4D dataset calls for a strict standardization from the instrumental and data processing point of view. This study has been envisaged to investigate the ongoing network configurations with the aim of highlighting the instrumental strengths and weaknesses of LALINET.

  16. Research, Supervision, and the Network Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Carmel

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written about the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in distance learning environments. A quick Google search turns up as many as 178,000 links to the term. ICT has been less used and discussed as a means of communication between research student and supervisor--particularly where this is the major means of student…

  17. US computer research networks: Current and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

  18. EEG-based research on brain functional networks in cognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Niannian; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, exploring the cognitive functions of the brain by establishing a network model to understand the working mechanism of the brain has become a popular research topic in the field of neuroscience. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to collect data from subjects given four different mathematical cognitive tasks: recite numbers clockwise and counter-clockwise, and letters clockwise and counter-clockwise to build a complex brain function network (BFN). By studying the connectivity features and parameters of those brain functional networks, it was found that the average clustering coefficient is much larger than its corresponding random network and the average shortest path length is similar to the corresponding random networks, which clearly shows the characteristics of the small-world network. The brain regions stimulated during the experiment are consistent with traditional cognitive science regarding learning, memory, comprehension, and other rational judgment results. The new method of complex networking involves studying the mathematical cognitive process of reciting, providing an effective research foundation for exploring the relationship between brain cognition and human learning skills and memory. This could help detect memory deficits early in young and mentally handicapped children, and help scientists understand the causes of cognitive brain disorders. PMID:26405867

  19. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  20. ATM-distributed PACS server for ICU application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joseph K.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Huang, H. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Zhang, Jianguo; Andriole, Katherine P.

    1996-05-01

    In order for PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications System) to better serve our intensive care units (ICUs), we, at University of California, San Francisco, have designed and developed a client/server application that is specifically tailored to provide fast, reliable access to our PACS data from diagnostic viewing stations in the ICUs. One of our utmost design criteria is to ensure consistent delivery of high speed, high performance data throughput, and yet, the system should be cost-effective and render minimal maintenance. As high technology advances, we are able to utilize powerful mass storage device such as raid disk, which serves as a central image repository, to store images and data. We are also able to utilize Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology, which is regarded as the prevailing technology for reliable, high speed data communications, to transfer large imagery data sets across systems and networks. This paper describes the design and mechanism of how ICU viewing stations take advantages of sharing a high performance raid disk, and ATM technology in data transfer for timely delivery of images in a clinical setting.

  1. Network of participants in European research: accepted versus rejected proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouchnika, Maria; Argyrakis, Panos

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the network formed by the collaboration of researchers seeking funding by the European Commission by submitting research proposals. Institutions are network nodes and collaborations are links between the nodes. We constructed one network for the accepted proposals and one for the rejected ones, in order to look for any structural differences between them. To this end, first, we compare the size of the largest connected components and the resulting degree distributions. The latter show notable difference only in the region of relatively small degrees. We calculate the assortative mixing by participant type, i.e. a property which indicates whether the participant is a university/research institute, a company (non-profit included), or undefined. By aggregating the data of both networks into three geographical scales (city, region, country), we compare the degree assortativity and average node weight, in all scales. With respect to these two features the networks display similar behaviour. Finally, we compare a series of centrality measures and the Minimum Spanning Trees, at the country scale, to assess the relative performance of the countries. We find that five countries, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Spain and Italy, play a central role in both networks, however, their relative significance is not the same.

  2. ATM/cable arch and beam structural test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The structural testing is described of an Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) cable arch and beam assembly, using static loads to simulate the critical conditions expected during transportation and launch of the ATM. All test objectives were met. Stress and deflection data show that the assembly is structurally adequate for use in the ATM.

  3. Coordinating centers and multi-practice-based research network (PBRN) research.

    PubMed

    Mold, James W; Lipman, Paula Darby; Durako, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have emerged as laboratories in which to address important primary care challenges. In 2011, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's PBRN database included more than 130 networks, most regional and some national, with member practices in every state. Regional networks may have certain advantages over national networks with respect to practice recruitment and project quality control because of closer relationships and shorter distances. However, national networks often can achieve larger numbers of practices with greater diversity, resulting in broader generalizability of results. Increasingly, regional networks are collaborating on multinetwork projects, but this creates significant study coordination challenges. A potential solution is to incorporate PBRN coordinating centers similar to those used in many National Institutes of Health and industry-sponsored multi-center clinical trials. In this article, we discuss the potential functions of a coordinating center in multi-region PBRN studies based on our experience with 2 recent studies. PMID:22956693

  4. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which

  5. ATM photoheliograph. [at a solar observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prout, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The design and fabrication are presented of a 65 cm photoheliograph functional verification unit (FVU) installed in a major solar observatory. The telescope is used in a daily program of solar observation while serving as a test bed for the development of instrumentation to be included in early space shuttle launched solar telescopes. The 65 cm FVU was designed to be mechanically compatible with the ATM spar/canister and would be adaptable to a second ATM flight utilizing the existing spar/canister configuration. An image motion compensation breadboard and a space-hardened, remotely tuned H alpha filter, as well as solar telescopes of different optical configurations or increased aperture are discussed.

  6. ATM Mutations in Cancer: Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Choi, Michael; Kipps, Thomas; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-08-01

    Activation of checkpoint arrest and homologous DNA repair are necessary for maintenance of genomic integrity during DNA replication. Germ-line mutations of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene result in the well-characterized ataxia telangiectasia syndrome, which manifests with an increased cancer predisposition, including a 20% to 30% lifetime risk of lymphoid, gastric, breast, central nervous system, skin, and other cancers. Somatic ATM mutations or deletions are commonly found in lymphoid malignancies, as well as a variety of solid tumors. Such mutations may result in chemotherapy resistance and adverse prognosis, but may also be exploited by existing or emerging targeted therapies that produce synthetic lethal states. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1781-91. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27413114

  7. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    SciTech Connect

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  8. Preservation of methane hydrate at 1 atm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    A "pressure-release" method that enables reproducible bulk preservation of pure, porous, methane hydrate at conditions 50 to 75 K above its equilibrium T (193 K) at 1 atm is refined. The amount of hydrate preserved by this method appears to be greatly in excess of that reported in the previous citations, and is likely the result of a mechanism different from ice shielding.

  9. WWOX guards genome stability by activating ATM

    PubMed Central

    Hazan, Idit; Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Hofmann, Thomas G; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) tend to break upon replication stress and have been suggested to be “hot spots” for genomic instability. Recent evidence, however, implies that in the wake of DNA damage, WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX, the gene product of the FRA16D fragile site), associates with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and regulates its activation to maintain genomic integrity. PMID:27308504

  10. MPEG-2 Over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Over Satellite Quality of Service (QoS) Experiments: Laboratory Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Frantz, Brian D.; Spells, Marcus J.

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service (QoS) experiments were performed using MPEG-2 (ATM application layer 5, AAL5) over ATM over an emulated satellite link. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the free-space link quality necessary to transmit high-quality multimedia information by using the ATM protocol. The detailed test plan and test configuration are described herein as are the test results. MPEG-2 transport streams were baselined in an errored environment, followed by a series of tests using, MPEG-2 over ATM. Errors were created both digitally as well as in an IF link by using a satellite modem and commercial gaussian noise test set for two different MPEG-2 decoder implementations. The results show that ITU-T Recommendation 1.356 Class 1, stringent ATM applications will require better link quality than currently specified; in particular, cell loss ratios of better than 1.0 x 10(exp -8) and cell error ratios of better than 1.0 x 10(exp -7) are needed. These tests were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of satellite-ATM interoperability research.

  11. Stories in Networks and Networks in Stories: A Tri-Modal Model for Mixed-Methods Social Network Research on Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2015-01-01

    Social network research on teachers and schools has risen exponentially in recent years as an innovative method to reveal the role of social networks in education. However, scholars are still exploring ways to incorporate traditional quantitative methods of Social Network Analysis (SNA) with qualitative approaches to social network research. This…

  12. Research on the complex network of the UNSPSC ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingying; Zou, Shengrong; Gu, Aihua; Wei, Li; Zhou, Ta

    The UNSPSC ontology mainly applies to the classification system of the e-business and governments buying the worldwide products and services, and supports the logic structure of classification of the products and services. In this paper, the related technologies of the complex network were applied to analyzing the structure of the ontology. The concept of the ontology was corresponding to the node of the complex network, and the relationship of the ontology concept was corresponding to the edge of the complex network. With existing methods of analysis and performance indicators in the complex network, analyzing the degree distribution and community of the ontology, and the research will help evaluate the concept of the ontology, classify the concept of the ontology and improve the efficiency of semantic matching.

  13. EARLINET: potential operationality of a research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Comerón, A.; Mona, L.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Baars, H.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bravo-Aranda, J. A.; Fernández, A. J.; Fréville, P.; García-Vizcaíno, D.; Giunta, A.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Haefele, A.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Mamouri, R. E.; Mattis, I.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz Porcar, C.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Nicolae, D.; Nisantzi, A.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Papayannis, A.; Pereira, S.; Preißler, J.; Pujadas, M.; Rizi, V.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Simeonov, V.; Tsaknakis, G.; Wagner, F.; Pappalardo, G.

    2015-07-01

    In the framework of ACTRIS summer 2012 measurement campaign (8 June-17 July 2012), EARLINET organized and performed a controlled exercise of feasibility to demonstrate its potential to perform operational, coordinated measurements and deliver products in near-real time. Eleven lidar stations participated to the exercise which started on 9 July 2012 at 06:00 UT and ended 72 h later on 12 July at 06:00 UT. For the first time the Single-Calculus Chain (SCC), the common calculus chain developed within EARLINET for the automatic evaluation of lidar data from raw signals up to the final products, was used. All stations sent in real time measurements of 1 h of duration to the SCC server in a predefined netcdf file format. The pre-processing of the data was performed in real time by the SCC while the optical processing was performed in near-real time after the exercise ended. 98 and 84 % of the files sent to SCC were successfully pre-processed and processed, respectively. Those percentages are quite large taking into account that no cloud screening was performed on lidar data. The paper shows time series of continuous and homogeneously obtained products retrieved at different levels of the SCC: range-square corrected signals (pre-processing) and daytime backscatter and nighttime extinction coefficient profiles (optical processing), as well as combined plots of all direct and derived optical products. The derived products include backscatter- and extinction-related Ångström exponents, lidar ratios and color ratios. The combined plots reveal extremely valuable for aerosol classification. The efforts made to define the measurements protocol and to configure properly the SCC pave the way for applying this protocol for specific applications such as the monitoring of special events, atmospheric modelling, climate research and calibration/validation activities of spaceborne observations.

  14. Patterns of collaboration in complex networks: the example of a translational research network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines collaboration in a complex translational cancer research network (TRN) made up of a range of hospital-based clinicians and university-based researchers. We examine the phenomenon of close-knit and often introspective clusters of people (silos) and test the extent that factors associated with this clustering (geography, profession and past experience) influence patterns of current and future collaboration on TRN projects. Understanding more of these patterns, especially the gaps or barriers between members, will help network leaders to manage subgroups and promote connectivity crucial to efficient network function. Methods An on-line, whole network survey was used to collect attribute and relationship data from all members of the new TRN based in New South Wales, Australia in early 2012. The 68 members were drawn from six separate hospital and university campuses. Social network analysis with UCInet tested the effects of geographic proximity, profession, past research experience, strength of ties and previous collaborations on past, present and future intended partnering. Results Geographic proximity and past working relationships both had significant effects on the choice of current collaboration partners. Future intended collaborations included a significant number of weak ties and ties based on other members’ reputations implying that the TRN has provided new opportunities for partnership. Professional grouping, a significant barrier discussed in the translational research literature, influenced past collaborations but not current or future collaborations, possibly through the mediation of network brokers. Conclusions Since geographic proximity is important in the choice of collaborators a dispersed network such as this could consider enhancing cross site interactions by improving virtual communication technology and use, increasing social interactions apart from project related work, and maximising opportunities to meet members

  15. Tyrosine 370 phosphorylation of ATM positively regulates DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong-Jen; Lan, Li; Peng, Guang; Chang, Wei-Chao; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Wang, Ying-Nai; Cheng, Chien-Chia; Wei, Leizhen; Nakajima, Satoshi; Chang, Shih-Shin; Liao, Hsin-Wei; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Lavin, Martin; Ang, K Kian; Lin, Shiaw-Yih; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) mediates DNA damage response by controling irradiation-induced foci formation, cell cycle checkpoint, and apoptosis. However, how upstream signaling regulates ATM is not completely understood. Here, we show that upon irradiation stimulation, ATM associates with and is phosphorylated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at Tyr370 (Y370) at the site of DNA double-strand breaks. Depletion of endogenous EGFR impairs ATM-mediated foci formation, homologous recombination, and DNA repair. Moreover, pretreatment with an EGFR kinase inhibitor, gefitinib, blocks EGFR and ATM association, hinders CHK2 activation and subsequent foci formation, and increases radiosensitivity. Thus, we reveal a critical mechanism by which EGFR directly regulates ATM activation in DNA damage response, and our results suggest that the status of ATM Y370 phosphorylation has the potential to serve as a biomarker to stratify patients for either radiotherapy alone or in combination with EGFR inhibition. PMID:25601159

  16. Promoting Cognitive Health: A Formative Research Collaboration of the Healthy Aging Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, James N.; Beard, Renee L.; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Fetterman, David; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Wu, Bei

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests that healthy lifestyles may help maintain cognitive health. The Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network, 9 universities collaborating with their communities and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is conducting a multiyear research project, begun in 2005, to understand how to translate this…

  17. Performance analysis of ATM ABR service under self-similar traffic in the presence of background VBR traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Benke, G. |; Brandt, J.; Chen, H.; Dastangoo, S.; Miller, G.J.

    1996-05-01

    Recent empirical studies of traffic measurements of packet switched networks have demonstrated that actual network traffic is self-similar, or long range dependent, in nature. That is, the measured traffic is bursty over a wide range of time intervals. Furthermore, the emergence of high-speed network backbones demands the study of accurate models of aggregated traffic to assess network performance. This paper provides a method for generation of self-similar traffic, which can be used to drive network simulation models. The authors present the results of a simulation study of a two-node ATM network configuration that supports the ATM Forum`s Available Bit Rate (ABR) service. In this study, the authors compare the state of the queue at the source router at the edge of the ATM network under both Poisson and self-similar traffic loading. These findings indicate an order of magnitude increase in queue length for self-similar traffic loading as compared to Poisson loading. Moreover, when background VBR traffic is present, self-similar ABR traffic causes more congestion at the ATM switches than does Poisson traffic.

  18. Patient-powered research networks aim to improve patient care and health research.

    PubMed

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Beal, Anne C; Sheridan, Susan E; Johnson, Lorraine B; Selby, Joe V

    2014-07-01

    The era of big data, loosely defined as the development and analysis of large or complex data sets, brings new opportunities to empower patients and their families to generate, collect, and use their health information for both clinical and research purposes. In 2013 the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute launched a large national research network, PCORnet, that includes both clinical and patient-powered research networks. This article describes these networks, their potential uses, and the challenges they face. The networks are engaging patients, family members, and caregivers in four key ways: contributing data securely, with privacy protected; including diverse and representative groups of patients in research; prioritizing research questions, participating in research, and disseminating results; and participating in the leadership and governance of patient-powered research networks. If technical, regulatory, and organizational challenges can be overcome, PCORnet will allow research to be conducted more efficiently and cost-effectively and results to be disseminated quickly back to patients, clinicians, and delivery systems to improve patient health. PMID:25006148

  19. A community of practice: librarians in a biomedical research network.

    PubMed

    De Jager-Loftus, Danielle P; Midyette, J David; Harvey, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Providing library and reference services within a biomedical research community presents special challenges for librarians, especially those in historically lower-funded states. These challenges can include understanding needs, defining and communicating the library's role, building relationships, and developing and maintaining general and subject specific knowledge. This article describes a biomedical research network and the work of health sciences librarians at the lead intensive research institution with librarians from primarily undergraduate institutions and tribal colleges. Applying the concept of a community of practice to a collaborative effort suggests how librarians can work together to provide effective reference services to researchers in biomedicine. PMID:24528265

  20. Interdependent networks - Topological percolation research and application in finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Di

    This dissertation covers the two major parts of my Ph.D. research: i) developing a theoretical framework of complex networks and applying simulation and numerical methods to study the robustness of the network system, and ii) applying statistical physics concepts and methods to quantitatively analyze complex systems and applying the theoretical framework to study real-world systems. In part I, we focus on developing theories of interdependent networks as well as building computer simulation models, which includes three parts: 1) We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the networks significantly changes the critical density of failures, which can trigger the total disruption of the two-network system. Specifically, we find that the assortativity within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. 2) We study the percolation behavior of two interdependent scale-free (SF) networks under random failure of 1-p fraction of nodes. We find that as the coupling strength q between the two networks reduces from 1 (fully coupled) to 0 (no coupling), there exist two critical coupling strengths q1 and q2 , which separate the behaviors of the giant component as a function of p into three different regions, and for q2 < q < q 1 , we observe a hybrid order phase transition phenomenon. 3) We study the robustness of n interdependent networks with partially support-dependent relationship both analytically and numerically. We study a starlike network of n Erdos-Renyi (ER), SF networks and a looplike network of n ER networks, and we find for starlike networks, their phase transition regions change with n, but for looplike networks the phase regions change with average degree k . In part II, we apply concepts and methods developed in statistical physics to study economic systems. We analyze stock market indices and foreign exchange

  1. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  2. Using Action Research to Investigate Social Networking Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrall, Lisa; Harris, Katy

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the first cycle of an Action Research (AR) investigation into why professional learners are not using the Social Networking Technologies (SNTs) of their bespoke website. It presents the rationale of how this study came about, the ontological and epistemological stance of the authors and how this led to the particular choice…

  3. Research Activities Within the Professional Development Center Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Marie J.; And Others

    A cooperative program to improve education in the public schools involving the combined resources of the state department of education, a state university, and the local school districts is described. This Professional Development Center Network (PDC) conducts research to produce decision-making information to upgrade inservice programs in the…

  4. Water resources: Research network to track alpine water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water cycle in alpine environments worldwide supplies fresh water to vast downstream areas inhabited by more than half of humanity. The International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology (INARCH) was launched this year by the Global Energy and Water Exchanges project of the World Clim...

  5. Citation Networks as Indicators of Journalism Research Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankard, James W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews citation networks and discovers that the six major areas of activity in mass communication research are (1) television and politics, (2) sociological studies of journalists, (3) agenda setting, (4) the effects of mass communication, (5) the credibility of various news media, and (6) the characteristics of users and nonusers of mass media.…

  6. The National Research and Education Network: Two Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisler, Steve

    This article discusses two meetings which dealt with developments regarding the National Research and Education Network (NREN). In November 1990, the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University held a symposium entitled "Information Infrastructure for the 1990s," whose participants represented a wide spectrum of economic, political,…

  7. Higher Education Change and Social Networks: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the potential for understanding higher education change processes through social network analysis (SNA). In this article, the main tenets of SNA are reviewed and, in conjunction with organizational theory, are applied to higher education change to develop a set of hypotheses that can be tested in future research.

  8. The Georgia Psychoeducational Network (GPN) Research Report, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, William W., Ed.; Brown, Carvin L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This research report contains seven papers on students with serious Emotional Disturbances (SED) and/or Severe Behavior Disorder (SBD) who participated in the Georgia Psychoeducational Network Program (GPN). "The 1982 Cohort of GPN Preschoolers--Where Are They in 1987-1988?" (Juanda Ponsell and others) reports the placement of 75 preschoolers with…

  9. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Activated ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of Cytoplasmic Substrates Identified by Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Screen.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Arthur, Jonathan W; Graham, Mark E; Lavin, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signaling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoints, initiating DNA repair, and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here, we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites, including 6,686 high-confidence sites mapping to 2,536 unique proteins. A total of 62 differentially phosphorylated peptides were identified; of these, 43 were phosphorylated in control but not in A-T cells, and 19 varied in their level of phosphorylation. Motif enrichment analysis of phosphopeptides revealed that consensus ATM serine glutamine sites were overrepresented. When considering phosphorylation events, only observed in control cells (not observed in A-T cells), with predicted ATM sites phosphoSerine/phosphoThreonine glutamine, we narrowed this list to 11 candidate ATM-dependent cytoplasmic proteins. Two of these 11 were previously described as ATM substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens, and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1), HDGF, and ccdc82) as ATM dependent after H2O2 exposure, and another protein (S100A11) demonstrated ATM

  10. The Use and Significance of a Research Networking System

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Leslie; Daigre, John; Meeks, Eric; Nelson, Katie; Piontkowski, Cynthia; Reuter, Katja; Sak, Rachael; Turner, Brian; Weber, Griffin M; Chatterjee, Anirvan

    2014-01-01

    Background Universities have begun deploying public Internet systems that allow for easy search of their experts, expertise, and intellectual networks. Deployed first in biomedical schools but now being implemented more broadly, the initial motivator of these research networking systems was to enable easier identification of collaborators and enable the development of teams for research. Objective The intent of the study was to provide the first description of the usage of an institutional research “social networking” system or research networking system (RNS). Methods Number of visits, visitor location and type, referral source, depth of visit, search terms, and click paths were derived from 2.5 years of Web analytics data. Feedback from a pop-up survey presented to users over 15 months was summarized. Results RNSs automatically generate and display profiles and networks of researchers. Within 2.5 years, the RNS at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) achieved one-seventh of the monthly visit rate of the main longstanding university website, with an increasing trend. Visitors came from diverse locations beyond the institution. Close to 75% (74.78%, 208,304/278,570) came via a public search engine and 84.0% (210 out of a sample of 250) of these queried an individual’s name that took them directly to the relevant profile page. In addition, 20.90% (214 of 1024) visits went beyond the page related to a person of interest to explore related researchers and topics through the novel and networked information provided by the tool. At the end of the period analyzed, more than 2000 visits per month traversed 5 or more links into related people and topics. One-third of visits came from returning visitors who were significantly more likely to continue to explore networked people and topics (P<.001). Responses to an online survey suggest a broad range of benefits of using the RNS in supporting the research and clinical mission. Conclusions Returning

  11. The Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research: A model of capacity-building research.

    PubMed

    Koso-Thomas, Marion; McClure, Elizabeth M

    2015-10-01

    In response to the global effort to accelerate progress towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, a partnership was created between the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to establish the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research (Global Network) in 2000. The Global Network was developed with a goal of building local maternal and child health research capacity in resource-poor settings. The objective of the network was to conduct research focused on several high-need areas, such as preventing life-threatening obstetric complications, improving birth weight and infant growth, and improving childbirth practices in order to reduce mortality. Scientists from developing countries, together with peers in the USA, lead research teams that identify and address population needs through randomized clinical trials and other research studies. Global Network projects develop and test cost-effective, sustainable interventions for pregnant women and newborns and provide guidance for national policy and for the practice of evidence-based medicine. This article reviews the results of the Global Network's research, the impact on policy and practice, and highlights the capacity-building efforts and collaborations developed since its inception. PMID:26043962

  12. Building Research Infrastructure in Community Health Centers: A Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) Report

    PubMed Central

    Likumahuwa, Sonja; Song, Hui; Singal, Robbie; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crane, Heidi; Muench, John; Sim, Shao-Chee; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and “matchmaking” between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings. PMID:24004710

  13. Leadership in complex networks: the importance of network position and strategic action in a translational cancer research network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leadership behaviour in complex networks is under-researched, and little has been written concerning leadership of translational research networks (TRNs) that take discoveries made ‘at the bench’ and translate them into practices used ‘at the bedside.’ Understanding leaders’ opportunities and behaviours within TRNs working to solve this key problem in implementing evidence into clinical practice is therefore important. This study explored the network position of governing body members and perceptions of their role in a new TRN in Sydney, Australia. The paper asks three questions: Firstly, do the formal, mandated leaders of this TRN hold key positions of centrality or brokerage in the informal social network of collaborative ties? Secondly, if so, do they recognise the leadership opportunities that their network positions afford them? Thirdly, what activities associated with these key roles do they believe will maximise the TRN’s success? Methods Semi-structured interviews of all 14 governing body members conducted in early 2012 explored perceptions of their roles and sought comments on a list of activities drawn from review of successful transdisciplinary collaboratives combined with central and brokerage roles. An on-line, whole network survey of all 68 TRN members sought to understand and map existing collaborative connections. Leaders’ positions in the network were assessed using UCInet, and graphs were generated in NetDraw. Results Social network analysis identified that governing body members had high centrality and high brokerage potential in the informal network of work-related ties. Interviews showed perceived challenges including ‘silos’ and the mismatch between academic and clinical goals of research. Governing body members recognised their central positions, which would facilitate the leadership roles of leading, making decisions, and providing expert advice necessary for the co-ordination of effort and relevant input across

  14. Social Networking and Online Recruiting for HIV Research: Ethical Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites and online advertising organizations provide HIV/AIDS researchers access to target populations, often reaching difficult-to-reach populations. However, this benefit to researchers raises many issues for the protections of prospective research participants. Traditional recruitment procedures have involved straightforward transactions between the researchers and prospective participants; online recruitment is a more complex and indirect form of communication involving many parties engaged in the collecting, aggregating, and storing of research participant data. Thus, increased access to online data has challenged the adequacy of current and established procedures for participants’ protections, such as informed consent and privacy/confidentiality. Internet-based HIV/AIDS research recruitment and its ethical challenges are described, and research participant safeguards and best practices are outlined. PMID:24572084

  15. Research trends in wireless visual sensor networks when exploiting prioritization.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel G; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors. PMID:25599425

  16. Research Trends in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks When Exploiting Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel G.; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors. PMID:25599425

  17. Exploring Knowledge Processes Based on Teacher Research in a School-University Research Network of a Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    School-university research networks aim at closer integration of research and practice by means of teacher research. Such practice-oriented research can benefit both schools and universities. This paper reports on a multiple-case study of five participants in a school-university research network in a Dutch master's program. The research question…

  18. Research and development of network virtual instrument laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hongmei; Pei, Xichun; Ma, Hongyue; Ma, Shuoshi

    2006-11-01

    A software platform of the network virtual instrument test laboratory has been developed to realize the network function of the test and signal analysis as well as the share of the hardware based on the data transmission theory and the study of the present technologies of the network virtual instrument. The whole design procedure was also presented in this paper. The main work of the research is as follows. 1. A suitable scheme of the test system with B/S mode and the virtual instrument laboratory with BSDA (Browser/Server/Database/Application) mode was determined. 2. The functions were classified and integrated by adopting the multilayer structure. The application for the virtual instruments running in the client terminal and the network management server managing the multiuser in the test laboratory according to the "Concurrent receival, sequential implementation" strategy in Java as well as the code of the test server application responding the client's requests of test and signal analysis in LabWindows/CVI were developed. As the extending part of network function of the original virtual test and analysis instruments, a software platform of network virtual instrument test laboratory was built as well. 3. The communication of the network data between Java and the LabWindows/CVI was realized. 4. The database was imported to store the data as well as the correlative information acquired by the server and help the network management server to manage the multiuser in the test laboratory. 5. A website embedding Java Applet of virtual instrument laboratory with the on-line help files was designed.

  19. UltraSciencenet: High- Performance Network Research Test-Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S; Wing, William R; Poole, Stephen W; Hicks, Susan Elaine; DeNap, Frank A; Carter, Steven M; Wu, Qishi

    2009-04-01

    The high-performance networking requirements for next generation large-scale applications belong to two broad classes: (a) high bandwidths, typically multiples of 10Gbps, to support bulk data transfers, and (b) stable bandwidths, typically at much lower bandwidths, to support computational steering, remote visualization, and remote control of instrumentation. Current Internet technologies, however, are severely limited in meeting these demands because such bulk bandwidths are available only in the backbone, and stable control channels are hard to realize over shared connections. The UltraScience Net (USN) facilitates the development of such technologies by providing dynamic, cross-country dedicated 10Gbps channels for large data transfers, and 150 Mbps channels for interactive and control operations. Contributions of the USN project are two-fold: (a) Infrastructure Technologies for Network Experimental Facility: USN developed and/or demonstrated a number of infrastructure technologies needed for a national-scale network experimental facility. Compared to Internet, USN's data-plane is different in that it can be partitioned into isolated layer-1 or layer-2 connections, and its control-plane is different in the ability of users and applications to setup and tear down channels as needed. Its design required several new components including a Virtual Private Network infrastructure, a bandwidth and channel scheduler, and a dynamic signaling daemon. The control-plane employs a centralized scheduler to compute the channel allocations and a signaling daemon to generate configuration signals to switches. In a nutshell, USN demonstrated the ability to build and operate a stable national-scale switched network. (b) Structured Network Research Experiments: A number of network research experiments have been conducted on USN that cannot be easily supported over existing network facilities, including test-beds and production networks. It settled an open matter by demonstrating

  20. 75 FR 55360 - Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010 Strategic Plan AGENCY: The National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information Technology Research... and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) requests comments from the...

  1. Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network: establishing an infrastructure for efficient conduct of clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Anjum; Nauman, Elizabeth; Carton, Tom; Horswell, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The state of Louisiana, like the nation as a whole, is facing the salient challenge of improving population health and efficiency of healthcare delivery. Research to inform innovations in healthcare will best enhance this effort if it is timely, efficient, and patient-centered. The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network (LACDRN) will increase the capacity to conduct robust comparative effectiveness research by building a health information technology infrastructure that provides access to comprehensive clinical data for more than 1 million patients statewide. To ensure that network-based research best serves its end-users, the project will actively engage patients and providers as key informants and decision-makers in the implementation of LACDRN. The network's patient-centered research agenda will prioritize patients’ and clinicians’ needs and aim to support evidence-based decisions on the healthcare they receive and provide, to optimize patient outcomes and quality of life. PMID:24821735

  2. Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network: establishing an infrastructure for efficient conduct of clinical research.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Anjum; Nauman, Elizabeth; Carton, Tom; Horswell, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The state of Louisiana, like the nation as a whole, is facing the salient challenge of improving population health and efficiency of healthcare delivery. Research to inform innovations in healthcare will best enhance this effort if it is timely, efficient, and patient-centered. The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network (LACDRN) will increase the capacity to conduct robust comparative effectiveness research by building a health information technology infrastructure that provides access to comprehensive clinical data for more than 1 million patients statewide. To ensure that network-based research best serves its end-users, the project will actively engage patients and providers as key informants and decision-makers in the implementation of LACDRN. The network's patient-centered research agenda will prioritize patients' and clinicians' needs and aim to support evidence-based decisions on the healthcare they receive and provide, to optimize patient outcomes and quality of life. PMID:24821735

  3. ATM Quality of Service Tests for Digitized Video Using ATM Over Satellite: Laboratory Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Brooks, David E.; Frantz, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    A digitized video application was used to help determine minimum quality of service parameters for asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) over satellite. For these tests, binomially distributed and other errors were digitally inserted in an intermediate frequency link via a satellite modem and a commercial gaussian noise generator. In this paper, the relation- ship between the ATM cell error and cell loss parameter specifications is discussed with regard to this application. In addition, the video-encoding algorithms, test configurations, and results are presented in detail.

  4. [Interdisciplinary Network for Epidemiological Research in Berlin--EpiBerlin].

    PubMed

    Bau, A M

    2004-06-01

    The Interdisciplinary Network for Epidemiological Research in Berlin (EpiBerlin) has the goal of bringing together epidemiologists and experts in epidemiology and public health in Germany's capital city of Berlin and to offer them opportunities for knowledge transfer and networking. In that way, existing resources may be strengthened and additional potential in Berlin as a science center may be developed. EpiBerlin was founded by an initiative of the Berlin Center of Public Health (BZPH) and is closely affiliated with the three universities in Berlin (Free University, Technical University, and Humboldt University) as well as the Robert Koch Institute, Germany's national center for health research. EpiBerlin is evenly funded by the state of Berlin, through the Senatsverwaltung für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kultur (Senate Administration for Science, Research, and Culture), and the Bund-Länder-Kommission (Commission of the Federation and States). The development of a databank of the epidemiological databases in the region of Berlin (EpiDB) aims to show the variety of epidemiological work in the area. The aim of EpiDB is to provide transparency and an overview of existing and current research in Berlin, which may also benefit external users. Cooperation, networking, and division of labor for joint venture research may be promoted, also beyond the region of Berlin. PMID:15221106

  5. GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network) - Status and Research Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoepfler, A.; Mayer, M.; Masson, F.; Ferhat, G.; Ulrich, P.; Heck, B.

    2009-04-01

    In April 2008 the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre) and the Geodetic Institute of the University Karlsruhe (TH) established an international cooperation called GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative these institutions are cooperating in order to carry out research in the framework of the transnational project TOPO-WECEP (Western and Central European Platform), which succeeds the former project URGENT (Upper Rhine Graben Evolution and NeoTectonics) of the EUCOR universities (European Confederation of Universities on the Upper Rhin). The research is actually based on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) in order to establish a network for the detection of recent crustal movements. The poster will focus on main research goals as well as on first results (e.g. phase multipath impact, receiver quality, PPP time series) concerning the data quality of the approx. 70 permanently operating GNSS reference sites.

  6. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, T.; Giardini, D.; Bossu, R.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-12-01

    NERIES (Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology) is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) project within the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC). The project consortium consists of 25 participants from 13 different European countries. It is currently the largest earth science project ever funded by the EC. The goal of NERIES is to integrate European seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated cyber-infrastructure for seismological data serving the research community, civil protection authorities and the general public. The EC provides funds for the networking and research. The participants provide the necessary hardware investments, mostly through national resources. NERIES consists of 13 subprojects (networking and research activities) and 5 facilities providing access through grants (Transnational Access). The project is coordinated by ORFEUS in close cooperation with the EMSC. The individual subprojects address different issues such as: extension of the Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) from 140 to about 500 stations, implementing the core European Integrated Waveform Data Archive (EIDA) consisting of ODC-KNMI, GFZ, INGV and IPGP and a distributed archive of historical Data. Providing access to data gathered by acceleration networks within Europe and its surroundings and deploys Ocean Bottom Seismometers in coordination with relevant Ocean bottom projects like ESONET. Tot facilitate access to this diverse and distributed data NERIES invests a significant portion of its resources to implementing a portal for which a beta release is planned to be release in the autumn of 2008. The research project main goal is to produce products and tools facilitating data interpretation and analysis. These tools include a European reference (velocity) model, real-time hazard tools, shakemaps and lossmaps, site response determination software and tools, and automatic tools to manage and

  7. Existing and Required Modeling Capabilities for Evaluating ATM Systems and Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odoni, Amedeo R.; Bowman, Jeremy; Delahaye, Daniel; Deyst, John J.; Feron, Eric; Hansman, R. John; Khan, Kashif; Kuchar, James K.; Pujet, Nicolas; Simpson, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    ATM systems throughout the world are entering a period of major transition and change. The combination of important technological developments and of the globalization of the air transportation industry has necessitated a reexamination of some of the fundamental premises of existing Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. New ATM concepts have to be examined, concepts that may place more emphasis on: strategic traffic management; planning and control; partial decentralization of decision-making; and added reliance on the aircraft to carry out strategic ATM plans, with ground controllers confined primarily to a monitoring and supervisory role. 'Free Flight' is a case in point. In order to study, evaluate and validate such new concepts, the ATM community will have to rely heavily on models and computer-based tools/utilities, covering a wide range of issues and metrics related to safety, capacity and efficiency. The state of the art in such modeling support is adequate in some respects, but clearly deficient in others. It is the objective of this study to assist in: (1) assessing the strengths and weaknesses of existing fast-time models and tools for the study of ATM systems and concepts and (2) identifying and prioritizing the requirements for the development of additional modeling capabilities in the near future. A three-stage process has been followed to this purpose: 1. Through the analysis of two case studies involving future ATM system scenarios, as well as through expert assessment, modeling capabilities and supporting tools needed for testing and validating future ATM systems and concepts were identified and described. 2. Existing fast-time ATM models and support tools were reviewed and assessed with regard to the degree to which they offer the capabilities identified under Step 1. 3 . The findings of 1 and 2 were combined to draw conclusions about (1) the best capabilities currently existing, (2) the types of concept testing and validation that can be carried

  8. Experiments at SRT Using the NOAA CrIS/ATMS Proxy Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the talk are: (1) Assess the performance of NGAS Version-1.5.03.00 CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithm as delivered by LaRC, modified to include the MW and IR tuning coefficients and new CrIS noise model (a) Percent acceptance (b) RMS and mean differences of T(p) vs. ECMWF truth as a function of % yield (2) Compare performance of NGAS retrieval algorithm with an AIRS Science Team Version-6 like retrieval algorithm modified at Sounder Research Team (SRT) for CrIS/ATMS

  9. [Research on Zhejiang blood information network and management system].

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Xing; Xu, Yan; Meng, Zhong-Hua; Kong, Chang-Hong; Wang, Jian-Min; Jin, Zhen-Liang; Wu, Shi-Ding; Chen, Chang-Shui; Luo, Ling-Fei

    2007-02-01

    This research was aimed to develop the first level blood information centralized database and real time communication network at a province area in China. Multiple technology like local area network database separate operation, real time data concentration and distribution mechanism, allopatric backup, and optical fiber virtual private network (VPN) were used. As a result, the blood information centralized database and management system were successfully constructed, which covers all the Zhejiang province, and the real time exchange of blood data was realised. In conclusion, its implementation promote volunteer blood donation and ensure the blood safety in Zhejiang, especially strengthen the quick response to public health emergency. This project lays the first stone of centralized test and allotment among blood banks in Zhejiang, and can serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems in China. PMID:17490550

  10. Analyzing Enterprise Networks Needs: Action Research from the Mechatronics Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnazzo, Luca; Taticchi, Paolo; Bidini, Gianni; Baglieri, Enzo

    New business models and theories are developing nowadays towards collaborative environments direction, and many new tools in sustaining companies involved in these organizations are emerging. Among them, a plethora of methodologies to analyze their needs are already developed for single companies. Few academic works are available about Enterprise Networks (ENs) need analysis. This paper presents the learning from an action research (AR) in the mechatronics sector: AR has been used in order to experience the issue of evaluating network needs and therefore define, develop, and test a complete framework for network evaluation. Reflection on the story in the light of the experience and the theory is presented, as well as extrapolation to a broader context and articulation of usable knowledge.

  11. A global spacecraft control network for spacecraft autonomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    The development and implementation of the Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) space operations and control network, is reported on. This network will serve as a command and control architecture for spacecraft operations and will offer a real testbed for the application and validation of advanced autonomous spacecraft operations strategies. The proposed network will initially consist of globally distributed amateur radio ground stations at locations throughout North America and Europe. These stations will be linked via Internet to various control centers. The Stanford (CA) control center will be capable of human and computer based decision making for the coordination of user experiments, resource scheduling and fault management. The project's system architecture is described together with its proposed use as a command and control system, its value as a testbed for spacecraft autonomy research, and its current implementation.

  12. ATMS Snowfall Rate Product and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, H.; Kongoli, C.; Dong, J.; Wang, N. Y.; Ferraro, R. R.; Zavodsky, B.; Banghua Yan, B.

    2015-12-01

    A snowfall rate (SFR) algorithm has been developed for the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) aboard S-NPP and future JPSS satellites. The product is based on the NOAA/NESDIS operational Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) SFR but with several key advancements. The algorithm has benefited from continuous development to improve accuracy and snowfall detection efficiency. The enhancements also expand the applicable temperature range for the algorithm and allow significantly more snowfall to be detected than the operational SFR. Another major improvement is the drastically reduced product latency by using Direct Broadcast (DB) data. The new developments have also been implemented in the MHS SFR to ensure product consistency across satellites. Currently, there are five satellites that carry either ATMS or MHS: S-NPP, NOAA-18/-19 and Metop-A/-B. The combined satellites deliver up to ten SFR estimates a day at any location over land in mid-latitudes. The product provides much needed winter precipitation estimates for applications such as weather forecasting and hydrology. Both ATMS and MHS SFR serve as input to a global precipitation analysis product, the NOAA/NCEP CMORPH-Snow. SFR is the sole satellite-based snowfall estimates in the blended product. In addition, ATMS and MHS SFR was assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and NESDIS/Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) for its operational values in winter 2015. This is a joint effort among NASA/SPoRT, NOAA/NESDIS, University of Maryland/CICS, and the WFOs. The feedback from the assessment indicated that SFR provides useful information for snowfall forecast. It is especially valuable for areas with poor radar coverage and ground observations. The feedback also identified some limitations of the product such as inadequate detection of shallow snowfall. The algorithm developers will continue to improve product quality as well as developing SFR for new microwave sensors and over ocean in a project

  13. Online Social Networks and Smoking Cessation: A Scientific Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L; Byron, M. Justin; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health. Objective Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on online social networks and their use for smoking cessation, with implications for other health behaviors. Methods We conducted a 100-person, 2-day, multidisciplinary workshop in Washington, DC, USA. Participants worked in small groups to formulate research questions that could move the field forward. Discussions and resulting questions were synthesized by the workshop planning committee. Results We considered 34 questions in four categories (advancing theory, understanding fundamental mechanisms, intervention approaches, and evaluation) to be the most pressing. Conclusions Online social networks might facilitate smoking cessation in several ways. Identifying new theories, translating these into functional interventions, and evaluating the results will require a concerted transdisciplinary effort. This report presents a series of research questions to assist researchers, developers, and funders in the process of efficiently moving this field forward. PMID:22182518

  14. The Collaborative Action Research Network: 30 Years of Agency in Developing Educational Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the Collaborative Action Research Network's (CARN) origins and development since its foundation in 1976. The author brings the unique perspective of active involvement in CARN almost from its inception, and editorship for many years of its journal "Educational Action Research". Cultural-historical activity…

  15. 75 FR 80853 - Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... networking and information technologies (NIT) for the health, energy, transportation, and cyberinfrastructure... Technology AGENCY: National Coordination Office (NCO) for the Networking and Information Technology Research... Technology''. ACTION: Request for Information (RFI). SUMMARY: Networking and Information Technology......

  16. Multispecies networks: visualizing the psychological research of the Committee for Research in Problems of Sex.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Michael; Serykh, Darya; Green, Christopher D

    2015-03-01

    In our current moment, there is considerable interest in networks, in how people and things are connected. This essay outlines one approach that brings together insights from actor-network theory, social network analysis, and digital history to interpret past scientific activity. Multispecies network analysis (MNA) is a means of understanding the historical interactions among scientists, institutions, and preferred experimental animals. A reexamination of studies of sexual behavior funded by the Committee for Research in Problems of Sex between the 1920s and the 1940s demonstrates the applicability of MNA to clarifying the relations that sustained this area of psychology. The measures of weighted degree and betweenness can highlight which nodes (whether organisms or institutions) were particularly "central" to this network. Rats featured as the animals most widely studied during this period, but the analysis also reveals distinct institutional and disciplinary cultures where different species were favored as either surrogates for humans or representatives of more general biological groups. PMID:26027310

  17. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment. PMID:26506520

  18. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment. PMID:26506520

  19. Quantitative proteomics reveal ATM kinase-dependent exchange in DNA damage response complexes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Serah; Srivas, Rohith; Fu, Katherine Y; Hood, Brian L; Dost, Banu; Gibson, Gregory A; Watkins, Simon C; Van Houten, Bennett; Bandeira, Nuno; Conrads, Thomas P; Ideker, Trey; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2012-10-01

    ATM is a protein kinase that initiates a well-characterized signaling cascade in cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). However, the role for ATM in coordinating critical protein interactions and subsequent exchanges within DNA damage response (DDR) complexes is unknown. We combined SILAC-based tandem mass spectrometry and a subcellular fractionation protocol to interrogate the proteome of irradiated cells treated with or without the ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933. We developed an integrative network analysis to identify and prioritize proteins that were responsive to KU55933, specifically in chromatin, and that were also enriched for physical interactions with known DNA repair proteins. This analysis identified 53BP1 and annexin A1 (ANXA1) as strong candidates. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we found that the exchange of GFP-53BP1 in DDR complexes decreased with KU55933. Further, we found that ANXA1 knockdown sensitized cells to IR via a mechanism that was not potentiated by KU55933. Our study reveals a role for ATM kinase activity in the dynamic exchange of proteins in DDR complexes and identifies a role for ANXA1 in cellular radioprotection. PMID:22909323

  20. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  1. Research on secure routing algorithm in wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-03-01

    Through the research on the existing wireless sensor network (WSN) and its security technologies, this paper presents a design of the WSN-based secure routing algorithm. This design uses the existing routing algorithm as chief source, adding the security guidance strategy, introducing the location key information, to enhance the security performance of WSN routing. The improved routing algorithm makes the WSN routing achieve better anti-attack in the case of little overhead increase, therefore has high practical value.

  2. Research on the Simulation of Neural Networks and Semaphores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haibo

    In recent years, much research has been devoted to the emulation of the Turing machine; unfortunately, few have enabled the exploration of SMPs. Given the current status of decentralized algorithms, security experts obviously desire the significant unification of wide-area networks and telephony, which embodies the confusing principles of steganography. In this paper, we present new empathic communication (Bam), demonstrating that digital-to-analog converters and checksums are largely incompatible.

  3. The Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Harris, Paul; Pulley, Jill; Basford, Melissa; Grant, Jason; DuBuisson, Allison; Rothman, Russell L

    2014-01-01

    The Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network (CDRN) encompasses three large health systems: (1) Vanderbilt Health System (VU) with electronic medical records for over 2 million patients, (2) the Vanderbilt Healthcare Affiliated Network (VHAN) which currently includes over 40 hospitals, hundreds of ambulatory practices, and over 3 million patients in the Mid-South, and (3) Greenway Medical Technologies, with access to 24 million patients nationally. Initial goals of the Mid-South CDRN include: (1) expansion of our VU data network to include the VHAN and Greenway systems, (2) developing data integration/interoperability across the three systems, (3) improving our current tools for extracting clinical data, (4) optimization of tools for collection of patient-reported data, and (5) expansion of clinical decision support. By 18 months, we anticipate our CDRN will robustly support projects in comparative effectiveness research, pragmatic clinical trials, and other key research areas and have the capacity to share data and health information technology tools nationally. PMID:24821742

  4. The Mid-South clinical Data Research Network.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Harris, Paul; Pulley, Jill; Basford, Melissa; Grant, Jason; DuBuisson, Allison; Rothman, Russell L

    2014-01-01

    The Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network (CDRN) encompasses three large health systems: (1) Vanderbilt Health System (VU) with electronic medical records for over 2 million patients, (2) the Vanderbilt Healthcare Affiliated Network (VHAN) which currently includes over 40 hospitals, hundreds of ambulatory practices, and over 3 million patients in the Mid-South, and (3) Greenway Medical Technologies, with access to 24 million patients nationally. Initial goals of the Mid-South CDRN include: (1) expansion of our VU data network to include the VHAN and Greenway systems, (2) developing data integration/interoperability across the three systems, (3) improving our current tools for extracting clinical data, (4) optimization of tools for collection of patient-reported data, and (5) expansion of clinical decision support. By 18 months, we anticipate our CDRN will robustly support projects in comparative effectiveness research, pragmatic clinical trials, and other key research areas and have the capacity to share data and health information technology tools nationally. PMID:24821742

  5. ATM and KAT5 safeguard replicating chromatin against formaldehyde damage

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Atienza, Sara; Wong, Victor C.; DeLoughery, Zachary; Luczak, Michal W.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Many carcinogens damage both DNA and protein constituents of chromatin, and it is unclear how cells respond to this compound injury. We examined activation of the main DNA damage-responsive kinase ATM and formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by formaldehyde (FA) that forms histone adducts and replication-blocking DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC). We found that low FA doses caused a strong and rapid activation of ATM signaling in human cells, which was ATR-independent and restricted to S-phase. High FA doses inactivated ATM via its covalent dimerization and formation of larger crosslinks. FA-induced ATM signaling showed higher CHK2 phosphorylation but much lower phospho-KAP1 relative to DSB inducers. Replication blockage by DPC did not produce damaged forks or detectable amounts of DSB during the main wave of ATM activation, which did not require MRE11. Chromatin-monitoring KAT5 (Tip60) acetyltransferase was responsible for acetylation and activation of ATM by FA. KAT5 and ATM were equally important for triggering of intra-S-phase checkpoint and ATM signaling promoted recovery of normal human cells after low-dose FA. Our results revealed a major role of the KAT5-ATM axis in protection of replicating chromatin against damage by the endogenous carcinogen FA. PMID:26420831

  6. Structural characterization of AtmS13, a putative sugar aminotransferase involved in indolocarbazole AT2433 aminopentose biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanteri; Kim, Youngchang; Wang, Fengbin; Bigelow, Lance; Endres, Michael; Kharel, Madan K; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Bingman, Craig A; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Thorson, Jon S; Phillips, George N

    2015-08-01

    AT2433 from Actinomadura melliaura is an indolocarbazole antitumor antibiotic structurally distinguished by its unique aminodideoxypentose-containing disaccharide moiety. The corresponding sugar nucleotide-based biosynthetic pathway for this unusual sugar derives from comparative genomics where AtmS13 has been suggested as the contributing sugar aminotransferase (SAT). Determination of the AtmS13 X-ray structure at 1.50-Å resolution reveals it as a member of the aspartate aminotransferase fold type I (AAT-I). Structural comparisons of AtmS13 with homologous SATs that act upon similar substrates implicate potential active site residues that contribute to distinctions in sugar C5 (hexose vs. pentose) and/or sugar C2 (deoxy vs. hydroxyl) substrate specificity. PMID:26061967

  7. Structure and Evolution of Scientific Collaboration Networks in a Modern Research Collaboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepe, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of scientific collaboration at the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), a modern, multi-disciplinary, distributed laboratory involved in sensor network research. By use of survey research and network analysis, this dissertation examines the collaborative ecology of CENS in terms of three networks of…

  8. Enhancing research capacity of African institutions through social networking.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Ana; Ramirez-Robles, Maximo; Shousha, Amany; Bagayoko, Cheick Oumar; Perrin, Caroline; Zolfo, Maria; Cuzin, Asa; Roland, Alima; Aryeetey, Richmond; Maojo, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, participation of African researchers in top Biomedical Informatics (BMI) scientific journals and conferences has been scarce. Looking beyond these numbers, an educational goal should be to improve overall research and, therefore, to increase the number of scientists/authors able to produce and publish high quality research. In such scenario, we are carrying out various efforts to expand the capacities of various institutions located at four African countries - Egypt, Ghana, Cameroon and Mali - in the framework of a European Commission-funded project, AFRICA BUILD. This project is currently carrying out activities such as e-learning, collaborative development of informatics tools, mobility of researchers, various pilot projects, and others. Our main objective is to create a self-sustained South-South network of BMI developers. PMID:23920873

  9. Network of nanomedicine researches: impact of Iranian scientists

    PubMed Central

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Riazi, Shukuh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We may define the nanomedicine as the use of nanotechnology in the health care, disease diagnoses and treatment in order to maintain and increase the health status of a population through improve pharmacotherapy. The main objective of the current study is to analyze and visualize the co-authorship network of all papers in the field of nanomedicine published throughout 2002-2014 in journals and indexed in the Web of Science database. Methods: The Web of Science database was used to extract all papers indexed as a topic of nanomedicine through 2002-2014. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers. Results: Total number of papers extracted from the Web of Science in the field of nanomedicine was 3092 through 2002-2014. Analysis of data showed that the research activities in the field of nanomedicine increased steadily through the period of study. USA, China, and India were the most prolific countries in the field. The dominant language of publications was English. The co-authorship connection revealed a network with a density of 0.0006. Conclusion: Nanomedicine researches have markedly been increased in Iran. Ninety-five percent of Iranian papers were cooperated with multi-authors. The collaboration coefficient degree was 0.731. PMID:26929924

  10. The Southeast Asian Influenza Clinical Research Network: development and challenges for a new multilateral research endeavor.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Elizabeth S; Hayden, Frederick G; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Whitworth, Jimmy; Farrar, Jeremy

    2008-04-01

    The Southeast Asia Influenza Clinical Research Network (SEA ICRN) (www.seaclinicalresearch.org) is a recently developed multilateral, collaborative partnership that aims to advance scientific knowledge and management of human influenza through integrated clinical investigation. The partnership of hospitals and institutions in Indonesia, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Viet Nam was established in late 2005 after agreement on the general principles and mission of the initiative and after securing initial financial support. The establishment of the SEA ICRN was both a response to the re-emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in Southeast Asia in late 2003 and an acknowledgment that clinical trials on emerging infectious diseases require prepared and coordinated research capacity. The objectives of the Network also include building sustainable research capacity in the region, compliance with international standards, and prompt dissemination of information and sharing of samples. The scope of research includes diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of human influenza due to seasonal or novel viruses. The Network has overcome numerous logistical and scientific challenges but has now successfully initiated several clinical trials. The establishment of a clinical research network is a vital part of preparedness and an important element during an initial response phase to a pandemic. PMID:18295355

  11. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  12. The Role of Research in Integrated Health Care Systems: The HMO Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Thomas M; Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Tolsma, Dennis D; Greene, Sarah M

    2004-01-01

    Integrated care systems have unique advantages for conducting research. The HMO Research Network (HMORN) includes research centers associated with 13 large integrated care systems whose research focuses on improving health and health care delivery using the extraordinary platform provided by these health systems. We conducted literature reviews and surveys and interviews with directors of HMORN research centers, research investigators, and selected support staff in order to identify the characteristics of the research in HMORN centers and to present examples of how this research has affected health and health policy. The 13 HMORN member health systems deliver health care to 13 million people. HMORN research centers have access to large, defined populations, comprehensive medical information, extensive computerized data systems and to medical care delivery systems that offer extraordinary research opportunities. HMORN centers publish about 1200 scientific articles each year and received about $180 million in external research funding in 2002, most of it from NIH, CDC, and other federal sources. More than 2000 research studies are currently underway at these centers, which employ approximately 1500 persons in the research activities. HMORN research centers have had a profound impact on health policy and care. New technologies are steadily expanding the research capacities of these research groups. Increased collaboration between academic and HMO researchers would enhance the work of both. PMID:26705313

  13. The AERONET network: atmospheric aerosol research in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The AERONET network is one of the most developed ground-based networks for aerosol monitoring. Solar radiance extinction, aureole brightness and sky light polarization measurements are used by the AERONET inversion retrieval algorithm to derive a variety of aerosol particle properties and parameters that are important for estimations of aerosol influences on air quality and climate change. In 2008 the AERONET has been extended in Ukraine: in addition to Sevastopol site (operated since 2006) the sunphotometer CIMEL CE318-2 has been installed at Kyiv site. New generation of sunphotometer (CE318N) has been used widely since 2011 in various sites of Ukraine as mobile station together with portable sunphotometer Microtops II. This article presents a short description of the AERONET, its development in Ukraine and prospects for future atmospheric research.

  14. Parametric analysis of ATM solar array.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, B. K.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The paper discusses the methods used for the calculation of ATM solar array performance characteristics and provides the parametric analysis of solar panels used in SKYLAB. To predict the solar array performance under conditions other than test conditions, a mathematical model has been developed. Four computer programs have been used to convert the solar simulator test data to the parametric curves. The first performs module summations, the second determines average solar cell characteristics which will cause a mathematical model to generate a curve matching the test data, the third is a polynomial fit program which determines the polynomial equations for the solar cell characteristics versus temperature, and the fourth program uses the polynomial coefficients generated by the polynomial curve fit program to generate the parametric data.

  15. The Canadian Higher Education Research Network. A Proposal to the Secretary of State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education.

    A network to facilitate research on postsecondary education in Canada is advocated by the Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education. The network will link centers of specialization and individual researchers, and will use information technology to produce and disseminate research findings and to enhance communications. The network will…

  16. Making health policy: networks in research and policy after 1945.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    Science and policy in health and medicine have interacted in new ways in Britain since 1945. The relationship between research and policy has a history. The changing role of social medicine, the rise of health services research and "customer contractor" policies in government have been important. The relationship between research and policy has been analysed by different schools of thought. This chapter categorises them as several groups: "evidence-based", "journalism", "sociology of scientific knowledge" and "science policy studies". The chapters in the book illuminate aspects of these changing relationships. The role of chronic disease epidemiology, of new networks in public health, of media-focussed activism, and of health technology and its advocates have been more important than political interest. PMID:16212725

  17. Network structure and the role of key players in a translational cancer research network: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Frances C; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Translational research networks are a deliberate strategy to bridge the gulf between biomedical research and clinical practice through interdisciplinary collaboration, supportive funding and infrastructure. The social network approach examines how the structure of the network and players who hold important positions within it constrain or enable function. This information can be used to guide network management and optimise its operations. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of a translational cancer research network (TCRN) in Australia over its first year, identify the key players within the network and explore these players' opportunities and constraints in maximising important network collaborations. Methods and analysis This study deploys a mixed-method longitudinal design using social network analysis augmented by interviews and review of TCRN documents. The study will use network documents and interviews with governing body members to explore the broader context into which the network is embedded as well as the perceptions and expectations of members. Of particular interest are the attitudes and perceptions of clinicians compared with those of researchers. A co-authorship network will be constructed of TCRN members using journal and citation databases to assess the success of past pre-network collaborations. Two whole network social network surveys will be administered 12 months apart and parameters such as density, clustering, centrality and betweenness centrality computed and compared using UCINET and Netdraw. Key players will be identified and interviewed to understand the specific activities, barriers and enablers they face in that role. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals were obtained from the University of New South Wales, South Eastern Sydney Northern Sector Local Health Network and Calvary Health Care Sydney. Results will be discussed with members of the TCRN, submitted to relevant journals and presented as oral

  18. Multimedia Applications in Heterogeneous Internet/ATM Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lars C.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of multimedia systems focuses on interaction approaches for the quality of service (QoS) architectures developed for the Internet and for asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Highlights include interactions, videoconferencing, video on demand, a comparison of the ATM and IntServ QoS architectures, interaction models, and subordination…

  19. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the

  20. Study of co-authorship network of papers in the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences using social network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Geraei, Ehsan; Siamaki, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Co-authorship is one of the most tangible forms of research collaboration. A co-authorship network is a social network in which the authors through participation in one or more publication through an indirect path have linked to each other. The present research using the social network analysis studied co-authorship network of 681 articles published in Journal of Research in Medical Sciences (JRMS) during 2008-2012. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out with the scientometrics approach and using co-authorship network analysis of authors. The topology of the co-authorship network of 681 published articles in JRMS between 2008 and 2012 was analyzed using macro-level metrics indicators of network analysis such as density, clustering coefficient, components and mean distance. In addition, in order to evaluate the performance of each authors and countries in the network, the micro-level indicators such as degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality as well as productivity index were used. The UCINET and NetDraw softwares were used to draw and analyze the co-authorship network of the papers. Results: The assessment of the authors productivity in this journal showed that the first ranks were belonged to only five authors, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of the co-authorship of the authors in the network demonstrated that in the betweenness centrality index, three authors of them had the good position in the network. They can be considered as the network leaders able to control the flow of information in the network compared with the other members based on the shortest paths. On the other hand, the key role of the network according to the productivity and centrality indexes was belonged to Iran, Malaysia and United States of America. Conclusion: Co-authorship network of JRMS has the characteristics of a small world network. In addition, the theory of 6° separation is valid in this network was also true. PMID:24672564

  1. Knowledge brokers in a knowledge network: the case of Seniors Health Research Transfer Network knowledge brokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and reflect on the role of knowledge brokers (KBs) in the Seniors Health Research Transfer Network (SHRTN). The paper reviews the relevant literature on knowledge brokering, and then describes the evolving role of knowledge brokering in this knowledge network. Methods The description of knowledge brokering provided here is based on a developmental evaluation program and on the experiences of the authors. Data were gathered through qualitative and quantitative methods, analyzed by the evaluators, and interpreted by network members who participated in sensemaking forums. The results were fed back to the network each year in the form of formal written reports that were widely distributed to network members, as well as through presentations to the network’s members. Results The SHRTN evaluation and our experiences as evaluators and KBs suggest that a SHRTN KB facilitates processes of learning whereby people are connected with tacit or explicit knowledge sources that will help them to resolve work-related challenges. To make this happen, KBs engage in a set of relational, technical, and analytical activities that help communities of practice (CoPs) to develop and operate, facilitate exchanges among people with similar concerns and interests, and help groups and individuals to create, explore, and apply knowledge in their practice. We also suggest that the role is difficult to define, emergent, abstract, episodic, and not fully understood. Conclusions The KB role within this knowledge network has developed and matured over time. The KB adapts to the social and technical affordances of each situation, and fashions a unique and relevant process to create relationships and promote learning and change. The ability to work with teams and to develop relevant models and feasible approaches are critical KB skills. The KB is a leader who wields influence rather than power, and who is prepared to adopt whatever roles and

  2. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Li, Junyi; Li, Yi-Xue; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA) based on gene coexpression network (GCN) increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies. PMID:27597964

  3. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA) based on gene coexpression network (GCN) increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies. PMID:27597964

  4. Earth Stewardship Science: International Research Networks based in Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    The role of networking in student and early career years is critical in the development of international interdisciplinary earth system science. These networks - both peer and mentor-based - can build community, foster enthusiasm and further research applications in addition to the traditional goal of identifying and obtaining work. UNESCO has nearly 40 years of experience in building international research teams through the International Geoscience Program (IGCP) and has recently focused their attention on the status of the earth sciences in Africa. UNESCO’s Earth Science Education Initiative in Africa ran a series of regional scoping workshops around the continent in order to develop an integrated status report on the earth sciences in Africa. The results, which are globally relevant, indicate that the field is limited by the level of basic science education of incoming students and restricted laboratory facilities, but also by a lack of connectedness. This isolation relates both to the interaction between researchers within countries and around the world but also the divide between Universities and Industry and the failure of the field to communicate its relevance to the public. In a context where livelihood opportunities are the driver of study and the earth sciences provide a major source of income, practical academic ties to industry are an essential element of the attractiveness of the field to students. Actions and ideas for addressing this situation will be presented to reinforce the role of the earth sciences in improving human and environmental well-being.

  5. ATM test and integration. [Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Mitchell, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The test and checkout philosophy of the test program for the Skylab ATM module and the overall test flow including in-process, post-manufacturing, vibration, thermal vacuum, and prelaunch checkout activities are described. Capabilities and limitations of the test complex and its use of automation are discussed. Experiences with the organizational principle of using a dedicated test team for all checkout activities are reported. Material on the development of the ATM subsystems, the experimental program and the requirements of the scientific community, and the integration and verification of the complex systems/subsystems of the ATM are presented. The performance of the ATM test program in such areas as alignment, systems and subsystems, contamination control, and experiment operation is evaluated. The conclusions and recommendations resulting from the ATM test program are enumerated.

  6. Extremely high data-rate, reliable network systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Mukkamala, R.; Murray, Nicholas D.; Overstreet, C. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Significant progress was made over the year in the four focus areas of this research group: gigabit protocols, extensions of metropolitan protocols, parallel protocols, and distributed simulations. Two activities, a network management tool and the Carrier Sensed Multiple Access Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol, have developed to the point that a patent is being applied for in the next year; a tool set for distributed simulation using the language SIMSCRIPT also has commercial potential and is to be further refined. The year's results for each of these areas are summarized and next year's activities are described.

  7. Transforming networking within the ESIP Federation using ResearchBit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists increasingly need interdisciplinary teams to solve their research problems. Currently, geoscientists use Research Networking (RN) systems to connect with each other and find people of similar and dissimilar interests. As we shift to digitally mediated scholarship, we need innovative methods for scholarly communication. Formal methods for scholarly communication are undergoing vast transformation owing to the open-access movement and reproducible research. However, informal scholarly communication that takes place at professional society meetings and conferences, like AGU, has received limited research attention relying primarily on serendipitous interaction. The ResearchBit project aims to fundamentally improve informal methods of scholarly communication by leveraging the serendipitous interactions of researchers and making them more aware of co-located potential collaborators with mutual interests. This presentation will describe our preliminary hardware testing done at the Federation for Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Summer meeting this past July and the initial recommendation system design. The presentation will also cover the cultural shifts and hurdles to introducing new technology, the privacy concerns of tracking technology and how we are addressing those new issues.

  8. Experiences with TCP/IP over an ATM OC12 WAN

    SciTech Connect

    Nitzan, Rebecca L.; Tierney, Brian L.

    1999-12-23

    This paper discusses the performance testing experiences of a 622.08 Mbps OC12 link. The link will be used for large bulk data transfer, and as such, of interest are both the ATM level throughput rates and end-to-end TCP/IP throughput rates. Tests were done to evaluate the ATM switches, the IP routers, the end hosts, as well as the underlying ATM service provided by the carrier. A low level of cell loss, (resulting in <.01 % packet loss), decreased the TCP throughput rate considerably when one TCP flow was trying to use the entire OC12 bandwidth. Identifying and correcting cell loss in the network proved to be extremely difficult. TCP Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) improved performance dramatically, and the maximum throughput rate increased from 300 Mbps to 400 Mbps. The effects of TCP slow start on performance at OC12 rates are also examined, and found to be insignificant for very large file transfers (e.g., for a 10 GB file). Finally, a history of TCP performance over high-speed networks is presented.

  9. Final Report for the 10 to 100 Gigabit/Second Networking Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    WITZKE, EDWARD L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; TARMAN, THOMAS D.; DEAN, LESLIE BYRON; ROBERTSON, PERRY J.; CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.

    2001-04-01

    The next major performance plateau for high-speed, long-haul networks is at 10 Gbps. Data visualization, high performance network storage, and Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) demand these (and higher) communication rates. MPP-to-MPP distributed processing applications and MPP-to-Network File Store applications already require single conversation communication rates in the range of 10 to 100 Gbps. MPP-to-Visualization Station applications can already utilize communication rates in the 1 to 10 Gbps range. This LDRD project examined some of the building blocks necessary for developing a 10 to 100 Gbps computer network architecture. These included technology areas such as, OS Bypass, Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM), IP switching and routing, Optical Amplifiers, Inverse Multiplexing of ATM, data encryption, and data compression; standards bodies activities in the ATM Forum and the Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF); and proof-of-principle laboratory prototypes. This work has not only advanced the body of knowledge in the aforementioned areas, but has generally facilitated the rapid maturation of high-speed networking and communication technology by: (1) participating in the development of pertinent standards, and (2) by promoting informal (and formal) collaboration with industrial developers of high speed communication equipment.

  10. Practice-based research networks: the laboratories of primary care research.

    PubMed

    Lindbloom, Erik J; Ewigman, Bernard G; Hickner, John M

    2004-04-01

    Medical research has traditionally been based in academic centers, and the findings are frequently not applicable in community primary care settings. The result is a large gap between the possible and the practical in delivering high-quality primary medical care in the United States. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs), laboratories for primary care clinical research, are the appropriate vehicles for uniting the worlds of community primary care practice and clinical research. Although they have received little attention in the mainstream of clinical and health services research, PBRNs have already reported a variety of findings useful for primary care providers, and these networks have helped to identify key issues in healthcare delivery that affect important outcomes. In this report, we outline the rationale for and history of PBRNs. We describe the organization and work of several productive PBRNs, giving examples of their studies that have changed the standards of modern primary care practice. Finally, we describe a developing electronic process for identifying research questions obtained directly from primary care providers that can be used to focus the national primary care research agenda on questions of clinical relevance and importance. As electronic technologies are fully developed and tested, they will facilitate communication between clinicians and researchers, thereby improving the effectiveness and efficiency of practice-based research. PMID:15026664

  11. Pediatric collaborative networks for quality improvement and research.

    PubMed

    Lannon, Carole M; Peterson, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    -scale health system laboratories, providing the social, scientific, and technical infrastructure and data for multiple types of research. Statewide, regional, and national pediatric collaborative networks have demonstrated improvements in primary care practice as well as care for chronic pediatric diseases (eg, asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, congenital heart disease), perinatal care, and patient safety (eg, central line-associated blood stream infections, adverse medication events, surgical site infections); many have documented improved outcomes. Challenges to spreading the improvement network model exist, including the need for the identification of stable funding sources. However, these barriers can be overcome, allowing the benefits of improved care and outcomes to spread to additional clinical and safety topics and care processes for the nation's children. PMID:24268088

  12. The research of packet transmission network (PTN) based on T-MPLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong; Feng, Xiancheng

    2008-11-01

    With the successful application of DSL technology, the gradual popularization of FTTH technology, and the evolution from traditional network to NGN, the trend of IP business bearing has been formed. In the future, the optical transmission network of the entire business operations will be primarily responsible for the IP / Ethernet traffic transmission, the optimization of the characteristics of data flow in groups, and will develop in a direction of smart, integrated, broadband, efficient and reliable packet transmission technology (PTN). The PTN based on T-MPLS technology, supporting all types of business (Ethernet, IP / MPLS, FR, ATM, TDM,...), simultaneously supporting general users (wired / wireless) and commercial users in various types of business development, would become a new generation of converged networks of PTN platform. This article analyzes the crucial technologies of PTN in respects of the T-MPLS system of the framework agreement, the hierarchical structure, the network model, operational capacity, protection switching mechanism, etc, and puts forward a PTN-building program facing the entire business operations.

  13. Research and collaboration overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: a bibliometric approach toward research funding decisions

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN), which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods: Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results: A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion: IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions. PMID:24596896

  14. Changing the research landscape: the New York City Clinical Data Research Network.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Rainu; Hripcsak, George; Ascheim, Deborah D; Bloom, Toby; Campion, Thomas R; Caplan, Arthur L; Currie, Brian P; Check, Thomas; Deland, Emme Levin; Gourevitch, Marc N; Hart, Raffaella; Horowitz, Carol R; Kastenbaum, Isaac; Levin, Arthur Aaron; Low, Alexander F H; Meissner, Paul; Mirhaji, Parsa; Pincus, Harold A; Scaglione, Charles; Shelley, Donna; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2014-01-01

    The New York City Clinical Data Research Network (NYC-CDRN), funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), brings together 22 organizations including seven independent health systems to enable patient-centered clinical research, support a national network, and facilitate learning healthcare systems. The NYC-CDRN includes a robust, collaborative governance and organizational infrastructure, which takes advantage of its participants' experience, expertise, and history of collaboration. The technical design will employ an information model to document and manage the collection and transformation of clinical data, local institutional staging areas to transform and validate data, a centralized data processing facility to aggregate and share data, and use of common standards and tools. We strive to ensure that our project is patient-centered; nurtures collaboration among all stakeholders; develops scalable solutions facilitating growth and connections; chooses simple, elegant solutions wherever possible; and explores ways to streamline the administrative and regulatory approval process across sites. PMID:24821739

  15. Changing the research landscape: the New York City Clinical Data Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Rainu; Hripcsak, George; Ascheim, Deborah D; Bloom, Toby; Campion, Thomas R; Caplan, Arthur L; Currie, Brian P; Check, Thomas; Deland, Emme Levin; Gourevitch, Marc N; Hart, Raffaella; Horowitz, Carol R; Kastenbaum, Isaac; Levin, Arthur Aaron; Low, Alexander F H; Meissner, Paul; Mirhaji, Parsa; Pincus, Harold A; Scaglione, Charles; Shelley, Donna; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2014-01-01

    The New York City Clinical Data Research Network (NYC-CDRN), funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), brings together 22 organizations including seven independent health systems to enable patient-centered clinical research, support a national network, and facilitate learning healthcare systems. The NYC-CDRN includes a robust, collaborative governance and organizational infrastructure, which takes advantage of its participants’ experience, expertise, and history of collaboration. The technical design will employ an information model to document and manage the collection and transformation of clinical data, local institutional staging areas to transform and validate data, a centralized data processing facility to aggregate and share data, and use of common standards and tools. We strive to ensure that our project is patient-centered; nurtures collaboration among all stakeholders; develops scalable solutions facilitating growth and connections; chooses simple, elegant solutions wherever possible; and explores ways to streamline the administrative and regulatory approval process across sites. PMID:24821739

  16. The MAPP research network: design, patient characterization and operations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The “Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain” (MAPP) Research Network was established by the NIDDK to better understand the pathophysiology of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS), to inform future clinical trials and improve clinical care. The evolution, organization, and scientific scope of the MAPP Research Network, and the unique approach of the network’s central study and common data elements are described. Methods The primary scientific protocol for the Trans-MAPP Epidemiology/Phenotyping (EP) Study comprises a multi-site, longitudinal observational study, including bi-weekly internet-based symptom assessments, following a comprehensive in-clinic deep-phenotyping array of urological symptoms, non-urological symptoms and psychosocial factors to evaluate men and women with UCPPS. Healthy controls, matched on sex and age, as well as “positive” controls meeting the non-urologic associated syndromes (NUAS) criteria for one or more of the target conditions of Fibromyalgia (FM), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) or Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), were also evaluated. Additional, complementary studies addressing diverse hypotheses are integrated into the Trans-MAPP EP Study to provide a systemic characterization of study participants, including biomarker discovery studies of infectious agents, quantitative sensory testing, and structural and resting state neuroimaging and functional neurobiology studies. A highly novel effort to develop and assess clinically relevant animal models of UCPPS was also undertaken to allow improved translation between clinical and mechanistic studies. Recruitment into the central study occurred at six Discovery Sites in the United States, resulting in a total of 1,039 enrolled participants, exceeding the original targets. The biospecimen collection rate at baseline visits reached nearly 100%, and 279 participants underwent common neuroimaging through a standardized protocol. An extended

  17. Design and development of cell queuing, processing, and scheduling modules for the iPOINT input-buffered ATM testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Haoran

    1997-12-01

    This dissertation presents the concepts, principles, performance, and implementation of input queuing and cell-scheduling modules for the Illinois Pulsar-based Optical INTerconnect (iPOINT) input-buffered Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) testbed. Input queuing (IQ) ATM switches are well suited to meet the requirements of current and future ultra-broadband ATM networks. The IQ structure imposes minimum memory bandwidth requirements for cell buffering, tolerates bursty traffic, and utilizes memory efficiently for multicast traffic. The lack of efficient cell queuing and scheduling solutions has been a major barrier to build high-performance, scalable IQ-based ATM switches. This dissertation proposes a new Three-Dimensional Queue (3DQ) and a novel Matrix Unit Cell Scheduler (MUCS) to remove this barrier. 3DQ uses a linked-list architecture based on Synchronous Random Access Memory (SRAM) to combine the individual advantages of per-virtual-circuit (per-VC) queuing, priority queuing, and N-destination queuing. It avoids Head of Line (HOL) blocking and provides per-VC Quality of Service (QoS) enforcement mechanisms. Computer simulation results verify the QoS capabilities of 3DQ. For multicast traffic, 3DQ provides efficient usage of cell buffering memory by storing multicast cells only once. Further, the multicast mechanism of 3DQ prevents a congested destination port from blocking other less- loaded ports. The 3DQ principle has been prototyped in the Illinois Input Queue (iiQueue) module. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices, SRAM modules, and integrated on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), iiQueue can process incoming traffic at 800 Mb/s. Using faster circuit technology, the same design is expected to operate at the OC-48 rate (2.5 Gb/s). MUCS resolves the output contention by evaluating the weight index of each candidate and selecting the heaviest. It achieves near-optimal scheduling and has a very short response time. The algorithm originates from a

  18. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents. PMID:27229179

  19. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-05-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents.

  20. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents. PMID:27229179

  1. Networking among young global health researchers through an intensive training approach: a mixed methods exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Networks are increasingly regarded as essential in health research aimed at influencing practice and policies. Less research has focused on the role networking can play in researchers’ careers and its broader impacts on capacity strengthening in health research. We used the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) annual Summer Institute for New Global Health Researchers (SIs) as an opportunity to explore networking among new global health researchers. Methods A mixed-methods exploratory study was conducted among SI alumni and facilitators who had participated in at least one SI between 2004 and 2010. Alumni and facilitators completed an online short questionnaire, and a subset participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative results and CCGHR reports on SIs. Synthesis occurred through the development of a process model relevant to networking through the SIs. Results Through networking at the SIs, participants experienced decreased isolation and strengthened working relationships. Participants accessed new knowledge, opportunities, and resources through networking during the SI. Post-SI, participants reported ongoing contact and collaboration, although most participants desired more opportunities for interaction. They made suggestions for structural supports to networking among new global health researchers. Conclusions Networking at the SI contributed positively to opportunities for individuals, and contributed to the formation of a network of global health researchers. Intentional inclusion of networking in health research capacity strengthening initiatives, with supportive resources and infrastructure could create dynamic, sustainable networks accessible to global health researchers around the world. PMID:24460819

  2. Friending Adolescents on Social Networking Websites: A Feasible Research Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Libby N.; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) are increasingly used for research. This paper reports on two studies examining the feasibility of friending adolescents on SNSs for research purposes. Methods Study 1 took place on www.MySpace.com where public profiles belonging to 18-year-old adolescents received a friend request from an unknown physician. Study 2 took place on www.Facebook.com where college freshmen from two US universities, enrolled in an ongoing research study, received a friend request from a known researcher’s profile. Acceptance and retention rates of friend requests were calculated for both studies. Results Study 1: 127 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 62.2% male and 51.8% Caucasian. 49.6% accepted the friend request. After 9 months, 76% maintained the online friendship, 12.7% defriended the study profile and 11% deactivated their profile. Study 2: 338 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 56.5% female and 75.1% Caucasian. 99.7% accepted the friend request. Over 12 months, 3.3% defriended the study profile and 4.1% deactivated their profile. These actions were often temporary; the overall 12-month friendship retention rate was 96.1%. Conclusion Friending adolescents on SNSs is feasible and friending adolescents from a familiar profile may be more effective for maintaining online friendship with research participants over time. PMID:25485226

  3. Alterations of ATM and CADM1 in chromosomal 11q22.3-23.2 region are associated with the development of invasive cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mazumder Indra, Dipanjana; Mitra, Sraboni; Roy, Anup; Mondal, Ranajit Kumar; Basu, Partha Sarathi; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Chakravarty, Runu; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2011-12-01

    To understand the importance of chr11q22.3-23.2 region in the development of cervical cancer, we have studied the genetic and epigenetic alterations of the candidate genes ATM, PPP2R1B, SDHD and CADM1 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical carcinoma (CACX) samples. Our study revealed low expression and high alterations (methylation/deletion) (55-59%) of ATM and CADM1 genes along with poor patient outcome. The alterations of ATM and CADM1 are associated with the progression of tumor from CIN to Stage I/II, thus implying their role in early invasiveness. The two genes, PPP2R1B and SDHD, lying in between ATM and CADM1, have low frequency of alterations, and majority of the alterations are in CACX samples, indicating that their alterations might be associated with disease progression. Expressions (mRNA/protein) of the genes showed concordance with their molecular alterations. Significant co-alteration of ATM and CADM1 points to their synergic action for the development of CACX. Mutation is, however, a rare phenomenon for inactivation of ATM. Association between the alteration of ATM and CHEK1 and poor survival of the patients having co-alterations of ATM and CHEK1 points to the DNA damage response pathway disruption in development of CACX. Thus, our data suggest that inactivation of ATM-CHEK1-associated DNA damage response pathway and CADM1-associated signaling network might have an important role in the development of CACX. PMID:21643982

  4. Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs) Are Promising Laboratories for Conducting Dissemination and Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Heintzman, John; Gold, Rachel; Krist, Alexander; Crosson, Jay; Likumahuwa, Sonja; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation science addresses the application of research findings in varied health care settings. Despite the potential benefit of dissemination and implementation work to primary care, ideal laboratories for this science have been elusive. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have a long history of conducting research in community clinical settings, demonstrating an approach that could be used to execute multiple research projects over time in broad and varied settings. PBRNs also are uniquely structured and increasingly involved in pragmatic trials, a research design central to dissemination and implementation science. We argue that PBRNs and dissemination and implementation scientists are ideally suited to work together and that the collaboration of these 2 groups will yield great value for the future of primary care and the delivery of evidence-based health care. PMID:25381072

  5. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  6. ATM localization and gene expression in the adult mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    Leemput, Julia; Masson, Christel; Bigot, Karine; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Dansault, Anouk; Provost, Alexandra; Gadin, Stéphanie; Aoufouchi, Said; Menasche, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    Purpose High levels of metabolism and oxygen consumption in most adult murine ocular compartments, combined with exposure to light and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, are major sources of oxidative stress, causing DNA damage in ocular cells. Of all mammalian body cells, photoreceptor cells consume the largest amount of oxygen and generate the highest levels of oxidative damage. The accumulation of such damage throughout life is a major factor of aging tissues. Several multiprotein complexes have recently been identified as the major sensors and mediators involved in the maintenance of DNA integrity. The activity of these complexes initially seemed to be restricted to dividing cells, given their ultimate role in major cell cycle checkpoints. However, it was later established that they are also active in post-mitotic cells. Recent findings demonstrate that the DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for the development, maintenance, and normal functioning of the adult central nervous system. One major molecular factor in the DDR is the protein, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). It is required for the rapid induction of cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks. These cytotoxic DNA lesions may be caused by oxidative damage. To understand how ATM prevents oxidative stress and participates in the maintenance of genomic integrity and cell viability of the adult retina, we determined the ATM expression patterns and studied its localization in the adult mouse eye. Methods Atm gene expression was analyzed by RT–PCR experiments and its localization by in situ hybridization on adult mouse ocular and cerebellar tissue sections. ATM protein expression was determined by western blot analysis of proteins homogenates extracted from several mouse tissues and its localization by immunohistochemistry experiments performed on adult mouse ocular and cerebellar tissue sections. In addition, subcellular localization was realized by confocal microscopy imaging of ocular tissue

  7. The Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network Data Repository.

    PubMed

    Keator, David B; van Erp, Theo G M; Turner, Jessica A; Glover, Gary H; Mueller, Bryon A; Liu, Thomas T; Voyvodic, James T; Rasmussen, Jerod; Calhoun, Vince D; Lee, Hyo Jong; Toga, Arthur W; McEwen, Sarah; Ford, Judith M; Mathalon, Daniel H; Diaz, Michele; O'Leary, Daniel S; Jeremy Bockholt, H; Gadde, Syam; Preda, Adrian; Wible, Cynthia G; Stern, Hal S; Belger, Aysenil; McCarthy, Gregory; Ozyurt, Burak; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    The Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN) developed methods and tools for conducting multi-scanner functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Method and tool development were based on two major goals: 1) to assess the major sources of variation in fMRI studies conducted across scanners, including instrumentation, acquisition protocols, challenge tasks, and analysis methods, and 2) to provide a distributed network infrastructure and an associated federated database to host and query large, multi-site, fMRI and clinical data sets. In the process of achieving these goals the FBIRN test bed generated several multi-scanner brain imaging data sets to be shared with the wider scientific community via the BIRN Data Repository (BDR). The FBIRN Phase 1 data set consists of a traveling subject study of 5 healthy subjects, each scanned on 10 different 1.5 to 4 T scanners. The FBIRN Phase 2 and Phase 3 data sets consist of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder along with healthy comparison subjects scanned at multiple sites. In this paper, we provide concise descriptions of FBIRN's multi-scanner brain imaging data sets and details about the BIRN Data Repository instance of the Human Imaging Database (HID) used to publicly share the data. PMID:26364863

  8. The Geropathology Research Network: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Integrating Pathology Into Research on Aging.

    PubMed

    Ladiges, Warren; Ikeno, Yuji; Niedernhofer, Laura; McIndoe, Richard A; Ciol, Marcia A; Ritchey, Jerry; Liggitt, Denny

    2016-04-01

    Geropathology is the study of aging and age-related lesions and diseases in the form of whole necropsies/autopsies, surgical biopsies, histology, and molecular biomarkers. It encompasses multiple subspecialties of geriatrics, anatomic pathology, molecular pathology, clinical pathology, and gerontology. In order to increase the consistency and scope of communication in the histologic and molecular pathology assessment of tissues from preclinical and clinical aging studies, a Geropathology Research Network has been established consisting of pathologists and scientists with expertise in the comparative pathology of aging, the design of aging research studies, biostatistical methods for analysis of aging data, and bioinformatics for compiling and annotating large sets of data generated from aging studies. The network provides an environment to promote learning and exchange of scientific information and ideas for the aging research community through a series of symposia, the development of uniform ways of integrating pathology into aging studies, and the statistical analysis of pathology data. The efforts of the network are ultimately expected to lead to a refined set of sentinel biomarkers of molecular and anatomic pathology that could be incorporated into preclinical and clinical aging intervention studies to increase the relevance and productivity of these types of investigations. PMID:26243216

  9. Methylation of the ATM promoter in glioma cells alters ionizing radiation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Kanaklata; Wang, Lilin; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike; Price, Brendan D. . E-mail: brendan_price@dfci.harvard.edu

    2006-06-09

    Glioblastomas are among the malignancies most resistant to radiation therapy. In contrast, cells lacking the ATM protein are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The relationship between ATM protein expression and radiosensitivity in 3 glioma cell lines was examined. T98G cells exhibited normal levels of ATM protein, whereas U118 and U87 cells had significantly lower levels of ATM and increased (>2-fold) sensitivity to ionizing radiation compared to T98G cells. The ATM promoter was methylated in U87 cells. Demethylation by azacytidine treatment increased ATM protein levels in the U87 cells and decreased their radiosensitivity. In contrast, the ATM promoter in U118 cells was not methylated. Further, expression of exogenous ATM did not significantly alter the radiosensitivity of U118 cells. ATM expression is therefore heterogeneous in the glioma cells examined. In conclusion, methylation of the ATM promoter may account for the variable radiosensitivity and heterogeneous ATM expression in a fraction of glioma cells.

  10. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

  11. Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network: facilitating research and clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) is an international registry of individuals at risk for developing autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Its primary aims are to investigate the temporal ordering of AD pathophysiological changes that occur in asymptomatic mutation carriers and to identify those markers that herald the transition from cognitive normality to symptomatic AD. DIAN participants undergo longitudinal evaluations, including clinical and cognitive assessments and measurements of molecular and imaging AD biomarkers. This review details the unique attributes of DIAN as a model AD biomarker study and how it provides the infrastructure for innovative research projects, including clinical trials. The recent design and launch of the first anti-amyloid-beta secondary prevention trial in AD, led by the related DIAN Trials Unit, also are discussed. PMID:24131566

  12. Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network: facilitating research and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Moulder, Krista L; Snider, B Joy; Mills, Susan L; Buckles, Virginia D; Santacruz, Anna M; Bateman, Randall J; Morris, John C

    2013-01-01

    The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) is an international registry of individuals at risk for developing autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (AD). Its primary aims are to investigate the temporal ordering of AD pathophysiological changes that occur in asymptomatic mutation carriers and to identify those markers that herald the transition from cognitive normality to symptomatic AD. DIAN participants undergo longitudinal evaluations, including clinical and cognitive assessments and measurements of molecular and imaging AD biomarkers. This review details the unique attributes of DIAN as a model AD biomarker study and how it provides the infrastructure for innovative research projects, including clinical trials. The recent design and launch of the first anti-amyloid-beta secondary prevention trial in AD, led by the related DIAN Trials Unit, also are discussed. PMID:24131566

  13. Role of Internet Images in the Biomedical Informatics Research Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, Simone; Gupta, Amarnath

    2003-01-01

    The Biomedical Informatics Research Network is wide breadth project sponsored by the American National Institutes of Health (NIH) to promote the use of modern telecommunication for data exchange and collaboration in brain research. The project is attempting to buid a database and network infrastructure in which neuroscientists will post, query, and analyze raw data, processed data, and the results of the analysis. The project is divided into parts, which analyze mouse brain data and human brain data, respectively. In this phase of the project, the data are essentially anatomical, while in a future phase we foresee the introduction of functional data. One important source of raw data, both for the mouse and the human brains are magnetic resonance images (MRI), which provide dense volumetric information of the density of the brain or (in the case of functional MRI), of the brain activity. In the case of the brain mouse, these data are supplemented with images of slices of brains and other histological measure. One important technical problem that we are facing in BIRN is that of managing these volumetric data, processing them (possibly using tools available only remotely), storing the results of the analyses, and making them available to all the institutions participating in the project. This paper describes the problems posed by the BIRN project, the importance of image data in these activities, and the challenges they pose. We will describe the shared environment that we are creating, and the facilities for storing, querying, remotely processing, and sharing the image data that constitute the bulk of the brain data that scientists are producing.

  14. A Space Operations Network Alternative: Using the Globally Connected Research and Education Networks for Space-based Science Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    Earth based networking in support of various space agency projects has been based on leased service/circuits which has a high associated cost. This cost is almost always taken from the science side resulting in less science. This is a proposal to use Research and Education Networks (RENs) worldwide to support space flight operations in general and space-based science operations in particular. The RENs were developed to support scientific and educational endeavors. They do not provide support for general Internet traffic. The connectivity and performance of the research and education networks is superb. The connectivity at Layer 3 (IP) virtually encompasses the globe. Most third world countries and all developed countries have their own research and education networks, which are connected globally. Performance of the RENs especially in the developed countries is exceptional. Bandwidth capacity currently exists and future expansion promises that this capacity will continue. REN performance statistics has always exceeded minimum requirements for spaceflight support. Research and Education networks are more loosely managed than a corporate network but are highly managed when compared to the commodity Internet. Management of RENs on an international level is accomplished by the International Network Operations Center at Indiana University at Indianapolis. With few exceptions, each regional and national REN has its own network ops center. The acceptable use policies (AUP), although differing by country, allows any scientific program or project the use of their networks. Once in compliance with the first RENs AUP, all others will accept that specific traffic including regional and transoceanic networks. RENs can support spaceflight related scientific programs and projects. Getting the science to the researcher is obviously key to any scientific project. RENs provide a pathway to virtually any college or university in the world, as well as many governmental institutes and

  15. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network: a history of multicenter collaboration in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tzimenatos, Leah; Kim, Emily; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we review the history and progress of a large multicenter research network pertaining to emergency medical services for children. We describe the history, organization, infrastructure, and research agenda of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network and highlight some of the important accomplishments since its inception. We also describe the network's strategy to grow its research portfolio, train new investigators, and study how to translate new evidence into practice. This strategy ensures not only the sustainability of the network in the future but the growth of research in emergency medical services for children in general. PMID:25560626

  16. The core spliceosome as target and effector of non-canonical ATM signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tresini, Maria; Warmerdam, Daniël O.; Kolovos, Petros; Snijder, Loes; Vrouwe, Mischa G.; Demmers, Jeroen A.A.; van IJcken, Wilfred F.J.; Grosveld, Frank G.; Medema, René H.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Mullenders, Leon H.F.; Vermeulen, Wim; Marteijn, Jurgen A.

    2015-01-01

    In response to DNA damage tissue homoeostasis is ensured by protein networks promoting DNA repair, cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. DNA damage response signaling pathways coordinate these processes, partly by propagating gene expression-modulating signals. DNA damage influences not only abundance of mRNAs, but also their coding information through alternative splicing. Here we show that transcription-blocking DNA lesions promote chromatin displacement of late-stage spliceosomes and initiate a positive feedback loop centered on the signaling kinase ATM. We propose that initial spliceosome displacement and subsequent R-loop formation is triggered by pausing of RNA polymerase at DNA lesions. In turn, R-loops activate ATM which signals to further impede spliceosome organization and augment UV-triggered alternative splicing at genome-wide level. Our findings define the R-loop-dependent ATM activation by transcription-blocking lesions as an important event in the DNA damage response of non-replicating cells and highlight a key role for spliceosome displacement in this process. PMID:26106861

  17. The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) concept

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeneman, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) has been designed to address the need for global monitoring of the status and location of proliferation-sensitive items. Conceived to utilize the proposed Global Verification and Location System (GVLS) satellite link, ATMS could use the existing International Maritime Satellite commercial communication system until GVLS is operational. The ATMS concept uses sensor packs to monitor items and environmental conditions, collects a variety of events data through a sensor processing unit, and transmits the data to a satellite, which then sends data to ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms will be used to secure the data. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the safety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. This paper also discusses a possible proof-of-concept system demonstration.

  18. Research and Simulation on Application of the Mobile IP Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yibing, Deng; Wei, Hu; Minghui, Li; Feng, Gao; Junyi, Shen

    The paper analysed the mobile node, home agent, and foreign agent of mobile IP network firstly, some key technique, such as mobile IP network basical principle, protocol work principle, agent discovery, registration, and IP packet transmission, were discussed. Then a network simulation model was designed, validating the characteristic of mobile IP network, and some advantages, which were brought by mobile network, were testified. Finally, the conclusion is gained: mobile IP network could realize the expectation of consumer that they can communicate with others anywhere.

  19. The Deep Space Network: An instrument for radio astronomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Levy, G. S.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Walken, P. R.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network operates and maintains the Earth-based two-way communications link for unmanned spacecraft exploring the solar system. It is NASA's policy to also make the Network's facilities available for radio astronomy observations. The Network's microwave communication systems and facilities are being continually upgraded. This revised document, first published in 1982, describes the Network's current radio astronomy capabilities and future capabilities that will be made available by the ongoing Network upgrade. The Bibliography, which includes published papers and articles resulting from radio astronomy observations conducted with Network facilities, has been updated to include papers to May 1987.

  20. Lambdastation: a forwarding and admission control service to interface production network facilities with advanced research network paths

    SciTech Connect

    DeMar, Philip; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a great deal of research effort and funding put into the deployment of optical-based, advanced technology wide-area networks. Fermilab and CalTech have initiated a project to enable our production network facilities to exploit these advanced research network facilities. Our objective is to forward designated data transfers across these advanced wide area networks on a per-flow basis, making use our capacious production-use storage systems connected to the local campus network. To accomplish this, we intend to develop a dynamically provisioned forwarding service that would provide alternate path forwarding onto available wide area advanced research networks. The service would dynamically reconfigure forwarding of specific flows within our local production-use network facilities, as well as provide an interface to enable applications to utilize the service. We call this service LambdaStation. If one envisions wide area optical network paths as high bandwidth data railways, then LambdaStation would functionally be the railroad terminal that regulates which flows at the local site get directed onto the high bandwidth data railways. LambdaStation is a DOE-funded SciDac research project in its very early stage of development.

  1. Proposed Development of NASA Glenn Research Center's Aeronautical Network Research Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thanh C.; Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wargo, Chris A.; Kocin, Michael J.; Garcia, Manuel L.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate knowledge and understanding of data link traffic loads that will have an impact on the underlying communications infrastructure within the National Airspace System (NAS) is of paramount importance for planning, development and fielding of future airborne and ground-based communications systems. Attempting to better understand this impact, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), through its contractor Computer Networks & Software, Inc. (CNS, Inc.), has developed an emulation and test facility known as the Virtual Aircraft and Controller (VAC) to study data link interactions and the capacity of the NAS to support Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) traffic. The drawback of the current VAC test bed is that it does not allow the test personnel and researchers to present a real world RF environment to a complex airborne or ground system. Fortunately, the United States Air Force and Navy Avionics Test Commands, through its contractor ViaSat, Inc., have developed the Joint Communications Simulator (JCS) to provide communications band test and simulation capability for the RF spectrum through 18 GHz including Communications, Navigation, and Identification and Surveillance functions. In this paper, we are proposing the development of a new and robust test bed that will leverage on the existing NASA GRC's VAC and the Air Force and Navy Commands JCS systems capabilities and functionalities. The proposed NASA Glenn Research Center's Aeronautical Networks Research Simulator (ANRS) will combine current Air Traffic Control applications and physical RF stimulation into an integrated system capable of emulating data transmission behaviors including propagation delay, physical protocol delay, transmission failure and channel interference. The ANRS will provide a simulation/stimulation tool and test bed environment that allow the researcher to predict the performance of various aeronautical network protocol standards and their associated waveforms under varying

  2. [Network of researchers on the health aspects of reproduction].

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    A symposium held 3-5 May 1990 commemorated the anniversary of the "Network" by presentations on the health aspects of reproduction in Africa. Prof. Sambra Diarra of the Ivory Coast presented a paper on "Health of Reproduction in Africa, Bi-Dimensional Problems: Biomedical and Social." He stressed the need to emphasize both maternal (MM) and infant mortality (IM) in Africa, where MM rates are 640/100,000 and IMR are 130/1000, because they remain so high. Prof. Fadel Diadhiou of Senegal followed with a paper on "Operations Research on Women's Reproductive Health in Africa." The major themes were that problems in reproductive health have resulted because of the fragmentation between the ecosystem and development and the lack of research is due to the isolation of institutions that lack human and material resources. The 3rd presentation by Prof. Mouhamadou Fall of Senegal on "The Health of Children and the Perspectives for Senegal," focused on the increasing infant and child mortality rates in Senegal (238/1000 in 1981) due to the combination of factors caused by the mother-child syndrome. These are: 1) congenital malformations caused by incest, young or advanced age of mothers; 2) diseases of the mother that cause fetal mortality: diabetes, arterial hypertension, eclampsia; 3) lack of breastfeeding and illiteracy of mothers; 4) public health diseases such as measles, malaria, diarrhea; 5) streptococcic infections and their complications such as anemia and tuberculosis. The last presentation made by Prof. Eusebe Alihonou from Benin on the "Perspectives and Priorities of Reproductive Health in Africa," concluded that the research priorities in Africa should be on health systems that lower utilization rates of services and resources and on epidemiological studies that identify health problems and analyze the risk factors. The Symposium concluded that the research priorities should be: maternal morbidity and mortality; adolescents and reproduction and the morbidity and

  3. Tropical Cyclone Warm Core Structure Retrieved from ATMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B.; Zhu, T.; Weng, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board Suomi NPP was successfully launched on October 28, 2011. ATMS consists of a microwave radiometer that measures microwave radiances at 22 channels from 23.8 GHz to 183.3 GHz. Combining the capabilities of current Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), ATMS provides sounding observations with improved sampling and coverage for retrieving atmospheric vertical temperature and moisture profiles. A new algorithm is developed to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles for tropical cyclone with ATMS data. The cross-track asymmetric pattern is investigated for ATMS three window channels. It is found that the asymmetric biases are close to the simulations when the polarization alignment angles are set between 91o and 92o. The algorithm is applied for Tropical Cyclone Giovanna case study and compared with the retrievals from NOAA-15 AMSU-A observation. ATMS retrievals clearly depict the cold temperature anomalies in TC spiral rain bands and the storm warm core. More case study results will be provided at the conference.

  4. ATM controls meiotic double-strand-break formation.

    PubMed

    Lange, Julian; Pan, Jing; Cole, Francesca; Thelen, Michael P; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2011-11-10

    In many organisms, developmentally programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) formed by the SPO11 transesterase initiate meiotic recombination, which promotes pairing and segregation of homologous chromosomes. Because every chromosome must receive a minimum number of DSBs, attention has focused on factors that support DSB formation. However, improperly repaired DSBs can cause meiotic arrest or mutation; thus, having too many DSBs is probably as deleterious as having too few. Only a small fraction of SPO11 protein ever makes a DSB in yeast or mouse and SPO11 and its accessory factors remain abundant long after most DSB formation ceases, implying the existence of mechanisms that restrain SPO11 activity to limit DSB numbers. Here we report that the number of meiotic DSBs in mouse is controlled by ATM, a kinase activated by DNA damage to trigger checkpoint signalling and promote DSB repair. Levels of SPO11-oligonucleotide complexes, by-products of meiotic DSB formation, are elevated at least tenfold in spermatocytes lacking ATM. Moreover, Atm mutation renders SPO11-oligonucleotide levels sensitive to genetic manipulations that modulate SPO11 protein levels. We propose that ATM restrains SPO11 via a negative feedback loop in which kinase activation by DSBs suppresses further DSB formation. Our findings explain previously puzzling phenotypes of Atm-null mice and provide a molecular basis for the gonadal dysgenesis observed in ataxia telangiectasia, the human syndrome caused by ATM deficiency. PMID:22002603

  5. GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas-Perea, V.; Balzter, H.

    2012-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: -Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). -Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centers and market leaders in the private sector. -Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. The training program through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics (each carried out by an Early Stage Researchers based in one of the partner organization) divided in 5 main areas: Forest monitoring: Global biomass information systems Forest Monitoring of the Congo Basin using Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR) Multi-concept Earth Observation Capabilities for Biomass Mapping and Change Detection: Synergy of Multi-temporal and Multi-frequency Interferometric Radar and Optical Satellite Data Land cover and change: Multi-scale Remote Sensing Synergy for Land Process Studies: from field Spectrometry to Airborne Hyperspectral and

  6. Risk and ageing populations: practice development research through an international research network.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Charlotte L

    2006-09-01

    Background.  Risk theories derive from a range of disciplines, with nursing traditionally concentrating on scientific medical perspectives. However, for older people, risk perception and management is filled with complexity and paradox, and the threat of focusing on physical safety only to the detriment of the well-being of the older person. Method.  An international collaborative research network on risk in ageing populations has been developed, with 22 members in six countries (Britain, USA, India, South Africa, Australia and Northern Ireland). The network supports several independent projects, many of which have developed as a result of the network. An annual workshop for members has provided the opportunity to share and synthesize methodological experiences and to identify a developing model of risk for older people. Findings.  The developing model highlights the importance for older people of engaging with risk in a positive way, and describes patterns of risk-philic and risk-phobic activity. The inter-relationship of the individual older person with their community, with practitioners and with society is specific to the context of different countries. Conclusion.  Socio-critical practice development research can be a vehicle for advancing an understanding of risk theory for older people. Risk underpins concepts of choice and capacity to execute decisions. It is influenced by society, policy, health and social care services, and has a profound impact on the experiences of older people. PMID:20925746

  7. Design and Evaluation of a Widget-Based Dashboard for Awareness Support in Research Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Mletzko, Christian; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe the rationale, design and evaluation of a widget-based dashboard to support scholars' awareness of their Research Networks. We introduce the concept of a Research Network and discuss Personal Research Environments that are built of as a development parallel to Personal Learning Environments. Based on the results…

  8. The National Research and Education Network (NREN): Promise of New Information Environments. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Ann P.

    This digest describes proposed legislation for the implementation of the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Issues and implications for teachers, students, researchers, and librarians are suggested and the emergence of the electronic network as a general communication and research tool is described. Developments in electronic…

  9. Clinical Research Careers: Reports from a NHLBI Pediatric Heart Network Clinical Research Skills Development Conference

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wyman W.; Richmond, Marc; Li, Jennifer S.; Saul, J. Philip; Mital, Seema; Colan, Steven D.; Newburger, Jane W.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; McCrindle, Brain W.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Marino, Bradley S.; Williams, Ismee A.; Pearson, Gail D.; Evans, Frank; Scott, Jane D.; Cohen, Meryl S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Wyman W. Lai, MD, MPH, and Victoria L. Vetter, MD, MPH. The Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded under the U.S. National Institutes of Health-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH–NHLBI), includes two Clinical Research Skills Development (CRSD) Cores, which were awarded to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and to the Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York–Presbyterian. To provide information on how to develop a clinical research career to a larger number of potential young investigators in pediatric cardiology, the directors of these two CRSD Cores jointly organized a one-day seminar for fellows and junior faculty from all of the PHN Core sites. The participants included faculty members from the PHN and the NHLBI. The day-long seminar was held on April 29, 2009, at the NHLBI site, immediately preceding the PHN Steering Committee meeting in Bethesda, MD. Methods The goals of the seminar were 1) to provide fellows and early investigators with basic skills in clinical research 2) to provide a forum for discussion of important research career choices 3) to introduce attendees to each other and to established clinical researchers in pediatric cardiology, and 4) to publish a commentary on the future of clinical research in pediatric cardiology. Results The following chapters are compilations of the talks given at the 2009 PHN Clinical Research Skills Development Seminar, published to share the information provided with a broader audience of those interested in learning how to develop a clinical research career in pediatric cardiology. The discussions of types of clinical research, research skills, career development strategies, funding, and career management are applicable to research careers in other areas of clinical medicine as well. Conclusions The aim of this compilation is to stimulate those who might be interested in the research career options available to investigators. PMID:21167335

  10. EHRA research network surveys: 6 years of EP wires activity.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nikolaos; Estner, Heidi; Hernandez-Madrid, Antonio; Hocini, Meleze; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Pison, Laurent; Potpara, Tatjana; Proclemer, Alessandro; Sciaraffia, Elena; Todd, Derick; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-11-01

    Clinical practice should follow guidelines and recommendations mainly based on the results of controlled trials, which are often conducted in selected populations and special conditions, whereas clinical practice may be influenced by factors different from controlled scientific studies. Hence, the real-world setting is better assessed by the observational registries enrolling patients for longer periods of time. However, this may be difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. In 2009, the Scientific Initiatives Committee of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) has instigated a series of surveys covering the controversial issues in clinical electrophysiology (EP). With this in mind, an EHRA EP research network has been created, which included EP centres in Europe among which the surveys on 'hot topic' were circulated. This review summarizes the overall experience conducting EP wires over the past 6 years, categorizing and assessing the topics regarding clinical EP, and evaluating the acceptance and feedback from the responding centres, in order to improve participation in the surveys and better address the research needs and aspirations of the European EP community. PMID:26589904

  11. Research on Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Interaction Detection from Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lingtao; Liu, Guixia; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zhihui; Han, Liang; Yan, Lun

    2015-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) found in Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) mainly influence the susceptibility of complex diseases, but they still could not comprehensively explain the relationships between mutations and diseases. Interactions between SNPs are considered so important for deeply understanding of those relationships that several strategies have been proposed to explore such interactions. However, part of those methods perform poorly when marginal effects of disease loci are weak or absent, others may lack of considering high-order SNPs interactions, few methods have achieved the requirements in both performance and accuracy. Considering the above reasons, not only low-order, but also high-order SNP interactions as well as main-effect SNPs, should be taken into account in detection methods under an acceptable computational complexity. In this paper, a new pairwise (or low-order) interaction detection method IG (Interaction Gain) is introduced, in which disease models are not required and parallel computing is utilized. Furthermore, high-order SNP interactions were proposed to be detected by finding closely connected function modules of the network constructed from IG detection results. Tested by a wide range of simulated datasets and four WTCCC real datasets, the proposed methods accurately detected both low-order and high-order SNP interactions as well as disease-associated main-effect SNPS and it surpasses all competitors in performances. The research will advance complex diseases research by providing more reliable SNP interactions. PMID:25763929

  12. Research on single nucleotide polymorphisms interaction detection from network perspective.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingtao; Liu, Guixia; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zhihui; Han, Liang; Yan, Lun

    2015-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) found in Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) mainly influence the susceptibility of complex diseases, but they still could not comprehensively explain the relationships between mutations and diseases. Interactions between SNPs are considered so important for deeply understanding of those relationships that several strategies have been proposed to explore such interactions. However, part of those methods perform poorly when marginal effects of disease loci are weak or absent, others may lack of considering high-order SNPs interactions, few methods have achieved the requirements in both performance and accuracy. Considering the above reasons, not only low-order, but also high-order SNP interactions as well as main-effect SNPs, should be taken into account in detection methods under an acceptable computational complexity. In this paper, a new pairwise (or low-order) interaction detection method IG (Interaction Gain) is introduced, in which disease models are not required and parallel computing is utilized. Furthermore, high-order SNP interactions were proposed to be detected by finding closely connected function modules of the network constructed from IG detection results. Tested by a wide range of simulated datasets and four WTCCC real datasets, the proposed methods accurately detected both low-order and high-order SNP interactions as well as disease-associated main-effect SNPS and it surpasses all competitors in performances. The research will advance complex diseases research by providing more reliable SNP interactions. PMID:25763929

  13. Research in high speed fiber optics local area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobagi, F. A.

    1986-02-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: the network medium and its topology, the medium access control, and the network interface. Considerable progress was already made in the first two areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given.

  14. Co-authorship network analysis in health research: method and potential use.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Bruna de Paula Fonseca E; Sampaio, Ricardo Barros; Fonseca, Marcus Vinicius de Araújo; Zicker, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Scientific collaboration networks are a hallmark of contemporary academic research. Researchers are no longer independent players, but members of teams that bring together complementary skills and multidisciplinary approaches around common goals. Social network analysis and co-authorship networks are increasingly used as powerful tools to assess collaboration trends and to identify leading scientists and organizations. The analysis reveals the social structure of the networks by identifying actors and their connections. This article reviews the method and potential applications of co-authorship network analysis in health. The basic steps for conducting co-authorship studies in health research are described and common network metrics are presented. The application of the method is exemplified by an overview of the global research network for Chikungunya virus vaccines. PMID:27138279

  15. Measuring the Impact of Practice-based Research Networks on Member Dentists in the Collaboration on Networked Dental and Oral Health Research, CONDOR

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Ruth; Leroux, Brian; Lindblad, Anne; Williams, O. Dale; Lehmann, Maryann; Rindal, D. Brad; Botello-Harbaum, Maria; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gillette, Jane; Bozeman, MT; Demko, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research funded three practice-based research networks (PBRNs), NW-PRECEDENT, PEARL and DPBRN to conduct studies relevant to practicing general dentists. These PBRNs collaborated to develop a questionnaire to assess the impact of network participation on changes in practice patterns. This report presents results from the initial administration of the questionnaire. Methods Questionnaires were administered to network dentists and a non-network reference group. Practice patterns including caries diagnosis and treatment, pulp cap materials, third molar extraction, dentin hypersensitivity treatments and endodontic treatment and restoration were assessed by network, years in practice, and level of network participation.Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated. Results 950 practitioners completed the questionnaire. Test-retest reliability was good-excellent (kappa>0.4) for most questions. Significant differences in responses by network were not observed. The use of caries risk assessment forms differed by both network participation (p<0.001) and years since dental degree (p=0.026). Recent dental graduates are more likely to recommend third molar removal for preventive reasons (p=0.003). Conclusions Practitioners in the CONDOR research networks are similar to their US colleagues. As a group, however, these practitioners show a more evidence-based approach to their practice. Dental PBRNs have the potential to improve the translation of evidence into daily practice. Designing methods to assess practice change and the associated factors is essential to addressing this important issue. PMID:23562351

  16. GIONET (GMES Initial Operations Network for Earth Observation Research Training)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, V.; Balzter, H.

    2013-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. Copernicus (previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is a joint undertaking of the European Space Agency and the European Commission. It develops fully operational Earth Observation monitoring services for a community of end users from the public and private sector. The first services that are considered fully operational are the land monitoring and emergency monitoring core services. In GIONET, 14 early stage researchers are being trained at PhD level in understanding the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers are based in industry and universities across Europe, as well as receiving the best technical training and scientific education. The training programme through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics. Each topic is carried out by an Early Stage Researcher based in one of the partner organisations and is expected to lead to a PhD degree. The 14 topics are grouped in 5 research themes: Forest monitoring Land cover and change Coastal zone and freshwater monitoring Geohazards and emergency response Climate adaptation and emergency response The methods developed and used in GIONET are as diverse as its research topics. GIONET has already held two summer schools; one at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany), on 'New operational radar satellite applications: Introduction to SAR, Interferometry and Polarimetry for Land Surface Mapping'. The 2nd summer school took place last September at the University of Leicester (UK )on 'Remote sensing of land cover and forest in GMES'. The next Summer School in September 2013

  17. [Pediatric research in an office-setting network--a new dimension in pediatric research in Israel].

    PubMed

    Grossman, Z; Kahan, E; Gross, S; Ashkenazi, S; Shalit, I

    1999-06-15

    Pediatric care in the community is gradually replacing traditional care in hospitals. Despite that, research activity in the community setting is minimal due to objective difficulties. These are mainly constraints of time, office work and lack of research-supporting logistics. In the past decade, throughout the world, primary physicians interested in research have grouped together and formed research networks. The aim of such networks is to support and promote research in the community. An Israel Pediatric Research in Office-Setting network (IPROS) was established 2 years ago by the Israel Ambulatory Pediatric Association (IAPA). Today, there are over 140 pediatricians listed in IPROS, representing the heterogeneous composition of pediatricians in Israel. The network's policy is defined by a joint steering committee. The committee is composed of IAPA representatives, senior network members and Schneider Hospital senior investigators. The research subjects are diverse, and represent common practical issues. Effective intra-net communication is vital to the existence of the network, and is accomplished by 3 modalities: 1) semiannual updates by mail, 2) e-mail, using an electronic mailing list to facilitate connection between members, 3) semi-annual meetings. Research budgets are derived from public sources like the Ministry of Health and IAPA, and private sources such as pharmaceutical companies. The administration of the network is supported by Schneider Children's Medical Center, and financed by IAPA. PMID:10955149

  18. When the guardian becomes the enemy: Targeting ATM in PTEN-deficient cancers

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Nuala; Walker, Steven M; Kennedy, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important signaling molecule in the DNA damage response and inhibitors of ATM are under clinical development. We identified a synthetic lethal interaction between ATM inhibition and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss that was the result of increased oxidative stress. Inhibition of ATM therefore represents a novel strategy to target PTEN-associated cancers. PMID:27308567

  19. When the guardian becomes the enemy: Targeting ATM in PTEN-deficient cancers.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Nuala; Walker, Steven M; Kennedy, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important signaling molecule in the DNA damage response and inhibitors of ATM are under clinical development. We identified a synthetic lethal interaction between ATM inhibition and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss that was the result of increased oxidative stress. Inhibition of ATM therefore represents a novel strategy to target PTEN-associated cancers. PMID:27308567

  20. Electronic Data Collection Options for Practice-Based Research Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Wilson D.; Staton, Elizabeth W.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE We wanted to describe the potential benefits and problems associated with selected electronic methods of collecting data within practice-based research networks (PBRNs). METHODS We considered a literature review, discussions with PBRN researchers, industry information, and personal experience. This article presents examples of selected PBRNs’ use of electronic data collection. RESULTS Collecting research data in the geographically dispersed PBRN environment requires considerable coordination to ensure completeness, accuracy, and timely transmission of the data, as well as a limited burden on the participants. Electronic data collection, particularly at the point of care, offers some potential solutions. Electronic systems allow use of transparent decision algorithms and improved data entry and data integrity. These systems may improve data transfer to the central office as well as tracking systems for monitoring study progress. PBRNs have available to them a wide variety of electronic data collection options, including notebook computers, tablet PCs, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and browser-based systems that operate independent of or over the Internet. Tablet PCs appear particularly advantageous for direct patient data collection in an office environment. PDAs work well for collecting defined data elements at the point of care. Internet-based systems work well for data collection that can be completed after the patient visit, as most primary care offices do not support Internet connectivity in examination rooms. CONCLUSIONS When planning to collect data electronically, it is important to match the electronic data collection method to the study design. Focusing an inappropriate electronic data collection method onto users can interfere with accurate data gathering and may also anger PBRN members. PMID:15928215

  1. An Analysis for the Use of Research and Education Networks and Commercial Network Vendors in Support of Space Based Mission Critical and Non-Critical Networking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, and in the past, dedicated communication circuits and "network services" with very stringent performance requirements are being used to support manned and unmanned mission critical ground operations at GSFC, JSC, MSFC, KSC and other NASA facilities. Because of the evolution of network technology, it is time to investigate using other approaches to providing mission services for space ground operations. The current NASA approach is not in keeping with the evolution of network technologies. In the past decade various research and education networks dedicated to scientific and educational endeavors have emerged, as well as commercial networking providers, that employ advanced networking technologies. These technologies have significantly changed networking in recent years. Significant advances in network routing techniques, various topologies and equipment have made commercial networks very stable and virtually error free. Advances in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing will provide tremendous amounts of bandwidth for the future. The question is: Do these networks, which are controlled and managed centrally, provide a level of service that equals the stringent NASA performance requirements. If they do, what are the implication(s) of using them for critical space based ground operations as they are, without adding high cost contractual performance requirements? A second question is the feasibility of applying the emerging grid technology in space operations. Is it feasible to develop a Space Operations Grid and/or a Space Science Grid? Since these network's connectivity is substantial, both nationally and internationally, development of these sorts of grids may be feasible. The concept of research and education networks has evolved to the international community as well. Currently there are international RENs connecting the US in Chicago to and from Europe, South America, Asia and the Pacific rim, Russia and Canada. And most countries in these areas have their

  2. Patient Informed Governance of Distributed Research Networks: Results and Discussion from Six Patient Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Laura A.; Browe, Dennis K.; Logan, Holly C.; Kim, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients’ views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes. PMID:24551383

  3. Mapping the Field of Educational Administration Research: A Journal Citation Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yinying; Bowers, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to uncover how knowledge is exchanged and disseminated in the educational administration research literature through the journal citation network. Design/ Methodology/Approach: Drawing upon social network theory and citation network studies in other disciplines, the authors constructed an educational…

  4. [AFNET. A translational research network develops into an academic research organization].

    PubMed

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Goette, Andreas; Näbauer, Michael; Schotten, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts" (Aristotle).Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and affects 1-2 % of the population in developed countries, especially the elderly. We expect that the prevalence of AF will double in the next few decades. The last decades have seen important improvements in the management of atrial fibrillation, but many questions remain regarding the optimal diagnosis and management of the condition. The German Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET) was one of three cardiovascular competence networks in medicine funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research between 2003-2014. AFNET has contributed to the understanding of atrial fibrillation, and AFNET-led studies have led to improved clinical practices and practice guidelines in Germany and in Europe. This work has been expanded and is continuing in the AFNET association (AFNET e. V.). The AFNET association, founded in 2010 and continuing to this day, has developed into a small but fully formed academic research organisation that conducts investigator-initiated clinical trials as the responsible sponsor in Germany, Europe, and beyond. The AFNET association currently cooperates with EHRA (The European Heart Rhythm Association), ESC (The European Society of Cardiology) and DZHK (The German Centre for Cardiovascular Research) and receives funding from the European Union to generate evidence that can in the future lead to better prevention and management of AF. PMID:26979716

  5. Paediatric Obesity Research in Early Childhood and the Primary Care Setting: The TARGet Kids! Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Morinis, Julia; Maguire, Jonathon; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian W.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Birken, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada—TARGet Kids!—to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:22690197

  6. 40 years of biannual family medicine research meetings – The European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To document family medicine research in the 25 EGPRN member countries in 2010. Design Semi-structured survey with open-ended questions. Setting Academic family medicine in 23 European countries, Israel, and Turkey. Subjects 25 EGPRN national representatives. Main outcome measures Demographics of the general population and family medicine. Assessments, opinions, and suggestions. Results EGPRN has represented family medicine for almost half a billion people and > 300 000 general practitioners (GPs). Turkey had the largest number of family medicine departments and highest density of GPs, 2.1/1000 people, Belgium had 1.7, Austria 1.6, and France 1.5. Lowest GP density was reported from Israel 0.17, Greece 0.18, and Slovenia 0.4 GPs per 1000 people. Family medicine research networks were reported by 22 of 25 and undergraduate family medicine research education in 20 of the 25 member countries, and in 10 countries students were required to do research projects. Postgraduate family medicine research was reported by 18 of the member countries. Open-ended responses showed that EGPRN meetings promoted stimulating and interesting research questions such as comparative studies of chronic pain management, sleep disorders, elderly care, healthy lifestyle promotion, mental health, clinical competence, and appropriateness of specialist referrals. Many respondents reported a lack of interest in family medicine research related to poor incentives and low family medicine status in general and among medical students in particular. It was suggested that EGPRN exert political lobbying for family medicine research. Conclusion Since 1974, EGPRN organizes biannual conferences that unite and promote primary care practice, clinical research and academic family medicine in 25 member countries. PMID:24191874

  7. Research of neural network application in methane gas spectrum sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng-ran; Zhang, Haiqing; Wu, Hongwei; Yu, Gang

    2010-10-01

    Laser spectroscopy combined with neural network approach is a new method of monitoring coal mine gas. This research analyses of gas concentration and predicts the process of modeling using BP neural network finds changes law of concentration, gives the various parameters settings of neural network. Experimental results show that, BP neural network for early warning of gas concentration is feasible. The study meets an online, real-time, fast agreement of China's Coal Mine Gas monitoring systems.

  8. ICOS Sweden - a national infrastructure network for greenhouse gas research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroth, Anders; Heliasz, Michal; Klemedtsson, Leif; Friborg, Thomas; Nilsson, Mats; Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell; Rutgersson, Anna; Stiegler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    ICOS Sweden operates a measurement network consisting of seven field stations representing major Swedish ecosystems (forests, wetlands, crop sites and marine) and climatic conditions. Three sites also host atmospheric measurements in high towers. In addition to ICOS activities, the stations are open to all researchers wishing to perform complementary studies. The ICOS Sweden ecosystem and atmospheric stations are all equipped according to the ICOS "class 1" criteria, and will be fully operational in beginning of 2015. All ICOS Sweden field stations are equipped with mains power, internet, computers and staff meaning that many other projects, both long-term and short-term, can be linked to them - for example, in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, biodiversity, land and soil studies etc. ICOS Sweden is comprised of the following stations; Abisko-Stordalen (subarctic mire), Degerö (boreal mire), Svartberget (boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Norunda (hemi boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Lanna (cropland), Östergarnsholm (marine) and Hyltemossa (southern boreal spruce + atmospheric observations).

  9. The Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network Neuropathologic Examination Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Pinar, Halit; Koch, Matthew A.; Hawkins, Hal; Heim-Hall, Josefine; Shehata, Bahig; Thorsten, Vanessa R.; Chin, Steven; Willinger, Marian; Monte, Suzanne dela

    2015-01-01

    We describe the neuropathologic procedure utilized in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network (SCRN), focusing on the examination of central nervous system (CNS) in stillbirth (SB). The SCRN was organized to perform a case-control study to determine the scope and causes of SB. Pathologists at all the participating centers agreed on and used the same standardized neuropathologic techniques. Standardized sections were taken and detailed data were collected. Fresh brain tissue was saved for investigative purposes. A total of 663 women with SB were enrolled into the case-control study: 620 delivered a single stillborn, 42 delivered twins, and 1 delivered triplets. Of the 560 (84.5%) who consented to postmortem examination, 465 (70.1%) also gave consent to the examination of the CNS. In the 440 stillborn infants in whom CNS examination was possible, 248 (56.4%) of the brains were intact, 72 were fragmented (16.4%), and 120 (27.3%) were liquefied. In summary, this is the largest prospective study dedicated to investigate the causes of SB and collect essential information and biological samples in the United States. A protocol for neuropathologic examination was instituted, and a brain tissue repository was created to provide samples and related data for future investigations. PMID:21780010

  10. Multimedia Networks: Mission Impossible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Andrew M.

    1996-01-01

    Running multimedia on a network, often difficult because of the memory and processing power required, is becoming easier thanks to new protocols and products. Those developing network design criteria may wish to consider making use of Fast Ethernet, Asynchronous Transfer Method (ATM), switches, "fat pipes", additional network segmentation, and…

  11. Research of home networking system based on XML/BACnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongming

    2008-11-01

    To standardize home networking information and simplify its management, this paper form a universal information module of various devices in home networking by adopting XML technology and BACnet protocol(XML/BACnet). Then, a software architecture of home networking based on this module is designed, having the function like auto management and maintenance, safety, real-time and remote controlling. Consequently, a home networking system based on this architecture is completed. Tested and evaluated, this system is one easy-using, easy-realizing, nice real-time system with strong heterogeneity and stable safety system.

  12. Research on invulnerability of equipment support information network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao; Liu, Bin; Zhong, Qigen; Cao, Zhiyi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the entity composition of equipment support information network is studied, and the network abstract model is built. The influence factors of the invulnerability of equipment support information network are analyzed, and the invulnerability capabilities under random attack are analyzed. According to the centrality theory, the materiality evaluation centralities of the nodes are given, and the invulnerability capabilities under selective attack are analyzed. Finally, the reasons that restrict the invulnerability of equipment support information network are summarized, and the modified principles and methods are given.

  13. Participatory Research: An Emerging Alternative Methodology in Social Science Research. Participatory Research Network Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam, Yusuf, Ed.; Mustafa, Kemal, Ed.

    This book, consisting of a series of discussion papers and case studies, is a compilation of the papers presented at a region 1 workshop on participatory research in Africa. Included in the volume are the following discussion papers: "The Concept of Development in the Social Sciences," by Kemal Mustafa and Deborah Bryceson; "The Politics of…

  14. Establishment of the Ivermectin Research for Malaria Elimination Network: updating the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Chaccour, Carlos J; Rabinovich, N Regina; Slater, Hannah; Canavati, Sara E; Bousema, Teun; Lacerda, Marcus; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Drakeley, Chris; Bassat, Quique; Foy, Brian D; Kobylinski, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of ivermectin as an additional vector control tool is receiving increased attention from the malaria elimination community, driven by the increased importance of outdoor/residual malaria transmission and the threat of insecticide resistance where vector tools have been scaled-up. This report summarizes the emerging evidence presented at a side meeting on "Ivermectin for malaria elimination: current status and future directions" at the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in New Orleans on November 4, 2014. One outcome was the creation of the "Ivermectin Research for Malaria Elimination Network" whose main goal is to establish a common research agenda to generate the evidence base on whether ivermectin-based strategies should be added to the emerging arsenal to interrupt malaria transmission. PMID:26068560

  15. Snowfall Rate Retrieval using NPP ATMS Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua; Zhao, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2014). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. The ATMS SFR product is validated against radar and gauge snowfall data and shows that the ATMS algorithm outperforms the AMSU/MHS SFR.

  16. Convening a Network within the European Conference on Educational Research: A History of the Social Justice and Intercultural Education Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Ghazala; Leeman, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    The experience of initiating and sustaining a research-based dialogue on social justice and intercultural education in Europe requires both flexibility and focus. This article highlights the challenges facing convenors of one network, who wish to include researchers from diverse backgrounds, while at the same time enhancing the academic quality of…

  17. Results from CrIS-ATMS Obtained Using the AIRS Science Team Retrieval Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.; Iredell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB (which subsequently failed early in the mission), to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. AIRS/AMSU had two primary objectives. The first objective was to provide real-time data products available for use by the operational Numerical Weather Prediction Centers in a data assimilation mode to improve the skill of their subsequent forecasts. The second objective was to provide accurate unbiased sounding products with good spatial coverage that are used to generate stable multi-year climate data sets to study the earth's interannual variability, climate processes, and possibly long-term trends. AIRS/AMSU data for all time periods are now being processed using the state of the art AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval methodology. The Suomi-NPP mission was launched in October 2011 as part of a sequence of Low Earth Orbiting satellite missions under the "Joint Polar Satellite System" (JPSS). NPP carries CrIS and ATMS, which are advanced infra-red and microwave atmospheric sounders that were designed as follow-ons to the AIRS and AMSU instruments. The main objective of this work is to assess whether CrIS/ATMS will be an adequate replacement for AIRS/AMSU from the perspective of the generation of accurate and consistent long term climate data records, or if improved instruments should be developed for future flight. It is critical for CrIS/ATMS to be processed using an algorithm similar to, or at least comparable to, AIRS Version-6 before such an assessment can be made. We have been conducting research to optimize products derived from CrIS/ATMS observations using a scientific approach analogous to the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm. Our latest research uses Version-5.70 of the CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithm, which is otherwise analogous to AIRS Version-6, but does not yet contain the benefit of use of a Neural-Net first guess start-up system

  18. Lessons learned on reliable transmission of real-time MPEG-2 streams over ATM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Andrea; Civanlar, Mehmet R.; Cash, Glenn L.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes a system that has been designed and built at AT&T Bell Labs for studying transmission of real- time MPEG-2 video over ATM networks for multi-cast applications. The set-up comprises a hardware real-time MPEG-2 video, audio and system encoder, an ATM network adaptation module for MPEG-2 transport over AAL-5, and ATM switch, a software system decoder and a hardware elementary stream decoder. The MPEG-2 transport stream has been characterized in terms of robustness to errors. This preliminary study showed the higher importance of the structural information of the stream (PES packet headers TS headers, sequence, picture headers, etc.) with respect to the coded video data (motion vectors, DCT coefficients, etc.). A brief study of the current MPEG-2 hardware decoding architectures allowed us to better understand the effects of bit-stream errors on the resulting video quality. In our experiments, while the loss of some structural data such as picture start codes led the hardware decoder to loose synchronization or to freeze, the loss of video data only affected the image quality. Furthermore the recovery times from a loss of synchronization were orders of magnitude higher than the recovery from some video data loss. An error-resilient real-time software transport stream decoder has been developed. In multiplex-wide operations (i.e. operations on the entire transport stream) it takes advantage of ring buffers and manages the timing information appropriately. In video-stream specific operations it uses resynchronization mechanisms at the picture level which exploit the redundancy of the PES and transport stream syntax. Furthermore time data transfers between the system decoder and the elementary stream decoder are employed. Experiments show that proper use of these methods can significantly improve the system performance.

  19. Simulation of Ames Backbone Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahnasser, Hamid

    1998-01-01

    The networking demands of Ames Research Center are dramatically increasing. More and more workstations are requested to run video and audio applications on the network. These applications require a much greater bandwidth than data applications. The existing ARCLAN 2000 network bandwidth is insufficient, due to the use of FDDI as its backbone, for accommodating video applications. Operating at a maximum of 100 Mbps, FDDI can handle only a few workstations running multimedia applications. The ideal solution is to replace the current ARCLAN 2000 FDDI backbone with an ATM backbone. ATM has the capability to handle the increasing traffic loads on the ARCLAN 2000 that results from these new applications. As it can be seen from Figure 1, ARCLAN 2000 have a total of 32 routers (5 being core routers) each connected to the FDDI backbone via a 100 Mbps link. This network serves 34 different locations by using 34 hubs that are connected to secondary routers. End users are connected to the secondary routers with 10 Mbps links.

  20. Leveraging the Relationship: Knowledge Processes in School-University Research Networks of Master's Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; Van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo C. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the way developing, sharing and using of research-based knowledge occurred in the school-university research network of a master's programme for in-service teachers in the Netherlands. Over a 10-month period, a combination of quantitative and qualitative network data was collected. Data were analysed at three network…

  1. Using Action Research and Action Learning for Entrepreneurial Network Capability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies an action research (AR) design and action learning (AL) approach to network capability development in an entrepreneurial context. Recent research suggests that networks are a viable strategy for the entrepreneurial firm to overcome the liabilities associated with newness and smallness. However, a gap emerges as few, if any,…

  2. Teaching the Geoweb: Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Research in Wireless Sensor Networks, Web Mapping, and Geospatial Data Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy, David

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an effort to incorporate wireless sensor networks and the emerging tools of the Geoweb into undergraduate teaching and research at a small liberal arts college. The primary goal of the research was to identify the hardware, software, and skill sets needed to deploy a local sensor network, collect data, and transmit that data…

  3. Establishing a Practice-Based Research Network: Lessons from the Massachusetts Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulcini, Joyce; Sheetz, Anne; DeSisto, Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the recently established Massachusetts School Nurse Research Network (MASNRN) which has a mission of establishing a practice-based research network (PBRN) comprised of a representative, collaborative group of professional school nurses, nurse academicians, and other interested parties for whom school health is a priority.…

  4. A Mixed-Methods Social Networks Study Design for Research on Transnational Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardi, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This paper advocates the adoption of a mixed-methods research design to describe and analyze ego-centered social networks in transnational family research. Drawing on the experience of the "Social Networks Influences on Family Formation" project (2004-2005; see Bernardi, Keim, & von der Lippe, 2007a, 2007b), I show how the combined use of network…

  5. Hierarchical Network Models for Education Research: Hierarchical Latent Space Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Tracy M.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Junker, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Intervention studies in school systems are sometimes aimed not at changing curriculum or classroom technique, but rather at changing the way that teachers, teaching coaches, and administrators in schools work with one another--in short, changing the professional social networks of educators. Current methods of social network analysis are…

  6. Social Network Analysis to Evaluate an Interdisciplinary Research Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboelela, Sally W.; Merrill, Jacqueline A.; Carley, Kathleen M.; Larson, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    We sought to examine the growth of an interdisciplinary center using social network analysis techniques. Specific aims were to examine the patterns of growth and interdisciplinary connectedness of the Center and to identify the social network characteristics of its productive members. The setting for this study was The Center for Interdisciplinary…

  7. The Georgia Psychoeducational Network (GPN) Research Report, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, William W., Ed.; Brown, Carvin L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This collection of papers includes five articles on the education of students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders participating in the Georgia Psychoeducational Network Program (GPN). "Training Needs of Fully Certified BD Teachers in the Georgia Psychoeducational Network" (Robert J. Stansberry) found, in a survey of 203 certified teachers…

  8. Reappraisal of Social Network Research in Educational Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Jacqueline

    Three network studies in education are reviewed in order to assess the current "state of the art." New directions for developing social network analysis (SNA) in education, based upon experiences from a study of school-community relations in Pontiac, Michigan, are suggested. One concern for the future of SNA stems from the elevation of distrust…

  9. Citation Networks as Indicators of Journalism Research Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankard, James W., Jr.; And Others

    One method of identifying important areas and books within a field is through citation counts--noting the number of times a work is referred to in the literature. These counts can be supplemented with citation networks, in which links between articles are formed by such methods as direct citation and cocitation. Citation counts and networks were…

  10. Research on dynamic routing mechanisms in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, A Q; Weng, Y N; Lu, Y; Liu, C Y

    2014-01-01

    WirelessHART is the most widely applied standard in wireless sensor networks nowadays. However, it does not provide any dynamic routing mechanism, which is important for the reliability and robustness of the wireless network applications. In this paper, a collection tree protocol based, dynamic routing mechanism was proposed for WirelessHART network. The dynamic routing mechanism was evaluated through several simulation experiments in three aspects: time for generating the topology, link quality, and stability of network. Besides, the data transmission efficiency of this routing mechanism was analyzed. The simulation and evaluation results show that this mechanism can act as a dynamic routing mechanism for the TDMA-based wireless sensor network. PMID:24982927

  11. ATM Coastal Topography - Louisiana, 2001: UTM Zone 16 (Part 2 of 2)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beach face within UTM Zone 16, from Grand Isle to the Chandeleur Islands, acquired September 7 and 9, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and

  12. ATM Coastal Topography-Louisiana, 2001: UTM Zone 15 (Part 1 of 2)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beach face within UTM Zone 15, from Isles Dernieres to Grand Isle, acquired September 7 and 10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last

  13. Results from CrIS/ATMS Obtained Using an "AIRS Version-6 Like Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, J.

    2015-12-01

    A main objective of AIRS/AMSU on EOS is to provide accurate sounding products that are used to generate climate data sets. Suomi NPP carries CrIS/ATMS that were designed as follow-ons to AIRS/AMSU. Our objective is to generate a long term climate data set of products derived from CrIS/ATMS to serve as a continuation of the AIRS/AMSU products. The Goddard DISC has generated AIRS/AMSU retrieval products, extending from September 2002 through real time, using the AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm. Level-3 gridded monthly mean values of these products, generated using AIRS Version-6, form a state of the art multi-year set of Climate Data Records (CDRs), which is expected to continue through 2022 and possibly beyond, as the AIRS instrument is extremely stable. The goal of this research is to develop and implement a CrIS/ATMS retrieval system to generate CDRs that are compatible with, and are of comparable quality to, those generated operationally using AIRS/AMSU data. The AIRS Science Team has made considerable improvements in AIRS Science Team retrieval methodology and is working on the development of an improved AIRS Science Team Version-7 retrieval methodology to be used to reprocess all AIRS data in the relatively near future. Research is underway by Dr. Susskind and co-workers at the NASA GSFC Sounder Research Team (SRT) towards the finalization of the AIRS Version-7 retrieval algorithm, the current version of which is called SRT AIRS Version-6.22. Dr. Susskind and co-workers have developed analogous retrieval methodology for analysis of CrIS/ATMS data, called SRT CrIS Version-6.22. Results will be presented that show that AIRS and CrIS products derived using a common further improved retrieval algorithm agree closely with each other and are both superior to AIRS Version 6. The goal of the AIRS Science Team is to continue to improve both AIRS and CrIS retrieval products and then use the improved retrieval methodology for the processing of past and

  14. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Tim J.; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J.

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  15. ATM promotes apoptosis and suppresses tumorigenesis in response to Myc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusapati, Raju V.; Rounbehler, Robert J.; Hong, Sungki; Powers, John T.; Yan, Mingshan; Kiguchi, Kaoru; McArthur, Mark J.; Wong, Paul K.; Johnson, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Overexpression of the c-myc oncogene contributes to the development of a significant number of human cancers. In response to deregulated Myc activity, the p53 tumor suppressor is activated to promote apoptosis and inhibit tumor formation. Here we demonstrate that p53 induction in response to Myc overexpression requires the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a major regulator of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. In a transgenic mouse model overexpressing Myc in squamous epithelial tissues, inactivation of Atm suppresses apoptosis and accelerates tumorigenesis. Deregulated Myc expression induces DNA damage in primary transgenic keratinocytes and the formation of H2AX and phospho-SMC1 foci in transgenic tissue. These findings suggest that Myc overexpression causes DNA damage in vivo and that the ATM-dependent response to this damage is critical for p53 activation, apoptosis, and the suppression of tumor development. p53 | DNA damage

  16. The role of ATM mutations and 11q deletions in disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Tatjana; Skowronska, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Abstract ATM gene alteration is a frequent event in pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and occurs as monoallelic loss in the form of 11q23 deletion, with and without mutation in the remaining ATM allele. ATM is a principal DNA damage response gene and biallelic ATM alterations lead to ATM functional loss and chemoresistance. The introduction of new therapies, such as intensive chemoimmunotherapy and inhibition of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, has changed clinical responses for the majority of CLL tumors including those with 11q deletion, but it remains to be determined whether these strategies can prevent clonal evolution of tumors with biallelic ATM alterations. In this review we discuss ATM function and the consequences of its loss during CLL pathogenesis, differences in clinical behavior of tumors with monoallelic and biallelic ATM alterations, and we outline possible approaches for targeting the ATM null CLL phenotype. PMID:23906020

  17. Research on urban public traffic network with multi-weights based on single bus transfer junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xin-lei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jian-gang

    2015-10-01

    Regarding single bus transfer junction as a research object, this paper constructs the urban traffic network models with multi-weights taking different bus lines in bus transfer junction as the network nodes, that is, the urban traffic network with multi-weights is given different properties weights at every edge. According to the method of network split, the complex network with multi-weights is split into several different single weighted complex networks. Then, we study the global synchronization of the new network model by changing congestion degrees, transfers coefficient and passenger flow density between different bus lines. Finally, analytical and simulated results are given to show the impact of different properties weights to the public traffic network balance.

  18. Some data-driven reflections on priorities in AIDS network research.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Bolyard, Melissa; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Goltzman, Paula; Pawlowicz, Maria Pia; Singh, Dhan Zunino; Touze, Graciela; Rossi, Diana; Maslow, Carey; Sandoval, Milagros; Flom, Peter L

    2007-09-01

    Risk networks can transmit HIV or other infections; social networks can transmit social influence and thus help shape norms and behaviors. This primarily-theoretical paper starts with a review of network concepts, and then presents data from a New York network study to study patterns of sexual and injection linkages among IDUs and other drug users and nonusers, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women, other men and other women in a high-risk community and the distribution of HIV, sex at group sex events, and health intravention behaviors in this network. It then discusses how risk network microstructures might influence HIV epidemics and urban vulnerability to epidemics; what social and other forces (such as "Big Events" like wars or ecological disasters) might shape networks and their associated norms, intraventions, practices and behaviors; and how network theory and research have and may continue to contribute to developing interventions against HIV epidemics. PMID:17053857

  19. Development of the Massachusetts School Nurse Research Network (MASNRN): A Practice-Based Research Network to Improve the Quality of School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    When school nurses embrace evidence-based practice (EBP), higher-quality care is provided to students, their families, and the larger community. Despite this, school nursing has been slow to embrace EBP. Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs), which capitalize on the combined strengths of clinicians and researchers to study clinical questions,…

  20. [ECRIN (European clinical research infrastructures network), a pan-European infrastructure for clinical research].

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2010-12-01

    Clinical research plays a key role both in the development of innovative health products and in the optimisation of medical strategies, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. ECRIN is a distributed ESFRI-roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific providing services to multinational. Servicing of multinational trials started during the preparatory phase, and ECRIN has applied for ERIC status in 2011. In parallel, ECRIN has also proposed an FP7 integrating activity project to further develop, upgrade and expand the ECRIN infrastructure built up during the past FP6 and FP7 projects, facilitating an efficient organization of clinical research in Europe, with ECRIN developing generic tools and providing generic services for multinational studies, and supporting the construction of pan-European disease-oriented networks that will in turn act as ECRIN users. This organization will improve Europe's attractiveness for industry trials, boost its scientific competitiveness, and result in better healthcare for European citizens. The three medical areas supported in this project (rare diseases, medical devices, and nutrition) will serve as pilots for other biomedical research fields. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this structure will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of research and educational capacities, tackling the major societal challenges (starting with healthy aging), and removing barriers to bringing ideas to the market. PMID:22043593

  1. Is a practice-based rural research network feasible in Europe?

    PubMed

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kurpas, Donata; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Jacquet, Jean-Pierre; Buono, Nicola; Lopez-Abuin, Jose; Lionis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Research in family medicine is a well-established entity nationally and internationally, covering all aspects of primary care including remote and isolated practices. However, due to limited capacity and resources in rural family medicine, its potential is not fully exploited yet. An idea to foster European rural primary care research by establishing a practice-based research network has been recently put forward by several members of the European Rural and Isolated Practitioners Association (EURIPA) and the European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN). Two workshops on why, and how to design a practice-based research network among rural family practices in Europe were conducted at two international meetings. This paper revisits the definition of practice-based research in family medicine, reflects on the current situation in Europe regarding the research in rural family practice, and discusses a rationale for practice-based research in rural family medicine. A SWOT analysis was used as the main tool to analyse the current situation in Europe regarding the research in rural family practice at both meetings. The key messages gained from these meetings may be employed by the Wonca Working Party on research, the International Federation of Primary Care Research Network and the EGPRN that seek to introduce a practice-based research approach. The cooperation and collaboration between EURIPA and EGPRN creates a fertile ground to discuss further the prospect of a European practice-based rural family medicine research network, and to draw on the joint experience. PMID:26134091

  2. Architecture of the Multi-Modal Organizational Research and Production Heterogeneous Network (MORPHnet)

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, R.J.; Carlson, R.A.; Foster, I.T.

    1997-01-01

    The research and education (R&E) community requires persistent and scaleable network infrastructure to concurrently support production and research applications as well as network research. In the past, the R&E community has relied on supporting parallel network and end-node infrastructures, which can be very expensive and inefficient for network service managers and application programmers. The grand challenge in networking is to provide support for multiple, concurrent, multi-layer views of the network for the applications and the network researchers, and to satisfy the sometimes conflicting requirements of both while ensuring one type of traffic does not adversely affect the other. Internet and telecommunications service providers will also benefit from a multi-modal infrastructure, which can provide smoother transitions to new technologies and allow for testing of these technologies with real user traffic while they are still in the pre-production mode. The authors proposed approach requires the use of as much of the same network and end system infrastructure as possible to reduce the costs needed to support both classes of activities (i.e., production and research). Breaking the infrastructure into segments and objects (e.g., routers, switches, multiplexors, circuits, paths, etc.) gives the capability to dynamically construct and configure the virtual active networks to address these requirements. These capabilities must be supported at the campus, regional, and wide-area network levels to allow for collaboration by geographically dispersed groups. The Multi-Modal Organizational Research and Production Heterogeneous Network (MORPHnet) described in this report is an initial architecture and framework designed to identify and support the capabilities needed for the proposed combined infrastructure and to address related research issues.

  3. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-12-15

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network. PMID:26670560

  4. Guideline-defining asthma clinical trials of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Loren C; Sorkness, Christine A; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Lemanske, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    Because of an increasing prevalence, morbidity, and mortality associated with asthma, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute created the Asthma Clinical Research Network and the Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network to improve public health. The objectives of these clinical research networks are to conduct multiple, well-designed clinical trials for rapid evaluation of new and existing therapeutic approaches to asthma and to disseminate laboratory and clinical findings to the health care community. These trials comprise a large proportion of the data driving the treatment guidelines established and reviewed by the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. This article will review the basic design and major findings of selected Asthma Clinical Research Network and Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network trials involving both adults and children with asthma. Collectively, these studies have helped refine the therapeutic role of existing controller medications, establish standard models for side-effect evaluation and risk-benefit models, validate symptom-based assessments for asthma control, and identify baseline characteristics that might predict individual patient responses. Remaining challenges include shaping the role of novel therapeutics in future guidelines, incorporating pharmacogenomic data in treatment decisions, and establishing better implementation strategies for translation to community settings, all with the goal of reducing the asthma burden on society. PMID:17141853

  5. Research collaboration in the discovery, development, and delivery networks of a statewide cancer coalition

    PubMed Central

    Provan, Keith G.; Leischow, Scott J.; Keagy, Judith; Nodora, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    This study examines and evaluates collaborative network involvement among 18 organizations within the Arizona Cancer Coalition. All were involved in one or more of three types of research activity: discovery, development, and delivery, consistent with the 3D continuum developed by the National Cancer Institute. Data were collected in 2007 using surveys of key informants in each organization. Using network analysis methods, we examined the structure of each type of network as well as the relationship between network position and the importance of cancer research to each organization’s mission. Findings indicated that while both the discovery and delivery networks were comparably densely connected, their centrality structures were quite different. In contrast, the structures of both these networks were similar to the development network. Centrality in the discovery and development networks was positively related to the importance of cancer research to the organization, but not in the delivery network. Implications of the findings for future research, policy, and planning are discussed. PMID:20061027

  6. Skylab ATM/S-056 X-ray event analyzer observations versus solar flare activity: An event compilation. [tables (data)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An event compilation is presented which correlates ATM/S-056 X-ray event analyzer solar observations with solar flare activity. Approximately 1,070 h of pulse height analyzed X-ray proportional counter data were obtained with the X-ray event analyzer during Skylab. During its operation, 449 flares (including 343 flare peaks) were observed. Seventy events of peak X-ray emission or = Cl were simultaneously observed by ground based telescopes, SOLRAD 9 and/or Vela, and the X-ray event analyzer. These events were observed from preflare through flare rise to peak and through flare decline.

  7. winderosionnetwork.org - Portal to the National Wind Erosion Research Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, N.; Herrick, J. E.; Clingan, S.; Cooper, B.; Courtright, E.; LaPlante, V.; Van Zee, J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and USDI Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for standardized measurements of wind erosion and its controlling factors. Data will be used to support model development and identification of improved land management strategies that have global applications. By applying standard methods, the Network will overcome the common challenge of synthesizing independent studies to assess local-to-national scale wind erosion and dust emission. Twelve intensively instrumented Network sites will be operational by spring 2016, providing high-resolution measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions and soil and vegetation properties. These initial sites are located across rangelands and croplands in New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, California, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, North Dakota, Idaho and Washington. A primary objective of the Network is to facilitate collaboration among Network sites and the wider research community to address basic research questions about aeolian processes, model development, and evaluate practical management options. In support of Network activities, winderosionnetwork.org was developed to serve as a Network data portal, and provide online information about the National Wind Erosion Research Network including protocols and results. The website provides a comprehensive resource for scientists and managers interested in engaging with the Network and accessing Network products. The Network provides exciting opportunities to engage in a national long-term wind erosion research program that promises significant impact for our understanding and ability to predict and evaluate aeolian processes across land cover types and land use systems.

  8. Cyber Security Research Frameworks For Coevolutionary Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, George D.; Tauritz, Daniel Remy

    2015-12-03

    Several architectures have been created for developing and testing systems used in network security, but most are meant to provide a platform for running cyber security experiments as opposed to automating experiment processes. In the first paper, we propose a framework termed Distributed Cyber Security Automation Framework for Experiments (DCAFE) that enables experiment automation and control in a distributed environment. Predictive analysis of adversaries is another thorny issue in cyber security. Game theory can be used to mathematically analyze adversary models, but its scalability limitations restrict its use. Computational game theory allows us to scale classical game theory to larger, more complex systems. In the second paper, we propose a framework termed Coevolutionary Agent-based Network Defense Lightweight Event System (CANDLES) that can coevolve attacker and defender agent strategies and capabilities and evaluate potential solutions with a custom network defense simulation. The third paper is a continuation of the CANDLES project in which we rewrote key parts of the framework. Attackers and defenders have been redesigned to evolve pure strategy, and a new network security simulation is devised which specifies network architecture and adds a temporal aspect. We also add a hill climber algorithm to evaluate the search space and justify the use of a coevolutionary algorithm.

  9. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material--ATM-104

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to date are described for Approved Testing Material 104 (ATM-104), which is spent fuel from Assembly DO47 of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (Unit 1), a pressurized-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-104 consists of 128 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 42 MWd/kgM and expected fission gas release of about 1%. A variety of analyses were performed to investigate cladding characteristics, radionuclide inventory, and redistribution of fission products. Characterization data include (1) fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling history; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding.

  10. Observing and recording instantaneous images on ATM television monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, N. P.; Delamere, W. A.; Tousey, R.

    1977-01-01

    A persistent image-converter device was utilized to make visible to the astronaut solar images that were isolated, instantaneous flashes on the ATM TV monitors. In addition, these instantaneous images, as well as normal TV images, were recorded with a Polaroid SX-70 camera for study by the astronauts.

  11. Adaptive Restoration of Airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    D. Yuan; E. Doak; P. Guss; A. Will

    2002-01-01

    To incorporate the georegistration and restoration processes into airborne data processing in support of U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear emergency response task, we developed an adaptive restoration filter for airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data based on the Wiener filtering theory. Preliminary assessment shows that this filter enhances the detectability of small weak thermal anomalies in AADS1268 thermal images.

  12. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material---ATM-105

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to data are described for Approved Testing Material 105 (ATM-105), which is spent fuel from Bundles CZ346 and CZ348 of the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant, a boiling-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-105 consists of 88 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2400 GJ/kgM (28 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of about 1%. Characterization data include (1) descriptions of as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report.

  13. Performance evaluation of response time in ATM LANs

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Brandt, J.

    1995-12-11

    This contribution compares the response-time performance of ATM LANs using ABR EFCI, UBR FIFO, and UBR with per VC queuing switches. Our study is based on experimental as well as simulation results. We found that, with or without congestion, UBR switches with per VC queuing provide the best response times.

  14. U-View: Student Access to Information Using ATMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springfield, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of Boston College's system allowing students to display and print their campus records at automated teller machines (ATMs) around the institution looks at the system's evolution, current operations, human factors affecting system design and operation, shared responsibility, campus acceptance, future enhancements, and cost…

  15. Mice heterozygous for the ATM gene are more sensitive to heavy ions exposure than are wildtypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worgul, B.; Smilenov, L.; Brenner, D.; Vazquez, M.; Hall, E.

    Previous studies have shown that the eyes of atm heterozygous mice exposed to Low LET radiation (X-rays) are more susceptible to the development of cataracts than are those of wildtype mice. The findings, as well as others, run counter to the assumption underpinning current radiation safety guidelines, that individuals are all equally sensitive to the biological effects of radiation. A question, highly relevant to human space activities is whether or not, in similar fashion there may exist a genetic predisposition to High LET radiation damage. Again the lens and, its primary radiopathy, cataract, were used to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. Together with those of wildtypes, the eyes of AT heterozygous knockout mice were exposed to 325 mGy of 1 GEV/amu 56Fe ions at the AGS facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The fluence was equivalent to 1 ion per nuclear area. As was the case in the earlier X-ray studies all irradiations were done on the 28th day after birth. Controls consisted of wildtype irradiated as well as unirradiated wildtype and heterozygotes. Ten mice from each group were examined weekly by conventional slitlamp biomicroscopy for a total of 35 weeks. The time required for prevalence to reach 50% (T50) as an endpoint for each stage indicated that not only cataract onset but also progression were accelerated in the mice haplo-deficient for the atm gene. For example the T50 for definitive cataract onset (stage 1) in the atm heterozygotes was 10 weeks whereas 17 weeks were required for the wildtypes. Similarly at the conclusion of the experiment (35 weeks), 40% of the lenses of allele-deficient mice had progressed to stage 3 (near fully opaque and obviously visually debilitating), while only one lens (5%) from the wildtype irradiated eyes achieved that stage. The data show that heterozygosity for the atm gene predisposes the eye to the cataractogenic influence of heavy ions and suggest that AT heterozygotes in the

  16. Research into alternative network approaches for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusmanoff, Antone L.; Barton, Timothy J.

    1990-01-01

    The main goal is to resolve the interoperability problem of applications employing DOD TCP/IP (Department of Defence Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) family of protocols on a CCITT/ISO based network. The objective is to allow them to communicate over the CCITT/ISO protocol GPLAN (General Purpose Local Area Network) network without modification to the user's application programs. There were two primary assumptions associated with the solution that was actually realized. The first is that the solution had to allow for future movement to the exclusive use of the CCITT/ISO standards. The second is that the solution had to be software transparent to the currently installed TCP/IP and CCITT/ISO user application programs.

  17. The Deep Space Network: An instrument for radio science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.

    1981-01-01

    Doppler and ranging data routinely generated at the Deep Space Stations of the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Network serve as an excellent source of radio science information. Important radio science experiments based on Deep Space Network generated radio metric data have included confirmation of Einstein's Theory of Relativity, measurement of the masses and gravitational harmonics of the planets out to Saturn, and measurement of electron density distribution and turbulence in the solar corona. In response to an increased level of radio science requirements, the Deep Space Network chose in 1976 to implement a new radio science system, which was completed in late 1978. Key features include (1) highly phase stable open loop receivers, (2) reduction of recorded data bandwidth through use of programmed local oscillators, and (3) real time digitization and recording on computer compatible tape.

  18. Research on networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yangdong; Qi, Guoning; Xie, Qingsheng; Lu, Yujun

    2005-12-01

    Networked manufacturing is a trend of reciprocating pump industry. According to the enterprises' requirement, the architecture of networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry was proposed, which composed of infrastructure layer, system management layer, application service layer and user layer. Its main functions included product data management, ASP service, business management, and customer relationship management, its physics framework was a multi-tier internet-based model; the concept of ASP service integration was put forward and its process model was also established. As a result, a networked manufacturing system aimed at the characteristics of reciprocating pump industry was built. By implementing this system, reciprocating pump industry can obtain a new way to fully utilize their own resources and enhance the capabilities to respond to the global market quickly.

  19. Undergraduate students' development of social, cultural, and human capital in a networked research experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jennifer Jo; Conaway, Evan; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-04-01

    Recent calls for reform in undergraduate biology education have emphasized integrating research experiences into the learning experiences of all undergraduates. Contemporary science research increasingly demands collaboration across disciplines and institutions to investigate complex research questions, providing new contexts and models for involving undergraduates in research. In this study, we examined the experiences of undergraduates participating in a multi-institution and interdisciplinary biology research network. Unlike the traditional apprenticeship model of research, in which a student participates in research under the guidance of a single faculty member, students participating in networked research have the opportunity to develop relationships with additional faculty and students working in other areas of the project, at their own and at other institutions. We examined how students in this network develop social ties and to what extent a networked research experience affords opportunities for students to develop social, cultural, and human capital. Most studies of undergraduate involvement in science research have focused on documenting student outcomes rather than elucidating how students gain access to research experiences or how elements of research participation lead to desired student outcomes. By taking a qualitative approach framed by capital theories, we have identified ways that undergraduates utilize and further develop various forms of capital important for success in science research. In our study of the first 16 months of a biology research network, we found that undergraduates drew upon a combination of human, cultural, and social capital to gain access to the network. Within their immediate research groups, students built multidimensional social ties with faculty, peers, and others, yielding social capital that can be drawn upon for information, resources, and support. They reported developing cultural capital in the form of learning to

  20. Brain extracellular matrix meets COST--matrix for European research networks.

    PubMed

    Gajović, Srećko; Pochet, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Today's researchers are faced with a change from curiosity-driven to mandate-driven research. These two approaches are well combined within scientific networks (Actions) supported by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program. The functioning of COST Actions, although directed only to networking, has a substantial impact on European science and can be compared to the functioning of the extracellular matrix in the brain, which although scarce plays a key role in initiation, maintenance, and plasticity of intercellular interactions in the nervous system. COST networks enable interdisciplinary approach and support early-stage researchers, which is a vital asset for the advancement of science. PMID:25410370

  1. Research and Application of Knowledge Resources Network for Product Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan; Li, Wen-qiang; Li, Yan; Na, Hui-zhen; Shi, Qian

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users' enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method. PMID:25884031

  2. Heterogeneous broadband network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Lars

    1995-11-01

    Although the vision for the future Integrated Broadband Communication Network (IBCN) is an all optical network, it is certain that for a long period to come, the network will remain very heterogeneous, with a mixture of different physical media (fiber, coax and twisted pair), transmission systems (PDH, SDH, ADSL) and transport protocols (TCP/IP, AAL/ATM, frame relay). In the current work towards the IBCN, the ATM concept is considered the generic network protocol for both public and private network, with the ability to use different underlying transmission protocols and, through adaptation protocols, provide the appropriate services (old as well as new) to the customer. One of the major difficulties of heterogeneous network is the restriction that is usually given by the lowest common denominator, e.g. in terms of single channel capacity. A possible way to overcome these limitations is by extending the ATM concept with a multilink capability, that allows us to use separate resources as one common. The improved flexibility obtained by this protocol extension further allows a real time optimization of network and call configuration, without any impact on the quality of service seen from the user. This paper describes an example of an ATM based multilink protocol that has been experimentally implemented within the RACE project 'STRATOSPHERIC'. The paper outlines the complexity of introducing an extra network functionality compared with the added value, such as an improved ability to recover an error due to a malfunctioning network component.

  3. Opportunities and methodological challenges in EEG and MEG resting state functional brain network research.

    PubMed

    van Diessen, E; Numan, T; van Dellen, E; van der Kooi, A W; Boersma, M; Hofman, D; van Lutterveld, R; van Dijk, B W; van Straaten, E C W; Hillebrand, A; Stam, C J

    2015-08-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings during resting state are increasingly used to study functional connectivity and network topology. Moreover, the number of different analysis approaches is expanding along with the rising interest in this research area. The comparison between studies can therefore be challenging and discussion is needed to underscore methodological opportunities and pitfalls in functional connectivity and network studies. In this overview we discuss methodological considerations throughout the analysis pipeline of recording and analyzing resting state EEG and MEG data, with a focus on functional connectivity and network analysis. We summarize current common practices with their advantages and disadvantages; provide practical tips, and suggestions for future research. Finally, we discuss how methodological choices in resting state research can affect the construction of functional networks. When taking advantage of current best practices and avoid the most obvious pitfalls, functional connectivity and network studies can be improved and enable a more accurate interpretation and comparison between studies. PMID:25511636

  4. pSCANNER: patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Agha, Zia; Bell, Douglas S; Dahm, Lisa; Day, Michele E; Doctor, Jason N; Gabriel, Davera; Kahlon, Maninder K; Kim, Katherine K; Hogarth, Michael; Matheny, Michael E; Meeker, Daniella; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research (pSCANNER), which is part of the recently formed PCORnet, a national network composed of learning healthcare systems and patient-powered research networks funded by the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). It is designed to be a stakeholder-governed federated network that uses a distributed architecture to integrate data from three existing networks covering over 21 million patients in all 50 states: (1) VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI), with data from Veteran Health Administration's 151 inpatient and 909 ambulatory care and community-based outpatient clinics; (2) the University of California Research exchange (UC-ReX) network, with data from UC Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego; and (3) SCANNER, a consortium of UCSD, Tennessee VA, and three federally qualified health systems in the Los Angeles area supplemented with claims and health information exchange data, led by the University of Southern California. Initial use cases will focus on three conditions: (1) congestive heart failure; (2) Kawasaki disease; (3) obesity. Stakeholders, such as patients, clinicians, and health service researchers, will be engaged to prioritize research questions to be answered through the network. We will use a privacy-preserving distributed computation model with synchronous and asynchronous modes. The distributed system will be based on a common data model that allows the construction and evaluation of distributed multivariate models for a variety of statistical analyses. PMID:24780722

  5. Networks of Collaboration among Scientists in a Center for Diabetes Translation Research

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jenine K.; Wong, Roger; Thompson, Kellie; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Hipp, J. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Background Transdisciplinary collaboration is essential in addressing the translation gap between scientific discovery and delivery of evidence-based interventions to prevent and treat diabetes. We examined patterns of collaboration among scientists at the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research. Methods Members (n = 56) of the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research were surveyed about collaboration overall and on publications, presentations, and grants; 87.5% responded (n = 49). We used traditional and network descriptive statistics and visualization to examine the networks and exponential random graph modeling to identify predictors of collaboration. Results The 56 network members represented nine disciplines. On average, network members had been affiliated with the center for 3.86 years (s.d. = 1.41). The director was by far the most central in all networks. The overall and publication networks were the densest, while the overall and grant networks were the most centralized. The grant network was the most transdisciplinary. The presentation network was the least dense, least centralized, and least transdisciplinary. For every year of center affiliation, network members were 10% more likely to collaborate (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00–1.21) and 13% more likely to write a paper together (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.25). Network members in the same discipline were over twice as likely to collaborate in the overall network (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.40–3.15); however, discipline was not associated with collaboration in the other networks. Rank was not associated with collaboration in any network. Conclusions As transdisciplinary centers become more common, it is important to identify structural features, such as a central leader and ongoing collaboration over time, associated with scholarly productivity and, ultimately, with advancing science and practice. PMID:26301873

  6. Aspects of School-University Research Networks that Play a Role in Developing, Sharing and Using Knowledge Based on Teacher Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo

    2011-01-01

    School-university research networks aim at closer integration of research and practice by means of teacher research. Such practice-oriented research can enhance teachers' professional knowledge development, and can benefit both schools and university. This paper reports on 21 participants of a school-university research network embedded in a…

  7. The Georgia Psychoeducational Network (GPN) Research Report, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, William W., Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This report presents four papers on services provided to students with severe emotional and/or behavioral disorders by the Georgia Psychoeducational Network (GPN). "Teacher Ratings of Pro-social Behaviors for Medicated ADHD Students" (Catherine P. Fortner) reports on the development of positive social skills in 111 medicated male students with…

  8. Museum Information Networks. Museum Data Bank Research Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenhall, Robert G.

    Several museum information processing systems are discussed in relation to their underlying assumptions regarding museum information and networking needs that have resulted in inadequate service to some kinds of museums, particularly historical museums. Rather than any of these systems, a modular approach is proposed that would allow each museum…

  9. Teacher Agency in Educational Reform: Lessons from Social Networks Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datnow, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a context for understanding how social networks among teachers support or constrain school improvement in terms of instructional practice, professional development, and educational reform. It comments on the articles in this special issue, summarizing their contributions to the field. This analysis reveals several important…

  10. Research of negotiation in network trade system based on multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Guozheng; Wu, Haiyan

    2009-07-01

    A construction and implementation technology of network trade based on multi-agent is described in this paper. First, we researched the technology of multi-agent, then we discussed the consumer's behaviors and the negotiation between purchaser and bargainer which emerges in the traditional business mode and analysed the key technology to implement the network trade system. Finally, we implement the system.

  11. The Role of Action Research in the Development of Learning Networks for Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Valerie; Mullally, Martina; O'Gorman, Bill; Fuller-Love, Nerys

    2012-01-01

    Developing sustainable learning networks for entrepreneurs is the core objective of the Sustainable Learning Networks in Ireland and Wales (SLNIW) project. One research team drawn from the Centre for Enterprise Development and Regional Economy at Waterford Institute of Technology and the School of Management and Business from Aberystwyth…

  12. The Canadian Network for the Advancement of Research, Industry, and Education (CANARIE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Marcos; Cartwright, Glenn F.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of a Canadian high-speed communications network, influenced by the National Research and Education Network (NREN) initiative, focuses on the genesis of the system; expected benefits to Canada's economy, competitiveness, and social welfare; and specific applications such as library resource sharing, free-nets, distance education, and…

  13. Friendship Networks, Social Capital and Ethnic Identity: Researching the Perspectives of Caribbean Young People in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Tracey

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of Caribbean young people in Britain in order to examine the issue of friendship networks. The research shows that the young people interviewed have a vast array of friendship networks across diverse ethnic groups. However, the majority of the Caribbean young people in the study acknowledged that their three…

  14. Governing by Network in Europe: Associations, Educational Research and Social Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The coincident arrival of a European policy space in education and a European Educational Research Association [EERA], and their subsequent relation, will be the subject of this paper. EERA is a hybrid organization--it supports scientific networking, it is a social partner in EU policy, it is a first level social space for networking, and…

  15. Community-Based Research Networks: Development and Lessons Learned in an Emerging Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoecker, Randy; Ambler, Susan H.; Cutforth, Nick; Donohue, Patrick; Dougherty, Dan; Marullo, Sam; Nelson, Kris S.; Stutts, Nancy B.

    2003-01-01

    Compares seven multi-institutional community-based research networks in Appalachia; Colorado; District of Columbia; Minneapolis-St. Paul; Philadelphia; Richmond, Virginia; and Trenton, New Jersey. After reviewing the histories of the networks, conducts a comparative SWOT analysis, showing their common and unique strengths, weaknesses,…

  16. Analysis and research on technology system of space broadband network based on laser link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chengwu; Fei, Ligang; Chen, Erhu; Kou, Baohua; Cheng, Liyu

    2015-10-01

    Space broadband network based on laser link represents the future development direction, Europe, the United States, Japan and other space powers have been researching the theory of space laser communication and the key technology constantly, and have carried out the key technology test of inter-satellite laser communication and satellite-ground laser communication on orbit. However, what is the technology system of space broadband network based on laser link? up to now, it is still controversial, such as wavelength, coding, and modulation mode, exchange mode and so on. Here, by analyzing all kinds of space laser communication test and its technology parameters, combined with the application requirement of space broadband network, a set of technology system for space broadband network based on laser link is put forward, although just a preliminary research result. At first, this paper introduces the basic conception of space broadband network based on laser link, defines the space laser broadband network technology system and its research scope. Then analyze the main contents of space laser broadband network technology system, especially the technical route choice involved, and by studying, the related suggestions are given. Finally, with the development of space broadband network, the issue of standardization in space laser communication technology system is put forward, in order to cause attaches great importance to scientific research institutes and relevant experts.

  17. The Wisconsin Network for Health Research (WiNHR): A Statewide, Collaborative, Multi-disciplinary, Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Howard; Agger, William; Baumgardner, Dennis; Burmester, James K.; Cisler, Ron A.; Evertsen, Jennifer; Glurich, Ingrid; Hartman, David; Yale, Steven H.; DeMets, David

    2010-01-01

    In response to the goals of the Wisconsin Partnership Program and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Initiatives to Improve Healthcare, the Wisconsin Network for Health Research (WiNHR) was formed. As a collaborative, multi-disciplinary statewide research network, WiNHR encourages and fosters the discovery and application of scientific knowledge for researchers and practitioners throughout Wisconsin. The 4 founding institutions—Aurora Health Care/Center for Urban Population Health (CUPH), Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison—representing geographically diverse areas of the state, are optimistic and committed to WiNHR’s success. This optimism is based on the relevance of its goals to public health, the quality of statewide health care research, and, most importantly, the residents of Wisconsin who recognize the value of health research. PMID:20131687

  18. Leveraging the Methodological Affordances of Facebook: Social Networking Strategies in Longitudinal Writing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Jenna Pack; Kimme Hea, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    While composition studies researchers have examined the ways social media are impacting our lives inside and outside of the classroom, less attention has been given to the ways in which social media--specifically Social Network Sites (SNSs)--may enhance our own research methods and methodologies by helping to combat research participant attrition…

  19. The Mission and Purpose of TRUCEN (The Research University Civic Engagement Network)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The mission of The Research University Civic Engagement Network (TRUCEN) is to advance civic engagement and engaged scholarship among research universities. TRUCEN has adopted the following goals for advancing civic engagement and engaged scholarship as part of the core mission of all research universities: (1) Encourage community-engaged…

  20. The organic research network project on the central coast of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California organic agriculture industry has grown in size and consumer acceptance despite a very limited scientific research base. The Organic Research Network Project, funded by USDA-Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative (USDA-OREI) program in 2004 (S.R. Gliessman, P.I.), was de...

  1. Requirements for data integration platforms in biomedical research networks: a reference model

    PubMed Central

    Knaup, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research networks need to integrate research data among their members and with external partners. To support such data sharing activities, an adequate information technology infrastructure is necessary. To facilitate the establishment of such an infrastructure, we developed a reference model for the requirements. The reference model consists of five reference goals and 15 reference requirements. Using the Unified Modeling Language, the goals and requirements are set into relation to each other. In addition, all goals and requirements are described textually in tables. This reference model can be used by research networks as a basis for a resource efficient acquisition of their project specific requirements. Furthermore, a concrete instance of the reference model is described for a research network on liver cancer. The reference model is transferred into a requirements model of the specific network. Based on this concrete requirements model, a service-oriented information technology architecture is derived and also described in this paper. PMID:25699205

  2. Requirements for data integration platforms in biomedical research networks: a reference model.

    PubMed

    Ganzinger, Matthias; Knaup, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research networks need to integrate research data among their members and with external partners. To support such data sharing activities, an adequate information technology infrastructure is necessary. To facilitate the establishment of such an infrastructure, we developed a reference model for the requirements. The reference model consists of five reference goals and 15 reference requirements. Using the Unified Modeling Language, the goals and requirements are set into relation to each other. In addition, all goals and requirements are described textually in tables. This reference model can be used by research networks as a basis for a resource efficient acquisition of their project specific requirements. Furthermore, a concrete instance of the reference model is described for a research network on liver cancer. The reference model is transferred into a requirements model of the specific network. Based on this concrete requirements model, a service-oriented information technology architecture is derived and also described in this paper. PMID:25699205

  3. INA-RESPOND: a multi-centre clinical research network in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Karyana, Muhammad; Kosasih, Herman; Samaan, Gina; Tjitra, Emiliana; Aman, Abu Tholib; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Fatmawati; Gasem, M Hussein; Arif, Mansyur; Sudarmono, Pratiwi; Suharto; Merati, Tuti P; Lane, Clifford; Siswanto; Siddiqui, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative observational and translational research is needed to address the public health challenges in Indonesia due to the geographic disparity, recently decentralized health system, and diverse infectious disease priorities. To accomplish this, the Indonesian Ministry of Health in collaboration with the US National Institute of Health has established INA-RESPOND (Indonesia Research Partnership on Infectious Disease) - a clinical research network comprising 9 referral hospitals, 7 medical faculties, and 2 research centres across Indonesia. The network provides a forum to conduct research at a national scale and to address scientific questions that would be difficult to address in smaller research settings. Further, it is currently conducting multi-centre research on the etiologies of fever, sepsis, and tuberculosis. There are opportunities to leverage existing network resources for other public health research needs. INA-RESPOND is an Indonesian-led network in a country with diverse population groups and public health needs which is poised to collaborate with researchers, universities, donors, and industry worldwide. This paper describes the network and its goals and values, as well as the management structure, process for collaboration, and future vision. PMID:26219280

  4. A State-Wide Research Network for Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Bachman, D. L.; Stuckey, M.; Ebeling, M.; Wagner, M. T.; Evans, W. J.; Hirth, V.; Walker, A.; Joglekar, R.; Faison, W.

    2014-03-13

    The Specific Aim of the proposal was to develop an administrative structure that will facilitate the development of AD research across the state of SC by providing key services such as (but not limited to) seeking funding research opportunities, financial tracking, regulatory management, central recruitment, training for investigators and coordinators, data collection, data storing, and data processing to researchers across the state.

  5. A Rapid Prototyping Capability Experiment to Evaluate CrIS / ATMS Observations for Urban Modeling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. M.; Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Anantharaj, V. G.; Riishojgaard, L.

    2007-12-01

    sensors. We expect that data transmitted from the ATMS and the CrIS will greatly supplement the existing networks of surface observations and upper-air observations in the analysis of atmospheric temperature, humidity, and pressure; enhance the quality of data assimilated into operational forecast models; and subsequently help to improve the simulation of weather on regional and local scales.

  6. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  7. The Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network: A New In-Situ Data Network For Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walbridge, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture in the 21st Century faces significant challenges due to increases in the demand for agricultural products from a global population expected to reach 9.5 billion by 2050, changes in land use that are reducing the area of arable land worldwide, and the uncertainties associated with increasing climate variability and change. There is broad agreement that meeting these challenges will require significant changes in agro-ecosystem management at the landscape scale. In 2012, the USDA/ARS announced the reorganization of 10 existing benchmark watersheds, experimental ranges, and research farms into a Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network. Earlier this year, the LTAR network expanded to 18 sites, including 3 led by land grant universities and/or private foundations. The central question addressed by the LTAR network is, "How do we sustain or enhance productivity, profitability, and ecosystem services in agro-ecosystems and agricultural landscapes"? All 18 LTAR sites possess rich historical databases that extend up to 100 years into the past. However as LTAR moves forward, the focus is on collecting a core set of common measurements over the next 30-50 years that can be used to draw inferences regarding the nature of agricultural sustainability and how it varies across regional and continental-scale gradients. As such, LTAR is part long-term research network and part observatory network. Rather than focusing on a single site, each LTAR has developed regional partnerships that allow it to address agro-ecosystem function in the large basins and eco-climatic zones that underpin regional food production systems. Partners include other long-term in-situ data networks (e.g., Ameriflux, CZO, GRACEnet, LTER, NEON). 'Next steps' include designing and implementing a cross-site experiment addressing LTAR's central question.

  8. Research on a Queue Scheduling Algorithm in Wireless Communications Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchuan; Hu, Yuanmei; Zhou, Qiancai

    This paper proposes a protocol QS-CT, Queue Scheduling Mechanism based on Multiple Access in Ad hoc net work, which adds queue scheduling mechanism to RTS-CTS-DATA using multiple access protocol. By endowing different queues different scheduling mechanisms, it makes networks access to the channel much more fairly and effectively, and greatly enhances the performance. In order to observe the final performance of the network with QS-CT protocol, we simulate it and compare it with MACA/C-T without QS-CT protocol. Contrast to MACA/C-T, the simulation result shows that QS-CT has greatly improved the throughput, delay, rate of packets' loss and other key indicators.

  9. Application of Computer Simulation to Teach ATM Access to Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates use of computer simulation for teaching ATM use to adults with intellectual disabilities. ATM-SIM is a computer-based trainer used for teaching individuals with intellectual disabilities how to use an automated teller machine (ATM) to access their personal bank accounts. In the pilot evaluation, a prototype system was…

  10. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA) provides the necessary tool kit for investigating questions involving relational data. We introduce basic concepts in SNA, along with methods for data collection, data processing, and data analysis, using a previously collected example study on an undergraduate biology classroom as a tutorial. We conduct descriptive analyses of the structure of the network of costudying relationships. We explore generative processes that create observed study networks between students and also test for an association between network position and success on exams. We also cover practical issues, such as the unique aspects of human subjects review for network studies. Our aims are to convince readers that using SNA in classroom environments allows rich and informative analyses to take place and to provide some initial tools for doing so, in the process inspiring future educational studies incorporating relational data. PMID:26086650

  11. The Evolution of Research and Education Networks and their Essential Role in Modern Science

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, W.; Chaniotakis, E.; Dart, E.; Guok, C.; Metzger, J.; Tierney, B.

    2009-06-15

    ESnet - the Energy Sciences Network - has the mission of enabling the aspects of the US Department of Energy's Office of Science programs and facilities that depend on large collaborations and large-scale data sharing to accomplish their science. The Office of Science supports a large fraction of all U.S. physical science research and operates many large science instruments and supercomputers that are used by both DOE and University researchers. The network requirements of this community have been explored in some detail by ESnet and a long-term plan has been developed in order to ensure adequate networking to support the science. In this paper we describe the planning process (which has been in place for several years and was the basis of a new network that is just now being completed and a new set of network services) and examine the effectiveness and adequacy of the planning process in the light of evolving science requirements.

  12. A network approach for distinguishing ethical issues in research and development.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Sjoerd D; van de Poel, Ibo; van Mil, Harald; Brumsen, Michiel

    2006-10-01

    In this paper we report on our experiences with using network analysis to discern and analyse ethical issues in research into, and the development of, a new wastewater treatment technology. Using network analysis, we preliminarily interpreted some of our observations in a Group Decision Room (GDR) session where we invited important stakeholders to think about the risks of this new technology. We show how a network approach is useful for understanding the observations, and suggests some relevant ethical issues. We argue that a network approach is also useful for ethical analysis of issues in other fields of research and development. The abandoning of the overarching rationality assumption, which is central to network approaches, does not have to lead to ethical relativism. PMID:17199143

  13. A research using hybrid RBF/Elman neural networks for intrusion detection system secure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhu; Yu, Haining

    2009-10-01

    A hybrid RBF/Elman neural network model that can be employed for both anomaly detection and misuse detection is presented in this paper. The IDSs using the hybrid neural network can detect temporally dispersed and collaborative attacks effectively because of its memory of past events. The RBF network is employed as a real-time pattern classification and the Elman network is employed to restore the memory of past events. The IDSs using the hybrid neural network are evaluated against the intrusion detection evaluation data sponsored by U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Experimental results are presented in ROC curves. Experiments show that the IDSs using this hybrid neural network improve the detection rate and decrease the false positive rate effectively.

  14. Build your own social network laboratory with Social Lab: a tool for research in social media.

    PubMed

    Garaizar, Pablo; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2014-06-01

    Social networking has surpassed e-mail and instant messaging as the dominant form of online communication (Meeker, Devitt, & Wu, 2010). Currently, all large social networks are proprietary, making it difficult to impossible for researchers to make changes to such networks for the purpose of study design and access to user-generated data from the networks. To address this issue, the authors have developed and present Social Lab, an Internet-based free and open-source social network software system available from http://www.sociallab.es . Having full availability of navigation and communication data in Social Lab allows researchers to investigate behavior in social media on an individual and group level. Automated artificial users ("bots") are available to the researcher to simulate and stimulate social networking situations. These bots respond dynamically to situations as they unfold. The bots can easily be configured with scripts and can be used to experimentally manipulate social networking situations in Social Lab. Examples for setting up, configuring, and using Social Lab as a tool for research in social media are provided. PMID:24061930

  15. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data reproducibility, and adapt to the changing landscape of biomarker science.  | Comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection.

  16. Virtual Round Table on ten leading questions for network research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    The following discussion is an edited summary of the public debate started during the conference “Growing Networks and Graphs in Statistical Physics, Finance, Biology and Social Systems” held in Rome in September 2003. Drafts documents were circulated electronically among experts in the field and additions and follow-up to the original discussion have been included. Among the scientists participating to the discussion L.A.N. Amaral, A. Barrat, A.L. Barabasi, G. Caldarelli, P. De Los Rios, A. Erzan, B. Kahng, R. Mantegna, J.F.F. Mendes, R. Pastor-Satorras, A. Vespignani are acknowledged for their contributions and editing.

  17. ATM germline heterozygosity does not play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia initiation but influences rapid disease progression through loss of the remaining ATM allele

    PubMed Central

    Skowronska, Anna; Austen, Belinda; Powell, Judith E.; Weston, Victoria; Oscier, David G.; Dyer, Martin J.S.; Matutes, Estella; Pratt, Guy; Fegan, Christopher; Moss, Paul; Taylor, Malcolm A.; Stankovic, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia patients, with constitutional bi-allelic ATM mutations, have a marked risk of lymphoid tumors and ATM mutation carriers have a smaller risk of cancer. Sporadic ATM mutations occur in 10–20% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and are often associated with chromosome 11q deletions which cause loss of an ATM allele. The role of constitutional ATM mutations in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is unknown. Here we investigated the frequency of constitutional ATM mutations in either of two chronic lymphocytic leukemia cohorts, those with and without a chromosome 11q deletion. We found that in comparison to controls, constitutional pathogenic ATM mutations were increased in patients with chromosome 11q deletions (6 of 140 vs. 0 of 281, P=0.001) but not in those without 11q deletions (2 of 178 vs. 0 of 281, P=0.15). These results suggest that ATM germline heterozygosity does not play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia initiation but rather influences rapid disease progression through ATM loss. PMID:21933854

  18. Molecular Characterization and Subcellular Localization of Arabidopsis Class VIII Myosin, ATM1*

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Takeshi; Tominaga, Motoki; Matsumoto, Rie; Sato, Kei; Nakano, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Ito, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    Land plants possess myosin classes VIII and XI. Although some information is available on the molecular properties of class XI myosins, class VIII myosins are not characterized. Here, we report the first analysis of the enzymatic properties of class VIII myosin. The motor domain of Arabidopsis class VIII myosin, ATM1 (ATM1-MD), and the motor domain plus one IQ motif (ATM1-1IQ) were expressed in a baculovirus system and characterized. ATM1-MD and ATM1-1IQ had low actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity (Vmax = 4 s−1), although their affinities for actin were high (Kactin = 4 μm). The actin-sliding velocities of ATM1-MD and ATM1-1IQ were 0.02 and 0.089 μm/s, respectively, from which the value for full-length ATM1 is calculated to be ∼0.2 μm/s. The results of actin co-sedimentation assay showed that the duty ratio of ATM1 was ∼90%. ADP dissociation from the actin·ATM1 complex (acto-ATM1) was extremely slow, which accounts for the low actin-sliding velocity, low actin-activated ATPase activity, and high duty ratio. The rate of ADP dissociation from acto-ATM1 was markedly biphasic with fast and slow phase rates (5.1 and 0.41 s−1, respectively). Physiological concentrations of free Mg2+ modulated actin-sliding velocity and actin-activated ATPase activity by changing the rate of ADP dissociation from acto-ATM1. GFP-fused full-length ATM1 expressed in Arabidopsis was localized to plasmodesmata, plastids, newly formed cell walls, and actin filaments at the cell cortex. Our results suggest that ATM1 functions as a tension sensor/generator at the cell cortex and other structures in Arabidopsis. PMID:24637024

  19. Anticipated Ethics and Regulatory Challenges in PCORnet: The National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network.

    PubMed

    Ali, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    PCORnet, the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network, seeks to establish a robust national health data network for patient-centered comparative effectiveness research. This article reports the results of a PCORnet survey designed to identify the ethics and regulatory challenges anticipated in network implementation. A 12-item online survey was developed by leadership of the PCORnet Ethics and Regulatory Task Force; responses were collected from the 29 PCORnet networks. The most pressing ethics issues identified related to informed consent, patient engagement, privacy and confidentiality, and data sharing. High priority regulatory issues included IRB coordination, privacy and confidentiality, informed consent, and data sharing. Over 150 IRBs and five different approaches to managing multisite IRB review were identified within PCORnet. Further empirical and scholarly work, as well as practical and policy guidance, is essential if important initiatives that rely on comparative effectiveness research are to move forward. PMID:26192996

  20. Research in the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, R. Jack; Brady, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    A 19-question online survey was administered to all 115 directors of Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLIs) across the United States to explore the extent to which research is being conducted and for what purposes. A response rate of 87% was attained. Findings revealed that most research focused on issues such as course and instructor…

  1. Adult Literacy and Numeracy: Assessing Change. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, J. Joy, Ed.; van Kraayenoord, Christina E., Ed.

    This document contains eight papers from an action research program to foster good practice in adult literacy provision and policy. "Introduction" (J. Joy Cumming, Christina E. van Kraayenoord) presents an overview of the action research project and individual reports. "Assessment: Making a Difference in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Learning" (J.…

  2. PGTandMe: social networking-based genetic testing and the evolving research model.

    PubMed

    Koch, Valerie Gutmann

    2012-01-01

    The opportunity to use extensive genetic data, personal information, and family medical history for research purposes may be naturally appealing to the personal genetic testing (PGT) industry, which is already coupling direct-to-consumer (DTC) products with social networking technologies, as well as to potential industry or institutional partners. This article evaluates the transformation in research that the hybrid of PGT and social networking will bring about, and--highlighting the challenges associated with a new paradigm of "patient-driven" genomic research--focuses on the consequences of shifting the structure, locus, timing, and scope of research through genetic crowd-sourcing. This article also explores potential ethical, legal, and regulatory issues that arise from the hybrid between personal genomic research and online social networking, particularly regarding informed consent, institutional review board (IRB) oversight, and ownership/intellectual property (IP) considerations. PMID:22616542

  3. The many facets of integrating data and metadata for research networks: experience from the AmeriFlux Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, G.; Poindexter, C.; van Ingen, C.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.

    2014-12-01

    Grassroots research networks, such as AmeriFlux, require data and metadata integration from multiple, independently managed field sites, scales, and science domains. The goal of these networks is production of consistent datasets enabling investigation of broad science questions at regional and global scales. These datasets combine data from a large number of data providers, who often utilize different data collection protocols and data processing approaches. In this scenario, data integration and curation quickly become large-scale efforts. This presentation reports on our experience with integration efforts for the AmeriFlux network. In AmeriFlux we are attempting to integrate flux, meteorological, biological, soil, chemistry, and disturbance data and metadata. Our data management activities range from acquisition/publication mechanisms, quality control, processing and product generation, data and software synchronized versioning and archiving, and interaction mechanisms and tools for data providers and data users. To enable consistent data processing and network-level data quality, combinations of automated and visual data quality assessment procedures were built, extending on checks already done at site levels. The implementation of community developed and trusted algorithms to operate in production mode proved to be a key aspect of data product generation, with extensive testing and validation being one of the main concerns. Clear definitions for data processing levels help with easily tracking different data products and data quality levels. For metadata and ancillary information, formatting standards are even more relevant, since variables collected are considerably more heterogeneous. Documentation and training on the standards were crucial in this case, with instruction sessions having proved to be an effective approach, given that documentation cannot cover all different scenarios at different sites. This work is being developed in close coordination with

  4. Digital Coin Business Model Using the Coin ATM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Won-Gyo; Park, Sang-Sung; Shin, Young-Geun; Jang, Dong-Sik

    2009-08-01

    Because about 83.6 billion won worth coins are not collected annually, 35 billion won of government money is being wasted for producing new coins in Korea. In order to improve unnecessary government money leakage, we now have to develop a proper way of managing small valued money such as coins. We have already developed the coin ATM to solve such problem in the previous study. In this study, we proposed business model, which enables users to deposit or consume such small amount of money with the coin ATM. The proposed business model has advantages that enable to connect various payment system and is efficient to consume such small amount of money. This business model improves not only the way of managing small valued money but also the way of consuming small valued money. Furthermore, our business model can contribute to activating circulation of coins as well as preventing leakage of government money.

  5. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)…

  6. Assessing Collaboration Networks in Educational Research: A Co-Authorship-Based Social Network Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, David Andres; Queupil, Juan Pablo; Fraser, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze collaboration networks and their patterns among higher education institutions (HEIs) in Chile and the Latin American region. This will provide evidence to educational managements in order to properly allocate their efforts to improve collaboration. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative…

  7. Canada's Neglected Tropical Disease Research Network: Who's in the Core—Who's on the Periphery?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kaye; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Pennefather, Peter; Thorsteinsdottir, Halla; Wong, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background This study designed and applied accessible yet systematic methods to generate baseline information about the patterns and structure of Canada's neglected tropical disease (NTD) research network; a network that, until recently, was formed and functioned on the periphery of strategic Canadian research funding. Methodology Multiple methods were used to conduct this study, including: (1) a systematic bibliometric procedure to capture archival NTD publications and co-authorship data; (2) a country-level “core-periphery” network analysis to measure and map the structure of Canada's NTD co-authorship network including its size, density, cliques, and centralization; and (3) a statistical analysis to test the correlation between the position of countries in Canada's NTD network (“k-core measure”) and the quantity and quality of research produced. Principal Findings Over the past sixty years (1950–2010), Canadian researchers have contributed to 1,079 NTD publications, specializing in Leishmania, African sleeping sickness, and leprosy. Of this work, 70% of all first authors and co-authors (n = 4,145) have been Canadian. Since the 1990s, however, a network of international co-authorship activity has been emerging, with representation of researchers from 62 different countries; largely researchers from OECD countries (e.g. United States and United Kingdom) and some non-OECD countries (e.g. Brazil and Iran). Canada has a core-periphery NTD international research structure, with a densely connected group of OECD countries and some African nations, such as Uganda and Kenya. Sitting predominantly on the periphery of this research network is a cluster of 16 non-OECD nations that fall within the lowest GDP percentile of the network. Conclusion/Significance The publication specialties, composition, and position of NTD researchers within Canada's NTD country network provide evidence that while Canadian researchers currently remain the overall gatekeepers of the

  8. Research on mixed network architecture collaborative application model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Changfeng; Zhao, Xi'an; Liang, Song

    2009-10-01

    When facing complex requirements of city development, ever-growing spatial data, rapid development of geographical business and increasing business complexity, collaboration between multiple users and departments is needed urgently, however conventional GIS software (such as Client/Server model or Browser/Server model) are not support this well. Collaborative application is one of the good resolutions. Collaborative application has four main problems to resolve: consistency and co-edit conflict, real-time responsiveness, unconstrained operation, spatial data recoverability. In paper, application model called AMCM is put forward based on agent and multi-level cache. AMCM can be used in mixed network structure and supports distributed collaborative. Agent is an autonomous, interactive, initiative and reactive computing entity in a distributed environment. Agent has been used in many fields such as compute science and automation. Agent brings new methods for cooperation and the access for spatial data. Multi-level cache is a part of full data. It reduces the network load and improves the access and handle of spatial data, especially, in editing the spatial data. With agent technology, we make full use of its characteristics of intelligent for managing the cache and cooperative editing that brings a new method for distributed cooperation and improves the efficiency.

  9. Named Data Networking in Climate Research and HEP Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannigrahi, Susmit; Papadopoulos, Christos; Yeh, Edmund; Newman, Harvey; Jerzy Barczyk, Artur; Liu, Ran; Sim, Alex; Mughal, Azher; Monga, Inder; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wu, John

    2015-12-01

    The Computing Models of the LHC experiments continue to evolve from the simple hierarchical MONARC[2] model towards more agile models where data is exchanged among many Tier2 and Tier3 sites, relying on both large scale file transfers with strategic data placement, and an increased use of remote access to object collections with caching through CMS's AAA, ATLAS' FAX and ALICE's AliEn projects, for example. The challenges presented by expanding needs for CPU, storage and network capacity as well as rapid handling of large datasets of file and object collections have pointed the way towards future more agile pervasive models that make best use of highly distributed heterogeneous resources. In this paper, we explore the use of Named Data Networking (NDN), a new Internet architecture focusing on content rather than the location of the data collections. As NDN has shown considerable promise in another data intensive field, Climate Science, we discuss the similarities and differences between the Climate and HEP use cases, along with specific issues HEP faces and will face during LHC Run2 and beyond, which NDN could address.

  10. Performance of ATM/OC-12 on the Intel Paragon

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes communication performance of GigaNet`s OC12 ATM interface for the Intel Paragon. One-way latency of 41 {micro}s and bandwidth of 68 MB/s (full OC12) are measured using GigaNet`s AAL5 API between two Paragons. Performance is compared with Ethernet, HiPPI, and the Paragon`s native message-passing facility.

  11. Distance Education Network. SSTA Research Centre Report #95-10. SSTA Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan School Trustees Association, Regina.

    The Distance Education Network of the Saskatchewan School Trustees Association (SSTA) was established to provide leadership in exploring enhanced program delivery through distance education and information technology. This report, a product of three meetings of the Distance Education Network in 1995, begins the process of suggesting directions and…

  12. Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia with Myelodysplasia-related Changes Associated with ATM Gene Deletion.

    PubMed

    Ureshino, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Momoka; Kurogi, Kazuya; Miyahara, Masaharu; Kimura, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a tumor suppressor gene, and its somatic inactivation plays a role in the pathogenesis of lymphoid malignancies. However, the role of ATM in patients with myeloid malignancies is still unknown. We herein report a case of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) with ATM gene deletion. An 84-year-old Japanese woman presenting with a pale face and pancytopenia was admitted to our institution and diagnosed to have AMKL with ATM gene deletion. She was treated with intravenous azacitidine. The azacitidine treatment was effective for approximately 1 year. Somatic inactivation of the ATM gene may therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of AMKL. PMID:27301517

  13. Development of an Expert Resource Network for Students and Advisors Engaging in Authentic Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danch, J. M.; Aker-bolin, K.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to increase the the number of secondary students engaging in authentic scientific research and to improve the quality of that research, an online network of scientists and educators is being established. The Network will be assessable to students and advisors participating in the 2012 Monmouth Junior Science Symposium (MJSS), a scientific forum for New Jersey students, but is intended to serve as a model for use by participants in the additional 47 regional science symposia of which the MJSS is part. Hosted on the MJSS website, the Network will consist of contact information and profiles of scientists, educators and other research professionals willing to assist secondary students and their teacher/advisors perform authentic scientific research. Profiles will include area(s) of expertise and level of participation to which the individual is capable. The set of participating experts will have the potential to expand continually as additional professionals with a variety of backgrounds are recruited over time. The Network will also be made available to members of the New Jersey Science Supervisors Association to encourage school districts not currently participating in the MJSS to involve secondary students in conducting authentic scientific research. The Network's effectiveness will be evaluated by surveys completed by MJSS participants and their teacher/advisors included with their research paper submissions.

  14. The Air Force Academy’s Falcon Telescope Network: An Educational and Research Network for K-12 and Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Francis; Tippets, Roger; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Polsgrove, Daniel; Gresham, Kimberlee; Barnaby, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. The diversity of the users implies a wide variety of observing interests, and thus the FTN collects images on diverse objects, including satellites, galactic and extragalactic objects, and objects popular for education and public outreach. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA. USAFA cadets use the FTN to continue a tradition of satellite characterization and astronomical research; this tradition is the model used for designing the network to serve undergraduate research needs. Additionally, cadets have led the development of the FTN by investigating observation priority schemes and conducting a 'day-in-the-life' study of the FTN in regards to satellite observations. With respect to K-12 outreach, cadets have provided feedback to K-12 students and teachers through evaluation of first-light proposals. In this paper, we present the current status of the network and results from student participation in the project.

  15. Phosphorylation of p300 by ATM controls the stability of NBS1

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Eun Ryoung; Choi, Jae Duk; Jeong, Gajin; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2010-07-09

    Acetyltransferase, p300 is a transcriptional cofactor of signal-responsive transcriptional regulation. The surveillance kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a central role in regulation of a wide range of cellular DNA damage responses. Here, we investigated whether and how ATM mediates phosphorylation of p300 in response to DNA damage and how p300 phosphorylation is functionally linked to DNA damage. ATM-phosphorylated p300 in vitro and in vivo, in response to DNA damage. Phosphorylation of p300 proteins was observed upon {gamma}-irradiation in ATM{sup +} cells but not ATM{sup -} cells. Importantly, expression of nonphosphorylatable serine to alanine form of p300 (S106A) destabilized both p300 and NBS1 proteins, after DNA damage. These data demonstrate that ATM transduces a DNA damage signal to p300, and that ATM-dependent phosphorylation of p300 is required for stabilization of NBS1 proteins in response to DNA damage.

  16. AILA Africa Research Network Launch 2007: Research into the Use of the African Languages for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the one-day symposium was to bring together scholars in applied linguistics with an interest in the African languages for the launch of the new AILA Africa regional network. Contributions were in the form of invited research papers from several African countries. This report focuses on the South African contribution, which highlighted…

  17. A Space for Critical Research on Education Policy: ECER Paper Sessions and the "Policy Studies and Politics of Education" Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    The activities of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) and the yearly European Conference on Educational Research (ECER) are mainly organised in standing networks. Through the example of the Policy Studies and Politics of Education network, this article takes a closer look at network activity and the ways in which it contributes to…

  18. The establishment of an attachment research network in Latin America: goals, accomplishments, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Causadias, José M; Sroufe, L Alan; Herreros, Francisca

    2011-03-01

    In the face of a pressing need for expanded attachment research programs and attachment informed interventions in Latin America, a research network was established: Red Iberoamericana de Apego: RIA (Iberian-American Attachment Network). The purpose of RIA is to promote human development and well being, informed by attachment theory, centering on research, and with implications for public policies, education, and intervention. We report the proceedings of the second meeting of RIA held in Panama City, Panama, in February 2010. As part of this meeting, RIA sponsored the first Latin-American attachment conference. Proceedings of the conference are described, as are future goals of this new organization. PMID:21390910

  19. The Inquiry Network: A Model for Promoting the Teaching-Research Nexus in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slapcoff, Marcy; Harris, dik

    2014-01-01

    We describe how our teaching and learning centre developed a model, founded on Boyer's notion of scholarship, to explore the nature of the teaching-research nexus. At the core of this model is the Inquiry Network, a faculty learning community whose members moved from exploring the links between their own teaching and research to creating…

  20. winderosionnetwork.org – Portal to the National Wind Erosion Research Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and USDI Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for standardized measurements of wind erosion and its control...

  1. More than a Master: Developing, Sharing, and Using Knowledge in School-University Research Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Postgraduate master's programs for in-service teachers may be a promising new avenue in developing research partnership networks that link schools and university and enable collaborative development, sharing and use of knowledge of teacher research. This study explores the way these knowledge processes originating from master's…

  2. Networking and Information Technology Research and Development. Supplement to the President's Budget for FY 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC. National Science and Technology Council.

    This document is the annual report prepared by the Interagency Working Group on Information Technology Research and Development of the National Science and Technology Council. This report is a Supplement to the President's fiscal year (FY) 2002 Budget that describes the Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD)…

  3. Contrasting Assessments of Interdisciplinarity in Emerging Specialties: The Case of Neural Networks Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Katherine W.; Whitney, P. Joy

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of bibliometric analysis of interdisciplinary research in emerging fields focuses on a study of neural networks research that examined citation analyses, publishing patterns and subject terms, and journal subject classification. Roles that journals can play in interdisciplinary information transfer are considered. (Contains 42…

  4. Walking the Walk? Critical Reflections from an Afro-Irish Emancipatory Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adshead, Maura; Dubula, Vuyiseka

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors, who are both collaborators in this project, reflect on the challenges faced in developing and sustaining an emancipatory research framework approach to our research network in the context of radically shifting ideals and objectives for higher education in all partner institutions. The article is focused around…

  5. Institutionalizing Community-Based Learning and Research: The Case for External Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrader, Elizabeth; Saunders, Mary Anne; Marullo, Sam; Benatti, Sylvia; Weigert, Kathleen Maas

    2008-01-01

    Conversations continue as to whether and how community-based learning and research (CBLR) can be most effectively integrated into the mission and practice of institutions of higher education (IHEs). In 2005, eight District of Columbia- (DC-) area universities affiliated with the Community Research and Learning (CoRAL) Network engaged in a planning…

  6. Report of the Interagency Optical Network Testbeds Workshop 2, NASA Ames Research Center, September 12-14, 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Optical Network Testbeds Workshop 2 (ONT2), held on September 12-14, 2005, was cosponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE/SC) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Joint Engineering Team (JET) of the Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program's Large Scale Networking (LSN) Coordinating Group. The ONT2 workshop was a follow-on to an August 2004 Workshop on Optical Network Testbeds (ONT1). ONT1 recommended actions by the Federal agencies to assure timely development and implementation of optical networking technologies and infrastructure. Hosted by the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California, the ONT2 workshop brought together representatives of the U.S. advanced research and education (R&E) networks, regional optical networks (RONs), service providers, international networking organizations, and senior engineering and R&D managers from Federal agencies and national research laboratories. Its purpose was to develop a common vision of the optical network technologies, services, infrastructure, and organizations needed to enable widespread use of optical networks; recommend activities for transitioning the optical networking research community and its current infrastructure to leading-edge optical networks over the next three to five years; and present information enabling commercial network infrastructure providers to plan for and use leading-edge optical network services in that time frame.

  7. Building a Governance Strategy for CER: The Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network Experience

    PubMed Central

    Paolino, Andrea R.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Lieu, Tracy; Nelson, Andrew F.; Prausnitz, Stephanie; Horberg, Michael A.; Arterburn, David E.; Gould, Michael K.; Laws, Reesa L.; Steiner, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network was established with funding from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) in 2014. The PORTAL team adapted governance structures and processes from past research network collaborations. We will review and outline the structures and processes of the PORTAL governance approach and describe how proactively focusing on priority areas helped us to facilitate an ambitious research agenda. Background: For years a variety of funders have supported large-scale infrastructure grants to promote the use of clinical datasets to answer important comparative effectiveness research (CER) questions. These awards have provided the impetus for health care systems to join forces in creating clinical data research networks. Often, these scientific networks do not develop governance processes proactively or systematically, and address issues only as problems arise. Even if network leaders and collaborators foresee the need to develop governance approaches, they may underestimate the time and effort required to develop sound processes. The resulting delays can impede research progress. Innovation: Because the PORTAL sites had built trust and a foundation of collaboration by participating with one another in past research networks, essential elements of effective governance such as guiding principles, decision making processes, project governance, data governance, and stakeholders in governance were familiar to PORTAL investigators. This trust and familiarity enabled the network to rapidly prioritize areas that required sound governance approaches: responding to new research opportunities, creating a culture of trust and collaboration, conducting individual studies, within the broader network, assigning responsibility and credit to scientific investigators, sharing data while protecting privacy/security, and allocating resources. The PORTAL Governance Document, complete with a Toolkit of

  8. Online Social Networking, Sexual Risk and Protective Behaviors: Considerations for Clinicians and Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Dunlap, Shannon; del Pino, Homero E.; Hermanstyne, Keith; Pulsipher, Craig; Landovitz, Raphael J.

    2014-01-01

    Online social networking refers to the use of internet-based technologies that facilitate connection and communication between users. These platforms may be accessed via computer or mobile device (e.g., tablet, smartphone); communication between users may include linking of profiles, posting of text, photo and video content, instant messaging and email. This review provides an overview of recent research on the relationship between online social networking and sexual risk and protective behaviors with a focus on use of social networking sites (SNS) among young people and populations at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While findings are mixed, the widespread use of SNS for sexual communication and partner seeking presents opportunities for the delivery and evaluation of public health interventions. Results of SNS-based interventions to reduce sexual risk are synthesized in order to offer hands-on advice for clinicians and researchers interested in engaging patients and study participants via online social networking. PMID:25642408

  9. Who Talks to Whom in Malawi's Agricultural Research Information Network?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapila, Mariam A. T. J.; Yauney, Jason; Thangata, Paul; Droppelmann, Klaus; Mazunda, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The sector-wide approach currently dominates as the strategy for developing the agricultural sector of many African countries. Although recognised that collaborative agricultural research is vital in ensuring success of sector-wide agricultural development strategies; there have been few efforts to understand the dynamics of national…

  10. Active Early Detection Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Research Productivity and Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Akers, Kathryn S.; Lybarger, Melanie A.; Zakrajsek, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    Research productivity and collaborations are essential aspects of advancing academia. Publishing is a critical mechanism in higher education to allow faculty members to share new information in all disciplinary fields. Due to its importance, scholarly work is often heavily considered for promotion, tenure, compensation, and other merit decisions.…

  12. Researching Community-Based Support Networks: What Policymakers Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadich, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Self-help support groups (SHSGs) have a valuable role in civic society. However, it is difficult to measure their value through sole use of the positivist approaches that interest policymakers. This is because SHSGs are consumer-driven and voluntary. Thus, they cannot be regulated by research agendas or prescribed like treatment. Although social…

  13. [Clinical research in the "acute and chronic leukemias"competence network ].

    PubMed

    Hehlmann, R; Berger, U; Aul, C; Büchner, T; Döhner, H; Ehninger, G; Ganser, A; Hoelzer, D; Gökbuget, N; Uberla, K

    2004-04-01

    Goal of the network is the construction of an exemplary cooperative leukemia network for the improvement of medical care and of health related research in acute and chronic leukemias. This is achieved by improved mechanisms of cooperation among all major groups in Germany that deal with the leukemias in research and in patient care. In practice, cooperation between clinical groups and scientists in research institutes is mediated by various instruments that improve communication, flow of information and interdisciplinary cooperation and also increase information transfer from top research institutions to clinical translation. The network comprises more than 1400 participants in about 400 university centers, large community hospitals and specialty practices with functional communication structures, interdisciplinary cooperation and nation-wide logistics. The improved cooperation and the accelerated information transfer from the bench to the "bedside" results in an added value that ultimately results in improved survival results of patients and in superior competitiveness of involved research workers and clinicians. Sustainability is addressed by establishing a leukemia foundation to support long term financial coverage of the network and by negotiating a proposal for a European Network of Excellence against leukemia within the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Union. PMID:15004683

  14. Wildlife, Snow, Coffee, and Video: The IPY Activities of the University of Alaska Young Researchers' Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, D.; Alvarez-Aviles, L.; Carlson, D.; Harbeck, J.; Druckenmiller, M.; Newman, K.; Mueller, D.; Petrich, C.; Roberts, A.; Wang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The University of Alaska International Polar Year (IPY) Young Researchers' Network is a group of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. Our interdisciplinary group operates as a volunteer network to promote the International Polar Year through education and outreach aimed at the general public and Alaskan students of all ages. The Young Researchers' Network sponsors and organizes science talks or Science Cafés by guest speakers in public venues such as coffee shops and bookstores. We actively engage high school students in IPY research concerning the ionic concentrations and isotopic ratios of precipitation through Project Snowball. Our network provides hands-on science activities to encourage environmental awareness and initiate community wildlife monitoring programs such as Wildlife Day by Day. We mentor individual high school students pursuing their own research projects related to IPY through the Alaska High School Science Symposium. Our group also interacts with the general public at community events and festivals to share the excitement of IPY for example at the World Ice Art Championship and Alaska State Fair. The UA IPY Young Researchers' Network continues to explore new partnerships with educators and students in an effort to enhance science and education related to Alaska and the polar regions in general. For more information please visit: http://ipy-youth.uaf.edu or e-mail: ipy-youth@alaska.edu

  15. The Black College satellite telecommunications network planning in support of energy-related collaborative research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-10-01

    Four interrelated phases constituted this 12-month effort: planning, system test, system shakedown and system implementation. Objective was to determine and test the most feasible satellite telecommunications network configuration in support of HBCU (historically black college/university) principal investigators conducting research in the energy sciences. This report outlines the accomplishments of that planning effort, indicates potential uses of the operational network and specifies resources needed to effectively mobilize widespread use of the system by HBCU scientists.

  16. Inventory management plan for a research and development local area network

    SciTech Connect

    Strickler, D.; Chester, R.; Ingle, K.; Payne, P.; Rome, J.; Kertis, K.

    1993-08-01

    An inventory management plan is presented for the local area network (LAN) for the Security Aspects of Database Management Systems, a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project examining computer and network security in a data management environment. The inventory management plan establishes procedures to ensure that changes in system hardware and software are identified and controlled. Management tools are described, and the roles of the project manager, inventory control manager, and research team members in the implementation of inventory management are defined.

  17. Cursor on Target: Research for a Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, G; Naiman, M; Valenta, AL; Boyd, AD

    2012-01-01

    Summary Terrorism, epidemics, natural, and man-made disasters have increased over the last decade, prompting ongoing evaluation and incremental rebuilding of the American public health system (Chan, Killeen, Griswold, & Lenert, 2004a; Yu, Brock, Mecozzi, Tran, & Kost, 2010). In February 2002, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) identified six focus areas to generate response capacities to bioterrorism and public emergencies. According to one focus area, information sharing and alert notifications between systems and public health agencies must be continuous and automatic (Popovich, Henderson, & Stinn, 2002) Advancements in technology set the stage for this uninterrupted data-sharing requirement to be met; for example, “smart devices” can digitally record and transmit information and text messages from remote disaster sites using wireless ad hoc networks. In this context, medical systems and personnel can provide enhanced patient support from the extraction point to the hospital, even when normal landline infrastructure has been damaged. However, care may be restricted due to the limited recognition of proprietary information and the distance between the transmitter and collector system. This article suggests that overcoming these limitations necessitates the adoption of interoperability by basic operations and illustrates how an Internet Protocol called Cursor-on-Target can facilitate communication between open source and propriety systems. PMID:23569647

  18. [Research progress on ecological function of arbuscular mycorrhizal network].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Liang; Jin, Liang

    2015-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are one of the most important soil microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems. Through hyphal fusion, the mycelium of AM fungi could form arbuscular mycorrhizal network (AMN) widely in the underground habitats. It has been demonstrated that AMN plays important roles in ecosystems. AMN could change the soil physical and chemical properties directly and change the micro-environment for soil microorganisms. Thus, AMN could influence the soil microbial community structure. AM fungi also could absorb nutrients through the external hyphae from soil. Then the nutrition could transport to different host plants through the mycelium with AMN, which could affect the dynamics of plant community structure. In order to discover the role of AMN in ecosystem, we reviewed the function of AMN in ecosystem, including: 1) the formation strategy of AMN through the external hyphae of AM fungi fusion in the soil; 2) the regulation of AMN on soil microorganism community structure and ecological function; 3) the mechanism of AMN to adjust the soil resources distribution, and their influence on intra- and inter-specific plant competition, as well as the host plant species diversity and abundance in ecosystem; 4) the relationship between AMN and global changes in the atmospheric nitrogen deposition, atmospheric CO2 and temperature, and the role of AMN in the stability of ecosystem. The future development directions and application prospects were also discussed. PMID:26710650

  19. [Leukemia research in Germany: the Competence Network Acute and Chronic Leukemias].

    PubMed

    Kossak-Roth, Ute; Saußele, Susanne; Aul, Carlo; Büchner, Thomas; Döhner, Hartmut; Dugas, Martin; Ehninger, Gerhard; Ganser, Arnold; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Gökbuget, Nicola; Griesshammer, Martin; Hasford, Jörg; Heuser, Michael; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hoelzer, Dieter; Niederwieser, Dietger; Reiter, Andreas; Röllig, Christoph; Hehlmann, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    The Competence Network "Acute and Chronic Leukemias" was founded in 1997 by the consolidation of the leading leukemia study groups in Germany. Key results are the development of new trials and cooperative studies, the setup of patient registries and biobanking facilities, as well as the improvement of study infrastructure. In 2003, the concept of the competence network contributed to the foundation of the European LeukemiaNet (ELN). Synergy with the ELN resulted in cooperation on a European and international level, standardization of diagnostics and treatment, and recommendations for each leukemia and interdisciplinary specialty. The ultimate goal of the network is the cure of leukemia through cooperative research. PMID:26979719

  20. Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs) Bridging the Gaps between Communities, Funders, and Policymakers.

    PubMed

    Gaglioti, Anne H; Werner, James J; Rust, George; Fagnan, Lyle J; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, we propose that practice-based research networks (PBRNs) engage with funders and policymakers by applying the same engagement strategies they have successfully used to build relationships with community stakeholders. A community engagement approach to achieve new funding streams for PBRNs should include a strategy to engage key stakeholders from the communities of funders, thought leaders, and policymakers using collaborative principles and methods. PBRNs that implement this strategy would build a robust network of engaged partners at the community level, across networks, and would reach state and federal policymakers, academic family medicine departments, funding bodies, and national thought leaders in the redesign of health care delivery. PMID:27613796